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Sample records for acetate phthalate cap

  1. Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

    2003-01-01

    Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ≈50 to ≈65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ≈100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not

  2. pH responsive polyurethane (core) and cellulose acetate phthalate (shell) electrospun fibers for intravaginal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Hua, Dawei; Liu, Zhongche; Wang, Fang; Gao, Buhong; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Qilu; Xiong, Ranhua; Han, Jingquan; Samal, Sangram Keshari; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Huang, Chaobo

    2016-10-20

    In this study we present the use of co-axial electrospinning to produce core-shell composite micro-/nano- fibers of polyurethane (PU) and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP). The designed fibers possess enhanced mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 13.27±2.32MPa, which is a clear improvement over the existing CAP fibers that suffer from a poor mechanical strength (0.2±0.03MPa). The CAP imparts pH responsiveness to the core-shell structure giving the fibers potential for "semen sensitive" (intravaginal) drug delivery. PMID:27474676

  3. Effect of a cellulose acetate phthalate topical cream on vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Manson, K H; Wyand, M S; Miller, C; Neurath, A R

    2000-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection continues to spread in developing countries, mostly through heterosexual transmission. The development of a safe and cost-effective topical microbicide, effective against a range of STDs including HIV-1, would greatly impact the ongoing epidemic. When formulated in a vehicle, a micronized form of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), which is an inactive pharmaceutical excipient, has been shown to inactivate HIV-1, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Chlamydia trachomatis in vitro. Formulated CAP was also shown to be effective against herpes simplex virus type 2 in vivo. Here we show that a formulation of CAP protected four of six rhesus monkeys from vaginal infection with simian immunodeficiency virus. Thus, CAP may be a candidate for use as a topical microbicide for preventing HIV-1 infection in humans. PMID:11036053

  4. Cytotoxicity and antitumour activity of 5-fluorouracil-loaded polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate phthalate blend microspheres.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Kiran; Tripathi, Santosh Kumar; Kulkarni, Anandrao R; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and antitumour activity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-loaded polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) blend microspheres were investigated in chemically induced colorectal cancer in albino male Wistar rats and compared with pristine 5-FU given as a suspension. The microspheres were characterised for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release and in vitro cytotoxicity on human HT-29 colon cancer cell line. Spherical particles with a mean size of 44 ± 11 µm were obtained that showed sustained release of 5-FU. A high concentration of 5-FU was achieved in colonic tissues and significant reduction in tumour volume and multiplicity were observed in animals treated with 5-FU-loaded microspheres. The decreased levels of plasma albumin, creatinine, leucocytopenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in animals for 5-FU microspheres compared to the standard 5-FU formulation. The results suggest the extended release of 5-FU from the PHB-CAP blend microspheres in colonic region to enhance the antitumour efficacy. PMID:23078151

  5. Oral dietary developmental toxicity study with polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP) in the rat.

    PubMed

    DeMerlis, C C; Schoneker, D R; Borzelleca, J F

    2014-10-01

    Polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP) was evaluated in a developmental toxicity study with Crl:CD(SD) rats. Female rats were provided continual access to the formulated diets on days 6 through 20 of presumed gestation (DGs 6 through 20) at concentrations of 0%, 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%. All surviving rats were sacrificed and Caesarean-sectioned on DG 21. The following parameters were evaluated: viability, clinical observations, body weights, feed consumption, necropsy observations, Caesarean-sectioning and litter observations, including gravid uterine weights, fetal body weights and sex, and fetal gross external, soft tissue and skeletal alterations. There were no treatment-related adverse effects reported in the developmental toxicity study. The maternal and developmental no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of PVAP was the highest concentration administered, i.e., 3.0% (equivalent to 2324mgPVAP/kg/day). PMID:25084367

  6. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth. PMID:21452895

  7. In-vitro and in-vivo assessment of dextran-appended cellulose acetate phthalate nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ashish; Rai, Gopal; Lodhi, Santram; Jain, Alok P; Yadav, Awesh K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was transdermal delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using dextran-coated cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) nanoparticulate formulation. CAP nanoparticles were prepared using drug-polymer ratio (1:1 to 1:3) and surfactant ratio (2.5, 5 and 10%). Dextran coating was made using aminodextran. The results showed that the optimized CAP nanoparticles (CNs) and dextran-coated CAP nanoparticles represented core-corona nanoparticles with the mean diameter of 75 ± 3 and 79 ± 2 nm, respectively, and entrapment efficiency was 82.5 ± 0.06 and 78.2 ± 0.12, respectively. Dextran-coated nanoparticles (FDCNs) and CAP nanoparticles (FCNs) showed in vitro 5-FU release upto 31 h and 8 h, respectively. Moreover, the cumulative amount of 5-FU penetrated through excised skin from FDCNs was 2.94 folds than that of the FU cream. Concentration of 5-FU in epidermis and dermis were also studied. In dermis, concentration of 5-FU was found higher in case of FDCN formulation than plain FU cream. FDCNs were found more hemocompatible in comparison to FCNs. The hematological data recommended that FDCNs formulation was less immunogenic compared to FU creams formulation. In blood level study, FDCNs exhibited 153, 12, 16.66 and 16.24-fold higher values for area under the curve, Tmax, Cmax and mean residence time (MRT) compared with those of FU cream, respectively. The in-vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using the MCF-7 by the MTT test and was compared to the plain 5-FU solution. All the detailed evidence showed that FDCNs could provide a promising tuning as a transdermal delivery system of 5-FU. PMID:25417834

  8. [Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on side effects of CAP therapy in gynecological malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Y; Okazaki, T; Okamura, S; Ueki, M; Sugimoto, O

    1989-07-01

    We concomitantly administered a large dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to gynecological malignant tumor patients undergoing CAP therapy (CAP). Hematological changes in the peripheral blood were compared between concomitant MPA patients and those not receiving MPA to examine the effect of MPA in reducing the marrow depression which is the major side effect of CAP. 1) Leukocyte count reached minimum at the second week of CAP in both groups. There was no significant difference in the count between the two groups. At the third week of CAP, the count improved to 84% of the pre-CAP level in patients receiving MPA and to 68% in those not receiving MPA, a significant difference (p less than 0.01). At the fourth week, leukocyte counts were 105% and 96% of pre-CAP levels, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups, but the leukocyte count returned to the pre-CAP level in the patients receiving MPA. 2) Platelet count showed changes similar to those in the leukocyte count. In patients receiving MPA, the count improved more rapidly within three weeks (118%, p less than 0.01), and was significantly higher at the fourth week (107%, p less than 0.05) than in patients not receiving MPA. 3) Reticulocyte count reached minimum in the first week, thereafter improving rapidly in both groups. No differences were noted between the two groups. 4) The periods needed for one course of CAP were 27.7 +/- 3.3 days in the patients receiving MPA and 29.5 +/- 3.7 days in the patients not receiving MPA, making for a significant difference between the two groups (p less than 0.05). These results show that MPA accelerates recovery from marrow depression caused by CAP. It is anticipated, therefore, that MPA will be helpful in the application of various chemotherapies which are expected to be frequently conducted in the future. PMID:2526618

  9. Acetate- and thiol-capped monodisperse ruthenium nanoparticles: XPS, XAS, and HRTEM studies.

    PubMed

    Chakroune, Nassira; Viau, Guillaume; Ammar, Souad; Poul, Laurence; Veautier, Delphine; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Mangeney, Claire; Villain, Françoise; Fiévet, Fernand

    2005-07-19

    Monodisperse ruthenium nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of RuCl3 in 1,2-propanediol. The mean particle size was controlled by appropriate choice of the reduction temperature and the acetate ion concentration. Colloidal solutions in toluene were obtained by coating the metal particles with dodecanethiol. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS for the Ru K-absorption edge) were performed on particles of two different diameters, 2 and 4 nm, and in different environments, polyol/acetate or thiol. For particles stored in polyol/acetate XPS studies revealed superficial oxidation limited to one monolayer and a surface coating containing mostly acetate ions. Analysis of the EXAFS spectra showed both oxygen and ruthenium atoms around the ruthenium atoms with a Ru-Ru coordination number N smaller than the bulk value, as expected for fine particles. In the case of 2 nm acetate-capped particles N is consistent with particles made up of a metallic core and an oxidized monolayer. For 2 nm thiol-coated particles, a Ru-S bond was evidenced by XPS and XAS. For the 4 nm particles XANES and XPS studies showed that most of the ruthenium atoms are in the zerovalent state. Nevertheless, in both cases, when capped with thiol, the Ru-Ru coordination number inferred from EXAFS is much smaller than for particles of the same size stored in polyol. This is attributed to a structural disorganization of the particles by thiol chemisorption. HRTEM studies confirm the marked dependence of the structural properties of the ruthenium particles on their chemical environment; they show the acetate-coated particles to be single crystals, whereas the thiol-coated particles appear to be polycrystalline. PMID:16008388

  10. Identification of Phthalates in Medications and Dietary Supplement Formulations in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Chaplin, Erica L.; Hauser, Russ; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In animal studies, some ortho-phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), have been shown to be reproductive and developmental toxicants. Human studies show widespread population exposure to background levels of phthalates. Limited evidence suggests that particularly high exposure levels may result from orally ingested medicinal products containing phthalates as excipients (inactive ingredients). Objective: In this study we aimed to identify and describe the scope of prescription (RX) and nonprescription (over-the-counter; OTC) medicinal products and dietary supplements marketed in the United States and Canada since 1995 that include phthalates as excipients. Methods: We used lists of modified-release drug products to identify potential drug products. Inclusion of phthalates was verified using available electronic databases, print references, published package inserts, product packages, and direct communication from manufacturers. Additional products were identified using Internet searches utilizing keywords for phthalates. Results: Based on labeling information, 6 RX drug products included DBP as an excipient, and 45 specified the use of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Phthalate polymers with no known toxicity—hypromellose phthalate (HMP), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), and polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP)—were included in 75 RX products. Three OTC drug and dietary supplement products listed DBP, 64 listed DEP, and > 90 indicated inclusion of polymers. Conclusions: Numerous RX and OTC drug products and supplements from a wide range of therapeutic categories may use DBP or DEP as excipients in oral dosage forms. The potential effects of human exposure to these phthalates through medications are unknown and warrant further investigation. PMID:22169271

  11. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Sutic, D.; Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  12. Differential Response to Abiraterone Acetate and Di-n-butyl Phthalate in an Androgen-Sensitive Human Fetal Testis Xenograft Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Boekelheide, Kim

    2014-01-01

    In utero exposure to antiandrogenic xenobiotics such as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) has been linked to congenital defects of the male reproductive tract, including cryptorchidism and hypospadias, as well as later life effects such as testicular cancer and decreased sperm counts. Experimental evidence indicates that DBP has in utero antiandrogenic effects in the rat. However, it is unclear whether DBP has similar effects on androgen biosynthesis in human fetal testis. To address this issue, we developed a xenograft bioassay with multiple androgen-sensitive physiological endpoints, similar to the rodent Hershberger assay. Adult male athymic nude mice were castrated, and human fetal testis was xenografted into the renal subcapsular space. Hosts were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin for 4 weeks to stimulate testosterone production. During weeks 3 and 4, hosts were exposed to DBP or abiraterone acetate, a CYP17A1 inhibitor. Although abiraterone acetate (14 d, 75mg/kg/d po) dramatically reduced testosterone and the weights of androgen-sensitive host organs, DBP (14 d, 500mg/kg/d po) had no effect on androgenic endpoints. DBP did produce a near-significant trend toward increased multinucleated germ cells in the xenografts. Gene expression analysis showed that abiraterone decreased expression of genes related to transcription and cell differentiation while increasing expression of genes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression. DBP induced expression of oxidative stress response genes and altered expression of actin cytoskeleton genes. PMID:24284787

  13. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  14. Fabrication of chain-like Mn 2O 3 nanostructures via thermal decomposition of manganese phthalate coordination polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Mohandes, Fatemeh; Davar, Fatemeh; Saberyan, Kamal

    2009-12-01

    A novel manganese coordination polymer [Mn(Pht)(H 2O)] n as a precursor was obtained by chemical precipitation involving an aqueous solution of anhydrous manganese acetate and phthalate anion as a potential O-banded ligand. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) results proved that phthalate anions coordinate to metal cations as a chelating bidentate ligand, making polymeric structure. The Mn 2O 3 nanostructures have been prepared via thermal decomposition of as-prepared manganese phthalate polymers as precursor in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and triphenylphosphine (TPP) as a stabilizer and capping. Different approaches such as FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to characterize the products. TEM images and XRD analysis indicated that the as-synthesized chain-like Mn 2O 3 has a crystal phase of cubic syngony with a mean size of ˜40 nm.

  15. Dibutyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dibutyl phthalate ; CASRN 84 - 74 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  16. Diethyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl phthalate ; CASRN 84 - 66 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  17. Dimethyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl phthalate ; CASRN 131 - 11 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  18. Anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers by methanogenic consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Kleerebezem, R.; Pol, L.W.H.; Lettinga, G.

    1999-03-01

    Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates ({mu}{sub S}{sup max}) and biomass yields (Y{sub X{sub tot}S}) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for {mu}{sub X}{sup max} and Y{sub X{sub tot}S} were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (K{sub S}) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate.

  19. Mitochondrial toxicity of phthalate esters.

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, R L; Schiller, C M

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mono- and dibutyl phthalate and mono- and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on energy-dependent K+ uptake, respiration rates, and succinate cytochrome c reductase activities of isolated rat liver mitochondria were evaluated. The energy-coupling processes, active K+ transport and oxidative phosphorylation, were affected most by di-n-butyl phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Mono-n-butyl phthalate had a moderate effect on energy coupling and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had no apparent effect. The potency of inhibition of succinate cytochrome c reductase activity was mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate greater than di-n-butyl phthalate greater than mono-n-butyl phthalate = di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. It is concluded that phthalate esters affect mitochondrial activities by altering the permeability properties of the inner membrane and by inhibiting succinate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:7140696

  20. Hyaluronic acid embedded cellulose acetate phthlate core/shell nanoparticulate carrier of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ashish; Rai, Gopal; Lodhi, Santram; Jain, Alok Pal; Yadav, Awesh K

    2016-06-01

    Aim of this research was to prepare hyaluronic acid-modified-cellulose acetate phthalate (HAC) core shell nanoparticles (NPs) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). HAC copolymer was synthesized and confirmed by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. HAC NPs with 5-FU were prepared using HAC copolymer and compared with 5-FU loaded cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) NPs. NPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro release, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). HAC NPs were found slower release (97.30% in 48h) than (99.25% in 8h) CAP NPs. In cytotoxicity studies, showed great cytotoxic potential of 5-FU loaded HAC NPs in A549, MDA-MD-435 and SK-OV-3 cancer cellline. HAC NPs showing least hemolytic than CAP NPs and 5-FU. Area under curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), mean residence time (MRT) and time to reach maximum plasma concentration Tmax), were observed 4398.1±7.90μgh/mL, 145.45±2.25μg/L, 45.74±0.25h, 72±0.50h, respectively of HAC NPs and 119.92±1.78μgh/mL, 46.38±3.42μg/L, 1.2±0.25h, 0.5±0.02h were observed in plain 5-FU solution. In conclusion, HAC NPs is effective deliver carrier of 5-FU for lung cancer. PMID:26955748

  1. Genotoxicity of phthalates.

    PubMed

    Erkekoglu, Pınar; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma

    2014-12-01

    Many of the environmental, occupational and industrial chemicals are able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. ROS may lead to genotoxicity, which is suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of many human diseases, including inflammatory diseases and cancer. Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental chemicals and are well-known peroxisome proliferators (PPs) and endocrine disruptors. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted concerning the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of phthalates. Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and several other phthalates are shown to be hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. The underlying factor in the hepatocarcinogenesis is suggested to be their ability to generate ROS and cause genotoxicity. Several methods, including chromosomal aberration test, Ames test, micronucleus assay and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutation test and Comet assay, have been used to determine genotoxic properties of phthalates. Comet assay has been an important tool in the measurement of the genotoxic potential of many chemicals, including phthalates. In this review, we will mainly focus on the studies, which were conducted on the DNA damage caused by different phthalate esters and protection studies against the genotoxicity of these chemicals. PMID:25174766

  2. Determination of free and total phthalates in commercial whole milk products in different packaging materials by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jialu; Chen, Wanxin; Zhu, Hangcui; Wang, Chengjun

    2015-12-01

    We developed a method for extraction and determination of free and total phthalate esters in commercial whole milk products. The free phthalates in milk samples were extracted with ethyl acetate after general pretreatment procedures including protein precipitation, centrifugation, and filtration. The bound phthalates in samples were first desorbed with the aid of ultrasound irradiation before extraction of total phthalates. The separation and determination of phthalates in extracts was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. The detection limits were in the range of 0.09 to 0.36ng/g and the average recovery between 79.1 and 110.3%. The developed methods were applied to extract and determine phthalates in commercial whole milk products with different packaging materials, including plastic, glass, and metal. All samples contained several phthalates, including diethyl, diisobutyl, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates at concentrations between 2.60 and 156.4ng/g. The identified phthalates occurred in both free and bound forms. The amounts of phthalates in milk samples packaged in glass and metal containers were much lower than those in plastic containers. Plastic packaging materials are a possible source of phthalate contamination in commercial whole milk products, and a considerable portion of bleached phthalates from packaging can be adsorbed on proteins and other solid components of milk. PMID:26454292

  3. Enhancement of metastable zone width for solution growth of potassium acid phthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Meera, K.; Ramasamy, P.

    1999-09-01

    A new method has been developed in which the addition of a small amount of ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), a well-known chelating agent, enhances the metastable zone width significantly. Also, it has been found that this addition reduces the rate of nucleation and increases the growth rate of the crystal. This method has been employed for solution growth of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KC 8H 5O 4), which is also known as potassium acid phthalate (KAP).

  4. Phthalate exposure and childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Hye

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of phthalate on obesity development in humans, some work has shown that phthalates affect humans and animals similarly. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of phthalate-induced obesity, and discuss evidence supporting the role of phthalates in the development of obesity in humans. PMID:25077088

  5. Assessment of fetal testis function and postnatal development of the male rat following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, dipentyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters are a large class of plasticizer compounds widely used in many consumer product applications. Some phthalates induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and reproductive malformations through disruption of hormone production during sexual differentiation. Regulatory ag...

  6. Butyl benzyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Butyl benzyl phthalate ; CASRN 85 - 68 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  7. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... and remove the cap. How Much Does It Cost? A cervical cap costs about $70 and should be replaced every year. In addition, there is also the cost of the doctor's visit. Many health insurance plans ...

  8. Determination of phthalate monoesters in human milk, consumer milk, and infant formula by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Gerda K; Main, Katharina M; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Leffers, Henrik; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2005-06-01

    Daily exposure of humans to phthalates may be a health risk because animal experiments have shown these compounds can affect the differentiation and function of the reproductive system. Because milk is the main source of nutrition for infants, knowledge of phthalate levels is important for exposure and risk assessment. Here we describe the development and validation of a quantitative analytical procedure for determination of phthalate metabolites in human milk. The phthalate monoesters investigated were: monomethyl phthalate (mMP), monoethyl phthalate (mEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (mBP), monobenzyl phthalate (mBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (mEHP), and monoisononyl phthalate (mNP). The method is based on liquid extraction with a mixture of ethyl acetate and cyclohexane (95:5) followed by two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE). Detection and quantification of the phthalate monoesters were accomplished by high-pressure liquid chromatography using a Betasil phenyl column (100 mmx2.1 mmx3 microm) and triple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Detection limits were in the range 0.01 to 0.5 microg L(-1) and method variation was from 5 to 15%. Analysis of 36 milk samples showed that all these phthalates were present, albeit at different concentrations. Median values (microg L(-1)) obtained were 0.11 (mMP), 0.95 (mEP), 3.5 (mBP), 0.8 (mBzP), 9.5 (mEHP), and 101 (mNP). We also analysed seven samples of consumer milk and ten samples of infant formula. Only mBP and mEHP were detected in these samples, in the ranges 0.6-3.9 microg L(-1) (mBP) and 5.6-9.9 microg L(-1) (mEHP). PMID:15933851

  9. Helix capping.

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R.; Rose, G. D.

    1998-01-01

    Helix-capping motifs are specific patterns of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions found at or near the ends of helices in both proteins and peptides. In an alpha-helix, the first four >N-H groups and last four >C=O groups necessarily lack intrahelical hydrogen bonds. Instead, such groups are often capped by alternative hydrogen bond partners. This review enlarges our earlier hypothesis (Presta LG, Rose GD. 1988. Helix signals in proteins. Science 240:1632-1641) to include hydrophobic capping. A hydrophobic interaction that straddles the helix terminus is always associated with hydrogen-bonded capping. From a global survey among proteins of known structure, seven distinct capping motifs are identified-three at the helix N-terminus and four at the C-terminus. The consensus sequence patterns of these seven motifs, together with results from simple molecular modeling, are used to formulate useful rules of thumb for helix termination. Finally, we examine the role of helix capping as a bridge linking the conformation of secondary structure to supersecondary structure. PMID:9514257

  10. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  11. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  12. Caps Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAPS CAPSULE, 1970

    1970-01-01

    The main article in this issue of ERIC/CAPS' expanded newsletter is based on an interview with the presidents-elect of three national organizations--Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES), The American School Counselor Association (ASCA), and the American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA). They discuss the role of the…

  13. Hepatic effects of phthalate esters.

    PubMed Central

    Seth, P K

    1982-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a commonly used plasticizer and microchemical environmental pollutant, produces subtle changes in hepatic function as judged by increase in liver weight and morphological and biochemical alterations. It can modify the biological response of drugs and other xenobiotics. Such interactions appear to occur at the pharmacokinetic phase, as DEHP was found to alter the activity of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes and ethanol metabolism. DEHP produced a time- and route-dependent effect on the hepatic cytochrome P-450 contents and activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase and high and low Km aldehyde dehydrogenases when given orally or intraperitoneally. Under in vitro conditions, DEHP produced no effect on the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase or aniline hydroxylase, while mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH) significantly inhibited their activity at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 15.0 mM. Activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase was also inhibited by dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) after a single oral administration. In view of the possibility of the human exposure to phthalates and other xenobiotics simultaneously, these observations are of great significance. PMID:6754361

  14. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  15. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  17. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  18. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  19. Biodegradation and bioaccumulation of phthalates

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, N.; Diefenbach, R.

    1995-12-31

    Phthalate esters very often are considered as persistent in the environment. This view is supported by an assumed lack of biodegradability, the high log K{sub ow} values and the assumed high bioaccumulation potential. Results are presented which show phthalates esters to be readily biodegradable even with a non-adapted inoculum. Combined with a lack of relevant bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, a reconsideration of the environmental impact of these substances is necessary. Special prerequisites for testing poorly water soluble substances are also discussed.

  20. Comparative Time Course Profiles of Phthalate Stereoisomers in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT More efficient models are needed to assess potential carcinogenicity hazard of environmental chemicals. Here we evaluated time course profiles for two reference phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its stereoisomer di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), to identify...

  1. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF PHTHALATE ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters display several modes of toxicity in mammalian species. In the rat, in utero exposure at relatively low dosage levels disrupts development of the reproductive system of the male rat by altering fetal testis hormone production. This presentation is a review of t...

  2. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    EPA Science Inventory

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  3. Maternal and Infant Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations: Are They Related?

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, S; Calafat, Antonia Maria; Liu, Fan; Swan, Shanna Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background Phthalates are synthetic chemicals that are ubiquitous in our society and may have adverse health effects in humans. Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites have been found in adults and children, but no studies have examined the relationship between maternal and infant phthalate metabolite concentrations. Objective We investigated the relationship between maternal and infant urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. Methods We measured nine phthalate metabolites in urine samples from 210 mother/infant pairs collected on the same study visit day (1999–2005) and obtained demographic history from questionnaires. Using multivariate linear regression analyses, we examined the degree to which maternal urine phthalate metabolite concentration predicted infant phthalate metabolite concentration. All analyses were adjusted for infant age, creatinine concentration, and race. Results Correlation coefficients between phthalate metabolite concentrations in the urine of mothers and their infants were generally low but increased with decreasing age of infant. In multivariate analyses, mother’s phthalate metabolite concentrations were significantly associated with infants’ concentrations for six phthalate metabolites: monobenzyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, monoisobutyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate: mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxy-hexyl) phthalate and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxo-hexyl) phthalate (p-values for all coefficients <0.05). Discussion Mother’s urine phthalate metabolite concentration is significantly associated with infant urine phthalate metabolite concentration for six phthalate metabolites. It is plausible that shared exposures to phthalates in the immediate surrounding environment accounted for these relationships, but other unidentified sources may also contribute to infants’ phthalate exposures. This study indicates the importance of further identifying infant phthalate exposures

  4. Information profiles on potential occupational hazards: Phthalates. Draft report (Second)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    Information profiles are presented for these phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, ditridecyl phthalate, diundecyl phthalate, N-dexy-N-decyl phthalate and mixed dialkyl (C7 to C11) phthalates. In general, the phthalates had a low order of acute toxicity. Histological damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys was associated with acute oral and/or intraperitoneal exposures to some of the compounds. Others have caused slight skin and eye irritation. Repeated oral exposure to many of the esters resulted in liver and/or kidney damage. Ingestion of di-n-butyl phthalate in humans caused nausea, dizziness, photophobia, lacrimation and conjunctivitis. Patients receiving blood stored in polyvinvyl chloride bags that contained residual di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate suffered a respiratory distress syndrome called shock lung. Neurological effects have been reported in workers exposed to a mixture of phthalate esters in production vapors. Epidemiological studies of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate showed no adverse health effects.

  5. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  6. 76 FR 63610 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and... the sale of any ``children's toy or child care article'' containing more than 0.1 percent of each of... butyl phthalate (BBP). Section 108 also prohibits on an interim basis, the sale of any ``children's...

  7. The effects of phthalates on the ovary.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Patrick R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure

  8. The Effects of Phthalates on the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure

  9. Environmental phthalate exposure and preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Meeker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal mortality with a variety of contributing causes and risk factors. Environmental exposures represent a group of understudied but potentially important factors. Phthalate diesters are used extensively in a variety of consumer products worldwide. Consequently, exposure in pregnant women is highly prevalent OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between phthalate exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth. DESIGN Nested case-control study. SETTING Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. PARTICIPANTS Women were recruited for a prospective observational cohort study from 2006–2008. Each provided demographic data, biological samples, and information about birth outcomes. Within this group we selected 130 cases of preterm birth and 352 randomly assigned controls, and analyzed urine samples from up to three time points during pregnancy for levels of phthalate metabolites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We examined associations between average levels of phthalate exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth, defined as <37 weeks completed gestation, as well as spontaneous preterm birth, defined as preterm preceded by spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes (N=57). RESULTS Geometric means of the di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites mono-(2-ethyl)-hexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. In adjusted models, MEHP, MECPP, and ∑DEHP metabolites were associated with significantly increased odds of preterm birth. When spontaneous preterm births were examined alone, MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), MECPP, ∑DEHP, MBP, and mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) metabolite levels were all associated with significantly elevated odds of prematurity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have significantly

  10. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  11. Phthalate biotransformation by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, M.G.; Hayton, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    The biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was studied in rainbow trout because DEHP bioconcentration is limited by metabolism. Biological fluids were collected following intravascular administration. Methylesterified metabolites were identified using rodent-derived standards and nonlinear gradient elution HPLC; metabolites were confirmed by gas chromatography. Similarities between the biotransformation of DEHP by rainbow trout and mammalian species included: (1) mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) appeared to be the obligatory first step in DEHP metabolism; (2) the phthalate ring was not oxidized; (3) phthalic acid was a minor metabolite; and (4) several metabolites contained multiple oxidations of the 2-ethylhexyl moiety of MEHP. No metabolites unique to rainbow trout were identified. However, fewer oxidized metabolites were identified in rainbow trout than in mammalian species, possibly due to limited mitochondrial metabolism of MEHP in rainbow trout. The amount of biliary MEHP glucuronide after intravascular administration of DEHP was substantially less than reported in rainbow trout exposed to DEHP via the water. The results confirmed that DEHP metabolism in rainbow trout proceeds by initial rapid formation of MEHP, followed by excretion or extensive oxidation by microsomal P450.

  12. 27 CFR 21.106 - Diethyl phthalate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethyl phthalate. 21.106 Section 21.106 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.106 Diethyl phthalate. (a) Refractive...

  13. 27 CFR 21.106 - Diethyl phthalate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethyl phthalate. 21.106 Section 21.106 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.106 Diethyl phthalate. (a) Refractive...

  14. 27 CFR 21.106 - Diethyl phthalate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethyl phthalate. 21.106 Section 21.106 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.106 Diethyl phthalate. (a) Refractive...

  15. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature is to examine the association of phthalate exposure with development. Phthalates are chemical compounds used in poly-vinyl chloride, PVC; vinyl flooring, cosmetics, shampoo, air fresheners, soft plastic items, intravenous tubing, food packaging and wraps, textiles, paints, cleaning products and detergents.…

  16. 75 FR 31426 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``CPSC'' or ``Commission'') announces the second meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and child care articles, pursuant to section 108 of the Consumer......

  17. Mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di-n-octyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Earl Gray, L; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L; Herbert, Arnetra R; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6-C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), and other oxidative products. The urinary levels of one of these oxidative metabolites, mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), were about 560-fold higher than MnOP in Sprague-Dawley rats dosed with DnOP by gavage. Furthermore, MCPP was also found in the urine of rats dosed with di-isooctyl phthalate (DiOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DiDP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), although at concentrations considerably lower than in rats given similar concentrations of DnOP. The comparatively much higher urinary concentrations of MCPP than of the hydrolytic monoesters of the high-molecular-weight phthalates DiOP, DiNP, and DiDP in the exposed rats suggest that these monoesters may be poor biomarkers of exposure to their precursor phthalates and may explain the relatively low frequency of detection of these monoester metabolites in human populations. MCPP and MnOP were also measured in 267 human urine samples. The frequent detection and higher urinary concentrations of MCPP than MnOP suggest that exposure to DnOP might be higher than previously thought based on the measurements of MnOP alone. However, because MCPP is also a minor metabolite of DBP and other phthalates in rats, and the metabolism of phthalates in rodents and humans may differ, additional data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of MCPP are needed to completely understand the extent of human exposure to DnOP from the urinary concentrations of MCPP. PMID:16263692

  18. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Simcox, Nancy J; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and 'green' or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0-126), 2.69 (2.18-3.30), 6.93 (6.00-7.99), 8.79 (7.84-9.86) µg g(-1), respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few associations persisted

  19. Urinary metabolites of diisodecyl phthalate in rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kayoko; Silva, Manori J; Wolf, Cynthia; Gray, L Earl; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2007-07-01

    Diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP) is an isomeric mixture of phthalates with predominantly 10-carbon branched-dialkyl chains, widely used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride. The extent of human exposure to DiDP is unknown in part because adequate biomarkers of exposure to DiDP are not available. We identified several major metabolites of DiDP in urine of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats after a single oral administration of DiDP (300 mg/kg). These metabolites can potentially be used as biomarkers of exposure to DiDP. The metabolites extracted from urine were chromatographically resolved and identified by their chromatographic behavior and full scan negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrum. The identity of metabolites with similar molecular weights was further examined in accurate mass mode. For some metabolites, unequivocal identification was done using authentic standards. Among these were the hydrolytic monoester of DiDP, monoisodecyl phthalate (MiDP), detected as a minor metabolite, and one omega oxidation product of MiDP, mono(carboxy-isononyl) phthalate (MCiNP), which was the most abundant urinary metabolite. We also tentatively identified other secondary metabolites of MiDP, mono(hydroxy-isodecyl) phthalate, mono(oxo-isodecyl) phthalate, mono(carboxy-isoheptyl) phthalate, mono(carboxy-isohexyl) phthalate, mono(carboxy-isopentyl) phthalate, mono(carboxy-isobutyl) phthalate, and mono(carboxy-ethyl) phthalate. Oxidative metabolites of diisoundecyl phthalate (DiUdP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) were also detected suggesting the presence of DiUdP and DiNP in the DiDP formulation. The urinary concentrations of all these metabolites gradually decreased in the 4 days following the administration of DiDP. MCiNP and other DiDP secondary metabolites are more abundant in urine than MiDP, suggesting that these oxidative products are better biomarkers for DiDP exposure assessment than MiDP. Additional research on the toxicokinetics of these metabolites is needed

  20. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TOXICITY OF PHTHALATE ESTERS TO FRESHWATER BENTHOS. 1. AQUEOUS EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tests were performed with the freshwater invertebrates, Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, and Lumbriculus variegatus to determine the acute toxicity of six phthalate esters, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl ph...

  1. Theoretical calculation of spectra of dibutyl phthalate and dioctyl phthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jian-Bin; Tang, Yan-Lin; Long, Zheng-Wen; Hu, Shuang-Hui; Li, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Dibutyl phthalate DBP and dioctyl phthalate DOP are the main components of the plasticizers. In order to investigate their molecular structure, chemical bond and spectrum, the geometrical parameters of the ground state and infrared (IR) spectrum are calculated using the density functional theory B3LYP method at the level of 6-311++G( d, p). On this basis, the first twenty-six excited states and the UV-Vis absorption spectra of DBP and DOP are studied using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in the same fundamental group and compared with the ultraviolet absorption peak of the molecules measured with UNICO UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The two kinds of molecular spectra are then classified and compared with that in reference. The results show that the strong absorption of IR spectra of DOP and DBP are produced by C-H bending in-plane vibration and C=O telescopic vibration producing. The most absorption of UV-Vis absorption spectra appears in the end absorption belt from n to σ* transition, and the stronger absorption in the E belt of benzene electronic transition from π to π*. There are blue shift for DOP end absorption belt from n to σ* transition and red shift for DOP E absorption belt from π to π* transition relative to that of DBP. This calculation results are better in accord with the spectral data measured by UNICO ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer.

  2. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone. PMID:27372101

  3. Correlation of phthalate exposures with semen quality

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Niraj Shukla, Manju; Kumar Patel, Devendra; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Mathur, Neeraj; Kumar Gupta, Yogendra; Saxena, Daya Krishna

    2008-08-15

    Phthalates are widely used man-made chemical released in the environment and human exposure is mainly through diet. As the phthalate plasticizers are not covalently bound to PVC, they can leach, migrate or evaporate into the environment and as a result have become ubiquitously contaminants. The present study investigates the correlation, if any, between the phthalate esters (DEP, DEHP, DBP, DMP, DOP) and sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, LPO, SCSA, and sperm quality. The study was conducted in the urban/rural population of Lucknow visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, CSMMU, Lucknow. Semen analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines while phthalate analysis by HPLC and LPO by spectrophotometer and the sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, SCSA using flow cytometry. The questionnaire data showed no significant difference in the demographic characteristics among the groups. In general, urban population was found to have statistically significant higher levels of phthalate esters than the rural. Further, infertile men showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher levels of pollutants in the semen than fertile men. A negative correlation between semen phthalate level viz DEHP and sperm quality and positive association with depolarized mitochondria, elevation in ROS production and LPO, DNA fragmentation was established. The findings are suggestive that phthalates might be one among the contributing factors associated with the deterioration in semen quality and these adverse effects might be ROS, LPO and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated.

  4. Fitting the cervical cap.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, A K; Baker, N N; Haney, S L

    1988-07-01

    The cervical cap is now available for general use by American women. Several steps are necessary to select women who are good candidates for cap usage and to successfully fit the cap. Many women are not good candidates for the cap. The cap is generally not suitable for women who have recently become sexually active or who are first-time contraceptors. Many users are women who cannot use more widely available contraceptives. Successful cap use requires a highly motivated, persistent woman who will correctly insert and remove her cap. The size, shape, length, position and location of the cervix must be assessed by the clinician prior to fitting the cap. The cervix should be visually inspected for lesions or cervicitis and a Pap smear should be taken. After an initial cap is selected, the stability of the cap, gaps between the cap and cervix, areas of uncovered cervix and the adequacy of the suction seal should be assessed. The woman should be taught how to insert and remove the cap. Additionally, she should be instructed to use a backup method of contraception until she is sure that the cap will remain in place during sexual intercourse. Successful cap fitting requires a careful, methodical approach by the clinician and a carefully selected, highly motivated client. This article presents the steps of cervical cap fitting. PMID:3405494

  5. Preparation of diallyl phthalate prepolymer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    A process is claimed for preparing prepolymers of a diallyl phthalate at room temperature. The process is characterized by the fact that the solution of a diallyl phthalate alone or a diallyl phthalate and another copolymerizable monomer, in a liquid ketone at ambient temperature, is heated in the presence of a free radical-forming catalyst, preferably hydrogen peroxide, as well as in the presence of a small amount of a strong acid until at least 60% and advantageously at least 90% of the monomer initially present has been converted to the prepolymer.

  6. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 16, METHOD 606--PHTHALATE ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results obtained and data analysis from an interlaboratory method study of EPA Method 606 (Phthalate Esters). The method is designed to analyze for six phthalate esters: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, ...

  7. [Sample pretreatment for the measurement of phthalate esters in complex matrices].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Zhuang, Wan'e; Lin, Fang; Yao, Wensong

    2014-11-01

    Sample pretreatment methods for the measurement of phthalate esters (PAEs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in various complex matrices, including sediment, soil, suspended particle matter, urban surface dust, Sinonovacula Constricta, cosmet- ic, leather, plastic and coastal/estuarine seawater, were proposed. The pretreatment which was appropriate for GC-MS detection was focused on the investigation and optimization of oper- ating parameters for the extraction and purification, such as the extraction solvent, the eluant and the adsorbent of solid phase extraction. The results of the study of pretreatment for various complex matrices showed that methylene chloride was the best solvent for the ultrasonic extraction when solid-liquid extraction was used; silica gel was the economical and practical adsorbent for solid-phase extraction for purification; C18 was the most commonly adsorbent for preconcentration of PAE in coastal/estuarine seawater sample; the mixed solution of n-hexane and ethyl acetate with a certain proportion was the suitable SPE eluent. Under the optimized conditions, the spiked recoveries were above 58% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10.5% (n = 6). The detection limits (DL, 3σ) were in the range of 0.3 μg/kg (dibutyl phthalate)--5.2 μg/kg ( diisononyl phthalate) for sediment, and 6 ng/L (dipropyl phthalate)--67 ng/L (diisodecyl phthalate) for costal/estuarine seawater. The pretreatment meth- od for various complex matrices is prominent for the measurement of the 16 PAEs with GC-MS. PMID:25764660

  8. Phthalate esters as peroxisome proliferator carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J R; Lalwani, N D; Reddy, J K

    1982-01-01

    The phthalate ester di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is both a peroxisome proliferator and a hepatic carcinogen. Peroxisome proliferators as a class are hepatocarcinogenic in rodent species. However, none of the peroxisome proliferators tested to date including the phthalate esters and related alcohol and acid analogs have demonstrated mutagenic or DNA-damaging activity in the in vitro Salmonella typhimurium/microsomal or the lymphocyte 3H-thymidine assays. A working hypothesis is proposed that peroxisome proliferation itself initiates neoplastic transformation of hepatic parenchymal cells by increasing intracellular rates of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen production. Evidence which supports such a hypothesis includes increased fatty acid beta-oxidation, elevated H2O2 levels, accumulation of peroxidized lipofuscin, disproportionately small increase in catalase, and elevated peroxisomal uricase activity which accompany peroxisome proliferation in hepatocytes. Direct testing of this hypothesis will provide insight into mechanisms of phthalate ester carcinogenicity and cytotoxicity. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:6754363

  9. Phthalate occurrence in rivers and tap water from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; González-Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence and concentrations of the main phthalates in water from the Jarama and Manzanares rivers in the region of Madrid (RM, Central Spain), the most densely populated region of Spain, and to determine the possible oestrogenic activity based on found phthalate concentration. The presence of phthalates in major supply drinking water areas of the RM was also analysed, thus allowing a preliminary assessment of the health risks resulting from the concentrations obtained. The results of this study show the presence of the three (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)) of five phthalates studied (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)). The DBP was found in both river and tap water samplers, whereas DMP and DEP were found in only drinking water samples. The DBP was found to make the highest average contribution to pollution in both river and tap water. The DEHP was not found in both the river and tap water because it is one of the most regulated phthalates. The highest phthalate contamination was found in the Manzanares river and in those areas that receive treated water from the Tagus river. The phthalates found in river and tap water in the RM do not represent a potential oestrogenic risk for the aquatic environment or humans. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that the risk of exposure to phthalates from tap water in this study is acceptable, although continuous monitoring of the presence of these substances in both drinking and river water should be undertaken to detect possible increases in their concentrations. This is the first study to analyse the presence of phthalates in both rivers and drinking water of the centre of Spain. PMID:25217752

  10. Methods for the Determination of Endocrine-Disrupting Phthalate Esters.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Munawar Saeed; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim bin Mohd; Wirzal, Mohd Dzul Hakim; Sirajuddin; Barek, Jiri; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Üstündag, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in the general and industrial environment and in many industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic, and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates in the list of priority substances with potential endocrine-disrupting action. They are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever-increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring different phthalates in various environmental, biological, and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play a useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation, and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs, which makes them suitable for large-scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine-disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices, including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods. PMID:25831046

  11. Alkylphenols and phthalates in bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Amiridou, Diana; Voutsa, Dimitra

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in bottled waters. The examined compounds were bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), tert-octylphenol (tOP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-octyl)phthalate (DNOP). The presence of EDCs in bottled waters under poor storage conditions was also investigated after exposure outdoors under realistic conditions for 15 and 30 days. EDCs were recovered after liquid-liquid extraction and determined by employing Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Most of these compounds were detected in bottled water from different brands purchased from local market. Storage at outdoor conditions had no significant effect on the concentrations of the examined compounds. Only BPA occurred at higher concentrations in polycarbonate containers exhibited an increasing trend during exposure. The estimated exposure to EDCs via consumption of drinking water was very low. PMID:20933324

  12. Migrated phthalate levels into edible oils.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Sana; Okur, Ramazan; Turgut, Faruk Hilmi; Ustun, Ihsan; Gokce, Cumali

    2015-01-01

    The determination of phthalates in edible oils (virgin olive oil, olive oil, canola oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) sold in Turkish markets was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mean phthalate concentrations were between 0.102 and 3.863 mg L(-1) in virgin olive oil; 0.172 and 6.486 mg L(-1) in olive oil; 0.501 and 3.651 mg L(-1) in hazelnut oil; 0.457 and 3.415 mg L(-1) in canola oil; 2.227 and 6.673 mg L(-1) in sunflower oil; and 1.585 and 6.248 mg L(-1) in corn oil. Furthermore, the influence of the types of oil and container to the phthalate migration was investigated. The highest phthalate levels were measured in sunflower oil. The lowest phthalate levels were determined in virgin olive oil and hazelnut oil. The highest phthalate levels were determined in oil samples contained in polyethylene terephthalate. PMID:25896944

  13. 76 FR 38116 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and... ``children's toy or child care article'' containing more than 0.1 percent of each of three specified...). Section 108 of the CPSIA also prohibits, on an interim basis, the sale of any ``children's toy that can...

  14. 76 FR 13988 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and...: Section 108 of the CPSIA permanently prohibits the sale of any ``children's toy or child care article... interim basis, the sale of any ``children's toy that can be placed in a child's mouth'' or ``child...

  15. MONO-(3-CARBOXYPROPYL) PHTHALATE, A METABOLITE OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6–C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mo...

  16. Potent cocktails: Effects of phthalate mixtures on reproductive development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are high-production volume chemicals used for many applications in consumer, health, medical and industrial products. Multiple phthalate metabolites have been detected in humans of all ages, including in pregnant mothers' urine and human amniotic fluid. Certain...

  17. Phthalate levels in nursery schools and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won; Choi, Inja; Jung, Yeonhee; Lee, Jihye; Min, Sungjae; Yoon, Chungsik

    2013-01-01

    Phthalate esters, which are known endocrine disruptors, are ubiquitously present throughout indoor environments. Leaching from building materials may be a major source of phthalate esters. In this study, we evaluated phthalate ester concentrations in dust samples from 64 classrooms located in 50 nursery schools and explored the critical factors affecting phthalate concentrations, especially with regard to building materials. Dust was sampled by a modified vacuuming method, and building materials were assessed using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to determine whether they contained polyvinyl chloride. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) were the most frequently detected phthalates. Of these, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate, with a geometric mean of 3170 μg/g dust, and concentrations were significantly correlated with the area of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-verified flooring. DINP, which has not been well-reported in other studies, was the second-most abundant phthalate, with a geometric mean of 688 μg/g dust, and showed a critical relationship with the number of children in the institution and the agency operating the nursery school. This is the first study to verify the sources of phthalates with an XRF analyzer and to evaluate the relationship between phthalate concentrations and PVC-verified materials. PMID:24073890

  18. Phthalate monoesters in association with uterine leiomyomata in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Mei-Ru; Zhang, Li-Qian; Zhao, Dong; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental pollutants because of the broad use of plastics. We conducted a case-control study to determine whether uterine leiomyomata were related to exposure to phthalates. Urine specimens and questionnaires were collected from 61 cases and 61 age-matched controls. Nine phthalate monoesters were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy. Cases had significantly higher levels of creatinine-adjusted mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), total di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (∑DEHPmet), and total dibutyl phthalate metabolites (∑DBPmet) than controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, logistic regression analyses demonstrated that leiomyomata were positively associated with MiBP, MnBP, MEHP, MEHHP, MECPP, ∑DEHPmet, and ∑DBPmet. In summary, our data support the hypothesis that uterine leiomyomata are related to phthalate exposure. PMID:26608625

  19. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  20. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE ON MALE RAT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT: ALTERED FETAL STEROID HORMONES AND GENES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to the plasticizers diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) during sexual differentiation causes male reproductive tract malformations in rats and rabbits. In the fetal male rat, these two phthalate esters decrease testosterone (T) production and i...

  1. Integrating Biomonitoring Exposure Data into the Risk Assessment Process: Phthalates [Diethyl Phthalate and Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate] as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; McKee, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    The probability of nonoccupational exposure to phthalates is high given their use in a vast range of consumables, including personal care products (e.g., perfumes, lotions, cosmetics), paints, industrial plastics, and certain medical devices and pharmaceuticals. Phthalates are of high interest because of their potential for human exposure and because animal toxicity studies suggest that some phthalates affect male reproductive development apparently via inhibition of androgen biosynthesis. In humans, phthalates are rapidly metabolized to their monoesters, which can be further transformed to oxidative products, conjugated, and eliminated. Phthalate metabolites have been used as biomarkers of exposure. Using urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations allows accurate assessments of human exposure because these concentrations represent an integrative measure of exposure to phthalates from multiple sources and routes. However, the health significance of this exposure is unknown. To link biomarker measurements to exposure, internal dose, or health outcome, additional information (e.g., toxicokinetics, inter- and intraindividual differences) is needed. We present a case study using diethyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate as examples to illustrate scientific approaches and their limitations, identify data gaps, and outline research needs for using biomonitoring data in the context of human health risk assessment, with an emphasis on exposure and dose. Although the vast and growing literature on phthalates research could not be covered comprehensively in this article, we made every attempt to include the most relevant publications as of the end of 2005. PMID:17107868

  2. Polyfluorinated. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated ketons

    SciTech Connect

    Latypov, R.R.; Belogai, V.D.; Pashkevich, K.I.

    1986-07-10

    The ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones (..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK), particularly those groups containing fluoroalkyl groups, are of interest as highly reactive compounds having two nonequivalent electrophilic centers. In the present investigation, by boiling polyfluorinated aldehydes with methylketones in glacial acetic acid, they have obtained for the first time the polyfluorinated ..beta..-hydroxy-ketones, the dehydration of which has been used to synthesize the corresponding polyfluorinated ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK, and their structure and reactions with the nucleophiles NH/sub 3/, PhNH/sub 2/, MeOH have been studied. In the PMR spectra of the ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK (X)-(XVI) two doublets of triplets are observed at 6.9 and 7.9 ppm, caused by the spin-spin coupling of the olefin protons with the CF/sub 2/ group of the substituent. For ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK, apart from the cis-trans isomerism relative to the C=C bond, a rotational isomerism is possible, caused by rotation around the C-C single bond. The presence in the IR spectra of absorption bands from nonplanar torsion-deformation vibrations of C-H for a double bond (nu = 975-980 cm/sup -1/) and the high value of the spin-spin coupling constant of the olefin protons (J/sub HH/ = 15 Hz) indicate unambiguously the transconfiguration of the olefin protons.

  3. [Relationship between phthalates and testicular dysgenesis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Rong; Dong, Lei; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hardy, Matthew P

    2007-03-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrates that boys born to women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer and spermatogenic dysfunction, which are collectively referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS may be attributed to the dysfunction of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during their differentiation after exposure to phthalates in utero. Fox example, Leydig cell functions are significantly affected by phthalates, leading to the decrease of two Leydig cell products--insulin-like growth factor 3 (INSL3) and testosterone, which are critical factors for testis descent. The disorientation of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells in the adult testis may be the cause of spermatogenic dysfunction. PMID:17393778

  4. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  5. Health-care cap.

    PubMed

    1996-05-01

    Dallas Avionics agreed to discontinue its cap on HIV-related medical expenses. The Texas company offered employees $1 million worth of lifetime medical benefits, with the exception of HIV-related expenses. Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund intervened, demanding that the cap be removed and the company pay an employee's $82,000 outstanding HIV-related medical bills. According to Lambda, the cap violates the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). PMID:11363454

  6. Phthalate esters: Testing for ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Thompson, R.; Croudace, C.; Stewart, K.; Williams, N.

    1995-12-31

    Ortho-phthalate esters are produced in high tonnages for use as plasticizers, in particular for PVC. Their physical chemical properties are typically very low water solubility and high octanol/water partition coefficient. This combination of properties presents a number of experimental difficulties in the design and interpretation of ecological effect studies. These difficulties are described and results presented showing techniques for the performance of reproduction studies with the water flea, Daphnia magna, in aqueous solution and with the midge, Chironomus riparius, in sediments. The results which showed no effect for the phthalate esters tested are discussed in the context of other ecotoxicity data obtained on these products.

  7. Simple and rapid determination of phthalates using microextraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry quantification in cold drink and cosmetic samples.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Heena; Kaur, Ripneel; Rani, Susheela; Malik, Ashok Kumar

    2016-03-01

    A simple and rapid method using microextraction by packed sorbent coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry has been developed for the analysis of five phthalates, namely, diethyl phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate, in cold drink and cosmetic samples. The various parameters that influence the microextraction by packed sorbent performance such as extraction cycle (extract-discard), type and amount of solvent, washing solvent, and pH have been studied. The optimal conditions of microextraction using C18 as the packed sorbent were 15 extraction cycles with water as washing solvent and 3 × 10 μL of ethyl acetate as the eluting solvent. Chromatographic separation was also optimized for injection temperature, flow rate, ion source, interface temperature, column temperature gradient and mass spectrometry was evaluated using the scan and selected ion monitoring data acquisition mode. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of linearity with R(2) >0.9992 within the established concentration range. The limit of detection was 0.003-0.015 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was 0.009-0.049 ng/mL. The recoveries were in the range of 92.35-98.90% for cold drink, 88.23-169.20% for perfume, and 88.90-184.40% for cream. Analysis by microextraction by packed sorbent promises to be a rapid method for the determination of these phthalates in cold drink and cosmetic samples, reducing the amount of sample, solvent, time and cost. PMID:26683135

  8. Study of moving bed biofilm reactor in diethyl phthalate and diallyl phthalate removal from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Gholami, Mitra; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Azari, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Phthalic acid esters have received significant attention over the last few years since they are considered as priority pollutants. In this study, effects of different operation conditions including hydraulic retention time, phthalates loading rates and aeration rate on process performance of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removing diethyl phthalate (DEP) and diallyl phthalate (DAP) from synthetic wastewater was evaluated. In optimum conditions, 94.96% and 93.85% removal efficiency were achieved for DEP and DAP, respectively. Moreover, MBBR achieved to remove more than 92% of COD for both phthalates. The results showed that DEP had a higher biodegradation rate compared to DAP, according to the selected parameters such as half saturation constant, overall reaction rate and maximum specific growth rate. The Grau second order model found as the best model for predicting MBBR performance due to its high correlation coefficients and more conformity of its kinetic coefficients to the results. PMID:25727760

  9. A simple and selective method for determination of phthalate biomarkers in vegetable samples by high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xi; Cui, Kunyan; Zeng, Feng; Li, Shoucong; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, solid-phase extraction cartridges including silica reversed-phase Isolute C18, polymeric reversed-phase Oasis HLB and mixed-mode anion-exchange Oasis MAX, and liquid-liquid extractions with ethyl acetate, n-hexane, dichloromethane and its mixtures were compared for clean-up of phthalate monoesters from vegetable samples. Best recoveries and minimised matrix effects were achieved using ethyl acetate/n-hexane liquid-liquid extraction for these target compounds. A simple and selective method, based on sample preparation by ultrasonic extraction and liquid-liquid extraction clean-up, for the determination of phthalate monoesters in vegetable samples by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The method detection limits for phthalate monoesters ranged from 0.013 to 0.120 ng g(-1). Good linearity (r(2)>0.991) between MQLs and 1000× MQLs was achieved. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation values were less than 11.8%. The method was successfully used to determine phthalate monoester metabolites in the vegetable samples. PMID:26830597

  10. Phthalate exposure and risk assessment in California child care facilities.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Castorina, Rosemary; Maddalena, Randy L; Nishioka, Marcia G; McKone, Thomas E; Bradman, Asa

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 13 million U.S. children less than 6 years old spend some time in early childhood education (ECE) facilities where they may be exposed to potentially harmful chemicals during critical periods of development. We measured five phthalate esters in indoor dust (n = 39) and indoor and outdoor air (n = 40 and 14, respectively) at ECE facilities in Northern California. Dust and airborne concentrations were used to perform a probabilistic health risk assessment to compare estimated exposures with risk levels established for chemicals causing reproductive toxicity and cancer under California's Proposition 65. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) were the dominant phthalates present in floor dust (medians = 172.2 and 46.8 μg/g, respectively), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were the dominant phthalates in indoor air (medians = 0.52, 0.21, and 0.10 μg/m(3), respectively). The risk assessment results indicate that 82-89% of children in California ECE had DBP exposure estimates exceeding reproductive health benchmarks. Further, 8-11% of children less than 2 years old had DEHP exposure estimates exceeding cancer benchmarks. This is the largest study to measure phthalate exposure in U.S. ECE facilities and findings indicate wide phthalate contamination and potential risk to developing children. PMID:24870214

  11. Urinary Biomarkers for Phthalates Associated with Asthma in Norwegian Children

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Håland, Geir; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Løvik, Martinus

    2012-01-01

    Background: High-molecular-weight phthalates in indoor dust have been associated with asthma in children, but few studies have evaluated phthalate biomarkers in association with respiratory outcomes. Objectives: We explored the association between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and current asthma. Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis, 11 metabolites of 8 phthalates [including four metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] were measured in one first morning void collected from 2001 through 2004 from 623 10-year-old Norwegian children. Logistic regression models controlling for urine specific gravity, sex, parental asthma, and income were used to estimate associations between current asthma and phthalate metabolite concentrations by quartiles or as log10-transformed variables. Results: Current asthma was associated with both mono(carboxyoctyl) phthalate (MCOP) and mono(carboxynonyl) phthalate (MCNP), although the association was limited to those in the highest quartile of these chemicals. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for current asthma was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.0, 3.3) for the highest MCOP quartile compared with the lowest quartile, and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.7) for an interquartile-range increase. The aOR for current asthma was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 4.0) for the highest MCNP quartile and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.7) for an interquartile-range increase. The other phthalate metabolites were not associated with current asthma. Conclusions: Current asthma was associated with the highest quartiles of MCOP and MCNP, metabolites of two high molecular weight phthalates, diisononyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate, respectively. Given the short biological half-life of the phthalates and the cross-sectional design, our findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:23164678

  12. Airborne phthalate partitioning to cotton clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Glenn; Li, Hongwan; Mishra, Santosh; Buechlein, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation on indoor surfaces and fabrics can increase dermal uptake and non-dietary ingestion of semi-volatile organic compounds. To better understand the potential for dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing, we measured the mass accumulation on cotton fabrics of two phthalate esters commonly identified in indoor air: diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). In 10-day chamber experiments, we observed strong air-to-cloth partitioning of these phthalates to shirts and jean material. Area-normalized partition coefficients ranged from 209 to 411 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 2850 to 6580 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. Clothing volume-normalized partition coefficients averaged 2.6 × 105 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 3.9 × 106 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. At equilibrium, we estimate that a typical set of cotton clothing can sorb DnBP from the equivalent of >10,000 m3 of indoor air, thereby substantially decreasing external mass-transfer barriers to dermal uptake. Further, we estimate that a significant fraction of a child's body burden of DnBP may come from mouthing fabric material that has been equilibrated with indoor air.

  13. Di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) phthalate ( DEHP ) ; CASRN 117 - 81 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  14. Shock characterization of Diallyl Phthalate (DAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.

    1992-09-01

    This study involved the shock characterization of Diallyl Phthalate (DAP), in particular, the equation of state as measured by the shock Hugoniot. Tests were done between 1 and 11 GPa impact shock pressure. The Hugoniot parameters were determined to be: [rho][sub 0]= 1.743, C[sub 0] = 2.20, and S = 2.33.

  15. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  16. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  17. The estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, C A; Henttu, P; Parker, M G; Sumpter, J P

    1997-01-01

    A large number of phthalate esters were screened for estrogenic activity using a recombinant yeast screen. a selection of these was also tested for mitogenic effect on estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. A small number of the commercially available phthalates tested showed extremely weak estrogenic activity. The relative potencies of these descended in the order butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) > dibutyl phthalate (DBP) > diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) > diethyl phthalate (DEP) > diisiononyl phthalate (DINP). Potencies ranged from approximately 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(7) times less than 17beta-estradiol. The phthalates that were estrogenic in the yeast screen were also mitogenic on the human breast cancer cells. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) showed no estrogenic activity in these in vitro assays. A number of metabolites were tested, including mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, mon-n-octyl phthalate; all were wound to be inactive. One of the phthalates, ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP), produced inconsistent results; one sample was weakly estrogenic, whereas another, obtained from a different source, was inactive. analysis by gel chromatography-mass spectometry showed that the preparation exhibiting estrogenic activity contained 0.5% of the ortho-isomer of bisphenol A. It is likely that the presence of this antioxidant in the phthalate standard was responsible for the generation of a dose-response curve--which was not observed with an alternative sample that had not been supplemented with o,p'-bisphenol A--in the yeast screen; hence, DTDP is probably not weakly estrogenic. The activities of simple mixtures of BBP, DBP, and 17beta-estradiol were assessed in the yeast screen. No synergism was observed, although the activities of the mixtures were approximately additive. In summary, a small number of phthalates are weakly estrogenic in vitro. No data has yet been published on whether these are also estrogenic in vitro. No data has

  18. Phthalates: European regulation, chemistry, pharmacokinetic and related toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ventrice, Pasquale; Ventrice, Domenica; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-07-01

    Phthalates are chemicals widely used in industry and the consequences for human health caused by exposure to these agents are of significant current interest. Phthalate toxicity targets the reproductive and respiratory systems primarily, but they also may be involved in the processes of carcinogenesis and even in autism spectrum disorders. This article discusses the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in organ toxicity of phthalates; furthermore, pharmacokinetic, chemistry and the European regulation are summarized. PMID:23603460

  19. A monograph on the remediation of hazardous phthalates.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sailas; Pradeep, Selvanesan; Josh, Moolakkariyil Sarath; Kumar, Sunil; Masai, Eiji

    2015-11-15

    Phthalates or phthalic acid esters are a group of xenobiotic and hazardous compounds blended in plastics to enhance their plasticity and versatility. Enormous quantities of phthalates are produced globally for the production of plastic goods, whose disposal and leaching out into the surroundings cause serious concerns to the environment, biota and human health. Though in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, pre-clinical animal and clinical human studies showed endocrine disruption, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties, usage of phthalates continues due to their cuteness, attractive chemical properties, low production cost and lack of suitable alternatives. Studies revealed that microbes isolated from phthalate-contaminated environmental niches efficiently bioremediate various phthalates. Based upon this background, this review addresses the enumeration of major phthalates used in industry, routes of environmental contamination, evidences for health hazards, routes for in situ and ex situ microbial degradation, bacterial pathways involved in the degradation, major enzymes involved in the degradation process, half-lives of phthalates in environments, etc. Briefly, this handy module would enable the readers, environmentalists and policy makers to understand the impact of phthalates on the environment and the biota, coupled with the concerted microbial efforts to alleviate the burden of ever increasing load posed by phthalates. PMID:26004054

  20. Reproductive and developmental effects of phthalate diesters in females

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Vanessa R.; Chambers, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Phthalate diesters, widely used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have become prevalent contaminants in the environment. Human exposure is ubiquitous and higher phthalate metabolite concentrations documented in patients using medications with phthalate-containing slow release capsules raises concerns for potential health effects. Furthermore, animal studies suggest that phthalate exposure can modulate circulating hormone concentrations and thus may be able to adversely affect reproductive physiology and the development of estrogen sensitive target tissues. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological and experimental animal literature examining the relationship between phthalate exposure and adverse female reproductive health outcomes. The epidemiological literature is sparse for most outcomes studied and plagued by small sample size, methodological weaknesses, and thus fails to support a conclusion of an adverse effect of phthalate exposure. Despite a paucity of experimental animal studies for several phthalates, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence to suggest that phthalates are reproductive toxicants. However, we note that the concentrations needed to induce adverse health effects are high compared to the concentrations measured in contemporary human biomonitoring studies. We propose that the current patchwork of studies, potential for additive effects and evidence of adverse effects of phthalate exposure in subsequent generations and at lower concentrations than in the parental generation support the need for further study. PMID:23405971

  1. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  2. CCiCap: Boeing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with The Boeing Company for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the initia...

  3. ROTOR END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1959-02-01

    An improved end cap is described for the cylindrical rotor or bowl of a high-speed centrifugal separator adapted to permit free and efficient continuous counter current flow of gas therethrough for isotope separation. The end cap design provides for securely mounting the same to the hollow central shaft and external wall of the centrifuge. Passageways are incorporated and so arranged as to provide for continuous counter current flow of the light and heavy portions of the gas fed to the centrifuge.

  4. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  5. Chronic toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to Daphnia magna and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.E.; Adams, W.J.; Biddinger, G.R.; Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W.

    1995-11-01

    Chronic toxicity studies were performed with commercial phthalate esters and Daphnia magna (14 phthalates) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (six phthalates). For the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP)--the results of the studies indicated a general trend in which toxicity for both species increased as water solubility decreased. The geometric mean maximum acceptable toxicant concentration(GM-MATC) for D. magna ranged from 0.63 to 34.8 mg/L. For the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters--dihexyl phthalate (DHP), butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BOP), di-(n-hexyl, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate (610P), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate (711P), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diundecyl phthalate (DUP), and ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP)--the GM-MATC values ranged from 0.042 to 0.15 mg/L. Survival was equally sensitive and sometimes more sensitive than reproduction. The observed toxicity to daphnids with most of the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters appeared to be due to surface entrapment or a mode of toxicity that is not due to exposure to dissolved aqueous-phase chemical. Early life-stage toxicity studies with rainbow trout indicated that survival (DMP) and growth (DBP) were affected at 24 and 0.19 mg/L, respectively. This pattern of observed toxicity with the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters and not the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters is consistent with previously reported acute toxicity studies for several aquatic species.

  6. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Anogenital Distance in Swedish Boys

    PubMed Central

    Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo AG.; Lindh, Christian H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Bodin, Anna; Jonsson, Carin; Janson, Staffan; Swan, Shanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)—the distance from the anus to the genitals—has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD in Swedish infants. Methods: AGD was measured in 196 boys at 21 months of age, and first-trimester urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites of DEP (diethyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), DEHP, BBzP (benzylbutyl phthalate), as well as DiNP and creatinine. Data on covariates were collected by questionnaires. Results: The most significant associations were found between the shorter of two AGD measures (anoscrotal distance; AGDas) and DiNP metabolites and strongest for oh-MMeOP [mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyloctyl) phthalate] and oxo-MMeOP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate]. However, the AGDas reduction was small (4%) in relation to more than an interquartile range increase in DiNP exposure. Conclusions: These findings call into question the safety of substituting DiNP for DEHP in soft PVC, particularly because a shorter male AGD has been shown to relate to male genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally. Citation: Bornehag CG, Carlstedt F, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Jensen TK, Bodin A, Jonsson C, Janson S, Swan SH. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:101–107; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408163 PMID:25353625

  7. CAPS Simulation Environment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Douglas G.; Hoffman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The final design for an effective Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) will likely come after a number of competing designs have been simulated and evaluated. Because of the large number of design parameters involved in a system capable of detecting an object, accurately determining its orbit, and diverting the impact threat, a comprehensive simulation environment will be an extremely valuable tool for the CAPS designers. A successful simulation/design tool will aid the user in identifying the critical parameters in the system and eventually allow for automatic optimization of the design once the relationships of the key parameters are understood. A CAPS configuration will consist of space-based detectors whose purpose is to scan the celestial sphere in search of objects likely to make a close approach to Earth and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the orbits of those objects. Other components of a CAPS configuration may include systems for modifying the orbits of approaching objects, either for the purpose of preventing a collision or for positioning the object into an orbit where it can be studied or used as a mineral resource. The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a space-systems design, evaluation, and visualization software tool being leveraged to simulate these aspects of the CAPS study. The long-term goal of the SEE is to provide capabilities to allow the user to build and compare various CAPS designs by running end-to-end simulations that encompass the scanning phase, the orbit determination phase, and the orbit modification phase of a given scenario. Herein, a brief description of the expected simulation phases is provided, the current status and available features of the SEE software system is reported, and examples are shown of how the system is used to build and evaluate a CAPS detection design. Conclusions and the roadmap for future development of the SEE are also presented.

  8. Transdermal Uptake of Diethyl Phthalate and Di(n-butyl) Phthalate Directly from Air: Experimental Verification

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2015-01-01

    Background Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake of phthalate esters. Objectives This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods In a series of experiments, six human participants were exposed for 6 hr in a chamber containing deliberately elevated air concentrations of DEP and DnBP. The participants either wore a hood and breathed air with phthalate concentrations substantially below those in the chamber or did not wear a hood and breathed chamber air. All urinations were collected from initiation of exposure until 54 hr later. Metabolites of DEP and DnBP were measured in these samples and extrapolated to parent phthalate intakes, corrected for background and hood air exposures. Results For DEP, the median dermal uptake directly from air was 4.0 μg/(μg/m3 in air) compared with an inhalation intake of 3.8 μg/(μg/m3 in air). For DnBP, the median dermal uptake from air was 3.1 μg/(μg/m3 in air) compared with an inhalation intake of 3.9 μg/(μg/m3 in air). Conclusions This study shows that dermal uptake directly from air can be a meaningful exposure pathway for DEP and DnBP. For other semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) whose molecular weight and lipid/air partition coefficient are in the appropriate range, direct absorption from air is also anticipated to be significant. Citation Weschler CJ, Bekö G, Koch HM, Salthammer T, Schripp T, Toftum J, Clausen G. 2015. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from air: experimental verification. Environ Health Perspect 123:928–934; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409151 PMID:25850107

  9. Kinetics of the phthalate metabolites mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) in male subjects after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Astrid; Völkel, Wolfgang; Fromme, Hermann

    2016-06-11

    Humans have been exposed to dialkyl ortho-phthalates for decades. Due to degradation the phthalate monoesters, responsible for the toxic effects, are additionally found in environmental media as well as food samples. Nevertheless, the toxicokinetic properties of the monoesters are not known. Therefore, metabolism of the phthalate monoesters mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was studied in four male volunteers (23-58 years of age) after ingestion of a single dose of 50μg/kg bw D4-MEHP or 10μg/kg bw D4-MnBP. The main metabolites in urine were determined up to 46h after administration. In the MEHP-study, more than 90% of each metabolite appeared in the urine within the first 22h, and the average excreted amount of D4-MEHP and its four secondary metabolites was 62% of the administered dose. The highest value of 15% was observed for mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxy-pentyl phthalate (D4-5cx-MEPP). The mean elimination half-life of D4-MEHP was estimated to be 3.5±1.4h. In the MnBP-study, the total recovered values of D4-MnBP and its secondary metabolites ranged from 52% to 130%. The monoester itself, with a half-life of 1.9±0.5h, accounted for the majority of the ingested dose (92%), while the secondary metabolites D4-mono-3-hydroxy-n-butyl phthalate (D4-3OH-MnBP) and D4-3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (D4-3cx-MPP) represented only 7.1% and 1.0% of the ingested dose, respectively. Overall, this study determined that the kinetics of the phthalate monoesters MEHP and MnBP after oral dosage are comparable to the properties of their diesters. PMID:27091076

  10. A Phrygian Cap

    PubMed Central

    van Kamp, Marie-Janne S.; Bouman, Donald E.; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Klaase, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    A Phrygian cap is a congenital anomaly of the gallbladder with an incidence of 4%. It can simulate a mass in the liver during hepatobiliary imaging and is sometimes mistaken for pathology. A Phrygian cap, however, has no pathological significance and normally causes no symptoms. A case will be presented where a Phrygian cap was found by coincidence during surgery. The patient was operated for colon cancer with liver metastasis in segment V. He underwent a simultaneous right hemicolectomy and wedge resection of the liver lesion. During perioperative inspection, a gallbladder with a folded fundus was seen. This deformity was, in retrospective, detected on the preoperative MRI scan. The patient underwent cholecystectomy to make the wedge resection easier to perform. Otherwise, cholecystectomy for a Phrygian cap is only indicated in case of symptoms. Radiographic imaging can be helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, there is no recent literature about the Phrygian cap and its imaging aspects. Nowadays, multiphase MRI, or multiphase CT in case of MRI contraindication, are the first choices of hepatobiliary imaging. PMID:24019768

  11. Postnatal effects of dipentyl phthalate on male reproductive development

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted several in utero, ex vivo and in vitro studies to characterize the relative potencies of a series of phthalates on fetal rat testis testosterone production and gene expression. Dipentyl phthalate (DPeP) was the most potent of the active chemicals in its effect on fet...

  12. Dose-response assessment of fetal testosterone production and gene expression levels in rat testes following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several phthalate esters have been linked to the Phthalate Syndrome, affecting male reproductive development when administered to pregnant rats during in utero sexual differentiation. The goal of the current study was to enhance understanding of this class of compounds in the Spr...

  13. URINARY BIOMARKERS OF DI-ISONONYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a mixture of various branched-chain dialkyl phthalates mainly containing ninecarbon alkyl isomers. At high doses in rodents, DiNP is a carcinogen, and a developmental toxicant. After exposure, the diester isomers are de-esterified to for...

  14. Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Phthalates and Infant Neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Yolton, Kimberly; Xu, Yingying; Strauss, Donna; Altaye, Mekibib; Calafat, Antonia M.; Khoury, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and select common phthalates with infant neurobehavior measured at 5 weeks. Methods We compared the concentration of maternal urinary metabolites of bisphenol A and phthalates at two distinct time points in pregnancy (16w, 26w) with scores on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) at 5 weeks of age in a cohort of 350 mother/infant pairs. Results Prenatal exposure to BPA was not significantly associated with neurobehavioral outcomes at 5 weeks. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to measured phthalates and infant neurobehavioral outcomes differed by type of phthalate and were only seen with exposure measured at 26 weeks. Higher total di-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites at 26w was associated with improved behavioral organization evidenced by decreased arousal (p=.04), increased self-regulation (p=.052), and decreased handling (p=.02). In males, higher total di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites at 26w was associated with more nonoptimal reflexes (p=.02). Conclusion The association between prenatal phthalate exposure and infant neurobehavior differed by type of phthalate and was evident only with exposure measured at 26w. Prenatal exposure to DBP was associated with improved behavioral organization in 5-week-old infants. Prenatal exposure to DEHP was associated with nonoptimal reflexes in male infants. There was no evidence of an association between prenatal BPA exposure and infant neurobehavior. PMID:21854843

  15. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following prescribed conditions: (a) Polyethylene phthalate films consist of a base sheet of ethylene... as constituents of the base sheet or as constituents of coatings applied to the base sheet. (b) Polyethylene phthalate articles consist of a base polymer of ethylene terephthalate polymer, or...

  16. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  17. Phthalates and neurotoxic effects on hippocampal network plasticity.

    PubMed

    Holahan, Matthew R; Smith, Catherine A

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are synthetically derived chemicals used as plasticizers in a variety of common household products. They are not chemically bound to plastic polymers and over time, easily migrate out of these products and into the environment. Experimental investigations evaluating the biological impact of phthalate exposure on developing organisms are critical given that estimates of phthalate exposure are considerably higher in infants and children compared to adults. Extensive growth and re-organization of neurocircuitry occurs during development leaving the brain highly susceptible to environmental insults. This review summarizes the effects of phthalate exposure on brain structure and function with particular emphasis on developmental aspects of hippocampal structural and functional plasticity. In general, it appears that widespread disruptions in hippocampal functional and structural plasticity occur following developmental (pre-, peri- and post-natal) exposure to phthalates. Whether these changes occur as a direct neurotoxic effect of phthalates or an indirect effect through disruption of endogenous endocrine functions is not fully understood. Comprehensive investigations that simultaneously assess the neurodevelopmental, neurotoxic, neuroendocrine and behavioral correlates of phthalate exposure are needed to provide an opportunity to thoroughly evaluate the neurotoxic potential of phthalates throughout the lifespan. PMID:25749100

  18. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene phthalate polymers. 177.1630 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as... polymers. Polyethylene phthalate polymers identified in this section may be safely used as, or...

  19. Phthalate exposure and semen quality in fertile US men.

    PubMed

    Thurston, S W; Mendiola, J; Bellamy, A R; Levine, H; Wang, C; Sparks, A; Redmon, J B; Drobnis, E Z; Swan, S H

    2016-07-01

    Several experimental and observational studies have demonstrated the antiandrogenicity of several phthalates. However, there is limited evidence of an association between phthalate exposure in adult life and semen quality. The aim of this study was to examine phthalate exposure during adulthood in relation to semen quality in fertile US men. This multi-center cross-sectional study included 420 partners of pregnant women who attended a prenatal clinic in one of five US cities during 1999-2001. Nine phthalate metabolites [mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP)], as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono (three carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)] were measured in urine collected at the same time as the semen sample. We regressed natural log-transformed (ln) sperm concentration, ln(total sperm count), ln(total motile sperm count), percent motile spermatozoa, and percent spermatozoa with normal morphology on each of the nine natural log-transformed metabolite concentrations and on the molar-weighted sum of DEHP metabolites in separate models. We fit unadjusted models and models that adjusted for confounders determined a priori. In unadjusted models, ln(MiBP) was significantly and positively associated with motility and ln(MBzP) significantly negatively associated with ln(total sperm count). In adjusted linear models, urinary metabolite concentrations of DEHP, DBP, DEP, and DOP were not associated with any semen parameter. We found an inverse association between ln(MBzP) concentrations and sperm motility (β = -1.47, 95% CI: -2.61, -0.33), adjusted for ln(creatinine concentration), geographic location, age, race, smoking status, stress, recent fever, time from sample collection and time to complete analysis. Several sensitivity

  20. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys.

    PubMed

    Swan, S H; Liu, F; Hines, M; Kruse, R L; Wang, C; Redmon, J B; Sparks, A; Weiss, B

    2010-04-01

    Foetal exposure to antiandrogens alters androgen-sensitive development in male rodents, resulting in less male-typical behaviour. Foetal phthalate exposure is also associated with male reproductive development in humans, but neurodevelopmental outcomes have seldom been examined in relation to phthalate exposure. To assess play behaviour in relation to phthalate metabolite concentration in prenatal urine samples, we recontacted participants in the Study for Future Families whose phthalate metabolites had been measured in mid-pregnancy urine samples. Mothers completed a questionnaire including the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a validated instrument used to assess sexually dimorphic play behaviour. We examined play behaviour scores (masculine, feminine and composite) in relationship to (log(10)) phthalate metabolite concentrations in mother's urine separately for boys (N = 74) and girls (N = 71). Covariates (child's age, mother's age and education and parental attitude towards atypical play choices) were controlled using multivariate regression models. Concentrations of dibutyl phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and their sum, were associated with a decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys (regression coefficients -4.53,-3.61 and -4.20, p = 0.01, 0.07 and 0.04 for MnBP, MiBP and their sum respectively). Concentrations of two urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and the sum of these DEHP metabolites plus mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were associated with a decreased masculine score (regression coefficients -3.29,-2.94 and -3.18, p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.04) for MEHHP, MEOHP and the sum respectively. No strong associations were seen between behaviour and urinary concentrations of any other phthalate metabolites in boys, or between girls' scores and any metabolites. These data, although based on

  1. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  2. 75 FR 36639 - Change in Times for Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31426), the Consumer Product Safety Commission published a notice announcing the... health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and child care articles... alternatives as used in children's toys and child care articles, pursuant to section 108 of the...

  3. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters on Fetal Rodent Testosterone Production and Gene Expression Following In Utero Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters(PE) are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of common products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables, and wall/floor coverings. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that in utero treatment with PE such as di-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) du...

  4. [Capping strategies in RNA viruses].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Ferron, François; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2012-04-01

    Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential. PMID:22549871

  5. 77 FR 34028 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... and phthalate alternatives, as used in children's toys and child care articles, pursuant to section... CPSIA permanently prohibits the sale of any ``children's toy or child care article'' containing more... basis, the sale of any ``children's toy that can be placed in a child's mouth'' or ``child care...

  6. 77 FR 19005 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... and phthalate alternatives, as used in children's toys and child care articles, pursuant to section... CPSIA permanently prohibits the sale of any ``children's toy or child care article'' containing more... basis, the sale of any ``children's toy that can be placed in a child's mouth'' or ``child care...

  7. Pulmonary phthalate exposure and asthma - is PPAR a plausible mechanistic link?

    PubMed Central

    Kocbach Bølling, Anette; Holme, Jørn A; Bornehag, Carl Gustaf; Nygaard, Unni C; Bertelsen, Randi J; Nånberg, Eewa; Bodin, Johanna; Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Thomsen, Cathrine; Becher, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Due to their extensive use as plasticisers in numerous consumer products, phthalates have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. An increasing number of epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to phthalates may be associated with worsening or development of airway diseases. Peroxisome Proliferation Activated Receptors (PPAR)s, identified as important targets for phthalates in early studies in rodent liver, have been suggested as a possible mechanistic link. In this review we discuss the likelihood of an involvement of PPARs in asthma development and exacerbation due to pulmonary phthalate exposure. First, we go through the literature on indoor air levels of phthalates and pulmonary phthalate kinetics. These data are then used to estimate the pulmonary phthalate levels due to inhalation exposure. Secondly, the literature on phthalate-induced activation or modulation of PPARs is summarized. Based on these data, we discuss whether pulmonary phthalate exposure is likely to cause PPAR activation, and if this is a plausible mechanism for adverse effects of phthalates in the lung. It is concluded that the pulmonary concentrations of some phthalates may be sufficient to cause a direct activation of PPARs. Since PPARs mainly mediate anti-inflammatory effects in the lungs, a direct activation is not a likely molecular mechanism for adverse effects of phthalates. However, possible modulatory effects of phthalates on PPARs deserve further investigation, including partial antagonist effects and/or cross talk with other signalling pathways. Moreover other mechanisms, including interactions between phthalates and other receptors, could also contribute to possible adverse pulmonary effects of phthalates. PMID:26622216

  8. Human Biological Monitoring of Diisononyl Phthalate and Diisodecyl Phthalate: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Murray, Janine

    2012-01-01

    High molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of polymers and consumer products. Human biological monitoring studies have employed the metabolites of DINP and DIDP as biomarkers to assess human exposure. In this review, we summarize and analyze publicly available scientific data on chemistry, metabolism, and excretion kinetics, of DINP and DIDP, to identify specific and sensitive metabolites. Human biological monitoring data on DINP and DIDP are scrutinised to assess the suitability of these metabolites as biomarkers of exposure. Results from studies carried out in animals and humans indicate that phthalates are metabolised rapidly and do not bioaccmulate. During Phase-I metabolism, ester hydrolysis of DINP and DIDP leads to the formation of hydrolytic monoesters. These primary metabolites undergo further oxidation reactions to produce secondary metabolites. Hence, the levels of secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine are found to be always higher than the primary metabolites. Results from human biological monitoring studies have shown that the secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine were detected in almost all tested samples, while the primary metabolites were detected in only about 10% of the samples. This indicates that the secondary metabolites are very sensitive biomarkers of DINP/DIDP exposure while primary metabolites are not. The NHANES data indicate that the median concentrations of MCIOP and MCINP (secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP, resp.) at a population level are about 5.1 μg/L and 2.7 μg/L, respectively. Moreover, the available biological monitoring data suggest that infants/children are exposed to higher levels of phthalates than adults. PMID:22505951

  9. Guard For Fuse Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    L-shaped guard attached to fuse holder. Guard prevents casual tampering with fuses in electrical junction box or fuse block. Protects fuses from being damaged by handling or by rope or string used to secure them. With fuse-cap guard, only responsible people have access to fuses.

  10. Medications as a source of human exposure to phthalates.

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Russ; Duty, Susan; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Calafat, Antonia M

    2004-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of multifunctional chemicals used in consumer and personal care products, plastics, and medical devices. Laboratory studies show that some phthalates are reproductive and developmental toxicants. Recently, human studies have shown measurable levels of several phthalates in most of the U.S. general population. Despite their widespread use and the consistent toxicologic data on phthalates, information is limited on sources and pathways of human exposure to phthalates. One potential source of exposure is medications. The need for site-specific dosage medications has led to the use of enteric coatings that allow the release of the active ingredients into the small intestine or in the colon. The enteric coatings generally consist of various polymers that contain plasticizers, including triethyl citrate, dibutyl sebacate, and phthalates such as diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP). In this article we report on medications as a potential source of exposure to DBP in a man who took Asacol [active ingredient mesalamine (mesalazine)] for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In a spot urine sample from this man collected 3 months after he started taking Asacol, the concentration of monobutyl phthalate, a DBP metabolite, was 16,868 ng/mL (6,180 micro g/g creatinine). This concentration was more than two orders of magnitude higher than the 95th percentile for males reported in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The patient's urinary concentrations of monoethyl phthalate (443.7 ng/mL, 162.6 micro g/g creatinine), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (3.0 ng/mL, 1.1 micro g/g creatinine), and monobenzyl phthalate (9.3 ng/mL, 3.4 micro g/g creatinine) were unremarkable compared with the NHANES 1999-2000 values. Before this report, the highest estimated human exposure to DBP was more than two orders of magnitude lower than the no observable adverse effect level from animal studies. Further research is necessary to

  11. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  12. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information:VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  13. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.3, Longitude 314.4 East (45.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  14. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.2, Longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  15. Synthesis and characterization of diallyl phthalate prepolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.K.; Parker, B.G.

    1982-12-01

    Methods for the laboratory synthesis of diallyl phthalate prepolymers were evaluated. The chemical, physical, and molecular weight properties of several prepolymers synthesized were also evaluated and compared to those properties exhibited by Dapon 35 and Daiso 35, manufactured by FMC Corporation and Osaka-Soda, respectively. Glass-filled molding compounds from four of the prepolymers having molecular weight distributions ranging from 1.9 to 40.2 were prepared and tested at the Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility. The processing characteristics and physical and electrical properties of two molding compounds were found to be comparable to similar compounds made from Dapon 35 and Daiso 35.

  16. Fastener Caps For Electronic Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    Simple devices indicate fasteners disturbed. Lid on fastener cap bent to cover fastener head. Caps then wired together in pairs. Used in place of older paper or plastic tape seals, providing greater security and presenting neater appearance.

  17. Structure-activity relationship of immunostimulatory effects of phthalates

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Søren T; Nielsen, Gunnar D

    2008-01-01

    Background Some chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, have been shown to have an adjuvant effect in mice. However, an adjuvant effect, defined as an inherent ability to stimulate the humoral immune response, was only observed after exposure to a limited number of the phthalates. An adjuvant effect may be due to the structure or physicochemical characteristics of the molecule. The scope of this study was to investigate which molecular characteristics that determine the observed adjuvant effect of the most widely used phthalate plasticizer, the di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is documented as having a strong adjuvant effect. To do so, a series of nine lipophilic compounds with structural and physicochemical relations to DEHP were investigated. Results Adjuvant effect of phthalates and related compounds were restricted to the IgG1 antibody formation. No effect was seen on IgE. It appears that lipophilicity plays a crucial role, but lipophilicity does not per se cause an adjuvant effect. In addition to lipophilicity, a phthalate must also possess specific stereochemical characteristics in order for it to have adjuvant effect. Conclusion The adjuvant effect of phthalates are highly influenced by both stereochemical and physico-chemical properties. This knowledge may be used in the rational development of plasticizers without adjuvant effect as well as in the design of new immunological adjuvants. PMID:18976460

  18. The Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Chris; Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of phthalate exposure on lung function in the Canadian population. Methods: We tested the association between 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEVl), forced vital capacity (FVC), and urinary phthalate metabolite levels in a nationally representative sample of 3147, from 6 to 49 years old. Results: An interquartile increase in mono-n-butyl phthalate was associated with decreases in percent predicted FEV1 of 0.8% (95% confidence interval = 0.3 to 1.4) and in FVC of 0.9% (95% confidence interval = 0.3 to 1.5). Results were similar for mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites, but significant effects of the latter were only seen in males and those at least 17 years old. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that phthalate exposure may adversely affect lung function in the Canadian population. Given that these chemicals are ubiquitous, the population health burden may be significant if the associations were causal. PMID:24709763

  19. Identification of potential biomarkers of exposure to diundecyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Silva, Manori J; Bontke, Trevor W; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2016-07-01

    Diundecyl phthalate (DUP) is a high production volume chemical used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride and other plastics. Specific biomarkers of DUP would be useful for human exposure assessment. To identify such biomarkers, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of DUP with human liver microsomes using online solid phase extraction coupled to HPLC-mass spectrometry. Using high resolution mass spectrometry, we conclusively confirmed the structures of four DUP specific metabolites: monoundecyl phthalate (MUP), mono-hydroxyundecyl phthalate (MHUP), mono-oxoundecyl phthalate (MOUP), and mono-carboxydecyl phthalate (MCDP). We also used high resolution mass spectrometry to isolate MCDP and MHUP from co-eluting isobaric metabolites of diisononyl phthalate (i.e., monocarboxyisononyl phthalate) and diisododecyl phthalate (i.e., monohydroxyisododecyl phthalate), respectively, that could not be separated with low resolution tandem mass spectrometry. To evaluate the potential usefulness of the newly identified DUP metabolites as exposure biomarkers, we analyzed 36 human urine samples by high resolution mass spectrometry. We detected MHUP and MCDP in >83% of the samples; median concentrations were 0.21ng/mL and 0.36ng/mL, respectively. MOUP was detected only in 14% of the samples analyzed, and MUP was not detected. All three metabolites eluted as peak clusters likely because of the presence of multiple oxidation sites and multiple isomers in DUP technical mixtures. Taken together, these findings suggest that with the appropriate mass spectrometry quantification techniques, MHUP and MCDP may serve as suitable biomarkers for assessing background exposure to DUP. PMID:27045772

  20. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huijing; Cao, Yang; Shen, Qing; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Yunhui

    2015-01-01

    Background Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November). Methods We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages) were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%), and parental education. Results In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%. PMID:26212725

  1. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  2. Assessment of Phthalate-induced Changes in Fetal Rat Testis Gene Expression using an rt-PCR Drug Metabolism Array.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters are a large family of compounds used in many industrial and commercial products. Based on numerous studies, phthalates such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) produce reproductive malformations in male rodents through reduction of testosterone production and gene ...

  3. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  4. COMBINATION DOSE OF TWO PHTHALATES ADDITIVELY DEPRESSES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RAT FETUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) are phthalate esters used to modify plastic and polymer textures. Individually,DEHP and DBP reduce testosterone production, inhibit reproductive tract development, andinduce reproductive organ malformationsin male rats...

  5. Two new phthalate derivatives from Nepeta clarkei (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Ali, Liaqat; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Two new phthalates bis(2-ethylundecyl)phthalate and bis(2-ethyltridecyl)phthalate have been isolated from the chloroform-soluble portion of the whole plant of Nepeta clarkei along with one known compound β-amyrin. The structures of the two new compounds and β-amyrin were assigned on the basis of their ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectra including 2D NMR techniques such as COSY, HMQC, and HMBC experiments and compared with the literature data. PMID:22263590

  6. Survey of phthalate levels in Italian oily foods contained in glass jars with PVC gaskets.

    PubMed

    Sannino, A

    2009-01-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of twelve phthalates in 50 samples of oily foods packed in glass jars with metal closure obtained from a retail market. The amounts of di-methyl phthalate, di-ethyl phthalate, di-propyl phthalate, di-butyl phthalate, di-pentyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, di-cyclohexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, di-isononyl phthalate and di-isodecyl phthalate in all samples analysed were less than the limit of quantification (LOQ). Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was detected in 20 samples in the range from 0.1 to 6 mg kg(-1) with an average of 1.0 mg kg(-1), and it exceeded the specific migration limit (SML) of 1.5 mg kg(-1) in five cases with an average of 3.0 mg kg(-1). Di-isobutyl phthalate was found in four samples at 0.1-0.4 mg kg(-1). The PVC gaskets used for the lids were negative for all tested phthalates, suggesting that the contamination of the foods originated from other sources, e.g. olive oil. PMID:24785180

  7. Phthalate esters detected in various water samples and biodegradation of the phthalates by microbes isolated from river water.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Kiyomatsu; Nanya, Jo; Toda, Chitose; Yasui, Teruyo; Nagano, Hideo; Kojima, Nakao

    2002-02-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs), especially di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were detected in various water samples such as river water, well water and tap water. On degradation tests of PEs, Tempaku River water degraded almost 100% of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isobutyl phthalate and DBP, and approximately 70% of DEHP. All eight isolates from Tempaku River water (R1-R7, D1) did not degrade dimethyl phthalate (DMP), but showed biodegrading ability for the other PEs. The DBP-degrading ability was particularly high for the isolates R1-R3 and D1 of Acinetobacter iwoffii. Crude enzyme solutions prepared from bacterial cells of these isolates showed a higher degrading activity for DEHP compared with that for microbially-degradable DBP. Particularly high DEHP-degrading activity was found for crude enzyme solutions of the isolate D1. As metabolites from the river water and bacterial isolates, DMP and an unknown diester were produced from DEP. DMP, DEP, monomethyl phthalate, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and an unknown diester were produced from DBP. DBP, DEP, DMP and an unknown diester were produced from DEHP. As metabolites by the crude enzyme solutions, DMP, MBP and an unknown diester derivative were produced from DBP. DBP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and an unknown diester derivative were produced from DEHP. Diesters with shortened alkyl carbon chains were also found as metabolites by the isolates and their crude enzyme solutions. The results suggest that the alkyl chains in the diesters are also decomposed in addition to monoester formation from DBP or DEHP at the first step reported for animals and some types of bacteria. PMID:11853168

  8. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  9. Phthalate Concentrations and Dietary Exposure from Food Purchased in New York State

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Matthew; Guo, Ying; Wu, Qian; Yun, Se Hun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Hommel, Madeline; Imran, Nadia; Hynan, Linda S.; Cheng, Dunlei; Colacino, Justin A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phthalates have been found in many personal care and industrial products, but have not previously been reported in food purchased in the United States. Phthalates are ubiquitous synthetic compounds and therefore difficult to measure in foods containing trace levels. Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental alteration. Objectives: Our goals were to report concentrations of phthalates in U.S. food for the first time, specifically, nine phthalates in 72 individual food samples purchased in Albany, New York, and to compare these findings with other countries and estimate dietary phthalate intake. Methods: A convenience sample of commonly consumed foods was purchased from New York supermarkets. Methods were developed to analyze these foods using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. Dietary intakes of phthalates were estimated as the product of the food consumption rate and concentration of phthalates in that food. Results: The range of detection frequency of individual phthalates varied from 6% for dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) to 74% for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). DEHP concentrations were the highest of the phthalates measured in all foods except beef [where di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) was the highest phthalate found], with pork having the highest estimated mean concentration of any food group (mean 300 ng/g; maximum, 1,158 ng/g). Estimated mean adult intakes ranged from 0.004 μg/kg/day for dimethyl phthalate (DMP) to 0.673 μg/kg/day for DEHP. Conclusions: Phthalates are widely present in U.S. foods. While estimated intakes for individual phthalates in this study were more than an order of magnitude lower than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference doses, cumulative exposure to phthalates is of concern and a more representative survey of U.S. foods is indicated. PMID:23461894

  10. Acetate Dependence of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Sarah A.; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Fu, Allie; Manning, H. Charles; Horton, Jay D.; Hammer, Robert E.; McKnight, Steven L.; Tu, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression. How highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors are able to produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions remains poorly understood. Here we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

  11. North Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    North polar ice cap of Mars, as seen during mid summer in the northern hemisphere. The reddish areas consist of eolian dust, bright white areas consist of a mixture of water ice and dust, and the dark blue areas consist of sand dunes forming a huge 'collar' around the polar ice cap. (The colors have been enhanced with a decorrelation stretch to better show the color variability.) Shown here is an oblique view of the polar region, as seen with the Viking 1 spacecraft orbiting Mars over latitude 39 degrees north. The spiral bands consist of valleys which form by a combination of the Coriolis forces, wind erosion, and differential sublimation and condensation. In high-resolution images the polar caps are seen to consist of thick sequences of layered deposits, suggesting that cyclical climate changes have occurred on Mars. Cyclical climate changes are readily explained by quasi-periodic changes in the amount and distribution of solar heating resulting from perturbations in orbital and axial elements. Variations in the Earth's orbit have also been linked to the terrestrial climate changes during the ice ages.

  12. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  13. Ant cuticles: a trap for atmospheric phthalate contaminants.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Alain; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Devers, Séverine; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Montigny, Frédéric

    2012-12-15

    Phthalates are universal contaminants. We show that they are trapped by the ant cuticles and maintained permanently at a low level, generally less than 1% of cuticular components. They are found throughout the interior of the insect, predominately in the fat body, which suggests that they are adsorbed by the cuticle. In open plastic boxes free of phthalates the ants became more contaminated with phthalates over a period of time, whereas in closed glass jars they did not. This finding suggests that the main source of pollutants is the atmosphere. Different ant species collected from multiple places showed similar levels of contamination. It appeared that in some pristine places the contamination was lower, but this needs to be confirmed. Ants can be considered as bio-indicators of phthalate pollution. PMID:23137986

  14. Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2009-04-01

    Phthalates, the most abundantly produced plasticizers, leach out from polyvinyl chloride plastics and disrupt androgen action. Male rats that are exposed to phthalates in utero develop symptoms characteristic of the human condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Environmental influences have been suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of TDS in humans (i.e. cryptorchidism and hypospadias in newborn boys and testicular cancer and reduced sperm quality in adult males). In this review, we discuss the recent findings that prenatal exposure to phthalates affects Leydig cell function in the postnatal testis. This review also focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of how Leydig cell factors contribute to phthalate-mediated TDS. PMID:19278865

  15. Kinetics of phthalate ester biodegradation by Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H.; Ye, C.; Yin, C.

    1995-06-01

    Experimental results show that Chlorella pyrenoidosa has an ability to accumulate and biodegrade phthalate esters. Bioconcentration factors of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) reached their maxima of 162 at 24 h, 205 at 12 h, and 4,077 at 12 h. The average biodegradation rates of DMP, DEP, and DBP per day were found to be 13.4 mg/L, 7.3 mg/L, and 2.1 mg/L, respectively. Based on the experimental data, a second-order kinetic equation was formulated as {minus}dC/dt = KNr, with a factor r indicating the rate of algal growth. Calculation of this equation fits well with the observed data, and the standard deviations between calculated and observed values were 1.72 mg/L, 1.80 mg/L, and 0.26 mg/L for DMP, DEP, DBP, respectively.

  16. Occurrence and risk assessment of selected phthalates in drinking water from waterworks in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Shi, Jianghong; Bo, Ting; Li, Huiyuan; Crittenden, John C

    2015-07-01

    The first nationwide survey of six phthalates (diethyl phthalate (DEP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP); bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); din-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) in drinking waters from waterworks was conducted across seven geographical zones in China. Of the six target phthalates, DBP and DEHP were the highest abundant phthalates with median (± interquartile range) values of 0.18 ± 0.47 and 0.18 ± 0.97 μg/L, respectively, but did not exceed the limit values in China's Standards for Drinking Water Quality. These phthalates in drinking water were generally higher in the northern regions of China than those in the southern and eastern regions. Based on the investigated concentrations, lifetime exposure risk assessment indicated that phthalates in drinking water did not pose carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks to Chinese residents, even under the conservative scenario (with 95th percentile risk). In addition, we found that DEHP contributed the greatest risk to the total exposure risk of all the selected phthalates and oral ingestion was the main exposure route for phthalates in drinking water. PMID:25752631

  17. Consumer product exposures associated with urinary phthalate levels in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Jessie P.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Matuszewski, Jeanine M.; Herring, Amy H.; Baird, Donna D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2012-01-01

    Human phthalate exposure is ubiquitous, but little is known regarding predictors of urinary phthalate levels. To explore this, 50 pregnant women aged 18–38 years completed two questionnaires on potential phthalate exposures and provided a first morning void. Urine samples were analyzed for 12 phthalate metabolites. Associations with questionnaire items were evaluated via Wilcoxon tests and t-tests, and r-squared values were calculated in multiple linear regression models. Few measured factors were statistically significantly associated with phthalate levels. Individuals who used nail polish had higher levels of mono-butyl phthalate (p=0.048) than non-users. Mono-benzyl phthalate levels were higher among women who used eye makeup (p=0.034) or used makeup on a regular basis (p=0.004). Women who used cologne or perfume had higher levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites. Household products, home flooring or paneling, and other personal care products were also associated with urinary phthalates. The proportion of variance in metabolite concentrations explained by questionnaire items ranged between 0.31 for mono-ethyl phthalate and 0.42 for mono-n-methyl phthalate. Although personal care product use may be an important predictor of urinary phthalate levels, most of the variability in phthalate exposure was not captured by our relatively comprehensive set of questionnaire items. PMID:22760436

  18. Uptake and Metabolism of Phthalate Esters by Edible Plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianqiang; Wu, Xiaoqin; Gan, Jay

    2015-07-21

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are large-volume chemicals and are found ubiquitously in soil as a result of widespread plasticulture and waste disposal. Food plants such as vegetables may take up and accumulate PAEs from soil, potentially imposing human health risks through dietary intake. In this study, we carried out a cultivation study using lettuce, strawberry, and carrot plants to determine the potential of plant uptake, translocation, and metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and their primary metabolites mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). All four compounds were detected in the plant tissues, with the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 0.16 ± 0.01 to 4.78 ± 0.59. However, the test compounds were poorly translocated from roots to leaves, with a translocation factor below 1. Further, PAEs were readily transformed to their monoesters following uptake. Incubation of PAEs and monoalkyl phthalate esters (MPEs) in carrot cell culture showed that DnBP was hydrolyzed more rapidly than DEHP, while the monoesters were transformed more quickly than their parent precursors. Given the extensive metabolism of PAEs to monoesters in both whole plants and plant cells, metabolism intermediates such as MPEs should be considered when assessing human exposure via dietary intake of food produced from PAE-contaminated soils. PMID:26090545

  19. Inhibitory mechanism of phthalate esters on Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wen, Fuling; Li, Fengmin; Zheng, Xiang; Liang, Zhi; Zheng, Hao

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of phthalate esters (PAEs), a class of widely used and environmentally prevalent chemicals, raises concern to environmental and human health globally. The PAEs have been demonstrated to inhibit algae growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this research, diethyl ortho-phthalate (DEP), diallyl phthalate (DAP), di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (DBP), di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, and benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (BBP) were screened from 11 species of PAEs to study their inhibitory effects on Karenia brevis and determine their target sites on algae. With increasing the alkyl chains of these five PAEs, the values of EC50,96h decreased. The content of malondialdehyde increased with the continuous accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the algae cells. Moreover, the superoxide dismutase and catalase contents were first activated and then inhibited. The ultrastructures of Karenia brevis cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and cells treated with PAEs exhibiting distorted shapes and large vacuoles. Thus, the algae were damaged by ROS accumulation, resulting in lipid oxidation and algal growth inhibition. The inhibitors of the electron transport chain showed that the sites of ROS production and accumulation in K. brevis cells under DEP and BBP were the mitochondria and chloroplast, respectively. Moreover, the target sites of DAP and DBP were both the chloroplast and mitochondria. These results are useful for controlling PAEs contamination in and revealing the fate of PAEs in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:27151426

  20. Aspects of the testicular toxicity of phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, T.J.B.; Gangolli, S.D.

    1986-03-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) produced seminiferous tubular atrophy and reductions in seminal vesicle and prostate weight in 4-week-old, but not in 15 -week-old rats. Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP) did produce atrophy in the older rats but this developed more slowly than in young animals. Coadministration of testosterone or gonadotrophins did not protect against phthalate-induced testicular toxicity but did partly reverse the depression of seminal vesicle and prostate weight. Secretion of seminiferous tubule fluid and androgen binding protein by the Sertoli cells was markedly suppressed within 1 hr of a dose of DPP or mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in immature rats. This occurred less rapidly in mature rats. (/sup 14/C)mono-n-pentyl phthalate and (/sup 14/C)MEHP penetrated the blood testis barrier only to a very limited extent. These findings and the early morphological changes in the Sertoli cells produced by DPP suggest that phthalate esters may act initially to cause Sertoli cell injury, the subsequent loss of germ cells occurring as a consequence of this.

  1. Phthalate intake by infants calculated from biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Völkel, Wolfgang; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Schuster, Ralph; Fromme, Hermann

    2014-03-01

    Urine samples (n=207) of 47 infants between 1- and 5-month of age were quantitated for 12 metabolites of 7 phthalates and compared with samples collected from the mothers of the infants at different time points. Median and 95-percentile were lower for all metabolites in urine samples of infants compared to mothers. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) the 95-percentile daily intake was 23.3μg/kg b.w. for mothers and 5.4μg/kg b.w. for infants and for di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) 10.1μg/kg b.w. and 8.5μg/kg b.w. Some values exceeded the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DiBP for infants and mothers and for DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) only for mothers. Both, infants and mothers are able to efficiently form phase II metabolites but infants with a slightly lower degree. Therefore, a distinguished risk assessment with respect to the formed toxic metabolites of phthalates would be necessary in combination with a reduction of the most toxic phthalates. PMID:24374175

  2. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyimide resins having improved thermo-oxidative stability are provided having aromatic vinyl end-caps. The polyimides are prepared by the reaction of a mixture of monomers comprising (1) a diamine, (2) an ester of tetracarboxylic acid and (3) an aromatic vinyl compound in a molar ratio of 1:2:3 of n: (n + 1):2 when the aromatic vinyl compound contains nitrogen and in a ratio of (n + 1):n:2 when the aromatic vinyl compound does not contain nitrogen, wherein n ranges from about 5 to about 20.

  3. Relationship between variation of seasonal temperature and extent of occupational exposure to phthalates.

    PubMed

    Pilka, Tomas; Petrovicova, Ida; Kolena, Branislav; Zatko, Tomas; Trnovec, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Spot urine samples were collected in summer and winter season to examine the association between temperature variation and phthalate concentration in an occupationally exposed group. We analysed samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of four phthalate metabolites: mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monobutyl phthalate (MnBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP). We observed significantly higher urinary concentrations of all monitored phthalate metabolites collected during the summer in occupationally exposed group (MEP p < 0.0015, MiNP p < 0.0001, MnBP p < 0.00019, and MEHP p < 0.05); however, in general, population was noticed this difference only for MEHP (p < 0.05) in winter season. We conclude that increasing indoor and outdoor temperature is related to phthalate exposure in specific types of work environment. PMID:25081008

  4. Phthalate Esters and Reproductive Toxicity** Presentation requested by State of Mass Use Reductions Committee-TURI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters and reproductive toxicity the presentation described the uses of phthalates, the toxicity to mammals with a focus on reproductive toxicity and the potency of these chemicals to disrupt mammalian reproductive development in utero

  5. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  6. Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate as biomarkers for human exposure assessment to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kayoko; Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Hurtz, Donald; Malek, Nicole A; Needham, Larry L; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Barr, Dana B; Calafat, Antonia M

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is prevalent based on the measurement of its hydrolytic metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in the urine of 78% of the general U.S. population studied in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). However, despite the high level of production and use of DEHP, the urinary MEHP levels in the NHANES samples were lower than the monoester metabolites of phthalates less commonly used than DEHP, suggesting metabolic differences between phthalates. We measured MEHP and two oxidative DEHP metabolites, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) to verify whether these other metabolites account for a greater proportion of DEHP metabolic products in 127 paired human urine and serum samples. We found that the urinary levels of MEHHP and MEOHP were 10-fold higher than levels of MEHP; concentrations of urinary MEOHP and MEHHP were strongly correlated (r = 0.928). We also found that the serum levels of MEOHP and MEHHP were comparatively lower than those in urine. Furthermore, the glucuronide-bound conjugates of the oxidative metabolites were the predominant form in both urine and serum. MEOHP and MEHHP cannot be formed by serum enzymes from the hydrolysis of any contamination from DEHP potentially introduced during blood collection and storage. Therefore, concentrations of MEHHP and MEOHP in serum may be a more selective measure of DEHP exposure than is MEHP. However, additional data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of these oxidative metabolites are needed to completely understand the extent of DEHP exposure from the serum concentrations of oxidative DEHP metabolites. PMID:14998748

  7. Personal care product use and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Romero-Franco, Michelle; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Calafat, Antonia M; Cebrián, Mariano E; Needham, Larry L; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-07-01

    Sources of phthalates other than Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) related products are scarcely documented in Mexico. The objective of our study was to explore the association between urinary levels of nine phthalate metabolites and the use of personal care products. Subjects included 108 women who participated as controls in an ongoing population-based case-control study of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in northern Mexico. Direct interviews were performed to inquire about sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, use of personal care products, and diet. Phthalate metabolites measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry were monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) as well as mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP) that are metabolites of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Detectable urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites varied from 75% (MEHP) to 100% (MEP, MBP, MEOHP, MEHHP and MECPP). Medians of urinary concentrations of some phthalate metabolites were significantly higher among users of the following personal care products compared to nonusers: body lotion (MEHHP, MECPP and sum of DEHP metabolites (ΣDEHP)), deodorant (MEHP and ΣDEHP), perfume (MiBP), anti-aging facial cream (MEP, MBP and MCPP) and bottled water (MCPP, MEHHP and MEOHP). Urinary concentrations of MEP showed a positive relationship with the number of personal care products used. Our results suggest that the use of some personal care products contributes to phthalate body burden that deserves attention due to its potential health impact. PMID:21429583

  8. Developing an intervention strategy to reduce phthalate exposure in Taiwanese girls.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Chou, Yen-Yin; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2015-06-01

    Children in Taiwan seem to be exposed to higher concentrations of phthalates than do children in Western countries. We developed intervention strategies to reduce the exposure of phthalates in Taiwanese girls. Thirty girls 4-13 years old who had been exposed to high levels of phthalates were selected from prior studies. To reduce their phthalate-exposure sources, we developed seven intervention strategies: handwashing, not using plastic containers, not eating food with a plastic bag/plastic-wrap cover, not microwaving food, not taking nutrition supplements, and reducing use of cosmetics/personal care products. Pre- and post-intervention urine samples were collected during a one-week study. HPLC-MS/MS was used to analyze urinary phthalate metabolites. The dominant urinary phthalate metabolite was mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), followed by mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP). Post-intervention concentrations of eight urinary phthalate metabolites were significantly lower. Girls in the high-frequency handwashing group had significantly lower urinary MBP (p=0.009) and mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) (p=0.07) than did girls in the low-frequency handwashing group. Girls who drank fewer beverages from plastic cups had significantly lower urinary MBP (p=0.016), MEHHP (p=0.038), and MECPP (p=0.012). Girls who used less shampoo and shower gel also had marginally significantly lower urinary MBP (p=0.06) and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) (p=0.06). The intervention strategies that we set up in this study were effective for reducing exposure to phthalates in children. Handwashing and drinking fewer beverages from plastic cups were the most effective strategies for reducing phthalate metabolites in urine, especially MBP and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. Education and voluntary self-restraint were useful for reducing the body burden of phthalates. PMID:25725197

  9. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  10. 75 FR 18165 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...The Consumer Product Safety Commission (Commission) announces the first meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on Phthalates. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and child care articles, pursuant to section 108 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008......

  11. Toxicity and Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Activity of Phthalates and Their Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueping; Xu, Shisan; Tan, Tianfeng; Lee, Sin Ting; Cheng, Shuk Han; Lee, Fred Wang Fat; Xu, Steven Jing Liang; Ho, Kin Chung

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates, widely used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have become ubiquitous contaminants worldwide. This study evaluated the acute toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and their mixtures. Using a 72 h zebrafish embryo toxicity test, the LC50 values of BBP, DBP and a mixture of the six phthalates were found to be 0.72, 0.63 and 0.50 ppm, respectively. The other four phthalates did not cause more than 50% exposed embryo mortality even at their highest soluble concentrations. The typical toxicity symptoms caused by phthalates were death, tail curvature, necrosis, cardio edema and no touch response. Using an estrogen-responsive ChgH-EGFP transgenic medaka (Oryzias melastigma) eleutheroembryos based 24 h test, BBP demonstrated estrogenic activity, DBP, DEHP, DINP and the mixture of the six phthalates exhibited enhanced-estrogenic activity and DIDP and DNOP showed no enhanced- or anti-estrogenic activity. These findings highlighted the developmental toxicity of BBP and DBP, and the estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of BBP, DBP, DEHP and DINP on intact organisms, indicating that the widespread use of these phthalates may cause potential health risks to human beings. PMID:24637910

  12. Self-immolative phthalate esters sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and light.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Kaitlyn M; Goswami, Pratik P; Syed, Aleem; Kolker, Patrick; Shannan, Brian; Smith, Emily A; Winter, Arthur H

    2014-12-01

    Self-immolative aryl phthalate esters were conjugated with cleavable masking groups sensitive to light and hydrogen peroxide. The phthalate linker releases the fluorescent dye 7-hydroxycoumarin upon exposure to light or H2O2, respectively, leading to an increase in fluorescence. The light-sensitive aryl phthalate ester is demonstrated as a pro-fluorophore in cultured S2 cells. PMID:25384091

  13. Classification of phthalates based on an in vitro neurosphere assay using rat mesencephalic neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ishido, Masami; Suzuki, Junko

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to environmental neurotoxic chemicals both in utero and during the early postnatal period can cause neurodevelopmental disorders. To evaluate the disruption of neurodevelopmental programming, we previously established an in vitro neurosphere assay system using rat mesencephalic neural stem cells that can be used to evaluate. Here, we extended the assay system to examine the neurodevelopmental toxicity of the endocrine disruptors butyl benzyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate, di-n-pentyl phthalate, and dihexyl phthalate at a range of concentrations (0-100 μM). All phthalates tested inhibited cell migration with a linear or non-linear range of concentrations when comparing migration distance to the logarithm of the phthalate concentrations. On the other hand, some, but not all, phthalates decreased the number of proliferating cells. Apoptotic cells were not observed upon phthalate exposure under any of the conditions tested, whereas the dopaminergic toxin rotenone induced significant apoptosis. Thus, we were able to classify phthalate toxicity based on cell migration and cell proliferation using the in vitro neurosphere assay. PMID:24418706

  14. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  15. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  16. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations

  17. [Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Lello, S

    2009-10-01

    Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

  18. Unentangled star-shape poly(ε-caprolactone)s as phthalate-free PVC plasticizers designed for non-toxicity and improved migration resistance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woohyuk; Chung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2014-07-23

    We develop a nontoxic unentangled star-shape poly(ε-caprolactone) (UESPCL) plasticizer with excellent migration resistance for the production of phthalate-free flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) by means of the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, initiated from the multifunctional core, combined with end-capping, and vacuum purification processes. UESPCL is a transparent liquid at room temperature and exhibits unentangled Newtonian behavior because of its extremely short branched segments. UESPCL is biologically safe without producing an acute toxicity response. Torque analysis measurements reveals that UESPCL offers a faster fusion rate and a higher miscibility with PVC compared to a typical plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum reveals that PVC and UESPCL are miscible with an average domain size of less than 8 nm. The flexibility and transparency of the PVC/UESPCL mixture, that is, phthalate-free flexible PVC, are comparable to the corresponding properties of the PVC/DEHP mixture, and the stretchability and fracture toughness of PVC/UESPCL are superior to the corresponding properties of the PVC/DEHP system. Most of all, PVC/UESPCL shows excellent migration resistance with a weight loss of less than 0.6% in a liquid phase, whereas DEHP migrated out of PVC/DEHP into a liquid phase with a weight loss of about 10%. PMID:24955769

  19. Screening of phthalate esters in 47 branded perfumes.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the use of phthalates in perfumes has gained attention because these chemicals are sometimes added intentionally as a solvent and a fixative. Five phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were measured in 47 branded perfumes using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed considerable amounts of phthalate in all 47 brands with detection frequencies > limit of quantitation in the following order: DEP (47/47) > DMP (47/47) > BBP (47/47) > DEHP (46/47) > DBP (23/45). Of the 47 brands, 68.1, 72.3, 85.1, 36.2, and 6.7 % had DEP, DMP, BBP, DEHP, and DBP levels, respectively, above their reported threshold limits. Of these phthalates, DEP was found to have the highest mean value (1621.625 ppm) and a maximum of 23,649.247 ppm. The use of DEP in the perfume industry is not restricted because it does not pose any known health risks for humans. DMP had the second highest level detected in the perfumes, with a mean value of 30.202 ppm and a maximum of 405.235 ppm. Although DMP may have some uses in cosmetics, it is not as commonly used as DEP, and again, there are no restrictions on its use. The levels of BBP were also high, with a mean value of 8.446 ppm and a maximum of 186.770 ppm. Although the EU banned the use of BBP in cosmetics, 27 of the tested perfumes had BBP levels above the threshold limit of 0.1 ppm. The mean value of DEHP found in this study was 5.962 ppm, and a maximum was 147.536 ppm. In spite of its prohibition by the EU, 7/28 perfumes manufactured in European countries had DEHP levels above the threshold limit of 1 ppm. The DBP levels were generally low, with a mean value of 0.0305 ppm and a maximum value of 0.594 ppm. The EU banned the use of DBP in cosmetics; however, we found three brands that were above the

  20. Hats Off to Thinking Caps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Lynne E.

    2005-01-01

    This document describes a third grade teachers' new twist to get her students' minds motivated for another school year. She purchased some "thinking caps." The purpose of the caps was to help students focus on various academic tasks. The children were thrilled to have a new tool to help them concentrate.

  1. Urinary Phthalates Are Associated with Higher Blood Pressure in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Spanier, Adam J.; Trachtman, Howard; Attina, Teresa M.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of urinary phthalate levels with blood pressure (BP) and serum triglyceride and lipoprotein levels in children. Study design We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample of US children aged 6–19 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003 and 2008. We quantified exposure to 3 families of phthalates—low molecular weight, high molecular weight and di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP)—based on molar concentration of urinary metabolites. We assessed descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate associations with BP and lipid levels. Results Controlling for an array of sociodemographic and behavioral factors, as well as diet and body mass index, levels of metabolites of DEHP, a phthalate commonly found in processed foods, were associated with higher age-, sex-, and height-standardized BP. For each log unit (roughly 3-fold) increase in DEHP metabolites, a 0.041 SD unit increase in systolic BP z-score was identified (P = .047). Metabolites of low molecular weight phthalates commonly found in cosmetics and personal care products were not associated with BP. Phthalate metabolites were not associated with triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein level, or prehypertension. Conclusions Dietary phthalate exposure is associated with higher systolic BP in children and adolescents. Further work is needed to confirm these associations, as well as to evaluate opportunities for intervention. PMID:23706605

  2. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Turki, Rola F; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Beg, Mohd A

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15-31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55-95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates. PMID:26963243

  3. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A.; Turki, Rola F.; Abuzenadah, Adel M.; Damanhouri, Ghazi A.; Beg, Mohd A.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15–31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55–95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates. PMID:26963243

  4. Improved method for rapid detection of phthalates in bottled water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Otero, Paz; Saha, Sushanta Kumar; Moane, Siobhan; Barron, John; Clancy, Gerard; Murray, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simple, rapid and precise quantification of phthalates in drinking water is presented. This method was validated for bis (2-n-butoxyethyl) phthalate (DBEP), bis (2-n-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and dinonyl phthalate (DINP). Linearity of 0.9984>r(2)>0.9975 in the range of 0.075-4.8μg/mL for the selected phthalates was obtained. Accuracy values were in the range of 93-114% and RSD% for the analysis of 1.2μg/mL of each phthalate was below 2.3% (n=9). This new method design has significantly improved the detection in terms of rapidity, specificity, repeatability and accuracy compared to available methods. The procedure has been applied to the analyses of three different brands of commercially available bottled mineral water and the corresponding plastic bottles. Phthalates were extracted with dichloromethane and re-constituted in cyclohexane prior to GC-MS analysis. When the validated GC-MS method was applied to the quantification of the selected phthalates in the samples, only DBP (up to 0.0675±0.0018μg/mL) and DEHP (up to 1.6848±0.1631μg/mL) were found. Furthermore, we provide specific data about the concentration of DBP and DEHP in bottled water attributable to migration of phthalates from respective plastic bottles. PMID:26134297

  5. Anionic surfactant micelle-mediated extraction coupled with dispersive magnetic microextraction for the determination of phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Tian, Hong; Chen, Ming-Fei; You, Jun-Chen; Du, Li-Ming; Fu, Yun-Long

    2014-08-01

    A novel and easy two-step microextraction technique combining anionic surfactant coacervation phase (CAP) extraction and dispersive microsolid-phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) was developed for the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection to determination of phthalate esters (PEs) in water samples. The method started with the phase separation of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (SDBSA) obtained by adding NaCl, whereas the target analytes were extracted in the CAP. The CAP was then retrieved using diatomaceous earth-supported magnetite nanoparticles. The effects of solution acidity, SDBSA, and electrolyte concentration, extraction time, magnetic material quantity, and elution solvent volume were discussed. Under optimal extraction conditions, the extraction recoveries ranged from 48.6 to 84.8%, and relative standard deviations ranged from 3.9 to 5.7% (n = 10). The detection limits ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 ng mL(-1) for the five PEs. The proposed method was used to determine the five PEs in the water samples and recoveries between 85.7 and 105.5%. PMID:25029225

  6. Rapid and sensitive analysis of phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, and endogenous steroid hormones in human urine by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction, dansylation, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, He-xing; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-05-01

    Steroid hormone levels in human urine are convenient and sensitive indicators for the impact of phthalates and/or bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on the human steroid hormone endocrine system. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for determination of 14 phthalate metabolites, BPA, and ten endogenous steroid hormones in urine was developed and validated on the basis of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The optimized mixed-mode solid phase-extraction separated the weakly acidic or neutral BPA and steroid hormones from acidic phthalate metabolites in urine: the former were determined in positive ion mode with a methanol/water mobile phase containing 10 mM ammonium formate; the latter were determined in negative ion mode with a acetonitrile/water mobile phase containing 0.1 % acetic acid, which significantly alleviated matrix effects for the analysis of BPA and steroid hormones. Dansylation of estrogens and BPA realized simultaneous and sensitive analysis of the endogenous steroid hormones and BPA in a single chromatographic run. The limits of detection were less than 0.84 ng/mL for phthalate metabolites and less than 0.22 ng/mL for endogenous steroid hormones and BPA. This proposed method had satisfactory precision and accuracy, and was successfully applied to the analyses of human urine samples. This method could be valuable when investigating the associations among endocrine-disrupting chemicals, endogenous steroid hormones, and relevant adverse outcomes in epidemiological studies. PMID:23430180

  7. Do diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) influence the metabolic syndrome parameters? Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Medic Stojanoska, Milica; Milankov, Andrijana; Vukovic, Bojan; Vukcevic, Dejan; Sudji, Jan; Bajkin, Ivana; Curic, Nikola; Icin, Tijana; Kovacev Zavisic, Branka; Milic, Natasa

    2015-08-01

    The study objective was to determine if the healthy participants were exposed to diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and if this exposure could be linked to the development of metabolic syndrome. The study included 103 healthy volunteers of similar age with normal BMI values, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. DEP and DEHP were measured in the morning urine samples to detect monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP). Two phthalate groups and a control group were formed. Both MEP group and control group had similar results. The correlations between MEP and the measured parameters were insignificant. The correlation between the MEHP group and the age was significantly negative, but between the MHEP group and the waist circumference the correlation was significantly positive. Lipids and lipoproteins were within the reference values and equal in both groups. The significant negative correlation was observed only between MEHP and HDL. Our population is exposed to DEP and DEHP. There was only a significant correlation between DEHP and the observed metabolic syndrome components. Its negative impact was higher as the participants were younger. PMID:26210228

  8. Teratogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, K; Nishimura, H

    1982-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were mixed with diet at graded levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2. 0.4 and 1.0 wt-% and given to pregnant ICR mice throughout gestation. Maternal weight gain was suppressed and fetal resorption increased at 0.2, 0.4 and 1.0% levels of DEHP and 1.0% level of DBP. All the implanted ova died early in rats fed 0.4 and 1.0% levels of DEHP. External malformations increased significantly by 0.2% DEHP, and 1.0% DBP showed borderline significance. The major malformations in treated groups were neural tube defects (exencephaly and myeloschisis), suggesting that the phthalic acid esters (PAEs) affect neural tube closure in developing embryos. Treatment with the compounds caused intrauterine growth retardation and delayed ossification with an apparently dose-related response pattern. These results indicate that a high dose of DEHP and DBP might be embryotoxic and teratogenic in mice. The maximum nonembryotoxic doses of PAEs in mice were more than 2000 times the estimated level of human intake through the food chain. Thus it is assumed that the current "normal" exposure level of PAEs dose not pose an imminent threat to human fetal development. PMID:7140698

  9. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of seven phthalates in total and migrated portions of paper cups.

    PubMed

    Park, Yu Na; Choi, Min Sun; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Gye, Myung Chan; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Phthalate acid esters are widely used as plasticizers to impart plastic flexibility in various industrial applications. In this study, the content of seven phthalates, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) were determined in paper cups using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the potential migration of these seven phthalates from paper cups into various food stimulants under different conditions was evaluated. The levels of DBP, DEHA, DEHP, and DNOP were in the ranges of 0.07-3.14, 0.16-42.69, 0.45-58.56, and 0.3-2.4 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, BBP, DINP, and DIDP were not detected in most of the tested samples. In the migration test, DEHA was released to 50 % ethanol and n-heptane in a time-dependent manner and the maximum migration levels were 65.62 ± 3.61 and 95.56 ± 19.76 μg/L, respectively. The release of other phthalates was very low or negligible. These results demonstrated that paper cups are not a significant source of phthalate exposure; however, DEHA could be released from paper cups into alcoholic beverages or oily liquid beverages in the human diet. PMID:27053047

  10. Novel Organization of the Genes for Phthalate Degradation from Burkholderia cepacia DBO1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung-Kuang; Zylstra, Gerben J.

    1998-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia DBO1 is able to utilize phthalate as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Two overlapping cosmid clones containing the genes for phthalate degradation were isolated from this strain. Subcloning and activity analysis localized the genes for phthalate degradation to two separate regions on the cosmid clones. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of these two regions showed that the genes for phthalate degradation are arranged in at least three transcriptional units. The gene for phthalate dioxygenase reductase (ophA1) is present by itself, while the genes for an inactive transporter (ophD) and 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate decarboxylase (ophC) are linked and the genes for phthalate dioxygenase oxygenase (ophA2) and cis-phthalate dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (ophB) are linked. ophA1 and ophDC are adjacent to each other but are transcribed in opposite directions, while ophA2B is located 4 kb away. The genes for the oxygenase and reductase components of phthalate dioxygenase are located approximately 7 kb away from each other. The gene for the putative phthalate permease contains a frameshift mutation in contrast to genes for other permeases. Strains deleted for ophD are able to transport phthalate into the cell at rates equivalent to that of the wild-type organism, showing that this gene is not required for growth on phthalate. PMID:9851995

  11. Dermal toxicity elicited by phthalates: evaluation of skin absorption, immunohistology, and functional proteomics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Yi-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-03-01

    The toxicity of phthalates is an important concern in the fields of environmental health and toxicology. Dermal exposure via skin care products, soil, and dust is a main route for phthalate delivery. We had explored the effect of topically-applied phthalates on skin absorption and toxicity. Immunohistology, functional proteomics, and Western blotting were employed as methodologies for validating phthalate toxicity. Among 5 phthalates tested, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) showed the highest skin reservoir. Only diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) could penetrate across skin. Strat-M(®) membrane could be used as permeation barrier for predicting phthalate penetration through skin. The accumulation of DEHP in hair follicles was ∼15nmol/cm(2), which was significantly greater than DBP and DEP. DBP induced apoptosis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via caspase-3 activation. This result was confirmed by downregulation of 14-3-3 and immunohistology of TUNEL. On the other hand, the HSP60 overexpression and immunostaining of COX-2 suggested inflammatory response induced by DEP and DEHP. The proteomic profiling verified the role of calcium homeostasis on skin inflammation. Some proteins investigated in this study can be sensitive biomarkers for dermal toxicity of phthalates. These included HSPs, 14-3-3, and cytokeratin. This work provided novel platforms for examining phthalate toxicity on skin. PMID:24384410

  12. Phthalate exposure through food and consumers' risk perception of chemicals in food.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Wormuth, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    Phthalates have been detected in various types of retail foods. Consumers' exposure to phthalates is common. Consumers are concerned about chemicals in food. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between consumers' exposure to phthalates through food, consumers' interest in a natural and healthy diet, risk perception of food chemicals, and consumers' diet patterns. We collected data through a mail survey in the adult Swiss-German population (N = 1,200). We modeled exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) based on a food frequency questionnaire and phthalate concentrations reported from food surveys. Using rating scales, we assessed risk perceptions of chemicals in food and interest in a natural and healthy diet. Higher risk perceptions and higher natural and healthy diet interest were associated with higher daily doses of DEHP, BBP, and DEP. No health risk from phthalates in food was identified for the vast majority of the population. Four consumers' diet clusters were discerned, with differences in phthalate exposure, risk perceptions, and interest in a natural and healthy diet. This study shows that even those consumers who express strong interest in natural food and low acceptance of food chemicals, and who try to make respective food choices, are exposed to contaminants such as phthalates. PMID:19392672

  13. Refilin holds the cap.

    PubMed

    Gay, Olivia; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Baudier, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are a novel family of short-lived actin regulatory proteins that are expressed during changes in cellular phenotype such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The Refilins promote to the formation of actin- and myosin-rich perinuclear bundles that are characteristic of cellular phenotypic switches. In epithelial cells, RefilinB is up-regulated in response to TGF-β stimulation and function in organization of apical perinuclear actin fibers during early stage of the EMT process1. In fibroblasts, RefilinB stabilizes perinuclear parallel actin bundles which resemble actin cap 2. Refilins bind and modulate the function of Filamin A (FLNA). Upon binding to Refilins, FLNA is capable of assembling actin filaments into parallel bundles, possibly by undergoing conformational changes at the C-terminal. Perinuclear actin structures determine nuclear shape, cell morphology, cell adhesion and possibly cell proliferation and gene regulation. Identifying the role of Refilins in organizing perinuclear actin networks provides additional insight in the process of intracellular mechanotransduction that regulate changes in cellular phenotype such as those observed during EMT. PMID:22446558

  14. Prenatal Phenol and Phthalate Exposures and Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Mary S.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J.; Zhu, Chenbo; Wetmur, James; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many phthalates and phenols are hormonally active and are suspected to alter the course of development. Objective We investigated prenatal exposures to phthalate and phenol metabolites and their associations with body size measures of the infants at birth. Methods We measured 5 phenol and 10 phthalate urinary metabolites in a multiethnic cohort of 404 women in New York City during their third trimester of pregnancy and recorded size of infants at birth. Results Median urinary concentrations were > 10 μg/L for 2 of 5 phenols and 6 of 10 phthalate monoester metabolites. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight phthalate monoesters (low-MWP) were approximately 5-fold greater than those of high-molecular-weight metabolites. Low-MWP metabolites had a positive association with gestational age [0.97 day gestational age per ln-biomarker; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07–1.9 days, multivariate adjusted] and with head circumference. Higher prenatal exposures to 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) predicted lower birth weight in boys (−210 g average birth weight difference between the third tertile and first tertile of 2,5-DCP; 95% CI, 71–348 g). Higher maternal benzophenone-3 (BP3) concentrations were associated with a similar decrease in birth weight among girls but with greater birth weight in boys. Conclusions We observed a range of phthalate and phenol exposures during pregnancy in our population, but few were associated with birth size. The association of 2,5-DCP and BP3 with reduced or increased birth weight could be important in very early or small-size births. In addition, positive associations of urinary metabolites with some outcomes may be attributable partly to unresolved confounding with maternal anthropometric factors. PMID:18709157

  15. Mechanisms of phthalate ester toxicity in the female reproductive system.

    PubMed Central

    Lovekamp-Swan, Tara; Davis, Barbara J

    2003-01-01

    Phthalates are high-production-volume synthetic chemicals with ubiquitous human exposures because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that women have a unique exposure profile to phthalates, which raises concern about the potential health hazards posed by such exposures. Research in our laboratory examines how phthalates interact with the female reproductive system in animal models to provide insights into the potential health effects of these chemicals in women. Here we review our work and the work of others studying these mechanisms and propose a model for the ovarian action of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). In vivo, DEHP (2 g/kg) causes decreased serum estradiol levels, prolonged estrous cycles, and no ovulations in adult, cycling rats. In vitro, monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP; the active metabolite of DEHP) decreases granulosa cell aromatase RNA message and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. MEHP is unique among the phthalates in its suppression of aromatase and in its ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). We hypothesize that MEHP activates the PPARs to suppress aromatase in the granulosa cell. MEHP-, PPAR alpha-, and PPAR gamma-specific ligands all similarly decreased estradiol production and RNA message levels of aromatase in vitro. Our model shows that MEHP acts on the granulosa cell by decreasing cAMP stimulated by follicle stimulating hormone and by activating the PPARs, which leads to decreased aromatase transcription. Thus, the environmental contaminant DEHP, through its metabolite MEHP, acts through a receptor-mediated signaling pathway to suppress estradiol production in the ovary, leading to anovulation. PMID:12573895

  16. Prenatal exposure to phthalates and neuropsychological development during childhood.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Valvi, Damaskini; Forns, Joan; Casas, Maribel; Martínez, David; Júlvez, Jordi; Monfort, Núria; Ventura, Rosa; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-08-01

    There is inconsistent evidence regarding the effects of prenatal phthalate exposure on children's neuropsychological development. We evaluate the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and the cognitive, psychomotor and behavioral development of 367 children at repeated ages in a prospective birth cohort study. We measured phthalate metabolites (sum of four DEHP metabolites - Σ4DEHP, MBzP, MEP, MiBP and MnBP) in urine samples collected during the 1st and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy in women participating in the INMA-Sabadell birth cohort study. We assessed cognitive and psychomotor development of their children at 1 and 4 years, and social competence, ADHD symptoms and other behavioral problems at 4 and 7 years. No associations were observed between prenatal phthalate exposure and cognitive and psychomotor scores at the age of 1 year and at the age of 4 years, except for an association between MBzP and lower psychomotor scores (β=-1.49 [95% confidence interval (CI)=-2.78, -0.21]). Σ4DEHP concentrations were associated with increased social competence scores at 4 years and with reduced ADHD symptoms at age 4 and 7 years. Increasing MEP concentrations were associated with a reduced risk of inattention symptoms at 4 years. No associations were observed for MBzP, MiBP or MnBP in relation to behavioral problems. This study, with multiple phthalate exposure measurements and measures of neuropsychological domains at different ages, suggest that prenatal phthalate exposure does not adversely affect children's cognitive, psychomotor or behavioral development. PMID:26095249

  17. Observing phthalate leaching from plasticized polymer films at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Chen, Zhan

    2014-05-01

    Phthalates, the most widely used plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), have been extensively studied. In this paper, a highly sensitive, easy, and effective method was developed to examine short-term phthalate leaching from PVC/phthalate films at the molecular level using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG). Combining SFG and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface and bulk molecular structures of PVC/phthalate films were also comprehensively evaluated during the phthalate leaching process under various environments. The leaching processes of two phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), from the PVC/phthalate films with various weight ratios were studied. Oxygen plasma was applied to treat the PVC/phthalate film surfaces to verify its efficacy on preventing/reducing phthalate leaching from PVC. Our results show that DBP is more stable than DEP in PVC/phthalate films. Even so, DBP molecules were still found to very slowly leach to the environment from PVC at 30 °C, at a rate much slower than DEP. Also, the bulk DBP content substantially influences the DBP leaching. Higher DBP bulk concentration yields less stable DBP molecules in the PVC matrix, allowing molecules to leach from the polymer film more easily. Additionally, DBP leaching is very sensitive to temperature changes; higher temperature can strongly enhance the leaching process. For most cases, the oxygen plasma treatment can effectively prevent phthalate leaching from PVC films (e.g., for samples with low bulk concentrations of DBP-5 and 30 wt %). It is also capable of reducing phthalate leaching from high DBP bulk concentration PVC samples (e.g., 70 wt % DBP in PVC/DBP mixture). This research develops a highly sensitive method to detect chemicals at the molecular level as well as provides surface and bulk molecular structural changes. The method developed here is general and can be applied to detect small amounts of chemical

  18. Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Milk, Urine, Saliva, and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Silva, Manori J.; Mendola, Pauline; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment, but concentrations in multiple media from breast-feeding U.S. women have not been evaluated. Objectives The objective of this study was to accurately measure and compare the concentrations of oxidative monoester phthalate metabolites in milk and surrogate fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) of 33 lactating North Carolina women. Methods We analyzed serum, saliva, urine, and milk for the oxidative phthalate metabolites mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. Because only urine lacks esterases, we analyzed it for the hydrolytic phthalate monoesters. Results We detected phthalate metabolites in few milk (< 10%) and saliva samples. MECPP was detected in > 80% of serum samples, but other metabolites were less common (3–22%). Seven of the 10 urinary metabolites were detectable in ≥ 85% of samples. Monoethyl phthalate had the highest mean concentration in urine. Metabolite concentrations differed by body fluid (urine > serum > milk and saliva). Questionnaire data suggest that frequent nail polish use, immunoglobulin A, and fasting serum glucose and triglyceride levels were increased among women with higher concentrations of urinary and/or serum phthalate metabolites; motor vehicle age was inversely correlated with certain urinary phthalate concentrations. Conclusions Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites are most frequently detected in urine of lactating women and are less often detected in serum, milk, or saliva. Urinary phthalate concentrations reflect maternal exposure and do not represent the concentrations of oxidative metabolites in other body fluids, especially milk. PMID:19165392

  19. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  20. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate and bisphenol A through infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Latini, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Maria Antonietta; Dipaola, Lucia; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Francesco, Fabio Di; Cobellis, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous contaminants identified as endocrine disruptors. Phthalates are worldwide used as plasticizers, in particular to improve the mechanical properties of polymers such as polyvinyl chloride. Because they are not chemically bound to the polymer, they tend to leach out with time and use. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the two most common phthalates. BPA is an estrogenic compound used to manufacture polycarbonate containers for food and drink, including baby bottles. It can migrate from container into foods, especially at elevated temperatures. Diet is a predominant source of exposure for phthalates and BPA, especially for infants. The aim of this study was to test the presence of DEHP, DnBP, and BPA in infant formulas. DEHP, DnBP, and BPA concentrations were measured in 22 liquid and 28 powder milks by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, respectively. DEHP concentrations in our samples were between 0.005 and 5.088 μg/g (median 0.906 μg/g), DnBP concentrations were between 0.008 and 1.297 μg/g (median 0.053 μg/g), and BPA concentrations were between 0.003 and 0.375 μg/g (median 0.015 μg/g). Concentrations of the investigated contaminants in liquid and powder milks were not significantly different, even though samples were packed in different types of containers. These data point out potential hazards for infants fed with baby formulas. Contamination seems more related to the production of formulas than to a release from containers. PMID:25730646

  1. Genetics Home Reference: cap myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Groote C, de Jonghe P, Marttila M, Laing NG, Pelin K, Wallgren-Pettersson C. Cap disease caused ... E, Wallefeld W, Memo M, Donner K, Laing NG, Marston S, Grönholm M, Wallgren-Pettersson C. Abnormal actin ...

  2. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  3. Researchers dodge UK migration cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2011-03-01

    Research scientists are among those to be prioritized under the UK government's new immigration rules that will impose an annual cap on the number of work visas issued to those from outside the European Union (EU).

  4. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  5. Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S; Faseela, P; Josh, M K Sarath; Balachandran, S; Devi, R Sudha; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-04-01

    This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes. PMID:22903609

  6. A mixture of five phthalate esters inhibits fetal testicular testosterone production in a cummulative manner consistent with their predicted reproductive toxicity in the Sprague Dawley rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are plasticizers to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. Exposure to certain phthalates during sexual differentiation causes reproductive tract malformations in male rats. In the fetal rat, exposure to the phthalates benzylbutyl (BBP), di(n)butyl (DBP), and...

  7. Increased levels of phthalates in very low birth weight infants with septicemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Strømmen, Kenneth; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Blakstad, Elin Wahl; Moltu, Sissel Jennifer; Veierød, Marit Bragelien; Almaas, Astrid Nylander; Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Thomsen, Cathrine; Nakstad, Britt; Brække, Kristin; Rønnestad, Arild Erlend; Drevon, Christian André; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-01-01

    Very low birth weight infants (VLBW; birth weight<1500g) are exposed to potentially harmful phthalates from medical devices during their hospital stay. We measured urinary phthalate concentrations among hospitalized VLBW infants participating in a nutritional study. Possible associations between different phthalates and birth weight (BW), septicemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were evaluated. Forty-six VLBW infants were enrolled in this randomized controlled nutritional study. The intervention group (n=24) received increased quantities of energy, protein, fat, essential fatty acids and vitamin A, as compared to the control group (n=22). The concentrations of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites were measured, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, at 3 time points during the first 5weeks of life. During this study, the levels of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites decreased, whereas an increasing trend was seen regarding metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP). Significantly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were seen in infants with lower BW and those diagnosed with late onset septicemia or BPD. A significant positive correlation between the duration of respiratory support and DEHP metabolites was observed (p≤0.01) at 2.9weeks of age. Birth weight was negatively associated with urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. Infants with lower BW and those diagnosed with septicemia or BPD experienced prolonged exposure from medical equipment containing phthalates, with subsequent higher levels of phthalate metabolites detected. Clinical Trial Registration no.: NCT01103219. PMID:26922148

  8. Northern Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 13 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on November 26, 2002 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80, Longitude 43.2 East (316.8 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for

  9. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  10. Emission characteristics of carboxylates in PM2.5 from incense burning with the effect of light on acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Su-Ching; Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak

    2016-08-01

    Incense burning produces potentially harmful particulate matter. In this study we investigated the emissions of PM2.5 and gaseous acetic acid from four brands of traditional incense; Liao and Shang Lao Shan (SLS), sold in Taiwan, and Thai Yellow (Thai Y) and Thai Black (Thai B), sold in Thailand. Additionally, photochemical reactions of PM2.5 carboxylates emitted from incense burning were studied via a simulated light experiment. The average PM2.5 mass emission factor of each incense type was inversely correlated with the ash production of that incense. The Thailand incense carboxylate emissions were markedly higher than the Taiwan incense. Acetate accounted for 87.46% of total carboxylate emissions, with acetate emitted from the Thailand incense 1.26 times higher than from the Taiwan incense. Phthalate was detected in the PM2.5, indicating the presence of plasticizer. Concentrations of PM2.5 acetate, formate, pyruvate, glutarate, succinate, fumarate and tartarate were reduced in simulated light (51.5%-97.1% of those under dark), indicating that these seven types of carboxylate are easily photodegradable. In contrast, malonate, maleate, oxalate and phthalate concentrations in light were 1.17-1.84 times higher than in darkness, indicating photochemical reactions contribute to the formation of these species. The formation of the low-molecular weight dicarboxylates oxalate and malonate was most noticeable. Acetic acid, highly irritating to the respiratory system and skin, was present at high levels for all four incense types, as shown by the gaseous acetic acid/PM2.5 acetate ratios of 1.03-3.61. Burning incense indoors can generate high concentrations of PM2.5 acetate that increases the risks of respiratory and contact irritation, particularly when burning the Thailand incense. Moreover, burning incense in poorly ventilated, dimly lit indoor areas (e.g., temples and homes) can markedly increase the risk of irritation because the gaseous acetic acid is not degraded as

  11. Prenatal exposures to phthalates among women in New York City and Krakow, Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Jennifer J; Perera, Frederica P; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Camann, David E; Barr, Dana; Jacek, Ryszard; Whyatt, Robin M

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence has shown that certain phthalates can disrupt endocrine function and induce reproductive and developmental toxicity. However, few data are available on the extent of human exposure to phthalates during pregnancy. As part of the research being conducted by the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health, we have measured levels of phthalates in 48-hr personal air samples collected from parallel cohorts of pregnant women in New York, New York, (n = 30) and in Krakow, Poland (n = 30). Spot urine samples were collected during the same 48-hr period from the New York women (n = 25). The following four phthalates or their metabolites were measured in both personal air and urine: diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP). All were present in 100% of the air and urine samples. Ranges in personal air samples were as follows: DEP (0.26-7.12 microg/m3), DBP (0.11-14.76 microg/m3), DEHP (0.05-1.08 microg/m3), and BBzP (0.00-0.63 microg/m3). The mean personal air concentrations of DBP, di-isobutyl phthalate, and DEHP are higher in Krakow, whereas the mean personal air concentration of DEP is higher in New York. Statistically significant correlations between personal air and urinary levels were found for DEP and monoethyl phthalate (r = 0.42, p < 0.05), DBP and monobutyl phthalate (r = 0.58, p < 0.01), and BBzP and monobenzyl phthalate (r = 0.65, p < 0.01). These results demonstrate considerable phthalate exposures during pregnancy among women in these two cohorts and indicate that inhalation is an important route of exposure. PMID:14594621

  12. Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment (NAS Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment has become a dominant public policy tool for making choices, based on limited resources, to protect public health and the environment. phthalates_cover.jpg" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="left" border="1" alt="Cover ...

  13. Phthalate esters reduce predation efficiency of dragonfly larvae, Odonata; Aeshna

    SciTech Connect

    Woin, P.; Larsson, P.

    1987-02-01

    Sublethal exposure to persistent organic chemicals cause effects different than levels resulting in acute toxicity. These effects may result in altered behavior, which may reduce the fitness of the organism. Behavior changes are difficult to study in vertebrates and in highly specialized invertebrates because of large natural variation in behavioral patterns. The behavior of insects, however, is strongly governed by genetic constraints (instincts). Phthalate esters are one of the most produced chemical groups in the world and are used mainly as plasticizers. Of the phthalates DEHP (di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) seems to exhibit properties typical of organic micropollutants. The compound reduces reproduction in Daphnia magna and bioaccumulation occurs in invertebrates. Since phthalate esters are lipophilic they tend to become attached to particles in the aquatic environments and consequently are found in high levels in the sediment of the lakes and rivers. Benthic organisms are, therefore, more exposed to this substance than those living in the water column. An aquatic laboratory system was constructed to study the behavior (predation efficiency) of dragonfly larvae (Aeshna) exposed to sediment-bound DEHP. Dragonfly larvae were chosen since the predation behavior of these animals is easily studied.

  14. Preconcentration procedures for phthalate esters combined with chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xueju; Hao, Yi; Jia, Qiong

    2013-08-01

    Phthalate esters are endocrine disrupters or mutagens. They are widely used as plasticizers and can be usually found in environmental samples, such as food, soil and polluted air. However, it is difficult to directly determine phthalate esters owing to their relatively low concentration and complex matrices. Therefore, preconcentration and separation have become increasingly important. In recent years, many preconcentration methods have been successfully developed and widely used, such as liquid-liquid extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and solid-phase extraction. These preconcentration methods for phthalate esters can be applied to various real samples, water, soil, air, food and cosmetics. The aim of this paper is to review recent literature studies (primarily from the last five years) about preconcentration techniques for phthalate esters coupled with chromatographic analysis. The following text describes several preconcentration approaches, including liquid-liquid extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, cloud point extraction, solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction. Their advantages and disadvantages are also summarized. PMID:23696389

  15. Bisphenol A and Phthalates and Endometriosis, The ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Peterson, C. Matthew; Chen, Zhen; Croughan, Mary; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Stanford, Joseph; Varner, Michael W.; Kennedy, Anne; Giudice, Linda; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Sun, Liping; Wang, Lei; Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between bisphenol A and 14 phthalate metabolites and endometriosis. Design Matched cohort design. Setting 14 clinical centers in Salt Lake City, Utah or San Francisco, California, 2007–2009. Patients The operative cohort comprised 495 women undergoing laparoscopy/laparotomy, while the population cohort comprised 131 women matched on age and residence. Interventions None Main Outcome Measure(s) Surgically visualized or pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosed endometriosis in the two cohorts, respectively. Results Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index and creatinine. In the population cohort, six phthalate metabolites (mBP, mCMHP, mECPP, mEHP, mEHHP, and mEOHP) were significantly associated with approximately a twofold increase in the odds of an endometriosis diagnosis. Two phthalates were associated with endometriosis in the operative cohort when restricting to visualized and histologic endometriosis (mOP; OR=1.38; 95% CI 1.10, 1.72), or when restricting comparison women to those with a postoperative diagnosis of a normal pelvis (mEHP; OR=1.35; 95% CI 1.03, 1.78). Conclusions Select phthalates were associated with higher odds of an endometriosis diagnosis for women with MRI diagnosed endometriosis. The lack of consistency of findings across cohorts underscores the impact of methodology on findings. PMID:23579005

  16. Phthalates in indoor dust and their association with building characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Lundgren, Björn; Weschler, Charles J; Sigsgaard, Torben; Hagerhed-Engman, Linda; Sundell, Jan

    2005-10-01

    In a recent study of 198 Swedish children with persistent allergic symptoms and 202 controls without such symptoms, we reported associations between the symptoms and the concentrations of n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in dust taken from the childrens' bedrooms. In the present study we examined associations between the concentrations of different phthalate esters in the dust from these bedrooms and various characteristics of the home. The study focused on BBzP and DEHP because these were the phthalates associated with health complaints. Associations have been examined using parametric and nonparametric tests as well as multiple logistic regression. For both BBzP and DEHP, we found associations between their dust concentrations and the amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used as flooring and wall material in the home. Furthermore, high concentrations of BBzP (above median) were associated with self-reported water leakage in the home, and high concentrations of DEHP were associated with buildings constructed before 1960. Other associations, as well as absence of associations, are reported. Both BBzP and DEHP were found in buildings with neither PVC flooring nor wall covering, consistent with the numerous additional plasticized materials that are anticipated to be present in a typical home. The building characteristics examined in this study cannot serve as complete proxies for these quite varied sources. However, the associations reported here can help identify homes where phthalate concentrations are likely to be elevated and can aid in developing mitigation strategies. PMID:16203254

  17. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Candace A.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Stoner, Julie; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carabin, Hélène; Cowan, Linda; Goodman, Jean R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n = 110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n = 72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression. Results Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3 μg/l, β = −18.3, 95% CI: −35.4, −1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3 μg/l, β = −17.3, 95% CI: −34.1, −0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates. Conclusion Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25726127

  18. Phthalate Exposure and Reproductive Hormone Concentrations in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Butts, Samantha; Wang, Christina; Swan, Shanna Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background Some phthalate chemicals can affect hormone physiology in utero resulting in adverse reproductive health outcomes in animal models. It is unknown whether these exposures are related to circulating maternal hormone concentrations during pregnancy. Methods We used multivariate linear regression to estimate associations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and concurrent serum free and total testosterone and estradiol levels in 180 pregnant women within the Study for Future Families. We also examined associations between prenatal serum hormone concentrations and anogenital outcome in infants. All analyses were adjusted for appropriate confounding variables. Results Total testosterone, free testosterone, and estradiol concentrations ranged from 8 to 406 ng/dl, 0.03 to 1.2 ng/dl, and 529 to 40600 pg/ml, respectively. We observed an inverse association between log sum di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations and lower log total testosterone concentrations (−0.15, 95% CI −0.26, −0.04) and log free testosterone (−0.15, 95% CI −0.27, −0.03). This relationship persisted regardless of fetal sex. Similarly, we observed an inverse association between log mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) concentrations and log total and free testosterone concentrations in women carrying male fetuses. Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations were positively associated with log total and free testosterone concentrations in women carrying male fetuses (0.09, 95%CI 0.003, 0.17 and 0.10, 95% CI 0.01, 0.19 respectively). Prenatal hormone concentrations were not significantly associated with infant anogenital outcomes. Conclusions Our preliminary data suggest that DEHP metabolite, MBP, and MEP exposures during pregnancy are associated with prenatal sex steroid hormone concentrations, but sex steroid hormone concentrations were not associated with infant reproductive outcomes. PMID:24196015

  19. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  20. Emission of phthalates and phthalate alternatives from vinyl flooring and crib mattress covers: the influence of temperature.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yirui; Xu, Ying

    2014-12-16

    Emissions of phthalates and phthalate alternatives from vinyl flooring and crib mattress covers were measured in a specially designed chamber. The gas-phase concentrations versus time were measured at four different temperatures, that is, 25, 36, 45, and 55 °C. The key parameter that controls the emissions (y0, gas-phase concentration in equilibrium with the material phase) was determined, and the emissions were found to increase significantly with increasing temperature. Both the material-phase concentration (C0) and the chemical vapor pressure (Vp) were found to have great influence on the value of y0. The measured ratios of C0 to y0 were exponentially proportional to the reciprocal of temperature, in agreement with the van't Hoff equation. A emission model was validated at different temperatures, with excellent agreement between model calculations and chamber observations. In residential homes, an increase in the temperature from 25 to 35 °C can elevate the gas-phase concentration of phthalates by more than a factor of 10, but the total airborne concentration may not increase that much for less volatile compounds. In infant sleep microenvironments, an increase in the temperature of mattress can cause a significant increase in emission of phthalates from the mattress cover and make the concentration in the infant's breathing zone about four times higher than that in the bulk room air, resulting in potentially high exposure. PMID:25419579

  1. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Jangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Cho, Geumjoon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Suh, Eunsook; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Seunghyo; Eom, Soyong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-03-01

    Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37 μg/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 μg/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 μg/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 μg/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of

  2. Creation of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Polar cap patches, which are islands of enhanced plasma density drifting anti-sunward, are one of the outstanding phenomena in the polar cap F region ionosphere. In the last decade, data from all-sky airglow imagers have been extensively used for better understanding the propagation of patches in the central polar cap region. But still, it has been rather difficult to capture the birth of patches in their generation region near the dayside cusp, because, in most places, the dayside part of the polar cap ionosphere is sunlit even in winter. In Longyearbyen (78.1N, 15.5E), Norway, however, optical observations are possible near the dayside cusp region in a limited period around the winter solstice. This enables us to directly image how polar cap patches are born in the cusp. In this paper, we present a few intervals of daytime optical observations, during which polar cap patches were generated within the field-of-view of an all-sky imager in Longyearbyen. During all the intervals studied here, we identified several signatures of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAF) in the equatorward half of the field-of-view, which are known as ionospheric manifestations of dayside reconnection. Interestingly, patches were directly produced from such poleward moving auroral signatures and propagated poleward along the anti-sunward convection near the cusp. In the literature, Lorentzen et al. (2012) first reported such a direct production of patches from PMAFs. During the current observations, however, we succeeded in tracking the propagation of patches until they reached the poleward edge of the field-of-view of the imager. This confirms that the faint airglow structures produced from PMAFs were actually transported for a long distance towards the central polar cap area; thus, polar cap patches were produced. From this set of observations, we suggest that polar cap patches during moderately disturbed conditions (i.e, non-storm time conditions) can be directly produced by the

  3. Mathematical modeling of cold cap

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2012-10-13

    The ultimate goal of studies of cold cap behavior in glass melters is to increase the rate of glass processing in an energy-efficient manner. Regrettably, mathematical models, which are ideal tools for assessing the responses of melters to process parameters, have not paid adequate attention to the cold cap. In this study, we consider a cold cap resting on a pool of molten glass from which it receives a steady heat flux while temperature, velocity, and extent of conversion are functions of the position along the vertical coordinate. A one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model simulates this process by solving the differential equations for mass and energy balances with appropriate boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for material properties. The sensitivity analyses on the effects of incoming heat fluxes to the cold cap through its lower and upper boundaries show that the cold cap thickness increases as the heat flux from above increases, and decreases as the total heat flux increases. We also discuss the effects of foam, originating from batch reactions and from redox reactions in molten glass and argue that models must represent the foam layer to achieve a reliable prediction of the melting rate as a function of feed properties and melter conditions.

  4. South Polar Cap, Summer 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the south polar cap of Mars as it appeared to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on April 17, 2000. In winter and early spring, this entire scene would be covered by frost. In summer, the cap shrinks to its minimum size, as shown here. Even though it is summer, observations made by the Viking orbiters in the 1970s showed that the south polar cap remains cold enough that the polar frost (seen here as white) consists of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide freezes at temperatures around -125o C (-193o F). Mid-summer afternoon sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left from about 11.2o above the horizon. Soon the cap will experience sunsets; by June 2000, this pole will be in autumn, and the area covered by frost will begin to grow. Winter will return to the south polar region in December 2000. The polar cap from left to right is about 420 km (260 mi) across.

  5. Identification and quantification of 14 phthalates and 5 non-phthalate plasticizers in PVC medical devices by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Thomas, Sébastien; Bousquet, Claudine; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2014-02-15

    A GC/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 phthalates: 8 phthalates classified H360 (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP and DiBP), 3 phthalates proposed to be forbidden in medical devices (DnOP, DiNP and DiDP) and 3 other phthalates none regulated (DMP, DCHP and DEP) which may interfere with hormone function. In order to identify and quantify other plasticizers that are commonly used in PVC medical devices such as DEHP substitute, 5 non-phthalate plasticizers (ATBC, DEHA, DEHT, TOTM, and DINCH) were included in this study. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of plasticizers is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30m×0.25mm (i.d.)×0.25μm film thickness using a gradient temperature. Compounds quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements on standard solutions were determined using the ISO 12787 standard approach. Plasticizers are extracted from PVC medical devices using THF for dissolving the PVC part of the sample followed by precipitation of the PVC by addition of ethanol. The supernatant is injected into a GC/MS system after dilution in ethanol. Different validation elements, including extraction recoveries for all compounds or for DEHP a cross-validation of the extraction process using the European pharmacopoeia monograph 3.1.14 as reference method, are discussed. Results obtained on 61 medical devices in PVC and 12 raw materials used as plasticizers are given. PMID:24480330

  6. Genotoxicity of di-butyl-phthalate and di-iso-butyl-phthalate in human lymphocytes and mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Kleinsasser, N H; Wallner, B C; Kastenbauer, E R; Weissacher, H; Harréus, U A

    2001-01-01

    The genotoxicity of phthalates, widely used plasticizers, has been shown previously for di-butyl-phthalate (DBP) and di-iso-butyl-phthalate (DBP) in human mucosal cells of the upper aerodigestive tract in a previous study using the Comet assay. Furthermore, higher genotoxic sensitivities of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of either the larynx or the oropharynx compared to non-tumor patients were described. Other authors have demonstrated DNA damage by a different phthalate in human lymphocytes. It was the aim of the present study to determine whether there is a correlation between the genotoxic sensitivities to DBP and its isomer DiBP in either mucosal cells or lymphocytes. The single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was applied to detect DNA strand breaks in human epithelial cells of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=132 specimens). Human mucosa was harvested from the oropharynx in non-tumor patients and patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx. Laryngeal mucosa of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas was harvested as well. Peripheral lymphocytes (n=49 specimens) were separated from peripheral blood. Xenobiotics investigated were DBP, DiBP, and N'methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as positive control, respectively. For statistical analysis, the SPSS correlation analysis according to Pearson and the Wilcoxon test were performed. Genotoxicity was found for DBP and DiBP in epithelial cells and lymphocytes (P<0.001). MNNG caused severe DNA damage. In analyzing DBP and DiBP results, genotoxic impacts in mucosal cells showed an intermediate correlation (r=0.570). Correlation in lymphocytes was the same (r=0.570). Phthalates have been investigated as a potential health hazard for a variety of reasons, including possible xenoestrogenic impact, peroxisome proliferation, and membrane destabilization. The present investigation suggests a correlated DNA-damaging impact of DBP and DiBP in human mucosal cells and in

  7. Polar Cap Formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, C. B.; Shaya, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Since thermal migration is not an effective mechanism for water transport in the polar regions at the Galilean satellites, some other process must be responsible for the formation of Ganymede's polar caps. It is proposed that Ganymede's polar caps are the optical manifestation of a process that began with the distribution of an ice sheet over the surface of Ganymede. The combined processes of impact gardening and thermal migration led, in regions at latitudes less than 40 to 45 deg., to the burial of some fraction of this ice, the migration of some to the polar caps margins, and a depletion of free ice in the optical surface. At higher latitudes, no process was effective in removing ice from the optical surface, so the remanants of the sheet are visible today.

  8. Estimated Daily Phthalate Exposures in a Population of Mothers of Male Infants Exhibiting Reduced Anogenital Distance

    PubMed Central

    Marsee, Kevin; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2006-01-01

    Phthalate diesters have been shown to be developmental and reproductive toxicants in animal studies. A recent epidemiologic study showed certain phthalates to be significantly associated with reduced anogenital distance in human male infants, the first evidence of subtle developmental effects in human male infants exposed prenatally to phthalates. We used two previously published methods to estimate the daily phthalate exposures for the four phthalates whose urinary metabolites were statistically significantly associated with developmental effects in the 214 mother–infant pairs [di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP)] and for another important phthalate [di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)]. We estimated the median and 95th percentile of daily exposures to DBP to be 0.99 and 2.68 μg/kg/day, respectively; for DEP, 6.64 and 112.3 μg/kg/day; for BBzP, 0.50 and 2.47 μg/kg/day; and for DEHP, 1.32 and 9.32 μg/kg/day. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference doses for these chemicals are 100 (DBP), 800 (DEP), 200 (BBzP), and 20 (DEHP) μg/kg/day. The median and 95th percentile exposure estimates for the phthalates associated with reduced anogenital distance in the study population are substantially lower than current U.S. EPA reference doses for these chemicals and could be informative to any updates of the hazard assessments and risk assessments for these chemicals. PMID:16759976

  9. First trimester phthalate exposure and anogenital distance in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Swan, S.H.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Barrett, E.S.; Janssen, S.; Liu, F.; Nguyen, R.H.N.; Redmon, J.B.; Liu, Fan; Scher, Erica; Stasenko, Marina; Ayash, Erin; Schirmer, Melissa; Farrell, Jason; Thiet, Mari-Paule; Baskin, Laurence; Gray Chelsea Georgesen, Heather L.; Rody, Brooke J.; Terrell, Carrie A.; Kaur, Kapilmeet; Brantley, Erin; Fiore, Heather; Kochman, Lynda; Parlett, Lauren; Marino, Jessica; Hulbert, William; Mevorach, Robert; Pressman, Eva; Ivicek, Kristy; Salveson, Bobbie; Alcedo, Garry

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is first trimester phthalate exposure associated with anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure, in newborns? SUMMARY ANSWER Concentrations of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites in first trimester maternal urine samples are inversely associated with AGD in male, but not female, newborns. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY AGD is a sexually dimorphic measure reflecting prenatal androgen exposure. Prenatal phthalate exposure has been associated with shorter male AGD in multiple animal studies. Prior human studies, which have been limited by small sample size and imprecise timing of exposure and/or outcome, have reported conflicting results. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES) is a prospective cohort study of pregnant women recruited in prenatal clinics in San Francisco, CA, Minneapolis, MN, Rochester, NY and Seattle, WA in 2010–2012. Participants delivered 787 infants; 753 with complete data are included in this analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Any woman over 18 years old who was able to read and write English (or Spanish in CA), who was <13 weeks pregnant, whose pregnancy was not medically threatened and who planned to deliver in a study hospital was eligible to participate. Analyses include all infants whose mothers provided a first trimester urine sample and who were examined at or shortly after birth. Specific gravity (SpG) adjusted concentrations of phthalate metabolites in first trimester urine samples were examined in relation to genital measurements. In boys (N = 366), we obtained two measures of anogenital distance (AGD) (anoscrotal distance, or AGDAS and anopenile distance, AGDAP) as well as penile width (PW). In girls (N = 373), we measured anofourchette distance (AGDAF) and anoclitoral distance (AGDAC). We used multivariable regression models that adjusted for the infant's age at exam, gestational age, weight-for-length Z-score, time of day of urine

  10. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  11. The Enigmatic Martian Polar Caps

    SciTech Connect

    James, Philip

    2005-08-17

    The Martian polar caps have puzzled astronomers for over a century. Extensive study by many instruments on various spacecraft has resolved many questions but has at the same time created a new generation of puzzles. The polar caps are intimately coupled to the current Martian climate and volatile cycles. They also hold clues to climate variations on a variety of longer time scales. The results of recent missions will be reviewed, and the potential outlook for resolution of the outstanding questions will be examined.

  12. Polar cap formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaya, E. J.; Pilcher, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that Ganymede's polar caps are the remnants of a more extensive covering of water ice that formed during a period in which the satellite was geologically active. It is inferred that the initial thickness of this covering was a significant fraction of the gardening depth since the covering formed. This suggests an initial thickness of at least a few meters over heavily cratered regions such as the south polar grooved terrain. The absence of similar polar caps on Callisto apparently reflects the absence of comparable geologic activity in the history of this satellite.

  13. Phthalate metabolites in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Fourgous, C; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Amilhat, E; Faliex, E; Paris-Palacios, S; Teil, M J; Goutte, A

    2016-11-01

    The levels and fate of phthalate metabolites have been poorly evaluated in fish, despite their potential ecotoxicological impacts. The present study aims to characterize the levels of phthalate metabolites in muscle tissue of yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two coastal Mediterranean lagoons, during three sampling periods. Nine phthalate metabolites were detected in >70% of the samples. Slightly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were detected in March and June compared to October, suggesting possible seasonal variations in environmental release and/or phthalate metabolization process by eels. The large sample size (N=117) made it possible to explore correlations between phthalate metabolites' levels and individual parameters, such as body length, age, body condition and hepatic histo-pathologies. Body length and estimated age poorly correlated with phthalate metabolites, suggesting that eels did not accumulate phthalates during growth, contrary to persistent compounds. Eels presented different grades of hepatic fibrosis and lipidosis. A negative correlation was found between the severity of these pathologies in the liver and the sum of phthalate metabolites levels, supporting the hypothesis that eels with damaged liver are less able to metabolize xenobiotics. PMID:27412480

  14. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Selected Florida Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Brock, John W; Bell, Jane Margaret; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Phthalates have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in laboratory animals and are associated with altered development of the reproductive system in humans. Further, human have significant exposure to phthalates. However, little is known concerning the exposure of wildlife to phthalates. We report urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations from fifty juvenile alligators from three Florida lakes and a site in the Everglades. Urinary phthalate monoester concentrations varied widely among alligators from the different sites but also among alligators from the same site. Mono-2-ethylhexy phthalate and monobutyl phthalate were found in most samples of alligator urine with maximums of 35,700 ng/mL and 193 ng/mL, respectively. Monobenzyl phthalate was found in 5 alligators with a maximum of 66.7 ng/mL. Other monoesters were found in only one or two alligator urine samples. The wide variation within and among sites, in addition to the high levels of mEHP, mBP and mBzP, is consistent with exposure arising from the intermittent spraying of herbicide formulations to control invasive aquatic plants in Florida freshwater sites. Phthalate diesters are used as adjuvants in many of these formulations. PMID:26743198

  15. [Sorption of o-Phthalate onto Calcite in Open-System].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-xuan; Huang, Li-dong; Chen, Yan-fang; Miao, Ye; Liu, Da-gang; Xu, Zheng-wen

    2015-07-01

    The batch sorption methods were deployed to study the sorpti of p-phthalate on calcite in open-system. Results show that: (1) The o-phthalate sorption reached the equilibrium within 3 hours. Both pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order models described the kinetic characteristics well; (2) The o-phthalate sorption rate decreased with pH (7. 7-9.7). This phenomenon was due to the competition effect of HCO3- and CO(3)2-, and the electrostatic effect on the surface; (3) The o-phthalate sorption rate also decreased with the increase in ionic strength. This was due to the rise in concentration of HCO3- and CO(3)2- induced by salt effect; (4) Compared with m-phthalate and p-phthalate, o-phthalate sorption rate was much higher due to the proximity of its two carboxyl groups which easily formed a chelate ring of surface complex. By studying the factors that influence o-phthalate sorption onto calcite, the sorption mechanism can be well understood. This mechanism can be applied in the removal of o-phthalate from the environment. PMID:26489324

  16. Investigation of volatile organic compounds and phthalates present in the cabin air of used private cars.

    PubMed

    Geiss, Otmar; Tirendi, Salvatore; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2009-11-01

    The presence of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aromatic, aliphatic compounds and low molecular weight carbonyls, and a target set of phthalates were investigated in the interior of 23 used private cars during the summer and winter. VOC concentrations often exceeded levels typically found in residential indoor air, e.g. benzene concentrations reached values of up to 149.1 microg m(-3). Overall concentrations were 40% higher in summer, with temperatures inside the cars reaching up to 70 degrees C. The most frequently detected phthalates were di-n-butyl-phthalate and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in concentrations ranging from 196 to 3656 ng m(-3). PMID:19729200

  17. Effects of phthalate esters on plant seedlings and reversal by a soil microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, R.; Bering, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    Phthalate esters are degraded by a number of soil and aquatic bacteria, but degradation is slow and may not keep pace with the increase in environmental contamination. Very little has been reported concerning the effects of phthalate esters on green plants. Certain phthalate esters are known to be natural constituents of some plants, but in significantly lower concentration that which may be encountered due to contamination. The authors have examined the effects of four common phthalate esters-dimethylphthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethyl)hexylphthalate (DEHP)- added to the soil of developing spinach and pea seedlings. Two of the esters - DMP and DEP- caused significant inhibition of development.

  18. Phthalate Exposure and Allergy in the U.S. Population: Results from NHANES 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Renee; London, Stephanie J.; Bertelsen, Randi J.; Salo, Päivi M.; Sandler, Dale P.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental exposures to phthalates, particularly high-molecular-weight (HMW) phthalates, are suspected to contribute to allergy. Objective: We assessed whether phthalate metabolites are associated with allergic symptoms and sensitization in a large nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data on urinary phthalate metabolites and allergic symptoms (hay fever, rhinitis, allergy, wheeze, asthma) and sensitization from participants ≥ 6 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006. Allergen sensitization was defined as a positive response to at least one of 19 specific IgE antigens (≥ 0.35 kU/L). Odds ratios (ORs) per one log10 unit change in phthalate concentration were estimated using logistic regression adjusting for age, race, body mass index, gender, creatinine, and cotinine. Separate analyses were conducted for children (6–17 years of age) and adults. Results: The HMW phthalate metabolite monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) was the only metabolite positively associated with current allergic symptoms in adults (wheeze, asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis). Mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate and the sum of diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (both representing HMW phthalate exposures) were positively associated with allergic sensitization in adults. Conversely, in children, HMW phthalate metabolites were inversely associated with asthma and hay fever. Of the low-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites, monoethyl phthalate was inversely associated with allergic sensitization in adults (OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.90). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample, HMW phthalate metabolites, particularly MBzP, were positively associated with allergic symptoms and sensitization in adults, but there was no strong evidence for associations between phthalates and allergy in children 6–17 years of age. Citation: Hoppin JA, Jaramillo R, London SJ, Bertelsen RJ, Salo PM

  19. Estimated daily intake and cumulative risk assessment of phthalate diesters in a Belgian general population.

    PubMed

    Dewalque, Lucas; Charlier, Corinne; Pirard, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    The daily intakes (DI) were estimated in a Belgian general population for 5 phthalates, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), based on the urinary measurements of their corresponding metabolites. DI values ranged between phthalates considered individually, 6.2% of the adults and 25% of the children showed an excessive hazard index (HI) which took into account the cumulative risk of adverse anti-androgenic effects. These results are of concern since these HI were based on only 3 phthalates (DEHP, DiBP and DnBP), and showed a median of 0.55 and 0.29 for children and adults respectively. The comparison with previously determined dietary intakes demonstrated that for DEHP, food intake was nearly the only route of exposure while other pathways occurred mainly for the other studied phthalates. PMID:24968065

  20. Effects of phthalates on the human corneal endothelial cell line B4G12.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Tanja; Cao, Yi; Kjærgaard, Søren K; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates are industrial chemicals used in many cosmetics. We evaluated an in vitro model for eye irritancy testing using the human corneal endothelial cell line B4G12. Cell proliferation and toxicity were assessed after exposing to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP). Gene expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated after exposure to DBP. Decreased cell proliferation was observed for the phthalates DBP, BBP, and DEHP, and cell toxicity was observed for DBP and BBP. Upon DBP exposure at nontoxic concentrations, a significant increased gene expression and cytokine cell secretion were observed for interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-8, and also an increased IL-6 secretion was observed. In conclusion, the human corneal endothelial cell line B4G12 may be a potential model for inflammatory eye irritancy testing of phthalates. PMID:22723514

  1. Human biomonitoring of phthalate exposure in Austrian children and adults and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Uhl, Maria; Weiss, Stefan; Koch, Holger M; Scharf, Sigrid; König, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Phthalates are a class of chemicals widely used as plasticisers in a multitude of common consumer products. Through contact with such products, people are regularly exposed to phthalates, which are suspected to contribute to adverse health effects, particularly in the reproductive system. In the present study, 14 urinary phthalate metabolites of 10 parent phthalates were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS among the Austrian population aged 6-15 and 18-81 years in order to assess phthalate exposure. In the total study population, ranges of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were n.d.-2,105 μg/l (median 25 μg/l) for monoethyl phthalate (MEP), n.d.-88 μg/l (10 μg/l) for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), n.d.-248 μg/l (28 μg/l) for mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), n.d.-57 μg/l (1.8 μg/l) for mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), n.d.-20 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), n.d.-80 μg/l (2.6 μg/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), n.d.-57 μg/l (1.9 μg/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), n.d.-219 μg/l (11 μg/l) for mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), n.d.-188 μg/l (1.6 μg/l) for 3-carboxy-mono-proply phthalate (3 cx-MPP), n.d.-5.5 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), n.d.-4.5 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-n-pentyl phthalate (MnPeP), n.d.-3.4 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), n.d.-13 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), and n.d.-1.1 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-isodecyl phthalate (MiDP). Generally, children exhibited higher levels of exposure to the majority of investigated phthalates, except to MEP, which was found in higher concentrations in adults and senior citizens at a maximum concentration of 2,105 μg/l. Individual daily intakes were estimated based on urinary creatinine and urinary volume excretion and were then compared to acceptable exposure levels, leading to the identification of exceedances of mainly the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDI), especially among

  2. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect

    Arulmozhi, K. T.; Mythili, N.

    2013-12-15

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  3. CAP Self-Inventory Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet of Self-Inventory Cards is one of the 14 components of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program (see note), a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

  4. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  5. Occurrence of phthalate diesters (phthalates), p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and their derivatives in indoor dust from Vietnam: Implications for exposure.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tri Manh; Minh, Tu Binh; Kumosani, Taha A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate diesters (phthalates), esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are used in personal care products, food packages, household products, or pharmaceuticals. These compounds possess endocrine-disrupting potentials and have been reported to occur in the environment. Nevertheless, no previous studies have reported the occurrence of these compounds in indoor dust from Vietnam. In this study, nine phthalates, six parabens, and four BADGEs were determined in indoor dust samples collected from Hanoi, Hatinh, Hungyen, and Thaibinh, in Vietnam. Total concentrations of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust ranged from 3440 to 106,000 ng/g (median: 22,600 ng/g), 40-840 ng/g (median: 123 ng/g), and 23 to 1750 ng/g (median: 184 ng/g), respectively. Based on the measured median concentration of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust, we estimated human exposure doses to these compounds through indoor dust ingestion for various age groups. The exposure doses to phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs decreased with age and ranged from 19.4 to 90.4 ng/kg-bw/d, 0.113-0.528 ng/kg-bw/d, and 0.158-0.736 ng/kg-bw/d, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust from Vietnam. PMID:26498104

  6. [Phthalate exposure in the neonatal intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Fischer Fumeaux, C J; Stadelmann Diaw, C; Palmero, D; M'Madi, F; Tolsa, J-F

    2015-02-01

    There are growing concerns on long-term health consequences, notably on fertility rates, of plasticizers such as phthalates. While di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is currently used in several medical devices, newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit are both more exposed and more vulnerable to DEHP. The objectives of this study were to identify, count, and describe possible sources of DEHP in a neonatal care unit. Our method consisted in the listing and the inspection of the information on packaging, complemented by contact with manufacturers when necessary. According to the results, 6% of all products and 10% of plastic products contained some DEHP; 71% of these involved respiratory support devices. A vast majority of the items showed no information on the content of DEHP. Further research is needed, particularly to determine the effects of such an early exposure and to study and develop safer alternatives. PMID:25554670

  7. Effects of prolonged administration of phthalate ester on the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ganning, A.E.; Brunk, U.; Edlund, C.; Elhammer, A.; Dallner, G.

    1987-08-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was administered to male rats in the diet at concentrations of 2.0, 0.2, and 0.02% for up to 102 weeks. Low doses resulted in moderate increases in certain hepatic enzymes during the initial phase of exposure and in a continuous increase in the activities of these same enzymes throughout the treatment period. An increased level of dolichol and decreased concentration of dolichyl-P were observed. Furthermore, the rate of protein glycosylation diminished. Liver biopsies from patients subjected to hemodialysis demonstrated an increased number of peroxisomes. Phthalate ester seems to interfere with protein turnover, so that the half-life of total mitochondrial and microsomal protein is considerably increased.

  8. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kapapa, Thomas; Röhrer, Stefan; Struve, Sabine; Petscher, Matthias; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N = 4) or multiple (N = 6) doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P ≤ 0.05. Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. PMID:25610644

  9. Bioreduction of U(VI)-Phthalate to a Polymeric U(IV)-Phthalate Colloid

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, G.; Dodge, C; Francis, A

    2009-01-01

    Phthalic acid, a ubiquitous organic ligand, formed soluble mono- and biligand complexes with a uranyl ion that was then reduced to a U(IV)-phthalate by a Clostridium species under anaerobic conditions. We confirmed the reduction of the hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent oxidation state by UV-vis absorption and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Sequential micro- and ultrafiltration of the solution revealed that the bioreduced uranium was present as a colloid with particles between 0.03 and 0.45 {mu}m. Analysis with extended X-ray absorption fine structure revealed the association of the reduced uranium with the phthalic acid as a repeating biligand 1:2 U(IV):phthalic acid polymer. This is the first report of the formation of a U(IV) complexed to two phthalic acid molecules in the form of a polymeric colloid. Although it was proposed that the bioreduction and the precipitation of uranium might be an invaluable strategy to immobilize uranium in contaminated environments, our results suggest that the organic ligands present there might hinder the precipitation of the bioreduced uranium under anaerobic conditions and, thereby, enhance its environmental mobility as uranium organic complexes or colloids.

  10. Association between Urine Phthalate Levels and Poor Attentional Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Evidence of Dopamine Gene-Phthalate Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Yeni; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Ju-Young; Hong, Soon-Beom; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Im, Hosub; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Han, Doug Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Although there is some evidence supporting the existence of an association between prenatal maternal or postnatal child’s urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances, the interaction between urine phthalate metabolite levels and genetic variation for neuropsychological deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine are associated with poor neuropsychological performance in children with ADHD, and whether such association is affected by genotype-phthalate interaction. A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the continuous performance test (CPT) were performed in 179 Korean children with ADHD recruited from department of psychiatry of university hospital. Correlations between urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the CPT scores were investigated, and the interaction of phthalate metabolite levels with the selected polymorphisms at major candidate genes for ADHD, namely dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), dopamine transporter, α-2A-adrenergic receptor, and norepinephrine transporter genes. For the subjects with the DRD4 4/4 genotype, there were significant associations of the urine phthalate metabolite concentrations with the number of omission errors, the number of commission errors, and the response time variability scores on the CPT. However, for the subjects without the DRD4 4/4 genotype, no significant associations were found. The results of this study suggest a possible association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances of ADHD as well as a genetic influence on this association. Further prospective and epigenetic studies are needed to investigate causality and pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:24978879

  11. Atmospheric deposition of phthalate esters in a subtropical city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Feng; Lin, Yujun; Cui, Kunyan; Wen, Jiaxin; Ma, Yongqin; Chen, Hongli; Zhu, Fang; Ma, Zhiling; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2010-02-01

    In Chinese cities, air pollution has become a serious and aggravating environmental problem undermining the sustainability of urban ecosystems and the quality of urban life. Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected two-weekly, from February 2007 to January 2008, at three representative areas, one suburban and two urbanized, in the subtropical city, Guangzhou, China, to assess the deposition fluxes and seasonal variations of phthalate esters (PAEs). Sixteen PAE congeners in bulk deposition samples were measured and the depositional fluxes of ∑ 16PAEs ranged from 3.41 to 190 μg m -2 day -1, and were highly affected by local anthropogenic activities. The significant relationship between PAEs and particulate depositional fluxes (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001) showed PAEs are associated primarily with particles. Temporal flux variations of PAEs were influenced by seasonal changes in meteorological parameters, and the deposition fluxes of PAEs were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Diisobutyl phthalate (D iBP), Di- n-butyl phthalate (D nBP), and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAE pattern in bulk depositions, which is consistent with a high consumption of the plasticizer market in China. PAE profiles in bulk deposition showed similarities exhibited in both time and space, and a weak increase of high molecular weight PAE (HMW PAE) contribution in the wet season compared to those in the dry season. Average atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAEs in the present study were significantly higher than those from other studies, reflecting strong anthropogenic inputs as a consequence of rapid industrial and urban development in the region.

  12. Scale-up Synthesis of Diallyl Phthalate Prepolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D. A.

    1984-10-01

    This project was initiated to develop processes for the synthesis of diallyl phthalate (DAP) prepolymer in the Bendix Chemical Polymer Facility. Thus far, five scale-up reactions have been carried out in a 100-gallon reactor and fourteen have been conducted in the 15-gallon resin kettle. The synthesis of diallyl isophthalate prepolymer (DAIPP) was also investigated; eight scale-up reactions of this prepolymer have been carried out. Aging studies on DAIPP were also conducted.

  13. Low-Level Environmental Phthalate Exposure Associates with Urine Metabolome Alteration in a Chinese Male Cohort.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Wang, Xiaofei; Huang, Qingyu; Tian, Meiping; Shen, Heqing

    2016-06-01

    The general population is exposed to phthalates through various sources and routes. Integration of omics data and epidemiological data is a key step toward directly linking phthalate biomonitoring data with biological response. Urine metabolomics is a powerful tool to identify exposure biomarkers and delineate the modes of action of environmental stressors. The objectives of this study are to investigate the association between low-level environmental phthalate exposure and urine metabolome alteration in male population, and to unveil the metabolic pathways involved in the mechanisms of phthalate toxicity. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we studied the urine metabolomic profiles of 364 male subjects exposed to low-level environmental phthalates. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) are the most widely used phthalates. ∑DEHP and MBP (the major metabolite of DBP) were associated with significant alteration of global urine metabolome in the male population. We observed significant increase in the levels of acetylneuraminic acid, carnitine C8:1, carnitine C18:0, cystine, phenylglycine, phenylpyruvic acid and glutamylphenylalanine; and meanwhile, decrease in the levels of carnitine C16:2, diacetylspermine, alanine, taurine, tryptophan, ornithine, methylglutaconic acid, hydroxyl-PEG2 and keto-PGE2 in high exposure group. The observations indicated that low-level environmental phthalate exposure associated with increased oxidative stress and fatty acid oxidation and decreased prostaglandin metabolism. Urea cycle, tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolism disruption was also observed. The urine metabolome disruption effects associated with ∑DEHP and MBP were similar, but not identical. The multibiomarker models presented AUC values of 0.845 and 0.834 for ∑DEHP and MBP, respectively. The predictive accuracy rates of established models were 81% for ΣDEHP and 73% for MBP. Our results suggest that low-level environmental phthalate

  14. Solubility and toxicity of eight phthalate esters to four aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    DeFoe, D.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Hammermeister, D.E.; Biesinger, K.E.

    1990-05-01

    Solubility values for eight phthalate esters investigated ranged from 0.020 to 121 mg/L. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and all eight phthalate esters. Acute and chronic tests were conducted with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using di-2-ethylhexylphthalate. In addition, the chronic toxicity of the three di-n-butylphthalates and a mixture of these three phthalates was examined using daphnids (Daphnia magna). Di-n-octyl-ortho-phthalate, di-n-octyl-iso-phthalate and di-n-octyl-tere-phthalate were not acutely toxic to fathead minnows at concentrations that exceeded the water solubility estimates for each phthalate. Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate was not acutely toxic to any tested species at the highest tested concentrations. No significant adverse effects were observed on hatchability, survival or growth of rainbow trout exposed to a mean di-2-ethylhexylphthalate concentration of 0.502 mg/L (the highest concentration tested) in a 90-d embryo-larval test. However, exposure to a mean di-2-ethylhexylphthalate concentration of 0.554 mg/L significantly reduced the growth of Japanese medaka during a 168-d larval test. Significant adverse effects on reproduction occurred in 21-d chronic tests with D. magna at concentrations of 1.91, 0.20 and 0.64 mg/L for di-n-butyl-ortho-phthalate, di-n-butyl-iso-phthalate and di-n-butyl-tere-phthalate, respectively. A daphnid mixture test with these three phthalates showed complete additivity, which suggests a similar mode of toxic action.

  15. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among workers in selected industries: a pilot biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Nilsen Hopf, Nancy B; Deddens, James A; Calafat, Antonia M; Silva, Manori J; Grote, Ardith A; Sammons, Deborah L

    2009-01-01

    Phthalates are used as plasticizers and solvents in industrial, medical and consumer products; however, occupational exposure information is limited. We sought to obtain preliminary information on occupational exposures to diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) by analyzing for their metabolites in urine samples collected from workers in a cross-section of industries. We also obtained data on metabolites of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), di-isobutyl phthalate and di-isononyl phthalate. We recruited 156 workers in 2003-2005 from eight industry sectors. We assessed occupational contribution by comparing end-shift metabolite concentrations to the US general population. Evidence of occupational exposure to DEHP was strongest in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film manufacturing, PVC compounding and rubber boot manufacturing where geometric mean (GM) end-shift concentrations of DEHP metabolites exceeded general population levels by 8-, 6- and 3-fold, respectively. Occupational exposure to DBP was most evident in rubber gasket, phthalate (raw material) and rubber hose manufacturing, with DBP metabolite concentrations exceeding general population levels by 26-, 25- and 10-fold, respectively, whereas DBP exposure in nail-only salons (manicurists) was only 2-fold higher than in the general population. Concentrations of DEP and DMP metabolites in phthalate manufacturing exceeded general population levels by 4- and >1000-fold, respectively. We also found instances where GM end-shift concentrations of some metabolites exceeded general population concentrations even when no workplace use was reported, e.g. BzBP in rubber hose and rubber boot manufacturing. In summary, using urinary metabolites, we successfully identified workplaces with likely occupational phthalate exposure. Additional work is needed to distinguish occupational from non-occupational sources in low-exposure workplaces. PMID:18948546

  16. Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Ling; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Jia; Huo, Chun-Yan; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Liu, Li-Yan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-09-15

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals in household products, which severely affect human health. However, there were limited studies emphasized on young adults' exposure to phthalates in dormitories. In this study, seven phthalates were extracted from indoor dust that collected in university dormitories in Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in the north of China. Dust samples were also collected in houses in Harbin for comparison. The total concentrations of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin and Shenyang samples were significantly higher than those in Baoding samples. The total geometric mean concentration of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin was lower than in house dust. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant phthalate in both dormitory and house dust. The daily intakes of the total phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, hazard index (HI) of di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were estimated, the median values for all students in dormitories were lower than adults who live in the houses. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of phthalates. HI of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP was predicted according to the reference doses (RfD) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the reference doses for anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) developed by Kortenkamp and Faust. The results indicated that the risks of some students had exceeded the limitation, however, the measured results were not exceeded the limitation. Risk quotients (RQ) of DEHP were predicted based on China specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) and Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL). The predicted results of CR and RQ of DEHP suggested that DEHP could pose a health risk through intake of indoor dust. PMID:27186877

  17. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Huang, Han-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy. Method We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP), of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4), free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). Results Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%), MnBP (81%) and MECPP (86%). Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates) of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = –5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97) in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction. Conclusion We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations. PMID:27455052

  18. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water.

    PubMed

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: <3.0 ng L(-1)-0.2 μg L(-1), <6.6 ng L(-1)-0.8 μg L(-1), <6.0 ng L(-1)-0.1 μg L(-1) and <16.0 ng L(-1)-1.7 μg L(-1), respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). PMID:23688967

  19. Variability and Predictors of Urinary Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in preschool-aged children have not been thoroughly examined. Additionally, the impact of temporal changes in the use and restriction of phthalates in children’s products has not been assessed. Our objective was to identify demographic, behavioral, and temporal predictors of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in young children. Between 2004 and 2011, we collected up to five urine samples from each of 296 children participating in a prospective birth cohort during annual study visits at ages 1–5 years. We used linear mixed models to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), a measure of within-individual reproducibility, and identify demographic predictors of urinary phthalate metabolites. We used multivariable linear regression to examine cross-sectional relationships between food packaging or personal care product use and phthalate metabolites measured at age 5 years. Across annual measurements, monoethyl phthalate exhibited the least variation (ICC = 0.38), while di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites exhibited the most variation (ICC = 0.09). Concentrations changed with age, suggesting age-related changes in phthalate exposure and perhaps metabolism. Our findings suggest that fast food consumption may be a source of butylbenzyl phthalate and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) exposure, and some personal care products may be sources of diethyl phthalate exposure. Concentrations of ΣDEHP metabolites decreased over the study period; however, concentrations of DiNP metabolites increased. This finding suggests that manufacturer practices and regulations, like the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, may decrease DEHP exposure, but additional work characterizing the nature and toxicity of replacements is critically needed. PMID:24977926

  20. Phthalate Excretion Pattern and Testicular Function: A Study of 881 Healthy Danish Men

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Background: In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function. Objectives: We aimed to provide estimates of the effects of phthalate exposure on reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy men. Methods: A total of 881 men gave urine, serum, and semen samples. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin-B; semen quality; and urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), were assessed. The proportions of DEHP and DiNP excreted as their respective primary metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP)] were calculated and expressed as percentages (%MEHP and %MiNP, respectively). Results: The free androgen index was 15% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): –23, –8%] for men in the highest %MiNP quartile compared to the lowest quartile (p < 0.001) after adjusting for confounders, and 9% lower (95% CI: –16, –1%) in the highest %MEHP quartile (p = 0.02). %MEHP and %MiNP were negatively associated with the ratio of testosterone/LH and testosterone/FSH. %MEHP was negatively associated with total testosterone, free testosterone, and ratio of testosterone/E2. %MiNP was positively associated with SHBG. There was little evidence of associations between urinary phthalate metabolites or sums of phthalates with reproductive hormones or semen quality Conclusion: Our data suggest that both testosterone production and pituitary–hypothalamic feedback may be compromised in individuals excreting a high proportion of primary metabolites of long-chained phthalates relative to the proportion of secondary metabolites. PMID:22832070

  1. Children’s Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in an Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Whyatt, Robin M.; Miller, Rachel L.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Chen, Qixuan; Calafat, Antonia M.; Divjan, Adnan; Rosa, Maria J.; Zhang, Hanjie; Perera, Frederica P.; Goldstein, Inge F.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Phthalates are used widely in consumer products. Exposure to several phthalates has been associated with respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function. Associations between children’s phthalate exposures and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a biomarker of airway inflammation, have not been examined. Objectives: We hypothesized that urinary concentrations of four phthalate metabolites would be positively associated with FeNO and that these associations would be stronger among children with seroatopy or wheeze. Methods: In an urban ongoing birth cohort, 244 children had phthalate metabolites determined in urine collected on the same day as FeNO measurement. Repeated sampling gathered 313 observations between ages 4.9 and 9.1 years. Seroatopy was assessed by specific IgE. Wheeze in the past year was assessed by validated questionnaire. Regression models used generalized estimating equations. Measurements and Main Results: Log-unit increases in urinary concentrations of metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) were associated with a 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5–13.1%) and 8.7% (95% CI, 1.9–16.0%) increase in FeNO, respectively, adjusting for other phthalate metabolites and potential covariates/confounders. There was no association between concentrations of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate or di-n-butyl phthalate and FeNO. There was no significant interaction by seroatopy. The BBzP metabolite association was significantly stronger among children who wheeze (P = 0.016). Conclusions: Independent associations between exposures to DEP and BBzP and FeNO in a cohort of inner-city children were observed. These results suggest that these two ubiquitous phthalates, previously shown to have substantial contributions from inhalation, are positively associated with airway inflammation in children. PMID:22923660

  2. Reductive opening of carbohydrate phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Florence; Cabianca, Elena; Tatibouët, Arnaud; De Lucchi, Ottorino; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Rollin, Patrick

    2015-11-19

    The phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetal is a relatively new protecting group in carbohydrate chemistry. However, carbohydrate-derived phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals show a different behavior in reductive desulfonylation than simple symmetrical acetals. Here we have investigated various SET-type reaction conditions in order to open PSE acetals regioselectively and to produce chiral ω-hydroxyethenyl ethers. Whereas sodium amalgam leads to a mixture of regioisomeric vinyl ethers besides the ethylidene acetal, samarium iodide is suited for regioselective ring opening. This is shown with seven different carbohydrate PSE acetals, both of the 1,3-dioxane and the 1,3-dioxolane type. PMID:26469209

  3. COMBINATION DOSE OF TWO PHTHALATES ADDITIVELY DEPRESSES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RAT FETUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) are phthalate esters used to modify plastic and polymer textures. Individually,in uteroexposure to DEHP and DBP inhibit reproductive tract development,induce reproductive organ malformations, and reduce testosterone (T...

  4. Adsorption of diethyl phthalate ester to clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhua; Si, Youbin; Zhou, Dongmei; Gao, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters are a group of plasticizers, which have been widely detected in China's agricultural and industrial soils. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the environmental effects on the adsorption of diethyl phthalate ester (DEP) to clay minerals. The results showed that DEP adsorption isotherms were well fitted with the Freundlich model; the interlayer spacing of K(+) saturated montmorillonite (K-mont) was the most important adsorption area for DEP, and di-n-butyl ester (DnBP) was limited to intercalate into the interlayer of K-mont due to the bigger molecular size; there was no significant effect of pH and ionic strength on DEP adsorption to K-mont/Ca-mont, but to Na-mont clay. The adsorption to kaolinite was very limited. Data of X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectra further proved that DEP molecules could intercalate into K-/Ca-mont interlayer, and might interact with clay through H-bonding between carbonyl groups and clay adsorbed water. Coated humic acid on clay surface would enhance DEP adsorption at low concentration, but not at high concentration (eg. Ce>0.26 mM). The calculated adsorption enthalpy (ΔHobs) and adsorption isotherms at varied temperatures showed that DEP could be adsorbed easier as more adsorbed. This study implied that clay type, compound structure, exchangeable cation, soil organic matter and temperature played important roles in phthalate ester's transport in soil. PMID:25150972

  5. Skin permeation and metabolism of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP).

    PubMed

    Hopf, N B; Berthet, A; Vernez, D; Langard, E; Spring, P; Gaudin, R

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are suspected to be endocrine disruptors. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is assumed to have low dermal absorption; however, previous in vitro skin permeation studies have shown large permeation differences. Our aims were to determine DEHP permeation parameters and assess extent of skin DEHP metabolism among workers highly exposed to these lipophilic, low volatile substances. Surgically removed skin from patients undergoing abdominoplasty was immediately dermatomed (800 μm) and mounted on flow-through diffusion cells (1.77 cm(2)) operating at 32°C with cell culture media (aqueous solution) as the reservoir liquid. The cells were dosed either with neat DEHP or emulsified in aqueous solution (166 μg/ml). Samples were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. DEHP permeated human viable skin only as the metabolite MEHP (100%) after 8h of exposure. Human skin was able to further oxidize MEHP to 5-oxo-MEHP. Neat DEHP applied to the skin hardly permeated skin while the aqueous solution readily permeated skin measured in both cases as concentration of MEHP in the receptor liquid. DEHP pass through human skin, detected as MEHP only when emulsified in aqueous solution, and to a far lesser degree when applied neat to the skin. Using results from older in vitro skin permeation studies with non-viable skin may underestimate skin exposures. Our results are in overall agreement with newer phthalate skin permeation studies. PMID:24140552

  6. Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

    2013-11-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAE), commonly named phthalates, are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are primarily used as additives to improve the flexibility in polyvinyl chloride. Many studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrices; however, none of these studies has yet established a complete overview for those compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes PAE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrences of compounds have been evaluated for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, atmosphere, and the natural environment), we reviewed data in order to identify the fate of PAE in the environment and establish whether geographical and historical trends exist. Indeed, geographical and historical trends appear between Europe and other countries such as USA/Canada and China, however they remain location dependent. This study aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes influencing the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. In Europe, the concentrations measured in waterways today represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed for developing countries, especially for China. PMID:23917738

  7. Biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, M.G.; Hayton, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following intravascular administration. Methyl-esterified metabolites were identified using rodent-derived standards and non-linear gradient elution HPLC; metabolites were confirmed by gas chromatography. Similarities between the biotransformation of DEHP by rainbow trout and mammalian species included (a) mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) appeared to be the obligatory first step in DEHP metabolism; (b) the phthalate ring was not oxidized; (c) phthalic acid was a minor metabolite; and (d) several metabolites contained multiple oxidations of the 2-ethylhexyl moiety of MEHP. No metabolites unique to rainbow trout were identified. However, fewer oxidized metabolites were identified in rainbow trout than in mammalian species, possibly due to limited mitochondrial metabolism of MEHP in rainbow trout. The amount of biliary MEHP glucuronide after intravascular administration of DEHP was substantially less than reported in rainbow trout exposed to DEHP via the water. Results confirmed that DEHP metabolism in rainbow trout proceeds by initial rapid formation of MEHP, followed by excretion or extensive oxidation by microsomal P450.

  8. Cap1p attenuates the apoptosis of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bao-Di; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Lan-Xue; Li, De-Dong; Li, Ming-Bang; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2013-06-01

    Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen and its apoptosis is inducible by environmental stress. Based on our previous finding that transcription factor Cap1p was involved in baicalein-induced apoptosis, the present study aimed to further clarify the role of Cap1p in apoptosis by observing the impact of CAP1 deletion on cell fate. It was found that apoptotic stimulation with amphotericin B, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide increased the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells, caspase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, whereas it decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP level in the cap1Δ/Δ mutant. The cell fate was, at least partly, caused by glutathione depletion and attenuation of the expression of the glutathione reductase gene in the cap1Δ/Δ mutant. Collectively, our data suggest that Cap1p participated in the apoptosis of C. albicans by regulating the expression of the glutathione reductase gene and glutathione content. PMID:23517286

  9. Developmental changes in the conversion rates of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate to monoethylhexyl phthalate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gollamudi, R.; Hanumantha, R.; Lawrence, W.H.; Autian, J.

    1985-01-01

    The activities of liver, lung, and kidney of rats of various age groups and that of placenta in hydrolyzing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate have been measured. Male and female rats of 45 d of age, neonatal rats within 12 h of parturition, and fetuses and placenta on d 19 of gestation were used. The liver was most active in all age groups; however, the lung and the kidney also had considerable activity. The tissues of the fetuses and the neonate had significant activity. The k/sub m/ values of the enzyme were 4mM in the neonatal liver and 5.9 mM in the adult liver.

  10. Tip cap for a rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofel, W. K.; Tuley, E. N.; Gay, C. H., Jr.; Troeger, R. E.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A replaceable tip cap for attachment to the end of a rotor blade is described. The tip cap includes a plurality of walls defining a compartment which, if desired, can be divided into a plurality of subcompartments. The tip cap can include inlet and outlet holes in walls thereof to permit fluid communication of a cooling fluid there through. Abrasive material can be attached with the radially outer wall of the tip cap.

  11. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  16. Dynamic Modeling of an Evapotranspiration Cap

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Steven Piet; Rafael Soto; Gerald Sehlke; Harold Heydt; John Visser

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is scheduled to design and install hundreds of landfill caps/barriers over the next several decades and these caps will have a design life expectancy of up to 1,000 years. Other landfill caps with 30 year design lifetimes are reaching the end of their original design life; the changes to these caps need to be understood to provide a basis for lifetime extension. Defining the attributes that make a successful cap (one that isolates the waste from the environment) is crucial to these efforts. Because cap systems such as landfill caps are dynamic in nature, it is impossible to understand, monitor, and update lifetime predictions without understanding the dynamics of cap degradation, which is most often due to multiple interdependent factors rather than isolated independent events. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of cap degradation, a computer model using system dynamics is being developed to capture the complex behavior of an evapotranspiration cap. The specific objectives of this project are to capture the dynamic, nonlinear feedback loop structures underlying an evapotranspiration cap and, through computer simulation, gain a better understanding of long-term behavior, influencing factors, and, ultimately, long-term cap performance.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xinxin; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary. PMID:27313307

  18. Perilous plasticizers - are phthalate esters a risk for human reproductive health?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are high-production volume chemicals used to impart flexibility to polyvinyl chloride plastic (e.g. children’s toys and medical tubing) as well as other products (e.g. health and beauty products). Certain phthalate esters inhibit reproductive development in la...

  19. Perilous plastics - are phthalate esters a risk for human reproductive health?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are high-production volume chemicals used to impart flexibility to polyvinyl chloride plastic (e.g. children’s toys and medical tubing) and are also found in other products (e.g. health and beauty products). Certain phthalate esters inhibit reproductive develop...

  20. NOVEL ORGANIZATION OF THE GENES FOR PHTHALATE DEGRADATION FROM BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA DBO1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burkholderia cepacia DBO1 is able to utilize phthalate as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Two overlapping cosmid clones containing the genes for phthalate degradation were isolated from this strain. Subcloning and activity analysis localized the genes for phthala...

  1. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK IN THE US EPA MAMA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products including PVC, plastic toys, and medical devices. These products are widely used by the general population. Phthalates act as anti-androgens and in utero or perinatal exposure in laboratory animal models leads to ...

  2. 77 FR 45297 - Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Proposed Guidance on Inaccessible...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Register on August 7, 2009 (74 FR 39535) and codified at 16 CFR 1500.87 (Children's products containing... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1199 Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Proposed Guidance... prohibition on specified products containing phthalates does not apply to any component part of...

  3. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHTHALATE CATABOLISM REGION OF PRE1 OF ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B

    EPA Science Inventory

    o-Phthalate (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a central intermediate in the bacterial degradation of phthalate ester plasticizers as well as of a number of fused-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. In Arthrobacter keyseri 12B, the genes encoding catabolism o...

  4. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Associations with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Across Pregnancy in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate exposure during pregnancy has been linked to adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, and inflammation and oxidative stress may mediate these relationships. In a prospective cohort study of pregnant women recruited early in gestation in Northern Puerto Rico, we investigated the associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, and oxidative stress, including 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (OHdG) and 8-isoprostane. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in plasma twice during pregnancy (N = 215 measurements, N = 120 subjects), and oxidative stress biomarkers in urine were measured three times (N = 148 measurements, N = 54 subjects) per woman. In adjusted linear mixed models, metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were associated with increased IL-6 and IL-10 but relationships were generally not statistically significant. All phthalates were associated with increases in oxidative stress markers. Relationships with OHdG were significant for DEHP metabolites as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and monoiso-butyl phthalate (MiBP). For 8-isoprostane, associations with nearly all phthalates were statistically significant and the largest effect estimates were observed for MBP and MiBP (49–50% increase in 8-isoprostane with an interquartile range increase in metabolite concentration). These relationships suggest a possible mechanism for phthalate action that may be relevant to a number of adverse health outcomes. PMID:24845688

  5. Predicting Residential Exposure to Phthalate Plasticizer Emitted from Vinyl Flooring - A Mechanistic Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-room model is developed to estimate the emission rate of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from vinyl flooring and the evolving gas-phase and adsorbed surface concentrations in a realistic indoor environment. Adsorption isotherms for phthalates and plasticizers on interior ...

  6. A study on emission of phthalate esters from plastic materials using a passive flux sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Shinohara, N.; Lim, A.; Otake, T.; Kumagai, K.; Yanagisawa, Y.

    Phthalate esters are used as plasticizer in many plastics, and several studies have shown their toxicity. Phthalate esters are gradually emitted over time, and so it is conceivable that they pose a significant health risk. This study aims to investigate the temperature dependence of the emissions of various phthalate esters and to estimate the health risks of these emissions at various temperatures. A passive-type sampler was developed to measure the flux of phthalate esters from the surface of plastic materials. With this sampler, we examined three widely used plastic materials: synthetic leather, wallpaper and vinyl flooring. The observed maximum emissions of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from these materials at 20°C were 0.89, 0.77, and 14 μg m -2 h -1, respectively. Emissions at 80°C were 2.8, 4.5×10 2, and 1.5×10 3 μg m -2 h -1, respectively. The results showed this temperature dependence is determined primarily by the type of phthalate ester and less so by the type of material. The estimation from the results of temperature dependence indicated the concentration of DEHP in a vehicle left out in the sunshine during the day can exceed the recommended levels of Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.

  7. Predicting Residential Exposure to Phthalate Plasticizer Emitted from Vinyl Flooring: Sensitivity, Uncertainty, and Implications for Biomonitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the ubiquitous nature of phthalates in the environment and the potential for adverse human health impacts, there is a need to understand the potential human exposure. A three-compartment model is developed to estimate the emission rate of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) f...

  8. Women’s exposure to phthalates in relation to use of personal care products

    PubMed Central

    Parlett, Lauren E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several phthalates, particularly diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), can be used in personal care products (PCPs) to fix fragrance and hold color. We investigated associations between women’s reported use of personal care products within the 24 hours prior to urine collection and concentrations of several urinary phthalate metabolites. Methods Between 2002–2005, 337 women provided spot urine samples and answered questions regarding their use of thirteen PCPs at a follow-up visit 3–36 months after pregnancy. We examined associations between urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites and use of PCPs using linear regression. Results Use of individual PCPs ranged from 7% (nail polish) to 91% (deodorant). After adjusting for age, education, and urinary creatinine, women reporting use of perfume had 2.92 times higher (95% CI: 2.20–3.89) concentration of monoethyl phthalate (MEP, the primary metabolite of diethyl phthalate) than other women. Other PCPs that were significantly associated with MEP included: hair spray, nail polish, and deodorant. MEP concentrations increased with the number of PCPs used. Conclusion PCP use was widespread in this group of recently pregnant women. Women’s use of PCPs, particularly of perfumes and fragranced products, was positively associated with urinary concentration of multiple phthalate metabolites. PMID:23168567

  9. Estimated risks of water and saliva contamination by phthalate diffusion from plasticized polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Corea-Téllez, Kira S; Bustamante-Montes, Patricia; García-Fábila, Magdalena; Hernández-Valero, María A; Vázquez-Moreno, Flavio

    2008-10-01

    Phthalates are additives commonly used to convert hard polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins into flexible and workable plastics employed in the production of chewable rubber toys and other soft-plastic products. In theory, phthalates can diffuse in small quantities to the surface of a product, and from there they can enter the environment and the human body. The purpose of this study was to determine the diffusion of phthalates from plasticized PVC in water and artificial saliva; to determine the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl) (DEHP) phthalate in human saliva using gas chromatography; to compare the experimental values with theoretical values calculated using a model based on the principles of molecular diffusion in fluids; and to use the experimental values to estimate daily doses of DEHP received by Mexican children and infants using plastic and soft-plastic products (e.g., pacifiers, chewable toys, and bottles). Our findings indicated phthalate diffusion of 0.36 microg/cm2 per hour and 4.10 microg/cm2 per hour, respectively, in water and artificial saliva. The average value of phthalate diffusion in vivo was 6.04 microg/cm2 per hour. The daily oral phthalate exposure in Mexican infants and toddlers from oral use of rubber toys and soft-plastic products is 18.12 microg/kg. These daily doses are considerably lower than the maximum daily phthalate intake recommended by an international public health committee. PMID:18990931

  10. 21 CFR 522.533 - Deslorelin acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Deslorelin acetate. (a) Specifications. Each implant contains 2.1 milligrams deslorelin acetate. (b) Sponsor.... One implant per mare. (ii) Indications for use. For inducing ovulation within 48 hours in...

  11. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  12. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  13. Cellulose esters synthesized using a tetrabutylammonium acetate and dimethylsulfoxide solvent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongqi; Miao, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Zeming; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Liping

    2016-07-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were homogeneously synthesized in a novel tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system, without any catalyst, at temperatures below 70 °C. The molecular structures of the cellulose esters (CEs) and distributions of the substituents in the anhydroglucose repeating units were determined using 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the degree of substitution (DS) values were determined using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the CEs, regenerated cellulose (RC), and pulp were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of the products were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The temperatures of initial decomposition of the CEs were up to 40 °C higher than those of the RC and pulp. All the CEs were highly soluble in DMSO, but were insoluble in acetone. CAs with DS values less than 2.6 swelled or were poorly dissolved in CHCl3, but those with DS values above 2.9 dissolved rapidly. CAPs with DS values above 2.6 had good solubilities in ethyl acetate.

  14. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25988232

  15. Phthalates - widespread occurrence and the effect on male gametes. Part 1. General characteristics, sources and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are widely present in human environment. Widespead exposure to those agents, which are compounds of numerous daily use products, is unavoidable. In the current paper following phthalates benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di- n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) are described. Phthalates mainly enter to the composition of plastic goods, like boxes and containers for storage of foods, toys, medical devices, and also cosmetics, personal care products, as well as paints, vanishes, printing inks. This paper describes the occurence of individual phthalates in the environment (water, air) and in different products. During production, transportation, manufacturing of goods and improper disposal, phthalates released into soil, water and air. For example indoor air included 13 mg/m3 phthalates, where 72 % of all constitutes DEP (2.29 mg/m(3)), BBP (3.97 mg/m(3)) and DEHP (2.43 mg/m(3)). Exposure to phthalates take place mainly by ingestion or inhalation air or through the skin. Presence of phthalates were observed in numerous food products and is connected with migration of those compounds from food storage containers to preserved food. They could mirgate to salivia during sucking and chewing of toys and this way increased exposure to of children. The results of studies regarding to concentration of phthalates in human tissues and excretions are also described. The level of phthalates were measured in numerous of human biological samples. For example, DEHP, DEP and DBP were detected at levels of 5.71 mg/L in blood serum, of 0.30 mg/L in semen and of 0.72 mg/kg in fat samples. PMID:27289504

  16. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  17. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, Katherine; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L.; Claudio, Luz; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-08-15

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used

  18. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  19. Risks of phthalate exposure among the general population: implications for occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Pak, Victoria M; McCauley, Linda A

    2007-01-01

    Personal care items including lotions, perfumes, deodorants, shampoos, and cosmetics are sources of phthalate exposure. Women of childbearing age, children, and beauty salon workers are at greater risk for exposure. Occupational health nurses are in an ideal position to rally support for improved regulatory laws and for funding of evidence-based research that will reduce phthalate exposures and improve client health. Occupational health nurses must support the establishment and implementation of procedures for workplace safety inspections among susceptible populations. Information regarding reduction of overall phthalate exposure must be available for clients. Resources like phthalate-free product lists can be valuable tools in helping clients make informed decisions about alternatives to phthalates. PMID:17260676

  20. Determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in the aquatic environment using hollow fibre supported liquid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtibe, A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Phthalates are known to be carcinogenic, teratogenic as well as endocrine disruptors. The potential risk to human and animals health generated from them has drawn great attention all over the world. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) online with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater. Toluene, di-n-hexyl ether and undecane were used as liquid barriers separating both donor (sample) and acceptor phase. Toluene performed much better than undecane and was used in sample preparation. The presence of toluene showed the potential for the enrichment and removal of phthalates to the concentrations ranges from 0 to 1.7 mg L-1.

  1. Joint Toxicity of Two Phthalates with Waterborne Copper to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Boyang; Li, Dinglong; Yang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) are two widely used phthalates, while Cu(II) is a common valence state of copper. They have been ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, but information on their joint toxicity to aquatic organisms is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of copper and these two phthalates to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum by quantifying the acute toxicity expressed by the EC50 (the concentration causing 50 % of maximal effect) value. The toxicity order was DEHP + Cu(II) > DBP + Cu(II) > Cu(II) > DEHP > DBP for both test species. Antagonism effects were found in the joint toxicity of Cu(II) combined with DBP or DEHP using the toxic unit method. These findings have important implications in environmental risk assessment for phthalates in the aquatic environment in the presence of heavy metals. PMID:27385371

  2. Effects of phthalate esters on plant seedlings and reversal by a soil microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, R.; Bering, C.L. )

    1988-05-01

    Phthalate esters have been widely used in industrial nations as plasticizers, in cosmetics, insect repellants, and munitions. Due to the abundance of plastic materials in use, it has been estimated that 51 million pounds of phthalate esters leach into the environment annually. Very little has been reported concerning the effects of phthalate esters on green plants. Certain phthalate esters are known to be natural constituents of some plants, but in significantly lower concentration than that which may be encountered due to contamination. The authors have examined the effects of four common phthalate esters- dimethylphthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), and di-(2-ethyl)hexylphthalate (DEHP)- added to the soil of developing spinach and pea seedlings. Two of the esters- DMP and DEP- caused significant inhibition of development.

  3. Prenatal and peripubertal phthalates and bisphenol A in relation to sex hormones and puberty in boys.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kelly K; Peterson, Karen E; Lee, Joyce M; Mercado-García, Adriana; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Meeker, John D

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and BPA are known endocrine disruptors and exposure in pregnant mothers and children is ubiquitous. We explored the relationship of prenatal and childhood exposures with pubertal onset and sex hormones in boys (ages 8-14). Phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured in maternal 3rd trimester or childhood urine. Sex hormones DHEAS, estradiol, inhibin B, SHBG, and total testosterone were measured in serum. Adrenarche and puberty were assessed by pediatrician. Prenatal exposure to some phthalates was associated with decreased DHEAS and inhibin B levels, and with increased SHBG. Prenatal exposure to most phthalates and BPA was associated with greatly reduced odds of adrenarche (odds ratios [OR]=0.12-0.65) and slightly reduced odds of puberty (OR=0.50-0.98). Childhood exposure was not associated with adrenarche or puberty, but some phthalates and BPA were associated with increased SHBG levels and decreased total and free testosterone levels. PMID:24945889

  4. Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

    1992-01-01

    Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

  5. Kinetics of the Methanogenic Fermentation of Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Naomichi; Nagai, Shiro

    1990-01-01

    Inhibition of the fermentation of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide by acetate was analyzed with an acetate-acclimatized sludge and with Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro under mesophilic conditions. A second-order substrate inhibition model, qch4 = qmS/[Ks + S + (S2/Ki)], where S was the concentration of undissociated acetic acid, not ionized acetic acid, could be applicable in both cases. The analysis resulted in substrate saturation constants, Ks, of 4.0 μM for the acclimatized sludge and 104 μM for M. barkeri. The threshold concentrations of undissociated acetic acid when no further acetate utilization was observed were 0.078 μM (pH 7.50) for the acclimatized sludge and 4.43 μM (pH 7.45) for M. barkeri. These kinetic results suggested that the concentration of undissociated acetic acid became a key factor governing the actual threshold acetate concentration for acetate utilization and that the acclimatized sludge in which Methanothrix spp. appeared dominant could utilize acetate better and survive at a lower concentration of undissociated acetic acid than could M. barkeri. Images PMID:16348323

  6. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  7. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  9. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. Acet-oxy-γ-valerolactone.

    PubMed

    Tristram, Cameron; Gainsford, Graeme J; Hinkley, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Levulinyl cellulose esters have been produced as an effective renewable binder for architectural coatings. The title compound, C7H10O4 (systematic name: 2-methyl-5-oxo-tetra-hydro-furan-2-yl acetate), assigned as the esterifying species, was isolated and crystallized to confirm the structure. In the crystal, the mol-ecules pack in layers parallel to (102) utilizing weak C-H⋯O inter-actions. PMID:23795112

  3. Comparison of the Short Term Toxicity of Phthalate Diesters and Monoesters in Sprague-Dawley Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Han, Eun Young; Park, Jae Seok; Bae, Jung Yun; Ahn, Il Young; Lim, Seong Kwang; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jang, Dong Eun; Choi, Lan; Lim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Tae Hyung; Patra, Nabanita; Park, Kui Lea; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the short term toxicity of nine phthalate diesters including di-2 (ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) , di (n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) , di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) , diethyl phthalate (DEP) , butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) , dimethyl phthalate (DMP) , di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) , diundecyl phthalate (DUP) , and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and five phthalate monoesters including mono- (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) , monobutyl phthalate (MBuP) , monobenzyl phthalate (MBeP) , monoethyl phthalate (MEP) , monomethyl phthalate (MMP) and phthalic acid (PA) in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Animals were administered 250 mg/kg/day (monoesters and PA) or 500 mg/kg/day (diesters) of phthalate for two weeks. All animals were examined for body and organ weights, blood hematology, serum biochemistry, and urine analysis. The body weight gain was significantly lower in rats treated with BBP, DBP, DINP, MEHP, MBuP, and PA than that of control. Liver weights were significantly increased in the DEHP,DBP, DnOP, DIDP, and MEHP groups as compared to the control group. Testes weights were significantly decreased only in the DEHP-, DnOP-, and DIDP-treated groups as compared to the control. Significant differences in hematological changes were not observed in any treatment groups. Significant increases in blood glucose levels were observed in the DEHP, MEHP, and MBeP groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were significantly increased in the DBP, DUP, DINP, MBuP, and MBeP groups, whereas alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were significantly increased only in the DEHP and MEHP groups. Serum ALP levels were significantly higher in phthalate diester (500 mg/kg/day) -treated rats as compared to control. However, the total cholesterol level was significantly reduced in the DEHP- and DIDP-treated groups, whereas serum triglyceride (TG) levels were higher in the DINP-, MEHP-, and MBuP-treated groups. These results suggest that short term toxicity of

  4. Concentration and risk assessment of phthalates present in indoor air from newly decorated apartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, X. Q.; Song, M.; Guo, M.; Mo, F. F.; Shen, X. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment, owing to their use in consumer products. People spend a considerable amount of time indoors. As a result, human exposure to indoor contaminants is of great concern. People are exposed to phthalates through inhalation and dermal absorption of indoor air. In this study, the concentrations, characteristics and carcinogenic risks of gas-phase and particle-phase phthalates in indoor air from bedroom, living room and study room of 10 newly decorated apartments in Hangzhou, China were first investigated. The mean concentration of phthalates (gas-phase and particle-phase) present in household air was 12 096.4 ng m-3, of which diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the most abundant compounds with concentrations of 2290 ng m-3, 3975 ng m-3 and 2437 ng m-3, respectively, totally accounting for 72.0% of ∑6PAEs. Contamination levels of phthalates varied in different compartments. The concentration of phthalates was the highest 17 363.7 ng m-3 in living room, followed with 11 389.5 ng m-3 in study room, and the lowest 9739.1 ng m-3 in bedroom. It was also found that phthalates mainly accumulated in gaseous form in household air. DEHP posed the greatest health risk to children aged 1-2. Carcinogenic risk of DEHP was evaluated to be 3.912 × 10-5, and was 39 times higher than the limit set by the U.S. EPA.

  5. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-10-01

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μgg(-1), 0.19-1.65 (median 0.86) μgg(-1) and 0.24-3.05 (median 0.59) μgg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8μgkg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. PMID:27372065

  6. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Partially Mediates Phthalate Association With Male and Female Anogenital Distance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoung Keun; Naimi, Ashley I.; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby H.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Zhao, Yaqi; Thiet, Mari-Paule; Redmon, J. Bruce; Swan, Shanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Prenatal exposure to phthalates disrupts male sex development in rodents. In humans, the placental glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is required for male development, and may be a target of phthalate exposure. Objective: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that phthalates disrupt placental hCG differentially in males and females with consequences for sexually dimorphic genital development. Design: The Infant Development and Environment Study (TIDES) is a prospective birth cohort. Pregnant women were enrolled from 2010–2012 at four university hospitals. Participants: Participants were TIDES subjects (n = 541) for whom genital and phthalate measurements were available and who underwent prenatal serum screening in the first or second trimester. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes included hCG levels in maternal serum in the first and second trimesters and anogenital distance (AGD), which is the distance from the anus to the genitals in male and female neonates. Results: Higher first-trimester urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP; P = .01), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP; P = .03), and mono-carboxy-isooctyl phthalate (P < .01) were associated with higher first-trimester hCG in women carrying female fetuses, and lower hCG in women carrying males. First-trimester hCG was positively correlated with the AGD z score in female neonates, and inversely correlated in males (P = 0.01). We measured significant associations of MnBP (P < .01), MBzP (P = .02), and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP; P < .01) with AGD, after adjusting for sex differences. Approximately 52% (MnBP) and 25% (MEHP) of this association in males, and 78% in females (MBzP), could be attributed to the phthalate association with hCG. Conclusions: First-trimester hCG levels, normalized by fetal sex, may reflect sexually dimorphic action of phthalates on placental function and on genital development. PMID:26200238

  7. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in Relation to Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: NHANES 1999-2006

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Phthalate esters are a class of compounds utilized extensively in widely-distributed consumer goods, and have been associated with various adverse health outcomes in previous epidemiologic research. Some of these health outcomes may be the result of phthalate-induced increases in oxidative stress or inflammation, which has been demonstrated in animal studies. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (C-reactive protein (CRP) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), respectively). Subjects were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between the years 1999 and 2006. In multivariable linear regression models, we observed significant positive associations between CRP and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP). There were CRP elevations of 6.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7% to 10.8%) and 8.3% (95% CI 2.9% to 14.0%) in relation to interquartile range (IQR) increases in urinary MBzP and MiBP, respectively. GGT was positively associated with mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and an MEHP% variable calculated from the proportion of MEHP in comparison to other di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. IQR increases in MEHP and MEHP% were associated with 2.5% (95%CI 0.2% to 4.8%) and 3.7% (95%CI 1.7% to 5.7%) increases in GGT, respectively. CRP and GGT were also inversely related to several phthalate metabolites, primarily oxidized metabolites. In conclusion, several phthalate monoester metabolites that are detected in a high proportion of urine samples from the US general population are associated with increased serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. On the other hand, several oxidized phthalate metabolites were inversely associated with these markers. These relationships deserve further exploration in both experimental and observational studies. PMID:21349512

  8. Migration of BTEX and phthalates from natural rubber latex balloons obtained from the Sri Lankan market.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Imanda; Godakumbura, Pahan I; Prashantha, M A B

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluates the migration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) and phthalates into artificial saliva from natural rubber latex (NRL) balloons available for sale in Sri Lanka. It was discovered that at least one BTEX compound migrated from almost all the brands. The migration of four phthalates; diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate were also observed. Migratory levels of BTEX and phthalates in most of the balloon brands were above the permissible levels set by the European Union. Assessment of factors affecting the migratory levels indicated migration under active mouthing conditions and migration from the neck region of the balloons were significantly higher. The migratory levels were observed to decrease with storage time, and in certain brands the BTEX levels decreased below the permissible level. One-way ANOVA indicated no significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) in migratory levels of each individual compound within the same brand for both BTEX and phthalates. When compared among different brands, BTEX levels indicated significant differences (p ≤ 0.05), while phthalate levels were observed to not be significantly different (p ≥ 0.05). A significant difference was also observed (p ≤ 0.05) among the migratory levels of compounds under each test condition evaluated as factors affecting the migratory level. Furthermore, the solvent based colorants added to color the latex were found to be the source of BTEX and phthalates in the NRL balloons. PMID:26759759

  9. Phthalate and PAH concentrations in dust collected from Danish homes and daycare centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Sarka; Weschler, Charles J.; Fischer, Andreas; Bekö, Gabriel; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2010-06-01

    As part of the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health (IECH) study, dust samples were collected from 500 bedrooms and 151 daycare centers of children (ages 3 to 5) living on the island of Fyn. The present paper reports results from the analyses of these samples for five phthalate esters (diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and three PAHs (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)). The three PAHs and DEHP were detected in dust samples from all sites, while DEP, DnBP, DiBP and BBzP were detected in more than 75% of the bedrooms and more than 90% of the daycare centers. The dust mass-fractions of both phthalates and PAHs were log-normally distributed. With the exception of DEP, the mass-fractions of phthalates in dust were higher in daycare centers than homes; PAH mass-fractions in dust were similar in the two locations. There was no correlation among the different phthalates in either homes or daycare centers. In contrast, the PAH were correlated with one another - more strongly so in homes ( R2 = 0.80-0.90) than in daycare centers ( R2 = 0.28-0.45). The dust levels of several phthalates (BBzP, DnBP and DEHP) were substantially lower than those measured in a comparable study conducted 6-7 years earlier in Sweden. Although usage patterns in Denmark differ from those in Sweden, the current results may also reflect a change in the plasticizers that are used in common products including toys. PAH levels were roughly an order of magnitude lower than those measured in Berlin and Cape Cod residences, suggesting that the Danish sites are less impacted by motor vehicle emissions.

  10. Toxicity of phthalates. January 1978-January 1988 (citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biological effects of phthalate exposure. Measurement of phthalate levels in fish, pork, and hens is discussed. The effects of phthalates on reproductive organs, skin, lungs, liver, and blood is examined. Toxicity, carcinogenesis, and mutagenicity caused by phthalates are described. The effect of phthalates on earthworms, coral, lichen, bacteria, and mussels is briefly discussed. (Contains 287 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  11. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Lindström, Emma Sofie; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Frisch, Thomas; Main, Katharina M.; Bendtzen, Klaus; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)) on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg) secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor) by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells. PMID:26985823

  12. Comparison, association, and risk assessment of phthalates in floor dust at different indoor environments in Delaware, USA.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolong; Yuan, Shoujun; Pan, Xiaojun; Winstead, Cherese; Wang, Qiquan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare and assess phthalate contamination in various indoor environments. In this study, 44 floor dust samples from different indoor environments in Delaware, USA were collected and analyzed for 14 phthalates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phthalates were detected in all dust samples with the total concentration ranging from 84 to 7117 mg kg(-1). DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), BzBP (benzylbutyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), and DiBP (di-isobutyl phthalate) were both the most frequently and abundantly detected phthalates. The average concentration of total phthalates in dust from offices, student dorms, gyms, stores, and daycare centers was found to be significantly or insignificantly (P = 0.05) higher than that in dust from houses and apartments. Plastic flooring materials and the application of floor care chemical products were positively associated with total phthalate concentration in floor dust. Toxicological risk assessment indicated that an investigated daycare center in this study was the only indoor environment that may cause the intake amount of DEHP of infants, toddlers, and children via dust ingestion to exceed the reference dose established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Regular monitoring on phthalate contamination in sensitive indoor environments is recommended. PMID:26327207

  13. The association between phthalate exposure and atopic dermatitis with a discussion of phthalate induced secretion of interleukin-1β and thymic stromal lymphopoietin.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Line E K; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Frederiksen, Hanne; Main, Katharina M; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-06-01

    Phthalate diesters are widely used as emollients in plastic and cosmetics as well as in food packaging and perfumes, potentially leading to prolonged and repeated dermal, oral and airborne exposure. We here review published articles that have evaluated the putative role of phthalate diesters in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and discuss possible pathogenic pathways. A literature search resulted in 563 articles in Embase and 263 articles in Pubmed. After identification of relevant articles based on screening of titles, abstracts and reference lists, a total of 39 articles were selected and included. While no clear association has been shown between systemic phthalate levels and atopic dermatitis in human studies, animal data suggests that phthalates may worsen dermatitis and in vitro data suggests that interleukin-4 could be upregulated. Moreover, both loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene and atopic dermatitis have been associated with elevated systemic phthalate levels. There is a need for prospective studies to clarify the possible pathogenic role of phthalate diesters in atopic dermatitis and the associated health risk, especially with the general trend towards barrier restoration with emollients in infants at risk of developing atopic dermatitis. In summary, we conclude that the results from published studies are controversial and inconclusive. PMID:26894419

  14. [The occurrence of plasticisers (phthalates) in communal facilities under special consideration of results from LUPE 3].

    PubMed

    Fromme, H; Lahrz, T; Kraft, M; Fembacher, L; Burghardt, R; Sievering, S; Dietrich, S; Völkel, W

    2013-11-01

    Children are a very susceptible subgroup of the general population and therefore health authorities have a special interest to prevent them from health hazards. In a study of 3 German Bundesländer the indoor air and dust samples of altogether 63 German daycare centres were analysed for the presence of phthalate diesters in 2011/12 (LUPE 3 study). Inhalable dust and gas phases were collected with a glass fibre filter and polyurethane foam over approximately 6 h while children were attending these facilities. Settled dust was collected by vacuuming the floor of the room using an ALK dust sampler. Indoor air and dust were analysed using a GC/MS system. Median values in the dust samples were 888 mg/kg for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), 302 mg/kg for diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), 34 mg/kg for diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP), 21 mg/kg for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and 20 mg/kg for diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP). For DEHP and DiNP maximum values of 10,086 mg/kg and 7,091 mg/kg were observed, respectively. DEHP and DiNP were responsible for 70% and 24% of the total phthalate concentration in the dust. In indoor air phthalates are found mainly in the particulate phase of the filters. Only the more volatile phthalates dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate were found also in the gas phase. The median values in the indoor air were 470 ng/m³ for DiBP, 230 ng/m³ for DnBP, 190 ng/m³ for DEHP, and 100 ng/m³ for DiNP. DnBP and DiBP were together responsible for 55% of the total phthalate concentration in the indoor air. Overall, our study showed that the concentrations of phthalates in indoor air of daycare centers are slightly higher and in dust samples lower compared with schools. PMID:24165914

  15. Adsorption Removal of Environmental Hormones of Dimethyl Phthalate Using Novel Magnetic Adsorbent

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Ji, Dar-Ren; Chiu, Chun-Yu; Lu, De-Sheng; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Yuan, Min-Hao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Chiou, Chyow-San; Chen, Yi-Hung; Shie, Je-Lueng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic polyvinyl alcohol adsorbent M-PVAL was employed to remove and concentrate dimethyl phthalate DMP. The M-PVAL was prepared after sequential syntheses of magnetic Fe3O4 (M) and polyvinyl acetate (M-PVAC). The saturated magnetizations of M, M-PVAC, and M-PVAL are 57.2, 26.0, and 43.2 emu g−1 with superparamagnetism, respectively. The average size of M-PVAL by number is 0.75 μm in micro size. Adsorption experiments include three cases: (1) adjustment of initial pH (pH0) of solution to 5, (2) no adjustment of pH0 with value in 6.04–6.64, and (3) adjusted pH0 = 7. The corresponding saturated amounts of adsorption of unimolecular layer of Langmuir isotherm are 4.01, 5.21, and 4.22 mg g−1, respectively. Values of heterogeneity factor of Freundlich isotherm are 2.59, 2.19, and 2.59 which are greater than 1, revealing the favorable adsorption of DMP/M-PVAL system. Values of adsorption activation energy per mole of Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm are, respectively, of low values of 7.04, 6.48, and 7.19 kJ mol−1, indicating the natural occurring of the adsorption process studied. The tiny size of adsorbent makes the adsorption take place easily while its superparamagnetism is beneficial for the separation and recovery of micro adsorbent from liquid by applying magnetic field after completion of adsorption. PMID:26258169

  16. Phthalate Exposure Changes the Metabolic Profile of Cardiac Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Luther M.; Kay, Matthew W.; Lee, Norman H.; Sarvazyan, Narine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are common plasticizers present in medical-grade plastics and other everyday products. They can also act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and have been linked to the rise in metabolic disorders. However, the effect of phthalates on cardiac metabolism remains largely unknown. Objectives: We examined the effect of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) on the metabolic profile of cardiomyocytes because alterations in metabolic processes can lead to cell dysfunction. Methods: Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with DEHP at a concentration and duration comparable to clinical exposure (50–100 μg/mL, 72 hr). We assessed the effect of DEHP on gene expression using microarray analysis. Physiological responses were examined via fatty acid utilization, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial mass, and Western blot analysis. Results: Exposure to DEHP led to up-regulation of genes associated with fatty acid transport, esterification, mitochondrial import, and β-oxidation. The functional outcome was an increase in myocyte fatty acid–substrate utilization, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial mass, PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α) protein expression, and extracellular acidosis. Treatment with a PPARα agonist (Wy-14643) only partially mimicked the effects observed in DEHP-treated cells. Conclusions: Data suggest that DEHP exposure results in metabolic remodeling of cardiomyocytes, whereby cardiac cells increase their dependence on fatty acids for energy production. This fuel switch may be regulated at both the gene expression and posttranscription levels. Our findings have important clinical implications because chronic dependence on fatty acids is associated with an accumulation in lipid intermediates, lactate, protons, and reactive oxygen species. This dependence can sensitize the heart to ischemic injury and ventricular dysfunction. PMID:22672789

  17. Determination of Selected Phthalates by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in Personal Perfumes.

    PubMed

    Orecchio, Santino; Indelicato, Roberta; Barreca, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    A simple and fast method is proposed to analyze commercial personal perfumes. Our method includes measurement of phthalates, known to be major sources of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDC), which originate from the less volatile fraction of perfumes. The quantification of phthalates were carried out directly with no sample preparation required on 30 samples of commercial products using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a detector. The total concentrations of 15 investigated compounds ranged from 17 to 9650 mg/L with an average of 2643 mg/L. The highest total concentration was found in cologne. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were detected in appreciable concentrations. Further, it was found that the composition of counterfeit samples varied widely from that of authentic products. The composition of old products was different from that of recent perfumes, which contain less harmful chemicals, attributed to the ban on some phthalates in Europe due their toxicity. It should be noted that older and contaminated products are not equivalent to authentic products when considering quality, safety, and probably effectiveness. Older and nonapproved perfumes contain chemicals that are not allowed for commercial use and may contain toxic impurities. PMID:26262443

  18. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    PubMed

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production. PMID:27211312

  19. Influence of Phthalates on in vitro Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Frederiksen, Hanne; Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Bendtzen, Klaus; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion from both monocytes/macrophages and T cells in a similar pattern: the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and the chemokine CXCL8 by monocytes/macrophages was enhanced, while tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by monocytes/macrophages was impaired, as was the secretion of IL-2 and IL-4, TNF-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did not seem to be a result of cell death. Thus, results indicate that both human innate and adaptive immunity is influenced in vitro by phthalates, and that phthalates therefore may affect cell differentiation and regenerative and inflammatory processes in vivo. PMID:26110840

  20. Urinary Phthalates and Leukocyte Telomere Length: An Analysis of NHANES 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Scinicariello, Franco; Feroe, Aliya G; Attanasio, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) as "possibly carcinogenic to humans". In vitro studies reported that phthalate exposure resulted in induction of several nuclear transcription factors that are activators of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase activity of the human telomerase complex. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between urinary phthalate metabolites [mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethyl)-hexyl phthalate (MEHP), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the adult population of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 (n=2472). After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of urinary MEHP had statistically significantly longer LTL (5.34%, 95% CI: 1.31, 9.53; and 7.14%, 95% CI: 2.94, 11.63; respectively) compared to the lowest quartile, with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p-trend=0.01). The association remained when the analyses were stratified by age groups (20-39years, 40-59years, and 60years and older), and sex. Furthermore, MBP and MBzP were associated with higher LTL in older participants. The age independent association between longer LTL and MEHP (a metabolite of DEHP) might suggest a possible role of MEHP as tumor promoter. PMID:27211552

  1. The effects of phthalates in the cardiovascular and reproductive systems: A review.

    PubMed

    Mariana, Melissa; Feiteiro, Joana; Verde, Ignacio; Cairrao, Elisa

    2016-09-01

    Every year millions of tons of plastic are produced around the world and humans are increasingly exposed to them. This constant exposure to plastics has raised some concerns against human health, particularly when it comes to phthalates. These compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties, as they have the ability to bind molecular targets in the body and interfere with hormonal function and quantity. The main use of phthalates is to give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers. Phthalates are found in a variety of industrial and consumer products, and as they are not covalently bound to the plastic, phthalates contaminate the environment from which human exposure occurs. Studies in human and animal populations suggest a correlation between phthalate exposure and adverse health outcomes, particularly at the reproductive and cardiovascular systems, however there is much less information about the phthalate toxicity of the later. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to present the studies relating the effects already stated of phthalates on the cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and also present the link between these two systems. PMID:27424259

  2. Biodegradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by a Newly Isolated Halotolerant Sphingobium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bingjian; Bai, Zhihui; Zhang, Hongxun

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-negative strain (TJ) capable of growing aerobically on mixed phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the Haihe estuary, Tianjin, China. It was identified as belonging to the Sphingobium genus on the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA and gyrb gene sequencing. The batch tests for biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by the Sphingobium sp. TJ showed that the optimum conditions were 30 °C, pH 7.0, and the absence of NaCl. Stain TJ could tolerate up to 4% NaCl in minimal salt medium supplemented with DBP, although the DBP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased. In addition, substrate tests showed that strain TJ could utilize shorter side-chained PAEs, such as dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate, but could not metabolize long-chained PAEs, such as di-n-octyl phthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biodegradation characteristics of DBP by a member of the Sphingobium genus. PMID:24336064

  3. Associations between Maternal Biomarkers of Phthalate Exposure and Inflammation Using Repeated Measurements across Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is prevalent in populations worldwide, including pregnant women. Maternal urinary metabolite concentrations have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we investigate inflammation as a possible pathway by examining phthalates in association with inflammation biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and a panel of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) in a repeated measures analysis of pregnant women (N = 480). Urinary phthalate metabolites and plasma inflammation biomarkers were measured from samples collected at up to four visits per subject during gestation (median 10, 18, 26, and 35 weeks). Associations were examined using mixed models to account for within-individual correlation of measures. Few statistically significant associations or clear trends were observed, although in full models mono-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) was significantly (percent change with interquartile range increase in exposure [%Δ] = 8.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.28, 14.8), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) was suggestively (%Δ = 6.79, 95%CI = -1.21, 15.4) associated with IL-6. Overall these findings show little evidence of an association between phthalate exposure and peripheral inflammation in pregnant women. To investigate inflammation as a mechanism of phthalate effects in humans, biomarkers from target tissues or fluids, though difficult to measure in large-scale studies, may be necessary to detect effects. PMID:26317519

  4. Assessment and analysis of phthalate esters, in Lake Pontchartrain, by SPME combining with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengyan; Tian, Tian; Barreto, Jose; Chou, Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study for the first time reports a quantitative analysis of phthalates and spatial distribution of phthalates in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). During 2008-2009, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) along with its congener (DiBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were detected in Lake Pontchartrain. Concentrations of these phthalates in the lake were monitored in different areas before and after the opening of the Bonnet Carré Spillway that occurred from April to May in 2008. The concentration of sigma3PAEs (DnBP, DiBP and DEHP) ranged from 0 to 20 microg/L in the surface water of the lake from March 2008 to June 2009. The distribution of the three phthalates varied with locations in the lake. An increase trend of sigma3PAEs was observed after the opening of the Bonnet Carré Spillway in the central lake area. The observed increase of the phthalates could be correlated to the opening of the spillway. The SPME followed by GC-MS employed in this study has been proved to be a rapid, sensitive and practical method to quantitatively analyse and evaluate phthalate concentrations in salt lake waters. PMID:23530359

  5. Dietary Phthalate Exposure in Pregnant Women and the Impact of Consumer Practices

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Samantha E.; Karr, Catherine J.; Seixas, Noah S.; Nguyen, Ruby H. N.; Barrett, Emily S.; Janssen, Sarah; Redmon, Bruce; Swan, Shanna H.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are contaminants in food and contribute to significant dietary exposures. We examined associations between reported consumption of specific foods and beverages and first trimester urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in 656 pregnant women within a multicenter cohort study, The Infant Development and Environment Study (TIDES), using multivariate regression analysis. We also examined whether reported use of ecofriendly and chemical-free products was associated with lower phthalate biomarker levels in comparison to not following such practices. Consumption of one additional serving of dairy per week was associated with decreases of 1% in the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite levels (95% CI: −2.0, −0.2). Further, participants who reported sometimes eating homegrown food had monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) levels that were 16.6% lower (95% CI: −29.5, −1.3) in comparison to participants in the rarely/never category. In contrast to rarely/never eating frozen fruits and vegetables, participants who reported sometimes following this practice had monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) levels that were 21% higher (95% CI: 3.3, 41.7) than rarely/ever respondents. Future study on prenatal dietary phthalate exposure and the role of consumer product choices in reducing such exposure is needed. PMID:24927036

  6. Determination of phthalates in fruit jellies by dispersive SPE coupled with HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuwei; Hashi, Yuki; Ji, Feng; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2010-02-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of five phthalates including dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate in fruit jellies by LC coupled with MS has been developed. Samples were pretreated by a dispersive SPE method, termed QuEChERS, which is an acronym for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe. The standard calibration curves were linear for all the analytes over the concentration range of 10-250 ng/mL, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9976 to 0.9991. The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.09-3.68 ng/mL and 0.28-11.25 ng/mL, respectively. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by measuring the recovery from spiked samples. The recoveries of all five phthalates from samples spiked at three different concentrations (0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 mg/kg), were in the ranges of 83.5-103.9%, 86.7-95.8%, and 87.1-95.2%, respectively. The RSD values for the samples spiked at 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 mg/kg ranged from 2.0-7.6%, 1.4-6.4%, and 1.2-3.8%, respectively. The method has been used for the analysis of real samples and BBP and DEP were found in real samples. PMID:19998379

  7. Associations between Maternal Biomarkers of Phthalate Exposure and Inflammation Using Repeated Measurements across Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kelly K; McElrath, Thomas F; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Meeker, John D

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is prevalent in populations worldwide, including pregnant women. Maternal urinary metabolite concentrations have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we investigate inflammation as a possible pathway by examining phthalates in association with inflammation biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and a panel of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) in a repeated measures analysis of pregnant women (N = 480). Urinary phthalate metabolites and plasma inflammation biomarkers were measured from samples collected at up to four visits per subject during gestation (median 10, 18, 26, and 35 weeks). Associations were examined using mixed models to account for within-individual correlation of measures. Few statistically significant associations or clear trends were observed, although in full models mono-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) was significantly (percent change with interquartile range increase in exposure [%Δ] = 8.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.28, 14.8), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) was suggestively (%Δ = 6.79, 95%CI = -1.21, 15.4) associated with IL-6. Overall these findings show little evidence of an association between phthalate exposure and peripheral inflammation in pregnant women. To investigate inflammation as a mechanism of phthalate effects in humans, biomarkers from target tissues or fluids, though difficult to measure in large-scale studies, may be necessary to detect effects. PMID:26317519

  8. Developmental neurotoxicity of ortho-phthalate diesters: review of human and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Miodovnik, Amir; Edwards, Andrea; Bellinger, David C; Hauser, Russ

    2014-03-01

    Ortho-phthalate diesters, or phthalates, are widely used synthetic chemicals found primarily in consumer products and polyvinyl chloride plastics. Experimental evidence suggests that several phthalates possess antiandrogenic properties and may disrupt endocrine pathways resulting in abnormal reproductive outcomes. Low-level exposure to phthalates has been well documented in humans, with higher levels found in children and women of childbearing age. Recent epidemiologic studies postulate that prenatal exposure to measurable urine phthalate concentrations may be associated with altered genital and pubertal development in infants and children. This review addresses the emerging evidence that some phthalates may have an adverse impact on the developing brain. The supporting animal studies and proposed mechanisms underlying the deleterious properties of phthalates in relation to neurodevelopmental outcomes are also discussed. While the observed associations are based on limited studies with a broad range of endpoints, the implications of such outcomes are of concern from a public health standpoint and merit further investigation given the widespread nature of the exposure. PMID:24486776

  9. Dietary phthalate exposure in pregnant women and the impact of consumer practices.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Samantha E; Karr, Catherine J; Seixas, Noah S; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Barrett, Emily S; Janssen, Sarah; Redmon, Bruce; Swan, Shanna H; Sathyanarayana, Sheela

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are contaminants in food and contribute to significant dietary exposures. We examined associations between reported consumption of specific foods and beverages and first trimester urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in 656 pregnant women within a multicenter cohort study, The Infant Development and Environment Study (TIDES), using multivariate regression analysis. We also examined whether reported use of ecofriendly and chemical-free products was associated with lower phthalate biomarker levels in comparison to not following such practices. Consumption of one additional serving of dairy per week was associated with decreases of 1% in the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite levels (95% CI: -2.0, -0.2). Further, participants who reported sometimes eating homegrown food had monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) levels that were 16.6% lower (95% CI: -29.5, -1.3) in comparison to participants in the rarely/never category. In contrast to rarely/never eating frozen fruits and vegetables, participants who reported sometimes following this practice had monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) levels that were 21% higher (95% CI: 3.3, 41.7) than rarely/ever respondents. Future study on prenatal dietary phthalate exposure and the role of consumer product choices in reducing such exposure is needed. PMID:24927036

  10. Phthalate ester toxicity in Leydig cells: developmental timing and dosage considerations.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ren-Shan; Chen, Guo-Rong; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Hardy, Matthew P

    2007-01-01

    Humans have significant exposures to phthalates, as these chemical plasticizers are ubiquitously present in flexible plastics. Recent epidemiological evidence indicates that boys born to women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have an increased incidence of congenital genital malformations and spermatogenic dysfunction, signs of a condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS is thought to develop as a result of environmental factors that cause a testicular disturbance at an early fetal stage with a resultant spectrum of clinical testicular dysfunction, ranging from impaired spermatogenesis and genital malformations to increased risk for development of testicular cancer. Proposed environmental factors in the etiology of TDS include endocrine disrupting compounds such as the phthalates. Leydig cells have been classified as one of the main targets for phthalate ester toxicity in the body based on studies in rodents. In support of this hypothesis, two Leydig cell products - insulin-like growth factor 3 (INSL3) and testosterone (T) - are both suppressed after phthalate exposures. Both fetal and adult generations of Leydig cells are affected by phthalate esters, although their sensitivities may differ. In rodent models, when pregnant dams are exposed to phthalate esters, fetal Leydig cells form enlarged clusters that are retained in the testis even after birth, in contrast to untreated controls. Despite the retention of fetal Leydig cells, however, their numbers and average cell volume of total in exposed males are reduced, as are INSL3 production and steroidogenic competence. These alterations are directly associated with clinical features of TDS, including cryptorchidism and impaired spermatogenesis. PMID:17258888

  11. Relationship between cap structure and energy gap in capped carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shota; Tanikawa, Kousei; Kuwahara, Riichi; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Revealing a universal relation between geometrical structures and electronic properties of capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is one of the current objectives in nanocarbon community. Here, we investigate the local curvature of capped CNTs and define the cap region by a crossover behavior of the curvature energy versus the number of carbon atoms integrated from the tip to the tube region. Clear correlations among the energy gap of the cap localized states, the curvature energy, the number of carbon atoms in the cap region, and the number of specific carbon clusters are observed. The present analysis opens the way to understand the cap states.

  12. Relationship between cap structure and energy gap in capped carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shota; Tanikawa, Kousei; Kuwahara, Riichi; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-07-14

    Revealing a universal relation between geometrical structures and electronic properties of capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is one of the current objectives in nanocarbon community. Here, we investigate the local curvature of capped CNTs and define the cap region by a crossover behavior of the curvature energy versus the number of carbon atoms integrated from the tip to the tube region. Clear correlations among the energy gap of the cap localized states, the curvature energy, the number of carbon atoms in the cap region, and the number of specific carbon clusters are observed. The present analysis opens the way to understand the cap states. PMID:27421422

  13. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  14. Reducing prenatal phthalate exposure through maternal dietary changes: results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Methods Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for three days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Results Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F=0.21; adjusted p-value=0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t=−1.07, adjusted p-value=0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level. PMID:25652062

  15. Reducing Prenatal Phthalate Exposure Through Maternal Dietary Changes: Results from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Emily S; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2015-09-01

    Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for 3 days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F = 0.21; adjusted p value = 0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t = -1.07, adjusted p value = 0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level. PMID:25652062

  16. Influence of Phthalates on Cytokine Production in Monocytes and Macrophages: A Systematic Review of Experimental Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Claus H.; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Background Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which could affect both pro- and anti-inflammatory abilities of these cells. Strategy and Results A systematic search was performed in Medline, Embase and Toxline in June 2013, last updated 3rd of August 2014. Criteria used to select studies were described and published beforehand online on Prospero (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236). In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters) and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion/production from monocytes or macrophages. A summary of cytokine measurements was not possible since few studies were comparable in study design and due to insufficient reporting of raw data for most of the included studies. Conclusion Results from this review have suggested that at least one phthalate (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) has the ability to enhance tumour necrosis factor-α production/secretion from monocytes/macrophages in vitro, but also observed ex vivo. Influence of other phthalates on other cytokines has only been investigated in few studies. Thus, in vitro studies on primary human monocytes/macrophages as well as more in vivo studies are needed to confirm or dispute these findings. PMID:25811352

  17. Phthalate exposure in pregnant women and newborns - the urinary metabolite excretion pattern differs distinctly.

    PubMed

    Enke, Uta; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Pälmke, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Koch, Holger Martin

    2013-11-01

    Some phthalates are endocrine disruptors and reproductive and developmental toxicants. Data on newborn phthalate exposure and elimination characteristics are scarce. We determined 21 urinary phthalate metabolites (indicating exposure to 11 parent phthalates) in two study approaches: in the first approach we collected the urine of 20 healthy newborns at days 2-5 post partum together with 47 urine samples of 7 women during pregnancy. In the second fine tuned approach we collected first urine samples of 9 healthy newborns together with their mother's urine shortly before birth. To ensure full and contamination free collection of the newborns first urines we used special adhesive urine bags for children. All urine samples revealed ubiquitous exposures to phthalates comparable to other populations. Metabolite levels in the newborns first day urine samples were generally lower than in all other samples. However, the newborns urines (both first and day 2-5 urines) showed a metabolite pattern distinctly different from the maternal and general population samples: in the newborns urines the carboxy-metabolites of the long chain phthalates (DEHP, DiNP, DiDP) were the by far dominant metabolites with a relative share in the metabolite spectrum up to 6 times higher than in maternal urine. Oppositely, for the short chain phthalates (DBP, DiBP) oxidized metabolites seemed to be less favored than the simple monoesters in the newborns urines. The skewed metabolite distribution in the newborns urine warrants further investigation in terms of early phthalate metabolism, the quantity of internal phthalate exposure of the fetus/newborn and its possible health effects. PMID:23474103

  18. Prenatal phthalate exposure, infant growth, and global DNA methylation of human placenta.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Shi, Hui-jing; Xie, Chang-ming; Chen, Jiao; Laue, Hannah; Zhang, Yun-hui

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal phthalate exposure has been shown to be associated with reduced fetal growth. Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation might be a molecular mechanism through which phthalate exposure affects fetal growth. In this study, we examined associations between prenatal phthalate exposure, infant growth, and global DNA methylation in human placenta samples. We measured global DNA methylation of 119 subjects [55 fetal growth restriction (FGR) cases and 64 normal controls], as assessed by long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation, via quantitative polymerase chain reaction-pyrosequencing. Prenatal phthalate exposure was assessed by measuring maternal urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and SumDEHP (molar sum of MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP) were significantly higher in FGR cases than those in normal controls (P = 0.002, 0.003, and 0.002, respectively). Placental LINE-1 methylation were found to be positively associated with fetal birth weight standard deviation scores, and negatively associated with urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations (MEHHP and SumDEHP). Every natural-log unit increase in urinary concentrations of MEHHP and SumDEHP was associated with 0.015 (β = -0.015, P = 0.150) and 0.012 kg (β = -0.012, P = 0.167) decrease in birth weight mediated through LINE-1 methylation. These findings suggest that changes in placental LINE-1 methylation might be part of the underlying biological pathway between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse fetal growth. PMID:25327576

  19. Damages Caps in Medical Malpractice Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of damages caps and concludes that the better-designed studies show that damages caps reduce liability insurance premiums. The effects of damages caps on defensive medicine, physicians’ location decisions, and the cost of health care to consumers are less clear. The only study of whether consumers benefit from lower health insurance premiums as a result of damages caps found no impact. Some state courts have based decisions declaring damages caps legislation unconstitutional on the lack of evidence of their effectiveness, thereby ignoring the findings of conflicting research studies or discounting their relevance. Although courts should be cautious in rejecting empirical evidence that caps are effective, legislators should consider whether they benefit consumers enough to justify limiting tort recoveries for those most seriously injured by malpractice. PMID:17517115

  20. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  1. Periodicities of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Aoki, T.

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive all-sky electron multiplier charge-coupled device airglow imager has been operative in Longyearbyen, Norway since October 2011. The imager captures 630.0 nm all-sky images with an exposure time of 4 s, which is about 10 times shorter than that achieved by conventional cooled CCD imagers. This allows us to visualize the structure of polar cap patches without blurring effects and better estimate their periodicities. We present, as one of the first results from the imager, an event of successive appearance of patches on the night of 21 December 2011. A time series of the optical intensity at zenith showed modulations having two distinguished periods, one at 40 min and the other at 5-12 min. One possible explanation is that such a coexistence of two different periodicities is a manifestation of simultaneous occurrence of patch generation processes on the 40 min periodicity was created by large-scale reconfiguration of the dayside convection pattern while the 5-12 min modulations were closely associated with mechanisms driven by pulsed reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. Such a combined effect of multiple patch generation processes may play a role in structuring patches; thus, it would be of particular importance for evaluating the space weather effects in the trans-ionospheric communications environment in the polar cap.

  2. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibit growth and reduce estradiol levels of antral follicles in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rupesh K.; Singh, Jeffery M.; Leslie, Tracie C.; Meachum, Sharon; Flaws, Jodi A.; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2010-01-15

    Any insult that affects survival of ovarian antral follicles can cause abnormal estradiol production and fertility problems. Phthalate esters (PEs) are plasticizers used in a wide range of consumer and industrial products. Exposure to these chemicals has been linked to reduced fertility in humans and animal models. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) decrease serum estradiol levels and aromatase (Arom) expression, prolong estrous cycles, and cause anovulation in animal and culture models. These observations suggest PEs directly target antral follicles. We therefore tested the hypothesis that DEHP (1-100 mug/ml) and MEHP (0.1-10 mug/ml) directly inhibit antral follicular growth and estradiol production. Antral follicles from adult mice were cultured with DEHP or MEHP, and/or estradiol for 96 h. During culture, follicle size was measured every 24 h as a measurement of follicle growth. After culture, media were collected for measurement of estradiol levels and follicles were subjected to measurement of cylin-D-2 (Ccnd2), cyclin-dependant-kinase-4 (Cdk4), and Arom. We found that DEHP and MEHP inhibited growth of follicles and decreased estradiol production compared to controls at the highest doses. DEHP and MEHP also decreased mRNA expression of Ccnd2, Cdk4, and Arom at the highest dose. Addition of estradiol to the culture medium prevented the follicles from DEHP- and MEHP-induced inhibition of growth, reduction in estradiol levels, and decreased Ccnd2 and Cdk4 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that DEHP and MEHP may directly inhibit antral follicle growth via a mechanism that partially includes reduction in levels of estradiol production and decreased expression of cell cycle regulators.

  3. Ocular injuries from flying bottle caps.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, C

    1993-12-01

    Three cases of serious eye injury are described from flying metal caps of carbonated drink bottles. The injuries occurred while attempting to open the bottle in an unconventional and dangerous way. Though injuries from flying bottle caps have been described before, they have occurred when the bottle exploded. This is the first report of eye injuries caused by bottle caps while opening and are similar to the injuries caused by champagne corks. PMID:8143337

  4. Obstetrical outcomes and biomarkers to assess exposure to phthalates: A review.

    PubMed

    Marie, Cécile; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Studies of the effects on pregnancy outcomes of in utero exposure to phthalates, contaminants that are widely present in the environment, have yielded conflicting results. In addition, the mode of assessment of exposure varies between studies. The aim of this review was therefore to establish a current state of knowledge of the phthalates and metabolites involved in unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. Extant data were analyzed to determine which biomarker is the best suited to assess the relation between in utero exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcomes. This review of the literature was conducted using the database of PubMed. A search was made of studies investigating exposure to phthalates and the following birth outcomes: preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks), change in gestational age, change in body size at birth (birth weight, length, head circumference), anti-androgenic function, decreased anogenital distance, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and congenital malformation. The methodological approach adopted in each study was examined, in particular the methods used for exposure assessment (biomarkers and/or questionnaire). Thirty-five studies were included. Premature birth and decreased anogenital distance were the most commonly reported outcomes resulting from a moderate level of exposure to phthalates. The principal metabolites detected and involved were primary metabolites of di-2(ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl-phthalate (DnBP). No clear conclusion could be drawn with regard to gestational age at birth, body size at birth and congenital malformations. In epidemiological studies, maternal urine is the most suitable matrix to assess the association between in utero exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcomes: in contrast to other matrices (cord blood, amniotic fluid, meconium and milk), sampling is easy, non-invasive and, can be repeated to assess exposure throughout pregnancy. Oxidative metabolites are the most relevant biomarkers since they

  5. Photochemical degradation study of polyvinyl acetate paints used in artworks by Py–GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuya; Pintus, Valentina; Schreiner, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Photochemical degradation of commercial polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) homopolymer and PVAc paints mixed with burnt umber, cobalt blue, cadmium red dark, nickel azo yellow and titanium white commonly used for artworks were studied by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Py–GC/MS with single-shot technique was used for the characterization of the thermal degradation of PVAc at different temperatures, while the double-shot technique of Py–GC/MS was used to reveal the differences in the specimens before and after UV ageing, including the changes of detectable amounts of deacetylation product – acetic acid and plasticizers such as diethyl phthalate (DEP). Furthermore, the relative concentration of the pyrolysis products of the paint samples could be measured and compared in the second step of the double-shot Py–GC/MS, which are highly dependent on the presence of pigments and the ageing status of PVAc paints. PMID:23024446

  6. Comparative assessment of phthalate removal and risk in biological wastewater treatment systems of developing countries and small communities.

    PubMed

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Phthalates are widely used in plastic and personnel care products. Being non-steroid endocrine disrupting compounds, their exposure have toxic effects on aquatic life and human health. The aim of this study was a comparative assessment of their fate and risk in full scale wastewater treatment along with influence of seasonal variations. Four priority phthalates, Diethylphthalate (DEP), Dibutylphthalate (DBP), Benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were chosen for this study and wastewater treatment plants investigated were designed as nutrient removal based sequencing batch reactor (SBR), conventional activated sludge process (ASP) and up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) with polishing pond. Results showed that the main removal mechanism of phthalates was biotransformation with removal contribution of 74% in SBR, 65% in conventional ASP and 37% in UASB. Overall removal of phthalates was maximum in the treatment combination of UASB and pond (83%) followed by SBR (80%) and conventional ASP (74%). Seasonal influences on occurrence, removal and risk of these phthalates were also studied. The concentration of DEP, DBP and DEHP in untreated wastewater increased by 2, 7 and 2μg/L, respectively in summer. However in sludge, only large molecular weight phthalates BBP and DEHP increased in winter by 3mg/kg and 12mg/kg, respectively. Seasonal variations in removal of phthalates were discrepant in each process with better removal during summer. Risk assessment of phthalates to aquatic life showed that there is no potential risk of DEP, DBP and BBP from effluents of treatment plants however risk quotient of DEHP was in the range of 27-73 in both seasons which indicate probable risk to aquatic organisms. Phthalate risk to human beings estimated by daily intake of phthalates was in the range of 0.3±0.1 to 20±0.7ng/kg/d and far below their respective reference dosages, demonstrating the potential of these treatment plants to reduce the risk of

  7. Phthalate esters in the environment: A critical review of their occurrence, biodegradation, and removal during wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan

    2016-01-15

    Phthalate esters are one of the most frequently detected persistent organic pollutants in the environment. A better understanding of their occurrence and degradation in the environment and during wastewater treatment processes will facilitate the development of strategies to reduce these pollutants and to bioremediate contaminated freshwater and soil. Phthalate esters occur at measurable levels in different environments worldwide. For example, the concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in atmospheric particulate matter, fresh water and sediments, soil, and landfills are N.D.-10.4 ng/m(3), N.D.-31.7 μg/L, N.D.-316 μg/kg dry weight, and N.D.-200 μg/kg dry weight, N.D.-43.27 μg/L, respectively. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are primary phthalate ester pollutants. Urbanization has increased the discharge of phthalate esters to atmospheric and aquatic environments, and the use of agricultural plastics has exacerbated soil contamination by phthalate esters in rural areas. Aerobic biodegradation is the primary manner of phthalate ester mineralization in the environment, and this process has been widely studied. Phthalate esters can be removed during wastewater treatment processes. The combination of different wastewater treatment technologies showed greater efficiency in the removal of phthalate esters than individual treatment steps, such as the combination of anaerobic wastewater treatment with a membrane bioreactor would increase the efficiency of phthalate ester removal from 65%-71% to 95%-97%. This review provides a useful framework to identify future research objectives to achieve the mineralization and elimination of phthalate esters in the environment. PMID:26473701

  8. Biodegradation of the phthalates and their esters by bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Keyser, P; Pujar, B G; Eaton, R W; Ribbons, D W

    1976-01-01

    Recent studies on the biodegradation phthalate esters in natural ecosystems, sewage, and laboratory cultures are reviewed. There is ample evidence to demonstrate that bacteria are major elements in the biodegradative processes and that in most situations complete oxidation of the aromatic ring occurs; much less is known about the catabolism of the alcoholic moiety, e.g., 2-ethylhexanol. Evidence is presented to support catabolic pathways in pseudomonads and micrococci that are initiated by successive hydrolyses of the diesters to give the phthalate anion. Thereafter a dioxygenase catalyzes the formation of 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyphthalate, which is oxidized by an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase to give 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate, Protocatechuate, formed by decarboxylation of 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate, is the substrate for ring cleavage enzymes. Whereas flurorescent pseudomonads use the beta-ketoadipate pathway, the nonfluorescent strains and micrococci examined use of meta-cleavage (4,5-) route. All the intermediates proposed have been accumulated by enzymes purified from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Isophthalate and terephthalate (anions) are readily used as carbon sources by aerobic bacteria, and preliminary evidence is consistent with catabolic routes for these isomers converging at the ring-cleavage substrate protocatechuate. Some possible effects and interactions of synthetic organic chemicals with the natural microflora, and the influence of other vectors, is discussed in relation to the maintenance of the carbon cycle and environmental pollution. PMID:829485

  9. Fetotoxic effects of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, I; Nakamura, Y; Yagi, Y; Tutikawa, K

    1986-01-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), one of the main metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), exerted embryo/fetotoxic effects similar to those of DEHP at lower doses. Oral administration of MEHP (1 mL/kg) to the mice of 8 days gestation resulted in less than 32% of live fetuses, all of which were deformed. When DEHP (10 mL/kg) was given to the pregnant mice of 8 days gestation, approximately 0.03% and 0.003% of the administered dose was found in fetuses as DEHP and MEHP, respectively, after 12 hr. The presence of the MEHP in fetuses is probably due to the transplacental crossing of the MEHP formed in the maternal body, since the fetuses of mice up to day 9 of pregnancy showed no hydrolytic activity of DEHP to MEHP. Crossing of MEHP through the placenta was proven by an experiment in which MEHP was administered in pregnant mice. A single injection of MEHP (25 or 50 mg/kg), but not DEHP (500 mg/kg) into pregnant mice, induced a significantly high incidence of somatic mutations in the coat hair of offspring of mice (KYG, female X PW, male; C57BL/6Crj, female X PW, male). All these data suggest that MEHP could be responsible for the embryotoxic/fetotoxic effects observed with DEHP. PMID:3709449

  10. Understanding Palladium Acetate from a User Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carole, William A; Colacot, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of palladium acetate is reviewed with respect to its synthesis, characterization, structure (in both solution and solid state), and activation pathways. In addition, comparisons of catalytic activities between pure palladium acetate and two common byproducts, Pd3 (OAc)5 (NO2 ) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2 ]n , typically present in commercially available material are reviewed. Hence, this minireview serves as a concise guide for the users of palladium acetate from both academia and industry. PMID:27125630

  11. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  16. The cervical cap: a barrier contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Hastings-Tolsma, M T

    1982-01-01

    The cervical cap may eventually prove to be a safe, satisfactory, noninvasive, and nonhormonal contraceptive alternative for women in the US. The cap is currently approved for investigational use only, and is available from a limited number of providers. The Prentif cavity rim cap is the most commonly used and is available in 4 sizes. The soft rubber device is thimble shaped, approximately 1 1/4 inches long, with a narrow groove along the inner surface that creates a suction seal when fitted over the cervix. The inability to match cap and cervical circumferences precisely is a recognized drawback. Theoretically, the cap alone should prevent sperm entry into the uterus, however, the use of a spermicide placed in the dome before insertion is recommended. The cap's effectiveness is not yet documented. Estimates from a 1953 study of 143 users were 92.4/100 women years of use for use effectiveness, and the theoretical effectiveness is believed to be more than 98%. Failures with the cap may result from a variety of reasons, particularly dislodgement. The advantage of the cap over other barrier methods is that it can be inserted any time prior to intercourse and left in place longer. The ideal safety period for placement has not been validated, but a range of 1-7 days has been recommended. The length of time the spermicide remains effective and the cervical effects of prolonged contact are of prime concern. The cap may be used by some women who cannot be properly fitted for a diaphragm due to vaginal or uterine anomalies. Sexual arousal and orgasmic response are reported by some cap users to be more pleasurable with the cap than with the diaphragm. Reported problems with use include discomfort during intercourse and improper fit during some days of the menstrual cycle. Contraindications for use include cervical inconsistencies, infection, allergy to the spermicide or the rubber, and inability to learn proper insertion and removal techniques. Insertion and removal may be

  17. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Reproductive Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization: Results from the EARTH Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Russ; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Souter, Irene; Smith, Kristen W.; Dodge, Laura E.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Meeker, John D.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Williams, Paige L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse female reproductive outcomes. Objective: We evaluated the associations between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods: This analysis included 256 women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2004–2012) who provided one to two urine samples per cycle before oocyte retrieval. We measured 11 urinary phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP), monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP)]. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association of urinary phthalate metabolites with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, accounting for multiple IVF cycles per woman. Results: In multivariate models, women in the highest as compared with lowest quartile of MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, ΣDEHP (MEHP + MEHHP + MEOHP + MECPP), and MCNP had lower oocyte yield. Similarly, the number of mature (MII) oocytes retrieved was lower in the highest versus lowest quartile for these same phthalate metabolites. The adjusted differences (95% CI) in proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth between women in the fourth versus first quartile of ΣDEHP were –0.19 (–0.29, –0.08) and –0.19 (–0.28, –0.08), respectively, and there was also a lower proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth for individual DEHP metabolites. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites were inversely associated with oocyte yield, clinical pregnancy

  18. Temporal Trends in Phthalate Exposures: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Because of potential adverse effects on human health, butylbenzyl phthalate [BBzP; metabolite, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)], di-n-butyl phthalate [DnBP; metabolite, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)], and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are being replaced by substitutes including other phthalates; however, little is known about consequent trends in population-level exposures. Objective: We examined temporal trends in urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in the general U.S. population and whether trends vary by sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: We combined data on 11 phthalate metabolites for 11,071 participants from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2010). Percent changes and least square geometric means (LSGMs) were calculated from multivariate regression models. Results: LSGM concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, MnBP, MBzP, and ΣDEHP metabolites decreased between 2001–2002 and 2009–2010 [percent change (95% CI): –42% (–49, –34); –17% (–23, –9); –32% (–39, –23) and –37% (–46, –26), respectively]. In contrast, LSGM concentrations of monoisobutyl phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) increased over the study period [percent change (95% CI): 206% (178, 236); 25% (8, 45); 149% (102, 207); and 15% (1, 30), respectively]. Trends varied by subpopulations for certain phthalates. For example, LSGM concentrations of ΣDEHP metabolites, MCPP, and MCNP were higher in children than adults, but the gap between groups narrowed over time (pinteraction < 0.01). Conclusions: Exposure of the U.S. population to phthalates has changed in the last decade. Data gaps make it difficult to explain trends, but legislative activity and advocacy campaigns by nongovernmental organizations may play a role in changing trends. Citation: Zota AZ, Calafat AM

  19. Maternal and early life exposure to phthalates: The Plastics and Personal-care Products use in Pregnancy (P4) study.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Tye E; Fisher, Mandy; MacPherson, Susan; Lang, Carly; Provencher, Gilles; LeBlanc, Alain; Hauser, Russ; Feeley, Mark; Ayotte, Pierre; Neisa, Angelica; Ramsay, Tim; Tawagi, George

    2016-05-01

    Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a number of consumer products; some of these phthalates have been shown to possess estrogenic activity and display anti-androgenic effects. While a number of biomonitoring studies of phthalates in pregnant women and infants have been published, there is a paucity of data based on both multiple sampling periods and in different matrices. Phthalate metabolites were measured in 80 pregnant women and their infants in Ottawa Canada (2009-2010) in urine, meconium and breast milk collected at various time periods pre- and post-parturition. At least 50% of the women had at least one urine sample greater than the limit of detection (LOD) for the various phthalate metabolites, with the exception of mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP) and mono(carboxy-isooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP). Four major clusters of maternal urinary metabolites were identified. Among infants (n=61), the following metabolites were rarely (< 10%) detected: mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), and mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP). While mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), MEHHP, and MEOHP were frequently detected in maternal urines at any time point, these metabolites were rarely detected in breast milk. Maternal urinary concentrations of MEP and the DEHP metabolites were higher in samples collected during pregnancy than postnatally. No statistically significant differences were observed in infant's urinary phthalate concentrations between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Significant correlations were observed between maternal urinary MEHHP (r=0.35), MEOHP (r=0.35) and MEP (r=0.37) collected at <20weeks gestation with levels in meconium and between MBzP (r=0.78) and MEP (r=0.56) in maternal and infant urine collected 2-3months after birth. These results suggest at least some maternal-fetal-infant transfer of phthalates and that meconium may be a

  20. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  1. Influence of in utero di-n-hexyl phthalate and dicyclohexyl phthalate on fetal testicular development in rats.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan Ahbab, Müfide; Barlas, Nurhayat

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP) and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) on male reproductive development in utero. Pregnant rats were exposed to DHP and DCHP at doses of 0 (vehicle), 20, 100 and 500mg/kg/day, by gavage, on gestational days (GD) 6-19. A significant decrease in the anogenital distance (AGD) of male fetuses was observed at all doses of DHP and DCHP. The AGD/cube root of body weight ratio in male fetuses was also significantly reduced compared to control group. The litters with resorption, percentage of resorptions and inhibin B levels increased in treatment groups. Moreover, testosterone and MIS/AMH levels in all treatment groups decreased. Although FSH and inhibin B levels of male pups exposed to DHP and DCHP increased, FSH/inhibin B ratio decreased in treatment groups. Reduced testosterone production in response to DHP and DCHP exposure appeared to be related to changes in testosterone metabolism, as shown by decreased 3β-HSD immunoexpression. The percentages of large Leydig clusters increased after exposure to DHP and DCHP in utero. Histopathological examination of the testis on GD20 revealed changes at all doses. Relative integrated immunodensities of 3β-HSD, MIS/AMH, PCNA and AR decreased after DHP and DCHP exposures. Altered fetal Sertoli cell development and function may be caused by disrupted PMC function revealed by reduced AR production in these cells in treatment groups. PMID:25637754

  2. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  3. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various developmental abnormalities of the reproductive tract that are manifested later in adult life. Induction of these malformations is associated with declines in fetal testicular testoste...

  4. TREATABILITY OF PHTHALATE ESTER COMPOUNDS FROM PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the project was to evaluate methods of removing phthalates from a plastics molding and forming contact cooling and heating water. Two technologies were evaluated: (1) ferric chloride assisted clarification; and, (2) activated carbon adsorption. The actual wastewa...

  5. Phthalate-Induced Pathology in the Foetal Testis Involves More Than Decreased Testosterone Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Foetal exposure to phthalates is known to adversely impact male reproductive development and function. Developmental anomalies of reproductive tract have been attributed to impaired testosterone synthesis. However, species differences in the ability to produce testosterone have...

  6. PHTHALATE-INDUCED LEYDIG CELL HYPERPLASIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE DISTURBANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility that exposures to environmental agents are associated with reproductive disorders in human populations has generated much public interest recently. Phthalate esters are used most commonly as plasticizers in the food and construction industry, and DEHP is the most ...

  7. Phthalates and bisphenols migration in Mexican food cans and plastic food containers.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, M I; Olea-Serrano, M F; Rivas-Velasco, A M; Medina-Rivero, E; Ordoñez-Acevedo, Leandro G; De León-Rodríguez, A

    2011-06-01

    The presence of endocrine disruptors bisphenol-A, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, phthalic-acid, dibutyl-phthalate, diethyl-phthalate and dioctyl-phthalate was determined in vegetable cans, baby bottles and microwaveable containers from the Mexican market. Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry was used for the identification and High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatography with UV/Visible light and fluorescence detectors was used for the quantification. Endocrine disruptors were found in all samples. PA and DOP were the substances most commonly found, and maximum concentrations were 9.549 and 0.664 μg/kg, respectively from a jalapeno peppers can. Bisphenol A, phthalic-acid, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, dioctyl-phtalate and dibutyl-phthalate were found in baby bottles and microwaveable containers. PMID:21509467

  8. Transgenerational Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in the SD Male Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the rat, some phthalates alter sexual differentiation at relatively low dosage levels by altering fetal Leydig cell development and hormone synthesis, thereby inducing abnormalities of the testis, gubernacular ligaments, epididymis and other androgen-dependent tissues. In ...

  9. Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Mexazolam Using Ethylene-vinyl Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Weon Cho, Cheong; Chul Shin, Sang

    2012-01-01

    Repeated oral administration of mexazolam, an anti-anxiety agent, may cause adverse effects such as gastric disturbance, drowsiness, and ataxia due to transiently high blood levels. Transdermal administration would avoid the systemic side effects and gastric disorders after oral administration. We have developed a matrix using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), a heat-processible and flexible material, for transdermal delivery of mexazolam. Drug solubility was highest at 40% PEG-400 volume fraction. The release and permeation profiles through the rat skin were determined for 24 h using a modified Keshary-Chien diffusion cell. The drug release was increased by increasing the concentration with a linear relationship between the release rate and the square root of loading dose. Increasing temperature increased drug release from the EVA matrix. The activation energy (Ea), which was measured from a slope of log P versus 1000/T plot, was 8.64 Kcal/mol for a 1.5% loading dose. To reduce the brittleness and increase the pore of the EVA matrix, diffrent plasticizers were used. Among the plasticizers, including the citrates or the phthalate groups, diethyl phthalate showed the highest effect on the release of mexazolam. To increase the skin permeation of mexazolam from the EVA matrix, enhancers such as the fatty acids, the pyrrolidones, the propylene glycol derivatives, the glycerides, and the non-ionic surfactants were added to the EVA matrix, respectively, and skin permeation was evaluated using a modified Keshary-Chien diffusion cell fitted with intact excised rat skin. Among the several enhancers used, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone showed the best enhancement factor. In conclusion, enhanced transdermal delivery of mexazolam through an EVA matrix containing plasticizer and a permeation enhancer could be useful in the development of a transdermal drug delivery system. PMID:25317180

  10. Unbonded capping for concrete masonry units

    SciTech Connect

    Crouch, L.K.; Knight, M.L.; Henderson, R.C.; Sneed, W.A. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Due to the manufacturing process, the bearing surfaces of concrete masonry units are often somewhat rough and uneven. Therefore, concrete masonry units must be capped when tested in compression according to ASTM C 140-96, Standard Test Methods of Sampling and Testing Concrete Masonry Units. Capping of concrete masonry units is time consuming and expensive. Several studies of compression tests on concrete cylinders indicate that use of elastic pads in rigid retaining caps give similar compressive strength results to approved capping methods.An unbonded capping system for concrete masonry units similar to that described in ASTM C 1231-93, Standard Practice for Use of Unbonded Caps in Determination of Compressive Strength of Hardened Concrete Cylinders, was developed. The average compressive strength results obtained when using the unbonded capping system ranged from 92--94% of the average compressive strength results obtained when using ASTM C 140-96 approved methods. Further, use of the unbonded capping system was found to increase productivity and substantially reduce testing cost.

  11. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  12. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  13. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  14. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  15. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of diethyl phthalate using TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Pooja; Pandey, O. P.; Singh, K.

    2014-04-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles predominantly in rutile phase are synthesized by ultrasonication assisted sol-gel method. TiO2 powder is characterized using X-ray powder diffraction and UV-vis diffuse reflectance. TiO2 is used as catalyst in photocatalytic degradation of Diethyl Phthalate. TiO2 exhibits good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diethyl phthalate.

  17. Exposure to Phthalates Affects Calcium Handling and Intercellular Connectivity of Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Posnack, Nikki Gillum; Idrees, Rabia; Ding, Hao; Jaimes III, Rafael; Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Karabekian, Zaruhi; Laflamme, Michael A.; Sarvazyan, Narine

    2015-01-01

    Background The pervasive nature of plastics has raised concerns about the impact of continuous exposure to plastic additives on human health. Of particular concern is the use of phthalates in the production of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products. Di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used phthalate ester plasticizer that imparts flexibility and elasticity to PVC products. Recent epidemiological studies have reported correlations between urinary phthalate concentrations and cardiovascular disease, including an increased risk of high blood pressure and coronary risk. Yet, there is little direct evidence linking phthalate exposure to adverse effects in human cells, including cardiomyocytes. Methods and Results The effect of DEHP on calcium handling was examined using monolayers of gCAMP3 human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, which contain an endogenous calcium sensor. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to DEHP (5 – 50 μg/mL), and calcium transients were recorded using a Zeiss confocal imaging system. DEHP exposure (24 – 72 hr) had a negative chronotropic and inotropic effect on cardiomyocytes, increased the minimum threshold voltage required for external pacing, and modified connexin-43 expression. Application of Wy-14,643 (100 μM), an agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, did not replicate DEHP’s effects on calcium transient morphology or spontaneous beating rate. Conclusions Phthalates can affect the normal physiology of human cardiomyocytes, including DEHP elicited perturbations in cardiac calcium handling and intercellular connectivity. Our findings call for additional studies to clarify the extent by which phthalate exposure can alter cardiac function, particularly in vulnerable patient populations who are at risk for high phthalate exposure. PMID:25799571

  18. Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J H; Jensen, L K

    2010-11-01

    The migration of phthalates into foodstuffs from food-contact materials (FCM) is a well-known source of food contamination. In 2005, the European Food Safety Authority finalized its risk assessment for several of the classical phthalate plasticizers. In their risk management procedure the European Commission transformed the tolerable daily intakes established by the Authority into legislative limits for phthalates in both plastic and food simulants, while taking exposure from other sources into consideration. These limits have been into force since 1 July 2008. A detailed interpretation of the regulation of these substances was agreed upon in the European network of FCM reference laboratories. This paper reports results from a Danish control campaign of samples collected by official food inspectors and analysed by a newly validated analytical method run under accreditation. Samples were from FCM producers, FCM importers and importers of packed foodstuffs from third-party countries. Products containing phthalates above the current limits were found in several categories of FCM: conveyor belts (six of six), lids from packed foodstuffs in glasses (eight of 28), tubes for liquid foodstuffs (four of five) and gloves (five of 14). More than 20% of the samples analysed contained dibutylphthalate (DBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) above the compositional limits of 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. Analysis of residual phthalates in metal lid gaskets instead of analysis of phthalates in the food when controlling foodstuffs packed outside the European Union proved to be an efficient and simple control method. All findings of phthalates were associated with the use of plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC). PMID:20737341

  19. Associations of phthalate concentrations in floor dust and multi-surface dust with the interior materials in Japanese dwellings.

    PubMed

    Ait Bamai, Yu; Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Saito, Ikue; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kanazawa, Ayako; Tajima, Shuji; Shi, Cong; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kishi, Reiko

    2014-01-15

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in numerous products. However, there has been some concern about the various effects they may have on human health. Thus, household phthalate levels are an important public health issue. While many studies have assessed phthalate levels in house dust, the association of these levels with building characteristics has scarcely been examined. The present study investigated phthalate levels in house dust samples collected from the living areas of homes, and examined associations between these phthalate levels and the interior materials. Dust was collected from two portions of the living area: floor dust from the entire floor surface, and multi-surface dust from objects more than 35 cm above the floor. The levels of seven phthalates were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode. Phthalate levels were higher in multi-surface dust than in floor dust. Among floor dust samples, those from dwellings with compressed wooden flooring had significantly higher levels of di-iso-butyl phthalate compared to those with other floor materials, while polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring was associated with higher di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) levels. Among multi-surface dust samples, higher levels of DEHP and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP) were found in samples from homes with PVC wallpaper than without. The number of PVC interior materials was significantly positively correlated with the levels of DEHP and DINP in multi-surface dust. The phthalate levels in multi-surface dust were associated with the interior surface materials, and those in floor dust were directly related to the flooring materials. Our findings show that when using house dust as an exposure assessment, it is very important to note where the samples were collected from. The present report provides useful information about the association between phthalates and dust inside dwellings, which will assist with establishing public health

  20. Myc and mRNA capping.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sianadh; Cowling, Victoria H

    2015-05-01

    c-Myc is upregulated in response to growth factors and transmits the signal to proliferate by altering the gene expression landscape. When genetic alterations result in growth factor-independent c-Myc expression, it can become an oncogene. The majority of human tumour types exhibit a degree of c-Myc deregulation, resulting in unrestrained cell proliferation. c-Myc binds proximal to the promoter region of genes and recruits co-factors including histone acetyltransferases and RNA pol II kinases, which promote transcription. c-Myc also promotes formation of the cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA. The cap is 7-methylguanosine linked to the first transcribed nucleotide of RNA pol II transcripts via a 5' to 5' triphosphate bridge. The cap is added to the first transcribed nucleotide by the capping enzymes, RNGTT and RNMT-RAM. During the early stages of transcription, the capping enzymes are recruited to RNA pol II phosphorylated on Serine-5 of the C-terminal domain. The mRNA cap protects transcripts from degradation during transcription and recruits factors which promote RNA processing including, splicing, export and translation initiation. The proportion of transcripts with a cap structure is increased by elevating c-Myc expression, resulting in increased rates of translation. c-Myc promotes capping by promoting RNA pol II phosphorylation and by upregulating the enzyme SAHH which neutralises the inhibitory bi-product of methylation reactions, SAH. c-Myc-induced capping is required for c-Myc-dependent gene expression and cell proliferation. Targeting capping may represent a new therapeutic opportunity to inhibit c-Myc function in tumours. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Myc proteins in cell biology and pathology. PMID:24681440

  1. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures. PMID:26760715

  2. Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670 ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306 ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults. PMID:26575634

  3. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = −0.191 mm per 1 µg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = −0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = −0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = −0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract. PMID:24349678

  4. Organophosphate and phthalate esters in settled dust from apartment buildings in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Luongo, G; Östman, C

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the occurrence of nine phthalate diesters (phthalates) and 14 organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) was investigated in 62 house dust samples collected from 19 buildings in Stockholm area during the year 2008. Eight phthalates were detected in almost all samples, with median concentrations ranging from 0.47 μg/g to 449 μg/g with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate being the most abundant compound. Twelve PFRs were detected with median concentrations ranging from 0.19 μg/g to 11 μg/g. Within this class of compounds, the most abundant were tris(2-chloroisopropyl) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate. Both classes of compounds were also measured in the air of the apartments, but no correlation between air and dust concentrations could be found. Based on these measurements, exposure, via house dust ingestion and air inhalation, was calculated for adults and toddlers, and compared to published limit values in order to estimate potential health risks. In an extreme exposure scenario for toddlers, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate were close to the reference dose for chronic oral exposure or the tolerable daily intake. Standard Reference Material SRM 2585 was used as a quality control sample, and the levels of diisononyl and diisodecyl phthalates were determined in this material. PMID:25929991

  5. Phthalates and parabens in personal care products from China: concentrations and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Wang, Lei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that populations in China are widely exposed to phthalates and parabens. Nevertheless, sources of Chinese exposure to phthalates and parabens are not well understood. In this study, we measured concentrations of nine phthalates and six parabens in five categories of personal care products (PCPs, N = 52) collected from Tianjin, China, and estimated human exposure doses to these compounds. The most frequently detected phthalates and parabens in PCPs were diethyl phthalate (DEP) (detection frequency 54 %), methyl paraben (MeP), and n-propyl paraben (PrP) (~75 %). The concentrations of DEP in PCPs ranged from not detected (ND; <0.1 μg/g) to 937 μg/g. The highest concentrations of MeP and PrP were 2,826 and 1,564 μg/g, respectively. Median exposure dose to parabens through dermal application of PCPs in China was estimated at 18,700 μg/d, which was two orders of magnitude greater than that calculated for phthalates (45.5 μg/d). Hand and body lotions were the major contributors to exposures, and the daily exposure doses for DEP, MeP, and PrP from these products were 38.4, 10,200 and 4,890 μg, respectively. PMID:23880707

  6. From Clothing to Laundry Water: Investigating the Fate of Phthalates, Brominated Flame Retardants, and Organophosphate Esters.

    PubMed

    Saini, Amandeep; Thaysen, Clara; Jantunen, Liisa; McQueen, Rachel H; Diamond, Miriam L

    2016-09-01

    The accumulation of phthalate esters, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) by clothing from indoor air and transfer via laundering to outdoors were investigated. Over 30 days cotton and polyester fabrics accumulated 3475 and 1950 ng/dm(2) ∑5phthalates, 65 and 78 ng/dm(2) ∑10BFRs, and 1200 and 310 ng/dm(2) ∑8OPEs, respectively. Planar surface area concentrations of OPEs and low molecular weight phthalates were significantly greater in cotton than polyester and similar for BFRs and high molecular weight phthalates. This difference was significantly and inversely correlated with KOW, suggesting greater sorption of polar compounds to polar cotton. Chemical release from cotton and polyester to laundry water was >80% of aliphatic OPEs (log KOW < 4), < 50% of OPEs with an aromatic structure, 50-100% of low molecular weight phthalates (log KOW 4-6), and < detection-35% of higher molecular weight phthalates (log KOW > 8) and BFRs (log KOW > 6). These results support the hypothesis that clothing acts an efficient conveyer of soluble semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from indoors to outdoors through accumulation from air and then release during laundering. Clothes drying could as well contribute to the release of chemicals emitted by electric dryers. The results also have implications for dermal exposure. PMID:27507188

  7. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = -0.191 mm per 1 μg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = -0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = -0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = -0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract. PMID:24349678

  8. Foetal exposure to phthalate esters and anogenital distance in male newborns.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Yoshinaga, J; Mizumoto, Y; Serizawa, S; Shiraishi, H

    2012-06-01

    Phthalate esters, commonly used as plasticizers, show anti-androgenic activity and cause male reproductive malformation in experimental animals. However, the effects of prenatal exposure to phthalate esters in humans have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and the anogenital distance (AGD) as a reproductive endpoint in human male newborns. Spot urine samples were collected from 111 Japanese pregnant women after obtaining their informed consent. Seven urinary phthalate ester metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Urinary isoflavones concentrations were measured as possible covariates because their oestrogenicities and high exposure levels among Japanese have the potential to affect male genital development. Birth outcomes and AGD, the distance from the centre of the anus to external genitalia, were measured for their male newborns. In a multiple regression model, the log-transformed mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate concentration (specific gravity-corrected) was negatively significant, and maternal smoking status was positively significant, in explaining anogenital index (AGI) when potential covariates were controlled for. Urinary isoflavones did not significantly contribute to AGI in any models. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects reproductive development in human males. PMID:21696396

  9. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  10. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  11. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  12. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  13. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  14. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  15. Assessing human exposure to phthalic acid and phthalate esters from mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate and glass bottles.

    PubMed

    Montuori, P; Jover, E; Morgantini, M; Bayona, J M; Triassi, M

    2008-04-01

    Phthalic acid and phthalate esters are of growing interest due to their significant usage and potential toxicity. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass are both widely used materials for bottled drinking water. In this study, phthalic acid (PhA), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiisoBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were analysed in a large number of Italian bottled water samples. These samples showed different concentrations of phthalates are nearly 20 times higher in samples bottled in PET than those from glass bottles with total levels of phthalates of 3.52 and 0.19 microg l(-1), respectively. However, the observed levels do not represent a significant exposure pathway when considering the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) reference dose (an estimate of a daily oral exposure to the human population, including sensitive subgroups, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime). In addition, no significant correlation was found between the phthalate concentrations and the physicochemical properties of the different water samples, apart from the still/sparkling water parameter for the PET samples. In this instance, slightly higher concentrations were observed for the PET bottled still water samples than for the sparkling water samples, although no explanation has been found yet. PMID:18348049

  16. Free and total urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women from the Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingshuang; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Cai, Zongwei; Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Chuncao; Huo, Wenqian; Huang, Kai; Hu, Jie; Cheng, Lu; Chang, Huailong; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Bing; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-03-01

    Total urinary phthalate metabolites (the free plus glucuronidated forms) have been frequently measured in the general population. However, data are limited on the free forms which may be more bioactive, especially for sensitive population such as pregnant women. Here the data gap was addressed by measuring concentrations of free and total forms of six phthalate metabolites in 293 urine samples from pregnant women at delivery, who were randomly selected from the prospective Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China. We observed detectable concentrations of the total amount of phthalate metabolites in all urine samples. The geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations of free and total mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) (5.20, 54.49ng/mL) were the highest, followed by mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) (4.52, 7.27ng/mL). For most of phthalate metabolites, urinary concentrations were significantly higher in women who were nulliparous. Significantly higher concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were found in women who had higher educational level. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the free and total forms of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women in China. The results suggest that exposure characteristics may be related to parity and education. PMID:26722670

  17. Growth and aggregation behavior of representative phytoplankton as affected by the environmental contaminant di-n-butyl phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Acey, R.; Healy, P.; Unger, T.F.; Ford, C.E.; Hudson, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors' continuing efforts to characterize the molecular basis for the development-stage-dependent phthalate ester toxicity in the brine shrimp, Artemia, led them to consider a number of microorganisms as foraging species for Artemia. The sensitivity of these microorganisms to phthalate esters was surprising and suggests that the nature and distribution of fresh water phytoplankton may already have been significantly altered by phthalates. The purpose of our experiments was to demonstrate the extent to which present levels of oceanic contamination by phthalates may be approaching those necessary to affect the distribution and survival of phytoplankton in the biosphere.

  18. Determination of dibutyl phthalate neurobehavioral toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Farzanehfar, Vahid; Naderi, Nima; Kobarfard, Farzad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-08-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is widely used as plasticizer in numerous kinds of products such as plastic packaging in food industries. There is a high risk of DBP exposure for human; it can easily migrate into the human bodies through food plastic packaging and be a potential hazard for human health. In this study the neurobehavioral effects of oral DBP for 14 days (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were investigated in mice, using open field, Y-maze, elevated plus maze, passive avoidance test, rotarod and grip strength test. The results showed that DBP could reduce total distance movement, impair memory function and induce anxiety in mice. Histological analysis (haematoxylin-eosin staining) also showed significant nuclei size reduction and condensation in dentate gyrus cells of the DBP treated mice. In conclusion oral DBP administration for 14 days may cause some neurobehavioral adverse effects in mice. PMID:27311797

  19. Subungual penetration of dibutyl phthalate in human fingernails.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E M

    2008-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has a wide variety of manufacturing applications and is used in both commercial and consumer products. Results of animal reproductive toxicity and teratogenicity animal studies have not been consistent in identifying DBP as a reproductive toxicant. Expert reviews for its use in consumer products have consistently concluded that it is not a reproductive risk to consumers. Results from a subungual penetration study of 100% fluid DBP applied to human fingernails showed levels of penetration at the limits of chemical detection. Even if DBP penetrated the human fingernail, its rapid metabolism by the human body would prevent its having any toxic reproductive effects. Furthermore, DBP functions as a plasticizer in consumer products such as cosmetic nail products (nail polish, basecoats, topcoats, nail hardeners), resulting in its becoming unavailable for subungual penetration seconds after application of the cosmetic nail product since it is then trapped in the rapidly forming coating. PMID:17912019

  20. Measurement of phthalates in small samples of mammalian tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Acott, P.D.; Murphy, M.G.; Ogborn, M.R.; Crocker, J.F.S.

    1987-03-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is a phthalic acid ester that is used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products, many of which have widespread medical application. DEHP has been shown to be leached from products used for storage and delivery of blood transfusions during procedures such as plasmaphoresis, hemodialysis and open heart surgery. Results of studies in this laboratory have suggested that there is an association between the absorption and deposition of DEHP (and/or related chemicals) in the kidney and the acquired renal cystic disease (ACD) frequently seen in patients who have undergone prolonged dialysis treatment. In order to determine the relationship between the two, it has been necessary to establish a method for extracting and accurately quantitating minute amounts of these chemicals in small tissue samples. The authors have now established such a method using kidneys from normal rats and from a rat model for ACD.

  1. Radiation effects on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate in aqueous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling; Yue, Zhiying; Wang, Min; Zhai, Maolin; Yoshii, Fumio; Seko, Noriaki; Peng, Jing; Wei, Genshuan; Li, Jiuqiang

    2007-12-01

    A water-insoluble cellulose derivative, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) hydrogels, was converted to Na type to form hydrogel in paste-like status by radiation crosslinking. Mechanism for radiation crosslinking of cellulose-derivatives in paste-like status was discussed. Crosslinkers, i.e. methyl N, N-bis-acrylamide (MBA) or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) has been used to decrease gelation dose (Dg) of synthesis HPMCP hydrogels and improve its mechanical properties. HPMCP-MBA hydrogels were found to be more rigid and HPMCP-EGDMA hydrogels were more flexible. Swelling degree of HPMCP hydrogel in many kinds of salt solutions followed Hofmeister series, which is ubiquitous in polyelectrolyte hydrogel. Specific reswelling was observed in concentrated KF solution, implying a very strong F - binding ability of benzyl group. The comprehensive results obtained in this study will be utilized on the design of HPMCP-based controlled release system.

  2. Growth and characterization of ammonium acid phthalate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, A.; Ramasamy, P.

    2013-04-01

    Ammonium acid phthalate (AAP) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The unit cell parameters were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and it belongs to orthorhombic system with the space group of Pcab. The high resolution X-ray diffraction studies revealed the crystalline perfection of the grown crystal. The various functional groups of AAP were identified by FT-IR and Raman spectral analyses. Thermal stability of the grown crystals was studied by TGA/DTA. The optical properties of the grown crystals were analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence spectral studies. The mechanical property of the grown crystal was studied by Vickers microhardness measurement. The growth features of AAP were analyzed by chemical etching.

  3. Facile synthesis of cysteine and triethanolamine capped CdTe nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mntungwa, Nhlakanipho; Pullabhotla, Viswanadha Srirama Rajasekhar; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine and triethanolamine capped CdTe nanoparticles have been synthesized using a simple aqueous solution based method. This method involves the reaction of tellurium powder with sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) in water to produce telluride ions (Te(2-)), followed by the simultaneous addition of an aqueous solution of cadmium chloride or other cadmium source (acetate, carbonate and nitrate) and solution of L-cysteine ethyl ester hydrochloride or triethanolamine. The effect of capping agent on the size, structure and morphology of the as-synthesized nanoparticles was investigated. The particles were characterized using optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:23010054

  4. Pediatric burns with snap-cap fireworks.

    PubMed

    Karamanoukian, Raffy L; Kilani, Marwa; Lozano, Daniel; Sundine, Michael; Karamanoukian, Hratch L; Delarosa, Jacob; Behnam, Shahdad; Evans, Gregory R D

    2006-01-01

    Snap-caps are marketed as a relatively safe pyrotechnic (explosive) device for children 8 years and older. Individually, the snap-caps pose very little threat because the amount of explosive compounds contained in each is limited to 1 mg. However, the accidental explosion of numerous snap-caps may cause significant burns. This study highlights a series of pediatric patients who presented with severe second- and third-degree burns as a result of accidental explosion of snap-caps. Seven patients with snap-caps-related injuries were treated at the University of California, San Diego Regional Burn Center from January 1996 to April 1999. Study foci included 1) mode and extent of injury, 2) management, 3) associated morbidity, and 4) functional outcome. Six patients (84%) required hospital admission. Four patients (57%) underwent split-thickness skin grafting to repair mean TBSA burns of 4.1% (range, 2-8%). Three patients (43%) received aggressive management of burns with topical medications and dressing changes. The nature and extent of snap-cap injuries support the contention that snap-caps have the potential to harm children to whom they are marketed. PMID:16566570

  5. Edge of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  6. Diethylhexyl Phthalates Is Associated with Insulin Resistance via Oxidative Stress in the Elderly: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Hye Yin; Bae, Sanghyuk; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance (IR) is believed to be the underlying mechanism of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that phthalates could cause oxidative stress which would contribute to the development of IR. Therefore, we evaluated whether exposure to phthalates affects IR, and oxidative stress is involved in the phthalates-IR pathway. Methods We recruited 560 elderly participants, and obtained blood and urine samples during repeated medical examinations. For the determination of phthalate exposure, we measured urinary levels of mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) as metabolites of diethylhexyl phthalates (DEHP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as a metabolite of di-butyl phthalate (DBP). Malondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress biomarker, was also measured in urine samples. We measured serum levels of fasting glucose and insulin, and derived the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index to assess IR. A mixed-effect model and penalized regression spline were used to estimate the associations among phthalate metabolites, MDA, and IR. Results The molar sum of MEHHP and MEOHP (∑DEHP) were significantly associated with HOMA (β = 0.26, P = 0.040), and the association was apparent among participants with a history of DM (β = 0.88, P = 0.037) and among females (β = 0.30, P = 0.022). However, the relation between MnBP and HOMA was not found. When we evaluated whether oxidative stress is involved in increases of HOMA by ∑DEHP, MDA levels were significantly associated with increases of ∑DEHP (β = 0.11, P<0.001) and HOMA (β = 0.49, P = 0.049). Conclusions Our study results suggest that exposure to DEHP in the elderly population increases IR, which is related with oxidative stress, and that participants with a history of DM and females are more susceptible to DEHP exposure. PMID:23977034

  7. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Childhood Fat Mass in a New York City Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Jessie P.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Richardson, David B.; Daniels, Julie L.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.; Herring, Amy H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Experimental animal studies and limited epidemiologic evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may be obesogenic, with potential sex-specific effects of phthalates having anti-androgenic activity. Objectives: We aimed to assess associations between prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat mass in a prospective cohort study. Methods: We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in third-trimester maternal urine in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Among 180 children (82 girls and 98 boys), we evaluated body composition using a Tanita scale at multiple follow-up visits between ages 4 and 9 years (363 total visits). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences or tertiles of natural log phthalate metabolite concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts for repeated outcome measurements. We assessed associations in multiple metabolite models and adjusted for covariates including prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Results: We did not observe associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent body fat in models examining continuous exposures. Fat mass was 3.06% (95% CI: –5.99, –0.09%) lower among children in the highest tertile of maternal urinary concentrations of summed di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites than in children in the lowest tertile. Though estimates were imprecise, there was little evidence that associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent fat mass were modified by child’s sex. Conclusions: Prenatal phthalate exposures were not associated with increased body fat among children 4–9 years of age, though high prenatal DEHP exposure may be associated with lower fat mass in childhood. Citation: Buckley JP, Engel SM, Mendez MA, Richardson DB, Daniels JL, Calafat AM

  8. Predictors of Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations in Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Meeker, John D.; Peterson, Karen E.; Lee, Joyce M.; Pace, Gerry G.; Cantoral, Alejandra; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is prevalent among children and adolescents, but little is known regarding important sources of exposure at these sensitive life stages. In this study, we measured urinary concentrations of BPA and nine phthalate metabolites in 108 Mexican children aged 8–13 years. Associations of age, time of day, and questionnaire items on external environment, water use, and food container use with specific gravity-corrected urinary concentrations were assessed, as were questionnaire items concerning the use of 17 personal care products in the past 48-hr. As a secondary aim, third trimester urinary concentrations were measured in 99 mothers of these children, and the relationship between specific gravity-corrected urinary concentrations at these two time points was explored. After adjusting for potential confounding by other personal care product use in the past 48-hr, there were statistically significant (p <0.05) positive associations in boys for cologne/perfume use and monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and in girls for colored cosmetics use and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), MEHHP, MEOHP, and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), conditioner use and MEP, deodorant use and MEP, and other hair products use and MBP. There was a statistically significant positive trend for the number of personal care products used in the past 48-hr and log-MEP in girls. However, there were no statistically significant associations between the analytes and the other questionnaire items and there were no strong correlations between the analytes measured during the third trimester and at 8–13 years of age. We demonstrated that personal care product use is associated with exposure to multiple phthalates in children. Due to rapid development

  9. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process. PMID:26654992

  10. Why is the north polar cap on Mars different than the south polar cap?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1994-01-01

    One of the most puzzling mysteries about the planet Mars is the hemispherical asymmetry in the polar caps. Every spring the seasonal polar cap of CO2 recedes until the end of summer, when only a small part, the residual polar cap, remains. During the year that Viking observed Mars, the residual polar cap was composed of water ice in the northern hemisphere but was primarily carbon dioxide ice in the southern hemisphere. Scientists have sought to explain this asymmetry by modeling observations of the latitudinal recession of the polar cap and seasonal variations in atmospheric pressure (since the seasonal polar caps are primarily frozen atmosphere, they are directly related to changes in atmospheric mass). These models reproduce most aspects of the observed annual variation in atmospheric pressure fairly accurately. Furthermore, the predicted latitudinal recession of the northern polar cap in the spring agrees well with observations, including the fact that the CO2 ice is predicted to completely sublime away. However, these models all predict that the carbon dioxide ice will also sublime away during the summer in the southern hemisphere, unlike what is observed. This paper will show how the radiative effects of ozone, clouds, airborne dust, light penetration into and through the polar cap, and the dependence of albedo on solar zenith angle affect CO2 ice formation and sublimation, and how they help explain the hemispherical asymmetry in the residual polar caps. These effects have not been studied with prior polar cap models.

  11. High levels of expression of the Iron-Sulfur Proteins Phthalate Dioxygenase and Phthalate Dioxygenase Reductase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jaganaman, Sunil; Pinto, Alex; Tarasev, Michael; Ballou, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Phthalate dioxygenase (PDO), a hexamer with one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] and one Fe (II) - mononuclear center per monomer, and its reductase (PDR), which contains flavin mononucleotide and a plant-type ferredoxin [2Fe-2S] center, are expressed by Burkholderia cepacia at ∼30 mg of crude PDO and ∼1 mg of crude PDR per liter of cell culture when grown with phthalate as the main carbon source. A high level expression system in Escherichia coli was developed for PDO and PDR. Optimization relative to Escherichia coli cell line, growth parameters, time of induction, media composition, and iron-sulfur additives resulted in yields of about 1 g/L for PDO and about 0.2 g/L for PDR. Protein expression was correlated to the increase in pH of the cell culture and exhibited a pronounced (variable from 5 to 20 hours) lag after the induction. The specific activity of purified PDO did not depend on the pH of the cell culture when harvested. However, when the pH of the culture reached 8.5-9, a large fraction of the PDR that was expressed lacked its ferredoxin domain, presumably because of proteolysis. Termination of growth while the pH of the cell culture was < 8 decreased the fraction of proteolyzed enzyme, whereas yields of the unclipped PDR were only marginally lower. Overall, changes in pH of the cell culture were found to be an excellent indicator of the overall level of native protein expression. Its monitoring allowed the real time tracking of the protein expression and made it possible to tailor the expression times to achieve a combination of high quality and high yield of protein. PMID:17049880

  12. Concentrations of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Increased Waist Circumference and Insulin Resistance in Adult U.S. Males

    PubMed Central

    Stahlhut, Richard W.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Dye, Timothy D.; Cook, Stephen; Swan, Shanna H.

    2007-01-01

    Background Phthalates impair rodent testicular function and have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in humans, including decreased testosterone levels. Low testosterone in adult human males has been associated with increased prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Objectives Our objective in this study was to investigate phthalate exposure and its associations with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Subjects were adult U.S. male participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002. We modeled six phthalate metabolites with prevalent exposure and known or suspected antiandrogenic activity as predictors of waist circumference and log-transformed homeostatic model assessment (HOMA; a measure of insulin resistance) using multiple linear regression, adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, fat and total calorie consumption, physical activity level, serum cotinine, and urine creatinine (model 1); and adjusted for model 1 covariates plus measures of renal and hepatic function (model 2). Metabolites were mono-butyl phthalates (MBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl)-hexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Results In model 1, four metabolites were associated with increased waist circumference (MBzP, MEHHP, MEOHP, and MEP; p-values ≤ 0.013) and three with increased HOMA (MBP, MBzP, and MEP; p-values ≤ 0.011). When we also adjusted for renal and hepatic function, parameter estimates declined but all significant results remained so except HOMA-MBP. Conclusions In this national cross-section of U.S. men, concentrations of several prevalent phthalate metabolites showed statistically significant correlations with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. If confirmed by longitudinal studies, our findings would suggest that exposure to these phthalates may contribute to the population

  13. Improved method for measuring and characterizing phthalate emissions from building materials and its application to exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yirui; Xu, Ying

    2014-04-15

    Phthalate emission from vinyl floorings was measured in specially designed stainless steel chambers. Phthalate concentrations increased and reached steady state after 2 to 5 days for all experiments. By having a high ratio of emission surface to sorption surface, avoiding mass loss of phthalates onto sampling pathways, and improving air mixing inside the chamber, the time to reach steady state was significantly reduced, compared to previous studies (1 to 5 months). An innovative approach was developed to determine y0, the gas-phase concentration of phthalates in equilibrium with the material phase, which is the key parameter controlling phthalate emissions. Target phthalate material-phase concentration (C0) and vapor pressure (Vp) were explicitly measured and found to have great influences on the y0 value. For low phthalate concentrations in materials, a simple partitioning mechanism may linearly relate y0 and C0, but cannot be evoked for high-weight phthalate percentages. In addition, the sorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm of phthalates on stainless steel chamber surfaces were determined experimentally. Independently measured or calculated parameters were used to validate a semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) emission model, with excellent agreement between model predictions and the observed chamber concentrations in gas and stainless steel phases. With the knowledge of y0 and emission mechanisms, human exposure to phthalates from tested floorings was assessed; the levels were comparable to previous studies. This work developed a rapid, novel method to measure phthalate emissions; emission measurement results can be connected to exposure assessment and help health professionals estimate screening-level exposures associated with SVOCs and conduct risk-based prioritization for SVOC chemicals of concern. PMID:24654650

  14. Didymin reverses phthalate ester-associated breast cancer aggravation in the breast cancer tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    HSU, YA-LING; HSIEH, CHIA-JUNG; TSAI, EING-MEI; HUNG, JEN-YU; CHANG, WEI-AN; HOU, MING-FENG; KUO, PO-LIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated two novel findings. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study to demonstrate that regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), produced by breast tumor-associated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (TADCs) following breast cancer cell exposure to phthalate esters, may contribute to the progression of cancer via enhancement of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the present study revealed that didymin, a dietary flavonoid glycoside present in citrus fruits, was able to reverse phthalate ester-mediated breast cancer aggravation. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Subsequently, the conditioned medium (CM) was harvested and cultured with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs). Cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells with the conditioned medium of BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-MB-231 tumor-associated mdDCs (BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-TADC-CM) demonstrated enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion. Exposure of the MDA-MB-231 cells to DBP induced the MDA-TADCs to produce the inflammatory cytokine RANTES, which subsequently induced MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Depleting RANTES reversed the effects of DBP-MDA-TADC-mediated MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, didymin was observed to suppress phthalate-mediated breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The present study suggested that didymin was capable of preventing phthalate ester-associated cancer aggravation. PMID:26893687

  15. Dose–response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua F.; Verhoef, Aart; Beelen, Vincent A. van; Pennings, Jeroen L.A.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2012-10-01

    The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to improved objectivity, sensitivity and predictability of WEC in assessing developmental toxic properties of compounds. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of two phthalates differing in potency, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP, less toxic), on the transcriptome in WEC to examine gene expression in relation with dysmorphogenesis. MEHP was more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes as well as changes on morphology. MEHP induced significant enrichment of cholesterol/lipid/steroid (CLS) metabolism and apoptosis pathways which was associated with developmental toxicity. Regulation of genes within CLS metabolism pathways represented the most sensitive markers of MEHP exposure, more sensitive than classical morphological endpoints. As shown in direct comparisons with toxicogenomic in vivo studies, alterations in the regulation of CLS metabolism pathways has been previously identified to be associated with developmental toxicity due to phthalate exposure in utero. Our results support the application of WEC as a model to examine relative phthalate potency through gene expression and morphological responses. Additionally, our results further define the applicability domain of the WEC model for developmental toxicological investigations. -- Highlights: ► We examine the effect of two phthalates on gene expression and morphology in WEC. ► MEHP is more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes and dysmorphogenesis. ► MEHP significantly disrupts cholesterol metabolism pathways in a dose-dependent manner. ► Specific phthalate-related mechanisms in WEC are relevant to mechanisms in vivo.

  16. Phthalates Biomarker Identification and Exposure Estimates in a Population of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Calafat, Antonia; Lashley, Susan; Smulian, John; Ananth, Cande; Barr, Dana; Silva, Manori; Ledoux, Thomas; Hore, Paromita; Robson, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Phthalates are known reproductive and developmental toxicants in experimental animals. However, in humans, there are few data on the exposure of pregnant women that can be used to assess the potential developmental exposure experienced by the fetus. We measured several phthalate metabolites in maternal urine, maternal serum, and cord serum samples collected at the time of delivery from 150 pregnant women from central New Jersey. The urinary concentrations of most metabolites were comparable to or less than among the U.S. general population, except for mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The median urinary concentrations of MEHHP (109 μg/l) and MEOHP (95.1 μg/l) were more than 5 times their population-based concentrations, whereas the median urinary concentration of MEHP was more than 20 times higher. High concentration of MEHP may indicate a recent exposure to the parent chemical DEHP in the hospital shortly before the collection of the samples. Calculation of daily intakes using the urinary biomarker data reveals that none of the pregnant women tested had integrated exposures to DEHP greater than the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s minimal risk levels (MRLs chronic 60, intermediate 100 μg/kg/day). No abnormal birth outcomes (e .g., birth weight, Apgar Score, and gestational age) were noted in those newborns whose mothers had relatively greater exposure to DEHP during the perinatal period than others in this study. Significantly greater concentrations and detection frequencies in maternal urine than in maternal serum and cord serum suggest that the urinary concentrations of the phthalate metabolites may be more reliable biomarkers of exposure than their concentrations in other biological specimens. PMID:20686649

  17. Human urinary/seminal phthalates or their metabolite levels and semen quality: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongquan; Zheng, Weiwei; Zheng, Pai; Wang, Shu; Tan, Hui; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2015-10-01

    Health concerns surrounding human exposure to phthalates include diminished semen quality. Epidemiological findings remain inconsistent. We have performed a quality appraisal and meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize evidence for associations between phthalate exposures and human semen quality. Pubmed and Web of Science were searched for pertinent studies through October 2014. Cited references were reviewed to identify secondary studies. Studies that reported quantitative estimates of the association between phthalates or their metabolite levels in humans and semen quality were eligible. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled effects estimates. Overall, 20 studies met our inclusion criteria. Subsequently, 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Urinary monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) were associated with reduced sperm concentration (MBP [7.4-25.3 µg/L], pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.32-5.15; MBzP [14.0-540.2 µg/L], pooled OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.16-4.30). Both MBP (24.6-14,459.0 µg/L) and MEHP (3.1-208.1 µg/L) were inversely associated with straight line velocity (VSL; MBP, pooled β=-2.51, 95% CI=-4.44, -0.59; MEHP, pooled β=-1.06, 95% CI=-1.99, -0.12). An IQR increase in MBzP and MEP levels (MBzP, IQR=11.35 µg/L; MEP, IQR=449.4 µg/L) was associated with an increase in comet extent (CE; MBzP, pooled β=3.57, 95% CI=0.89-6.25; MEP, pooled β=4.22, 95% CI=1.66-6.77). No associations were observed between monomethyl phthalate and any semen parameters. Our meta-analysis strengthens the evidence that specific phthalates or their metabolite levels may affect semen quality. PMID:26275958

  18. Human ketosteroid receptors interact with hazardous phthalate plasticizers and their metabolites: an in silico study.

    PubMed

    Sarath Josh, M K; Pradeep, S; Vijayalekshmy Amma, K S; Sudha Devi, R; Balachandran, S; Sreejith, M N; Benjamin, Sailas

    2016-06-01

    Phthalic acid esters or phthalates are ubiquitous environmental pollutants known for their adverse health effects in test animals and, of late, in humans. Thus, in this molecular docking study - using Glide (Schrödinger) - the molecular interactions of 31 ligands, including 12 diphthalates, their monophthalates and phthalic acid with selected human ketosteroid receptors, i.e., androgen (hAR), progesterone (hPR) and glucocorticoid (hGR) receptors were explored and their binding affinities were compared with that of corresponding natural steroids and a known endocrine disrupting xenobiotic, bisphenol A (BPA). Mostly, diphthalates and monophthalates showed the potential for antisteroidal activity by interacting with hAR, hPR and hGR. Of them, diphenyl phthalate showed the highest G score (-7.70 kcal mol(-1) ) with hAR, and the crucial amino acid (aa) residues in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of this receptor involved in the molecular interactions were Phe 764, Leu 704, Asn 705 and Thr 877. The mono-iso-decyl phthalate showed the highest G score (-8.36) with the hPR, and the crucial aa residues in the LBD interactions were Arg 766 Gln 725 and Phe 778. The mono-iso-decyl phthalate also showed more affinity (-8.44) towards hGR than the natural ligand, and the aa residues in the LBD interactions were Gln 570 and Met 604. In addition to these, some other phthalates established comparable interactions with certain aa residues located in the LBD of these receptors, which resulted in higher G scores. Contrastingly, BPA and some natural ligands tested in this study showed lower G scores with these receptors than certain phthalates reported herein, i.e., certain phthalates are more toxic than the proven toxic BPA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26304264

  19. Exposure to house dust phthalates in relation to asthma and allergies in both children and adults.

    PubMed

    Ait Bamai, Yu; Shibata, Eiji; Saito, Ikue; Araki, Atsuko; Kanazawa, Ayako; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Takigawa, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

    2014-07-01

    Although an association between exposure to phthalates in house dust and childhood asthma or allergies has been reported in recent years, there have been no reports of these associations focusing on both adults and children. We aimed to investigate the relationships between phthalate levels in Japanese dwellings and the prevalence of asthma and allergies in both children and adult inhabitants in a cross-sectional study. The levels of seven phthalates in floor dust and multi-surface dust in 156 single-family homes were measured. According to a self-reported questionnaire, the prevalence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in the 2 years preceding the study was 4.7%, 18.6%, 7.6%, and 10.3%, respectively. After evaluating the interaction effects of age and exposure categories with generalized liner mixed models, interaction effects were obtained for DiNP and bronchial asthma in adults (Pinteraction=0.028) and for DMP and allergic rhinitis in children (Pinteraction=0.015). Although not statistically significant, children had higher ORs of allergic rhinitis for DiNP, allergic conjunctivitis for DEHP, and atopic dermatitis for DiBP and BBzP than adults, and liner associations were observed (Ptrend<0.05). On the other hand, adults had a higher OR for atopic dermatitis and DEHP compared to children. No significant associations were found in phthalates levels collected from multi-surfaces. This study suggests that the levels of DMP, DEHP, DiBP, and BBzP in floor dust were associated with the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in children, and children are more vulnerable to phthalate exposure via household floor dust than are adults. The results from this study were shown by cross-sectional nature of the analyses and elaborate assessments for metabolism of phthalates were not considered. Further studies are needed to advance our understanding of phthalate toxicity. PMID:24704966

  20. Urinary Phthalates and Leukocyte Telomere Length: An Analysis of NHANES 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Scinicariello, Franco; Feroe, Aliya G.; Attanasio, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) as “possibly carcinogenic to humans”. In vitro studies reported that phthalate exposure resulted in induction of several nuclear transcription factors that are activators of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase activity of the human telomerase complex. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between urinary phthalate metabolites [mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethyl)-hexyl phthalate (MEHP), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the adult population of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002 (n = 2472). After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of urinary MEHP had statistically significantly longer LTL (5.34%, 95% CI: 1.31, 9.53; and 7.14%, 95% CI: 2.94, 11.63; respectively) compared to the lowest quartile, with evidence of a dose–response relationship (p-trend = 0.01). The association remained when the analyses were stratified by age groups (20–39 years, 40–59 years, and 60 years and older), and sex. Furthermore, MBP and MBzP were associated with higher LTL in older participants. The age independent association between longer LTL and MEHP (a metabolite of DEHP) might suggest a possible role of MEHP as tumor promoter. PMID:27211552

  1. A mixture of five phthalate diesters cummulatively inhibit fetal testicular testoserone production in a manner consisent with their predicted reporduction toxicity in the Sprague Dawley rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are commonly-used plasticizers in intravenous bags, plastic food wrap and children’s toys, and the metabolites of multiple phthalates are detected in humans. In utero exposure to certain phthalates during sexual differentiation causes male reproductive tract m...

  2. Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hua; Chen, Min; Kransler, Kevin M; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2015-01-01

    As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-isodecyl phthalate) in the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set. For the total data set (N=2604), the co-occurrence of multiple phthalates at the upper percentile of exposure was infrequent. There were no individuals in the NHANES sample who were exposed to >95th percentiles for all six phthalates. For 75% of individuals, none of the six phthalates were above the 95th percentile of their respective exposure distributions. These data suggest that high exposure to multiple phthalates is infrequent in the NHANES population. This analysis solely focused on the pattern of contribution of individual phthalates to total exposure. It did not address the pattern of contribution to potential risk. The approach presented could potentially be used to provide insight into understanding the coexposure patterns for other chemicals. PMID:24756100

  3. Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hua; Chen, Min; Kransler, Kevin M; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2015-05-01

    As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-isodecyl phthalate) in the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set. For the total data set (N=2604), the co-occurrence of multiple phthalates at the upper percentile of exposure was infrequent. There were no individuals in the NHANES sample who were exposed to >95th percentiles for all six phthalates. For 75% of individuals, none of the six phthalates were above the 95th percentile of their respective exposure distributions. These data suggest that high exposure to multiple phthalates is infrequent in the NHANES population. This analysis solely focused on the pattern of contribution of individual phthalates to total exposure. It did not address the pattern of contribution to potential risk. The approach presented could potentially be used to provide insight into understanding the coexposure patterns for other chemicals. PMID:24756100

  4. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  5. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  6. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  7. Subsea tree cap well choke system

    SciTech Connect

    Bednar, J.M.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes an apparatus useful in subsea well completions requiring a subsea choke. It comprises: a wellhead connector; a tree flow passage; a tree annulus passage; a tree cap; a choke; and a production line.

  8. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  9. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  10. Textures in south polar ice cap #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 15 x 14 km area image (frame 7306) is centered near 87 degrees south, 341 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  11. Textures in south polar ice cap #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 30 x 29 km area image (frame 7709) is centered near 87 degrees south, 77 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  12. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Russell N.; Senum, Gunnar I.

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  13. CCiCap: Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with Sierra Nevada Corp. (SNC) for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the...

  14. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  15. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  16. Secondary capping beams for offshore drilling platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E. K.

    1985-08-13

    A pair of I-shaped elongated girders secured to, and extending outwardly from, the capping beams of a four pile platform, to form cantilever secondary capping beams which support modified self-contained drilling rigs of a size and weight normally installed on eight pile platforms. Rig modifications comprise separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe rack extension, and a novel skidding system.

  17. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  18. NTP CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISKS TO HUMAN REPRODUCTION: PHTHALATES EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI-N-HEXYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phthalates are a family of environmentally important compounds with diverse uses. Reproductive toxicity has been demonstrated for some members of this family. The NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risk to Human Reproduction (CERHR) convened an expert panel charged with examini...

  19. NTP CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISKS TO HUMAN REPRODUCTION: PHTHALATES EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kavlock et al.; "NTP Center for the Evaluation....

    Abstract

    The phthalates are a family of environmentally important compounds with diverse uses. Reproductive toxicity has been demonstrated for some members of this family. The NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risk...

  20. NTP CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISKS TO HUMAN REPRODUCTION: PHTHALATES EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phthalates are a family of environmentally important compounds with diverse uses. Reproductive toxicity has been demonstrated for some members of this family. The NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risk to Human Reproduction (CERHR) convened an expert panel charged with examini...

  1. NTP CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISKS TO HUMAN REPRODUCTION: PHTHALATES EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI-ISONONYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kavlock et al.; "NTP Center for the Evaluation....

    Abstract

    The phthalates are a family of environmentally important compounds with diverse uses. Reproductive toxicity has been demonstrated for some members of this family. The NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risk...

  2. NTP CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISKS TO HUMAN REPRODUCTION: PHTHALATES EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI-ISODECYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kavlock et al.; "NTP Center for the Evaluation....

    Abstract

    The phthalates are a family of environmentally important compounds with diverse uses. Reproductive toxicity has been demonstrated for some members of this family. The NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risk...

  3. NTP CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISKS TO HUMAN REPRODUCTION: PHTHALATES EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kavlock et al.; "NTP Center for the Evaluation....

    Abstract

    The phthalates are a family of environmentally important compounds with diverse uses. Reproductive toxicity has been demonstrated for some members of this family. The NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risk...

  4. EPA Peer Consultation Workshop on Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates: Potential Options and Methods for Evaluating the Cumulative Hazard Associated with Six Selected Phthalates

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA held a 2-day workshop on December 8 and 9, 2010 at the Doubletree Hotel Washington DC-Crystal City in Arlington, Viriginia. The goal of this workshop was to evaulate methods of determining cumulative risk associated with exposure to mulitple phthalates for inclusion in the EP...

  5. Di-pentyl phthalate dosing during sexual differentiation disrupts fetal testis function and postnatal development of the male Sprague dawley rat with greater relative potency than other phthalates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of plasticizer compounds that are widely used for many consumer product applications. Ten or more members of the PE class of compounds have been shown to induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and postnatal reproductive malformations ...

  6. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters (PE) on Fetal Rodent Testosterone (T) Production and Gene Expressionfollowing In Utero Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    PE are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period of fetal reproductive development produced ma...

  7. The effect of polar caps on obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Rubincam has shown that the Martian obliquity is dependent on the seasonal polar caps. In particular, Rubincam analytically derived this dependence and showed that the change in obliquity is directly proportional to the seasonal polar cap mass. Rubincam concludes that seasonal friction does not appear to have changed Mars' climate significantly. Using a computer model for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, Haberle et al. have made a convincing case for the possibility of huge polar caps, about 10 times the mass of the current polar caps, that exist for a significant fraction of the planet's history. Since Rubincam showed that the effect of seasonal friction on obliquity is directly proportional to polar cap mass, a scenario with a ten-fold increase in polar cap mass over a significant fraction of the planet's history would result in a secular increase in Mars' obliquity of perhaps 10 degrees. Hence, the Rubincam conclusion of an insignificant contribution to Mars' climate by seasonal friction may be incorrect. Furthermore, if seasonal friction is an important consideration in the obliquity of Mars, this would significantly alter the predictions of past obliquity.

  8. Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum strain deficient in acetate production

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A mutant of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum that is blocked in acetate production was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and selection for fluoroacetate resistance. The mutant produced more ethanol than the parent strain did.

  9. Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Spangenberg, Rebecca Jay; Hoek, Jan B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Oshinsky, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. Methods We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. Results Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia), followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. Discussion Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction. PMID:21209842

  10. Mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis.

    PubMed

    Pickus, Evan J; Lionelli, Gerald T; Charles, E Woodall; Korentager, Richard A

    2002-02-01

    Acute chondritis has a strong predilection for recurrence. Mafenide acetate has been implicated in causing reactions that mimic this condition; however, these hypersensitivity reactions lack fever, fluctuance, and pain. The authors report a case of mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis in a patient who had previously been treated successfully for this condition. In this patient, the allergic response resolved within 3 days after cessation of mafenide acetate. If unappreciated, it may have led to unnecessary operative intervention. Therefore, auricular edema and erythema, without fever, fluctuance, and pain, must be recognized by surgeons as a possible mafenide acetate allergy and must be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with recurrent acute suppurative chondritis. PMID:11910229

  11. Preliminary toxicological assessment of phthalate esters from drinking water consumed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santana, José; Giraudi, Clara; Marengo, Emílio; Robotti, Elisa; Pires, Sara; Nunes, Inês; Gaspar, Elvira M

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, the concentrations of selected phthalates in drinking water consumed in Portugal. The use of bottled water in Portugal has increased in recent years. The main material for bottles is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Its plasticizer components can contaminate water by leaching, and several scientific studies have evidenced potential health risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. With water being one of the most essential elements to human health and because it is consumed by ingestion, the evaluation of drinking water quality, with respect to phthalate contents, is important. This study tested seven commercial brands of bottled water consumed in Portugal, six PET and one glass (the most consumed) bottled water. Furthermore, tap water from Lisbon and three small neighbor cities was analyzed. Phthalates (di-n-butyl phthalate ester (DnBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ester (DEHP), and di-i-butyl phthalate ester (DIBP)) in water samples were quantified (PET and glass) by means of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and ionic liquid gas chromatography associated with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry due to their high boiling points and water solubility. The method utilized in this study showed a linear range for target phthalates between 0.02 and 6.5 μg L(-1), good precision and low limits of detection that were between 0.01 and 0.06 μg L(-1), and quantitation between 0.04 and 0.19 μg L(-1). Only three phthalates were detected in Portuguese drinking waters: dibutyl (DnBP), diisobutyl (DIBP), and di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Concentrations ranged between 0.06 and 6.5 μg L(-1) for DnBP, between 0.02 and 0.16 μg L(-1) for DEHP, and between 0.1 and 1.89 μg L(-1) for DIBP. The concentration of DEHP was found to be up to five times higher in PET than in glass bottled water. Surprisingly, all the three phthalates were detected in glass bottled water with the amount of DnBP being higher (6

  12. Assessment of phthalate-induced changes in fetal rat testis gene expression using an rt-PCR array

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lambright, CS’, Sampson, H2, Furr, i1, Evans, N’, Hannas, B’, Gray, LE, Jr.’, VS Wilson1. 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, ORISE Fellow. Phthalate esters (PE) such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) produce reproductive malformations in male rodents by reduction o...

  13. INTERPRETATION OF BIOMONITORING DATA FOR ORTHO-PHTHALATES USING PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PARMACOKINETIC MODELING: ESTIMATION OF FETAL EXPOSURE AND RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will develop human pregnancy PBPK models for several ortho-phthalates including di-ethyl (DEP), di-n-octyl (DOP), butylbenzyl (BBP), di-n-butyl (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) (DEHP) phthalates. The models will be designed to support the interpretation of human biomar...

  14. Impact of Clothing on Dermal Exposure to Phthalates: Observations and Insights from Sampling Both Skin and Clothing.

    PubMed

    Gong, Mengyan; Weschler, Charles J; Zhang, Yinping

    2016-04-19

    Clothing can either retard or accelerate dermal exposure to phthalates. To investigate the impact of clothing on dermal exposure to six phthalates (DMP/DEP/DiBP/DnBP/BBzP/DEHP) in real environments, two sets of experiments have been conducted: (1) Skin wipes were collected from 11 adults to examine the phthalate levels on both bare-skin (hand/forehead) and clothing-covered body locations (arm/back/calf); (2) Five adults were asked to wear just-washed jeans for 1 day (1(st) experiment), 5 days (2(nd) experiment), and 10 days (3(rd) experiment). Phthalate levels on their legs were measured on selected days during the wearing period, and phthalate levels in the jeans were measured at the end of each experiment and again after washing. Measured phthalate levels on body locations covered by clothing were lower than those on uncovered locations, but still substantial. Dermal uptake would be underestimated by a factor of 2 to 5 if absorption through body locations covered by clothing were neglected. Phthalate levels in the jeans and on the legs increased with the wearing time. However, the levels in the jeans and on the legs were not strongly correlated, indicating that other pathways, e.g, contact with bedding or bedclothes, likely contribute to the levels on the legs. The efficiency with which laundering washing removed phthalates from the jeans increased with decreasing Kow; median values ranged from very low (<5%) for DEHP to very high (∼75%) for DMP. PMID:27007912

  15. Mechanism of action and cumulative effects of phthalate esters to alter male reproductive development in the rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are high-produciton volume chemicals used to impart flexibility to polyvinyl plastic (e.g. children's toys and medical tubing) as well as other products (e.g. health and beauty products). Humans are ubiquitously exposed to these chemicals. Certain phthalate est...

  16. Phthalates Induce Neurotoxicity Affecting Locomotor and Thermotactic Behaviors and AFD Neurons through Oxidative Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, I-Ling; Yang, Ying-Fei; Yu, Chan-Wei; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and numerous organisms are thus exposed to various levels of phthalates in their natural habitat. Considering the critical, but limited, research on human neurobehavioral outcomes in association with phthalates exposure, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo model to evaluate phthalates-induced neurotoxicity and the possible associated mechanisms. Principal Findings Exposure to phthalates (DEHP, DBP, and DIBP) at the examined concentrations induced behavioral defects, including changes in body bending, head thrashing, reversal frequency, and thermotaxis in C. elegans. Moreover, phthalates (DEHP, DBP, and DIBP) exposure caused toxicity, affecting the relative sizes of cell body fluorescent puncta, and relative intensities of cell bodies in AFD neurons. The mRNA levels of the majority of the genes (TTX-1, TAX-2, TAX-4, and CEH-14) that are required for the differentiation and function of AFD neurons were decreased upon DEHP exposure. Furthermore, phthalates (DEHP, DBP, and DIBP) exposure at the examined concentrations produced elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C. elegans. Finally, pretreatment with the antioxidant ascorbic acid significantly lowered the intracellular ROS level, ameliorated the locomotor and thermotactic behavior defects, and protected the damage of AFD neurons by DEHP exposure. Conclusions Our study suggests that oxidative stress plays a critical role in the phthalate esters-induced neurotoxic effects in C. elegans. PMID:24349328

  17. 77 FR 72869 - Guidance for Industry on Limiting the Use of Certain Phthalates as Excipients in Center for Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... in animals, and DBP and DEHP have been shown to be developmental and reproductive toxicants in... phthalates may affect reproductive and developmental outcomes. Other studies have confirmed the presence of... between exposure to certain phthalates and adverse developmental and reproductive effects. The...

  18. Phthalate esters, parabens and bisphenol-A exposure among mothers and their children in Greece (Rhea cohort).

    PubMed

    Myridakis, Antonis; Fthenou, Eleni; Balaska, Eirini; Vakinti, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors, used as additives, preservatives, plasticisers and solvents in numerous consumer products, might cause adverse health effects. Humans exposed to these chemicals, metabolise and excrete them mostly via urine. Urinary metabolite concentrations are used as biomarkers of exposure. We evaluated the exposure of 4-month pregnant women and their children at 2 years of age to phthalates, parabens and bisphenol-A. Concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites, six parabens and bisphenol-A were measured in 239 mother-child pairs of the "Rhea" cohort in Greece. Concentration levels in mother and children were comparable with corresponding concentrations in other countries worldwide. Low Spearman correlation coefficients (CC 0.1-0.2, p-value < 0.01) were observed for di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) and ethyl paraben (EPB) between mothers and their children. We observed higher median daily intake (DIu) for mothers (e.g. di-ethyl phthalate 6.9 μg d(-1) kg(-1)) than for their children (1.4 μg d(-1) kg(-1)) for all examined compounds, except for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and bisphenol-A. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated two main sources of exposure (plastic related and personal care-hygiene products) for phthalates, parabens and bisphenol-A. Differences in DEHP metabolism were observed among mothers-children and female-male children. PMID:26072145

  19. Bioavailability of phthalate congeners to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in artificially contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-yu; Wen, Bei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiao-quan

    2005-09-01

    Bioavailability of phthalate congeners, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and dioctyl phthalate, to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied when earthworms were exposed to two artificially contaminated agricultural and forest soils. Only DBP and DEHP were detected in earthworms. The uptake kinetics of DBP and DEHP in earthworms was fast within the initial 10 days followed by a nearly steady state for the subsequent 20 days. An equilibrium partitioning model could be used to describe the uptake kinetics of DBP and DEHP by earthworm in two types of soils (r = 0.709-0.864). The average biota-to-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of DBP and DEHP at 5 mg kg(-1) in soil were 0.27 +/- 0.07 and 0.17 +/- 0.03, respectively, in agricultural soil, while the BSAFs were 0.21 +/- 0.06 and 0.07 +/- 0.02, respectively, in forest soil. The concentrations of phthalates in earthworms increased with increasing concentrations of phthalates in soil. There was a significant correlation between logC(soil) and logC(worm), with r = 0.999-0.993, demonstrating a single linear partitioning of phthalates between soil and earthworms. The bioavailability of DBP and DEHP was assessed by Soxhlet, methanol, and methanol-water (1:1) extraction methods. Our results indicated that the extractable amounts of freshly added DBP and DEHP in soils by these extraction methods were significantly correlated with those in earthworms. It was observed that the extractable DBP and DEHP by the methanol and methanol-water (1:1) extraction methods decreased with their increasing residence time in soil. In contrast, the amount extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method did not show a similar decline. Therefore, Soxhlet extraction was a poor indicator of the bioavailability of DBP and DEHP to earthworms in soil, which could lead to overestimation of the risk of soil-associated DBP and DEHP. The extractable DBP and DEHP by methanol and methanol

  20. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

    2012-10-01

    Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535

  1. Methanogenesis from acetate: a nonmethanogenic bacterium from an anaerobic acetate enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ward, D M; Mah, R A; Kaplan, I R

    1978-06-01

    A methanogenic acetate enrichment was initiated by inoculation of an acetate-mineral salts medium with domestic anaerobic digestor sludge and maintained by weekly transfer for 2 years. The enrichment culture contained a Methanosarcina and several obligately anaerobic nonmethanogenic bacteria. These latter organisms formed varying degrees of association with the Methanosarcina, ranging from the nutritionally fastidious gram-negative rod called the satellite bacterium to the nutritionally nonfastidious Eubacterium limosum. The satellite bacterium had growth requirements for amino acids, a peptide, a purine base, vitamin B12, and other B vitamins. Glucose, mannitol, starch, pyruvate, cysteine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and asparagine stimulated growth and hydrogen production. Acetate was neither incorporated nor metabolized by the satellite organism. Since acetate was the sole organic carbon source in the enrichment culture, organism(s) which metabolize acetate (such as the Methanosarcina) must produce substrates and growth factors for associated organisms which do not metabolize acetate. PMID:677881

  2. Chemistry of the catalytic conversion of phthalate into its cis-dihydrodiol during the reaction of oxygen with the reduced form of phthalate dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Tarasev, Michael; Ballou, David P

    2005-04-26

    The phthalate dioxygenase system, a Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenase, catalyzes the dihydroxylation of phthalate to form the 4,5-dihydro-cis-dihydrodiol of phthalate (DHD). It has two components: phthalate dioxygenase (PDO), a multimer with one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] and one mononuclear Fe(II) center per monomer, and a reductase (PDR) that contains flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and a plant-type ferredoxin [2Fe-2S] center. This work shows that product formation in steady-state reactions is tightly coupled to electron delivery, with 1 dihydrodiol (DHD) of phthalate formed for every 2 electrons delivered from NADH. However, in reactions of reduced PDO with O(2), only about 0.5 DHD is formed per Rieske center that becomes oxidized. Although the product forms rapidly, its release from PDO is slow in these reactions with oxygen that do not include reductase and NADH. EPR data show that, at the completion of the oxidation, iron in the mononuclear center remains in the ferrous state. In contrast, naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) [Wolfe, M. D., Parales, J. V., Gibson, D. T., and Lipscomb, J. D. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 1945-1953] and benzoate dioxygenase (BZDO) [Wolfe, M. D., Altier, D. J., Stubna, A., Popescu, C. V., Munck, E., and Lipscomb, J. D. (2002) Biochemistry, 41, 9611-9626], related Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenases, form 1 DHD per Rieske center oxidized, and the mononuclear center iron ends up ferric. Thus, both electrons from reduced NDO and BZDO monomers are used to form the product, whereas only the reduced Rieske centers in PDO become oxidized during production of DHD. This emphasizes the importance of PDO subunit interaction in catalysis. Electron redistribution was practically unaffected by the presence of oxidized PDR. A scheme is presented that emphasizes some of the differences in the mechanisms involved in substrate hydroxylation employed by PDO and either NDO or BZDO. PMID:15835907

  3. [Determination of phthalate plasticizers in daily foods and their migration from food packages].

    PubMed

    Yang, Youyou; Xie, Yunfeng; Tian, Feifei; Yang, Yongtan

    2013-07-01

    A total of 16 phthalates in food samples (beverage, milk and wine) were analyzed by y gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with the sample preparation of liquid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction ( dSPE ) . The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) for the 16 phathalates were fairly good, ranging form 0.005 to 0.025 mg/L. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak areas were less than 2%, showing good repeatability. In addition, the recoveries of phthalates in various matrices were generally ranging from 60% to 110%. In conclusion, the developed method can help the trace analysis of phthalates in beverage, wine and milk. In order to strictly investigate the migration of phthalates from the daily food packages like plastic wraps and storage bags, iso-octane was used as the simulant of fatty foods. The migration determined using the above aptimized method showing the significant migration exsting in plastic wraps and some unqualified products in current market is not meeting the national regulations about the migration limits of phthalates. PMID:24164037

  4. EFFECTS OF MATERNAL EXPOSURE TO PHTHALATES AND BISPHENOL A DURING PREGNANCY ON GESTATIONAL AGE

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Barry; Vetrano, Anna M.; Archer, Faith E.; Marcella, Stephen W.; Buckley, Brian; Wartenberg, Daniel; Robson, Mark G.; Klim, Jammie; Azhar, Sana; Cavin, Sarah; Wang, Lu; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants, present in high concentrations in numerous consumer products. We hypothesized that maternal exposure to phthalates and BPA in pregnancy is associated with shortened gestation. Methods Urinary phthalate and BPA metabolites from 72 pregnant women were measured at the last obstetric clinic visit prior to delivery. Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in gestational age associated with each interquartile range (IQR) increase in phthalate and BPA metabolite concentration. Results IQR increases in urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and BPA concentrations were associated with 4.2 and 1.1 day decreases in gestation, respectively. When stratified by gender, these alterations were found only in male infants. Conclusions We conclude that MEHHP and BPA (free + glucuronide) are associated with reductions in gestation, with effects observed only in males. Our findings are consistent with the idea that these agents induce gender-specific alterations in signaling via PPAR-γ transcription factor, androgen precursors, and/or inflammatory mediators during the initiation of labor. PMID:23795657

  5. Influence of Lipophilicity on the Toxicity of Bisphenol A and Phthalates to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; Wallace, Sarah J; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are among the most popular plasticizers used today and have been reported ubiquitously in surface water, ground water, and sediment. For aquatic organisms, BPA was the most toxic (96 h LC50s) to aquatic invertebrates (0.96-2.70 mg/L) and less toxic to fish (6.8-17.9 mg/L). The toxicity of BPA to amphibians differed among developmental stages, with embryos having an LC50 of 4.6-6.8 mg/L and juveniles 0.50-1.4 mg/L. The toxicity of phthalates is affected by aromatic ring substitution, alkyl chain length, and metabolism. The toxicity (96 h LC50s) of phthalates was similar to aquatic invertebrates (0.46-377 mg/L) and fish (0.48-121 mg/L). In general, the toxicity of phthalates appears to be highest around a log KOW of 6, which corresponds to the highest potential for bioconcentration and bioaccumulation. In conclusion, the lipophilicity of BPA and phthalates influence their toxicity to aquatic species. PMID:27169527

  6. Dibutyl Phthalate Exposure Disrupts Evolutionarily Conserved Insulin and Glucagon-Like Signaling in Drosophila Males.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael J; Wiemerslage, Lyle; Gohel, Priya; Kheder, Sania; Kothegala, Lakshmi V; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-01

    Phthalate diesters are commonly used as industrial plasticisers, as well as in cosmetics and skin care products, as a result people are constantly exposed to these xenobiotics. Recent epidemiological studies have found a correlation between circulating phthalate levels and type 2 diabetes, whereas animal studies indicate that phthalates are capable of disrupting endocrine signaling. Nonetheless, how phthalates interfere with metabolic function is still unclear. Here, we show that feeding Drosophila males the xenobiotic dibutyl phthalate (DBP) affects conserved insulin- and glucagon-like signaling. We report that raising flies on food containing DBP leads to starvation resistance, increased lipid storage, hyperglycemia, and hyperphagia. We go on to show that the starvation-resistance phenotype can be rescued by overexpression of the glucagon analogue adipokinetic hormone (Akh). Furthermore, although acute DBP exposure in adult flies is able to affect insulin levels, only chronic feeding influences Akh expression. We establish that raising flies on DBP-containing food or feeding adults DBP food affects the expression of homologous genes involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism (AHR [Drosophila ss], NR1I2 [Hr96], ABCB1 [MDR50], ABCC3 [MRP], and CYP3A4 [Cyp9f2]). Finally, we determined that the expression of these genes is also influenced by Akh. Our results provide comprehensive evidence that DBP can disrupt metabolism in Drosophila males, by regulating genes involved in glucose, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism. PMID:27100621

  7. Serum phthalate levels and time to pregnancy in couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Jørgensen, Kristian T

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that have been associated with altered reproductive function in rodents. Several human studies have reported an inverse association between male testosterone and phthalate levels. Our aim was to investigate time to pregnancy (TTP) according to serum levels of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites in both partners. In 2002-2004 we enrolled 938 pregnant women and 401 male spouses from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Six oxidized metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were summarized for each of the two parent compounds to provide proxies of the internal exposure. We used Cox discrete-time models to estimate fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for men and women according to their proxy-DEHP or -DiNP serum levels adjusted for a fixed set of covariates. The FR was slightly elevated among women with high levels of DEHP (FR=1.14, 95% CI 1.00;1.30) suggesting a shorter TTP in these women. The FR was unrelated to DiNP in women, whereas the results for men were inconsistent pointing in opposite directions. First-time pregnant women from Greenland with high serum DiNP levels had a longer TTP. This study spanning large contrast in environmental exposure does not indicate adverse effects of phthalates on couple fecundity. The shorter TTP in women with high levels of DEHP metabolites is unexplained and needs further investigation. PMID:25786246

  8. Determinants of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites in urine of Flemish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Geens, Tinne; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Covaci, Adrian; Schoeters, Greet; Fierens, Tine; Sioen, Isabelle; Vanermen, Guido; Baeyens, Willy; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse; Nelen, Vera; de Bellevaux, Benoit Nemery; Larebeke, Nik Van; Hond, Elly Den

    2014-10-01

    As part of the second Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS II), bisphenol-A (BPA) and different phthalate metabolites were analyzed, for the first time, in the urine of 210 adolescents in Flanders, Belgium. All chemicals had a detection frequency above 90%. For all compounds, except the sum of DEHP, highest levels were detected during spring. Average values for the Flemish adolescents were in an agreement with concentrations found in different international studies, all confirming the ubiquity of BPA and phthalate exposure. There was a significant correlation between BPA and the different phthalate metabolites (r between 0.26 and 0.39; p<0.01). Shared sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates, such as food packaging, were suggested to be responsible for this positive correlation. Different determinants of exposure were evaluated in relation to the urinary concentrations of these chemicals. For BPA, a significant association was observed with household income class, smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. For phthalates, the following significant associations were observed: age (MBzP), educational level of the adolescent (MBzP), equivalent household income (MnBP), use of personal care products (MnBP and MBzP), wall paper in house (MnBP and MBzP) and use of local vegetables (MnBP and MBzP). PMID:25127521

  9. Effects of airway exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Inoue, Ken-Ichiro; Yoshida, Seiichi; Tanaka, Michitaka; Takano, Hirohisa; Sun, Guifan; Ichinose, Takamichi

    2013-06-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested a positive link between atopy morbidity and exposure to phthalate esters, which are environmental chemicals mainly involved in house dust. Nevertheless, experimental studies applying several allergic in vivo models (in addition to epidemiological studies) are needed to prove the precise correlation between phthalates and facilitation of the allergic response/pathophysiology. Among the phthalate esters, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been widely used in flexible polyvinyl chloride products, including vinyl flooring and wall covering, and has been widely suggested to have immunomodulating potential. In the present study, we examined the effects of airway exposure to DEHP on allergen (ovalbumin: OVA)-induced rhinitis in mice. The repeated administration of OVA via an intranasal route induced nasal inflammation characterized by the infiltration of granulocytes (neutrophils and eosinophils) into the nasal cavity. In this experimental setting, DEHP did not exaggerate OVA-related inflammatory pathology. However, local (nasal) IL-13 levels were significantly higher in mice treated with allergen plus DEHP than with allergen alone. Taken together, phthalate esters including DEHP have the potential to exacerbate the allergic milieu in the nasal system, as well as dermal and respiratory systems. PMID:23672524

  10. Serum Phthalate Levels and Time to Pregnancy in Couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar; Lindh, Christian H.; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Jørgensen, Kristian T.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that have been associated with altered reproductive function in rodents. Several human studies have reported an inverse association between male testosterone and phthalate levels. Our aim was to investigate time to pregnancy (TTP) according to serum levels of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites in both partners. In 2002-2004 we enrolled 938 pregnant women and 401 male spouses from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Six oxidized metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were summarized for each of the two parent compounds to provide proxies of the internal exposure. We used Cox discrete-time models to estimate fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for men and women according to their proxy-DEHP or -DiNP serum levels adjusted for a fixed set of covariates. The FR was slightly elevated among women with high levels of DEHP (FR=1.14, 95% CI 1.00;1.30) suggesting a shorter TTP in these women. The FR was unrelated to DiNP in women, whereas the results for men were inconsistent pointing in opposite directions. First-time pregnant women from Greenland with high serum DiNP levels had a longer TTP. This study spanning large contrast in environmental exposure does not indicate adverse effects of phthalates on couple fecundity. The shorter TTP in women with high levels of DEHP metabolites is unexplained and needs further investigation. PMID:25786246

  11. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate targets glycogen debranching enzyme and affects glycogen metabolism in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Kuramori, Chikanori; Hase, Yasuyoshi; Hoshikawa, Koichi; Watanabe, Keiko; Nishi, Takeyuki; Hishiki, Takako; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nashimoto, Akihiro; Kabe, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Watanabe, Hajime; Kataoka, Kohsuke; Suematsu, Makoto; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    Phthalate esters are commonly used plasticizers; however, some are suspected to cause reproductive toxicity. Administration of high doses of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induces germ cell death in male rodents. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), a hydrolyzed metabolite of DEHP, appears to be responsible for this testicular toxicity; however, the underlying mechanism of this chemical's action remains unknown. Here, using a one-step affinity purification procedure, we identified glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) as a phthalate-binding protein. GDE has oligo-1,4-1,4-glucanotransferase and amylo-1,6-glucosidase activities, which are responsible for the complete degradation of glycogen to glucose. Our findings demonstrate that MEHP inhibits the activity of oligo-1,4-1,4-glucanotransferase, but not of amylo-1,6-glucosidase. Among various phthalate esters tested, MEHP specifically binds to and inhibits GDE. We also show that DEHP administration affects glycogen metabolism in rat testis. Thus, inhibition of GDE by MEHP may play a role in germ cell apoptosis in the testis. PMID:19240039

  12. Presence of phthalate esters in intravenous solution evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Strac, Ivona Vidić; Pušić, Maja; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2013-03-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the production of poly-(vinyl) chloride (PVC) materials. It is a reproductive and developmental toxicant in animals and a suspected endocrine modulator in humans. DEHP is not covalently bound within the PVC molecule, which is why migration into a suitable medium can be expected. Since application of infusion solutions is one of the most common medical treatments, the objective of this study was to determine the migration of phthalates from softened PVC storage bags into infusion solution in different time periods within one year from date of production using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The measured values of DEHP ranged between 0.22 and 14.00 µg l(-1) , but the unexpected presence of other phthalate esters was also detected. It was concluded that values obtained in infusion solutions match the reference data and represent a minor risk for the patient. The presence of other phthalate esters leads to the conclusion that the pharmacopeic requirement for polymer cleanness was not fully met. Since phthalate esters are among the most extensively used industrial chemicals and are widely distributed in the environment, special precautions and further monitoring should be conducted to minimize any possible health risks. PMID:22034089

  13. Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in the U.S. population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manori J; Barr, Dana B; Reidy, John A; Malek, Nicole A; Hodge, Carolyn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Brock, John W; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2004-01-01

    We measured the urinary monoester metabolites of seven commonly used phthalates in approximately 2,540 samples collected from participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2000, who were greater than or equal to 6 years of age. We found detectable levels of metabolites monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in > 75% of the samples, suggesting widespread exposure in the United States to diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate or diisobutylphthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, respectively. We infrequently detected monoisononyl phthalate, mono-cyclohexyl phthalate, and mono-n-octyl phthalate, suggesting that human exposures to di-isononyl phthalate, dioctylphthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate, respectively, are lower than those listed above, or the pathways, routes of exposure, or pharmacokinetic factors such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination are different. Non-Hispanic blacks had significantly higher concentrations of MEP than did Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Compared with adolescents and adults, children had significantly higher levels of MBP, MBzP, and MEHP but had significantly lower concentrations of MEP. Females had significantly higher concentrations of MEP and MBzP than did males, but similar MEHP levels. Of particular interest, females of all ages had significantly higher concentrations of the reproductive toxicant MBP than did males of all ages; however, women of reproductive age (i.e., 20-39 years of age) had concentrations similar to adolescent girls and women 40 years of age. These population data on exposure to phthalates will serve an important role in public health by helping to set research priorities and by establishing a nationally representative baseline of exposure with which population levels can be compared. PMID:14998749

  14. Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Chin; Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use. Method We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors. Results The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), DBP (DnBP and DiBP), including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years) were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese. Conclusion Our findings indicated

  15. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospice cap amount. 418.309 Section 418.309 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... until October 31 of the following year. (b) Each hospice's cap amount is calculated by the...

  16. Emission of phthalates from PVC and other materials.

    PubMed

    Afshari, A; Gunnarsen, L; Clausen, P A; Hansen, V

    2004-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to generate quantitative and qualitative emission data on phthalates from different materials. To achieve this the existing (Chamber for Laboratory Investigations of Materials, Pollution and Air Quality) Climpaq-based procedure for simplified measurements of emissions of plasticizer from PVC and other plasticized materials was modified. It was applied to a range of products. Some of them were suspected of contributing to the indoor concentration of plasticizers. The emissions from PVC flooring, polyolefine flooring, a refrigerator list, two electric cables, PVC skirting and floor wax were studied in separate Climpaqs. The emission from the PVC flooring in the Climpaq was compared with results from the ultra-small chamber Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). Sampling and analysis methods were optimized to measure plasticizers. Samples were taken in exhaust air from the chambers after 6, 35, 62, 105, and 150 days from the start of the experiment. PVC flooring was tested for an additional 100 days. Polyolefine covered with wax resulted in an air concentration of 22 microg/m3 of dibutylphthalate (DBP), which is two orders of magnitude larger than any other materials, but did not emit di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). The other materials resulted in max concentration of approximately 1 microg/m3 of DEHP and low emissions of DBP. The concentration of DEHP in each chamber increased slowly to a rather stable level which was reached after 150 days. DBP concentrations in the chambers with PVC skirting, PVC flooring, polyolefine and floor wax reached their quasi-static equilibrium after 60 days. The modified method did not create sufficient data for the calculation of emission rates. Adsorption of emission on chamber surfaces made it impossible to use the first part of the experiment for emission rate calculation. When the concentration had stabilized, it was found to be almost identical and independent of chamber and ventilation

  17. O+ transport across the polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Jahn, J.; Pollock, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    The plasma sheet, inner magnetosphere, and high latitude magnetosphere all contain significant amounts of O+ ions during active times. Singly charged oxygen ions unambiguously come from the ionosphere making them an excellent tracer species. As the solar wind dynamic pressure increases, the O+ density in the in the cleft, high altitude polar cap, and plasma sheet also increases. We test the "cleft ion fountain" model, which asserts that O+ ions escape from the cleft, cross the polar cap, and then enter the plasma sheet against a mo of outflows originating from the entire polar cap. We use observations of O+ transport across the polar cap from TIDE polar cap ion outflow measurements. The Tsyganenko magnetic field model, driven with ACE solar wind parameters is used to provide magnetic mapping and organization of the observations. We calculate the distance between the cleft and the foot-points of magnetic field lines mapped from the Polar spacecraft along the noon-midnight meridian. Using the observed outflow speed and magnetic field line length we calculate travel time for the ions. We then plot the distance from the cleft versus the travel time for an entire pass. For O+ this plot is quite linear, and the slope of the line is the average convection speed of the magnetic field lines across the polar cap. The convection speed we determined is consistent with the convection speed measured in the ionosphere. We conclude that O+ ions emanating principally from the cleft are transported across the polar cap, and these O+ ions have access to the ring current and plasma sheet.

  18. Biochemical Characterization of Inducible 'Reductase' Component of Benzoate Dioxygenase and Phthalate Isomer Dioxygenases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Rohini; Badri, Abinaya; Phale, Prashant S

    2015-09-01

    The first step involved in the degradation of phthalate isomers (phthalate, isophthalate and terephthalate) is the double hydroxylation by respective aromatic-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases. These are two component enzymes consisting of 'oxygenase' and 'reductase' components. Soil isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4 degrades phthalate isomers via protocatechuate and benzoate via catechol 'ortho' ring cleavage pathway. Metabolic studies suggest that strain PP4 has carbon source-specific inducible phthalate isomer dioxygenase and benzoate dioxygenase. Thus, it was of interest to study the properties of reductase components of these enzymes. Reductase activity from phthalate isomer-grown cells was 3-5-folds higher than benzoate grown cells. In-gel activity staining profile showed a reductase activity band of R f 0.56 for phthalate isomer-grown cells as compared to R f 0.73 from benzoate-grown cells. Partially purified reductase components from phthalate isomer grown cells showed K m in the range of 30-40 μM and V max = 34-48 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). However, reductase from benzoate grown cells showed K m = 49 μM and V max = 10 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). Strikingly similar molecular and kinetic properties of reductase component from phthalate isomer-grown cells suggest that probably the same reductase component is employed in three phthalate isomer dioxygenases. However, reductase component is different, with respect to kinetic properties and zymogram analysis, from benzoate-grown cells when compared to that from phthalate isomer grown cells of PP4. PMID:26201480

  19. Airborne particulate endocrine disrupting compounds in China: Compositions, size distributions and seasonal variations of phthalate esters and bisphenol A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Gehui

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and ubiquitously occur in the environment. In the past decade we have characterized atmospheric organic aerosols from various environments (e.g., urban, rural, mountain and marine) of East Asia on a molecular level, but not investigated EDCs in the samples. In the current study we re-analyzed our database for concentrations, compositions and size distributions of phthalates and BPA and compared with those in the literature to improve the understanding on air pollution status in China. Our results showed that airborne particulate phthalates and BPA are 63-1162 ng m- 3 and 1.0-20 ng m- 3 in the urban regions in China, respectively, being one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the developed countries. Among the detected phthalates in Chinese urban areas, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) is the predominant congener, contributing to 23-79% (ave. 53 ± 15%) of the total phthalates. Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Shanghai and Xi'an (two mega-cities in China) in 2009 were 3-84% lower than those in 2003, probably indicating a positive effect of the government's air pollution control in the recent years. Phthalates are higher in summer than in winter, because they are not chemically bonded to the polymeric matrix and more easily evaporate into the air under higher temperature conditions. Based on the size distribution observation, we found that diisobutyl and dibutyl phthalates mainly exist in coarse particles because of high volatilities, in contrast to BEHP and BPA, which are dominant in fine particles due to less volatility. Our results also indicate that BPA is mostly derived from the open burning of solid waste while phthalates are derived from both direct evaporation from the matrix and solid waste combustion.

  20. Indoor phthalate concentration in residential apartments in Chongqing, China: Implications for preschool children's exposure and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Zhongming; Zhang, Yinping; Mmereki, Daniel; Yu, Wei; Li, Baizhan

    2016-02-01

    Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) - in indoor gas-phase and dust samples were measured in thirty residential apartments for the first time in Chongqing, China. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate preschool children's exposure via inhalation, non-dietary ingestion and dermal absorption based on gas-phase and dust concentrations. Risk assessment was evaluated by comparing the modeled exposure doses with child-specific benchmarks specified in California's Proposition 65. The detection frequency for all the targeted phthalates was more than 80% except for BBzP. DMP was the most predominant compound in the gas-phase (median = 0.91 μg/m3 and 0.82 μg/m3 in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), and DEHP was the most predominant compound in the dust samples (median = 1543 μg/g and 1450 μg/g in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively). Correlation analysis suggests that indoor DiBP and DnBP might come from the same emission sources. The simulations showed that the median DEHP daily intake was 3.18-4.28 μg/day/kg-bw in all age groups, suggesting that it was the greatest of the targeted phthalates. The risk assessment indicated that the exposure doses of DnBP and DEHP exceeded the child-specific benchmarks in more than 90% of preschool children in Chongqing. Therefore, from a children's health perspective, efforts should focus on controlling indoor phthalate concentrations and exposures.