Science.gov

Sample records for acetate tetracaine hydrochloride

  1. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484c Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine..., following ear trimming and castrating operations. (2) In treatment of otitis externa and other inflammatory... noted, therapy with the drug should be stopped. Treatment should be limited to the period when...

  6. [Studies for analyzing prohibited ingredients such as tetracaine hydrochloride in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Orie; Uchino, Tadashi; Ando, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    Tetracaine hydrochloride (TH) is nominated as the prohibited ingredients in cosmetics in Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. So the analytical method for TH was investigated by HPLC. After adding 5 ml of TH solution at 10 microg/ml and 2 ml of salicylic acid solution at 75 microg/ml as the internal standard to 0.5 g of the lotion, the mixture was made up to 10 ml with a mixture of water and methanol (1:1) as the testing solution. Milky lotion was procedured as follows: After adding 5 ml of TH solution at 10 microg/ml and 2 ml of internal standard solution to 0.5 g of the milky lotion, the mixture was made up to 10 ml with a mixture of water and methanol (1:1). Two milliliter of this mixture was placed into a centrifuging tube with a cap and 2 ml of hexane was added. After shaking vigorously and centrifuging, the lower layer was used as the testing solution. In the case of the cream, the other procedures were used: 0.5 g of cream was placed into a 10-ml volumetric flask and 1 ml of tetrahydrofuran was added. After dissolving, the mixture of methanol and water (1:1) was added to make up 10.0 ml. Two milliliter of this mixture was placed into a centrifuging tube with a cap and 2.0 ml of hexane was added. After shaking vigorously and centrifuging, the lower layer was used as the testing solution. The testing solution of 20 microl was analyzed by HPLC using the ODS column (CAPCELL PAK C18 column, 4.6 x 250 mm), the mixture of acetonitrile and 50 mmol/l phosphate buffer(pH 2.0)(7:3) and the detection wavelength of 303 nm. The working curves from 0.5 to 6.0 microg/ml showed a linear line between the concentrations of TH and the peak area ratio. There was no interference of peak of TH from the lotion, milky lotion and cream.

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., following ear trimming and castrating operations. (2) In treatment of otitis externa and other inflammatory conditions of the external ear canal, a quantity of ointment sufficient to fill the external ear canal may be... anesthesia is essential to control self-inflicted trauma. (4) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., following ear trimming and castrating operations. (2) In treatment of otitis externa and other inflammatory conditions of the external ear canal, a quantity of ointment sufficient to fill the external ear canal may be... anesthesia is essential to control self-inflicted trauma. (4) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL..., to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. It is indicated as treatment or adjunctive therapy of certain ear conditions in dogs and cats caused by or associated with...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL..., to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. It is indicated as treatment or adjunctive therapy of certain ear conditions in dogs and cats caused by or associated with...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dermatitis in the dog and is a useful dressing for minor cuts, lacerations, abrasions, and post-surgical... anesthesia is essential to control self-inflicted trauma. (4) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear canal... hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be stopped.1 (3) Federal law restricts...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear canal... hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be stopped.1 (3) Federal law restricts...

  14. The compatibility and stability of octreotide acetate in the presence of diamorphine hydrochloride in polypropylene syringes.

    PubMed

    Fielding, H; Kyaterekera, N; Skellern, G G; Tettey, J N; McDade, J R; Msuya, Z; Watson, D G; Urie, J

    2000-05-01

    Varying concentrations of octreotide acetate (Sandostatin) and diamorphine hydrochloride were prepared and stored in polypropylene syringes at 37 degrees C in the dark. The solutions were analysed for octreotide acetate content using a validated HPLC method at regular intervals over a 48-h period. The results indicate that octreotide acetate remains stable in the presence of diamorphine hydrochloride at 37 degrees C for 24 h. In addition, the solutions prepared maintained their clarity, with no signs of precipitation upon visual examination under normal light conditions.

  15. LC determination of octreotide acetate in compound formulations of Sandostatin and diamorphine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Kyaterekera, N; Tettey, J N; Skellern, G G; Watson, D G; Urie, J; McDade, J R; Fielding, H

    1999-11-01

    The determination of octreotide acetate in compound formulations of Sandostatin and diamorphine hydrochloride by RP-LC is described. Octreotide acetate, diamorphine hydrochloride and their respective degradants, [des-Thr-ol8]-octreotide and 6-O-acetylmorphine, were baseline resolved using a Lichrospher-60 RP-select B column with a mobile phase composition of acetonitrile/phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 20 mM) (35:65 v/v) with UV detection at 210 nm. The method is simple, selective, precise and suitable for the determination of octreotide acetate in admixture.

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (1) It is used in horses, dogs, and cats in the treatment or adjunctive therapy of certain ear and... and/or allergy. In addition the product is indicated as superficial dressing applied to minor cuts... ovariohysterectomies. The product may also be used in the treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs, acute...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (1) It is used in horses, dogs, and cats in the treatment or adjunctive therapy of certain ear and... and/or allergy. In addition the product is indicated as superficial dressing applied to minor cuts... ovariohysterectomies. The product may also be used in the treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs, acute...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL.... (1) It is used in horses, dogs, and cats in the treatment or adjunctive therapy of certain ear and... ovariohysterectomies. The product may also be used in the treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs, acute...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL.... (1) It is used in horses, dogs, and cats in the treatment or adjunctive therapy of certain ear and... ovariohysterectomies. The product may also be used in the treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs, acute...

  20. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  1. Benzocaine/Lidocaine/Tetracaine Cream

    PubMed Central

    Boonsiri, Metavee; Marks, Katherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Practitioners are increasingly using topical anesthetics in the field of dermatology. Application of topical anesthetics prior to performing dermatologic procedures has proven to decrease pain and discomfort associated with these procedures. Despite the prevalent use of topical anesthetics, there are few standard guidelines for about which products provide optimal and safest use. Adverse events are often correlated with improper application of topical anesthetics. A few case reports have cited adverse events related to the use of compounded products that the United States Food and Drug Administration has not approved, such as benzocaine, lidocaine, tetracaine. In this article, the authors report the possible ocular side effects due to the use of benzocaine, lidocaine, tetracaine. Careful attention must be paid to this compounded product, and better formulations are needed in order to prevent adverse events. PMID:27354889

  2. Cytotoxic effect and possible mechanisms of Tetracaine on human corneal epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xin; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To demonstrate the cytotoxic effect and possible mechanisms of Tetracaine on human corneal epithelial (HCEP) cells in vitro. METHODS In vitro cultured HCEP cell were treated with Tetracaine hydrochloride at different doses for different times, and their morphology, viability, and plasma membrane permeability were detected by light microscopy, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining, respectively. Their cell cycle progression, phosphatidylserine orientation in plasma membrane, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MTP) were assessed by flow cytometry. DNA fragmentation, ultrastructure, caspase activation, and the cytoplasmic apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c (Cyt. c) along with the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins were examined by gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscope, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS After exposed to Tetracaine at doses from 10.0 to 0.3125 g/L, the HCEP cells showed dose- and time-dependent morphological abnormality and typical cytopathic effect, viability decline, and plasma membrane permeability elevation. Tetracaine induced phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, G1 phase arrest, and ultrastructural abnormality and apoptotic body formation. Furthermore, Tetracaine at a dose of 0.3125 g/L also induced caspase-3, -9 and -8 activation, MTP disruption, up-regulation of the cytoplasmic amount of Cyt. c and AIF, the expressions of Bax and Bad, and down-regulation of the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. CONCLUSION Tetracaine above 0.3125 g/L (1/32 of its clinical applied dosage) has a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCEP cells in vitro, with inducing cell apoptosis via a death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent pathway. PMID:27162719

  3. Kinetics of the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase from desert cobra (Walterinnesia aegyptia) venom by local anesthetics: procaine and tetracaine.

    PubMed

    al-Jafari, A A; Kamal, M A; Duhaiman, A S; Alhomida, A S

    1996-10-01

    The kinetic parameters of W. aegyptia venom acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by procaine and tetracaine hydrochloride were investigated in the present study. Procaine and tetracaine reversibly inhibited the AChE activity in a concentration-dependent manner, the IC50 being about 0.28 and 0.04 mM, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) for the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine iodide was found to be 0.051 mM with Vmax 10.2 mumole/min/mg protein. Both K(m) and Vmax were affected by procaine while only Vmax decreased with tetracaine. A Lineweaver-Burk plot and its secondary replot indicated that the nature of the inhibition is of the linear mixed type for procaine which is considered to be a mixture of competitive and noncompetitive types while the inhibition was noncompetitive for tetracaine. The values of Ki(slope) and K(intercept were estimated as 0.133 mM and 0.451 mM for procaine and 7.2 x 10(-3) mM for tetracaine, respectively, by the secondary replots of the Lineweaver-Burk plot.

  4. Clinical efficacy of tetracaine anesthetic paste.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Christa; Goebel, William; Hildebolt, Charles; Rotter, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Benzocaine, the most commonly used topical anesthetic in dentistry, often fails to eliminate the pain associated with injections. One type of anesthetic used frequently in medicine with success is tetracaine, but minimal research has been done regarding the application of tetracaine in dentistry. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tetracaine anesthetic paste (TAP), a newly formulated topical anesthetic. For this study, TAP was applied to the maxillary mucobuccal fold of one side of the arch and benzocaine paste was applied to the opposite side prior to injection of anesthetic. Patients then reported the level of pain experienced on each side and were evaluated for any adverse reactions. The results showed no difference in effectiveness between TAP and benzocaine paste, and no adverse reactions were reported. Because of the safety and effectiveness of tetracaine extraorally, further research is warranted on its intraoral use.

  5. [Magnetic Resonance Imaging Improvement in a Patient with Wilson's Disease Following Treatment with Trientine Hydrochloride and Zinc Acetate].

    PubMed

    Kim, Younhee; Koide, Reiji; Kawata, Akihiro

    2015-05-01

    A 37-year-old male patient presented with psychiatric symptoms, dysarthria, limb dystonia, increased tendon reflexes, and a Kayser-Fleischer ring in his late teens. Laboratory examinations showed decreased concentrations of serum copper and ceruloplasmin, and increased urinary copper levels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high-signal-intensity lesions in the bilateral putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and brainstem on T2-weighted images (T2WI). Based on the MRI results and laboratory data, we diagnosed this patient with Wilson's disease (WD). He was treated with trientine hydrochloride and zinc acetate. Four months after the initiation of treatment, the patient'symptoms began to improve. On a follow-up MRI that was obtained 6 years after treatment, the high-signal-intensity lesions on the T2WI had disappeared completely. However, the low-signal-intensity lesions in the basal ganglia had spread to the caudate nuclei. Here, we discuss the characteristics of the MRI changes in WD following treatment. The Pathological basis for the low-signal-intensity lesions on T2WI in WD remains unclear. Our results suggest that this lesion may reflect the accumulation of materials other than copper.

  6. Efficacy and onset of action of hydrocortisone acetate 2.5% and pramoxine hydrochloride 1% lotion for the management of pruritus: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2011-02-01

    Itch is the most common symptom among patients presenting to the dermatology clinic. Scratching can cause mechanical trauma to the skin, further damaging the epidermal barrier and its function. This damage can facilitate the introduction of microbes that complicate the presenting disease and its management. Pruritus has a negative influence on quality of life. Initiation of treatment that can safely and effectively manage pruritus may provide immediate benefits to the patient. A novel topical formulation of hydrocortisone acetate 2.5% and pramoxine hydrochloride 1% in a hydrophilic lotion base is indicated for the management of pruritus. However, the rate of onset of antipruritic effects has not been well studied. This single-center, open-label, pilot study involved 11 subjects age 18 and older. All subjects applied hydrocortisone acetate 2.5% and pramoxine hydrochloride 1% lotion four times daily for one day. Severity of itch as measured by the visual analog scale decreased significantly following one day of medication use. The change in mean visual analog scale from baseline was -2.16±2.78 (P=0.0275), representing a mean percentage reduction of 31.74±42.11 (P=0.0315). Topical application of hydrocortisone acetate 2.5% and pramoxine hydrochloride 1% lotion provides a significant reduction in pruritus as rated by patients using the visual analog scale with a single day of use. Early onset of action to decrease itch is expected to improve the patient's treatment experience and increase the level of long-term adherence.

  7. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without an estrogen-trenbolone acetate terminal implant on carcass traits, retail cutout, tenderness, and muscle fiber diameter in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Kellermeier, J D; Tittor, A W; Brooks, J C; Galyean, M L; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Johnson, B J; Miller, M F

    2009-11-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH), a beta-agonist, for the final 30 d of the feeding period, with or without a terminal estrogen + trenbolone acetate (TBA) implant (Revalor-S; 24 mg of estradiol-17beta and 120 mg of TBA; REV) on meat tenderness and carcass cutout yields. Crossbred steers (n = 2,279) were divided into 6 BW blocks and 24 pens. Within each block, pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) no terminal implant (control); 2) a terminal REV given 91 d before slaughter; 3) no terminal implant plus ZH; and 4) a terminal REV implant plus ZH (REV+ZH). All cattle received Component TE-IS (16 mg of estradiol and 80 mg of TBA) on d - 61 of the feeding period [corrected]. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was added to the diets at a concentration of 8.38 mg/kg (DM basis) during the final 30 d of the feeding period, followed by a 3-d period before slaughter in which ZH was withdrawn from the diet. Carcasses (n = 30/treatment) were selected from the 2,279 cattle and fabricated into subprimal cuts as per Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications. Strip loins were collected, cut into 2.54-cm steaks, and aged 7, 14, and 21 d, after which Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), collagen content, desmin degradation, and muscle fiber diameter measurements were determined. Feeding ZH increased (P < 0.05) yield of the #112A ribeye roll, #116B chuck mock tender, #167A peeled knuckle, #169 top inside round, #171B outside round, #171C eye of round, #180 strip loin, #184 top sirloin butt, and #189A full tenderloin for ZH treatment. Longissimus muscle WBSF at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem was increased (P < 0.001) with ZH supplementation. Desmin degradation at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem was not affected with REV or ZH supplementation compared with controls. Zilpaterol hydrochloride had an additive effect with REV on increasing LM fiber diameter (P < 0.001). When fed to cattle that received a terminal implant of REV, ZH potentially

  8. Lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster: in minor dermatological and needle puncture procedures.

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2010-11-12

    The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster comprises a lidocaine/tetracaine 70 mg/70 mg patch and a controlled heat-assisted drug delivery pod that increases the diffusion of lidocaine and tetracaine into the dermis. Following a 1-hour application period, systemic absorption of lidocaine or tetracaine from the plaster was minimal. The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster provided effective pain relief for adult (including elderly) patients undergoing minor dermatological procedures and for adult and paediatric patients undergoing vascular access procedures. In randomized, double-blind clinical trials, patient-reported median pain scores were significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with an identical plaster containing placebo in patients undergoing minor dermatological or vascular access procedures. Furthermore, patient-reported median pain scores were significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with a lidocaine/prilocaine cream in patients undergoing vascular access procedures. In a large, randomized, double-blind trial in paediatric patients undergoing venipuncture, the overall incidence of pain was significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with a lidocaine/prilocaine plaster. The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster was well tolerated, with the most frequent treatment-related adverse events resolving spontaneously.

  9. Methemoglobinemia and acute hemolysis after tetracaine lozenge use.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, Sandrine; Darmon, Michael; Levy, Vincent; Azoulay, Elie

    2006-03-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is a rare but severe condition associated with oxidizing stressors, most notably medications. Although the symptoms can be life threatening, they usually respond promptly to exposure cessation and methylene blue injection. We describe the first case of methemoglobinemia associated with tetracaine lozenge use. A previously healthy 33-year-old man was admitted with fever, respiratory distress, cyanosis, and acute hemolysis. Physical findings and chest radiograph were normal. Low pulse oximetry readings contrasted with normal partial pressure of oxygen and calculated oxygen saturation. The methemoglobin level was 10.8%. The patient recovered with methylene blue injection and blood transfusions. He reported recent self-medication with tetracaine lozenges for a sore throat during a flu-like illness. No other cause of methemoglobinemia was found.

  10. Topical local anesthesia: focus on lidocaine–tetracaine combination

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Davide; Raso, Maria Gabriella; Pernice, Carmine; Agnoletti, Vanni; Barbieri, Verter

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of aesthetic and cosmetic procedures, often performed in outpatient settings, has strongly renewed interest in topical anesthetics. A number of different options are widely used, alone or in combination, in order to minimize the pain related to surgery. Moreover, interest in local anesthetics in the treatment of some painful degenerative conditions such as myofascial trigger point pain, shoulder impingement syndrome, or patellar tendinopathy is increasing. Numerous clinical trials have shown that lidocaine–tetracaine combination, recently approved for adults aged 18 or older, is effective and safe in managing pain. The present paper gives an overview of the recent literature regarding the efficacy and safety of lidocaine–tetracaine combination use. PMID:26664201

  11. Local anesthetic cream prepared from lidocaine-tetracaine eutectic mixture.

    PubMed

    Ohzeki, Keiichi; Kitahara, Masaki; Suzuki, Noriko; Taguchi, Kyoji; Yamazaki, Yuki; Akiyama, Shinji; Takahashi, Kentaro; Kanzaki, Yasushi

    2008-04-01

    Local anesthetic creams for the clinical treatment of conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia were prepared as an in-house formulation from the eutectic mixture of lidocaine-tetracaine (LT cream) using two eutectic mixtures of local anesthetic (EMLA) type bases. The LT formulation was compared with a lidocaine-prilocaine (LP cream) eutectic mixture formulated using the same base as EMLA. The chemical stability of lidocaine was examined in advance and was found to be stable for more than 3 months either in LT cream or in LP cream. The release rate of lidocaine from the formulated creams was examined using a cellulose ester membrane. The release rate of lidocaine from LT cream was similar to that from LP cream. The release rate of tetracaine was slightly slower than that of lidocaine in LT cream reflecting the larger molecular size of tetracaine. The penetration rate was examined in vitro using a Yucatan micropig skin. The penetration rate of lidocaine was similar between LT and LP creams. Infiltration anesthesia action examined in guinea pigs indicated that the difference between the two creams was statistically insignificant. The present study suggests the equivalence of the LT and LP creams as a local anesthetic and the potential of LT cream for clinical use either in the easy formulation or in the low-cost formulation.

  12. Dual effects of tetracaine on spontaneous calcium release in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Györke, S; Lukyanenko, V; Györke, I

    1997-01-01

    1. Confocal microfluorometry was used to study the effects of tetracaine on spontaneous Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. 2. At low concentrations (0.25-1.25 mM), tetracaine caused an initial inhibition of spontaneous release events (Ca2+ sparks) and Ca2+ waves, which was followed by a gradual increase in Ca2+ release activity. The frequency and magnitude of sparks were first decreased and then increased with respect to control levels. At high concentrations (> 1.25 mM), tetracaine abolished all forms of spontaneous release. 3. Exposure of the myocytes to tetracaine resulted in a gradual increase in the SR Ca2+ load as indexed by changes in the magnitude of caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients. 4. In cardiac SR Ca(2+)-release channels incorporated into lipid bilayers, tetracaine (> 0.25 mM) induced a steady inhibition of channel activity. Addition of millimolar Ca2+ to the luminal side of the channel caused an increase in channel open probability under control conditions as well as in the presence of various concentrations of tetracaine. 5. We conclude that the primary effect of tetracaine on SR Ca(2+)-release channels is inhibition of channel activity both in vitro and in situ. The ability of tetracaine to reduce spark magnitude suggests that these events are not due to activation of single channels or non-reducible clusters of channels and, therefore, supports the multichannel origin of sparks. We propose that the paradoxical late potentiation of release by submaximal concentrations of tetracaine is caused by a gradual increase in SR Ca2+ load and subsequent activation of the Ca(2+)-release channels by Ca2+ inside the SR. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9147318

  13. Improvement of tetracaine antinociceptive effect by inclusion in cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Franco de Lima, Roberta Aline; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Saia Cereda, Cíntia Maria; Tofoli, Giovana Radomille; Cabeça, Luis Fernando; Mazzaro, Irineu; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; de Paula, Eneida

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics (LA) are among the most important pharmacological compounds used to attenuate or eliminate pain. However, systemic toxicity is still a limitation for LA application, especially for ester-type drugs, such as tetracaine (TTC) that presents poor chemical stability (due to hydrolysis by plasma esterases). Several approaches have been used to improve LA pharmaceutical properties, including the employment of drug-delivery systems. Here we used beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) or hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to develop two new TTC formulations (TTC:β-CD and TTC:HP-β-CD). The inclusion complexes formation, in a 1:1 stoichiometry, was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, UV-VIS absorption and fluorescence. Nuclear magnetic resonance (DOSY experiments) revealed that TTC association with HP-β-CD is stronger (Ka=1200 mol/L(-1)) than with β-CD (Ka=845 mol/L(-1)). Moreover, nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments provided information on the topology of the complexes, where TTC aromatic ring is buried inside the CD hydrophobic cavity. In vitro tests with 3T3 fibroblast cells culture revealed that complexation decreased TTC cytotoxicity. In addition, the total analgesic effect of TTC, tested in rats through the infraorbital nerve test, was improved in 36% with TTC:β-CD and TTC:HP-β-CD. In conclusion, these formulations presented potential for future clinical use, by reducing the toxicity and increasing the antinociceptive effect of tetracaine.

  14. Glucosamine hydrochloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... additional ingredients are frequently chondroitin sulfate, MSM, or shark cartilage. Some people think these combinations work better ... to the skin in combination with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor for osteoarthritis. Glucosamine hydrochloride is ...

  15. Effect of tetracaine-induced spinal anesthesia on pial microcirculation in pentobarbital anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Lu, Gabriel

    2009-07-01

    Local anesthetic is administrated intrathecally to produce spinal anesthesia. This study examines the effect of spinal anesthesia induced by intrathecal tetracaine on cerebral pial microcirculation in rats. We monitored changes in the mean arterial pressure, internal diameter (ID) of the pial arteriole, intracranial pressure, and red blood cell velocity. The regional cerebral blood flow was calculated from the product of cross sectional area and red blood cell velocity. To induce spinal anesthesia, tetracaine was administered via a polyethylene tube at the L4-5 intervertebral space after laminectomy. Arterial blood pressure was monitored via a catheter in the femoral artery. A left parietal craniotomy with an encapsulated cranial window was prepared for biomicroscopy. Change in the arteriolar ID was measured by image shearing. Red blood cell velocity was measured by the dual-slit photometric method and correlation technique. Three levels of spinal anesthesia were evaluated. Tetracaine at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg, which produced T10 and T6 sensory block, respectively, did not cause significant change of ID of the pial arteriole and red blood cell velocity. Tetracaine (0.3 mg/kg) produced total spinal block, resulting in a significant decrease of the calculated cerebral blood flow and caused brief pial arteriolar vasodilation followed by vasoconstriction. Our results show that total spinal anesthesia with tetracaine causes significant changes in rat cerebral microcirculation.

  16. Tetracaine lollipops for the suppression of extreme gag reflex in dental patients.

    PubMed

    Muller, George; Case, Tyler; Deen, Griffin L

    2010-01-01

    An extreme gag reflex renders prophylactic dental care and undergoing operative dental procedures impossible for many people. Commercially available oral spray and lozenge anesthetics have an unpleasant taste and provide an insufficient duration of anesthesia. Compounded flavored tetracaine lollipops are an excellent alternative to other oral anesthetics and have enabled the treatment of many patients who have a strong aversion to dental care. In this report, we describe the use of the preparation in such patients. A formulation for tetracaine lollipops 0.5% is included. PMID:23965583

  17. Simultaneous determination of tetracaine, proline, and enoxacin in human urine by CE with ECL detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanwen; Su, Ming; Li, Liqing

    2010-01-01

    A simple, fast, and sensitive capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the simultaneous determination of tetracaine, proline, and enoxacin in human urine with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection. The effects of experimental conditions including the mode of applied voltage signal, the potential of working electrode, pH value, the flow rate of carrier of solution, the concentration of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+), and the ECL intensity of the drugs were investigated in detail. Parameters related to the separation and detection were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method displayed a linear range from 0.4 to 100 microg/mL for tetracaine, 0.2 to 80 microg/mL for proline, and 0.1 to 100 microg/mL for enoxacin. Their limits of detection were 0.08, 0.06, and 0.02 microg/mL, respectively. A baseline separation for tetracaine, proline, and enoxacin was achieved within 10 min. Developed method was successfully applied to determine tetracaine, proline, and enoxacin in human urine.

  18. Bupropion Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Khan, S R; Berendt, R T; Ellison, C D; Ciavarella, A B; Asafu-Adjaye, E; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J

    2016-01-01

    Bupropion hydrochloride is a norepinephrine-dopamine disinhibitor (NDDI) approved for the treatment of depression and smoking cessation. Bupropion is a trimethylated monocyclic phenylaminoketone second-generation antidepressant, which differs structurally from most antidepressants, and resides in a novel mechanistic class that has no direct action on the serotonin system. Comprehensive chemical, physical, and spectroscopic profiles are presented. This analytical profile provides an extensive spectroscopic investigation utilizing mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional NMR, solid-state NMR, IR, NIR, Raman, UV, and X-ray diffraction. The profile also includes significant wet chemistry studies for pH, solubility, solution, and plasma stability. Both HPLC and UPLC methodology are presented for bupropion and its related impurities or major metabolites. The profile concludes with an overview of biological properties that includes toxicity, drug metabolism, and pharmacokinetics.

  19. Benzocaine/Lidocaine/Tetracaine Cream: Report of Corneal Damage and Review.

    PubMed

    Boonsiri, Metavee; Marks, Katherine C; Ditre, Chérie M

    2016-03-01

    Practitioners are increasingly using topical anesthetics in the field of dermatology. Application of topical anesthetics prior to performing dermatologic procedures has proven to decrease pain and discomfort associated with these procedures. Despite the prevalent use of topical anesthetics, there are few standard guidelines for about which products provide optimal and safest use. Adverse events are often correlated with improper application of topical anesthetics. A few case reports have cited adverse events related to the use of compounded products that the United States Food and Drug Administration has not approved, such as benzocaine, lidocaine, tetracaine. In this article, the authors report the possible ocular side effects due to the use of benzocaine, lidocaine, tetracaine. Careful attention must be paid to this compounded product, and better formulations are needed in order to prevent adverse events.

  20. Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force measurements of 3 beef muscles in response to various aging periods after trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Garmyn, A J; Knobel, S M; Spivey, K S; Hightower, L F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, B J; Parr, S L; Rathmann, R J; Starkey, J D; Yates, D A; Hodgen, J M; Hutcheson, J P; Miller, M F

    2011-11-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and the release rate of trenbolone acetate and estradiol-17β on the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF) of longissimus lumborum (LL) and the WBSF of gluteus medius (GM) and psoas major (PM) in response to various aging periods. British × Continental steers (n = 168) were assigned to treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial. The main effects of treatment were implant (no implant, Revalor-S, Revalor-XS, Intervet/Schering Plough Animal Health, De Soto, KS) and ZH (0 or 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d). Slaughter group was included as a random effect to account for the variation in days on feed (153 or 174 d). Loins (n = 96) were fabricated to obtain strip loin, top sirloin butt, and tenderloin subprimals. Five 2.54-cm steaks were cut from each subprimal and assigned to 1 of 5 aging periods (7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d postmortem). Feeding ZH increased (P ≤ 0.01) LL WBSF and SSF values at each aging period compared with controls. Implanting increased (P < 0.05) LL WBSF values at 14 and 21 d, but did not affect LL SSF values (P > 0.05). Only Revalor-S increased (P ≤ 0.05) WBSF values at 28 and 35 d compared with no implant or Revalor-XS. The percentage of LL steaks with a WBSF value below 4.6 kg did not differ (P > 0.05) between ZH supplementation or implant strategy at any aging period, and by d 28, more than 99% of LL steaks registered WBSF values below 4.6 kg. Feeding ZH increased (P < 0.05) GM WBSF values only on d 21. Implant had no effect (P > 0.05) on GM WBSF values. The percentage of GM steaks with a WBSF value below 4.6 kg did not differ (P > 0.05) between ZH supplementation or implant strategy at any aging period. Neither ZH nor implant strategy affected PM WBSF values (P > 0.05). All PM WBSF values were below 4.6 kg on d 7. The results of this study indicated that feeding ZH increased WBSF and SSF of LL steaks, regardless of the aging period; however, the percentage of

  1. Heated lidocaine/tetracaine patch for treatment of patellar tendinopathy pain

    PubMed Central

    Gammaitoni, Arnold R; Goitz, Henry T; Marsh, Stephanie; Marriott, Thomas B; Galer, Bradley S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The pain of patellar tendinopathy (PT) may be mediated by neuronal glutamate and sodium channels. Lidocaine and tetracaine block both of these channels. This study tested the self-heated lidocaine-tetracaine patch (HLT patch) in patients with PT confirmed by physical examination to determine if the HLT patch might relieve pain and improve function. Methods Thirteen patients with PT pain of ≥14 days’ duration and baseline average pain scores ≥4 (on a 0–10 scale) enrolled in and completed this prospective, single-center pilot study. Patients applied one HLT patch to the affected knee twice daily for 2–4 hours for a total of 14 days. Change in average pain intensity and interference (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment [VISA]) scores from baseline to day 14 were assessed. No statistical inference testing was performed. Results Average pain scores declined from 5.5 ± 1.3 (mean ± standard deviation) at baseline to 3.8 ± 2.5 on day 14. Similarly, VISA scores improved from 45.2 ± 14.4 at baseline to 54.3 ± 24.5 on day 14. A clinically important reduction in pain score (≥30%) was demonstrated by 54% of patients. Conclusion The results of this pilot study suggest that topical treatment that targets neuronal sodium and glutamate channels may be useful in the treatment of PT. PMID:23888118

  2. [Sevelamer:hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Toru; Taira, Takayasu; Wakai, Haruki; Takemura, Toru; Yamamoto, Sumiko; Yashida, Kazunari; Baba, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The recent global breakthrough in the field of renal osteodystrophy is the inhibitory effect of sevelamer hydrochloride on the progression of coronary artery calcification, which was revealed with EBCT (Electron beam computed tomography) 1) approximately 3). It has been found that the degree of coronary artery calcification assessed with EBCT is proportional to the mortality risk by the coronary artery stenosis and by myocardial infarction in non-hemodialysis patients 4) approximately 10). In 2004 in Japan Matsuoka and Iseki et al showed for the first time in the world that coronary artery calcification assessed by EBCT was correlated with mortality 11). In Japan, however, it is difficult to administer sevelamer hydrochloride to many patients because of constipation as its side effect. Its prescription rate is 26.8% and its single administration rate is only 15.4% 12). We explained fully to the patients that sevelamer hydrochloride seldom caused coronary artery calcification. And we used sorbitol, an osmotic purgatives, with sevelamer hydrochloride. Moreover, we gradually replaced calcium carbonate with sevelamer hydrochloride in supper at first. With protocol above, we succeeded in having 86.7% of the patients take sevelamer hydrochloride 12). We think that it is important to increase the intake rate of sevelamer hydrochloride in order to prevent coronary artery calcification and to aim at the long survival of the patients. PMID:15632474

  3. Trifluridine and Tipiracil Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this combination drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Netupitant and Palonosetron Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about netupitant and palonosetron hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this combination drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  5. TREATMENT OF PAIN AND NEUROMUSCULAR TENSION—A Report on Intravenous Use of Tetracaine in 365 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Horan, John S.

    1952-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-five patients were given tetracaine intravenously for various types of pain and neuromuscular tension. In the treatment of pain, myositis, muscle spasm, and visceral spasm most patients were relieved. Best results were obtained in syndromes in which pain was associated with muscle spasm, such as in pain in the lower part of the back and scalenus anticus syndromes. The effects of tetracaine intravenously are those of analgesia, vasodilatation, and relaxation of spastic muscle. Sixty-five of the patients were treated for neuromuscular tension, and there was good relaxation and increased comfort. Alcoholics were relieved of some of the tension symptoms and may have been helped to resist the desire to drink. Of 14 patients with premenstrual tension, 13 had complete relief. Eight patients with mixed anxiety and tension states also responded well. Toxic and allergic reactions were negligible, and other side effects were infrequent and of no consequence. PMID:12978893

  6. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

  7. Self-initiated and concentration-dependent degradation of tetracaine in neat standard solutions: A trouble-shooting story.

    PubMed

    Tan, Aimin; Wu, Yanxin; Gu, Guifen; Fanaras, John C

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents the trouble-shooting for a very unusual stability case. Tetracaine was found unstable in neat solutions only at high concentrations, but not at low concentrations. Moreover, its stable-isotope labeled internal standard did not show similar behavior. A series of trouble-shooting experiments were conducted to uncover the root cause. Some generally applicable precautions/insights can be drawn from this investigation to avoid potential stability issues during bioanalytical method development and validation.

  8. Characterization and comparison of lidocaine-tetracaine and lidocaine-camphor eutectic mixtures based on their crystallization and hydrogen-bonding abilities.

    PubMed

    Gala, Urvi; Chuong, Monica C; Varanasi, Ravi; Chauhan, Harsh

    2015-06-01

    Eutectic mixtures formed between active pharmaceutical ingredients and/or excipients provide vast scope for pharmaceutical applications. This study aimed at the exploration of the crystallization abilities of two eutectic mixtures (EM) i.e., lidocaine-tetracaine and lidocaine-camphor (1:1 w/w). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for degradation behavior whereas modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) set in first heating, cooling, and second heating cycles, was used to qualitatively analyze the complex exothermic and endothermic thermal transitions. Raman microspectroscopy characterized vibrational information specific to chemical bonds. Prepared EMs were left at room temperature for 24 h to visually examine their crystallization potentials. The degradation of lidocaine, tetracaine, camphor, lidocaine-tetracaine EM, and lidocaine-camphor EM began at 196.56, 163.82, 76.86, 146.01, and 42.72°C, respectively, which indicated that eutectic mixtures are less thermostable compared to their individual components. The MTDSC showed crystallization peaks for lidocaine, tetracaine, and camphor at 31.86, 29.36, and 174.02°C, respectively (n = 3). When studying the eutectic mixture, no crystallization peak was observed in the lidocaine-tetracaine EM, but a lidocaine-camphor EM crystallization peak was present at 18.81°C. Crystallization occurred in lidocaine-camphor EM after being kept at room temperature for 24 h, but not in lidocaine-tetracaine EM. Certain peak shifts were observed in Raman spectra which indicated possible interactions of eutectic mixture components, when a eutectic mixture was formed. We found that if the components forming a eutectic mixture have crystallization peaks close to each other and have sufficient hydrogen-bonding capability, then their eutectic mixture is least likely to crystallize out (as seen in lidocaine-tetracaine EM) or vice versa (lidocaine-camphor EM).

  9. Comparison of Topical Anesthetics for Radiofrequency Ablation of Achrocordons: Eutectic Mixture of Lignocaine/Prilocaine versus Lidocaine/Tetracaine

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nitin; Chauhan, Sandhya; Rastogi, Madhur Kant

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Topical application of local anesthetics is currently considered to be the easiest, most effective, and convenient way for treatment of patients who may be undergoing superficial dermatosurgical procedures. Materials and Methods. This study compares the anesthetic potential of 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine topical cream with 7% lignocaine and 7% tetracaine combination cream for radio ablative dermatosurgery when applied, under occlusion, for 30 minutes. 40 subjects of achrocordons were enrolled in this split-side randomized trial. Result. The pain severity experienced by subjects in terms of visual analogue scale score was significantly lesser for lignocaine/tetracaine combination cream as compared to lidocaine/prilocaine combination. Conclusion. This small study proves the efficacy of lidocaine/tetracaine combination as a topical anesthetic cream when applied for a short time interval of 30 minutes. This will help a dermatosurgeon to perform various dermatological procedures in a better and efficient manner with a shorter waiting period for analgesia to set in. PMID:24600520

  10. Mesoxalaldehyde acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

    1987-11-10

    The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

  11. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into eight experimental groups: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. Results: In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Conclusion: Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound

  12. Effect of adding tetracaine to bupivacaine on duration of analgesia in supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve blocks for ambulatory shoulder surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Linda T.; Lowry, Benjamin P.; Culp, William C.; Kitchings, Olen E.; Meyer, Tricia A.; McAllister, Russell K.; Roberson, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of 1% tetracaine to 0.25% bupivacaine prolonged the duration of postoperative analgesia of supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve blockade for patients undergoing ambulatory shoulder surgery. We conducted a prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical study at an ambulatory surgery center utilizing ultrasound- and nerve stimulation-guided supraclavicular nerve blockade for postoperative analgesia. The control group received 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 4 mL preservative-free saline. The study group received 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 4 mL of 1% tetracaine. Patients documented their visual analog scale scores and intake of pain medications for 3 days. Primary outcomes included time of first postoperative pain, time of first postoperative pain pill, and time of return of motor and sensory function. Secondary outcomes included pain score and pain medication intake trends and adverse events secondary to the nerve block. A total of 84 patients completed the study, 42 patients in each group. The study group was statistically significantly older than the control group (mean age, 54 vs 48 years; P = 0.04). The mean duration of analgesia was 16.6 ± 8.3 h for the control group and 17.1 ± 7.3 h for the study group (P = 0.69). No outcomes were statistically different. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in duration of postoperative analgesia with the addition of 1% tetracaine to 0.25% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve blockade. No differences were identified in postoperative pain medications, pain scores, or complications. PMID:26130874

  13. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  15. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  17. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  18. Photochemistry of phenazopyridine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, J; Gupta, A; Husain, A

    2006-09-01

    Phenazopyridine hydrochloride (1) is an azo dye with local analgesic and anaesthetic effects on the urinary tract. Its photochemistry was studied in different reaction media including the drug adsorbed on silica gel. This resulted in photochemical cyclodehydrogenation, reductive photodegradation and rearrangement of the drug molecule. Four major products were isolated and identified on the basis of IR, NMR and mass spectral studies. The products are: pyrido[3,4-c]cinnoline-2,4-diamine (2), N3-phenylpyridine-2,3,4,6-tetraamine (3), pyridine-2,3,6-triamine (4), 2,6-diamino-1-(4-aminophenyl)pyridin-4(1H)-one (5).

  19. Performance of finishing beef steers in response to anabolic implant and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to evaluate the dose/payout pattern of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17b (E2) implants and feeding of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers. A randomized complete block design was used with a 3 × 2 factorial arr...

  20. Performance of finishing beef steers in response to anabolic implant dose and zilpaterol hydrochloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    British × Continental steers (n = 168; 7 pens/treatment; initial BW = 362 kg) were used to evaluate the dose of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17ß (E2) and feeding of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance and carcass characteristics. A randomized complete block design was used with a ...

  1. Tetracaine oral gel in patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Final results of a phase II study

    SciTech Connect

    Alterio, Daniela . E-mail: daniela.alterio@ieo.it; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Zuccotti, Gabriele Fulvio Phar; Leon, Maria Elena; Omodeo Sale, Emanuela Phar; Pasetti, Marcella; Modena, Tiziana Phar; Perugini, Paola; Mariani, Luigi; Orecchia, Roberto

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: We performed a phase II study to assess feasibility, pain relief, and toxicity of a tetracaine-based oral gel in the treatment of radiotherapy (RT)-induced mucositis. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with RT for head-and-neck cancer with clinical evidence of acute oral mucositis of grade {>=}2 were scheduled to receive the tetracaine gel. A questionnaire evaluating the effect of the gel was given to all subjects. Results: In 38 patients (79.2%), a reduction in oral cavity pain was reported. Thirty-four patients (82.9%) reported no side effect. Seventy-one percent of patients had no difficulties in gel application. Unpleasant taste of the gel and interference with food taste were noticed in 5 (12%) and 16 patients (39%), respectively. Planned RT course was interrupted less frequently in patients who reported benefit from gel application than in patients who did not (p = 0.014). None of the patients who experienced pain relief needed a nasogastric tube, opposite to the patients who did not report any benefit from gel application (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Tetracaine oral gel administration seemed feasible and safe while reducing RT-induced mucositis-related oral pain in a sizeable proportion of treated head-and-neck cancer patients. A trial designed to compare efficacy of this gel vs. standard treatment is warranted.

  2. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  3. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  4. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  5. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5875 Thiamine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Thiamine hydrochloride. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5875 Thiamine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Thiamine hydrochloride. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5875 Thiamine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Thiamine hydrochloride. (b) Conditions of...

  9. Photostabilization of papaverine hydrochloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Karolina; Hermann, Tadeusz W; Pawelska, Alicja

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The stability of aqueous and non-aqueous papaverine hydrochloride solutions exposed to the UV radiation is poor. In order to enhance its photo-stability suitable light absorbers may be used. There werefour photo-protectors considered in this work: 4-aminobenzoic acid, sodium benzoate, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate and propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, whose UV absorption spectra characteristics match to some extent with the UV spectrum of papaverine. Approximately 20 mg/mL papaverine chloroform solutions with the above non-toxic additives in the concentrations 0.01; 0.05; 0.10% were exposed to the UV light of 254 nm. High performance capillary electrophoresis was used to determine the papaverine hydrochloride concentration loss as a function of time exposition to the light. It was found that papaverine hydrochloride photolysis proceeds according to the first-order kinetics. Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate was found to be the best UV radiation-protective agent, and at the concentration 0.10%, the reaction rate constant decreases from 0.143 h(-1) to 0.028 h(-1). Both 4-hydroxybenzoate esters develop a more efficient UV radiation-protective activity than sodium benzoate, because the latter additive molar extinction coefficient is less significant. However, in spite of a high value of 4-aminobenzoic acid molar absorptivity coefficient, it is an unsuitable photo-protector for papaverine hydrochloride solutions, because its UV absorption spectrum does not match with that of papaverine.

  10. Stability of cefozopran hydrochloride in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Skibiński, Robert; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Garbacki, Piotr; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Jelińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pH on the stability of cefozopran hydrochloride (CZH) was investigated in the pH range of 0.44-13.00. Six degradation products were identified with a hybrid ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer. The degradation of CZH as a result of hydrolysis was a pseudo-first-order reaction. As general acid-base hydrolysis of CZH was not occurred in the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetate, borate and phosphate buffers, kobs = kpH because specific acid-base catalysis was observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of CZH consisted of the following reactions: hydrolysis of CZH catalyzed by hydrogen ions (kH+), hydrolysis of dications (k1H2O), monocations (k2H2O) and zwitter ions (k3H2O) and hydrolysis of zwitter ions (k1OH-) and monoanions (k2OH-) of CZH catalyzed by hydroxide ions. The total rate of the reaction was equal to the sum of partial reactions: [Formula: see text]. CZH similarly like other fourth generation cephalosporin was most stable at slightly acidic and neutral pH and less stable in alkaline pH. The cleavage of the β-lactam ring resulting from a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon in the β-lactam moiety is the preferred degradation pathway of β-lactam antibiotics in aqueous solutions.

  11. Efficacy of pain control with topical lidocaine–epinephrine–tetracaine during laceration repair with tissue adhesive in children: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Harman, Stuart; Zemek, Roger; Duncan, Mary Jean; Ying, Yvonne; Petrcich, William

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some children feel pain during wound closures using tissue adhesives. We sought to determine whether a topically applied analgesic solution of lidocaine–epinephrine–tetracaine would decrease pain during tissue adhesive repair. Methods: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded trial involving 221 children between the ages of 3 months and 17 years. Patients were enrolled between March 2011 and January 2012 when presenting to a tertiary-care pediatric emergency department with lacerations requiring closure with tissue adhesive. Patients received either lidocaine–epinephrine–tetracaine or placebo before undergoing wound closure. Our primary outcome was the pain rating of adhesive application according to the colour Visual Analogue Scale and the Faces Pain Scale — Revised. Our secondary outcomes were physician ratings of difficulty of wound closure and wound hemostasis, in addition to their prediction as to which treatment the patient had received. Results: Children who received the analgesic before wound closure reported less pain (median 0.5, interquartile range [IQR] 0.25–1.50) than those who received placebo (median 1.00, IQR 0.38–2.50) as rated using the colour Visual Analogue Scale (p = 0.01) and Faces Pain Scale – Revised (median 0.00, IQR 0.00–2.00, for analgesic v. median 2.00, IQR 0.00–4.00, for placebo, p < 0.01). Patients who received the analgesic were significantly more likely to report having or to appear to have a pain-free procedure (relative risk [RR] of pain 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37–0.80). Complete hemostasis of the wound was also more common among patients who received lidocaine–epinephrine–tetracaine than among those who received placebo (78.2% v. 59.3%, p = 0.008). Interpretation: Treating minor lacerations with lidocaine–epinephrine–tetracaine before wound closure with tissue adhesive reduced ratings of pain and increased the proportion of pain-free repairs among children aged

  12. Topical chlormethine hydrochloride causing bullous reaction.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Ka Yan; Chan, Ho Yin; Ng, Fu

    2009-09-01

    We describe a woman misusing chlormethine hydrochloride lotion for vitiligo with dermatological complications of local urticarial and bullous reactions. Presentations, complications, and management of topical chlormethine hydrochloride overdose are discussed. Surface decontamination and follow-up for potential complications are major treatments.

  13. [Simultaneous determination of five cold medicine ingredients in paracetamol triprolidine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride tablets by pH/organic solvent double-gradient high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Xuan, Xueyi; Huang, Lina; Pan, Xiaoling; Li, Ning

    2013-02-01

    A pH/organic solvent double-gradient mode in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been established as a new approach to the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen, caffeine, salicylamide, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and triprolidine hydrochloride in paracetamol triprolidine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride tablets. Through the optimization of the organic solvent gradient mode and pH/organic solvent double-gradient mode, the optimum double-gradient HPLC system of the five cold medicine ingredients has been built. The determination was carried out on a Diamonsiol C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol, 0.05 mol/L ammonium acetate solution and 0.08 mol/L acetic acid solution. The column temperature was set at 30 degrees C. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The sample was measured at multiple wavelengths: 0-6 min, 280 nm; 6-7 min, 257 nm; 7-14 min, 280 nm; 14 min, 233 nm. The separation of the five cold medicine ingredients in the tablets was achieved in 25.5 min. The linear ranges of acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, caffeine, salicylamide and triprolidine hydrochloride were 0.055 -0.998 g/L, 0.053-0.946 g/L, 0.007-0.129 g/L, 0.035-0.622 g/L and 0.002-0.039 g/L, respectively, with their correlation coefficients greater than 0.999 0. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.09, 6, 0.02, 0.128 and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. Their mean recoveries were 97.9%-102.8%. The advantage of the method is the simultaneous determination of acidic, neutral and basic compounds. It also can improve the column efficiency of the analyte, compress the half-peak width and reduce the trailing. The optimized and validated method can be used for the simultaneous determination of the five cold medicine ingredients in the tablets.

  14. Second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the simultaneous determination of fluphenazine hydrochloride and nortriptyline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Walash, M I; El-Brashy, A; El-Enany, N; Kamel, M E

    2009-09-01

    A rapid, simple, and highly sensitive second-derivative synchronous fluorimetric (SDSF) method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of binary mixtures of fluphenazine hydrochloride (FLZ) and nortriptyline hydrochloride (NTP) in their co-formulated tablets. The method is based upon measurement of the native fluorescence of these drugs at constant wavelength difference (Deltalambda) = 120 nm in acetic acid. The different experimental parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity of the studied drugs were carefully studied and optimized. The fluorescence-concentration plots were rectilinear over the range of 0.25-3.0 and 1-10 microg/ml for FLZ and NTP respectively, with lower detection limits (LOD) of 0.05 and 0.18 microg/ml and quantitation limits of 0.15 and 0.53 microg/ml for FLZ and NTP respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied compounds in their synthetic mixtures and in commercial co-formulated tablets. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by the reference methods.

  15. Effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride anesthesia in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Seddighi, Reza; Odoi, Agricola; Doherty, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of IM administration of a tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride (TZ) combination with either dexmedetomidine hydrochloride or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS) on the motor response to claw clamping, selected cardiorespiratory variables, and quality of recovery from anesthesia in alpacas. ANIMALS 5 adult sexually intact male alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was given the TZ combination (2 mg/kg) with dexmedetomidine (5 [D5], 10 [D10], 15 [D15], or 20 [D20] µg/kg) or SS IM at 1-week intervals (5 experiments); motor response to claw clamping was assessed, and characteristics of anesthesia, recovery from anesthesia, and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded. RESULTS Mean ± SEM duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping was longest when alpacas received treatments D15 (30.9 ± 5.9 minutes) and D20 (40.8 ± 5.9 minutes). Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer with dexmedetomidine administration. The longest time (81.3 ± 10.4 minutes) to standing was observed when alpacas received treatment D20. Following treatment SS, 4 alpacas moved in response to claw clamping at the 5-minute time point. Heart rate decreased from pretreatment values in all alpacas when dexmedetomidine was administered. Treatments D10, D15, and D20 decreased Pao2, compared with treatment SS, during the first 15 minutes. During recovery, muscle stiffness and multiple efforts to regain a sternal position were observed in 3 SS-treated and 1 D5-treated alpacas; all other recoveries were graded as excellent. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In TZ-anesthetized alpacas, dexmedetomidine (10, 15, and 20 µg/kg) administered IM increased the duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping, compared with the effect of SS. PMID:27668576

  16. Yohimbine hydrochloride as an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Karns, P.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen captive and one free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized one to six times each with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride during winter and spring in northern Minnesota. Administration of 0.09 to 0.53 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride per kg IV after each trial reversed the immobilization. The deer raised their heads within a median time of 2.0 min, stood in 6.0 min and walked away in 9.5 min. No adverse side effects were observed for several weeks following the immobilization.

  17. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Ali Kamal; Mohamed Abdel-Moety, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER). Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*), enthalpy (∆H*), entropy (∆S*) and Gibbs free energy change of the decomposition (∆G*) were calculated using different kinetic models. Results: The purity of the used drug was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (99.97%) and specialized official method (99.85%) indicating to satisfactory values of the degree of purity. Thermal analysis technique gave satisfactory results to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point (273 ºC), water content (7.49%) and ash content (zero) in comparison to what were obtained using official method: (272 ºC), (8.0%) and (0.02%) for melting point, water content and ash content, respectively. Conclusion: Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs. DSC data indicated that the degree of purity of terazosin hydrochloride is similar to that found by official method. PMID:24312828

  18. Immobilization of swift foxes with ketamine hydrochloride-xylazine hydrochloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Telesco, R.L.; Sovada, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop field immobilization techniques that allow researchers to handle safely swift foxes (Vulpes velox) with minimal risk of stress or injury. We immobilized captive swift foxes to determine the safety and effectiveness of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride at different dosages. We attempted to determine appropriate dosages to immobilize swift foxes for an adequate field-handling period based on three anesthesia intervals (induction period, immobilization period, and recovery period) and physiologic responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate). Between October 1998-July 1999, we conducted four trials, evaluating three different dosage ratios of ketamine and xylazine (2.27:1.2, 5.68:1.2, and 11.4:1.2 mg/kg ketamine:mg/kg xylazine, respectively), followed by a fourth trial with a higher dosage at the median ratio (11.4 mg/kg ketamine:2.4 mg/kg xylazine). We found little difference in induction and recovery periods among trials 1-3, but immobilization time increased with increasing dosage (P<0.08). Both the immobilization period and recovery period increased in trial 4 compared with trials 1-3 (P???0.03). There was a high variation in responses of individual foxes across trials, making it difficult to identify an appropriate dosage for field handling. Heart rate and respiration rates were depressed but all physiologic measures remained within normal parameters established for domestic canids. We recommend a dosage ratio of 10 mg/kg ketamine to 1 mg/kg xylazine to immobilize swift foxes for field handling.

  19. Spectrofluorimetric Method for Determination of Duloxetine Hydrochloride in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Prabu, S. L.; Shahnawaz, S.; Kumar, C. Dinesh; Shirwaikar, A.

    2008-01-01

    A simple accurate, sensitive and reproducible spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the analysis of duloxetine hydrochloride in pure and pharmaceutical dosage form. Duloxetine hydrochloride showed strong native fluorescence in 0.05 M acetic acid having excitation at 225 nm and emission at 340 nm. Effect of different solvents were thoroughly investigated. The calibration graph was linear in the range from 0.020 to 0.400 μg/ml. The proposed method was statistically validated and successfully applied for analysis of capsule dosage forms. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.003 μg/ml and 0.010 μg/ml, respectively. The percentage recovery was found to be in the range of 98.71% to 99.17%. PMID:20046780

  20. Spectrofluorimetric method for determination of duloxetine hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Prabu, S L; Shahnawaz, S; Kumar, C Dinesh; Shirwaikar, A

    2008-01-01

    A simple accurate, sensitive and reproducible spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the analysis of duloxetine hydrochloride in pure and pharmaceutical dosage form. Duloxetine hydrochloride showed strong native fluorescence in 0.05 M acetic acid having excitation at 225 nm and emission at 340 nm. Effect of different solvents were thoroughly investigated. The calibration graph was linear in the range from 0.020 to 0.400 mug/ml. The proposed method was statistically validated and successfully applied for analysis of capsule dosage forms. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.003 mug/ml and 0.010 mug/ml, respectively. The percentage recovery was found to be in the range of 98.71% to 99.17%. PMID:20046780

  1. Validation of a Thin-Layer Chromatography for the Determination of Hydrocortisone Acetate and Lidocaine in a Pharmaceutical Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Dołowy, Małgorzata; Kulpińska-Kucia, Katarzyna; Pyka, Alina

    2014-01-01

    A new specific, precise, accurate, and robust TLC-densitometry has been developed for the simultaneous determination of hydrocortisone acetate and lidocaine hydrochloride in combined pharmaceutical formulation. The chromatographic analysis was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of chloroform + acetone + ammonia (25%) in volume composition 8 : 2 : 0.1 and silica gel 60F254 plates. Densitometric detection was performed in UV at wavelengths 200 nm and 250 nm, respectively, for lidocaine hydrochloride and hydrocortisone acetate. The validation of the proposed method was performed in terms of specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, and robustness. The applied TLC procedure is linear in hydrocortisone acetate concentration range of 3.75 ÷ 12.50 μg·spot−1, and from 1.00 ÷ 2.50 μg·spot−1 for lidocaine hydrochloride. The developed method was found to be accurate (the value of the coefficient of variation CV [%] is less than 3%), precise (CV [%] is less than 2%), specific, and robust. LOQ of hydrocortisone acetate is 0.198 μg·spot−1 and LOD is 0.066 μg·spot−1. LOQ and LOD values for lidocaine hydrochloride are 0.270 and 0.090 μg·spot−1, respectively. The assay value of both bioactive substances is consistent with the limits recommended by Pharmacopoeia. PMID:24526880

  2. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  3. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  4. Monoarthritis Induced by Bupropion Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Weiqing; Williams, Barry N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Bupropion hydrochloride is an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine, which is commonly prescribed for major depression, smoking cessation, and bipolar depression. Here we report a highly unusual case of bupropion induced knee monoarthritis in a bipolar depression patient. With bupropion XL 150 mg for 2 weeks, her left knee began to swell; at the third week, this condition was worsening. The aggravation of the left knee effusion stopped after the discontinuation of bupropion XL. The effusion and swelling disappeared after 15 ml of synovial fluid was drawn out and the effusion has never returned. Analysis of the synovial fluid showed noninflammatory effusion. Her left knee swelling was most likely due to angioedema caused by bupropion XL.

  5. 21 CFR 520.1962 - Promazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a)(1) Chemical name. 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride. (2) Specifications. Conforms to N.F. XII... of 0.45 to 0.9 milligrams of promazine hydrochloride per pound of body weight mixed with an amount...

  6. Flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of naphazoline hydrochloride and oxymetazoline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan-Nan; Shao, Yan-Qing; Tang, Yu-Hai; Yin, He-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and simple flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method, which was based on the CL intensity generated from the redoxreaction of potassium permanganate (KMnO4)-formaldehyde in vitriol (H2SO4) medium, has been developed, validated and applied for the determination of naphazoline hydrochloride and oxymetazoline hydrochloride. Besides oxidants and sensitizers, the effect of the concentration of H(2)SO(4), KMnO4 and formaldehyde was investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was 1.0 x 10(-2)-7.0 mg/L for naphazoline hydrochloride and 5.0 x 10(-2)-10.0 mg/L for oxymetazoline hydrochloride. During seven repeated inter-day and intra-day precision tests of 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg/L samples, the relative standard deviations all corresponded to reference values. The detection limit was 8.69 x 10(-3) mg/L for naphazoline hydrochloride and 3.47 x 10(-2) mg/L for oxymetazoline hydrochloride (signal-to-noise ratio < or = 3). This method has been successfully implemented for the determination of naphazoline hydrochloride and oxymetazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals.

  7. 21 CFR 522.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrochloride per pound of body weight for profound tranquilization. It is administered intravenously at a dosage level of 1 to 2 milligrams of ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride per pound of body weight to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10687 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10687 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-201, P-13-203, P-13-204, P-13-205, P-13-206, P-13-207,...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1465 - Naltrexone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Naltrexone hydrochloride injection. 522.1465... § 522.1465 Naltrexone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of naltrexone hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See 053923 in § 510.600(c)...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  11. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  12. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  13. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  14. Identification and determination of ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, azelastine hydrochloride, dimetindene maleate and promethazine hydrochloride by densitometric method.

    PubMed

    Wyszomirska, Elzbieta; Czerwińska, Krystyna; Kublin, Elzbieta; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for determination of: ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, azelastine hydrochloride, dimetindene maleate and promethazine hydrochloride by densitometric method in substances and pharmaceuticals were provided. Maximum wavelenghts were: 228 nm for ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, 295 nm for azelastine hydrochloride, 265 nm for dimetindene maleate and 255 nm for promethazine hydrochloride. The limits of quantification were in the ranges of 0.2-5 microg/spot. The statistical data showed adequate accuracy and precision of developed methods. PMID:24383318

  15. Eperisone hydrochloride-induced maculopapular rash

    PubMed Central

    Balaraddiyavar, Namrata; Bhushan, Aruna; Kotinatot, Basavaraj C.; Huggi, Gouramma

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a 30-year-old male who was prescribed eperisone hydrochloride for body pain and loose stools after which he developed severe maculopapular rash. Eperisone hydrochloride is an analgesic and antispastic drug used for spastic diseases such as spastic paralysis in cerebrovascular diseases, cervical spondylosis, and periarthritis. The drug is marketed in most of the Asian countries including India, but it is not licensed. Studies show the history of hypersensitivity in other countries, but this is the first reported case in India.

  16. Methane from acetate.

    PubMed

    Ferry, J G

    1992-09-01

    The general features are known for the pathway by which most methane is produced in nature. All acetate-utilizing methanogenic microorganisms contain CODH which catalyzes the cleavage of acetyl-CoA; however, the pathway differs from all other acetate-utilizing anaerobes in that the methyl group is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group of acetyl-CoA to CO2. The current understanding of the methanogenic fermentation of acetate provides impressions of nature's novel solutions to problems of methyl transfer, electron transport, and energy conservation. The pathway is now at a level of understanding that will permit productive investigations of these and other interesting questions in the near future. PMID:1512186

  17. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.350 Levamisole hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.1 part...

  18. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.350 Levamisole hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.1 part...

  19. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.410 Metoserpate hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.02 part...

  20. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.410 Metoserpate hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.02 part...

  1. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.580 Robenidine hydrochloride. Tolerances are...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulations promulgated under section 412(a)(2) of the Act. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different... hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulations promulgated under section 412(a)(2) of the Act. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different... hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulations promulgated under section 412(a)(2) of the Act. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different... hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 184.1676 Section 184.1676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  6. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bunamidine hydrochloride. 520.222 Section 520.222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... days prior to their use for breeding. Do not administer to dogs or cats having known heart...

  7. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Robenidine hydrochloride. 556.580 Section 556.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD...

  8. Acetate Production by Methanogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Mah, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Methanosarcina barkeri MS and 227 and Methanosarcina mazei S-6 produced acetate when grown on H2-CO2, methanol, or trimethylamine. Marked differences in acetate production by the two bacterial species were found, even though methane and cell yields were nearly the same. M. barkeri produced 30 to 75 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4 formed, but M. mazei produced only 8 to 9 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4. PMID:16348006

  9. Acetate dependence of tumors.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P

    2014-12-18

    Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors.

  10. A new hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) procedure for the simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSH), diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DXH) in cough-cold formulations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed Shahid; Ghori, Mohsin; Rafiuddin, Syed; Khatri, Aamer Roshanali

    2007-01-01

    A new HILIC method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSH), diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DXH) in cough-cold syrup. Mobile phase consists of methanol:water (containing 6.0 g of ammonium acetate and 10 mL of triethylamine per liter, pH adjusted to 5.2 with orthophosphoric acid), 95:5 (v/v). Column containing porous silica particles (Supelcosil LC-Si, 25 cm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) is used as stationary phase. Detection is carried out using a variable wavelength UV-vis detector at 254 nm for PSH and DPH, and at 280 nm for DXH. Solutions are injected into the chromatograph under isocratic condition at constant flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Linearity range and percent recoveries for PSH, DPH and DXH were 150-600, 62.5-250, 75-300 microg/mL and 100.7%, 100.1% and 100.8%, respectively. Method is stability indicating and excipients like saccharin sodium, sodium citrate, flavour and sodium benzoate did not interfere in the analysis. Compounds elute in order of increasing ionization degree caused by cation-exchange mechanism in a run time of less than 15 min. Mobile phase pH is manipulated to regulate ionization and ion-exchange interaction and thereby retention of compounds. PMID:16887317

  11. Yohimbine hydrochloride reversal of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride immobilization of Bengal tigers and effects on hematology and serum chemistries.

    PubMed

    Seal, U S; Armstrong, D L; Simmons, L G

    1987-04-01

    Six bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) were immobilized five times at 2-wk intervals with ketamine hydrochloride (ketamine) and xylazine hydrochloride (xylazine) mixtures at different dose levels. Hematology and serum chemistry analyses on blood samples collected at each immobilization remained normal during the study. There were acute changes in hematocrit, chloride, potassium, glucose, and bilirubin as a function of xylazine dose level. The effect of yohimbine hydrochloride (yohimbine) on the depth and duration of immobilization was evaluated in a crossover design with every animal serving as its own control at each dose. Administration of yohimbine resulted in recovery of the animals within 4-8 min in contrast to greater than 60 min with no yohimbine treatment. There were no adverse effects noted with the yohimbine treatment and the tigers did not exhibit a relapse over the next 24 hr. Yohimbine at a dose of 5-15 mg per adult tiger provided effective reversal of 50-150 mg of xylazine per tiger.

  12. Yohimbine hydrochloride reversal of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride immobilization of Bengal tigers and effects on hematology and serum chemistries.

    PubMed

    Seal, U S; Armstrong, D L; Simmons, L G

    1987-04-01

    Six bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) were immobilized five times at 2-wk intervals with ketamine hydrochloride (ketamine) and xylazine hydrochloride (xylazine) mixtures at different dose levels. Hematology and serum chemistry analyses on blood samples collected at each immobilization remained normal during the study. There were acute changes in hematocrit, chloride, potassium, glucose, and bilirubin as a function of xylazine dose level. The effect of yohimbine hydrochloride (yohimbine) on the depth and duration of immobilization was evaluated in a crossover design with every animal serving as its own control at each dose. Administration of yohimbine resulted in recovery of the animals within 4-8 min in contrast to greater than 60 min with no yohimbine treatment. There were no adverse effects noted with the yohimbine treatment and the tigers did not exhibit a relapse over the next 24 hr. Yohimbine at a dose of 5-15 mg per adult tiger provided effective reversal of 50-150 mg of xylazine per tiger. PMID:3586208

  13. 40 CFR 721.10682 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10682 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substances... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-63, P-13-64, P-13-65, P-13-69, P-13-70, P-13-71, P-13-72,...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  19. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on carcass cutability of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Howard, S T; Woerner, D R; Vote, D J; Scanga, J A; Acheson, R J; Chapman, P L; Bryant, T C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2014-01-01

    Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on saleable yield of carcass sides from calf-fed Holstein steers were evaluated using steers implanted with a progesterone (100 mg) plus estradiol benzoate (10 mg) implant followed by a terminal trenbolone acetate (200 mg) plus estradiol (40 mg) implant. Steers were blocked by weight into pens (n = 32) randomly assigned to one of four treatments: control, RH fed at 300 mg•steer(-1)/d(-1) (RH 300) or RH fed at 400 mg•steer(-1)/d(-1) (RH 400) the final 31 d of finishing, and ZH fed at 60 to 90 mg•steer(-1)/d(-1) (7.56 g/ton on a 100% DM basis) for 21 d with a 5 d withdrawal before harvest. Eight to nine carcass sides were randomly selected from each pen; carcass sides with excessive hide pulls, fat pulls or bruises were avoided. Cutout data were collected within a commercial facility using plant personnel to fabricate sides at a rate of one every 3 to 4 min into items typically merchandised by the facility. All lean, fat and bone were weighed and summed back to total chilled side weight with a sensitivity of ± 2% to be included in the data set. Compared to controls, β-agonists increased saleable yield of whole-muscle cuts by 0.61%, 0.86% and 1.95% for RH 300, RH 400 and ZH, respectively (P < 0.05). Percent fat was less in carcasses from the ZH treatment compared to controls (P < 0.05); however, this difference was not observed between RH treatments and controls (P > 0.05). Percent bone was less in the ZH treatment due to increased muscle (P < 0.05). The percent of chilled side weight comprised of trimmings was unchanged between treatments, but on a 100% lean basis, RH 400 and ZH increased trim yields (P < 0.05). Analysis of saleable yield by primal showed a fundamental shift in growth and development. Beta-agonists caused a shift in proportion of saleable yield within individual primals, with a greater portion produced from the hindquarter relative to the forequarter, specifically in

  20. 76 FR 32366 - Determination That ORLAAM (Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ...), and approved on July 9, 1993. ORLAAM is indicated for the management of opiate dependence, reserved for use in treatment of opiate-addicted patients who fail to show an acceptable response to other adequate treatments for opiate addiction, either because of insufficient effectiveness or the inability...

  1. Simple Isocratic HPLC Method for Determination of Enantiomeric Impurity in Besifloxacin Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Pradeep; Srivastava, Vishal; Khandelwal, Kiran; Kumar, Rajesh; Hiriyanna, S G; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Pramod

    2016-09-01

    Besifloxacin is a unique chiral broad-spectrum flouroquinolone used in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. R-form of besifloxacin hydrochloride shows higher antibacterial activity as compared to the S-isomer. Therefore, it is necessary to establish chiral purity. To establish chiral purity a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of R-besifloxacin and S-besifloxacin (BES impurity A) was developed and validated for in-process quality control and stability studies. The analytical performance parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), and lower limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined according to International Council for Harmonization ICH Q2(R1) guidelines. HPLC separation was achieved on Chiralpak AD-H (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using n-heptane: ethanol: ethylenediamine: acetic acid (800:200:0.5:0.5) (v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase in an isocratic elution. The eluents were monitored by UV/Visible detector at 290 nm. The resolution between S-isomer and besifloxacin hydrochloride was more than 2.0. Based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and 10 the LOD of besifloxacin was 0.30 μg/mL, while the LOQ was 0.90 μg/mL. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.9-7.5 μg/mL. Precision of the method was established within the acceptable range. The method was suitable for the quality control enantiomeric impurity in besifloxacin hydrochloride. Chirality 28:628-632, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27563753

  2. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section 520.2098 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2098 Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms....

  4. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms....

  5. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms....

  6. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474 Section 522.2474 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... solution contains tolazoline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 milligrams of base activity. (b) Sponsor....

  7. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474 Section 522.2474 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... solution contains tolazoline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 milligrams of base activity. (b) Sponsor....

  8. 40 CFR 721.4460 - Amidinothiopropionic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amidinothiopropionic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4460 Amidinothiopropionic acid hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and... amidinothiopropionic acid hydrochloride (PMN P-91-102) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c... Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of soluble powder contains lincomycin... water containing lincomycin. Not for use in layer and breeder chickens....

  10. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c... Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of soluble powder contains lincomycin... water containing lincomycin. Not for use in layer and breeder chickens....

  11. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c... Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of soluble powder contains lincomycin... water containing lincomycin. Not for use in layer and breeder chickens....

  12. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474... § 522.2474 Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous...—(i) Amount. Administer slowly by intravenous injection 4 milligrams per kilogram of body weight or...

  13. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474... § 522.2474 Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous...—(i) Amount. Administer slowly by intravenous injection 4 milligrams per kilogram of body weight or...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms....

  15. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms....

  16. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms....

  17. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms....

  18. Effect of Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on tenderness of longissimus steaks of Bos Taurus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Three experiments were conducted to determine 1) the interaction of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) inclusion rate (0 or 300 mg·hd-1·d-1 for last 30 to 34 d before harvest) and dietary protein level (13.5 or 17.5% CP) on LM slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem (Exp. 1); 2) the inter...

  19. Hypersensitivity to the local anesthetic articaine hydrochloride.

    PubMed Central

    Malanin, K.; Kalimo, K.

    1995-01-01

    A patient developed skin erythema and wheals within 1 h after local dental anesthesia with articaine hydrochloride. Pretreatment with oral terfenadine or topical betamethasone dipropionate prevented her reaction to articaine. In contrast, neither pretreatment with oral aspirin nor topical capsaicin affected her reaction to articaine. The results of radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) to articaine and a passive transfer test were negative. The reaction was probably caused by a complement-mediated mechanism leading to the degranulation of mast cells. The patient tolerated local anesthesia with lidocaine. PMID:8934983

  20. Quantum magnetic deflagration in acetate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mínguez, A; Hernandez, J M; Macià, F; García-Santiago, A; Tejada, J; Santos, P V

    2005-11-18

    We report controlled ignition of magnetization reversal avalanches by surface acoustic waves in a single crystal of acetate. Our data show that the speed of the avalanche exhibits maxima on the magnetic field at the tunneling resonances of Mn(12). Combined with the evidence of magnetic deflagration in Mn(12) acetate, this suggests a novel physical phenomenon: deflagration assisted by quantum tunneling. PMID:16384178

  1. Quantum magnetic deflagration in acetate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mínguez, A; Hernandez, J M; Macià, F; García-Santiago, A; Tejada, J; Santos, P V

    2005-11-18

    We report controlled ignition of magnetization reversal avalanches by surface acoustic waves in a single crystal of acetate. Our data show that the speed of the avalanche exhibits maxima on the magnetic field at the tunneling resonances of Mn(12). Combined with the evidence of magnetic deflagration in Mn(12) acetate, this suggests a novel physical phenomenon: deflagration assisted by quantum tunneling.

  2. Utility of the heated lidocaine/tetracaine patch in the treatment of pain associated with shoulder impingement syndrome: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Radnovich, Richard; Marriott, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pain control is an important first step in the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) because fear of pain must be removed as an obstacle to participation in an appropriate physical therapy program. Methods Adult patients with SIS-associated pain of at least 2 weeks’ duration and who had an average pain score of ≥4 on the zero- to ten-point Numeric Pain Rating Scale were eligible to enroll in this 2-week pilot study. Patients were treated with the heated lidocaine/tetracaine (70 mg/70 mg) patch (HLT patch) placed over the site of shoulder tenderness each morning and evening for a period of 2 to 4 hours. Average and worst pain during the previous 24 hours and shoulder range of motion were assessed at baseline and on Day 14. Results were expressed as change and percent change from baseline to Day 14. This pilot study was not powered for rigorous statistical analysis. Results Twenty patients (seven male, 13 female; average age 51.2 ± 10.8 years [mean ± standard deviation]) enrolled in this study, and 18 patients completed the protocol. The mean average pain score at baseline was 5.5 ± 1.1 (range 4 to 8). In the per-protocol population, average and worst pain scores declined by 2.4 ± 2.0 and 3.7 ± 2.7 points, respectively. Two-thirds of the patients demonstrated a clinically meaningful ≥30% decline in average pain score, and half of the patients demonstrated a ≥50% decline in average pain score. Shoulder internal rotation increased by 29.7° ± 21.8° and abduction increased by 40.0° ± 44.2°. Application-site erythema was reported by ten patients at some time during the study. Conclusion Patients treated with the HLT patch for 14 days demonstrated clinically meaningful improvement in pain intensity and range of motion. Further controlled research is necessary to characterize the efficacy and tolerability of the HLT patch in the treatment of SIS. PMID:23935385

  3. A randomized clinical study of the heated lidocaine/tetracaine patch versus subacromial corticosteroid injection for the treatment of pain associated with shoulder impingement syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Radnovich, Richard; Trudeau, Jeremiah; Gammaitoni, Arnold R

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment for pain due to shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) typically begins conservatively with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy and can include subacromial injection of corticosteroids, particularly in patients unresponsive to conservative measures. The heated lidocaine/tetracaine (HLT) patch has been reported to reduce SIS pain in a small case series. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, open-label clinical trial in which adult patients with SIS pain lasting at least 14 days, with an average intensity of ≥4 on a 0–10 scale (0= no pain, 10= worst pain) were randomized to treatment with the HLT patch or a single subacromial injection of triamcinolone acetonide (10 mg). Patients in the HLT patch group applied a single HLT patch to the shoulder for 4 hours twice daily, with a 12-hour interval between treatments during the first 14 days, and could continue to use the patch on an as-needed basis (up to twice daily) during the second 14-day period. No treatment was allowed in the final 14-day period. At baseline and at days 14, 28, and 42, patients rated their pain and pain interference with specific activities (0–10 scale). Results Sixty patients enrolled in the study (average age =51 years, range 18–75, n=21 female). Average pain scores declined from 6.0±1.6 at baseline to 3.5±2.4 at day 42 in the HLT patch group (n=29, P<0.001) and from 5.6±1.2 to 3.2±2.6 in the injection group (n=31, P<0.001). Similar improvements were seen in each group for worst pain; pain interference with general activity, work, or sleep; and range of motion. No significant between-group differences were seen for any pain or pain interference scores at any time point. Conclusion These results suggest that short-term, noninvasive treatment with the HLT patch has similar efficacy to subacromial corticosteroid injections for the treatment of pain associated with SIS. PMID:25525385

  4. Identification of polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride: synthesis and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, Idralyn Q.; Copeland, Catherine R.; Cameron, T. Stanley; Linden, Anthony; Grossert, J. Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Ethylone, a synthetic cathinone with psychoactive properties, is a designer drug which has appeared on the recreational drug market in recent years. Since 2012, illicit shipments of ethylone hydrochloride have been intercepted with increasing frequency at the Canadian border. Analysis has revealed that ethylone hydrochloride exists as two distinct polymorphs. In addition, several minor impurities were detected in some seized exhibits. In this study, the two conformational polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride have been synthesized and fully characterized by FTIR, FT‐Raman, powder XRD, GC‐MS, ESI‐MS/MS and NMR (13C CPMAS, 1H, 13C). The two polymorphs can be distinguished by vibrational spectroscopy, solid‐state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X‐ray diffraction. The FTIR data are applied to the identification of both polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride (mixed with methylone hydrochloride) in a laboratory submission labelled as 'Ocean Snow Ultra’. The data presented in this study will assist forensic scientists in the differentiation of the two ethylone hydrochloride polymorphs. This report, alongside our recent article on the single crystal X‐ray structure of a second polymorph of this synthetic cathinone, is the first to confirm polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride. © 2015 Canada Border Services Agency. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 Canada Border Services Agency. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26344849

  5. Hydrochloride salt co-crystals: preparation, characterization and physicochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Vijaykumar K; Shah, Shailesh A

    2013-01-01

    Co-crystallization approach for modification of physicochemical properties of hydrochloride salt is presented. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of co-crystallization with different co-crystal formers on physicochemical properties of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH). FH was screened for co-crystallization with a series of carboxylic acid co-formers by slow evaporation method. Photomicrographs and melting points of crystalline phases were determined. The co-crystals were characterized by FTIR, DSC and PXRD methods. Solubility of co-crystals was determined in water and buffer solutions. Powder and intrinsic dissolution profiles were assessed for co-crystals. Physical mixtures of drug and co-formers were used for comparisons at characterizations and physicochemical properties evaluation stages. Four co-crystals of FH viz. Fluoxetine hydrochloride-maleic acid (FH-MA), Fluoxetine hydrochloride-glutaric acid (FH-GA), Fluoxetine hydrochloride-L-tartaric acid (FH-LTA) and Fluoxetine hydrochloride-DL-tartaric acid (FH-DLTA) were obtained from screening experiments. Physical characterization showed that they have unique crystal morphology, thermal, spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction properties. Solubility and dissolution studies showed that Fluoxetine hydrochloride-maleic acid co-crystal possess high aqueous solubility in distilled water, pH 4.6, 7.0 buffer solutions and dissolution rate in distilled water than that of pure drug. Co-crystal formation approach can be used for ionic API to tailor its physical properties. PMID:22686294

  6. Hydrochloride salt co-crystals: preparation, characterization and physicochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Vijaykumar K; Shah, Shailesh A

    2013-01-01

    Co-crystallization approach for modification of physicochemical properties of hydrochloride salt is presented. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of co-crystallization with different co-crystal formers on physicochemical properties of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH). FH was screened for co-crystallization with a series of carboxylic acid co-formers by slow evaporation method. Photomicrographs and melting points of crystalline phases were determined. The co-crystals were characterized by FTIR, DSC and PXRD methods. Solubility of co-crystals was determined in water and buffer solutions. Powder and intrinsic dissolution profiles were assessed for co-crystals. Physical mixtures of drug and co-formers were used for comparisons at characterizations and physicochemical properties evaluation stages. Four co-crystals of FH viz. Fluoxetine hydrochloride-maleic acid (FH-MA), Fluoxetine hydrochloride-glutaric acid (FH-GA), Fluoxetine hydrochloride-L-tartaric acid (FH-LTA) and Fluoxetine hydrochloride-DL-tartaric acid (FH-DLTA) were obtained from screening experiments. Physical characterization showed that they have unique crystal morphology, thermal, spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction properties. Solubility and dissolution studies showed that Fluoxetine hydrochloride-maleic acid co-crystal possess high aqueous solubility in distilled water, pH 4.6, 7.0 buffer solutions and dissolution rate in distilled water than that of pure drug. Co-crystal formation approach can be used for ionic API to tailor its physical properties.

  7. Simultaneous UV Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, S. Lakshmana; Shirwaikar, A. A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Kumar, C. Dinesh; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    A novel, simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride. The method involved solving simultaneous equations based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths 242 nm and 231 nm, the γ max of ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 10–50 μg/ml and 8–24 μg/ml for ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride respectively. Results of the method were validated statistically and by recovery studies. PMID:20046721

  8. Simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and diphenhydramine hydrochloride in cough syrup by gas chromatography (GC).

    PubMed

    Raj, S V; Kapadia, S U; Argekar, A P

    1998-05-01

    A simple, rapid and precise gas chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and diphenhydramine hydrochloride in cough syrup, using a SS column of 10% OV 1 on chromosorb W-HP (80-100 mesh) and nitrogen as a carrier gas at a flow rate of 30 ml min(-1). The oven temperature was programmed at 135 degrees C for 1 min, with a rise of 10 degrees C min(-1) up to 250 degrees C (held for 5 min). The injector and detector port temperatures were maintained at 280 degrees C. Detection was carried out using Flame ionization detector. Guaphenesin was used as an internal standard. Results of assay and recovery studies were statistically evaluated for its accuracy and precision. PMID:18967146

  9. Effect of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on cardiac electrophysiologic and hematologic variables in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Frese, Daniel A; Reinhardt, Christopher D; Bartle, Steven J; Rethorst, David N; Bawa, Bhupinder; Thomason, Justin D; Loneragan, Guy H; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with the β-adrenoceptor agonists ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on ECG and clinicopathologic variables of finishing beef steers. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. ANIMALS 30 Angus steers. PROCEDURES Steers were grouped by body weight and randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 diets for 23 days: a diet containing no additive (control diet) or a diet containing ractopamine hydrochloride (300 mg/steer/d) or zilpaterol hydrochloride (8.3 mg/kg [3.8 mg/lb] of feed on a dry-matter basis), beginning on day 0. Steers were instrumented with an ambulatory ECG monitor on days -2, 6, 13, and 23, and continuous recordings were obtained for 72, 24, 24, and 96 hours, respectively. At the time of instrumentation, blood samples were obtained for CBC and serum biochemical and blood lactate analysis. Electrocardiographic recordings were evaluated for mean heart rate and arrhythmia rates. RESULTS Steers fed zilpaterol or ractopamine had greater mean heart rates than those fed the control diet. Mean heart rates were within reference limits for all steers, with the exception of those in the ractopamine group on day 14, in which mean heart rate was high. No differences in arrhythmia rates were identified among the groups, nor were any differences identified when arrhythmias were classified as single, paired, or multiple (> 2) beats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that dietary supplementation of cattle with ractopamine or zilpaterol at FDA-approved doses had no effect on arrhythmia rates but caused an increase in heart rate that remained within reference limits. PMID:27585105

  10. Effect of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on cardiac electrophysiologic and hematologic variables in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Frese, Daniel A; Reinhardt, Christopher D; Bartle, Steven J; Rethorst, David N; Bawa, Bhupinder; Thomason, Justin D; Loneragan, Guy H; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with the β-adrenoceptor agonists ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on ECG and clinicopathologic variables of finishing beef steers. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. ANIMALS 30 Angus steers. PROCEDURES Steers were grouped by body weight and randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 diets for 23 days: a diet containing no additive (control diet) or a diet containing ractopamine hydrochloride (300 mg/steer/d) or zilpaterol hydrochloride (8.3 mg/kg [3.8 mg/lb] of feed on a dry-matter basis), beginning on day 0. Steers were instrumented with an ambulatory ECG monitor on days -2, 6, 13, and 23, and continuous recordings were obtained for 72, 24, 24, and 96 hours, respectively. At the time of instrumentation, blood samples were obtained for CBC and serum biochemical and blood lactate analysis. Electrocardiographic recordings were evaluated for mean heart rate and arrhythmia rates. RESULTS Steers fed zilpaterol or ractopamine had greater mean heart rates than those fed the control diet. Mean heart rates were within reference limits for all steers, with the exception of those in the ractopamine group on day 14, in which mean heart rate was high. No differences in arrhythmia rates were identified among the groups, nor were any differences identified when arrhythmias were classified as single, paired, or multiple (> 2) beats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that dietary supplementation of cattle with ractopamine or zilpaterol at FDA-approved doses had no effect on arrhythmia rates but caused an increase in heart rate that remained within reference limits.

  11. Spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous analysis of meclezine hydrochloride and pyridoxine hydrochloride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed; Zuberi, M Hashim; Mirza, Agha Zeeshan

    2007-04-01

    Three new spectrophotometric procedures for the simultaneous determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride and meclezine hydrochloride are described. The first method depends on the application of simultaneous equation to resolve the interference due to spectral overlapping. The analytical signals were measured at 231 and 220 nm. Calibration graphs were established for 1 to 20 microGmL(-1) for pyridoxine hydrochloride and 0.5 to 10 microGmL(-1) for meclezine hydrochloride in binary mixture. In the second method, the determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride and meclezine hydrochloride was performed by measuring the absorbances at 290 and 235 nm in the simple absorbance spectra of their mixture. In third method a yellowish orange complex of pyridoxine hydrochloride was formed with ferric chloride, which absorbs in the visible region with lambda(max) at 445 nm. Calibration curve of complex formation range was conducted in between 20 to 250 microGmL(-1). These methods were validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection and quantification. Regression analysis of Beer's plot showed good correlation in a general concentration range of 1 to 20 microGml(-1) with correlation coefficient (r = 0.9999 and 0.9999; CV < 0.858) for pyridoxine hydrochloride, whereas meclezine hydrochloride concentration range 0.5 to 10 microGmL(-1) with correlation coefficient (r = 0.9998 and 0.9998; CV < 0.826). These methods can be readily applied, without any interference from the excipients. The suggested procedures were successfully applied to the determination of these compounds in synthetic mixtures and in pharmaceutical preparations, with high percentage of recovery, good accuracy and precision. PMID:17416572

  12. Spectroscopy study of ephedrine hydrochloride and papaverine hydrochloride in terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fusheng; Shen, Jingling; Wang, Guangqin; Liang, Meiyan

    2008-12-01

    The terahertz(THz) fingerprint spectra of Ephedrine Hydrochloride and Papaverine Hydrochloride have been measured using THz time-domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the region of 0.2~2.6 THz. To explain the spectra, both gas-phase simulation methods and solid-state simulation methods were performed in the efforts to extract pictures of the molecular interior vibrational modes. By comparing the results of various gas-phase simulation methods, It was found that using the semi-empirical theory is more applicable than the density functional theory (DFT) for some chemical compounds. In the solid-state calculations, solid-state density functional theory (DFT) was employed to obtain the vibration frequencies and Difference-Dipole Method (DDM) was used to calculate the corresponding infrared (IR) intensity. In the process of calculating the IR intensity of Papaverine Hydrochloride in terahertz range, we found that the results by Hirshfeld partitioning method agree better with the experiments than the ones derived from Mulliken atomic charges. Moreover, the accuracy of simulation results depends on the basis sets and grid size being chosen.

  13. The electrochemistry and determination of Ligustrazine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ziyi; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Hoshi, Tomonori; Kashiwagi, Yoshitomo; Anzai, Jun-ichi; Li, Genxi

    2004-10-01

    Ligustrazine is one of the active ingredients contained in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular problems. In this work, the electrochemistry of Ligustrazine hydrochloride (LZC) and its determination are investigated. The detection limit is estimated to be 8.0 x 10(-8) M, with three linear ranges from 1.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-4) M, 1.0 x 10(-4) to 5.0 x 10(-4) M, and 6.5 x 10(-4) to 1.6 x 10(-3) M. The method has been proved to be highly sensitive, selective, and stable, and has been successfully applied to determining LZC in LZC injections.

  14. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: (1) Amount. The equivalent of 8 milligrams of levamisole hydrochloride per kilogram of body weight... thoroughly. Allow 1 gallon of medicated water for each 100 pounds body weight of pigs to be treated. No...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1642 - Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milligrams of oxymorphone hydrochloride per milliliter of aqueous solution containing 0.8 percent sodium chloride. (b) Sponsor. See No. 060951 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... solution contains 1.0 milligram of medetomidine hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See 052483 in § 510.600(c) of... diseases, dogs in shock, dogs which are severly debilitated, or dogs which are stressed due to extreme...

  17. Benexate hydrochloride betadex modulates nitric oxide synthesis and cytokine expression in gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Min; Lim, Ji-Youn; Kim, Yoonjin; Kim, Ye Ji; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Sul, Donggeun; Hong, Junghwa; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated benexate hydrochloride betadex (BHB)-mediated ulcer healing, and changes to microcirculation modulated through nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and anti-inflammatory activity. A rat model of gastric mucosal injury was established through injection of a 60% acetic acid solution into the stomach. Following ulcer induction, the rats were administered BHB orally for 5 days at doses of 0, 100, 300 or 1,000 mg/kg. The highest dose of BHB was also administered with or without L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The area of gastric ulcers was determined by planimetry, and expression of cyclooxygenases (COX), cytokines and NOS in stomach tissues were measured using western blotting. Compared with the control group, gastric ulcer size was significantly decreased in the 1,000 mg/kg BHB-treated group (P<0.05). Administration of BHB led to a significant increase in endothelial (e)NOS expression (P<0.05). Although acetic acid co-treatment with L-NAME induced more severe mucosal damage, BHB decreased COX expression and tumor necrosis factor-α levels when administered with the nitric oxide inhibitor, L-NAME (P<0.05). BHB exhibited protective effects in a rat model of gastric ulcers, which were associated with a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and the activation of eNOS. PMID:27446246

  18. A Post Hoc Analysis of D-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Focalin) Versus D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Ritalin)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Margaret; Wasdell, Michael; Patin, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of the benefit/risk ratio in a post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of d-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH) and d,l-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d,l-MPH). Method: Data from a phase III clinical trial was used to compare equimolar doses of d-MPH and d,l-MPH treatment for…

  19. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  20. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  1. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  3. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  5. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  11. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. 721.10001 Section 721.10001 Protection of...-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. (a) Chemical substances and significant...-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and...

  12. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  13. Effects of implanting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and subprimal beef yields of fed cows.

    PubMed

    Neill, S; Unruh, J A; Marston, T T; Jaeger, J R; Hunt, M C; Higgins, J J

    2009-02-01

    Sixty crossbred cull cows were used to determine the combined effects of a trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and subprimal yields of mature cows fed for 70 d. Cows were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: 1) grazing native grass pasture (G); 2) concentrate-fed (C) a grain sorghum-sorghum silage diet; 3) concentrate-fed and implanted (CI) with Revalor-200 (trenbolone acetate-estradiol); 4) concentrate-fed and fed Zilmax (zilpaterol hydrochloride) beginning on d 38 of the feeding period (CZ); and 5) concentrate-fed, implanted, and fed Zilmax beginning on d 38 (CIZ). The concentrate diet consisted primarily of ground grain sorghum and sorghum silage. During the last 34 d of the feeding trial, concentrate-fed (C, CI, CZ, and CIZ) cows had greater (P < 0.05) gains than G cows. Hot carcass weights and dressing percentages were greater (P < 0.05) for the concentrate-fed cows than for G cows. Longissimus muscle area was largest (P < 0.05) for CIZ cows, whereas subprimal weights from the chuck were heavier (P < 0.05) from CIZ cows than C and G cows, and carcasses from CI and CZ cows had heavier (P < 0.05) chuck subprimal weights than G cows. Rib and round subprimal weights were heavier (P < 0.05) for concentrate-fed cows compared with G cows. In addition, carcasses from CIZ cows had heavier (P < 0.05) total subprimal weights, and total subprimals were a greater percentage of their initial BW than C cows. Rib cut-out and total soft tissue weights from the 9-10-11th rib were less (P < 0.05) for G cows than concentrate-fed cows. Feeding cull cows a concentrate diet increased carcass weight, dressing percentage, and subprimal yields compared with feeding cows a grass-based pasture diet, and the combination of a trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride can maximize trimmed beef yields from cull cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

  14. Bevantolol hydrochloride--preclinical pharmacologic profile.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H R

    1986-03-01

    Bevantolol hydrochloride, a beta adrenoceptor antagonist, can be categorized using conventional schemes as being cardioselective, devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and having weak membrane-stabilizing and local anesthetic properties. The cardioselectivity of bevantolol was conferred by the incorporation of a 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl moiety into the terminal amino portion of the molecule. This portion of the molecule also appears to account for bevantolol's in vitro binding affinity at alpha-adrenoceptor sites; the in vivo significance of which remains unclear. In the various cardiovascular disease-state models, bevantolol's profile differed from that of propranolol, i.e., there was no initial pressor response in spontaneously hypertensive or renal hypertensive rats. In a myocardial ischemia model, bevantolol, unlike propranolol, increased contractile function in the ischemic myocardium. A ring hydroxylated urinary metabolite, which occurred only in trace amounts in human urine, had an interesting profile when studied in animals at pharmacologic doses. It ranked high in cardioselectivity (like bevantolol), but unlike bevantolol showed significant intrinsic beta sympathomimetic activity. The clinical significance of this metabolite, if any, remains to be established. Collectively the preclinical profile of bevantolol showed it to have an interesting profile for a beta adrenoceptor antagonist in a variety of pharmacologic test systems.

  15. Nalbuphine hydrochloride dependence in anabolic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Wines, J D; Gruber, A J; Pope, H G; Lukas, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nalbuphine hydrochloride, a nonscheduled opioid agonist/antagonist analgesic, is currently approved for the treatment of pain. Recently, nalbuphine dependence was reported in three anabolic steroid users in Britain. To further document this phenomenon, we conducted interviews on eleven subjects who reported nalbuphine use. Eight subjects were clinically dependent on nalbuphine, and seven of the subjects who were asked about tolerance and withdrawal with nalbuphine acknowledged these symptoms. Eight subjects, who had never used drugs intravenously before, reported using nalbuphine by this route. Nalbuphine-related morbidity was extensive and included medical complications and psychiatric symptoms. Nalbuphine users also exhibited a high rate of comorbid Axis I disorders, including other substance misuse. Virtually all subjects described widespread nalbuphine use in the gymnasiums they frequented. These observations, together with the recent increase in nalbuphine-related articles in the lay press, suggest that nalbuphine may represent a new drug of abuse among athletes, especially those using anabolic steroids, and that nalbuphine's scheduling status may need to be re-evaluated.

  16. Amantadine hydrochloride pharmacokinetics in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Soung, L S; Ing, T S; Daugirdas, J T; Wu, M J; Gandhi, V C; Ivanovich, P T; Hano, J E; Viol, G W

    1980-07-01

    To study the fate of amantadine hydrochloride in patients with renal failure, we gave 100 mg orally to 12 such patients immediately after hemodialysis. Plasma levels did not decrease between 24 and 44 hours after drug ingestion, suggesting an extremely poor total body clearance. Apparent volume of distribution was 5.1 +/- 0.2 (SEM) L/kg of body weight. Between 44 and 48 hours, as a result of 4 hours of hemodialysis, the mean plasma drug level decreased from 268 to 225 ng/mL (P less than 0.001). Dialyzer clearance was 67.0 +/- 3.9 mL of plasma per minute. The total quantity of drug removed by the dialysis treatment, however, was only 3.9 +/- 0.25 mg. The average half-life of amantadine in eight patients studied while receiving maintenance hemodialysis was 24.3 +/- 2.4 h of dialysis administered over approximately 13 days. Plasma half-life in six nonuremic control subjects was 12.2 +/- 1.6 h. Amantadine is poorly excreted in dialysis patients and has a large volume of distribution. The amount removed by a single dialysis is only a small fraction of the total body store. PMID:7396313

  17. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions among haloperidol, carteolol hydrochloride and biperiden hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Isawa, S; Murasaki, M; Miura, S; Yoshioka, M; Uchiumi, M; Kumagai, Y; Aoki, S; Hisazumi, H; Kudo, S

    1999-07-01

    A beta-adrenoceptor blocker and an anticholinergic agent are often prescribed concomitantly for the treatment of neuroleptic-induced akathisia. The aim of this study was to investigate possible pharmacokinetic interactions of neuroleptic haloperidol with the beta-blocker carteolol and the anticholinergic biperiden. In a 5-step, open-labeled, oral single-dose study, eight healthy male volunteers received 2 mg haloperidol, 10 mg carteolol hydrochloride, and 2 mg biperiden hydrochloride: first each drug alone, then a combination of haloperidol and carteolol, and then all three drugs concurrently. Serum concentrations of haloperidol, carteolol, and biperiden were determined up to 24 hr postdosing, and a safety evaluation was conducted throughout the study. Carteolol increased the area under the haloperidol serum concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) 1.4-fold (P = 0.0014) and decreased the serum clearance of haloperidol up to 67% (P = 0.0127). Biperiden reduced the serum haloperidol concentrations increased by the administration of carteolol. No significant changes of the serum pharmacokinetics of carteolol and biperiden were found as a result of any drug combinations. Adverse events of the central nervous system such as sleepiness and changes in pupil size were observed, but all were mild with clinical insignificance.

  18. Immobilizing wild mountain lions (Felis concolor) with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Logan, K A; Thorne, E T; Irwin, L L; Skinner, R

    1986-01-01

    A mixture of 120 mg ketamine hydrochloride (KHCL)/20 mg xylazine hydrochloride (XHCL)/ml was used to immobilize 37 wild mountain lions (Felis concolor) 46 times. Observations were recorded during 37 trials that included kittens, adult females, and adult males. Dosages were based on 11 mg KHCL and 1.8 mg XHCL/kg estimated body weight. Actual doses for 24 lions requiring a single injection for immobilization ranged from 4.7-15.8 mg KHCL/kg and 0.8-2.6 mg XHCL/kg. Induction, duration, and recovery times did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between the sex and age classes. Two kittens were overdosed with the drug combination, but the effects were not life threatening. Eleven other lions, nine of which were initially underdosed, required additional injections of the drug combination for safe handling. Immobilization was characterized initially by semi-consciousness, open eyelids, pupillary dilation, and muscle rigidity. Later, most lions appeared unconscious, muscles relaxed, and breathing slowed considerably. No convulsions or hypersalivation occurred. The KHCL/XHCL mixture given at approximately 11 mg KHCL and 1.8 mg XHCL/kg body weight proved useful for immobilizing wild mountain lions for research purposes. Suggestions for case of immobilized cats are included. PMID:3951066

  19. 40 CFR 721.6196 - Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene polyamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrochloride salt of a fatty... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6196 Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene... substance identified generically as Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene polyamine (PMN P-99-0618)...

  20. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    PubMed

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable.

  1. Reductive opening of carbohydrate phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Florence; Cabianca, Elena; Tatibouët, Arnaud; De Lucchi, Ottorino; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Rollin, Patrick

    2015-11-19

    The phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetal is a relatively new protecting group in carbohydrate chemistry. However, carbohydrate-derived phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals show a different behavior in reductive desulfonylation than simple symmetrical acetals. Here we have investigated various SET-type reaction conditions in order to open PSE acetals regioselectively and to produce chiral ω-hydroxyethenyl ethers. Whereas sodium amalgam leads to a mixture of regioisomeric vinyl ethers besides the ethylidene acetal, samarium iodide is suited for regioselective ring opening. This is shown with seven different carbohydrate PSE acetals, both of the 1,3-dioxane and the 1,3-dioxolane type. PMID:26469209

  2. Colestipol hydrochloride prophylaxis of diarrhea during pelvic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Layser, J.D.

    1983-02-01

    Thirty-three patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy to receive the bile acid-sequestering resin colestipol hydrochloride, 5 grams qid, during the entire time of their therapy or diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate 2.5-20 mg per day (control) if they experienced diarrhea. The colestipol patients also took diphenoxylate if they had diarrhea. The patients in the colestipol group often experienced nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps and 8 were forced to discontinue the drug. There was no difference in the weekly stool frequency between the colestipol and the control patients but the colestipol patients who took at least 50% of the prescribed dose required fewer diphenoxylate tablets than the controls. The data suggest that colestipol hydrochloride is not of value in preventing radiation-induced diarrhea because of the side effects associated with the drug, but the theory on which the use of bile acid-sequestering agents is based may be correct.

  3. Validated Colorimetric Assay of Clonidine Hydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Corciova, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Clonidine hydrochloride is an antihypertensive agent used for migraine prophylaxis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, menopausal flushing and Tourette syndrome. The quantity of the active substance in pharmaceutical preparations must be within specific limits, in agreement with the respective label claim. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the conditions for two spectrophotometric methods for clonidine determination, based on the formation of the ion pair complex between clonidine hydrochloride and thymol blue/bromophenol blue. A Jasco UV-Vis 530 spectrophotometer was used for the analysis and the maxim absorbance was measured at 418 nm/448 nm against blank solution. After validation, the methods were used for quantification of clonidine hydrochloride in two commercial samples (tablets). The recovery of active substance varies between 98.06 and 100.13 % without interferences from the excipients. PMID:27610155

  4. Validated Colorimetric Assay of Clonidine Hydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Preparations.

    PubMed

    Corciova, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Clonidine hydrochloride is an antihypertensive agent used for migraine prophylaxis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, menopausal flushing and Tourette syndrome. The quantity of the active substance in pharmaceutical preparations must be within specific limits, in agreement with the respective label claim. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the conditions for two spectrophotometric methods for clonidine determination, based on the formation of the ion pair complex between clonidine hydrochloride and thymol blue/bromophenol blue. A Jasco UV-Vis 530 spectrophotometer was used for the analysis and the maxim absorbance was measured at 418 nm/448 nm against blank solution. After validation, the methods were used for quantification of clonidine hydrochloride in two commercial samples (tablets). The recovery of active substance varies between 98.06 and 100.13 % without interferences from the excipients. PMID:27610155

  5. Validated Colorimetric Assay of Clonidine Hydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Preparations.

    PubMed

    Corciova, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Clonidine hydrochloride is an antihypertensive agent used for migraine prophylaxis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, menopausal flushing and Tourette syndrome. The quantity of the active substance in pharmaceutical preparations must be within specific limits, in agreement with the respective label claim. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the conditions for two spectrophotometric methods for clonidine determination, based on the formation of the ion pair complex between clonidine hydrochloride and thymol blue/bromophenol blue. A Jasco UV-Vis 530 spectrophotometer was used for the analysis and the maxim absorbance was measured at 418 nm/448 nm against blank solution. After validation, the methods were used for quantification of clonidine hydrochloride in two commercial samples (tablets). The recovery of active substance varies between 98.06 and 100.13 % without interferences from the excipients.

  6. Validated Colorimetric Assay of Clonidine Hydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Corciova, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Clonidine hydrochloride is an antihypertensive agent used for migraine prophylaxis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, menopausal flushing and Tourette syndrome. The quantity of the active substance in pharmaceutical preparations must be within specific limits, in agreement with the respective label claim. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the conditions for two spectrophotometric methods for clonidine determination, based on the formation of the ion pair complex between clonidine hydrochloride and thymol blue/bromophenol blue. A Jasco UV-Vis 530 spectrophotometer was used for the analysis and the maxim absorbance was measured at 418 nm/448 nm against blank solution. After validation, the methods were used for quantification of clonidine hydrochloride in two commercial samples (tablets). The recovery of active substance varies between 98.06 and 100.13 % without interferences from the excipients.

  7. Construction and performance characteristics of new ion selective electrodes based on carbon nanotubes for determination of meclofenoxate hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Rasha M; Abdel Ghani, Nour T; Hassan, Sherif M

    2012-06-12

    This work offers construction and comparative evaluation the performance characteristics of conventional polymer (I), carbon paste (II) and carbon nanotubes chemically modified carbon paste ion selective electrodes (III) for meclofenoxate hydrochloride are described. These electrodes depend mainly on the incorporation of the ion pair of meclofenoxate hydrochloride with phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) or phosphotungestic acid (PTA). They showed near Nernestian responses over usable concentration range 1.0 × 10(-5) to 1.0 × 10(-2)M with slopes in the range 55.15-59.74 mV(concentrationdecade)(-1). These developed electrodes were fully characterized in terms of their composition, response time, working concentration range, life span, usable pH and temperature range. The electrodes showed a very good selectivity for Meclo with respect to a large number of inorganic cations, sugars and in the presence of the degradation product of the drug (p-chloro phenoxy acetic acid). The standard additions method was applied to the determination of MecloCl in pure solution, pharmaceutical preparations and biological samples. Dissolution testing was also applied using the proposed sensors.

  8. Determination of losartan potassium, quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations using derivative spectrophotometry and chromatographic-densitometric method.

    PubMed

    Stolarczyk, Mariusz; Maślanka, Anna; Apola, Anna; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Two methods, spectrophotometric and chromatographic-densitometric ones, were developed for determination of losartan potassium, quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations. Spectrophotometric method involved derivative spectrophotometry and zero order spectrophotometry. The measurements were carried out at lambda = 224.0 nm for quinapril, lambda = 261.0 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and lambda = 270.0 nm for losartan when the derivative spectrophotometry was applied and lambda = 317.0 nm when zero order spectrophotometry was applied for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide. In chromatographic-densitometric studies high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plates were used as stationary phase and a mixture of solvents n-butanol : acetic acid : water (15 : 5 : 1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Under the established conditions good resolution of examined constituents was obtained. Retardation factor for quinapril hydrochloride was R(f) - 0.70, for losartan potassium R(f) - 0.85 and for hydrochlorothiazide R(f) - 0.78. The developed methods are characterized by high sensitivity and accuracy. For quantitative analysis, densitometric measurements were carried out at lambda = 218.0 nm for quinapril, lambda = 275.0 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and = 232.0 nm for losartan.

  9. Medium effects on fluorescence of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Fu, Yan; Li, Long-Di; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2003-10-01

    The medium (pH, organic solvents, cyclodextrin (CD) or surfactants) effects on the fluorescence of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPFX·HCl) were studied in detail. It is found that the three acid constants of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) are near to each other. Therefore the relation curve between pH and fluorescence intensity has no strident change and keeps relative stable in the pH range of 2-7. When pH was in the range of 5.5-6.0, the fluorescence intensity of CPFX reached the max. The kind and amount of organic solvent added to the luminescent system have various effects. Ethanol quenched fluorescence and the fluorescence excitation wavelength is red shift at first and then blue shift. Acetone has complicated effects on the fluorescence properties of CPFX·HCl solution. The experiment result shows that acetone is really a quencher when its volume content in the system is from 0 to 20%, but when its content is 90%, the signal intensity is unexpectedly one and a half times as much as that of no acetone. This means that there is a strong interaction between the acetone and CPFX; CPFX·H + could be included into the γ-CD but the capping effect is not notable. The effect of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and non-ionic surfactant TX-100 and TX-80 on CPFX fluorescence was unimpressive, but the anionic surfactant's effect is aberrant. The fluorescence intensity of CPFX·HCl solution experiences three stages of increasing, decreasing and increasing in turn, as sodium dodecyl sulfate is adding gradually. But for sodium lauryl sulfonate, there are only two stages of decreasing and increasing with the concentration increasing. It is problematic to illustrate clearly the effect mechanism of acetone and anionic surfactant at present. Undoubtedly, the experimental results in this paper should be useful in practice works and the research is worth studying still further.

  10. PREDICTIVE PHARMACOKINETICS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE FLOATING TABLETS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianming; Zhang, Yanzhen; Guo, Zhiling; Tao, Qingwen; Wang, Yongjun; Zhou, Wei; Ma, Xiao; Li, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose the effectiveness of convolution approach to predict pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride floating tablets, prepared by using various ratios of carbopol, HPMC K100M, and Hibiscus rosa Sinensis as excipient. The in vitro dissolution test was conducted using paddle method in 900 mL of HCl buffer with pH 1.2 to simulate the gastric condition. The stirring speed of paddles was set at 70 rpm. Temperature of dissolution medium was adjusted at 37 ± 5 °C. At predetermined time points, 5 mL of dissolution samples were taken with a replacement of same volume using fresh medium. The obtained samples were analyzed at 271 nm using UV visible spectrophotometer. The values of predicted pharmacokinetic parameters like Cmax (maximum blood drug level), Tmax (time required to attain maximum blood drug level), and AUC (area under blood drug concentration curve) ranged between 80.8 ± 3.2-119.6 ± 4.7 ng/mL, 11.4 ± 0.2-12.2 ± 0.2 h, and 1430.5 ± 209.5-1970.6 ± 287.4 ng.h/mL, respectively. This certainly is a desired feature required at the formulation development step, where the formulator requires the development of a formulation using desired in vivo features on the basis of only accessible in vitro data. It can be concluded from the results that convolution method is a practical method for the prediction of drug concentration in blood and for quality control. PMID:27476294

  11. A new HPLC method to determine Donepezil hydrochloride in tablets.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Horacio; Farrú, Romina; Vilanova, Paula Otaño; Palacios, Marcelo; Pizzorno, María Teresa

    2002-01-01

    A HPLC stability-indicating assay for Donepezil hydrochloride in tablets was developed and validated. Donepezil hydrochloride is a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. The HPLC method was performed with a reversed phase C18 column, detection at 268 nm and a mixture of methanol, phosphate buffer 0.02 M and triethylamine (50:50:0.5) as mobile phase. Typical retention time for Donepezil was 9 min. The method was statistically validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and selectivity following ICH recommendations. Due to its simplicity and accuracy, the method can be used for routine quality control analysis.

  12. Degradation of Verapamil hydrochloride in water by gliding arc discharge.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Syam; Maslani, Alan; Izdebski, Tomasz; Horakova, Marta; Klementova, Sarka; Spatenka, Petr

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of gliding arc plasma discharge on the degradation of Verapamil hydrochloride in water. The plasma discharge was characterized by means of optical emission spectroscopy. Spectra of various atomic and molecular species were observed. Aqueous solution of Verapamil hydrochloride was exposed to gliding arc discharge operated in continuous discharge at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The identification of Verapamil, the degradation mechanisms of Verapamil and its transformation products were performed using liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Experimental results indicate that the atmospheric pressure gliding arc plasma treatment has noticeable effects on Verapamil with satisfactory degradation efficiency. Plausible mechanisms of the degradation were discussed. PMID:26953731

  13. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  14. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts per billion is established for residues of the parent compound, melengestrol acetate, in fat of cattle....

  2. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Multilayered Tablets of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Chowdary, Y. Ankamma; Raparla, Ramakrishna; Madhuri, Muramshetty

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus a continuous therapy is required which is a more complex one. As in these patients there may be a defect in both insulin secretion and insulin action exists. Hence, the treatment depends on the pathophysiology and the disease state. In the present study, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride 15 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg were prepared in an attempt for combination therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone HCl was formulated as immediate release layer to show immediate action by direct compression method using combination of superdisintegrants, namely, crospovidone and avicel PH 102. Crospovidone at 20% concentration showed good drug release profile at 2 hrs. Metformin HCl was formulated as controlled release layer to prolong the drug action by incorporating hydrophilic polymers such as HPMC K4M by direct compression method and guar gum by wet granulation method in order to sustain the drug release from the tablets and maintain its integrity so as to provide a suitable formulation. The multilayered tablets were prepared after carrying out the optimization of immediate release layer and were evaluated for various precompression and postcompression parameters. Formulation F13 showed 99.97% of pioglitazone release at 2 hrs in 0.1 N HCl and metformin showed 98.81% drug release at 10 hrs of dissolution in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer. The developed formulation is equivalent to innovator product in view of in vitro drug release profile. The results of all these evaluation tests are within the standards. The procedure followed for the formulation of these tablets was found to be reproducible and all the formulations were stable after accelerated stability studies. Hence, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone HCl and metformin HCl can be a better alternative way to conventional dosage forms. PMID:26556204

  13. A Clinical Study of Efficacy of 4% Articaine Hydrochloride Versus 2% Lignocaine Hydrochloride in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Darawade, Dattatraya A; Kumar, Santosh; Budhiraja, Shilpa; Mittal, Manoj; Mehta, Tanvi N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Articaine in an anesthetic agent, which is used less frequently in dentistry. It differs from other agents due to the presence of a thiophene ring in its molecular structure. Few groups of researchers claim that it is superior to lignocaine. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of 4% articaine hydrochloride and 2% lignocaine hydrochloride in the orthodontic extraction. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 50 patients who needed the orthodontic extraction in the age group from 15 to 25 years. Experimental sites were injected with 0.5-1 ml of 4% articaine HCL containing 1:100000 adrenaline, incrementally in the buccal vestibule without palatal anaesthesia. Control sites were injected with 0.8-1 ml of 2% lignocaine HCL containing 1:100000 adrenaline, incrementally in the buccal vestibule. All the parameters, that is volume, duration, time of anesthesia and pain rating were noted and statistically compared. Result: When statistically compared mean volume of articaine (0.779 ± 0.1305) was less than lignocaine (1.337 ± 0.2369). Mean time of onset of articaine was 1.012 ± 0.2058 min, Whereas that of was 1.337 ± 0.2369. Pain rating showed not much difference, but in the lignocaine group palatal anesthesia was required in all the patients. Finally, the mean duration of anesthesia in articaine group was 69.08 ± 18.247, whereas in the lignocaine group was 55.66 ± 6.414. Conclusion: Articaine has proved its usefulness in all regards. Literatures have proved its usefulness. Like other anesthetic, it is safe and more effective. It surpasses the need of additional palatal anesthesia. Rapid inactivation in liver and plasma reduces the risk of the drug overdose. All the above factors make it an ideal anesthetic agent to be used in dentistry. PMID:25395799

  14. Formulation and Evaluation of Multilayered Tablets of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Chowdary, Y Ankamma; Raparla, Ramakrishna; Madhuri, Muramshetty

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus a continuous therapy is required which is a more complex one. As in these patients there may be a defect in both insulin secretion and insulin action exists. Hence, the treatment depends on the pathophysiology and the disease state. In the present study, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride 15 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg were prepared in an attempt for combination therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone HCl was formulated as immediate release layer to show immediate action by direct compression method using combination of superdisintegrants, namely, crospovidone and avicel PH 102. Crospovidone at 20% concentration showed good drug release profile at 2 hrs. Metformin HCl was formulated as controlled release layer to prolong the drug action by incorporating hydrophilic polymers such as HPMC K4M by direct compression method and guar gum by wet granulation method in order to sustain the drug release from the tablets and maintain its integrity so as to provide a suitable formulation. The multilayered tablets were prepared after carrying out the optimization of immediate release layer and were evaluated for various precompression and postcompression parameters. Formulation F13 showed 99.97% of pioglitazone release at 2 hrs in 0.1 N HCl and metformin showed 98.81% drug release at 10 hrs of dissolution in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer. The developed formulation is equivalent to innovator product in view of in vitro drug release profile. The results of all these evaluation tests are within the standards. The procedure followed for the formulation of these tablets was found to be reproducible and all the formulations were stable after accelerated stability studies. Hence, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone HCl and metformin HCl can be a better alternative way to conventional dosage forms. PMID:26556204

  15. Photochemistry of 2-nitrobenzylidene acetals.

    PubMed

    Sebej, Peter; Solomek, Tomás; Hroudná, L'ubica; Brancová, Pavla; Klán, Petr

    2009-11-20

    Photolysis of dihydroxy compounds (diols) protected as 2-nitrobenzylidene acetals (ONBA) and subsequent acid- or base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the 2-nitrosobenzoic acid ester intermediates result in an efficient and high-yielding release of the substrates. We investigated the scope and limitations of ONBA photochemistry and expanded upon earlier described two-step procedures to show that the protected diols of many structural varieties can also be liberated in a one-pot procedure. In view of the fact that the acetals of nonsymmetrically substituted diols are converted into one of the corresponding 2-nitrosobenzoic acid ester isomers with moderate to high regioselectivity, the mechanism of their formation was studied using various experimental techniques. The experimental data were found to be in agreement with DFT-based quantum chemical calculations that showed the preferential cleavage occurs on the acetal C-O bond in the vicinity of more electron-withdrawing (or less electron-donating) groups. The study also revealed considerable complexity in the cleavage mechanism and that the structural variations in the substrate can significantly alter the reaction pathway. This deprotection strategy was found to be also applicable for 2-thioethanol when released from the corresponding monothioacetal in the presence of a reducing agent, such as ascorbic acid.

  16. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milligrams of triflupromazine hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats to relieve anxiety and to help control psychomotor... preanesthetic.1 (2) The drug is administered orally to dogs and cats at a dosage level of 1 to 2 milligrams...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... milligrams of triflupromazine hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats to relieve anxiety and to help control psychomotor... preanesthetic.1 (2) The drug is administered orally to dogs and cats at a dosage level of 1 to 2 milligrams...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... milligrams of triflupromazine hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats to relieve anxiety and to help control psychomotor... preanesthetic.1 (2) The drug is administered orally to dogs and cats at a dosage level of 1 to 2 milligrams...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section 520.2098 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the control of clinical signs associated with canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome. (ii)...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section 520.2098 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the control of clinical signs associated with canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome. (ii)...

  1. 21 CFR 522.2615 - Tripelennamine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tripelennamine hydrochloride injection. 522.2615 Section 522.2615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... use—(1) Amount—(i) Dogs, cats, and horses. For intramuscular use only at a dose of 0.5 milligram...

  2. Cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory of vancomycin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ponder, Celia; Overcash, Michael

    2010-02-15

    A life cycle analysis on the cradle-to-gate production of vancomycin hydrochloride, which begins at natural resource extraction and spans through factory (gate) production, not only shows all inputs, outputs, and energy usage to manufacture the product and all related supply chain chemicals, but can highlight where process changes would have the greatest impact on raw material and energy consumption and emissions. Vancomycin hydrochloride is produced by a low-yield fermentation process that accounts for 47% of the total cradle-to-gate energy. The fermentation step consumes the most raw materials and energy cradle-to-gate. Over 75% of the total cradle-to-gate energy consumption is due to steam use; sterilization within fermentation is the largest user of steam. Aeration and agitation in the fermentation vessels use 65% of the cradle-to-gate electrical energy. To reduce raw materials, energy consumption, and the associated environmental footprint of producing vancomycin hydrochloride, other sterilization methods, fermentation media, nutrient sources, or synthetic manufacture should be investigated. The reported vancomycin hydrochloride life cycle inventory is a part of a larger life cycle study of the environmental consequences of the introduction of biocide-coated medical textiles for the prevention of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) nosocomial infections. PMID:19942254

  3. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate by Neisseria sicca.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakasu, F; Ohe, T

    1996-10-01

    Bacteria capable of assimilating cellulose acetate, strains SB and SC, were isolated from soil on a medium containing cellulose acetate as a carbon source, and identified as Neisseria sicca. Both strains degraded cellulose acetate membrane filters (degree of substitution, DS, mixture of 2.8 and 2.0) and textiles (DS, 2.34) in a medium containing cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34) or its oligomer, but were not able to degrade these materials in a medium containing cellobiose octaacetate. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81 and 2.34) on the basis of biochemical oxygen demand reached 51 and 40% in the culture of N. sicca SB and 60 and 45% in the culture of N. sicca SC within 20 days. A decrease in the acetyl content of degraded cellulose acetate films and powder was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. After 10-day cultivation of N. sicca SB and SC, the number-average molecular weight of residual cellulose acetate decreased by 9 and 5%, respectively. Activities of enzymes that released acetic acid and produced reducing sugars from cellulose acetate were mainly present in the culture supernatant. Reactivity of enzymes for cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81) was higher than that for cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34).

  4. A simple colorimetric method for estimation of tramadol hydrochloride in pure and tablet dosage forms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Scaria P.; Sankar, Hari K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a simple method for estimation of tramadol hydrochloride (TH) in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms using a colorimeter. Materials and Methods: TH on reaction with Eriochrome Black T in the presence of acetate buffer at pH 3.5 forms a colored complex. This complex was extracted with a fixed volume of chloroform. The optical density of this colored complex was measured against reagent blank using a colorimeter at 520 nm. Results: Beer's law was obeyed with a good correlation coefficient (0.999) in the concentration range of 2.5 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml. Drug content estimation and recovery studies carried out on commercial tablet dosage forms demonstrated the accuracy of the method and that excipients do not cause interference. Precision and robustness were measured and found to be acceptable (% relative standard deviation <2%). Conclusion: The proposed method can be used for the rapid determination of TH content in tablets at a health-care provider level using already available staff and equipment. PMID:27721542

  5. Design and development of controlled porosity osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Sadhana R.; Zadbuke, Nityanand S.; Gulecha, Bhushan; Shivanikar, Shantanu S.; Shinde, Shivram B.

    2012-01-01

    The present work aims towards the design and development of extended release formulation of freely water-soluble drug diltiazem hydrochloride (DLTZ) based on osmotic technology by using controlled porosity approach. DLTZ is an ideal candidate for a zero-order drug delivery system because it is freely water-soluble and has a short half-life (2-3 h). Sodium chloride (Osmogen) was added to the core tablet to alter the solubility of DLTZ in an aqueous medium. Cellulose acetate (CA) and sorbitol were used as semipermeable membrane and pore former, respectively. The effect of different formulation variables namely concentration of osmogen in the core tablet, % pore former, % weight gain, pH of the dissolution medium and agitation intensity on the in vitro release was studied. DLTZ release was directly proportional to % pore former and inversely proportional to % weight gain. The optimized formulation (F8) delivered DLTZ independent of pH and agitation intensity for 12 h at the upper level concentration of % pore former (25% w/w) and middle level concentration of % weight gain (6% w/w). The comparative study of elementary osmotic pump (EOP) and controlled porosity osmotic pump revealed that it superior than conventional EOP and also easier and cost effective to formulate. PMID:23378944

  6. Formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive controlled release tablets of alfuzosin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Rudraswamy-Math, Nijaguni Revansiddayya; Gupta, Vankdari Rama-Mohan

    2015-11-01

    Alfuzosin hydrochloride is a novel drug used in the treatment of urinary incontinency. The purpose of this research was to develop controlled release floating matrix formulations of Alfuzosin HCl. Floating matrix tablets of Alfuzosin HCl were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Polyethylene oxide (PEO), Carbopol 971P NF polymer (Direct compressible) and Blend of Polyvinyl Acetate and Povidone 30 (80:19:1(0.8% sodium laury sulfate and 0.2% silica)). Combination of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were also used as gas forming agent. Matrix formulations were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for floating, in vitro drug release profile and swelling characteristics. The mechanism of drug release was found to follow non-Fickian or anomalous type. The data obtained from the invitro release studies demonstrated that the floating matrix tablets containing HPMC 100K CR (controlled-release) and carbopol along with sodium CMC were found to sustain the release of drug over a period of 12 hours. Formulations containing 25% PEO 303WSR was also capable of sustaining delivery the release of Alfuzosin HCl. PMID:26639508

  7. Effect of thiamine hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride and calcium-d-pantothenate on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Serafettin; Velioglu, Y Sedat

    2002-08-01

    Thiamine hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride and calcium-d-pantothenate were applied apple juice concentrates (AJC) at various doses in order to reduce the patulin content. AJC samples containing high levels of patulin were stored at 22 +/- 2 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 6 months after vitamins were added. Patulin was fully degraded at the end of a 6-month period in samples stored at 22 +/- 2 degrees C, on the other hand, other quality parameters diminished significantly. Without any considerable reduction on other quality parameters, applications of 1000 and 2500 mg/kg calcium-d-pantothenate resulted in reduction of patulin of 73.6 and 94.3%, respectively, however, 42.1% of patulin reduction was observed in the control sample of AJC stored for 1 month at 22 +/- 2 degrees C. Addition of thiamine hydrochloride (1000 mg/kg), pyrodoxine hydrochloride (625 or 875 mg/kg) and calcium-d-pantothenate (1000 or 2500 mg/kg) into the samples and storage at 4 degrees C for 6 months yielded 55.5 to 67.7% of patulin reduction which was only 35.8% for the control while the other quality parameters were protected adequately. PMID:12224421

  8. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values

    PubMed Central

    Veeraselvam, M.; Sridhar, R.; Perumal, P.; Jayathangaraj, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg) per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females) apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P < 0.05) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P < 0.05). The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment. PMID:24876990

  9. Theophylline-7-acetic acid derivatives with amino acids as anti-tuberculosis agents.

    PubMed

    Voynikov, Yulian; Valcheva, Violeta; Momekov, Georgi; Peikov, Plamen; Stavrakov, Georgi

    2014-07-15

    A series of amides were synthesized by condensation of theophylline-7-acetic acid and eight commercially available amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides. Consecutive hydrolysis of six of the amido-esters resulted in the formation of corresponding amido-acids. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity varied depending on the amino acid fragments and in seven cases exerted excellent values with MICs 0.46-0.26 μM. Assessment of the cytotoxicity revealed that the compounds were not cytotoxic against the human embryonal kidney cell line HEK-293T. The theophylline-7-acetamides containing amino acid moieties appear to be promising lead compounds for the development of antimycobacterial agents.

  10. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride withdrawal time on beef carcass cutability, composition, and tenderness.

    PubMed

    Shook, J N; VanOverbeke, D L; Kinman, L A; Krehbiel, C R; Holland, B P; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Hilton, G G

    2009-11-01

    The impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass yield, composition, and tenderness was evaluated using 384 beef steers in a randomized complete block design. Main effects were the addition of 0 or 8.3 mg/kg of ZH for the final 20 d of feeding and each inclusion level was paired with withdrawal periods of 3, 10, 17, or 24 d. The 2 animals with BW closest to the pen average were selected for carcass fabrication to determine carcass yield, composition, and tenderness. The carcasses from animals fed ZH had greater (P = 0.008) individual side weights. Carcass fat determinations were unchanged (P = 0.70) by ZH. Weights of the strip loin (P = 0.01), peeled tenderloin (P = 0.02), and top sirloin butt (P < 0.001) were all improved with ZH. When expressed as a proportion of carcass weight, ZH increased percentage of carcass in the top sirloin butt (P = 0.006), bottom sirloin tri-tip (P = 0.02), top inside round (P = 0.002), bottom round flat (P = 0.001), and flank steak (P = 0.02). A longer withdrawal time (WT) increased (P < 0.001) carcass weights. Shoulder clod weights were greatest (P < 0.001) with 17-d WT from ZH, whereas chuck roll weights were greatest (P = 0.02) at 17 and 24 d of WT. Peeled tenderloins, top sirloin butts, and eye of rounds responded to WT, with increased (P < 0.001) weights seen at 10 d of WT as compared with all other WT. Shear force values were greater at each of the 3 aging times, 7 d (P < 0.001), 14 d (P < 0.001), and 21 d (P = 0.003), in steaks from ZH-fed steers compared with control steers. Protein percentages were greater in ZH steaks (P = 0.03) and ZH ground beef trim (P < 0.001). Percent moisture was increased (P < 0.001) in strip loin steaks at 3 and 10 d WT. Ground beef trim had an increase (P = 0.04) in percent moisture and a decrease (P = 0.01) in percent fat at 10 d WT. Carcass weights and yields were improved with ZH feeding and may continue to improve even up to 10 d after withdrawal of the supplement. Tenderness was slightly

  11. Medroxyprogesterone acetate exacerbates glutamate excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Jon; Morales, Alison; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2006-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that progesterone functions as a neuroprotective agent whereas medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; Provera) does not. Moreover, MPA antagonized the neuroprotective and neurotrophic outcomes induced by 17beta-estradiol (E2). Towards developing effective hormone therapies for protection against neurodegeneration, we sought to determine whether formulation, chemical features or prevention versus treatment mode of exposure affected the outcome of MPA treatment in survival of primary hippocampal neurons. Results of these analyses indicated that both crystalline MPA and a pharmaceutical formulation (Depo-Provera) lacked neuroprotective efficacy, indicating that the effects were not dependent upon MPA formulation. Likewise, MPA in the prevention and treatment paradigms were equally ineffective at promoting neuronal survival, indicating that timing of MPA administration was not a factor. Further, the detrimental effects of MPA were not due to the presence of the acetate group, as medroxyprogesterone was as ineffective as MPA in promoting neuronal survival. Moreover, MPA pretreatment exacerbated neuron death induced by glutamate excitotoxicity as indicated by a 40% increase in neuron death determined by direct live/dead cell count and a commensurate increase in the number of positive cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling. Collectively these results predict that the progestin formulation of hormone therapy will affect the vulnerability of the central nervous system to degenerative insults.

  12. Understanding Palladium Acetate from a User Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carole, William A; Colacot, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of palladium acetate is reviewed with respect to its synthesis, characterization, structure (in both solution and solid state), and activation pathways. In addition, comparisons of catalytic activities between pure palladium acetate and two common byproducts, Pd3 (OAc)5 (NO2 ) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2 ]n , typically present in commercially available material are reviewed. Hence, this minireview serves as a concise guide for the users of palladium acetate from both academia and industry. PMID:27125630

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  17. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  18. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnarowska, Z.; Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Grzybowska, K.; Hawelek, L.; Paluch, M.; Ngai, K. L.

    2012-04-01

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M″(f ) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across Tg. The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below Tg. At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  19. Growth and characterization of thiosemicarbazide hydrochloride: A semiorganic NLO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhakumari, R.; Ramamurthi, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Evans, Helen Stoeckli; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Hema, R.

    2011-11-01

    Thiosemicarbazide hydrochloride (TSCHCL) was synthesized by mixing thiosemicarbazide and hydrochloride in 1:1 molar ratio in double distilled water. Single crystals of TSCHCL were grown by slow evaporation at room temperature and were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction study to determine the molecular structure and by FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral analyses to confirm the synthesized compound. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses reveal the thermal stability of the crystal. The transmission spectrum of TSCHCL showed that the crystal is transparent in the wavelength range 380-1100 nm. High resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) was employed to evaluate the perfection of the grown crystal. Mechanical properties of the grown crystal were studied using Vickers microhardness test. Second harmonic generation efficiency of the powdered TSCHCL was tested using Nd:YAG laser and is ˜1.5 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate.

  20. Preformed microcapsules for loading and sustained release of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhengwei; Ma, Lie; Gao, Changyou; Shen, Jiacong

    2005-05-01

    A novel pathway for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride delivery system based on spontaneous deposition mechanism was introduced with respect to encapsulation, quantitative drug loading and sustained release. Layer-by-layer assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes onto melamine formaldehyde (MF) colloidal particles, followed by removal of the cores at low pH has yielded hollow microcapsules having a unique property to induce spontaneous deposition of various water-soluble substances. Observations under scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy provided direct proofs of the spontaneous deposition. The quantitative drug loading and sustained release properties were elucidated. Results show that the loaded drug is proportional to drug feeding concentrations, temperature and salt concentrations, demonstrating tailorable deposition behavior that is crucial for the drug carrier. The deposited ciprofloxacin hydrochloride could be again released in a sustained manner and exhibited a significant antiseptic activity with high biocompatibility.

  1. The stability of oxymetazoline hydrochloride in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Stanisz, Beata

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of oxymetazoline hydrochloride in aqueous solution at three temperatures (343 K, 353 K, 363 K), over the pH-range 0.5-12.5 and ionic strength 0.5 has been investigated. The changes of concentration of oxymetazoline hydrochloride were followed by the HPLC method with UV detection. In the pH range from 0.45 to 12.50, the hydrolysis of oxymetazoline consists of hydrolysis of oxymetazoline molecules catalyzed by hydrogen ions, spontaneous hydrolysis of the dissociated and undissociated oxymetazoline molecules. A minimal rate of the hydrolysis oxymetazoline was observed to occur in the pH range from 2.0 to 5.0. Thermodynamic parameters of the reaction: energy, entropy and enthalpy of activation and the frequency factor for the specific rate constants were determined.

  2. Olopatadine hydrochloride inhibits capsaicin-induced flare response in humans.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Masahisa; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Capsaicin, a vanilloid, has the potential for releasing substance P (SP) from sensory nerves. Topical application of capsaicin induces a flare response in the skin. However, it has not been clarified whether the release of SP is involved in the process of flare response or not. A potent antihistamine drug, olopatadine hydrochloride, is known to have inhibitory action against the release of SP. We examined the effects of olopatadine (at a dose of 5 mg) on skin reaction induced by topical application of capsaicin in 10 healthy subjects. The scores of capsaicin-induced flare responses after olopatadine administration were significantly lower at 30 min than at baseline. Our findings suggest that olopatadine hydrochloride could inhibit capsaicin-induced flare responses.

  3. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  4. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  5. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  6. Use of xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride for immobilization of wild leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) in emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Athreya, Vidya R

    2010-06-01

    In India, leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) inhabit human-dominated landscapes, resulting in encounters that require interventions to prevent harm to people, as well as the leopards. Immobilization is a prerequisite for any such intervention. Such emergency field immobilizations have to be carried out with limited tools, often amidst large uncontrollable crowds. An effective and practicable approach is discussed, based on 55 wild leopard immobilizations undertaken between January 2003 and April 2008. A xylazine hydrochloride (1.4 +/- 0.3 mg/kg)--ketamine hydrochloride (5 +/- 2 mg/kg) mixture was used for immobilization of leopards, based on estimated body weight. When weight could not be estimated, a standard initial dose of 50 mg of xylazine--150 mg of ketamine was used. Supplemental doses (50-75 mg) of only ketamine were used as required. No life-threatening adverse effects of immobilization were documented for at least 1 mo postimmobilization.

  7. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  8. Development and validation of a stability indicating UPLC method for determination of ticlopidine hydrochloride in its tablet formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Vijay; Kher, Govind; Dubal, Kapil; Dodiya, Bhavesh; Joshi, Hitendra

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current study was the development of a simple, precise and accurate isocratic reversed-phase stability indicating Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography [UPLC] assay method and validated for determination of ticlopidine hydrochloride in solid pharmaceutical dosage forms. Isocratic separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-C18 (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 μm) column using mobile phase of methanol–0.01 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH 5.0 (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 ml min−1, the injection volume was 4.0 μl and the detection was carried out at 235 nm by using photo-diode array detector. The drug was subjected to oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis and heat to apply stress condition. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and solution stability. The method was linear in the drug concentration range of 62.5–375 μg ml−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The precision (relative standard deviation – RSD) of six samples was 1.31% for repeatability and the intermediate precision [RSD] among six-sample preparation was 0.77%. The accuracy (recovery) was between 98.80% and 101.50%. Degradation products produced as a result of stress studies did not interfere with detection of ticlopidine hydrochloride and the assay can thus be considered stability indicating. PMID:23960754

  9. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on longissimus muscle shear force and sensory attributes of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Howard, S T; Woerner, D R; Vote, D J; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Bryant, T C; Acheson, R J; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on slice shear force (SSF) and sensory characteristics of beef from calf-fed Holstein steers was evaluated. All steers were implanted with a progesterone (100 mg) plus estradiol benzoate (10 mg) implant followed by a terminal trenbolone acetate (200 mg) plus estradiol (40 mg) implant. Steers were blocked by weight into pens (n = 32) randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control, RH fed at 300 mg·steer(-1)·d(-1) (RH 300) or RH fed at 400 mg·steer(-1)·d(-1)(RH 400) for the final 31 d of finishing, or ZH fed at 6.8 g/t for 21 d with a 5-d withdrawal before harvest. Fourteen carcasses were randomly selected from each pen, and two LM samples (1 per side) were excised and aged either 14 or 21 d before SSF testing. For trained panel evaluation, two steaks were collected from each of 60 low Choice strip loins (20 each from control, RH 300, and ZH treatments) and aged either 14 or 21 d. Steers fed RH and ZH produced steaks with SSF values that were 9% to 25% higher than controls. No difference in SSF was detected between the two levels of RH (P > 0.05). Compared to controls, the probability of steaks aged 14 d failing to meet SSF requirements to be certified tender (SSF < 20 kg) was increased 0.15, 0.17, and 0.26 in steers fed RH 300, RH 400, and ZH, respectively. Compared to controls, the probability of steaks aged 21 d having SSF values >20 kg was increased 0.03, 0.08, and 0.16 in steers fed RH 300, RH 400, and ZH, respectively. Steaks from Select carcasses of steers fed ZH aged 21 d postmortem had double the probability (0.39 vs. 0.17) of having SSF values >20 kg compared to steaks from steers fed either level of RH (P < 0.05). This difference tended to be identical in steaks from Select carcasses 14 d postmortem (0.50 vs. 0.33; P = 0.11); however, no difference was found in low Choice samples at 14 or 21 d postmortem. Trained panelists rated steaks aged 14 d from steers fed ZH lower for

  10. 40 CFR 180.502 - Aminoethoxyvinylglycine hydrochloride (aviglycine HCl); tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (aviglycine HCl); tolerances for residues. 180.502 Section 180.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.502 Aminoethoxyvinylglycine hydrochloride (aviglycine HCl); tolerances... hydrochloride (aviglycine HCl) in or on the following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Apple...

  11. 40 CFR 180.502 - Aminoethoxyvinylglycine hydrochloride (aviglycine HCl); tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (aviglycine HCl); tolerances for residues. 180.502 Section 180.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.502 Aminoethoxyvinylglycine hydrochloride (aviglycine HCl); tolerances... hydrochloride (aviglycine HCl) in or on the following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Apple...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263 Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms....

  13. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263 Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms....

  14. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263 Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms....

  15. 40 CFR 721.6196 - Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene polyamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6196 Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrochloride salt of a...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6196 - Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene polyamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6196 Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrochloride salt of a...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1263a - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. 520.1263a Section 520.1263a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263a Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. (a) Specifications. The...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1263a - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. 520.1263a Section 520.1263a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263a Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. (a) Specifications. The...

  19. 77 FR 20987 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Sponsor; Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder; Penicillin G Potassium in Drinking Water; Tetracycline...; penicillin G potassium, USP; and tetracycline hydrochloride soluble powders administered in drinking water... ANADA 200-347 for Penicillin G Potassium, USP, all soluble powders administered in drinking water to...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spray. 524.1662a Section 524.1662a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662a Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray. (a) Specifications. Each 3-ounce unit of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray contains...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... titration of the hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with... resin/solvent solution to pH 4.0, using the prestandardized pH meter, 1.0 N hydrochloric acid, 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, and 0.1 N sodium hydroxide. 5.5Add 50 mL of the hydroxylamine hydrochloride...

  2. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  3. [Studies for analyzing the prohibited ingredients such as cyproheptadine hydrochloride in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Uchino, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    Cyproheptadine hydrochloride (CH) is nominated as the prohibited ingredients in cosmetics in Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. So the analytical method for CH was investigated by HPLC. The lotion or milky lotion of 0.5 g was put into a 10-ml volumetric flask. After adding 1.0ml of CH solution at 50 microg/ml into the volumetric flask, the mixture was made up to 10ml with methanol as the test solution. Creams were procedured as follows; 0.5 g of cream was put into a 10-ml volumetric flask. After adding 1.0 ml of tetrahydrofuran into the volumetric flask, the mixture was stirred for several minutes and the ingredients of the creams were dissolved. After adding 1.0 ml of CH solution at 50 microg/ml into the volumetric flask, the mixture was made up to 10ml with methanol. This mixture was transferred to a centrifuging tube with a cap and then the tube was centrifuged for 5 minutes at 3000 rpm. The supernatant was used as the test solution. The test solution of 20 microl was analyzed by HPLC using the ODS column (CAPCELL PAK C18 column, 4.6 x 250 mm), the mixture of 1% acetic acid with 10 mmol/l sodium octanesulfonate and acetonitrile (11:9) and the detection wavelength of 286 nm. The working curve from 0.5 to 6.0 microg/ml showed a linear line between the concentrations of CH and the peak areas. There was no interference of peak of CH with the ingredients such as methylparaben, ethylparaben in the lotions, milky lotion and creams.

  4. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xiu-juan; Zhang, Zhe-cheng; Xue, Rong; Li, Ping; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days), or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24), Tianzhu (BL10), Sishencong (Extra), Yintang (Extra), Renzhong (DU26), Neiguan (PC6), Shenmen (HT7), Fengchi (GB20), Wangu (GB12) and Baihui (DU20) (once a day for 56 days). Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia. PMID:27127486

  5. HPLC study on the stability of bendamustine hydrochloride immobilized onto polyphosphoesters.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, Ivanka; Bogomilova, Anita; Koseva, Neli; Obreshkova, Danka; Troev, Kolio

    2008-12-01

    Novel water soluble polymer complexes of bendamustine hydrochloride, a bifunctional alkylating agent with antimetabolic and cytotoxic activity, were developed using biodegradable polymer carriers-poly(oxyethylene H-phosphonate), poly(methyloxyethylene phosphate) and poly(hydroxyoxyethylene phosphate). Bendamustine hydrochloride was immobilized onto polyphosphoesters via covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonding. The structure of the complexes formed was elucidated by (1)H, (13)C, (31)P NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The chemical stability of bendamustine hydrochloride in the novel complexes was studied by HPLC analysis based on a validated method with appointed analytical parameters such as specificity, repeatability, limit of quantitation, limit of detection and linearity. The results from the HPLC indicate that in neutral (pH 7) and alkaline (pH 9) media bendamustine hydrochloride in the polymer complexes is more stable than the pure bendamustine hydrochloride. The enhanced stability of the immobilized drug is explained with the drug interaction with the polymer carriers or their degradation products.

  6. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  7. Intravitreal injection of octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J E; Westra, I; Woltering, E A; Winthrop, K L; Barrie, R; O'Dorisio, T M; Holmes, D

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of injecting the somatostatin analogue, octreotide acetate (OA), into the vitreous cavity. Previous work suggests that octreotide effectively inhibits angiogenesis in vitro, thus its use in vivo may slow the progression of proliferative eye disease. Fifty micrograms of aqueous OA in 50 microliters aqueous solution was injected into the mid-vitreous of kitten eyes (n = 6), and OA levels were monitored over 4 days. A long-acting release form of octreotide (OA-LAR) was also injected into the mid-vitreous of rabbit eyes at doses of 0.36 (n = 16), 1.1 (n = 1), 2.1 (n = 1), 4.05 (n = 1), 8.2 (n = 1), and 36 mg (n = 3) in solution; and octreotide concentrations were measured at various time points over 42 days. OA concentrations were determined by a highly specific radioimmunoassay. Aqueous octreotide was eliminated rapidly (t1/2 = 16 hours) from the vitreous of the kitten eye, with only negligible amounts recoverable 4 days post-injection. In the long-acting form, OA in the rabbit eye reached peak levels at 28 days. By 42 days, OA levels had declined to the 14-day level. Doses of OA-LAR of 1.1 mg or less produced no gross evidence of clinical toxicity and elicited no grossly visible ocular side effects. Doses greater than 1.1 mg produced significant toxicity, including cataracts and rubeosis. The 28-day peak release for long-acting OA implies that monthly intravitreal injections could provide continual high levels of OA. Intravitreal injection of long-acting OA provides sustained, high concentrations of drug, and deserves further study as a potential treatment of proliferative eye diseases.

  8. Chitosan coated vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes: Characterizations and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenlei; Liu, Junli; Gao, Jinhua; Chen, Shilei; Huang, Guihua

    2015-11-10

    The present work evaluated the feasibility of chitosan coated liposomes (c-Lips) for the intravenous delivery of vancomycin hydrochloride (VANH), a water-soluble antibiotic for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections like osteomyelitis, arthritis, endocarditis, pneumonia, etc. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable drug delivery system in vivo which could improve therapeutic efficacy and decrease side effects especially nephrotoxicity. Firstly, the vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (VANH-Lips) were prepared by modified reverse phase evaporation method, then the chitosan wrapped vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (c-VANH-Lips) nanosuspension was formulated by the method of electrostatic deposition. Based on the optimized results of single-factor screening experiment, the c-VANH-Lips were found to be relatively uniform in size (220.40 ± 3.56 nm) with a narrow polydispersity index (PI) (0.21 ± 0.03) and a positive zeta potential (25.7 ± 1.12 mV). The average drug entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) were 32.65 ± 0.59% and 2.18 ± 0.04%, respectively. The in vitro release profile of c-VANH-Lips possessed a sustained release Characterization and the release behavior was in accordance with the Weibull equation. Hemolysis experiments showed that its intravenous injection had preliminary safety. In vivo, after intravenous injection to mice, c-VANH-Lips showed a longer retention time and higher AUC values compared with the VANH injection (VANH-Inj) and VANH-Lips. In addition, biodistribution results clearly demonstrated that c-VANH-Lips preferentially decreased the drug distribution in kidney of mice after intravenous injection. These results revealed that injectable c-VANH-Lips may serve as a promising carrier for VANH to increase therapeutic efficacy on gram-positive bacterial infections and reduce nephrotoxicity, which provides significantly clinical value for long-term use of VANH.

  9. [Studies on transdermal delivery system of dihydroetorphine hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Chen, X P; Guo, Q D; Shi, T S

    1996-01-01

    A transdermal delivery system of dihydroetorphine hydrochloride (DHE-TDS) was developed. The DHE-TDS mainly composed of polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and lactose. Tests on rabbits showed only slight skin irritation according to federal hazardous substances act. By giving DHE-TDS to rabbits, DHE release was shown to be governed by first-order mechanism. When DHE-TDS was given to Wistar rats, a relatively stable blood drug concentration was observed from 4-32 h after drug administration. Writhing tests showed that one dose of DHE-TDS would maintain the narcotic action on rats for at least 48 h.

  10. The effects of Dalmane /flurazepam hydrochloride/ on human EEG characteristics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Borda, R. P.; Kellaway, P.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the changes in the waking EEGs of six healthy male subjects who received 30 mg daily oral doses of flurazepam hydrochloride for two weeks. A placebo was then substituted for flurazepam for another two weeks. An increase in beta activity with a maximum in fronto-central leads was observed during the test period. A small increase in the mean wavelength of the alpha and theta activities in the central-occipital derivations was also apparent in the subjects during the period.

  11. Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  12. Fragrance material review on anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and phototoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  13. Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  14. Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  15. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  16. Acetate limitation and nitrite accumulation during denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, J.; Silverstein, J.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrite accumulated in denitrifying activated sludge mixed liquor when the carbon and electron source, acetate, was limited. If acetate was added to obtain a carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the range of 2:1 to 3:1, nitrate was completely consumed at the same rate with no nitrite accumulation, indicating that nitrate concentration controlled the respiration rate as long as sufficient substrate was present. However, when acetate was reduced to a C:N ratio of 1:1, while nitrate continued to be consumed, > 50% of the initial nitrate-nitrogen accumulated as nitrite and 29% persisted as nitrite throughout an endogenous denitrification period of 8--9 h. While nitrite accumulated during acetate-limited denitrification, the specific nitrate reduction rate increased significantly compared with the rate when excess acetate was provided as follows: 0.034 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h versus 0.023 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h, respective. This may be explained by nitrate respiration out-competing nitrite respiration for limited acetate electrons. Complete restoration of balanced denitrification and elimination of nitrite accumulation during denitrification required several weeks after the C:N ratio was increased back to 2:1.

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Calcium Acetate and Sevelamer on Clinical Outcomes in Elderly Hemodialysis Patients Enrolled in Medicare Part D

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Akeem A.; Weinhandl, Eric D.; St. Peter, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphate binders are an important therapeutic option for managing hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. Whether sevelamer confers a survival advantage over calcium acetate is unclear. Study Design Observational cohort study using US Renal Data System (USRDS) data linked to Medicare Part D prescription drug data. Setting & Participants Medicare-enrolled, elderly, incident hemodialysis patients initiating calcium acetate or sevelamer between July 1, 2006, and March 31, 2011. Predictor Prescription for sevelamer (hydrochloride or carbonate) or calcium acetate. Outcomes & measurements All-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality, hospital admissions and hospital days assessed from Medicare Parts A, B, and D claims and other USRDS data. Results The sevelamer and calcium acetate groups included 16,916 and 18,335 patients, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, all-cause (21.9 versus 21.8 deaths per 100 patient-years; adjusted HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-1.03) and cardiovascular (8.7 versus 8.6 deaths per 100 patient-years; HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.93-1.04) mortality did not differ significantly between the sevelamer group and calcium acetate group (referent). Mortality results in propensity-score matched cohorts showed a significantly lower risk of death in sevelamer than in calcium acetate patients (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98). Mortality results from additional analyses including only patients with low-income subsidy status were consistent with results from analyses including patients with and without low-income subsidy status. There were no significant differences between the sevelamer and calcium acetate groups for all-cause and cardiovascular-related first hospitalization, multiple hospitalizations, and hospital days. Limitations Results may not be applicable to younger patients; information about laboratory data and over-the-counter calcium-containing binders was lacking. Conclusions Relative to treatment with calcium acetate, treatment with

  18. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of a Water Soluble Drug, Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Shah, M.; Agrawal, Y. K.; Garala, K.; Ramkishan, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand and investigate the relationship between experimental factors and their responses in the preparation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride based solid lipid nanoparticles. A quadratic relationship was studied by developing central composite rotatable design. Amount of lipid and drug, stirring speed and stirring time were selected as experimental factors while particle size, zeta potential and drug entrapment were used as responses. Prior to the experimental design, a qualitative prescreening study was performed to check the effect of various solid lipids and their combinations. Results showed that changing the amount of lipid, stirring speed and stirring time had a noticeable influence on the entrapment efficiencies and particle size of the prepared solid lipid nanoparticles. The particle size of a solid lipid nanoparticle was in the range of 159-246 nm and drug encapsulation efficiencies were marginally improved by choosing a binary mixture of physically incompatible solid lipids. Release of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride from solid lipid nanoparticle was considerably slow, and it shows Higuchi matrix model as the best fitted model. Study of solid lipid nanoparticle suggested that the lipid based carrier system could potentially be exploited as a delivery system with improved drug entrapment efficiency and controlled drug release for water soluble actives. PMID:23716872

  19. [Examination of effectiveness of olopatadine hydrochloride in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tadamichi; Mashiko, Maki; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2005-02-01

    Subjective/objective symptoms (itching, papula, erythema, lichenification, desquamation, scratching, erosion) and the levels of IgE, LDH, interleukin (IL) -6, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) were compared before and after administering olopatadine hydrochloride (ALLELOCK tablets) to 17 atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Subject/objective symptoms improved significantly after administering the agent, and the total dosage of the combined topical steroids was also significantly decreased after administration (p<0.05), although IgE, IL-6 and LDH levels did not change, TARC was significantly decreased (p<0.05). The correlation between the levels of IgE, IL-6, LDH and TARC before and after the administration was examined. There was a positive correlation between IgE and TARC (r=0.62, p<0.01) and between IL-6 and TARC (r=0.78, p<0.01). Olopatadine hydrochloride is therefore useful in improving the symptoms in AD, and TARC may be used as an indicator of the symptom improvement.

  20. Formulation and Evaluation of Tramadol hydrochloride Rectal Suppositories.

    PubMed

    Saleem, M A; Taher, M; Sanaullah, S; Najmuddin, M; Ali, Javed; Humaira, S; Roshan, S

    2008-09-01

    Rectal suppositories of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared using different bases and polymers like PEG, cocoa butter, agar and the effect of different additives on in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride was studied. The agar-based suppositories were non-disintegrating/non-dissolving, whereas PEGs were disintegrating/dissolving and cocoa butter were melting suppositories. All the prepared suppositories were evaluated for various physical parameters like weight variation, drug content and hardness. The PEG and cocoa butter suppositories were evaluated for macromelting range, disintegration and liquefaction time. In vitro release study was performed by USP type I apparatus. The prepared suppositories were within the permissible range of all physical parameters. In vitro drug release was in the order of PEG>Agar>cocoa butter. Addition of PVP, HPMC in agar suppositories retards the release. The mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled and follows first order kinetics. The results suggested that blends of PEG of low molecular weight (1000) with high molecular weight (4000 and 6000) in different percentage and agar in 10% w/w as base used to formulate rapid release suppositories. The sustained release suppositories can be prepared by addition of PVP, HPMC in agar-based suppositories and by use of cocoa butter as base.

  1. Oral administration of diazepam and promazine hydrochloride to immobilize pronghorn.

    PubMed

    Pusateri, F M; Hibler, C P; Pojar, T M

    1982-01-01

    Oral tranquilizers were mixed with a grain bait and fed to pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in an attempt to immobilize and thus facilitate their capture. Diazepam, administered at 6 mg/kg body weight immobilized a tame pronghorn fawn within 30 min. Tranquilization was still apparent after 8 h. A minimum dose of 23 mg/kg body weight was necessary to immobilize a wild adult pronghorn. Immobilization occurred after 60 min and tranquilization was apparent 24 h post ingestion. Excitement severely impeded the effect of the drug and although easily captured, the animal struggled wildly when handled. Wild pronghorn fawns showed moderate tranquilization when administered diazepam at 23 mg/kg body weight but were unapproachable. Doses of diazepam between 13 and 23 mg/kg body weight were used to capture tame yearling and adult pronghorn held in a 132 ha enclosure. A dose of 23 mg/kg body weight was excessive in that the animals did not recover for 48 to 54 h post ingestion and had difficulty maintaining a sternal bedding position. Diazepam at 13 mg/kg body weight failed to tranquilize the animals sufficiently for easy capture. Promazine hydrochloride at doses of 2 to 17 mg/kg body weight, given orally to wild pronghorn fawns and an adult, did not produce visible signs of tranquilization. Animals refused to eat bait containing doses of promazine hydrochloride greater than 17 mg/kg body weight. PMID:7097876

  2. Application of direct crystallization for racemic compound propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lu, Jie; Ching, Chi Bun

    2007-10-01

    The application of direct crystallization integrating with chromatography to the resolution of a racemic compound propranolol hydrochloride was studied and the crystallization progression was clearly illustrated in terms of the diagram of solubility and metastable zone widths with different enantiomeric compositions. The solubility and metastable zone widths of propranolol hydrochloride in the mixture of methanol and isopropanol were determined using an in situ Lasentec Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM) probe. The direct crystallizations were carried out in an automatic lab reactor (Mettler Toledo LabMax) system. The optical purity of final product crystals was examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), HPLC and PXRD. The crystal size distribution and morphology were analyzed using Malvern Mastersizer and Jeol SEM. It was found that optically pure crystal product could be obtained within certain safe supersaturation limit and there was no evidence of polymorph or solvate/hydrate transformation during the crystallization process. There was no selectivity of crystal growth or nucleation between the pure enantiomer and its racemate when the solution reaches the temperature lower than saturation temperature of the racemate. Hence, the critical supersaturation control of a solution was essential to obtain pure enantiomers from a partially resolved racemate. PMID:17549769

  3. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV-Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  4. Transepithelial transport of biperiden hydrochloride in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Ivana S; Rodríguez, Yanina I; Lozano, Verónica; Cereseto, Marina; Mussini, Maria V; Spinetto, Marta E; Chiale, Carlos; Pesce, Guido

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this research has been to determine the biperiden hydrochloride permeability in Caco-2 model, in order to classify it based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). The World Health Organization (WHO) as well as many other authors have provisionally assigned the drug as BCS class I (high solubility-high permeability) or III (high solubility-low permeability), based on different methods. We determined biperiden BCS class by comparing its permeability to 5 pre-defined compounds: atenolol and ranitidine hydrochloride (low permeability group) and metoprolol tartrate, sodium naproxen and theophylline (high permeability group). Since biperiden permeability was higher than those obtained for high permeability drugs, we classified it as a BCS class I compound. On the other hand, as no differences were obtained for permeability values when apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical fluxes were studied, this drug cannot act as a substrate of efflux transporters. As a consequence of our results, we suggest that the widely used antiparkinsonian drug, biperiden, should be candidate for a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence studies.

  5. Intestinal Anisakiasis Treated Successfully with Prednisolone and Olopatadine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Hideki; Tanaka, Kyosuke

    2016-01-01

    The clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal anisakiasis is severe abdominal pain after eating raw fish. Intestinal anisakiasis is more uncommon than gastric anisakiasis. Most patients with intestinal anisakiasis need hospitalization because anisakiasis can cause intestinal obstruction, ileus, peritonitis or intestinal perforation. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain 2 days after eating raw fish. Her brother had eaten the same food and had been suffering from gastric anisakiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography in this patient showed localized jejunal wall thickening with dilated lumen of proximal jejunum and ascites. According to the clinical course and examinations, she was diagnosed with intestinal anisakiasis. Administration of prednisolone 5 mg/day and olopatadine hydrochloride 10 mg/day improved her symptoms quickly without hospitalization. Prednisolone was administered for 10 days, and olopatadine hydrochloride was administered for a total of 6 weeks according to ultrasonographic findings. Six months after the treatment, the abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated normal findings. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography was quite useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of intestinal anisakiasis. Furthermore, treatment with corticosteroid and an antiallergic agent could be an option for patients with intestinal anisakiasis. PMID:27403099

  6. Structural characterisation and dehydration behaviour of siramesine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Anne; Tian, Fang; de Diego, Heidi Lopez; Frydenvang, Karla; Rantanen, Jukka; Elema, Michiel Ringkjøbing; Hovgaard, Lars

    2009-10-01

    In this study the crystal structures of siramesine hydrochloride anhydrate alpha-form and siramesine hydrochloride monohydrate were determined, and this structural information was used to explain the physicochemical properties of the two solid forms. In the crystal structure of the monohydrate, each water molecule is hydrogen bonded to two chloride ions, and thus the water is relatively strongly bound in the crystal. No apparent channels for dehydration were observed in the monohydrate structure, which could allow transmission of structural information during dehydration. Instead destructive dehydration occurred, where the elimination of water from the monohydrate resulted in the formation of an oily phase, which subsequently recrystallised into one or more crystalline forms. Solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate of the anhydrate alpha-form and the monohydrate in aqueous media were investigated and both were found to be lower for the monohydrate compared to the anhydrate alpha-form. Finally, the interactions between water molecules and chloride ions in the monohydrate as well as changes in packing induced by water incorporation could be detected by spectroscopic techniques.

  7. Intestinal Anisakiasis Treated Successfully with Prednisolone and Olopatadine Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Hideki; Tanaka, Kyosuke

    2016-01-01

    The clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal anisakiasis is severe abdominal pain after eating raw fish. Intestinal anisakiasis is more uncommon than gastric anisakiasis. Most patients with intestinal anisakiasis need hospitalization because anisakiasis can cause intestinal obstruction, ileus, peritonitis or intestinal perforation. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain 2 days after eating raw fish. Her brother had eaten the same food and had been suffering from gastric anisakiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography in this patient showed localized jejunal wall thickening with dilated lumen of proximal jejunum and ascites. According to the clinical course and examinations, she was diagnosed with intestinal anisakiasis. Administration of prednisolone 5 mg/day and olopatadine hydrochloride 10 mg/day improved her symptoms quickly without hospitalization. Prednisolone was administered for 10 days, and olopatadine hydrochloride was administered for a total of 6 weeks according to ultrasonographic findings. Six months after the treatment, the abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated normal findings. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography was quite useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of intestinal anisakiasis. Furthermore, treatment with corticosteroid and an antiallergic agent could be an option for patients with intestinal anisakiasis. PMID:27403099

  8. [Spectroscopic studies on the binding of phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Chen, Chang-Yun; Xie, An-Jian

    2007-09-01

    The binding of phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin under physiological conditions was studied by spectroscopic method. The quenching mechanism of the fluorescence of bovine serum albumin by phenazopyridine hydrochloride was studied with fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The binding constant Kb and the number of binding sites n were determined at different temperatures according to Scatchard equation, and the main binding force was discussed by thermodynamic equations. The effect of the drug on bovine serum albumin conformation was also studied by using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The quenching mechanism of phenazopyridine hydrochloride to bovine serum albumin is static quenching and non-radiation energy transfer. The binding constants Kb at 15, 25 and 37 degrees C are 2.47 x 10(7), 9.15 x 10(6) and 4.36 x 10(6) mol(-1) with one binding site, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of the reaction are DeltaH = -71.2 kJ x mol(-1), and DeltaS = 124.8 J x mol(-1) x K(-1). Binding phenazopyridine hydrochloride to bovine serum albumin is a spontaneous inter-molecular interaction in which entropy increases and Gibbs free energy decreases. The binding distance r between phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin is 1.61 nm according to Forster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The binding force is electrostatic interaction. Phenazopyridine hydrochloride can be deposited and transported by serum protein in vivo. Phenazopyridine hydrochloride does affect the serum protein conformation.

  9. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Rizk, M S; Mostafa, M

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL(-1), using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ≥0.995 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  10. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; Rizk, M. S.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL-1, using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ⩾0.995 (n = 6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ⩽1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  11. Statistical Optimization and In Vitro Evaluation of Metformin Hydrochloride Asymmetric Membrane Capsules Prepared by a Novel Semiautomatic Manufacturing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Rajamanickam, Deveswaran; Basappa Veerbadraiah, Basavaraj; Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric membrane capsules (AMCs) are one of the novel osmotic delivery devices which deliver a wide range of drugs in controlled manner. In the present work, we developed and validated a semiautomatic process by fabricating a hydraulic assisted bench top model for manufacturing AMCs. The capsule walls of AMCs were prepared by dip coating phase inversion process using cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) as coating polymer and propylene glycol (PG) as plasticizer and pore former. The comparative examination of physical parameters confirmed the consistency, efficiency, and reproducibility of the semiautomatic process over the manual procedure. The SEM studies revealed a thin dense region supported on a thicker porous membrane of the capsule shells. Formulations of AMCs were prepared based on a 23 full factorial design using metformin hydrochloride as the model drug. The effect of formulation variables such as concentration of PG and levels of fructose and potassium chloride were studied on the in vitro drug release using Design-Expert 8.0.2 (USA) software. From the in vitro release studies, it was observed that the concentration of pore former and level of osmogents had a direct effect on the drug release. From the validation studies of the optimized formulation (OPT) with the predicted response, it was observed that the drug release was independent of pH and agitation intensity but dependent on osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium. The OPT followed controlled zero-order release kinetics over a period of 13 h. PMID:24381767

  12. Comparison of hot hydroxylamine hydrochloride and oxalic acid leaching of stream sediment and coated rock samples as anomaly enhancement techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filipek, L.H.; Chao, T.T.; Theobald, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    A hot hydroxylamine hydrochloride (H-Hxl) extraction in 25% acetic acid is compared with the commonly used oxalic acid extraction as a method of anomaly enhancement for Cu and Zn in samples from two very different metal deposits and climatic environments. Results obtained on minus-80-mesh stream sediments from an area near the Magruder massive sulfide deposit in Lincoln County, Georgia, where the climate is humid subtropical, indicate that H-Hxl enhances the anomaly for Cu by a factor of 2 and for Zn by a factor of 1.5, compared to the oxalic method. Analyses of Fe oxide-coated rock samples from outcrops overlying the North Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit near Tucson, Arizona, where the climate is semi-arid to arid, indicate that both techniques effectively outline the zones of hydrothermal alteration. The H-Hxl extraction can also perform well in high-carbonate or high-clay environments, where other workers have suggested that oxalic acid is not very effective. Therefore, the H-Hxl method is recommended for general exploration use. ?? 1982.

  13. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  14. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 110-49-6) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 110-49-6) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  18. Dynamic Protonation Equilibrium of Solvated Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wei; Frigato, Tomaso; Straatsma, TP; Helms, Volkhard H.

    2007-04-13

    For the first time, the dynamic protonation equilibrium between an amino acid side chain analogue and bulk water as well as the diffusion properties of the excess proton were successfully reproduced through unbiased computer simulations. During a 50 ns Q-HOP MD simulation, two different regimes of proton transfer were observed. Extended phases of frequent proton swapping between acetic acid and nearby water were separated by phases where the proton freely diffuses in the simulation box until it is captured again by acetic acid. The pKa of acetic acid was calculated around 3.0 based on the relative population of protonated and deprotonated states and the diffusion coefficient of excess proton was computed from the average mean squared displacement in the simulation. Both calculated values agree well with the experimental measurements.

  19. Leuprolide acetate-induced generalized papular eruption.

    PubMed

    Burris, Katy; Ding, Catherine Y; Lim, Geoffrey F S

    2014-06-01

    Leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. We report a unique case of a disseminated papular rash following leuprolide acetate injections in a 65-year-old man that shares clinical and histopathological features of papuloerythroderma of Ofuji. Leuprolide-induced papuloerythroderma, as well as a limited number of other disseminated cutaneous eruptions caused by this drug, is extremely rare, with only one case previously reported. Our case calls attention to this uncommon side effect in a commonly used hormonal therapy.

  20. Nonlinear optical diglycine hydrochloride: Synthesis, crystal growth and structural characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Moolya, B.; Darmaprakash, S. M.

    2006-07-01

    Diglycine hydrochloride (DGHCl), a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material with the molecular formula C 4H 11O 4Cl, was synthesized at ambient temperature. The solubility of DGHCl in water at varying temperatures was determined. Bulk single crystals were grown by the slow evaporation method at constant temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the grown DGHCl were recorded and indexed. Functional groups present in the sample crystals were identified by FTIR spectral analysis. The chemical composition of the synthesized material was confirmed by CHN analysis. Thermal characteristics of DGHCl were determined from the TGA/DTA response curve. The Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test showed potential for optical SHG. The UV cut-off of transmission was identified from the UV-VIS absorption spectra. The SHG of DGHCl is discussed on the basis of structural characteristics of the title compound.

  1. Peganine hydrochloride dihydrate an orally active antileishmanial agent.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Tanvir; Misra, Pragya; Gupta, Swati; Reddy, K Papi; Kant, Ruchir; Maulik, P R; Dube, Anuradha; Narender, T

    2009-05-01

    Protozoic infections caused by genus Leishmania pose an enormous public health threat in developing countries, compounded by the toxicity and resistance to current therapies. Under the aegis of our ongoing program on drug discovery and development on antileishmanial agents from plants, we carried out bioassay guided fractionation on Peganum harmala seeds which resulted in the isolation of 1 as an antileishmanial agent. 2D-NMR spectral data and single crystal X-ray crystallography data indicated 1 as peganine hydrochloride in dihydrated form. The compound 1 exhibited in-vitro activity against both extracellular promastigotes as well as intracellular amastigotes residing within murine macrophages in Leishmania donovani. Furthermore, 1 also exhibited in-vivo activity, 79.6 (+/-8.07)% against established VL in hamsters at a dose of 100mg/kgb.wt. PMID:19339182

  2. Simple colorimetric method for determination of thiamine hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sane, R T; Doshi, V J; Jukar, S; Joshi, S K; Sawant, S V; Pandit, U R

    1985-01-01

    A simple colorimetric method is described for the determination of thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1) in dosage forms. The method is based on measurement of a yellow complex formed when thiamine HCl is treated with p-methylaminophenol sulfate (Metol) under alkaline conditions. Compounds such as vitamins A, B2, B6, B12, C, D, and E, and niacinamide, citric acid, liquid glucose, calcium pantothenate, biotin, liver extract, and folic acid do not interfere in the reaction. Extracting the complex into chloroform before quantitation enhances the stability of the reaction product and removes interference of water-soluble colored constituents in syrup samples. Statistical validation shows that the method is precise and accurate. Results agree well with those obtained by other methods in the literature. PMID:3980419

  3. Multilayer Films and Capsules of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose and Polyhexamethylenguanidine Hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzenko, Nataliia; Gabchak, Oleksandra; Pakhlov, Evgenij

    The complexation of polyhexamethylenguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was investigated for different conditions. Mixing of equiconcentrated aqueous solutions of the polyelectrolytes was found to result in the formation of an insoluble interpolyelectrolyte complex with an overweight of carboxymethylcellulose. A step-by-step formation of stable, irreversibly adsorbed multilayer film of the polymers was demonstrated using the quartz crystal microbalance method. Unusually thick polymer shells with a large number of loops and tails of the polyanion were formed by the method of layer-by-layer self-assembly of PHMG and CMC on spherical CaCO3 particles. Hollow multilayer capsules stable in neutral media were obtained by dissolution of the inorganic matrix in EDTA solution.

  4. Coated hydralazine hydrochloride beads for sustained release after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Mughal, M Akhlaq; Saripella, Kalyan K; Kouba, Chahinaz; Iqbal, Zafar; Neau, Steven H

    2013-09-01

    Hydralazine hydrochloride is an antihypertensive used alone or in combination with isosorbide nitrate for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Since control of blood pressure should be continuous, sustained release delivery of this drug is considered therapeutically beneficial. Core beads for oral administration of this drug were prepared by extrusion-spheronization. Using experimental design to define the coat that was applied, the core beads were coated using a fluid bed coater to different coat thickness with combinations of two commercially available products dissolved in a hydroalcoholic solvent. The coat is a film with a combination of ethylcellulose and hydroxypropylcellulose that can provide desirable release profiles. Visually spherical and rugged bead products were obtained. Two products were identified that exhibited essentially a zero order release profile following a 2-h lag time with release of greater than 70% of the drug over the next 10 h in simulated intestinal fluid.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in the polymeric form. The hydrolysis of these polymers is catalyzed by hydrogen ions. 2.2The resin... hydroxylamine hydrochloride will produce sufficient hydrogen ions to catalyze the depolymerization of...

  6. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    PubMed

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride.

  7. 78 FR 16685 - Impax Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of Bupropion Hydrochloride Extended-Release...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Impax Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of Bupropion Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets, 300 Milligrams AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of...

  8. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    PubMed

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride. PMID:27208654

  9. 77 FR 14810 - Determination That DURANEST (Etidocaine Hydrochloride) Injection, 0.5%, and Five Other DURANEST...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That DURANEST (Etidocaine Hydrochloride... Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form..., using the prestandardized pH meter, 1.0 N hydrochloric acid, 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, and 0.1 N...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form..., using the prestandardized pH meter, 1.0 N hydrochloric acid, 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, and 0.1 N...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... formaldehyde so that the initial reaction with hydroxylamine hydrochloride will produce sufficient hydrogen... prepared by K. K. Tutin and M. L. Foster, Tacoma R&D Laboratory, Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc....

  13. Instability of the hydrochloride salts of cathinone derivatives in air.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Kuwayama, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    We observed the decomposition of the hydrochloride salt of α-pyrrolidinoheptanophenone (α-PHPP-HCl), a newly distributed pyrrolidine-type cathinone derivative when 2.5ng of this substance was placed in glass test tubes and stored in a refrigerator for 3 days. To further investigate this phenomenon, we studied the (i) time course of the residual ratios of α-PHPP-HCl when a small amount (10μg) of α-PHPP-HCl was stored in glass vials in air at room temperature; (ii) identification of the decomposition products of α-PHPP-HCl; (iii) effect of air on the decomposition process; (iv) effect of the added amounts of α-PHPP-HCl on its decomposition; and (v) comparison of the stability between various cathinone derivatives and their decomposition products. The decomposition of α-PHPP-HCl occurred in air and increased with time. Two possible decomposition products, α-(2″-oxopyrrolidino)heptanophenone and α-PHPP-N-oxide, were identified. These products were formed by oxygen in air because the yield significantly decreased by storing them in a vacuum desiccator. With the decrease in the amount of α-PHPP-HCl, the residual ratios decreased and amount of the decomposition products increased. This indicates that the decomposition of α-PHPP-HCl occurred on the upper surface of the samples. The hydrochloride salts of other cathinone derivatives were also unstable in air, and the residual ratios observed were different depending on the compounds. The pyrrolidine-type cathinone derivatives afforded two types of decomposition products, which were presumed to be 2″-oxo and N-oxide derivatives, similar to α-PHPP-HCl. In contrast, secondary amine-type cathinone derivatives showed different decomposition patterns, possibly including the dealkylated derivative. These findings may be very useful for the future toxicological analysis of cathinone derivatives.

  14. Sinomenine hydrochloride protects against polymicrobial sepsis via autophagy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Gao, Min; Wang, Wenmei; Lang, Yuejiao; Tong, Zhongyi; Wang, Kangkai; Zhang, Huali; Chen, Guangwen; Liu, Meidong; Yao, Yongming; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2015-01-23

    Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is the major cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs). The mortality rate of sepsis remains high even though the treatment and understanding of sepsis both continue to improve. Sinomenine (SIN) is a natural alkaloid extracted from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, and its hydrochloride salt (Sinomenine hydrochloride, SIN-HCl) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, its role in sepsis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of SIN-HCl in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in BALB/c mice and the corresponding mechanism. SIN-HCl treatment improved the survival of BALB/c mice that were subjected to CLP and reduced multiple organ dysfunction and the release of systemic inflammatory mediators. Autophagy activities were examined using Western blotting. The results showed that CLP-induced autophagy was elevated, and SIN-HCl treatment further strengthened the autophagy activity. Autophagy blocker 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to investigate the mechanism of SIN-HCl in vitro. Autophagy activities were determined by examining the autophagosome formation, which was shown as microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) puncta with green immunofluorescence. SIN-HCl reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine release and increased autophagy in peritoneal macrophages (PM). 3-MA significantly decreased autophagosome formation induced by LPS and SIN-HCl. The decrease of inflammatory cytokines caused by SIN-HCl was partially aggravated by 3-MA treatment. Taken together, our results indicated that SIN-HCl could improve survival, reduce organ damage, and attenuate the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by CLP, at least in part through regulating autophagy activities.

  15. Sustained transdermal release of diltiazem hydrochloride through electron beam irradiated different PVA hydrogel membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Tridib; Goswami, Luna; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2011-08-01

    Extremely fast release of diltiazem hydrochloride (water soluble, anti anginal drug used to treat chest pain) together with its faster erosion has been the primary problem in conventional oral therapy. It has been addressed in this paper by encapsulating the drug in electron beam irradiated various poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membranes and delivering it through transdermal route. Results show excellent control over the release of diltiazem hydrochloride through these membranes subject to their physico-mechanicals.

  16. Trypanosomatidae produce acetate via a mitochondrial acetate:succinate CoA transferase.

    PubMed

    Van Hellemond, J J; Opperdoes, F R; Tielens, A G

    1998-03-17

    Hydrogenosome-containing anaerobic protists, such as the trichomonads, produce large amounts of acetate by an acetate:succinate CoA transferase (ASCT)/succinyl CoA synthetase cycle. The notion that mitochondria and hydrogenosomes may have originated from the same alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont has led us to look for the presence of a similar metabolic pathway in trypanosomatids because these are the earliest-branching mitochondriate eukaryotes and because they also are known to produce acetate. The mechanism of acetate production in these organisms, however, has remained unknown. Four different members of the trypanosomatid family: promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana mexicana, L. infantum and Phytomonas sp., and procyclics of Trypanosoma brucei were analyzed as well as the parasitic helminth Fasciola hepatica. They all use a mitochondrial ASCT for the production of acetate from acetyl CoA. The succinyl CoA that is produced during acetate formation by ASCT is recycled presumably to succinate by a mitochondrial succinyl CoA synthetase, concomitantly producing ATP from ADP. The ASCT of L. mexicana mexicana promastigotes was further characterized after partial purification of the enzyme. It has a high affinity for acetyl CoA (Km 0.26 mM) and a low affinity for succinate (Km 6.9 mM), which shows that significant acetate production can occur only when high mitochondrial succinate concentrations prevail. This study identifies a metabolic pathway common to mitochondria and hydrogenosomes, which strongly supports a common origin for these two organelles.

  17. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Berberine Hydrochloride in Patients with Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunqiu; Tao, Chunhua; Liu, Zhongchen; Lu, Meiling; Pan, Qiuhui; Zheng, Lijun; Li, Qing; Song, Zhenshun; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate clinical symptoms in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) receiving berberine hydrochloride in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Overall, 196 patients with IBS-D were recruited for this study; consequently, 132 patients randomized to receive daily 400 mg of berberine hydrochloride, delivered twice daily or placebo for 8 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. After a 2-week run-in period, diarrhea, abdominal pain, urgent need for defecation frequency and any adverse events were recorded daily. Prior to administration of the medication and after completing the treatment, assessment of IBS symptom scores, depression and anxiety scale scores and the IBS scale for quality of life (QOL) was carried out. The effects of berberine hydrochloride on IBS-D, defined by a reduction of diarrhea frequency (P = 0.032), abdominal pain frequency (P < 0.01) and urgent need for defecation frequency (P < 0.01), were significantly more pronounced in the berberine group than the placebo group in the 8 weeks of treatment. A trend of improvement (P < 0.05) was observed with berberine hydrochloride for IBS symptom score, depression score and anxiety score and the IBSQOL, compared with placebo. At last, berberine hydrochloride was well tolerated. So we concluded that berberine hydrochloride is well tolerated and reduces IBS-D symptoms, which effectively improved patients QOL.

  18. Using crystal structure prediction to rationalize the hydration propensities of substituted adamantane hydrochloride salts.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sharmarke; Karothu, Durga Prasad; Naumov, Panče

    2016-08-01

    The crystal energy landscapes of the salts of two rigid pharmaceutically active molecules reveal that the experimental structure of amantadine hydrochloride is the most stable structure with the majority of low-energy structures adopting a chain hydrogen-bond motif and packings that do not have solvent accessible voids. By contrast, memantine hydrochloride which differs in the substitution of two methyl groups on the adamantane ring has a crystal energy landscape where all structures within 10 kJ mol(-1) of the global minimum have solvent-accessible voids ranging from 3 to 14% of the unit-cell volume including the lattice energy minimum that was calculated after removing water from the hydrated memantine hydrochloride salt structure. The success in using crystal structure prediction (CSP) to rationalize the different hydration propensities of these substituted adamantane hydrochloride salts allowed us to extend the model to predict under blind test conditions the experimental crystal structures of the previously uncharacterized 1-(methylamino)adamantane base and its corresponding hydrochloride salt. Although the crystal structure of 1-(methylamino)adamantane was correctly predicted as the second ranked structure on the static lattice energy landscape, the crystallization of a Z' = 3 structure of 1-(methylamino)adamantane hydrochloride reveals the limits of applying CSP when the contents of the crystallographic asymmetric unit are unknown.

  19. Using crystal structure prediction to rationalize the hydration propensities of substituted adamantane hydrochloride salts.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sharmarke; Karothu, Durga Prasad; Naumov, Panče

    2016-08-01

    The crystal energy landscapes of the salts of two rigid pharmaceutically active molecules reveal that the experimental structure of amantadine hydrochloride is the most stable structure with the majority of low-energy structures adopting a chain hydrogen-bond motif and packings that do not have solvent accessible voids. By contrast, memantine hydrochloride which differs in the substitution of two methyl groups on the adamantane ring has a crystal energy landscape where all structures within 10 kJ mol(-1) of the global minimum have solvent-accessible voids ranging from 3 to 14% of the unit-cell volume including the lattice energy minimum that was calculated after removing water from the hydrated memantine hydrochloride salt structure. The success in using crystal structure prediction (CSP) to rationalize the different hydration propensities of these substituted adamantane hydrochloride salts allowed us to extend the model to predict under blind test conditions the experimental crystal structures of the previously uncharacterized 1-(methylamino)adamantane base and its corresponding hydrochloride salt. Although the crystal structure of 1-(methylamino)adamantane was correctly predicted as the second ranked structure on the static lattice energy landscape, the crystallization of a Z' = 3 structure of 1-(methylamino)adamantane hydrochloride reveals the limits of applying CSP when the contents of the crystallographic asymmetric unit are unknown. PMID:27484376

  20. Direct, preparative enantioselective chromatography of propranolol hydrochloride and thioridazine hydrochloride using carbon dioxide-based mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Geiser, F; Schultz, M; Betz, L; Shaimi, M; Lee, J; Champion, W

    1999-12-31

    In this paper, we describe the direct, preparative enantioselective chromatography of racemic (rac)-propranolol hydrochloride (HCI) and rac-thioridazine.HCl using Chiralpak AD chiral stationary phase and mobile phase systems containing carbon dioxide and methanol without the use of basic or acidic additives. Isolated fractions of propranolol.HCl were positively identified by mass spectrometry, Beilstein flame test, melting point, and chemical analysis to be HCI enantiomers of propranolol-HCl salts exhibited characteristic mass spectra peaks at 36 and 38 mass-to-charge ratio in the expected 3:1 isotopic ratio for the solute that were absent in the mass spectra for the free-base forms. To our knowledge, the direct, preparative enantioselective isolation of HCI enantiomeric salts of rac-propranolol and of rac-thioridazine have not been previously demonstrated and published. PMID:10674944

  1. Direct, preparative enantioselective chromatography of propranolol hydrochloride and thioridazine hydrochloride using carbon dioxide-based mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Geiser, F; Schultz, M; Betz, L; Shaimi, M; Lee, J; Champion, W

    1999-12-31

    In this paper, we describe the direct, preparative enantioselective chromatography of racemic (rac)-propranolol hydrochloride (HCI) and rac-thioridazine.HCl using Chiralpak AD chiral stationary phase and mobile phase systems containing carbon dioxide and methanol without the use of basic or acidic additives. Isolated fractions of propranolol.HCl were positively identified by mass spectrometry, Beilstein flame test, melting point, and chemical analysis to be HCI enantiomers of propranolol-HCl salts exhibited characteristic mass spectra peaks at 36 and 38 mass-to-charge ratio in the expected 3:1 isotopic ratio for the solute that were absent in the mass spectra for the free-base forms. To our knowledge, the direct, preparative enantioselective isolation of HCI enantiomeric salts of rac-propranolol and of rac-thioridazine have not been previously demonstrated and published.

  2. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  3. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  4. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  5. Fragrance material review on phenethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  6. Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  7. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  8. Corrosion of stainless steel during acetate production

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, J.S.; Lester, G.C.

    1996-07-01

    Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CH{sub 3}COOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the catalyst occurred only in the presence of water. Thus, for the batch processes, corrosion occurred mostly during the initial stage of esterification, where water produced by the reaction created an aqueous environment. After water was distilled off, the corrosion rate declined to a negligible value. The corrosion inhibitor copper sulfate, often used in industrial acetate processes, was found to work well for a low-temperature process (< 95 C) such as in production of butyl acetate, but it accelerated corrosion in the glycol ether acetate processes where temperatures were > 108 C. Process conditions that imparted low corrosion rates were determined.

  9. Cellulose Acetate Membranes: Electron Microscopy of Structure.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Gardner, J O; Merten, U

    1964-02-21

    Electron photomicrographs of cellulose acetate membranes used in the reverse osmosis processof water desalination reveal a dense surface layer with a porous substructure. The high rate oftransmission for water can be correlated with the thickness of the dense layer on the air-driedsurface of the membrane.

  10. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  11. Increased mortality in groups of cattle administered the β-adrenergic agonists ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Loneragan, Guy H; Thomson, Daniel U; Scott, H Morgan

    2014-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two β-adrenergic agonists (βAA) for in-feed administration to cattle fed in confinement for human consumption. Anecdotal reports have generated concern that administration of βAA might be associated with an increased incidence of cattle deaths. Our objectives, therefore, were to a) quantify the association between βAA administration and mortality in feedlot cattle, and b) explore those variables that may confound or modify this association. Three datasets were acquired for analysis: one included information from randomized and controlled clinical trials of the βAA ractopamine hydrochloride, while the other two were observational data on zilpaterol hydrochloride administration to large numbers of cattle housed, fed, and cared for using routine commercial production practices in the U.S. Various population and time at-risk models were developed to explore potential βAA relationships with mortality, as well as the extent of confounding and effect modification. Measures of effect were relatively consistent across datasets and models in that the cumulative risk and incidence rate of death was 75 to 90% greater in animals administered the βAA compared to contemporaneous controls. During the exposure period, 40 to 50% of deaths among groups administered the βAA were attributed to administration of the drug. None of the available covariates meaningfully confounded the relationship between βAA and increased mortality. Only month of slaughter, presumably a proxy for climate, consistently modified the effect in that the biological association was generally greatest during the warmer months of the year. While death is a rare event in feedlot cattle, the data reported herein provide compelling evidence that mortality is nevertheless increased in response to administration of FDA-approved βAA and represents a heretofore unquantified adverse drug event.

  12. Increased Mortality in Groups of Cattle Administered the β-Adrenergic Agonists Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Loneragan, Guy H.; Thomson, Daniel U.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2014-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two β-adrenergic agonists (βAA) for in-feed administration to cattle fed in confinement for human consumption. Anecdotal reports have generated concern that administration of βAA might be associated with an increased incidence of cattle deaths. Our objectives, therefore, were to a) quantify the association between βAA administration and mortality in feedlot cattle, and b) explore those variables that may confound or modify this association. Three datasets were acquired for analysis: one included information from randomized and controlled clinical trials of the βAA ractopamine hydrochloride, while the other two were observational data on zilpaterol hydrochloride administration to large numbers of cattle housed, fed, and cared for using routine commercial production practices in the U.S. Various population and time at-risk models were developed to explore potential βAA relationships with mortality, as well as the extent of confounding and effect modification. Measures of effect were relatively consistent across datasets and models in that the cumulative risk and incidence rate of death was 75 to 90% greater in animals administered the βAA compared to contemporaneous controls. During the exposure period, 40 to 50% of deaths among groups administered the βAA were attributed to administration of the drug. None of the available covariates meaningfully confounded the relationship between βAA and increased mortality. Only month of slaughter, presumably a proxy for climate, consistently modified the effect in that the biological association was generally greatest during the warmer months of the year. While death is a rare event in feedlot cattle, the data reported herein provide compelling evidence that mortality is nevertheless increased in response to administration of FDA-approved βAA and represents a heretofore unquantified adverse drug event. PMID:24621596

  13. Comparative effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass traits, and longissimus tenderness of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Scramlin, S M; Platter, W J; Gomez, R A; Choat, W T; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2010-05-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) are beta-adrenergic agonists that improve growth performance and affect carcass characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative effects of RAC and ZH when fed to beef steers during the last 33 d of the finishing period. Three hundred crossbred beef steers (516 +/- 8 kg) were grouped by BW, BCS, and breed type and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (10 steers per pen; 10 pens per treatment). Treatments were control (no beta-agonists added), RAC (200 mg of ractopaminexhdx(-1)d(-1), for 33 d), or ZH (75 mg of zilpaterolxanimalx(-1)d(-1), for 30 d, removed 3 d for required withdrawal period). Steers were slaughtered, carcass characteristics were evaluated, and cut-out yields were determined. Both RAC and ZH increased final BW, ADG, feed efficiency (G:F), and HCW compared with controls (P < 0.05). Compared with RAC, ZH decreased ADG, ADFI, and final BW, but increased HCW and dressing percentage (P < 0.05). Carcass yield was not affected by RAC in this experiment, whereas ZH decreased adjusted fat thickness and KPH, increased ribeye area, improved yield grade, and increased cut-out yields, when compared with controls (P < 0.05). Marbling, lean maturity, and skeletal maturity were not different between treatments (P > 0.05). Steaks from RAC steers had greater (P < 0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than steaks from control steers at 3 and 7 d of aging, but did not differ from controls after 14 d of aging. Steaks from ZH steers had greater WBSF values (P < 0.05) than steaks from controls and RAC steaks throughout the 21-d postmortem aging period. Although both beta-adrenergic agonists were effective at improving feedlot performance, RAC showed no negative effect on WBSF after 14 d, whereas WBSF values for ZH steaks were significantly greater than controls after 21 d.

  14. Acetal phosphatidic acids: novel platelet aggregating agents.

    PubMed

    Brammer, J P; Maguire, M H; Walaszek, E J; Wiley, R A

    1983-05-01

    1 Palmitaldehyde, olealdehyde and linolealdehyde acetal phosphatidic acids induced rapid shape change and dose-dependent biphasic aggregation of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma; aggregation was reversible at low doses and irreversible at high doses of the acetal phosphatidic acids. The palmitaldehyde congener elicited monophasic dose-dependent aggregation of sheep platelets in platelet-rich plasma.2 The threshold concentration for palmitaldehyde acetal phosphatidic acid (PGAP)-induced platelet aggregation was 2.5-5 muM for human platelets and 0.25-0.5 muM for sheep platelets. PGAP was 4-5 times as potent versus human platelets as the olealdehyde and linolealdehyde acetal phosphatidic acids, which were equipotent.3 PGAP-induced irreversible aggregation of [(14)C]-5-hydroxytryptamine ([(14)C]-5-HT)-labelled human platelets in platelet-rich plasma was accompanied by release of 44.0+/-2.4% (s.e.) of the platelet [(14)C]-5-HT; reversible aggregation was not associated with release. In contrast, PGAP-induced release of [(14)C]-5-HT-labelled sheep platelets was dose-dependent.4 The adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonist, 2-methylthio-AMP, and the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, aspirin, abolished PGAP-induced second phase aggregation and release in human platelets but did not affect the first, reversible, phase of aggregation. Both the first and second phases of PGAP-induced aggregation were abolished by chlorpromazine, by the phospholipase A(2) inhibitor, mepacrine, and by nmolar concentrations of prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)); these agents abolished the second, but not the first phase of ADP-induced aggregation.5 The related phospholipids, lecithin, lysolecithin and phosphatidic acid, at <100 muM, neither induced aggregation of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma, nor modified PGAP-induced aggregation; 1-palmityl lysophosphatidic acid elicited aggregation of human platelets at a threshold concentration of 100 muM.6 It is concluded that the acetal phosphatidic acids

  15. [Preparation and evaluation of intra-articular injectable sinomenine hydrochloride-loaded in situ liquid crystals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-lin; Gui, Shuang-ying; Liang, Xin; Wang, Sheng-mei; Jiang, Xiao-jing

    2016-01-01

    Phytantriol (PT), ethanol (ET) and water were used to prepare in situ cubic liquid crystal (ISV2). The pseudo-ternary phase diagram of PT-ET-water was constructed and isotropic solution formulations were chosen for further optimization. The physicochemical properties of isotropic solution formulations were evaluated to optimize the composition of ISV2. In situ hexagonal liquid crystals (ISH2) were prepared based on the composition of ISV2 with the addition of vitamin E acetate (VitEA) and the amount of VitEA was optimized by in vitro release behavior. The phase structures of liquid crystalline gels formed by ISV2 and ISH2 in excess water were confirmed by crossed polarized light microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering, respectively. Rheological properties of ISV2 and ISH2 were studied by a DHR-2 rheometer. In vitro drug release studies were conducted by using a dialysis membrane diffusion method. Pharmacokinetics was investigated by determination of sinomenine hydrochloride (SMH) concentration in synovial membrane after intra-articular injection of SMH-loaded ISH2 in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats. The optimal ISV2 (PT/ET/water, 64 : 16 : 20, w/w/w) loaded with 6 mg x g(-1) of SMH showed a suitable pH, injectable and formed a cubic liquid crystalline gel in situ with minimum water absorption in the shortest time. The optimal ISV2 was able to sustain the drug release for 144 h. The optimal ISH2 system was prepared by addition of 5% VitEA into PT in the optimal ISV2 system. This ISH2 (PT/VitEA/ET/water, 60.8 : 3.2 : 16 : 20, w/w/w/w) was an injectable isotropic solution with suitable pH. The new ISH2 was able to sustain the drug release for more than 240 h. Local pharmacokinetics study indicated that the retention time and AUC(0-∞) of ISH2 group were increased significantly compared with that of SMH solution group and the AUC(0-∞) of ISH2 group was 6.01 times higher than that of SMH solution group. The developed ISH2 was suitable for intra

  16. [Preparation and evaluation of intra-articular injectable sinomenine hydrochloride-loaded in situ liquid crystals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-lin; Gui, Shuang-ying; Liang, Xin; Wang, Sheng-mei; Jiang, Xiao-jing

    2016-01-01

    Phytantriol (PT), ethanol (ET) and water were used to prepare in situ cubic liquid crystal (ISV2). The pseudo-ternary phase diagram of PT-ET-water was constructed and isotropic solution formulations were chosen for further optimization. The physicochemical properties of isotropic solution formulations were evaluated to optimize the composition of ISV2. In situ hexagonal liquid crystals (ISH2) were prepared based on the composition of ISV2 with the addition of vitamin E acetate (VitEA) and the amount of VitEA was optimized by in vitro release behavior. The phase structures of liquid crystalline gels formed by ISV2 and ISH2 in excess water were confirmed by crossed polarized light microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering, respectively. Rheological properties of ISV2 and ISH2 were studied by a DHR-2 rheometer. In vitro drug release studies were conducted by using a dialysis membrane diffusion method. Pharmacokinetics was investigated by determination of sinomenine hydrochloride (SMH) concentration in synovial membrane after intra-articular injection of SMH-loaded ISH2 in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats. The optimal ISV2 (PT/ET/water, 64 : 16 : 20, w/w/w) loaded with 6 mg x g(-1) of SMH showed a suitable pH, injectable and formed a cubic liquid crystalline gel in situ with minimum water absorption in the shortest time. The optimal ISV2 was able to sustain the drug release for 144 h. The optimal ISH2 system was prepared by addition of 5% VitEA into PT in the optimal ISV2 system. This ISH2 (PT/VitEA/ET/water, 60.8 : 3.2 : 16 : 20, w/w/w/w) was an injectable isotropic solution with suitable pH. The new ISH2 was able to sustain the drug release for more than 240 h. Local pharmacokinetics study indicated that the retention time and AUC(0-∞) of ISH2 group were increased significantly compared with that of SMH solution group and the AUC(0-∞) of ISH2 group was 6.01 times higher than that of SMH solution group. The developed ISH2 was suitable for intra

  17. pH-sensitive degradable chimaeric polymersomes for the intracellular release of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Du, Yinfeng; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Meng; Meng, Fenghua; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2012-10-01

    pH-sensitive degradable chimaeric polymersomes were developed based on asymmetric poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(2,4,6-trimethoxybenzylidene-1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)ethane methacrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PEG-PTTMA-PAA) triblock copolymers for active loading as well as triggered intracellular release of hydrophilic doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl). PEG-PTTMA-PAA copolymers were readily prepared with M(n PAA) ranging from 1.5, 2.1 to 2.7 kg/mol by sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization of 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzylidene-1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)ethane methacrylate (TTMA) and acrylic acid (AA) using PEG-CPADN (M(n PEG) = 5.0 kg/mol; CPADN: 4-cyanopentanoic acid dithionaphthalenoate) as a macro-RAFT agent. PEG-PTTMA-PAA copolymers formed mono-disperse polymersomes with average sizes of 63.9-112.1 nm, which decreased with increasing M(n PAA). The polymersomal structure was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Notably, the acetals in polymersomes while sufficiently stable at pH 7.4 were prone to rapid hydrolysis at mildly acidic pHs of 4.0 and 5.0, which resulted in swelling and eventually disassembly of polymersomes. These chimaeric polymersomes could actively load DOX·HCl resulting in remarkably high drug loading contents (up to 15.9 wt.%) and loading efficiencies (up to 88.8%). The in vitro release studies showed that DOX·HCl was released from chimaeric polymersomes in a controlled and pH-dependent manner. CLSM observations revealed that these chimaeric polymersomes could efficiently deliver and release DOX·HCl into the nuclei of HeLa cells. MTT assays in HeLa cells demonstrated that DOX·HCl-loaded PEG-PTTMA-PAA polymersomes exhibited high anti-tumor activity with IC(50) (inhibitory concentration to produce 50% cell death) of 1.48-1.67 μg/mL, close to that of free DOX·HCl, while blank polymersomes were practically non-toxic up to a tested concentration

  18. Determination of nifuroxazide and drotaverine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations by three independent analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Fadia H; Abdelkawy, Mohammed; Naguib, Ibrahim A

    2006-01-01

    Three new, different, simple, sensitive, and accurate methods were developed for quantitative determination of nifuroxazide (I) and drotaverine hydrochloride (II) in a binary mixture. The first method was spectrophotometry, which allowed determination of I in the presence of II using a zero-order spectrum with an analytically useful maximum at 364.5 nm that obeyed Beer's law over a concentration range of 2-10 microg/mL with mean percentage recovery of 100.08 +/- 0.61. Determination of II in presence of I was obtained by second derivative spectrophotometry at 243.6 nm, which obeyed Beer's law over a concentration range of 2-10 microg/mL with mean recovery of 99.82 +/- 1.46%. The second method was spectrodensitometry, with which both drugs were separated on a silica gel plate using chloroform-acetone-methanol-glacial acetic acid (6 + 3 + 0.9 + 0.1) as the mobile phase and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 365 nm over a concentration range of 0.2-1 microg/band for both drugs, with mean recoveries of 99.99 +/- 0.15 and 100.00 +/- 0.34% for I and II, respectively. The third method was reversed-phase liquid chromatography using acetonitrile-water (40 + 60, v/v; adjusted to pH 2.55 with orthophosphoric acid) as the mobile phase and pentoxifylline as the internal standard at a flow rate of 1 mU/min with UV detection at 285 nm at ambient temperature over a concentration range of 2-10 microg/mL for both drugs, with mean recoveries of 100.24 +/- 1.51 and 100.08 +/- 0.78% for I and II, respectively. The proposed methods were checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing the above drugs with no interference from other dosage form additives. The validity of the suggested procedures was further assessed by applying the standard addition technique which was found to be satisfactory, and the percentage recoveries obtained were in accordance with those given by the EVA Pharma reference

  19. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  20. The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate and structural aspects of n-alkyl acetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, T.; Kannengießer, R.; Kleiner, I.; Stahl, W.

    2014-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate was recorded in the range of 10-13.5 GHz using the Aachen MB-FTMW spectrometer. The rotational constants of the most abundant conformer were determined to be A = 3.3591100(32) GHz, B = 0.39596553(53) GHz, and C = 0.36999804(31) GHz. Quantum chemical calculations for specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The programs XIAM and BELGI were used to analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group. The observed conformer of n-hexyl acetate was compared to the lowest energy conformers of n-butyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate.

  1. An investigation of carbon dioxide capture by chitin acetate/DMSO binary system.

    PubMed

    Eftaiha, Ala'a F; Alsoubani, Fatima; Assaf, Khaleel I; Troll, Carsten; Rieger, Bernhard; Khaled, Aseel H; Qaroush, Abdussalam K

    2016-11-01

    Chitin is considered to be the second most abundant naturally-occurring polysaccharide. Also, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the second highest dielectric constant polar solvent after water. Despite the low solubility of chitin in common organic solvents, and due to its high nitrogen content, it may serve as a potential scrubbing agent "wet scrubbing" for carbon dioxide (CO2) capturing as an alternative to monoethanolamine "renewables for renewables approach". Briefly, a detailed investigation for the utilization of low molecular weight, chitin-acetate (CA) in DMSO for the capturing of CO2 is reported. As carbonation process takes place, the formation of ionic alkylcarbonate was confirmed throughout spectroscopic and computational studies. Supramolecular chemisorption was proven throughout (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) together with the absence of sorption of CO2 by the monomeric repeating unit, glucosamine hydrochloride. Further, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations supported the formation of the CA/CO2 adduct through a newly formed supramolecular ionic interaction and hydrogen bonding along the oligosaccharide backbone between the neighboring ammonium ion and hydroxyl functional groups. The sorption capacity was measured volumetrically within an in situ Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared coupled (in situ ATR-FTIR) autoclave at 25.0°C, and 4.0bar CO2, with a maximum sorption capacity of 3.63 [Formula: see text] /gsorbent at 10.0% (w/v). PMID:27516261

  2. An investigation of carbon dioxide capture by chitin acetate/DMSO binary system.

    PubMed

    Eftaiha, Ala'a F; Alsoubani, Fatima; Assaf, Khaleel I; Troll, Carsten; Rieger, Bernhard; Khaled, Aseel H; Qaroush, Abdussalam K

    2016-11-01

    Chitin is considered to be the second most abundant naturally-occurring polysaccharide. Also, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the second highest dielectric constant polar solvent after water. Despite the low solubility of chitin in common organic solvents, and due to its high nitrogen content, it may serve as a potential scrubbing agent "wet scrubbing" for carbon dioxide (CO2) capturing as an alternative to monoethanolamine "renewables for renewables approach". Briefly, a detailed investigation for the utilization of low molecular weight, chitin-acetate (CA) in DMSO for the capturing of CO2 is reported. As carbonation process takes place, the formation of ionic alkylcarbonate was confirmed throughout spectroscopic and computational studies. Supramolecular chemisorption was proven throughout (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) together with the absence of sorption of CO2 by the monomeric repeating unit, glucosamine hydrochloride. Further, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations supported the formation of the CA/CO2 adduct through a newly formed supramolecular ionic interaction and hydrogen bonding along the oligosaccharide backbone between the neighboring ammonium ion and hydroxyl functional groups. The sorption capacity was measured volumetrically within an in situ Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared coupled (in situ ATR-FTIR) autoclave at 25.0°C, and 4.0bar CO2, with a maximum sorption capacity of 3.63 [Formula: see text] /gsorbent at 10.0% (w/v).

  3. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied.

  4. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. Expression of Acetate Permease-like (apl) Genes in Subsurface Communities of Geobacter Species Under Fluctuating Acetate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H; N'Guessan, A L; Mouser, Paula; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Risso, Carla; Holmes, Dawn; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R

    2010-09-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2–10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  8. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  9. Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Jain, P S

    2010-01-01

    A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride both as a bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated. The method employed HPTLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of methanol-triethylamine (4:6 v/v). The system was found to give a compact spot for ambroxol hydrochloride (R(f) value of 0.53 +/- 0.02). Densitometric analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2) = 0.9966 +/- 0.0013 with respect to peak area in the concentration range 100-1000 ng/spot. The mean value +/- standard deviation of slope and intercept were 164.85 +/- 0.72 and 1168.3 +/- 8.26 with respect to peak area. The method was validated for precision, recovery, and robustness. The limits of detection and quantitation were 10 and 30 ng/spot, respectively. Ambroxol hydrochloride was subjected to oxidation and thermal degradation. The drug undergoes degradation under oxidation and heat conditions. This indicates that the drug is susceptible to oxidation and heat. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable, selective, and accurate for the estimation of said drug. Stability indicating of new chemical entities is an important part for the drug development of ambroxol hydrochloride and for its estimation in plasma and other biological fluids; the novel Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and selective for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride as bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and dosage forms. This work is to determine the purity of the drug available from the various sources by detecting

  10. Separating acetic acid from furol (furfural) by electrodialysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, S.F.; Li, C.S. Ye, S.T.; Shen, S.Y.; Wang, Y.T.; Yu, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Furfural production by hydrolysis of fibrous plant materials is accompanied by formation of acetic acid in amounts depending on the material used. The amount of acetic formed in the hydrolysis of the fruit shell of oil-tea camellia (Camellia oleosa) (an oilseed-bearing tree) is equal to the amount of furfural. The acetic acid can be separated from the furfural and concentrated to 10% by electrodialysis. A smaller amount of furfural is separated with acetic acid.

  11. Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik

    2013-01-01

    Summary The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate. PMID:24062838

  12. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride and D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon; Swanson, James M.; Feifel, David; Sangal, R. Bart; Elia, Josephine; Casat, Charles D.; Zeldis, Jerome B.; Conners, C. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH, Focalin[TM]) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to test an a priori hypothesis that d-MPH would have a longer duration of action than d,l-threo-methylphenidate (d,l-MPH). Method: This was a randomized, double-blind study…

  13. Cyproterone acetate in treatment of precocious puberty.

    PubMed Central

    Kauli, R; Pertzelan, A; Prager-Lewin, R; Grünebaum, M; Laron, Z

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-nine children (23 girls, 6 boys) with precocious puberty were treated with cyproterone acetate for various periods of time ranging from 6 months to 3 years 4 months. They received an oral dose ranging from 70-150 mg/m2 per day, or an intramuscular depot injection once a fortnight or once a month at a dose ranging from 107-230 mg/m2. Both forms of therapy were found to suppress the signs of sexual maturation, but the oral form proved to be superior. Only the younger patients with a bone age under 11 years showed a beneficial effect upon linear growth and bone maturation. No side effects were noted, but additional advantageous effects upon behaviour and sociability were. It is concluded that at present cyproterone acetate by mouth is the drug of choice in the treatment of precocious puberty. The treatment should be initiated as early as possible to attain maximum benefit. PMID:952553

  14. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  16. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  1. Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

  2. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  3. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  4. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  5. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  6. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. Calcium magnesium acetate production and cost reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, A.P.

    1988-02-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (ConEd), the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), Chevron Chemical Company, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA), and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (MDPW) sponsored a research program to develop technology capable of producing Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA), an alternative road deicer, at a quality and cost which will allow its increased use. The objectives of this program were to determine the feasibility of: (1) producing CMA from regionally available waste and low grade organic feedstocks via biochemical engineering technologies; (2) operating the fermentation at concentrated product levels to reduce energy requirements and minimize drying process costs; (3) using this production approach to produce an environmentally acceptable CMA product; and (4) using and adapting an existing facility for a CMA commercial demonstration plant. The experimental program included:(1) selection of microorganisms for their ability to grow in the absence of sodium chloride and to tolerate high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and acetate ions; (2) analysis of waste feedstocks for their potential conversion to acetate; (3) analysis of waste organic material for impurities in CMA that could carry over into the environment; (4) batch experiments to determine pH tolerance, growth in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), tolerance to magnesium, calcium and acetate ions, effect of substrate concentration, acid distribution, and acid production; and (5) semi-continuous laboratory scale anaerobic digestion experiments to determine loading rates, conversion efficiencies, and other design data. 67 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  13. Co-fermentation of acetate and sugars facilitating microbial lipid production on acetate-rich biomass hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zuo, Zhenyu; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-05-01

    The process of lignocellulosic biomass routinely produces a stream that contains sugars plus various amounts of acetic acid. As acetate is known to inhibit the culture of microorganisms including oleaginous yeasts, little attention has been paid to explore lipid production on mixtures of acetate and sugars. Here we demonstrated that the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus can effectively co-ferment acetate and sugars for lipid production. When mixtures of acetate and glucose were applied, C. curvatus consumed both substrates simultaneously. Similar phenomena were also observed for acetate and xylose mixtures, as well as acetate-rich corn stover hydrolysates. More interestingly, the replacement of sugar with equal amount of acetate as carbon source afforded higher lipid titre and lipid content. The lipid products had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of cocoa butter, suggesting their potential for high value-added fats and biodiesel production. This co-fermentation strategy should facilitate lipid production technology from lignocelluloses. PMID:26874438

  14. Stability of octreotide acetate in polypropylene syringes.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M L; Allen, L V; Resztak, K E; Prince, S J

    1993-11-01

    The stability of octreotide acetate in polypropylene syringes was studied. Polypropylene syringes were aseptically filled with 1 mL of octreotide acetate 0.2 mg/mL and stored at 3 or 23 degrees C under light protection or light exposure. Three syringes were prepared for each condition and each sampling time. Unopened 5-mL glass vials of the drug served as controls. Samples were removed immediately and at 8, 15, 22, and 29 days and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. At 3 degrees C, octreotide stored in light-protected syringes maintained more than 90% of its initial concentration for up to 29 days. However, at 22 days the concentration in the syringes stored at that temperature and exposed to light was less than 90% when the standard deviation is considered. At 23 degrees C, the drug was stable for only up to 15 days (light protection) and 22 days (light exposure) when the standard deviation is considered. Octreotide acetate in polypropylene syringes was stable for up to 29 days when stored at 3 degrees C and protected from light and for up to 22 days when stored at 23 degrees C and exposed to light.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time.

  16. Spectrophotometric estimation of tamsulosin hydrochloride by acid-dye method

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Saxena, Prachi; Gupta, Vipin B.

    2011-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the estimation of tamsulosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms has been developed and validated. The method is based on reaction between drug and bromophenol blue and complex was measured at 421 nm. The slope, intercept and correlation coefficient was found to be 0.054, -0.020 and 0.999, respectively. Method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, range, precision and accuracy. The developed method can be used to determine drug in both tablet and capsule formulations. Reaction was optimized using three parameters i.e., concentration of the dye, pH of the buffer, volume of the buffer and shaking time. Maximum stability of the chromophore was achieved by using pH 2 and 2 ml volume of buffer. Shaking time kept was 2 min and concentration of the dye used was 2 ml of 0.05% w/v solution. Method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, range, accuracy, LOD and LOQ and stochiometry of the method was also established using Mole ratio and Job's method of continuous variation. The dye benzonoid form (blue color) of dye ionized into quinonoid form (purple color) in presence of buffer and reacts with protonated form of drug in 1:1 ratio and forms an ion-pair complex (yellow color). PMID:23781431

  17. Trans-ungual delivery of itraconazole hydrochloride by iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Avadhesh; Jacob, Melissa; Shiva Kumar, H N; Hiremath, Shobharani; Aradhya, Sacchidanand; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Itraconazole (ITR) is a potent antifungal drug. However, poor aqueous solubility limits its permeation ability across the human nail plate. Therefore, in this project, ITR was converted to hydrochloride salt (ITR-HCl) to improve its solubility and to render it amenable to iontophoresis. ITR-HCl was characterized by spectroscopic methods and antifungal efficacy was evaluated in comparison to the base. In vitro and ex vivo transport studies (passive and iontophoresis) were carried out across the porcine hoof membrane and excised human cadaver toe using two different protocols; continuous delivery of drug for 24 h and pulsed delivery of drug for 3 days (8 h/day). The antifungal efficacy of ITR-HCL was comparable to ITR. Iontophoresis was found to be more effective than passive mode of delivery of ITR-HCL. In both iontophoresis as well as passive mode of delivery, the pulsed protocol resulted in more ungual and trans-ungual delivery of drug than continuous protocol. ITR-HCL could be delivered into and across the nail plate by iontophoresis. Human cadaver toe appears to be a good model to investigate the ungual delivery of drugs. PMID:25482587

  18. Lipomer of doxorubicin hydrochloride for enhanced oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Benival, Derajram M; Devarajan, Padma V

    2012-02-28

    The present study discusses design of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) loaded lipid based nanocarrier (LIPOMER) for oral delivery. High entrapment (>90 %) and high loading (38.11 ± 0.37 %w/w) of hydrophilic Dox in lipid nanocarrier of polyglyceryl-6-distearate was achieved using poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (Gantrez AN 119) and a modified nanoprecipitation method. Dox-LIPOMER revealed nanosize (314 ± 16.80 nm) and negative zeta potential (-25.00 ± 2.41 mV). Dox-LIPOMER exhibits sustained release in vitro and was influenced by ionic strength of dissolution medium. DSC and XRD studies suggested amorphous nature of Dox in LIPOMER. TEM revealed spherical morphology of Dox-LIPOMER. Dox-LIPOMER was stable up to 12 months at 25 °C/60 % RH. A 384 % enhancement in oral bioavailability compared to Dox solution was observed following Dox-LIPOMER administration at 10 mg/kg body weight. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assay data of heart and kidney tissues of rats treated with Dox-LIPOMER were comparable with untreated rats. Dox-LIPOMER represents a potential safe drug delivery system for oral administration. PMID:22155412

  19. Prednisone and vardenafil hydrochloride for refractory levamisole-induced vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Mandrell, Joshua; Kranc, Christina L

    2016-08-01

    Levamisole is an immunomodulatory drug that was previously used to treat various medical conditions, including parasitic infections, nephrotic syndrome, and colorectal cancer. Over the last few years, increasing amounts of levamisole have been used as an adulterant in cocaine. Levamisole-cut cocaine has become a concern because it is known to cause a necrotizing purpuric rash, autoantibody production, and life-threatening leukopenia. Mixed histologic findings of vasculitis and thrombosis are characteristic of levamisole-induced purpura. The recommended management of levamisole-induced vasculitis currently involves withdrawal of the culprit along with supportive treatment. We describe a patient with levamisole-induced vasculitis who continued to develop skin lesions despite self-reported cocaine cessation. Complete resolution of cutaneous disease occurred with the addition of oral prednisone and vardenafil hydrochloride, suggesting the possibility of a new treatment option in patients with refractory disease. In addition, we review the clinical presentation, disease course, diagnostic approach, laboratory findings, histology, and management of levamisole-induced vasculitis. The harmful effects of levamisole-cut cocaine are serious enough that public alerts have been issued to increase awareness. Clinicians should consider the possibility of levamisole exposure in cocaine users presenting with any combination of fever, neutropenia, and necrotic skin lesions, especially in acral areas including the ears. PMID:27622263

  20. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Iranifam, Mortaza; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H

    2014-02-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was developed for the determination of naphazoline hydrochloride (NPZ). The method is based on the enhancing effect of NPZ on the weak CL signal from the reaction of KIO4 with H2 O2 . Experimental parameters that affected the CL signal, including the pH of the KIO4 solution, concentrations of KIO4 , H2 O2 and disodium-EDTA and flow rate were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the increment of CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of NPZ in the range 5.0 × 10(-6) to 70 × 10(-6) mol/L. The detection limit was 1.0 × 10(-6) mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 50 × 10(-6) mol/L NPZ solution was 2.8% (n = 11). In addition, a high throughput of 120 samples/h was achieved. The utility of this method was demonstrated by determining NPZ in pharmaceuticals.

  1. Solubility analysis of buspirone hydrochloride polymorphs: measurements and prediction.

    PubMed

    Sheikhzadeh, M; Rohani, S; Taffish, M; Murad, S

    2007-06-29

    In this paper, the solubility of two polymorphs of buspirone hydrochloride (BUS-HCl) in isopropanol, water and mixture of these two solvents has been investigated. The solubility of BUS-HCl Form 2 in water and isopropanol is higher than BUS-HCl Form 1. According to thermodynamic properties and Burger and Ramberger polymorphic rules (Bernstein, 2002), BUS-HCl Forms 1 and 2 are enantiotropes (Sheikhzadeh et al., 2007). Using the solubility data, transformation analysis has been done and the results confirm these two polymorphs are enantiotropes and Form 1 converts to Form 2 at 95 degrees C. The UNIQUAC binary adjustable parameters have been found and based on these parameters, the solubility of these molecules has been predicted and compared with the experimental solubility. The solubility prediction has been performed by using different UNIFAC equations for binary and ternary systems. The UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC showed better prediction capability. Different general solubility equations (GSE) have been used for estimation of solubility which works based on partial charge, hydrogen bond factors and partition coefficients. PMID:17317053

  2. Conformation and interactions of dopamine hydrochloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Callear, Samantha K.; Imberti, Silvia; Johnston, Andrew; McLain, Sylvia E.

    2015-01-07

    The aqueous solution of dopamine hydrochloride has been investigated using neutron and X-ray total scattering data together with Monte-Carlo based modelling using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. The conformation of the protonated dopamine molecule is presented and the results compared to the conformations found in crystal structures, dopamine-complexed protein crystal structures and predicted from theoretical calculations and pharmacophoric models. It is found that protonated dopamine adopts a range of conformations in solution, highlighting the low rotational energy barrier between different conformations, with the preferred conformation being trans-perpendicular. The interactions between each of the species present (protonated dopamine molecules, water molecules, and chloride anions) have been determined and are discussed with reference to interactions observed in similar systems both in the liquid and crystalline state, and predicted from theoretical calculations. The expected strong hydrogen bonds between the strong hydrogen bond donors and acceptors are observed, together with evidence of weaker CH hydrogen bonds and π interactions also playing a significant role in determining the arrangement of adjacent molecules.

  3. Cinchocaine hydrochloride determination by atomic absorption spectrometry and spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T; Youssef, Ahmed F A; Awady, Mohamed A

    2005-05-01

    Two sensitive spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric procedures have been developed for determination of cinchocaine hydrochloride (Cin.Cl) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. The spectrophotometric method was based on formation of an insoluble colored ion-associate between the cited drug and tetrathiocyanatocobaltate (CoTC) or hexathiocyanatochromate (CrTC) which dissolved and extracted in an organic solvent. The optimal experimental conditions for quantitative extraction such as pH, concentration of the reagents and solvent were studied. Toluene and iso-butyl alcohol proved to be the most suitable solvents for quantitative extraction of Cin-CoTC and Cin-CrTC ion-associates with maximum absorbance at 620 and 555 nm, respectively. The optimum concentration ranges, molar absorptivities, Ringbom ranges and Sandell sensitivities were also evaluated. The atomic absorption spectrometric method is based on measuring of the excess cobalt or chromium in the aqueous solution, after precipitation of the drug, at 240.7 and 357.9 nm, respectively. Linear application ranges, characteristic masses and detection limits were 57.99-361.9, 50.40 and 4.22 microg ml(-1) of Cin.Cl, in case of CoTC, while 37.99-379.9, 18.94 and 0.81 microg ml(-1) in case of CrTC. PMID:15910814

  4. Trans-ungual delivery of itraconazole hydrochloride by iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Avadhesh; Jacob, Melissa; Shiva Kumar, H N; Hiremath, Shobharani; Aradhya, Sacchidanand; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Itraconazole (ITR) is a potent antifungal drug. However, poor aqueous solubility limits its permeation ability across the human nail plate. Therefore, in this project, ITR was converted to hydrochloride salt (ITR-HCl) to improve its solubility and to render it amenable to iontophoresis. ITR-HCl was characterized by spectroscopic methods and antifungal efficacy was evaluated in comparison to the base. In vitro and ex vivo transport studies (passive and iontophoresis) were carried out across the porcine hoof membrane and excised human cadaver toe using two different protocols; continuous delivery of drug for 24 h and pulsed delivery of drug for 3 days (8 h/day). The antifungal efficacy of ITR-HCL was comparable to ITR. Iontophoresis was found to be more effective than passive mode of delivery of ITR-HCL. In both iontophoresis as well as passive mode of delivery, the pulsed protocol resulted in more ungual and trans-ungual delivery of drug than continuous protocol. ITR-HCL could be delivered into and across the nail plate by iontophoresis. Human cadaver toe appears to be a good model to investigate the ungual delivery of drugs.

  5. Release Kinetics of Papaverine Hydrochloride from Tablets with Different Excipients

    PubMed Central

    Kasperek, Regina; Polski, Andrzej; Zimmer, Łukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The influence of excipients on the disintegration times of tablets and the release of papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from tablets were studied. Ten different formulations of tablets with PAP were prepared by direct powder compression. Different binders, disintegrants, fillers, and lubricants were used as excipients. The release of PAP was carried out in the paddle apparatus using 0.1 N HCl as a dissolution medium. The results of the disintegration times of tablets showed that six formulations can be classified as fast dissolving tablets (FDT). FDT formulations contained Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102, mannitol, (3-lactose, PVP K 10, gelatinized starch (CPharmGel), Prosolv Easy Tab, Prosolv SMCC 90, magnesium stearate, and the addition of disintegrants such as AcDiSol and Kollidon CL. Drug release kinetics were estimated by the zero- and first-order, Higuchi release rate, and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Two formulations of the tablets containing PVP (K10) (10%), CPharmGel (10% and 25%), and Prosolv Easy Tab (44% and 60%) without the addition of a disintegrant were well-fitted to the kinetics models such as the Higuchi and zero-order, which are suitable for controlled- or sustained-release. PMID:25853076

  6. Solubility analysis of buspirone hydrochloride polymorphs: measurements and prediction.

    PubMed

    Sheikhzadeh, M; Rohani, S; Taffish, M; Murad, S

    2007-06-29

    In this paper, the solubility of two polymorphs of buspirone hydrochloride (BUS-HCl) in isopropanol, water and mixture of these two solvents has been investigated. The solubility of BUS-HCl Form 2 in water and isopropanol is higher than BUS-HCl Form 1. According to thermodynamic properties and Burger and Ramberger polymorphic rules (Bernstein, 2002), BUS-HCl Forms 1 and 2 are enantiotropes (Sheikhzadeh et al., 2007). Using the solubility data, transformation analysis has been done and the results confirm these two polymorphs are enantiotropes and Form 1 converts to Form 2 at 95 degrees C. The UNIQUAC binary adjustable parameters have been found and based on these parameters, the solubility of these molecules has been predicted and compared with the experimental solubility. The solubility prediction has been performed by using different UNIFAC equations for binary and ternary systems. The UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC showed better prediction capability. Different general solubility equations (GSE) have been used for estimation of solubility which works based on partial charge, hydrogen bond factors and partition coefficients.

  7. Solvent screening and crystal habit of metformin hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Bouhelassa, Mohamed; Nouar, Abderrahim; Veesler, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    A multi-well setup with video-microscopy was used to study the influence of solvent on solubility, nucleation, and crystallization of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API): metformin hydrochloride (MET.HCl). Starting with 13 solvents covering a wide variety of polarity and proticity, we found 63 crystallization medium for MET.HCl solid generation: good solvents, good co-solvents and anti-solvent systems. For toxicological reasons, we limited the number of crystallization medium to 18: 3 good solvents (class 3), 3 good co-solvent systems and 12 anti-solvent systems. In order to study the influence of crystallization medium on nucleation temperature, crystal habit and polymorphism of MET.HCl, crystallization was studied by a cooling temperature method. Different crystal habits were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopies, and solid phase were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, indicating that all the crystals correspond to the thermodynamic stable polymorphic form A of MET.HCl. Finally, the enthalpy of fusion and the melting temperature of MET.HCl were determined by DSC and confirmed the X-ray powder diffraction results.

  8. Cinchocaine hydrochloride determination by atomic absorption spectrometry and spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T; Youssef, Ahmed F A; Awady, Mohamed A

    2005-05-01

    Two sensitive spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric procedures have been developed for determination of cinchocaine hydrochloride (Cin.Cl) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. The spectrophotometric method was based on formation of an insoluble colored ion-associate between the cited drug and tetrathiocyanatocobaltate (CoTC) or hexathiocyanatochromate (CrTC) which dissolved and extracted in an organic solvent. The optimal experimental conditions for quantitative extraction such as pH, concentration of the reagents and solvent were studied. Toluene and iso-butyl alcohol proved to be the most suitable solvents for quantitative extraction of Cin-CoTC and Cin-CrTC ion-associates with maximum absorbance at 620 and 555 nm, respectively. The optimum concentration ranges, molar absorptivities, Ringbom ranges and Sandell sensitivities were also evaluated. The atomic absorption spectrometric method is based on measuring of the excess cobalt or chromium in the aqueous solution, after precipitation of the drug, at 240.7 and 357.9 nm, respectively. Linear application ranges, characteristic masses and detection limits were 57.99-361.9, 50.40 and 4.22 microg ml(-1) of Cin.Cl, in case of CoTC, while 37.99-379.9, 18.94 and 0.81 microg ml(-1) in case of CrTC.

  9. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on longissimus muscle shear force and sensory attributes of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Arp, T S; Howard, S T; Woerner, D R; Scanga, J A; McKenna, D R; Kolath, W H; Chapman, P L; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2013-12-01

    Effect of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on LM shear force and sensory attributes was determined using pens (n = 40) British × Continental crossbred steers randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: control; RH fed at 200 (RH 200) or 300 mg • steer(-1) • d(-1) (RH 300), or 400 mg • steer(-1) • d(-1) (RH 400) top-dressed for the final 30 d of feeding; or ZH fed at 7.5 mg/kg, beginning 23 d before slaughter with a 3-d withdrawal. Two replicates (pens) per treatment were represented in four blocks. Eighteen carcasses per pen were randomly selected and one 5-cm LM sample was removed from both carcass sides to be used for shear force and sensory evaluation. Samples were aged for 14 d, frozen at -28.8 °C, and cut into 2.5-cm steaks. All steaks were cooked to an internal temperature of 71.1 °C before being evaluated for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), or being fed to trained sensory panelists. Increasing dose and potency of β-agonist increased WBSF by 4 to 17% and SSF by 5 to 24% (P < 0.05). Steaks from steers fed ZH had higher WBSF and SSF values compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05), whereas steaks from controls and steers fed RH 200 were not different (P > 0.05). Probability of steaks failing to meet shear force standards to be certified tender (WBSF <4.4 kg, SSF < 20 kg) was increased from an initial probability of <0.06 in steaks from steers in the control treatment to 0.10 to 0.20 in steers fed RH 400 or ZH (P < 0.05). No difference was detected in panel ratings for overall tenderness of steaks from steers fed RH 200 compared with controls (P > 0.05). Steaks from steers fed RH 300 and RH 400 were comparable for all sensory attributes; however, both RH 300 and RH 400 were rated lower for overall tenderness than controls (P < 0.05). Panelists failed to detect differences in overall tenderness of steaks from steers fed RH 400 and ZH (P < 0.05). Panelists detected no

  10. Design and Development of Polyethylene Oxide Based Matrix Tablets for Verapamil Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Vidyadhara, S.; Sasidhar, R. L. C.; Nagaraju, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler), swellable filler (starch 1500), microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers) on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve(0-t) and area under first moment curve(0-t) were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h. PMID:24019567

  11. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Castro, Karina Neoob de Carvalho; Lima, David Fernandes; Wolschick, Dolores; Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira de; Santos, Raimunda Cardoso Dos; Santos, Francisco José de Seixas Dos; Veras, Leiz Maria Costa; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL-1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL-1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50) of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m), respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL-1) and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL-1) of R.(B.) microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL-1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE. PMID:27276670

  12. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Castro, Karina Neoob de Carvalho; Lima, David Fernandes; Wolschick, Dolores; Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira de; Santos, Raimunda Cardoso Dos; Santos, Francisco José de Seixas Dos; Veras, Leiz Maria Costa; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL-1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL-1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50) of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m), respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL-1) and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL-1) of R.(B.) microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL-1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE. PMID:27334829

  13. Design and development of polyethylene oxide based matrix tablets for verapamil hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Vidyadhara, S; Sasidhar, R L C; Nagaraju, R

    2013-03-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler), swellable filler (starch 1500), microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers) on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve(0-t) and area under first moment curve(0-t) were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h. PMID:24019567

  14. Experimental evidence of an acetate transporter protein and characterization of acetate activation in aceticlastic methanogenesis of Methanosarcina mazei.

    PubMed

    Welte, Cornelia; Kröninger, Lena; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Aceticlastic methanogens metabolize acetate to methane and carbon dioxide. The central metabolism and the electron transport chains of these organisms have already been investigated. However, no particular attention has been paid to the mechanism by which acetate enters the archaeal cell. In our study we investigated Methanosarcina mazei acetate kinase (Ack) and the acetate uptake reaction. At a concentration of 2 mM acetate, the Ack activity in cell extract of M. mazei was not limiting for the methane formation rate. Instead, the methanogenesis rate was controlled by the substrate concentration and increased 10-fold at 10 mM acetate. Subsequently, we analyzed the involvement of the putative acetate permease MM_0903 using a corresponding deletion mutant. At 2 mM acetate, only 25% of the wild-type methane formation rate was measured in the mutant. This indicated that the supply of acetate to Ack was limiting the rate of methane formation. Moreover, the mutant revealed an increased acetate kinase activity compared with the wild type. These results show for the first time that an acetate transporter is involved in aceticlastic methanogenesis and may be an important factor in the acetate threshold concentration for methanogenesis of Methanosarcina spp. PMID:25088360

  15. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; KuKanich, Butch; Drazenovich, Tracy L.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.

    2014-01-01

    Results indicated hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with a short terminal half-life, rapid plasma clearance, and large volume of distribution in American kestrels. Further studies regarding the effects of other doses, other administration routes, constantrate infusions, and slow release formulations on the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride and its metabolites in American kestrels may be indicated.

  17. Differential titration of bases in glacial acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Castellano, T; Medwick, T; Shinkai, J H; Bailey, L

    1981-01-01

    A study of bases in acetic acid and their differential titration was carried out. The overall basicity constants for 20 bases were measured in acetic acid, and the differential titration of five binary mixtures of variable delta pKb values in acetic acid was followed using a glass electrode-modified calomel electrode system. Agreement with literature values was good. A leveling diagram was constructed that indicated that bases stronger than aqueous pKb 10 are leveled to an acetous pKb 5.69, whereas weaker bases are not leveled but instead exhibit their own intrinsic basicity, with the acetous pKb to aqueous pKb values being linearly related (slope 1.18, correlation coefficient 0.962). A minimum acetous delta pKb of four units is required for the satisfactory differential titration of two bases in acetic acid.

  18. [Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly.

  19. A High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) Method for Simultaneous Determination of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride and Naproxen Sodium in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Bhole, R.P.; Shinde, S.S.; Chitlange, S.S.; Wankhede, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method with densitometry at 230 nm was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and naproxen sodium (NPS) from pharmaceutical preparation. The separation was carried out on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 using mobile phase toluene:methanol:glacial acetic acid (7.5:1:0.2, v/v/v). The linearity range lies between 200 and 1200 ng/band for DPH and 1760 and 10,560 ng/band for NPS with correlation coefficients of 0.994 and 0.995, respectively. The Rf value for DPH is 0.20 ± 0.05 and for NPS is 0.61 ± 0.06. % Recoveries of DPH and NPS was in the range of 99.70%–99.95% and 99.63%–99.95%, respectively. Limit of detection value for DPH was 13.21 ng/band and for NPS was 8.03 ng/band. Limit of quantitation value for DPH was 40.06 ng/band and for NPS was 24.34 ng/band. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. In stability testing, DPH was found unstable to acid and alkaline hydrolysis, and DPH and NPS were found unstable to oxidation, whereas both the drugs were stable to neutral and photodegradation. The proposed method was successfully applied for the routine quantitative analysis of dosage form containing DPH and NPS. PMID:26692760

  20. A sensitive spectrofluorometric method for detection of berberine hydrochloride using Ag nanoclusters directed by natural fish sperm DNA.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sheng; Kuang, Yangfang; Ma, Fangfang; Chen, Shu; Long, Yunfei

    2016-11-15

    A novel DNA-directed AgNCs (DNA-AgNCs) was synthesized with economical raw material (natural fish sperm DNA) through a simple and rapid approach, and it first showed high and stable fluorescence emission as a AgNCs stabilized by natural DNA at about 635nm. Moreover, its emission intensity could be enhanced tremendously in acetic acid (HAc) medium. Whereas, when berberine hydrochloride (BRH) entered the solution system, it would interact and combine efficiently with DNA on the surface of AgNCs, which could lead to subtle change of charge distribution on its surface, and make it more lyophobic, inducing aggregation of DNA-AgNCs. As a result, fluorescence of the system was quenched visually; the process represented a color variance from yellow to hot pink under HAc medium, then back to yellowish-brown when BRH worked. Based on above phenomenon, a selective and accurate spectrofluorometric method for BRH detection was established. It can be applied to detect trace amounts of BRH in aqueous solution in the linear range from 1.0nM to 2000.0nM; and the detection limit (3σ/k) was 0.3nM, which is pretty lower compared to most reported spectral methods. Simultaneously, a semi-quantitative determination by visual evaluation from 5.0nM to 2000.0nM was also achieved. This method provided excellent selectivity for the detection of BRH in the presence of ten kinds of common natural amino acids and nine kinds of common mental ions. Furthermore, the BRH content in compound berberine tablets from drugstore was successfully investigated by this method and the results showed high accuracy. PMID:27266661

  1. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  2. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  3. Adaptation and tolerance of bacteria against acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Trček, Janja; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid is a weak organic acid exerting a toxic effect to most microorganisms at concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. These microbial inhibition mechanisms enable acetic acid to be used as a preservative, although its usefulness is limited by the emergence of highly tolerant spoilage strains. Several biotechnological processes are also inhibited by the accumulation of acetic acid in the growth medium including production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, wine making, and microbe-based production of acetic acid itself. To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid's toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. In this sense, adaptive responses that improve tolerance to acetic acid have been well studied in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains highly tolerant to acetic acid, either isolated from natural environments or specifically engineered for this effect, represent a unique reservoir of information that could increase our understanding of acetic acid tolerance and contribute to the design of additional tolerance mechanisms. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. A comparison of how these bacterial adaptive responses to acetic acid stress fit to those described in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also performed. A systematic comparison of the similarities and dissimilarities of the ways by which different microbial systems surpass the deleterious effects of acetic acid toxicity has not been performed so far, although such exchange

  4. The effects of clomipramine hydrochloride in cats with psychogenic alopecia: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Petra A; Torres, Sheila; Jessen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of clomipramine hydrochloride in cats with psychogenic alopecia. Twenty-five cats were randomly assigned to receive clomipramine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg orally q 24 hours) or placebo for 56 days. Eleven cats in each group completed the trial. The results of this study showed that clomipramine hydrochloride failed to demonstrate significant changes in the number of grooming bouts, hair regrowth, and the area of alopecia in cats with psychogenic alopecia when compared to a placebo. It was uncertain whether these results reflected a lack of drug efficacy, insufficient treatment duration, or an insufficient number of cases enrolled.

  5. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  6. Synthesis, spectral, and anti-microbial studies of thioiminium iodides and amine hydrochlorides.

    PubMed

    Britto, Sebastian; Renaud, Philippe; Nallu, Maruthai

    2014-01-01

    To avoid the undesired deprotonation during the addition of organolithium and organomagnesium reagents to ketones, the thioiminium salts, easily prepared from lactams and amides are converted into 2,2-disubstituted and 2-monosubstituted amines by reaction with simple nucleophiles such as organocerium and organocopper reagents. The reaction of thioiminium iodides with organocerium reagents derived by transmetalation of corresponding lithium reagents with anhydrous cerium(III) chloride has been investigated. These thioiminium iodides act as good electrophiles and accept alkylceriums towards bisaddition. The newly synthesized amines have been characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, IR and mass spectra. The amines have been converted into their hydrochlorides and characterized by COSY. These hydrochlorides have been subjected to antimicrobial screening with clinically isolated microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. The hydrochlorides show quite good activity against these bacteria and fungus.

  7. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: amitriptyline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Manzo, R H; Olivera, M E; Amidon, G L; Shah, V P; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M

    2006-05-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing amitriptyline hydrochloride are reviewed. Its therapeutic uses, its pharmacokinetic properties, the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA) problems are also taken into consideration. Literature data indicates that amitriptyline hydrochloride is a highly permeable active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Data on the solubility according to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) were not fully available and consequently amitriptyline hydrochloride could not be definitively assigned to either BCS Class I or BCS Class II. But all evidence taken together, a biowaiver can currently be recommended provided that IR tablets are formulated with excipients used in existing approved products and that the dissolution meets the criteria defined in the Guidances.

  8. Thermal Analysis Investigation of Dapoxetine and Vardenafil Hydrochlorides using Molecular Orbital Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Ali Kamal; Souaya, Eglal R.; Soliman, Ethar A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Thermal analysis techniques have been used to study the thermal behavior of dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides and confirmed using semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the drugs under investigation. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy were calculated. Results: Thermal behavior of DAP and VAR were confirmed using by semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. The purity values were found to be 99.97% and 99.95% for dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides, respectively. The purity of dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides is similar to that found by reported methods according to DSC data. Conclusion: Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs. PMID:26819925

  9. Temperature dependence of ion transport in dilute tetrabutylammonium triflate-acetate solutions and self-diffusion in pure acetate liquids.

    PubMed

    Bopege, Dharshani N; Petrowsky, Matt; Fleshman, Allison M; Frech, Roger; Johnson, Matthew B

    2012-01-12

    Conductivities and static dielectric constants for 0.0055 M tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate in n-butyl acetate, n-pentyl acetate, n-hexyl acetate, n-octyl acetate, and n-decyl acetate have been collected over the temperature range of 0-80 °C. Self-diffusion coefficients and static dielectric constants of pure acetates were obtained over the same temperature range. Both temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities of these pure acetates and dilute acetate solutions can be accurately described by the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Activation energies were calculated from compensated Arrhenius plots for both conductivity and diffusion data. Activation energies are higher for conductivity data of 0.0055 M TbaTf-acetates compared to diffusion data of pure acetates. The plot of the exponential prefactor versus the dielectric constant yields a single master curve for both conductivity and diffusion data. These data support the argument that mass and charge transport are thermally activated processes in the acetates, as previously observed in alcohol-based electrolytes. PMID:22145961

  10. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  11. High-flux cellulose acetate membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Finken, H.; Wenzlaff, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three routes to increase the permeate flux of asymmetric cellulose diacetate membranes of the Loeb-Sourirajan type were investigated: increasing the hydrophilicity of the membranes; increasing their compaction stability, and employing a swelling agent which allows for higher solvent-to-polymer ratio in the casting solution. The effect of casting solution composition on flux and rejection of formamide-modified cellulose acetate membrane is included, illustrating the general capability of this membrane type as function of solvent concentration. Membranes of casting solution composition cellulose diacetate/acetone/formamide 23/52/25 were used as reference membranes in the work. 6 figures. (DP)

  12. Residual amount of vancomycin hydrochloride in vials after use.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hirofumi; Oie, Shigeharu; Miyano, Naoyuki; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    We macroscopically observed vials of vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) for injection (0.5 g/vial) dissolved in various solvents, and determined the presence or absence of residual VCM crystals. In addition, the residual VCM in vials after use was measured using a bioassay. In vials evaluated after use, the percentage of vials in which VCM crystals were macroscopically confirmed, the mean residual amount of VCM in the vials (residual %), and the percentage of vials with ≥50 mg (10 %) of residual VCM were 28.1 %, 15.0 ± 7.5 mg (3.0 %), and 0 %, respectively, after the dissolution of a single VCM vial in 10 ml of distilled water for injection (n = 57); 63.8 %, 30.2 ± 19.1 mg (6.0 %), and 16.1 %, respectively, after the dissolution of a single VCM vial in 100 ml of physiological saline (n = 224); and 72.2 %, 38.5 ± 28.0 mg (7.7 %), and 33.3 %, respectively, after the dissolution of two VCM vials in 100 ml of physiological saline (n = 18). The mean residual VCM amount was greater when using physiological saline than when using distilled water for injection as a solvent. These results show the need to follow the dissolution method described in the package insert, which calls for the addition of 10 ml of distilled water for injection to each 0.5 g VCM vial.

  13. Design, Optimization, and Evaluation of Lurasidone Hydrochloride Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sunny; Parmar, Bhavin; Soniwala, Moinuddin; Chavda, Jayant

    2016-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to design, optimize, and evaluate lurasidone hydrochloride nanocrystals for improving its solubility and dissolution characteristics. Nanocrystals were prepared by media milling technique using zirconium oxide beads with 0.1 mm diameter. Various stabilizers, viz. poloxamer 188, PVP K30, SLS, HPMC E15, and PVP S 630 D, were evaluated to stabilize the nanocrystals. The Pareto chart obtained through Plackett-Burman screening design revealed that HPMC E 15 showed the highest standardized effect (p value <0.05) on percent dissolution efficiency at 2 min. In subsequent studies, a 3(2) factorial design was employed to quantify the effect of two independent variables, namely amount of stabilizer and milling time on predetermined response variables mean particle size, saturation solubility, and percent dissolution efficiency at 2 min. Statistical analysis of the factorial design revealed that all predetermined response variables were significantly dependent (p value <0.05) on the independent variables. The observed response of the optimized batch prepared as per the desirability function was in close agreement with predicted response, and mathematical model generated was validated. The optimized batch was lyophilized, and X-ray powder diffraction studies indicated that there was no substantial change in crystallinity of the drug. The optimized formulation showed mean particle size of 228 nm and released almost all the drug within first 5 min. Since the crystallinity of the drug is maintained, improvement in saturation solubility and dissolution efficiency could be attributed to decrease in mean particle size of the drug. PMID:26586537

  14. Design, Optimization, and Evaluation of Lurasidone Hydrochloride Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sunny; Parmar, Bhavin; Soniwala, Moinuddin; Chavda, Jayant

    2016-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to design, optimize, and evaluate lurasidone hydrochloride nanocrystals for improving its solubility and dissolution characteristics. Nanocrystals were prepared by media milling technique using zirconium oxide beads with 0.1 mm diameter. Various stabilizers, viz. poloxamer 188, PVP K30, SLS, HPMC E15, and PVP S 630 D, were evaluated to stabilize the nanocrystals. The Pareto chart obtained through Plackett-Burman screening design revealed that HPMC E 15 showed the highest standardized effect (p value <0.05) on percent dissolution efficiency at 2 min. In subsequent studies, a 3(2) factorial design was employed to quantify the effect of two independent variables, namely amount of stabilizer and milling time on predetermined response variables mean particle size, saturation solubility, and percent dissolution efficiency at 2 min. Statistical analysis of the factorial design revealed that all predetermined response variables were significantly dependent (p value <0.05) on the independent variables. The observed response of the optimized batch prepared as per the desirability function was in close agreement with predicted response, and mathematical model generated was validated. The optimized batch was lyophilized, and X-ray powder diffraction studies indicated that there was no substantial change in crystallinity of the drug. The optimized formulation showed mean particle size of 228 nm and released almost all the drug within first 5 min. Since the crystallinity of the drug is maintained, improvement in saturation solubility and dissolution efficiency could be attributed to decrease in mean particle size of the drug.

  15. Determination of phenformin hydrochloride employing a sensitive fluorescent probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lin; Xie, Jian-Hong; Du, Li-Ming; Chang, Yin-xia; Wu, Hao

    2016-06-01

    A complexation of non-fluorescent phenformin hydrochloride (PFH) with cucurbit [7]uril (CB [7]) in aqueous solution was investigated using the fluorescent probe of palmatine (PAL) coupled with CB [7]. The fluorescent probe of CB [7]-PAL exhibited strong fluorescence in aqueous solution, which was quenched gradually with the increase of PFH. This effect is observed because when PFH was added to the host-guest system of CB [7]-PAL, PFH and PAL competed to occupy the CB [7] cavity. Portions of the PAL molecule were expelled from the CB [7] cavity owing to the introduction of PFH. Based on the significant quenching of the supramolecular complex fluorescence intensity, a fluorescence method of high sensitivity and selectivity was developed to determine PFH with good precision and accuracy for the first time. The linear range of the method was 0.005-1.9 μg mL- 1 with a detection limit of 0.003 μg mL- 1. In this work, association constants (K) of PFH with CB [7] were also determined. KCB [7]-PFH = (2.52 ± 0.05) × 105 L mol- 1. The ability of PFH to bind with CB [7] is stronger than that of PAL. The results of a density functional theory calculation authenticated that the moiety of PFH was embedded in the hydrophobic cavity of CB [7] tightly, and the nitrogen atom is located in the vicinity of a carbonyl-laced portal in the energy-minimized structure. The molecular modelling of the interaction between PFH and CB [7] was also confirmed by 1H NMR spectra (Bruker 600 MHz).

  16. Potentiometric sensor for the high throughput determination of tetramisole hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Barkha

    2007-08-01

    The electrochemical response characteristics of poly(vinyl)chloride (PVC) based membrane sensors for determination of tetramisole hydrochloride (TmCl) is described. The membranes of these electrodes consist of tetramisole-tetraphenyl borate (Tm-TPB), chlorophenyl borate (Tm-ClPB), and phosphotungstate (Tm(3)-PT) ion associations dispersed in a PVC matrix with dibutylpthalate as a plasticizer. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of composition, life span, usable pH range, and working concentration range and ionic strength. The electrodes showed Nernstian response over the concentration ranges of 7.4 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-2) M, 1.7 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-2) M, and 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-2) M TmCl, respectively, and were applied to the potentiometric determination of tetramisole ion in pure solutions and pharmaceutical preparations. The potentiometric determination was also used in the determination of tetramisole in pharmaceutical preparations in four batches of different expiration dates. The electrodes exhibited good selectivity for TmCl with respect to a large number of excipients such as inorganic cations, organic cations, amino acids, and sugars. The solubility product of the ion-pair and the formation constant of the precipitation reaction leading to the ion-pair formation were determined conductometrically. The new potentiometric method offers the advantages of high-throughput determination, simplicity, accuracy, automation feasibility, and applicability to turbid and colored sample solutions. PMID:17979641

  17. Three cases of nalbuphine hydrochloride dependence associated with anabolic steroid use.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, A J; Williamson, K; Petersen, T

    1996-01-01

    Three case reports are presented of nalbuphine hydrochloride dependence meeting DSM IIIR and ICD10 criteria for opioid dependence. Nalbuphine hydrochloride is being obtained from illicit sources and used by those using performance enhancing drugs. In some cases this leads to opioid dependence. There is a potential risks of crossover between the misuse of drugs of performance and the misuse of psychoactive drugs by injection. Further research into the dependence potential of nalbuphine and the extent of the crossover between steroid misuse and other psychoactive drug misuse is required. The legal status of nalbuphine should be reviewed in the light of its availability on the black market. PMID:8665124

  18. Vibrational spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangqin; Shen, Jingling; Jia, Yan

    2007-07-01

    The terahertz spectrum of ketamine hydrochloride at room temperature, in the range of 0.2-2.6THz, has been measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). Full-geometry optimizations and frequency calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) are also applied to predict the absorption spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The results of the simulation show qualitative agreement with the experimental data especially for MDMA, and the observed spectra features are assigned based on the DFT calculation. The results suggest that use of the terahertz TDS technique can be an effective method for the detection and inspection of illicit drugs.

  19. [On the crystallisation of amphetaminil base into its hydrochloride salt (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klosa, J

    1975-01-01

    In an aqueous medium in the presence of hydrochloric acid, amphetaminil (AN 1¿R) directly crystallises into the needle forming hydrochloride. The hydrochloride and base of the substance AN 1 have the same degree of insolubility in water. Such a reaction is relatively seldom observed in organic substances. Correspondingly, there is no similarity between the physical and chemical reactions of AN 1 and other well-known substances. In order to attain suitable judgement on the pharmaceutical/dynamic effect of AN 1, the clinical results known to date should not be disregarded. PMID:1243655

  20. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate; ACP-103, Ad.Egr.TNF.11 D, adalimumab, AF-IL 12, AIDSVAX gp120 B/B, alefacept, alemtuzumab, a-Galactosylceramide, ALVAC vCP 1452, alvimopan hydrate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, antarelix, aprepitant, aripiprazole, arsenic sulfide, asoprisnil, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BrachySil, brivudine; Caffeine, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, capsaicin for injection, caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, cetuximab, CGP-36742, clofazimine, CpG-7909, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, dimethylfumarate, dronabinol/cannabidiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, estradiol acetate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fampridine, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GPI-0100; hA 20, HTU-PA, human insulin, HuOKT 3 gamma 1(Ala 234-Ala 235), hyaluronic acid; Icatibant, imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, INKP-100, INKP-102, iodine (I131) tositumomab, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, landiolol, lanthanum carbonate, lasofoxifene tartrate, LB-80380, lenalidomide, lidocaine/tetracaine, linezolid, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Maribavir, morphine glucuronide, MVA-5 T

  1. Long-term continuous evolution of acetate resistant Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Peter; Sauer, Uwe

    2003-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of cytotoxic acetate are found in many environmental niches, and few species are relatively resistant to acetate. In particular the high-level acetate resistance of so-called acetic acid bacteria that occurs in industrial settings must be constantly selected for. To investigate the nature of such high-level resistance, we grew the moderately acetate-resistant Acetobacter aceti wild-type and acetate-sensitive Escherichia coli in long-term continuous cultures with increasing acetate concentrations at near neutral pH. While E. coli did not acquire any significant resistance after 125 generations of selection, A. aceti evolved the capability to grow at acetate concentrations exceeding 50 g/L within 240 generations. This phenotype was found to be stable for several generations in the absence of selective pressure, hence must be genetically determined. Intracellular acetate concentrations were significantly lower in evolved A. aceti, when compared to wild-type A. aceti and E. coli, indicating that cytoplasmatic anion accumulation is an important component of acetate toxicity.

  2. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. PMID:26416641

  3. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress.

  4. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  5. Comparative effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and ractopamine hydrochloride on live performance and carcass characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Brown, T R; Sexten, A K; Lawrence, T E; Miller, M F; Thomas, C L; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M; Brooks, J C

    2014-09-01

    Holstein steers (n = 2,275) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) a control diet containing no β-agonists, 2) a diet that contained zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg [100% DM basis]) for 20 d with a 3-d withdrawal period before harvest, and 3) a diet that contained ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 30.1 mg/kg [100% DM basis]) for 28 d before harvest. No differences (P ≥ 0.18) were detected between treatments for initial BW, BW at d 28, or DMI. Final BW, BW gain for the last 28 d, total BW gain, ADG for the last 28 d, and overall ADG were greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed ZH or RH than for steers fed the control diet. Additionally, G:F for the last 28 d and G:F for the entire trial was increased (P < 0.02) for steers fed ZH (0.147, 0.147) or RH (0.153, 0.151) compared to steers fed the control diet (0.134, 0.143), respectively. Steers fed ZH or RH had HCW that were 15.5 and 8.2 kg heavier (P ≤ 0.01) and LM areas that were 7.1 and 2.3 cm(2) larger (P < 0.01) than control cattle. Steers fed ZH also had dressed carcass yields that were 1.3% to 1.5% greater and USDA calculated yield grades that were decreased 0.16 to 0.23 units compared to RH and control steers. No differences (P ≥ 0.39) were found between treatments for marbling score, fat thickness, and percentage KPH. Steers fed ZH had an increased (P ≤ 0.04) percentage of yield grade 1 and 2 carcasses (15.1, 55.0) and a reduced (P ≤ 0.02) percentage of yield grade 3 carcasses (27.1) compared with those fed RH (10.5, 49.1, 36.1) or the control diet (9.0, 47.4, 36.4), respectively. Additionally, ZH-fed steers had a decreased (P ≤ 0.04) percentage of yield grade 4 and 5 carcasses (2.8) compared with steers fed the control diet (6.9). Steers fed ZH had an increased (P ≤ 0.01) percentage of USDA Select grading carcass (31.0%) and a decreased (P ≤ 0.01) percentage of USDA Choice grading carcasses (65.0%) compared with steers fed RH (25.8%, 70.2%) and no β-agonist (24.8%, 72.0%), respectively. Feeding

  6. [Alkalimetric titrations of salts of organic bases in the Pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Bezáková, Zelmíra; Stankovičová, Mária

    2013-12-01

    Modified methods - alkalimetry in ethanol 70% with a defined small volume of hydrochloric acid 0.01 mol/l added to the solution of the sample before the titration and alkalimetry in ethanol 70% or ethanol 96% alone with potentiometric end-point detection for the assay of halide salts of 11 organic N-bases has been investigated. The results were compared to those obtained by the method of the European Pharmacopoeia 7th Ed. (Ph. Eur. 7th Ed.). The Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. use for 8 investigated substances alkalimetry in alcohol 96 % with a defined small volume of hydrochloric acid 0.01 mol/l (5 ml) with potentiometric end-point detection: Cinchocaine hydrochloride, Codeine hydrochloride dihydrate, Ethylmorphine hydrochloride, Lidocaine hydrochloride, Papaverine hydrochloride, Pilocarpine hydrochloride, Quinine hydrochloride, Tetracaine hydrochloride. Our results revealed that the Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. method did not work for 5 drugs from this group: Cinchocaine hydrochloride, Ethylmorphine hydrochloride, Papaverine hydrochloride, Pilocarpine hydrochloride and Tetracaine hydrochloride. In the group of investigated substances we included also drugs with the character of weak organic bases for which Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. prescribed different methods for their assay: Thiamine hydrochloride and Pyridoxine hydrochloride - acidimetric titration in non-aqueous solvents with perchloric acid and Procaine hydrochloride - determination of primary aromatic amino-nitrogen (Ph. Eur. 7th Ed., chapter 2.5.8).

  7. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  8. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic‐acid‐tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo­lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin‐treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 744–753. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26416641

  9. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate as an inhibitor of phagocytosis of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Kataoka, T; Tajika, T; Uramoto, M; Magae, J; Nagai, K

    1995-08-01

    We screened extracts of edible plants for inhibitors of phagocytosis by peritoneal exudate macrophages. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Languas galanga, and this compound strongly inhibited phagocytosis at an IC50 value of 1.2 microM with negligible effects on pinocytosis and cell viability. Target(s) of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate was suggested to be downstream of the signal transduction pathway that is mediated by protein kinase C.

  10. Performance of finishing beef steers in response to anabolic implant and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation.

    PubMed

    Parr, S L; Chung, K Y; Galyean, M L; Hutcheson, J P; DiLorenzo, N; Hales, K E; May, M L; Quinn, M J; Smith, D R; Johnson, B J

    2011-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the dose/payout pattern of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17β (E(2)) implants and feeding of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers. A randomized complete block design was used with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. British × Continental steers (n = 168; initial BW = 362 kg) were blocked by BW and allotted randomly to 42 pens (7 pens/treatment; 6 pens/block; 4 steers/pen). The main effects of treatment were implant [no implant (NI); Revalor-S (REV-S; 120 mg of TBA + 24 mg of E(2)); and Revalor-XS (REV-X; 200 mg of TBA + 40 mg of E(2))] and ZH (0 or 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d with a 3-d withdrawal before slaughter). Blocks were split into 2 groups, and block groups were fed for either 153 or 174 d. No implant × ZH interactions were noted for cumulative performance data. Overall, shrunk final BW (567, 606, and 624 kg for NI, REV-S, and REV-X, respectively), ADG (1.25, 1.51, and 1.60 kg), and G:F (0.14, 0.16, and 0.17) increased (P < 0.05) as TBA and E(2) dose increased. Implanting increased (P < 0.05) DMI, but DMI did not differ (P > 0.10) between REV-S and REV-X (8.8 for NI vs. 9.4 kg/d for the 2 implants). From d 1 to 112 of the feeding period, implanting increased (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F, but REV-S and REV-X did not differ (P > 0.10). From d 112 to end, ADG increased by 19% (P < 0.05) and G:F was 18% greater (P < 0.05) for REV-X vs. REV-S. Carcass-adjusted final BW (29-kg difference), ADG (0.2-kg/d difference), and G:F (0.02 difference) were increased (P < 0.05) by ZH, but daily DMI was not affected by feeding ZH. Hot carcass weight was increased (P < 0.05) by ZH (19-kg difference) and implant, with REV-X resulting in the greatest response (HCW of 376 for NI vs. 404 and 419 kg for REV-S and REV-X, respectively; P < 0.05). An implant × ZH interaction (P = 0.05) occurred for dressing percent (DP). Without ZH, implanting increased DP, but DP did not differ

  11. Biological responses of beef steers to steroidal implants and zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Parr, S L; Brown, T R; Ribeiro, F R B; Chung, K Y; Hutcheson, J P; Blackwell, B R; Smith, P N; Johnson, B J

    2014-08-01

    British × Continental steers (n = 168; 7 pens/treatment; initial BW = 362 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of dose/payout pattern of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17β (E2) and feeding of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on serum urea-N (SUN), NEFA, IGF-I, and E2 concentrations and LM mRNA expression of the estrogen (ER), androgen (ANR), IGF-I (IGF-IR), β1-adrenergic (β1-AR), and β2-adrenergic (β2-AR) receptors and IGF-I. A randomized complete block design was used with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Main effects were implant (no implant [NI], Revalor-S [REV-S; 120 mg TBA + 24 mg E2], and Revalor-XS [REV-X; 200 mg TBA + 40 mg E2]) and ZH (0 or 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d with a 3-d withdrawal). Steers were fed for 153 or 174 d. Blood was collected (2 steers/pen) at d -1, 2, 6, 13, 27, 55, 83, 111, and 131 relative to implanting; LM biopsies (1 steer/pen) were collected at d -1, 27, 55, and 111. Blood and LM samples were collected at d -1, 11, and 19 relative to ZH feeding. A greater dose of TBA + E2 in combination with ZH increased ADG and HCW in an additive manner, suggesting a different mechanism of action for ZH and steroidal implants. Implanting decreased (P < 0.05) SUN from d 2 through 131. Feeding ZH decreased (P < 0.05) SUN. Serum NEFA concentrations were not affected by implants (P = 0.44). There was a day × ZH interaction (P = 0.06) for NEFA; ZH steers had increased (P < 0.01) NEFA concentrations at d 11 of ZH feeding. Serum E2 was greater (P < 0.05) for implanted steers by d 27. Serum trenbolone-17β was greater (P < 0.05) for implanted steers by d 2 followed by a typical biphasic release rate, with a secondary peak at d 111 for REV-X (P < 0.05) implanted steers. Implanting did not affect mRNA expression of the ANR or ER, but the IGF-IR and the β1-AR and β2-AR were less (P < 0.05) for REV-S than NI at d 55 and β2-AR mRNA was less (P < 0.05) for REV-S than for REV-X. Expression of the IGF-IR and the β1-AR at d 111 was

  12. Fate and transport of the ß-adrenergic agonist ractopamine hydrochloride in soil-water systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feed additive ractopamine hydrochloride was fortified at four concentrations into batch vials containing soils that differed in both biological activity and organic matter (OM). Sampling of the liquid layer for 14 d demonstrated that ractopamine rapidly dissipated from the liquid layer. Less t...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  15. 76 FR 20685 - Determination That NOVANTRONE (Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride) Injection, Equivalent to 25 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...) Injection, Equivalent to 25 Milligrams Base/12.5 Milliliter and Equivalent to 30 Milligrams Base/15... NOVANTRONE (mitoxantrone hydrochloride) Injection, equivalent to (EQ) 25 milligrams (mg) base/12.5 milliliters (mL) and EQ 30 mg base/15 mL, was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or...

  16. 78 FR 17933 - Determination That BENADRYL (diphenhydramine hydrochloride) Injection and Two Other Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That BENADRYL (diphenhydramine hydrochloride... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 51, Rm. 6206,...

  17. A Parent Guide To Understanding the Effects of Ritalin (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This guide provides information to help parents decide whether their child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should take methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin). Information is provided in a question-and-answer format on various concerns, including: the meaning of ADHD, whether Ritalin is overprescribed, when this medication is…

  18. 78 FR 2416 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Rybix® (Tramadol Hydrochloride) Tablets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    .... FACTS: Rybix ODT is a pharmaceutical product used for the management of moderate to moderately severe pain in adults. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (``API''), tramadol hydrochloride, is manufactured... pharmaceutical products from bulk form into measured doses, filtering and packaging does not result in...

  19. Improved compressibility, flowability, dissolution and bioavailability of pioglitazone hydrochloride by emulsion solvent diffusion with additives.

    PubMed

    Patil, S V; Pawar, A P; Sahoo, S K

    2012-03-01

    Spherical agglomerates of pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method with additives (polyethylene glycol 6000, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, beta cyclodextrin, eudragit RS100, low acyl gellan gum and xanthan gum) using methanol, chloroform and water as a good solvent, bridging liquid and poor solvent respectively. Prepared agglomerates were evaluated for compressibility, solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability, and characterized by SEM, XRPD, DSC and FTIR spectroscopy. Particle size, flowability, compactibility, packability, solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of plain agglomerates and agglomerates with additives (except with polyvinyl pyrrolidone) were advantageously improved compared with raw crystalline pioglitazone hydrochloride. These improved properties for direct compression were due to their large-spherical shape and enhanced fragmentation during compaction, together with increased tensile strength and reduced elastic recovery of the compacts. XRPD and DSC studies indicated polymorphic transition of pioglitazone hydrochloride from form II to I during recrystallization but this was not associated with any chemical transition, as indicated by FTIR spectra, well supported by stability studies. Thus spherical crystallization by the emulsion solvent diffusion method with selected additives is a satisfactory method for direct tableting of pioglitazone hydrochloride giving improved bioavailability. PMID:22530302

  20. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Relaxation--Thermal Biofeedback Training with Propranolol Hydrochloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluated the ability of propranolol hydrochloride to enhance results achieved with relaxation-biofeedback training. Results suggest that concomitant propranolol therapy (CPT) significantly enhanced the effectiveness of relaxation-biofeedback training. CPT also yielded larger reductions in analgesic use and greater improvements in quality-of-life…

  1. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  4. The effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and shade on blood metabolites of finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and shade were evaluated on blood metabolites and lung score in finishing beef steers. Cattle were fed 0 or 8.33 mg/kg ZH for 21 d with a 3- or 4-d withdrawal before harvest and were housed in open or shaded pens. Blood samples and lung scores w...

  5. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on blood gas, electrolyte balance, and pH in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on blood gas, electrolyte balance and pH in feedlot cattle. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Center in New Deal, TX. C...

  6. Evaluation of objective and subjective mobility variables in feedlot cattle supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on mobility in feedlot cattle. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Center in New Deal, TX. Cattle were weighed and scan...

  7. Cystic fibrosis: comparison of two mucolytic drugs for inhalation treatment (acetylcysteine and arginine hydrochloride).

    PubMed

    Dietzsch, H J; Gottschalk, B; Heyne, K; Leupoid, W; Wunderlich, P

    1975-01-01

    Clinical, bronchoscopic, spirographic, scintigraphic, and chemical analyses were done in 24 children with cystic fibrosis to assess the mucolytic effects of acetylcysteine inhalations versus L-arginine hydrochloride aerosols. The latter drug is less active than acetylcysteine and should not be used to treat children with cystic fibrosis.

  8. Compatibility of amiodarone hydrochloride with vasopressin during simulated Y-site administration.

    PubMed

    Ramaley, Corinne C; Li, Feng; Du, Chengan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility of amiodarone hydrochloride with vasopressin during simulated Y-site administration. Amiodarone hydrochloride is compatible with vasopressin under simulated-use conditions when administered according to the Advanced Cardiac Life Support Guidelines. A simulated-use approach is a more appropriate way to evaluate compatibility of drug solutions and to assure safe and adequate drug delivery to the patient, particularly when the drug being evaluated is well-documented to have physical or chemical incompatibility concerns with various drugs. When amiodarone hydrochloride (50 mg/mL) was diluted to 6 mg/mL with 5% dextrose injection, then mixed with an equal volume of vasopressin (0.2 units/mL in normal saline) in a glass test tube, no visual incompatibility was observed for up to 24 hours. The purpose of our study was to assess compatibility of the two drugs under simulated-use conditions and to measure the recovery of amiodarone by high-performance liquid chromatography after sequential administration of vasopressin and amiodarone hydrochloride according to the Advanced Cardiac Life Support Guidelines. PMID:24459790

  9. 40 CFR 721.1075 - Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1075 Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...

  10. Evaluation of phenazopyridine hydrochloride as a tool in the diagnosis of premature rupture of the membranes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, B A; Gonik, B; Creasy, R K

    1991-09-01

    This is a prospective study to determine whether a maternal orally administered azo dye, phenazopyridine hydrochloride, would cross into amniotic fluid, and thus be of potential aid in the diagnosis of rupture of the membranes. Based on anecdotal experience, we hypothesized that this compound would cross the placenta and be excreted in the fetal urine, causing discoloration of the amniotic fluid. Ten patients with uncomplicated pregnancies undergoing elective amniocentesis for obstetric indications received an oral dose of 400 mg of phenazopyridine hydrochloride 4 hours prior to the procedure. Amniotic fluid was also available from five control patients who did not receive phenazopyridine hydrochloride. The typical orange-to-red discoloration of the urine was seen in all study patients, indicating ingestion of the dye. None of the ten patients had evidence of the azo dye in their amniotic fluid by visual inspection or by spectrophotometric absorbance. After the amniotic fluid samples were acidified, the presence of the azo dye was visually demonstrable, and spectrophotometry confirmed measurable concentrations (mean +/- SE: 13.08 +/- 0.72 micrograms/ml). We conclude that although phenazopyridine hydrochloride does cross the placenta into the fetal compartment, its presence causes a visual and spectrophotometric change in the color of amniotic fluid only when the normal basic pH of amniotic fluid is acidified.

  11. Grape contribution to wine aroma: production of hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, and benzyl acetate during yeast fermentation is dependent upon precursors in the must.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Eric G; Keyzers, Robert A; Kalua, Curtis M; Maffei, Suzanne M; Nicholson, Emily L; Boss, Paul K

    2012-03-14

    Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice musts. Model must systems have proven ideal for studies of the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To identify grape-derived precursors to acetate esters, model fermentation systems were developed by spiking precursors into model must at different concentrations. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatgraphy mass spectrometry analysis of the fermented wines showed that a variety of grape-derived aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes are precursors to acetate esters. The C6 compounds hexan-1-ol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal are all precursors to hexyl acetate, and octanol and benzyl alcohol are precursors to octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, respectively. In these cases, the postfermentation concentration of an acetate ester increased proportionally with the prefermentation concentration of the respective precursor in the model must. Determining viticultural or winemaking methods to alter the prefermentation concentration of precursor compounds or change the precursor-to-acetate ester ratio will have implications upon the final flavor and aroma of wines. PMID:22332880

  12. Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

  13. N-(2-Chloro-acet-yl)glycine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Xiu-Qin; Wang, Kai; Chen, Qiang

    2013-10-26

    The title compound, C4H6ClNO3, crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In each mol-ecule, there are N-H⋯O and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Both mol-ecules are relatively planar, with the mean plane of the acetamide [N-C(=O)C] group being inclined to the mean plane of the acetate group [C-C(=O)O] by 9.23 (13)° in mol-ecule A and 6.23 (12)° in mol-ecule B. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O contacts forming -A-A-A- and -B-B-B- parallel chains propagating along the a-axis direction. PMID:24454136

  14. Unsuccessful treatment of acromegaly with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L; Dimond, R C; Howard, W J; Earll, J M

    1974-09-01

    6 patients with active acromegaly were treated with 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) every 6 hours daily for 2 weeks to 6 months. Oral glucose tolerance tests, growth hormone (GH) levels, and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were done before and during MPA treatment. Basal GH levels varied widely during control and therapy periods; no significant lowering of GH levels occurred during treatment. Carbohydrate tolerance was not significantly affected by MPA therapy, although 5 out of 6 patients had deterioration at least once during treatment. Blood glucose response to ITT was unchanged by MPA. MPA did not affect the clinical features of acromegaly. There was no consistent effect of MPA on insulin-induced or arginine-induced GH secretion. It is concluded that MPA is not an effective agent for treating acromegaly.

  15. Micro-porous surfaces in controlled drug delivery systems: design and evaluation of diltiazem hydrochloride controlled porosity osmotic pump using non-ionic surfactants as pore-former.

    PubMed

    Adibkia, Khosro; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Shokri, Mohammad Hosein; Arami, Zahra; Arash, Zeinab; Shokri, Javad

    2014-06-01

    The major problem associated with conventional drug delivery systems is unpredictable plasma concentrations. The aim of this study was to design a controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) of diltiazem hydrochloride to deliver the drug in a controlled manner. CPOP tablets were prepared by incorporation of drug in the core and subsequent coating with cellulose acetate as semi-permeable membrane. Non-ionic surfactants were applied as pore-formers as well. The effect of pore-formers concentration on the in vitro release of diltiazem was also studied. The formulations were compared based on four comparative parameters, namely, total drug released after 24 h (D24 h), lag-time (tL), squared correlation coefficient of zero order equation (RSQzero) and mean percent deviation from zero order kinetic (MPDzero). Results of scanning electron microscopy studies exhibited formation of pores in the membrane from where the drug release occurred. It was revealed that drug release rate was directly proportional to the concentration of the pore-formers. The value of D24 h in the formulations containing Tween 80 (10%) and Brij 35 (5%) were found to be more than 94.9%, and drug release followed zero order kinetic (RSQzero > 0.99 and MPDzero < 8%) with acceptable tL (lower than 1 h).

  16. Development and validation of a dissolution test for a once-a-day combination tablet of immediate-release cetirizine dihydrochloride and extended-release pseudoephedrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Likar, Michael D; Mansour, Hany L; Harwood, Jeffrey W

    2005-09-15

    A dissolution test for a once daily combination tablet containing 10 mg of cetirizine dihydrochloride (cetirizine HCl) for immediate release and 240 mg of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (pseudoephedrine HCl) for extended release was developed and validated according to current ICH and FDA guidelines. The cetirizine HCl is contained within an outer layer of the tablet while a semipermeable membrane of cellulose acetate and polyethylene glycol controls the rate at which pseudoephedrine HCl is released from the tablet core. The dissolution method, which uses USP apparatus 2 with paddles rotating at 50 rpm, 1000 ml of deaerated water as the dissolution medium, and reversed-phased HPLC for quantitation, was demonstrated to be robust, discriminating, and transferable. These test conditions were selected after it was demonstrated that the cetirizine HCl portion of the tablet rapidly dissolved in aqueous media over the physiologically relevant pH range of 1.1-7.5, and that the extended-release profile of pseudoephedrine HCl was independent of dissolution conditions (i.e., apparatus, pH, and agitation).

  17. Stability studies of lincomycin hydrochloride in aqueous solution and intravenous infusion fluids

    PubMed Central

    Czarniak, Petra; Boddy, Michael; Sunderland, Bruce; Hughes, Jeff D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of Lincocin® (lincomycin hydrochloride) in commonly used intravenous fluids at room temperature (25°C), at accelerated-degradation temperatures and in selected buffer solutions. Materials and methods The stability of Lincocin® injection (containing lincomycin 600 mg/2 mL as the hydrochloride) stored at 25°C±0.1°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s), 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% glucose, and 10% glucose solutions was investigated over 31 days. Forced degradation of Lincocin® in hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide was performed at 60°C. The effect of pH on the degradation rate of lincomycin hydrochloride stored at 80°C was determined. Results Lincomycin hydrochloride w as found to maintain its shelf life at 25°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s) solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution, with less than 5% lincomycin degradation occurring in all intravenous solutions over a 31-day period. Lincomycin hydrochloride showed less rapid degradation at 60°C in acid than in basic solution, but degraded rapidly in hydrogen peroxide. At all pH values tested, lincomycin followed first-order kinetics. It had the greatest stability near pH 4 when stored at 80°C (calculated shelf life of 4.59 days), and was least stable at pH 2 (calculated shelf life of 0.38 days). Conclusion Lincocin® injection was chemically found to have a shelf life of at least 31 days at 25°C when added to sodium lactate (Hartmann’s) solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution. Solutions prepared at approximately pH 4 are likely to have optimum stability. PMID:27022242

  18. A clinical pharmacokinetic study comparing two azelastine hydrochloride nasal formulations in a single-dose design.

    PubMed

    Du, Daniel; Targett, Darren; Stolberg, Erhard; Canali, Alessandra

    2014-03-01

    Azelastine hydrochloride is a potent second-generation antihistamine, available in Europe and the USA as a nasal spray formulation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis symptoms. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Consumer Healthcare has developed a new nasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride. The present study was aimed at comparing the clinical pharmacokinetic profiles and assessing the bioequivalence of the new formulation of azelastine hydrochloride with a marketed reference nasal spray product. This was a randomized, two-way crossover, two-stage, single-dose pharmacokinetic study with 2 weeks washout between the two treatment periods. A dosage of 0.28 mg of the test and reference products was administered as a single dose to healthy volunteers according to the crossover design. Twenty-three subjects (15 subjects from stage 1 and 8 subjects from stage 2) were enrolled in the study. Adjusted mean values for AUC0-t were 1,526.8 h pg/mL for the test drug and 1,441.5 h pg/mL for the reference drug; for C max the values were 61.59 pg/mL for the test drug and 58.21 pg/mL for the reference drug. The 94.12 % CI of geometric mean ratios (test/reference) were 0.99-1.13 and 0.95-1.18 for AUC0-t and C max. This met the predefined criteria for bioequivalence between test and reference drugs. Secondary pharmacokinetic parameters for azelastine and for the metabolite desmethyl azelastine, AUC(0-∞) and t max, were numerically similar between the two study treatments. Both test and reference azelastine hydrochloride formulations were well tolerated at single dose. This study demonstrated the bioequivalence between the new azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray formulation and the marketed reference Allergodil(®) after single-dose administration. PMID:23681835

  19. Optimization of mesoporous carbons for efficient adsorption of berberine hydrochloride from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Fu, Jie; Deng, Shuguang; Lu, Xiuyang

    2014-06-15

    Sixteen mesoporous carbon adsorbents were synthesized by varying the ratio of soft to hard templates in order to optimize the pore textural properties of these adsorbents. The mesoporous carbon adsorbents have a high BET specific surface area (1590.3-2193.5 m(2)/g), large pore volume (1.72-2.56 cm(3)/g), and uniform pore size distribution with a median pore diameter ranging from 3.51 nm to 4.52 nm. It was observed that pore textural properties of the carbon adsorbents critically depend on the molar ratio of carbon sources to templates, and the hard template plays a more important role than the soft template in manipulating the pore textures. Adsorption isotherms of berberine hydrochloride at 303 K were measured to evaluate the adsorption efficacy of these adsorbents. The adsorption of berberine hydrochloride from aqueous solutions on the sixteen mesoporous carbon adsorbents synthesized in this work is very efficient, and the adsorption equilibrium capacities on all samples are more than double the adsorption capacities of berberine hydrochloride of the benchmark adsorbents (polymer resins and spherical activated carbons) at similar conditions. It was observed from the adsorption experiments that the equilibrium adsorption amounts of berberine hydrochloride are strongly correlated with the BET specific surface area and pore volume of the adsorbents. The adsorbent with the highest BET of 2193.5 m(2)/g displayed the largest adsorption capacity of 574 mg/g at an equilibrium concentration of 0.10mg/mL of berberine hydrochloride in an aqueous solution. PMID:24767505

  20. Effect of local application of delmopinol hydrochloride on developing and early established supragingival plaque in humans.

    PubMed

    Klinge, B; Matsson, L; Attström, R; Edwardsson, S; Sjödin, T

    1996-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of delmopinol hydrochloride on the development of dental plaque and on newly established plaque. In addition, the influence of this compound on the composition of the microbiota colonizing the gingival mucous membrane was studied. 14 healthy male volunteers took part. After a 3 week pre-experimental period of intense oral hygiene, the participants refrained from all oral hygiene for 14 days. The buccal surfaces of cuspids and bicuspids on one side of the jaws were treated with a 1% aqueous solution of delmopinol hydrochloride (applied with a paint brush) 2 x a day for 7 days, while the contralateral side received placebo solution. On day 7, the application procedures were changed in that the test compound was applied on the teeth previously treated with placebo and vice versa. Plaque development was assessed clinically and by photo-based planimetric determination. The clinical recordings revealed that 89.3% of the placebo-treated surfaces displayed visible plaque on day 7, compared to 6.0% of the delmopinol hydrochloride treated surfaces. Delmopinol hydrochloride treatment of the previously placebo-treated surfaces resulted in a decrease in the number of surfaces with visible plaque from 89.3% on day 7 to 6% on day 14. These results were confirmed by the planimetric data. No significant change in the composition of the mucosal flora was observed during the experimental period. The present results indicate that delmopinol hydrochloride markedly reduces the formation of dental plaque on a clean tooth surface exposed to conditions which favour bacterial colonization. Furthermore, the substance appears to possess plaque-dissolving properties. PMID:8811473

  1. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  2. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate with seven pedophiles.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Sandhu, S; Losztyn, S; Cernovsky, Z

    1992-12-01

    Seven of ten pedophiles in hospital completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled two-dose comparison of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate. Sequential measures during the 28 week study were: patient self-reports, nurses' observations, phallometry, hormone levels and side-effects. The drugs, which performed equivalently, reduced sexual thoughts and fantasies, the frequency of early morning erections on awakening, the frequency and pleasure of masturbation, and level of sexual frustration. Penile responses were also reduced but to a lesser degree and were more variable. Serum testosterone FSH and LH all declined during drug administration, but by the end of the final placebo phase had essentially returned to (or exceeded) pre-drug values. Our experience suggests that only a minority of pedophiles are likely to accept libido-reducing drugs.

  3. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasad, Dorai; Waller, Francis Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  4. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-04-06

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  5. Chemistry of Ketene N,S-Acetals: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Dong, Jinhuan; Xu, Xianxiu; Liu, Qun

    2016-01-27

    Push-pull alkenes, which bear electron-donating and -accepting group(s) at both termini of a C═C double bond, respectively, are of interest not only for their unique electronic properties but also for their importance as versatile building blocks in organic synthesis. In the world of ketene acetals having the push-pull alkene skeleton, ketene N,S-acetal is most likely the biggest family according to the number and types of these compounds. The first ketene N,S-acetal compound was reported in 1956. As a cyclic ketene N,S-acetal compound, nithiazine, the first lead structure of neonicotinoid insecticides, was reported in 1978. The characteristics of ketene N,S-acetals, which have the structural feature of ketene S,S-acetals and enaminones, make them versatile and easy to use, especially in cyclization and multicomponent reactions for the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems and related natural products. There has been an increasing wealth of information about the synthesis and synthetic applications of ketene N,S-acetals, especially, in recent years. This review provides comprehensive knowledge on the chemistry of ketene N,S-acetals. PMID:26760899

  6. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate injection....

  7. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains.

  8. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  9. Treatment of a malignant enterocutaneous fistula with octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Ayache, S; Wadleigh, R G

    1999-01-01

    An enterocutaneous malignant fistula developed in a patient who had a retroperitoneal angiosarcoma. He was treated with octreotide acetate subcutaneously. Drainage decreased and ceased after 2 weeks of therapy. The closure of this malignant fistula suggests that palliative therapy with octreotide acetate merits further study in view of the grave prognosis of this complication.

  10. Enrichment of amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ato, Makoto; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    In anaerobic condition, amino acids are oxidatively deaminated, and decarboxylated, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids. In this process, excess electrons are produced and their consumption is necessary for the accomplishment of amino acid degradation. In this study, we anaerobically constructed leucine-degrading enrichment cultures from three different environmental samples (compost, excess sludge, and rice field soil) in order to investigate the diversity of electron-consuming reaction coupled to amino acid oxidation. Constructed enrichment cultures oxidized leucine to isovalerate and their activities were strongly dependent on acetate. Analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) profiles and community structure analysis during batch culture of each enrichment indicated that Clostridium cluster I coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the compost and the rice field soil. In these cases, acetate was reduced to butyrate. On the other hand, Clostridium cluster XIVb coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the excess sludge. In this case, acetate was reduced to propionate. To our surprise, the enrichment from rice field soil oxidized leucine even in the absence of acetate and produced butyrate. The enrichment would couple leucine oxidation to reductive butyrate synthesis from CO2. The coupling reaction would be achieved based on trophic link between hydrogenotrophic acetogenic bacteria and acetate-reducing bacteria by sequential reduction of CO2 and acetate. Our study suggests anaerobic degradation of amino acids is achieved yet-to-be described reactions. PMID:24630616

  11. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Ddd... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be in the polymeric form. The hydrolysis of these polymers is catalyzed by hydrogen ions. 2.2The... hydroxylamine hydrochloride will produce sufficient hydrogen ions to catalyze the depolymerization of...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Ddd... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be in the polymeric form. The hydrolysis of these polymers is catalyzed by hydrogen ions. 2.2The... hydroxylamine hydrochloride will produce sufficient hydrogen ions to catalyze the depolymerization of...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Ddd... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be in the polymeric form. The hydrolysis of these polymers is catalyzed by hydrogen ions. 2.2The... hydroxylamine hydrochloride will produce sufficient hydrogen ions to catalyze the depolymerization of...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Ddd... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine hydrochloride will produce sufficient hydrogen ions to catalyze the depolymerization of the.... Tutin and M.L. Foster, Tacoma R&D Laboratory, Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc. (Principle written by R....

  17. Delineation of myocardial oxygen utilization with carbon-11-labeled acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Marshall, D.R.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-09-01

    Although positron-emission tomography (PET) with labeled fatty acid delineates infarct size and permits qualitative assessment of fatty acid utilization, quantification of oxidative metabolism is limited by complex alterations in the pattern of utilization of fatty acid during ischemia and reperfusion. Because metabolism of acetate by myocardium is less complex than that of glucose or palmitate, we characterized kinetics of utilization of radiolabeled acetate in 37 isolated rabbit hearts perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer and performed a pilot tomographic study in man. Results of initial experiments with carbon-14-labeled acetate (/sup 14/C-acetate) indicated that the steady-state extraction fraction of acetate averaged 61.5 +/- 4.0% in control hearts (n = 4), 93.6 +/- 0.9% in hearts rendered ischemic (n = 4), and 54.8 +/- 4.0% in hearts reperfused after 60 min of ischemia (n = 3). Oxidation of /sup 14/C-acetate, assessed from the rate of efflux of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in the venous effluent, correlated closely with the rate of oxygen consumption under diverse metabolic conditions (r = .97, p less than .001). In addition, no significant differences were observed between rates of efflux of total /sup 14/C in all chemical species (reflecting total clearance of tracer from myocardium) and efflux of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. Clearance of /sup 11/C-acetate, measured externally with gamma probes in normal and ischemic myocardium, correlated closely with clearance of /sup 14/C-acetate measured directly in the effluent (r = .99, p less than .001) and with overall myocardial oxygen consumption (r = .95, p less than .001). Accumulation and clearance of /sup 11/C-acetate from human myocardium with PET demonstrated kinetics comparable to those seen with radiolabeled acetate in vitro.

  18. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  19. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process. PMID:26992903

  20. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Drazenovich, Tracy L.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with a short terminal half-life, rapid plasma clearance, and large volume of distribution in American kestrels. Further studies regarding the effects of other doses, other administration routes, constantrate infusions, and slow release formulations on the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride and its metabolites in American kestrels may be indicated.

  1. Morphological diversity of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-preserved stool samples stained with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, D W; MacQueen, W M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the morphological characteristics of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-Formalin-preserved stool samples. Routinely processed samples were examined for morphological detail, including size, shape, nuclear detail, and central body characteristics. Morphological findings revealing the importance of recognizing B. hominis in the diagnostic laboratory are described. PMID:7510311

  2. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:26916368

  3. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  4. Biological Function of Acetic Acid-Improvement in Obesity and Glucose Tolerance by Acetic Acid in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-07-29

    Fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are oxidized by β-oxidation to form ketone bodies as final products under the starving condition. Previously, we found that free acetic acid was formed concomitantly with the production of ketone bodies in isolated rat liver perfusion, and mitochondrial acetyl CoA hydrolase was appeared to be involved with the acetic acid production. It was revealed that acetic acid was formed as a final product of enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acids and utilized as a fuel in extrahepatic tissues under the starving condition. Under the fed condition, β-oxidation is suppressed and acetic acid production is decreased. When acetic acid was taken daily by obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under the fed condition, it protected OLETF rats against obesity. Furthermore, acetic acid contributed to protect from the accumulation of lipid in the liver as well as abdominal fat in OLETF rats. Transcripts of lipogenic genes in the liver were decreased, while transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in abdominal muscles were increased in the acetic acid-administered OLETF rats. It is indicated that exogenously administered acetic acid would have effects on lipid metabolism in both the liver and the skeletal muscles, and have function that works against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.

  5. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies.

  6. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  7. Quantitative Structure of an Acetate Dye Molecule Analogue at the TiO2–Acetic Acid Interface

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The positions of atoms in and around acetate molecules at the rutile TiO2(110) interface with 0.1 M acetic acid have been determined with a precision of ±0.05 Å. Acetate is used as a surrogate for the carboxylate groups typically employed to anchor monocarboxylate dye molecules to TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Structural analysis reveals small domains of ordered (2 × 1) acetate molecules, with substrate atoms closer to their bulk terminated positions compared to the clean UHV surface. Acetate is found in a bidentate bridge position, binding through both oxygen atoms to two 5-fold titanium atoms such that the molecular plane is along the [001] azimuth. Density functional theory calculations provide adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiment. The availability of these structural data will improve the accuracy of charge transport models for DSSC. PMID:27110318

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of procaine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical products using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid as the chromogenic reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li Xiao; Shen, Yun Xiu; Wang, Huai You; Jiang, Ji Gang; Xiao, Yan

    2003-11-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of procaine hydrochloride is described. The procaine hydrochloride reacts with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid in pH 3.60 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 484 nm, ɛ 484=5.22×10 3.The absorbance for procaine hydrochloride from 0.30 to 100 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=19.23A-0.03, with a linear regression correlative coefficient is 0.9996, the detection limit is 0.28 μg ml -1; recovery is from 98.0 to 105.2%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvent, foreign ions, and standing time on the determination of procaine hydrochloride have been examined. This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of procaine hydrochloride in injection solution of procaine hydrochloride. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (dead-stop titration).

  9. Berberine hydrochloride attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced endometritis in mice by suppressing activation of NF-κB signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Li, Weishi; Wang, Yu; Li, Huatao; Tian, Wenru; Cao, Rongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Endometritis is a common disease in animal production and influences breeding all over the world. Berberine is one of the main alkaloids isolated from Rhizoma coptidis. Previous reports showed that berberine has anti-inflammatory potential. However, there have been a limited number of published reports on the anti-inflammatory effect of berberine hydrochloride on LPS-induced endometritis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of berberine hydrochloride on LPS-induced mouse endometritis. Berberine hydrochloride was administered intraperitoneally at 1h before and 12h after LPS induction. Then, a biopsy was performed, and uterine myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in the uterus homogenate were measured by ELISA. The extent of IκB-α and P65 phosphorylation was detected by Western blot. The results showed that berberine hydrochloride significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration, suppressed myeloperoxidase activity and decreased NO, TNF-αand IL-1βproduction. Furthermore, berberine hydrochloride inhibited the phosphorylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor, IκBα. These findings suggest that berberine hydrochloride exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse endometritis and might be a potential therapeutic agent for endometritis. PMID:25479718

  10. Treatment with olopatadine and naphazoline hydrochloride reduces allergic conjunctivitis in mice through alterations in inflammation, NGF and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Quan, Lin; He, Hua

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether olopatadine and naphazoline hydrochloride reduce allergic conjunctivitis in mice through alterations in inflammation, NGF and VEGF. An allergic conjunctivitis mouse model was established using histamine or an antigen (ovalbumin), following which mice were treated with 1% olopatadine solution and/or 0.2 mg/ml of naphazoline hydrochloride. Histamine or antigen‑induced conjunctival vascular hyperpermeability was examined and the levels of inflammatory factors, cytokines, IgE, GMCSF and NGF were analyzed using ELISA in antigen‑induced conjunctival vascular hyperpermeability mice. In addition, VEGF protein expression was measured using western blotting in antigen‑induced mice. The results indicated that olopatadine and naphazoline hydrochloride significantly suppressed conjunctival dye leakage in mice with histamine or antigen‑induced conjunctival vascular hyperpermeability. In addition, treatment with olopatadine and naphazoline hydrochloride was able to reduce the levels of inflammatory factors (TNF‑α, IL‑1β and IL‑6), cytokines (IFN‑γ and IL‑4), IgE, GMCSF, and NGF in antigen‑induced conjunctival vascular hyperpermeability mice. The protein expression levels of VEGF in antigen‑induced conjunctival vascular hyperpermeability mice were reduced following treatment with olopatadine and naphazoline hydrochloride. These results suggest that treatment with olopatadine and naphazoline hydrochloride reduces conjunctivitis in mice via effects on inflammation, NGF and VEGF.

  11. Effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on intermittent maximal anaerobic cycle ergometer performance and fatigue recovery after exercise.

    PubMed

    Demura, Shinichi; Morishita, Koji; Yamada, Takayoshi; Yamaji, Shunsuke; Komatsu, Miho

    2011-11-01

    L-Ornithine plays an important role in ammonia metabolism via the urea cycle. This study aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on ammonia metabolism and performance after intermittent maximal anaerobic cycle ergometer exercise. Ten healthy young adults (age, 23.8 ± 3.9 year; height, 172.3 ± 5.5 cm; body mass, 67.7 ± 6.1 kg) with regular training experience ingested L-ornithine hydrochloride (0.1 g/kg, body mass) or placebo after 30 s of maximal cycling exercise. Five sets of the same maximal cycling exercise were conducted 60 min after ingestion, and maximal cycling exercise was conducted after a 15 min rest. The intensity of cycling exercise was based on each subject's body mass (0.74 N kg(-1)). Work volume (watt), peak rpm (rpm) before and after intermittent maximal ergometer exercise and the following serum parameters were measured before ingestion, immediately after exercise and 15 min after exercise: ornithine, ammonia, urea, lactic acid and glutamate. Peak rpm was significantly greater with L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion than with placebo ingestion. Serum ornithine level was significantly greater with L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion than with placebo ingestion immediately and 15 min after intermittent maximal cycle ergometer exercise. In conclusion, although maximal anaerobic performance may be improved by L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion before intermittent maximal anaerobic cycle ergometer exercise, the above may not depend on increase of ammonia metabolism with L-ornithine hydrochloride.

  12. Effect of fasudil hydrochloride, a protein kinase inhibitor, on cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemic symptoms after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jizong; Zhou, Dingbiao; Guo, Jing; Ren, Zyuan; Zhou, Liangfu; Wang, Shuo; Xu, Bainan; Wang, Renzhi

    2006-09-01

    The efficacy and safety of fasudil hydrochloride, a novel protein kinase inhibitor, were evaluated for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm and associated cerebral ischemic symptoms in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This randomized open trial with nimodipine as the control included 72 patients who underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage surgery for ruptured cerebral aneurysm of Hunt and Hess grades I to IV. For 14 days following surgery, patients were administered either 30 mg of fasudil hydrochloride by intravenous injection over a period of 30 minutes three times a day or 1 mg/hr of nimodipine by continuous intravenous infusion. Fasudil hydrochloride and nimodipine both showed inhibitory effects on cerebral vasospasm. The incidence of symptomatic vasospasm was five of 33 patients in the fasudil group and nine of 32 patients in the nimodipine group. Good recovery evaluated by the Glasgow Outcome Scale was achieved by 23 of 33 patients in the fasudil group and 19 of 34 patients in the nimodipine group. Both drugs significantly improved consciousness levels and neurological deficits such as aphasia. However, fasudil hydrochloride improved motor disturbance more than nimodipine. Adverse reactions occurred in 13 of 37 patients receiving fasudil hydrochloride and 15 of 35 patients receiving nimodipine. There were no serious adverse events in the fasudil group. The results of this clinical trial indicate that fasudil hydrochloride is a safe and efficient agent for suppressing cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage surgery for ruptured cerebral aneurysm.

  13. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. PMID:26253254

  14. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation.

  15. The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

  16. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  17. Crystal structure of a mixed solvated form of amoxapine acetate.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Rajni M; Raval, Vishal; Oswald, Iain D H; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-02-01

    The mixed solvated salt 4-(2-chloro-dibenzo[b,f][1,4]oxazepin-11-yl)piperazin-1-ium acetate-acetic acid-cyclo-hexane (2/2/1), C17H17ClN3O(+)·C2H3O2 (-)·C2H4O2·0.5C6H12, crystallizes with one mol-ecule of protonated amoxapine (AXPN), an acetate anion and a mol-ecule of acetic acid together with half a mol-ecule of cyclo-hexane. In the centrosymmetric crystal, both enanti-omers of the protonated AXPN mol-ecule stack alternatively along [001]. Acetate anions connect the AXPN cations through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding in the [010] direction, creating a sheet lying parallel to (100). The acetic acid mol-ecules are linked to the acetate anions via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds within the sheets. Within the sheets there are also a number of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present. The cyclo-hexane solvent mol-ecules occupy the space between the sheets.

  18. Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lihong; Gulanski, Barbara Irene; De Feyter, Henk M; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Pittman, Brian; Guidone, Elizabeth; Koretski, Julia; Harman, Susan; Petrakis, Ismene L; Krystal, John H; Mason, Graeme F

    2013-04-01

    When a person consumes ethanol, the body quickly begins to convert it to acetic acid, which circulates in the blood and can serve as a source of energy for the brain and other organs. This study used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test whether chronic heavy drinking is associated with greater brain uptake and oxidation of acetic acid, providing a potential metabolic reward or adenosinergic effect as a consequence of drinking. Seven heavy drinkers, who regularly consumed at least 8 drinks per week and at least 4 drinks per day at least once per week, and 7 light drinkers, who consumed fewer than 2 drinks per week were recruited. The subjects were administered [2-13C]acetate for 2 hours and scanned throughout that time with magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to observe natural 13C abundance of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the appearance of 13C-labeled glutamate, glutamine, and acetate. Heavy drinkers had approximately 2-fold more brain acetate relative to blood and twice as much labeled glutamate and glutamine. The results show that acetate transport and oxidation are faster in heavy drinkers compared with that in light drinkers. Our finding suggests that a new therapeutic approach to supply acetate during alcohol detoxification may be beneficial. PMID:23478412

  19. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth rates, feed conversion, and carcass traits in calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Duff, G C; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Lawrence, T E; Elam, N

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to enhance growth performance and carcass characteristics in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, Holstein steers (n = 2,311) were fed in a large-pen trial in 2 phases at a commercial feed yard in the desert Southwest. In Exp. 2, a total of 359 steers were fed in a small-pen university study. In Exp. 1 and 2, cattle were implanted with a combination trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant approximately 120 d before slaughter. Cattle were fed ZH for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d before slaughter at a rate of 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis). A 3-d withdrawal was maintained immediately before slaughter. Cattle within an experiment were fed to a common number of days on feed. During the last 120 d before slaughter, ADG was not enhanced by feeding ZH for 20 d (P = 0.33 in Exp. 1, and P = 0.79 in Exp. 2). Gain-to-feed conversion was increased by feeding ZH for all durations in Exp. 1 (P < 0.05). Feeding ZH increased HCW by 9.3 (Exp. 2) to 11.6 (Exp. 1) kg at 20 d compared with the control groups. Across both experiments, dressing percent was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P < 0.05). Although skeletal maturity score, liver integrity, lean color, fat thickness, and KPH were not affected by feeding ZH for 20 d in either experiment (P >or= 0.6), LM area was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P < 0.05). The percentage of carcasses identified as USDA Choice was reduced (P < 0.01) for all durations of feeding ZH in Exp. 1. This effect was not observed in Exp. 2. Holstein steers clearly respond to the beta-agonist ZH, and 20 d of feeding ZH with a 3-d withdrawal significantly increased carcass weights, muscling, and carcass leanness.

  20. SAGA complex components and acetate repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A; Kelly, Joan M

    2012-11-01

    Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism.