Science.gov

Sample records for acetohydroxamic acid aha

  1. Photoluminescence studies on the complexation of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) in nitrate medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, P. N.; Mohapatra, M.; Godbole, S. V.

    2013-11-01

    UREX process has been proposed for selective extraction of U(VI) and Tc(VII) from nitric acid medium (∼1 M HNO3) using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as extractant and retaining Pu, Np and fission products in the aqueous phase. The feasibility of the use of luminescence spectroscopy as a technique to understand the complexation of trivalent f-elements cations viz. Eu(III) and Tb(III) with acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) in nitric acid medium has been examined. The luminescence lifetimes for the 1 × 10-3 M Eu(III) and AHA complex system decreased with increased AHA concentration from 116 ± 0.2 μs (no AHA) to 1.6 ± 0.1 μs (0.1 M AHA) which was attributed to dynamic quenching. The corrected fluorescence intensities were used to calculate the stability constant (log K) for the formation of 1:1 Eu3+-AHA complex as 1.42 ± 0.64 under the conditions of this study. By contrast, the Tb(III)-AHA system at pH 3 (HNO3) did not show any significant variation in the life times of the excited state (364 ± 9 μs) suggesting the absence of dynamic quenching. The spectral changes in Tb(III)-AHA system showed the formation of 1:1 complex (log K: 1.72 ± 0.21). These studies suggest that the extent of AHA complexation with the rare earth elements will be insignificant as compared to tetravalent metal ions Pu(IV) and Np(IV) under UREX process conditions.

  2. Reduction of Pertechnetate By Acetohydroxamic Acid: Formation of [tc**II(NO)(AHA)(2)(H(2)O)]**+ And Implications for the UREX Process

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.-M.S.; Lukens, W.W.; Poineau, F.; Czerwinski, K.R.

    2009-05-18

    Reductive nitrosylation and complexation of ammonium pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid has been achieved in aqueous nitric and perchloric acid solutions. The kinetics of the reaction depend on the relative concentrations of the reaction components and are accelerated at higher temperatures. The reaction does not occur unless conditions are acidic. Analysis of the X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic data is consistent with a pseudo-octahedral geometry and the linear Tc-N-O bond typical of technetium nitrosyl compounds, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy is consistent with a d{sup 5} Tc(II) nitrosyl complex. The nitrosyl source is generally AHA, but it may be augmented by some products of the reaction with nitric acid. The resulting low-valency trans-aquonitrosyl(diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex ([Tc{sup II}(NO)(AHA){sub 2}H{sub 2}O]{sup +}, 1) is highly soluble in water, extremely hydrophilic, and is not extracted by tri-n-butylphosphate in a dodecane diluent. Its extraction properties are not pH-dependent: potentiometric-spectrophotometric titration studies indicate a single species from pH 4 down to -0.6 (calculated). This molecule is resistant to oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, even at high pH, and can undergo substitution to form other technetium nitrosyl complexes. The potential formation of 1 during reprocessing may strongly impact the fate of technetium in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  3. Reduction of pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid: Formation of [TcNO(AHA)2(H2O)]+ and implications for the UREX process.

    SciTech Connect

    1Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Nuclear Science and Technology Division, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, 89154-4006; Gong, Cynthia-May S; Poineau, Frederic; Lukens, Wayne W; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2008-02-26

    Reductive nitrosylation and complexation of ammonium pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid has been achieved in aqueous nitric and perchloric acid solutions. The kinetics of the reaction depend on the relative concentrations of the reaction components and are accelerated at higher temperatures. The reaction does not occur unless conditions are acidic. Analysis of the x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic data is consistent with a pseudo-octahedral geometry with the linear Tc-N-O bond typical of technetium nitrosyl compounds, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy is consistent with a the d{sup 5} Tc(II) nitrosyl complex. The nitrosyl source is generally AHA, but may be augmented by products of reaction with nitric acid. The resulting low-valency trans-aquonitrosyl(diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex (1) is highly soluble in water, extremely hydrophilic, and is not extracted by tri-n-butylphosphate in a dodecane diluent. Its extraction properties are not pH-dependent; titration studies indicate a single species from pH 4.5 down to -0.6 (calculated). This molecule is resistant to oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, even at high pH, and can undergo substitution to form other technetium nitrosyl complexes. The formation of 1 may strongly impact the fate of technetium in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  4. Next-generation purex flowsheets with acetohydroxamic acid as complexant for FBR and thermal-fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shekhar; Koganti, S.B.

    2008-07-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) is a novel complexant for recycle of nuclear-fuel materials. It can be used in ordinary centrifugal extractors, eliminating the need for electro-redox equipment or complex maintenance requirements in a remotely maintained hot cell. In this work, the effect of AHA on Pu(IV) distribution ratios in 30% TBP system was quantified, modeled, and integrated in SIMPSEX code. Two sets of batch experiments involving macro Pu concentrations (conducted at IGCAR) and one high-Pu flowsheet (literature) were simulated for AHA based U-Pu separation. Based on the simulation and validation results, AHA based next-generation reprocessing flowsheets are proposed for co-processing based FBR and thermal-fuel reprocessing as well as evaporator-less macro-level Pu concentration process required for MOX fuel fabrication. Utilization of AHA results in significant simplification in plant design and simpler technology implementations with significant cost savings. (authors)

  5. Acetohydroxamic Acid Complexes with Trivalent f-Block Metal Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Serguei I.; Choppin, Gregory

    2003-11-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid has been studied by optical absorbance spectroscopy as a complex forming reagent for the lighter trivalent lanthanides and actinides (Pu(III) and Am(III)) in aqueous solution at 2.0 M (NaClO4) ionic strength. The highest stoichiometry in all the cases studied has been found to be a 1:4 metal-to-ligand ratio; formation of tetrahydroxamato species requires a high excess of the ligand and alkaline pH, Spectrophotometric monitoring confirmed the presence of Pu(III) by electrochemical reduction of Pu(IV) in the course of the pH titration experiment. The formation constants can be used for optimization of processing flowsheets in the advanced PUREX process.

  6. Lectin-Conjugated Clarithromycin and Acetohydroxamic Acid-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles: a Novel Approach for Effective Treatment of H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sunil K; Haider, Tanweer; Kumar, Amrish; Jain, Akhlesh

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection remains challenging as it mainly colonized beneath the deep gastric mucosa and adheres to epithelial cells of the stomach. Concanavalin-A (Con-A)-conjugated gastro-retentive poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) and clarithromycin (CLR) were prepared and evaluated under in vitro conditions. Solvent evaporation method was employed for preparation of nanoparticles and characterized for particle size distribution, surface morphology, percent drug entrapment, and in vitro drug release in simulated gastric fluid. Optimized nanoparticles were conjugated with Con-A and further characterized for Con-A conjugation efficiency and mucoadhesion and tested for in vitro anti-H. pylori activity. The conjugation with Con-A further sustained the drug release over a period of 8 h when compared to non-conjugated nanoparticles of AHA and CLR. In vitro anti H. pylori study confirmed that Con-A-conjugated nanoparticles containing both drugs, i.e., CLR and AHA, had shown maximum zone of inhibition compared to other formulations. In a nut shell, results suggest that the developed systems could be used for better therapeutic activity against H. pylori infection.

  7. Experimental and theoretical vibrational spectroscopy studies of acetohydroxamic acid and desferrioxamine B in aqueous solution: Effects of pH and iron complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David C.; Nielsen, Steen B.; Jarzęcki, Andrzej A.; Spiro, Thomas G.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2005-07-01

    The deprotonation and iron complexation of the hydroxamate siderophore, desferrioxamine B (desB), and a model hydroxamate ligand, acetohydroxamic acid (aHa), were studied using infrared, resonance Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy. The experimental spectra were interpreted by a comparison with DFT calculated spectra of aHa (partly hydrated) and desB (reactive groups of unhydrated molecule) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. The ab initio models include three water molecules surrounding the deprotonation site of aHa to account for partial hydration. Experiments and calculations were also conducted in D 2O to verify spectral assignments. These studies of aHa suggest that the cis-keto-aHa is the dominant form, and its deprotonation occurs at the oxime oxygen atom in aqueous solutions. The stable form of iron-complexed aHa is identified as Fe(aHa) 3 for a wide range of pH conditions. The spectral information of aHa and an ab initio model of desB were used to interpret the chemical state of different functional groups in desB. Vibrational spectra of desB indicate that the oxime and amide carbonyl groups can be identified unambiguously. Vibrational spectral analysis of the oxime carbonyl after deprotonation and iron complexation of desB indicates that the conformational changes between anion and the iron-complexed anion are small. Enhanced electron delocalization in the oxime group of Fe-desB when compared to that of Fe(aHa) 3 may be responsible for higher stability constant of the former.

  8. Structure-activity relationship analysis of the peptide deformylase inhibitor 5-bromo-1H-indole-3-acetohydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    Petit, Sylvain; Duroc, Yann; Larue, Valéry; Giglione, Carmela; Léon, Carole; Soulama, Coralie; Denis, Alexis; Dardel, Frédéric; Meinnel, Thierry; Artaud, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    The lead compound 5-bromoindolyl-3-acetohydroxamic acid (10) was recently identified as a potent inhibitor of bacterial peptide deformylases (PDFs). The synthesis and associated activities of new variants were investigated at position 5 to optimize the fit at the S1' subsite and at position 1 to improve both potency and antibacterial activity. A morphomimetic series, termed "reverse-indole" was synthesized. The indole derivatives remain selective in vitro inhibitors of PDF2 over PDF1. Bromide is the best group at position 5 and cannot be replaced by bulkier substituents. In this series, an N-benzyl group at position 1 in 19 e improves the potency relative to 10. In the case of PDF1, and unlike PDF2, potency is increased as the alkyl chain becomes longer and more ramified. These data support the results of NMR footprinting experiments that were performed with (15)N-labeled Ni-PDF and the corresponding 3-acetic acid derivatives. Most of the compounds have antibacterial activities toward B. subtilis, but are inefficient toward E. coli owing to active removal by the major efflux pumps. Among the reverse-indole derivatives, 23 c, which is the exact mirror image of 19 e, shows strong potency in vitro against PDF2, but little against PDF1, although this compound displays significant antibacterial activity toward an efflux-minus mutant of E. coli. All the compounds were assessed with major pathogenic bacteria, but most of them are inefficient antibacterial agents. The reverse-indole compounds 23 a and 23 c have potency against S. pneumoniae that is similar to that of actinonin.

  9. Diversity of the Sediment Microbial Community in the Aha Watershed (Southwest China) in Response to Acid Mine Drainage Pollution Gradients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Tangfu; Sun, Min; Dong, Yiran; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Enzong; Tang, Song; Li, Jiwei

    2015-08-01

    Located in southwest China, the Aha watershed is continually contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) produced from upstream abandoned coal mines. The watershed is fed by creeks with elevated concentrations of aqueous Fe (total Fe > 1 g/liter) and SO4 (2-) (>6 g/liter). AMD contamination gradually decreases throughout downstream rivers and reservoirs, creating an AMD pollution gradient which has led to a suite of biogeochemical processes along the watershed. In this study, sediment samples were collected along the AMD pollution sites for geochemical and microbial community analyses. High-throughput sequencing found various bacteria associated with microbial Fe and S cycling within the watershed and AMD-impacted creek. A large proportion of Fe- and S-metabolizing bacteria were detected in this watershed. The dominant Fe- and S-metabolizing bacteria were identified as microorganisms belonging to the genera Metallibacterium, Aciditerrimonas, Halomonas, Shewanella, Ferrovum, Alicyclobacillus, and Syntrophobacter. Among them, Halomonas, Aciditerrimonas, Metallibacterium, and Shewanella have previously only rarely been detected in AMD-contaminated environments. In addition, the microbial community structures changed along the watershed with different magnitudes of AMD pollution. Moreover, the canonical correspondence analysis suggested that temperature, pH, total Fe, sulfate, and redox potentials (Eh) were significant factors that structured the microbial community compositions along the Aha watershed.

  10. APPLICATION OF FORMOHYDROXAMIC ACID IN NUCLEAR PROCESSING: SYNTHESIS AND COMPLEXATION WITH TECHNETIUM-99

    SciTech Connect

    Amber Wright; Edward Mausolf; Keri Campbell; Frederic Poineau; P. Paviet-Hartmann

    2010-05-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) is an organic ligand planned for use in the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process. It reduces neptunium and plutonium, and the resultant hydrophilic complexes are separated from uranium by extraction with tributyl phosphate (TBP) in a hydrocarbon diluent. AHA undergoes hydrolysis to acetic acid which will impede the recycling of nitric acid. During recent discussions of the UREX process, it has been proposed to replace AHA by formohydroxamic acid (FHA). FHA will undergo hydrolysis to formic acid which is volatile, thus allowing the recycling of nitric acid. The reported reduction potentials of AHA and pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) indicated that it may be possible for AHA to reduce technetium, altering its fate in the fuel cycle. At UNLV, it has been demonstrated that TcO{sub 4}{sup -} undergoes reductive nitrosylation by AHA under a variety of conditions. The resulting divalent technetium is complexed by AHA to form the pseudo-octahedral trans-aquonitrosyl (diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex ([Tc{sup II}(NO)(AHA){sub 2}H{sub 2}O]{sup +}). In this paper, we are reporting the synthesis of FHA and its complex formation with technetium along with the characterization of FHA crystals achieved by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the complexation of FHA with Tc and the results were compared with previous data on AHA. The first experiment involved the elution of Tc from a Reillex HP anion exchange resin, and the second one monitored the complexation of technetium with FHA by UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  11. Expression of the H+-ATPase AHA10 proton pump is associated with citric acid accumulation in lemon juice sac cells.

    PubMed

    Aprile, Alessio; Federici, Claire; Close, Timothy J; De Bellis, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Roose, Mikeal L

    2011-12-01

    The sour taste of lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) is determined by the amount of citric acid in vacuoles of juice sac cells. Faris is a "sweet" lemon variety since it accumulates low levels of citric acid. The University of California Riverside Citrus Variety Collection includes a Faris tree that produces sweet (Faris non-acid; FNA) and sour fruit (Faris acid; FA) on different branches; it is apparently a graft chimera with layer L1 derived from Millsweet limetta and layer L2 from a standard lemon. The transcription profiles of Faris sweet lemon were compared with Faris acid lemon and Frost Lisbon (L), which is a standard sour lemon genetically indistinguishable from Faris in prior work with SSR markers. Analysis of microarray data revealed that the transcriptomes of the two sour lemon genotypes were nearly identical. In contrast, the transcriptome of Faris sweet lemon was very different from those of both sour lemons. Among about 1,000 FNA-specific, presumably pH-related genes, the homolog of Arabidopsis H(+)-ATPase proton pump AHA10 was not expressed in FNA, but highly expressed in FA and L. Since Arabidopsis AHA10 is involved in biosynthesis and acidification of vacuoles, the lack of expression of the AHA10 citrus homolog represents a very conspicuous molecular feature of the FNA sweet phenotype. In addition, high expression of several 2-oxoglutarate degradation-related genes in FNA suggests activation of the GABA shunt and degradation of valine and tyrosine as components of the mechanism that reduces the level of citric acid in sweet lemon.

  12. The impact of acid mine drainage on the methylmercury cycling at the sediment-water interface in Aha Reservoir, Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    He, Tianrong; Zhu, Yuzhen; Yin, Deliang; Luo, Guangjun; An, Yanlin; Yan, HaiYu; Qian, Xiaoli

    2015-04-01

    The methylmercury (MeHg) cycling at water-sediment interface in an acid mine drainage (AMD)-polluted reservoir (Aha Reservoir) and a reference site (Hongfeng Reservoir) were investigated and compared. Both reservoirs are seasonal anoxic and alkaline. The concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, iron, and manganese in Aha Reservoir were enriched compared to the reference levels in Hongfeng reservoir due to the AMD input. It was found that the MeHg accumulation layer in Aha Reservoir transitioned from the top sediment layer in winter to the water-sediment interface in spring and then to the overlying water above sediment in summer. It supported the assumption that spring methylation activity may start in sediments and migrate into the water column with seasonal variation. The weaker methylation in sediment during spring and summer was caused by the excessive sulfide (∼15-20 μM) that reduced the bioavailability of mercury, while sulfate reduction potential was in the optimal range for the methylation in the overlying water. This led to a transport flux of MeHg from water to sediment in spring and summer. In contrast, such inversion of MeHg accumulation layer did not occur in Hongfeng Reservoir. The sulfate reduction potential was in the optimal range for the methylation in top sediment, and dissolved MeHg was positively related to sulfide in pore water of Hongfeng Reservoir (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). This result suggested that accumulation of MeHg in lake water and cycling of MeHg at sediment-water interface associate with some sensitive environmental factors, such as sulfur.

  13. Resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibitor herbicides currently comprise the largest site-of-action group (with 54 active ingredients across five chemical groups) and have been widely used in world agriculture since they were first introduced in 1982. Resistance evolution in weeds to AHAS inhibitors has been rapid and identified in populations of many weed species. Often, evolved resistance is associated with point mutations in the target AHAS gene; however non-target-site enhanced herbicide metabolism occurs as well. Many AHAS gene resistance mutations can occur and be rapidly enriched owing to a high initial resistance gene frequency, simple and dominant genetic inheritance and lack of major fitness cost of the resistance alleles. Major advances in the elucidation of the crystal structure of the AHAS (Arabidopsis thaliana) catalytic subunit in complex with various AHAS inhibitor herbicides have greatly improved current understanding of the detailed molecular interactions between AHAS, cofactors and herbicides. Compared with target-site resistance, non-target-site resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides is less studied and hence less understood. In a few well-studied cases, non-target-site resistance is due to enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism (metabolic resistance), mimicking that occurring in tolerant crop species and often involving cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. However, the specific herbicide-metabolising, resistance-endowing genes are yet to be identified in resistant weed species. The current state of mechanistic understanding of AHAS inhibitor herbicide resistance is reviewed, and outstanding research issues are outlined.

  14. Interaction of imidazole containing hydroxamic acids with Fe(III): hydroxamate versus imidazole coordination of the ligands.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Etelka; Bátka, Dávid; Csóka, Hajnalka; Nagy, Nóra V

    2007-01-01

    Solution equilibrium studies on Fe(III) complexes formed with imidazole-4-carbohydroxamic acid (Im-4-Cha), N-Me-imidazole-4-carbohydroxamic acid (N-Me-Im-4-Cha), imidazole-4-acetohydroxamic acid (Im-4-Aha), and histidinehydroxamic acid (Hisha) have been performed by using pH-potentiometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, EPR, ESI-MS, and H1-NMR methods. All of the obtained results demonstrate that the imidazole moiety is able to play an important role very often in the interaction with Fe(III), even if this metal ion prefers the hydroxamate chelates very much. If the imidazole moiety is in alpha-position to the hydroxamic one (Im-4-Cha and N-Me-Im-4-Cha) its coordination to the metal ion is indicated unambiguously by our results. Interestingly, parallel formation of (Nimidazole, Ohydroxamate), and (Ohydroxamate, Ohydroxamate) type chelates seems probable with N-Me-Im-4-Cha. The imidazole is in beta-position to the hydroxamic moiety in Im-4-Aha and an intermolecular noncovalent (mainly H-bonding) interaction seems to organize the intermediate-protonated molecules in this system. Following the formation of mono- and bishydroxamato mononuclear complexes, only EPR silent species exists in the Fe(III)-Hisha system above pH 4, what suggests the rather significant "assembler activity" of the imidazole (perhaps together with the ammonium moiety).

  15. Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2016-01-01

    Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments.

  16. Using Aha! Moments to Understand Leadership Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lori L.; Lewis, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    As Huber (2002) noted, striving to understand how leadership is taught and learned is both a challenge and an opportunity facing leadership educators. This article describes the "Leadership Aha! Moment" assignment used in a leadership theory course to help students recognize the intersection of leadership theories and their daily lives while…

  17. The Aeromonas caviae AHA0618 gene modulates cell length and influences swimming and swarming motility.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Rebecca C; Parker, Jennifer L; Kumbhar, Ramhari; Mesnage, Stephane; Shaw, Jonathan G; Stafford, Graham P

    2014-12-17

    Aeromonas caviae is motile via a polar flagellum in liquid culture, with a lateral flagella system used for swarming on solid surfaces. The polar flagellum also has a role in cellular adherence and biofilm formation. The two subunits of the polar flagellum, FlaA and FlaB, are posttranslationally modified by O-linked glycosylation with pseudaminic acid on 6-8 serine and threonine residues within the central region of these proteins. This modification is essential for the formation of the flagellum. Aeromonas caviae possesses the simplest set of genes required for bacterial glycosylation currently known, with the putative glycosyltransferase, Maf1, being described recently. Here, we investigated the role of the AHA0618 gene, which shares homology (37% at the amino acid level) with the central region of a putative deglycosylation enzyme (HP0518) from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, which also glycosylates its flagellin and is proposed to be part of a flagellin deglycosylation pathway. Phenotypic analysis of an AHA0618 A. caviae mutant revealed increased swimming and swarming motility compared to the wild-type strain but without any detectable effects on the glycosylation status of the polar flagellins when analyzed by western blot analysis or mass spectroscopy. Bioinformatic analysis of the protein AHA0618, demonstrated homology to a family of l,d-transpeptidases involved in cell wall biology and peptidoglycan cross-linking (YkuD-like). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy analysis of the wild-type and AHA0618-mutant A. caviae strains revealed the mutant to be subtly but significantly shorter than wild-type cells; a phenomenon that could be recovered when either AHA0618 or H. pylori HP0518 were introduced. We can therefore conclude that AHA0618 does not affect A. caviae behavior by altering polar flagellin glycosylation levels but is likely to have a role in peptidoglycan processing at the bacterial cell wall, consequently altering

  18. Synthesis, crystal structures, molecular docking, and in vitro biological activities evaluation of transition metal complexes with 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) piperazine-1-carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Ya-Na; Xu, Chun-Na; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Cao, Qi-Yue; Qian, Shao-Song; Qin, Jie; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Three novel mononuclear complexes, [MⅡ(L)2·2H2O], (M = Cu, Ni or Cd; HL = 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)piperazine-1-carboxylic acid)were synthesized and structurally determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Molecular docking study preliminarily revealed that complex 1 had potential urease inhibitory activity. In accordance with the result of calculation, in vitro tests of the inhibitory activities of complexes 1-3 against jack bean urease showed complex 1 (IC50 = 8.17 ± 0.91 μM) had better inhibitory activities than the positive reference acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) (IC50 = 26.99 ± 1.43 μM), while complexes 2 and 3 showed no inhibitory activities., kinetics study was carried out to explore the mechanism of the inhibiting of the enzyme, and the result indicated that complex 1 was a competitive inhibitor of urease. Albumin binding experiment and in vitro toxicity evaluation of complex 1 were implemented to explore its Pharmacological properties.

  19. The Mechanism of Hsp90 ATPase Stimulation by Aha1

    PubMed Central

    Wolmarans, Annemarie; Lee, Brian; Spyracopoulos, Leo; LaPointe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hsp90 is a dimeric molecular chaperone responsible for the folding, maturation, and activation of hundreds of substrate proteins called ‘clients’. Numerous co-chaperone proteins regulate progression through the ATP-dependent client activation cycle. The most potent stimulator of the Hsp90 ATPase activity is the co-chaperone Aha1p. Only one molecule of Aha1p is required to fully stimulate the Hsp90 dimer despite the existence of two, presumably identical, binding sites for this regulator. Using ATPase assays with Hsp90 heterodimers, we find that Aha1p stimulates ATPase activity by a three-step mechanism via the catalytic loop in the middle domain of Hsp90. Binding of the Aha1p N domain to the Hsp90 middle domain exerts a small stimulatory effect but also drives a separate conformational rearrangement in the Hsp90 N domains. This second event drives a rearrangement in the N domain of the opposite subunit and is required for the stimulatory action of the Aha1p C domain. Furthermore, the second event can be blocked by a mutation in one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer but not the other. This work provides a foundation for understanding how post-translational modifications regulate co-chaperone engagement with the Hsp90 dimer. PMID:27615124

  20. AHA Moments of Science and Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caniglia, Joanne C.; Borgerding, Lisa; Courtney, Scott

    2017-01-01

    This research study explored pre-service teachers' (PST) reflections of their student teaching experiences through AHA moments. Participants included 37 pre-service teachers enrolled in mathematics and science student teaching seminars. Qualitative methods were used to analyze PSTs' written and verbal responses to questions regarding AHA…

  1. How important is the synclinal conformation of sulfonylureas to explain the inhibition of AHAS: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Jaña, Gonzalo A; Delgado, Eduardo J; Medina, Fabiola E

    2014-03-24

    The inhibitory activity of 15 sulfonylureas on acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is addressed theoretically in order to stress how important the conformation is to explain their differences as AHAS inhibitors. The study includes calculations in gas phase, solution, and in the enzymatic environment. The results suggest that both the activation Gibbs free energy and Gibbs free energy change associated with the conformational change in solution allow for determining if sulfonylureas should have high or low inhibition activity. QM/MM calculations were also carried out in order to identify the role of the amino acid residues and the effects involved in the stabilization of the active conformation in the binding pocket. On the other hand, the analysis of the frontier molecular orbitals of the sulfonylureas in the binding pocket allowed us to explain the inhibitory activity in terms of the reactivity of the carbonyl carbon.

  2. Microbial mobilization of cesium from illite: Role of organic acids and siderophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazotte, Alice; Peron, Olivier; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Lebeau, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the behavior of cesium (Cs) in soils and geological formations is interesting in the context of nuclear accidents and nuclear waste disposals. Indeed, this radionuclide with a 30-years half-life can contaminate crops and more generally the food chain. Cs with properties similar to potassium is known to be strongly accumulated in the clays of upper soil horizons. While excavation of contaminated soil cannot be feasible for the whole contaminated surfaces (huge volumes to be cleaned-up), in situ methods could provide a sustainable and low cost solution. Phytoextraction is one of a few solutions for in situ remediation of soils contaminated by trace elements and it preserves the quality of agricultural soils. However, many improvements are still needed to enhance phytoextraction effectiveness. The combination of bioaugmentation (soil inoculation with exogenous microorganisms) with phytoextraction is likely to increase the bioaccessibility of radionuclides and their accumulation in plants. The role of bacteria on soil-pollutants can be direct (direct metal complexation) and/or indirect (weathering of clays adsorbing Cs). This study aims to provide more specifically a mechanistic understanding of the bacterial mobilization of Cs from soil with the prospect of soil bioremediation. Bacterial metabolites of Pseudomonas fluorescens (ATCC 17400) were supplied to illite spiked with 0.1 and 1 mM of Cs. Purified siderophores including pyoverdine from P. fluorescens, or the whole metabolites from the bacterial culture supernatant were compared to low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) (citric and oxalic acids) at 0.04 mM, or synthetic chelants, i.e., acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) and desferrioxamine mesylate (DFOM) ranging from 50 µM up to 250 µM. The release of Cs and the structural alteration of illite (release of Al, Fe and Si) were monitored. When compared to the control, no release of Cs from illite was observed with LMWOA. On the contrary, a slight release

  3. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2016, New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Amaki, Makoto; Konagai, Nao; Fujino, Masashi; Kawakami, Shouji; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Takuya; Sugano, Yasuo; Tahara, Yoshio; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2016-12-22

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2016 were held on November 12-16 at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center, New Orleans, LA. This 5-day event featured cardiovascular clinical practice covering all aspects of basic, clinical, population, and translational content. One of the hot topics at AHA 2016 was precision medicine. The key presentations and highlights from the AHA Scientific Sessions 2016, including "precision medicine" as one of the hot topics, are herein reported.

  4. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) in vivo assay for screening imidazolinone-resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Vega, T; Breccia, G; Gil, M; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L; Nestares, G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity response to imidazolinones and its possible use as a selection method for evaluating AHAS inhibitor resistance. In vivo AHAS assay and the comparison of parameters from dose-response curves have been used as a valid tool for comparing sunflower lines and hybrids differing in imidazolinone resistance. The sunflower resistant genotypes evaluated here were 100-fold and 20-fold more resistant compared with the susceptible line for imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. This assay also allowed discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous genotypes for I(mr1) locus that codify for the catalytic subunit of AHAS. The in vivo AHAS assay described in this study was useful for the selection of sunflower genotypes differing in herbicide resistance and could be a useful tool when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in sunflower.

  5. Operational Definition of Active and Healthy Aging (AHA): The European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on AHA Reference Site Questionnaire: Montpellier October 20-21, 2014, Lisbon July 2, 2015.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Malva, Joao; Nogues, Michel; Mañas, Leocadio Rodriguez; Vellas, Bruno; Farrell, John

    2015-12-01

    A core operational definition of active and healthy aging (AHA) is needed to conduct comparisons. A conceptual AHA framework proposed by the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing Reference Site Network includes several items such as functioning (individual capability and underlying body systems), well-being, activities and participation, and diseases (including noncommunicable diseases, frailty, mental and oral health disorders). The instruments proposed to assess the conceptual framework of AHA have common applicability and availability attributes. The approach includes core and optional domains/instruments depending on the needs and the questions. A major common domain is function, as measured by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). WHODAS 2.0 can be used across all diseases and healthy individuals. It covers many of the AHA dimensions proposed by the Reference Site network. However, WHODAS 2.0 does not include all dimensions proposed for AHA assessment. The second common domain is health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A report of the AHA questionnaire in the form of a spider net has been proposed to facilitate usual comparisons across individuals and groups of interest.

  6. The AHA Moment: Assessment of the Redox Stability of Ionic Liquids Based on Aromatic Heterocyclic Anions (AHAs) for Nuclear Separations and Electric Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Shkrob, Ilya A; Marin, Timothy W

    2015-11-19

    Because of their extended conjugated bond network, aromatic compounds generally have higher redox stability than less saturated compounds. We conjectured that ionic liquids (ILs) consisting of aromatic heterocyclic anions (AHAs) may exhibit improved radiation and electrochemical stability. Such properties are important in applications of these ILs as diluents in radionuclide separations and electrolytes in the electric energy storage devices. In this study, we systematically examine the redox chemistry of the AHAs. Three classes of these anions have been studied: (i) simple 5-atom ring AHAs, such as the pyrazolide and triazolides, (ii) AHAs containing an adjacent benzene ring, and (iii) AHAs containing electron-withdrawing groups that were introduced to reduce their basicity and interaction with metal ions. It is shown that fragmentation in the reduced and oxidized states of these AHAs does not generally occur, and the two main products, respectively, are the H atom adduct and the imidyl radical. The latter species occurs either as an N σ-radical or as an N π-radical, depending on the length of the N-N bond, and the state that is stabilized in the solid matrix is frequently different from that having the lowest energy in the gas phase. In some instances, the formation of the sandwich π-stack dimer radical anions has been observed. For trifluoromethylated anions, H adduct formation did not occur; instead, there was facile loss of fluoride from their fluorinated groups. The latter can be problematic in nuclear separations, but beneficial in batteries. Overall, our study suggests that AHA-based ILs are viable candidates for use as radiation-exposed diluents and electrolytes.

  7. Recalibration of the ACC/AHA Risk Score in Two Population-Based German Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras Gala, Tonia; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Baumert, Jens; Lehmann, Nils; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Erbel, Raimund; Meisinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines introduced an algorithm for risk assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) within 10 years. In Germany, risk assessment with the ESC SCORE is limited to cardiovascular mortality. Applicability of the novel ACC/AHA risk score to the German population has not yet been assessed. We therefore sought to recalibrate and evaluate the ACC/AHA risk score in two German cohorts and to compare it to the ESC SCORE. Methods We studied 5,238 participants from the KORA surveys S3 (1994–1995) and S4 (1999–2001) and 4,208 subjects from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study (2000–2003). There were 383 (7.3%) and 271 (6.4%) first non-fatal or fatal ASCVD events within 10 years in KORA and in HNR, respectively. Risk scores were evaluated in terms of calibration and discrimination performance. Results The original ACC/AHA risk score overestimated 10-year ASCVD rates by 37% in KORA and 66% in HNR. After recalibration, miscalibration diminished to 8% underestimation in KORA and 12% overestimation in HNR. Discrimination performance of the ACC/AHA risk score was not affected by the recalibration (KORA: C = 0.78, HNR: C = 0.74). The ESC SCORE overestimated by 5% in KORA and by 85% in HNR. The corresponding C-statistic was 0.82 in KORA and 0.76 in HNR. Conclusions The recalibrated ACC/AHA risk score showed strongly improved calibration compared to the original ACC/AHA risk score. Predicting only cardiovascular mortality, discrimination performance of the commonly used ESC SCORE remained somewhat superior to the ACC/AHA risk score. Nevertheless, the recalibrated ACC/AHA risk score may provide a meaningful tool for estimating 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease in Germany. PMID:27732641

  8. What about False Insights? Deconstructing the Aha! Experience along Its Multiple Dimensions for Correct and Incorrect Solutions Separately.

    PubMed

    Danek, Amory H; Wiley, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The subjective Aha! experience that problem solvers often report when they find a solution has been taken as a marker for insight. If Aha! is closely linked to insightful solution processes, then theoretically, an Aha! should only be experienced when the correct solution is found. However, little work has explored whether the Aha! experience can also accompany incorrect solutions ("false insights"). Similarly, although the Aha! experience is not a unitary construct, little work has explored the different dimensions that have been proposed as its constituents. To address these gaps in the literature, 70 participants were presented with a set of difficult problems (37 magic tricks), and rated each of their solutions for Aha! as well as with regard to Suddenness in the emergence of the solution, Certainty of being correct, Surprise, Pleasure, Relief, and Drive. Solution times were also used as predictors for the Aha!

  9. What about False Insights? Deconstructing the Aha! Experience along Its Multiple Dimensions for Correct and Incorrect Solutions Separately

    PubMed Central

    Danek, Amory H.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The subjective Aha! experience that problem solvers often report when they find a solution has been taken as a marker for insight. If Aha! is closely linked to insightful solution processes, then theoretically, an Aha! should only be experienced when the correct solution is found. However, little work has explored whether the Aha! experience can also accompany incorrect solutions (“false insights”). Similarly, although the Aha! experience is not a unitary construct, little work has explored the different dimensions that have been proposed as its constituents. To address these gaps in the literature, 70 participants were presented with a set of difficult problems (37 magic tricks), and rated each of their solutions for Aha! as well as with regard to Suddenness in the emergence of the solution, Certainty of being correct, Surprise, Pleasure, Relief, and Drive. Solution times were also used as predictors for the Aha! experience. This study reports three main findings: First, false insights exist. Second, the Aha! experience is multidimensional and consists of the key components Pleasure, Suddenness and Certainty. Third, although Aha! experiences for correct and incorrect solutions share these three common dimensions, they are also experienced differently with regard to magnitude and quality, with correct solutions emerging faster, leading to stronger Aha! experiences, and higher ratings of Pleasure, Suddenness, and Certainty. Solution correctness proffered a slightly different emotional coloring to the Aha! experience, with the additional perception of Relief for correct solutions, and Surprise for incorrect ones. These results cast some doubt on the assumption that the occurrence of an Aha! experience can serve as a definitive signal that a true insight has taken place. On the other hand, the quantitative and qualitative differences in the experience of correct and incorrect solutions demonstrate that the Aha! experience is not a mere epiphenomenon. Strong Aha

  10. AHaH Computing–From Metastable Switches to Attractors to Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Michael Alexander; Molter, Timothy Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Modern computing architecture based on the separation of memory and processing leads to a well known problem called the von Neumann bottleneck, a restrictive limit on the data bandwidth between CPU and RAM. This paper introduces a new approach to computing we call AHaH computing where memory and processing are combined. The idea is based on the attractor dynamics of volatile dissipative electronics inspired by biological systems, presenting an attractive alternative architecture that is able to adapt, self-repair, and learn from interactions with the environment. We envision that both von Neumann and AHaH computing architectures will operate together on the same machine, but that the AHaH computing processor may reduce the power consumption and processing time for certain adaptive learning tasks by orders of magnitude. The paper begins by drawing a connection between the properties of volatility, thermodynamics, and Anti-Hebbian and Hebbian (AHaH) plasticity. We show how AHaH synaptic plasticity leads to attractor states that extract the independent components of applied data streams and how they form a computationally complete set of logic functions. After introducing a general memristive device model based on collections of metastable switches, we show how adaptive synaptic weights can be formed from differential pairs of incremental memristors. We also disclose how arrays of synaptic weights can be used to build a neural node circuit operating AHaH plasticity. By configuring the attractor states of the AHaH node in different ways, high level machine learning functions are demonstrated. This includes unsupervised clustering, supervised and unsupervised classification, complex signal prediction, unsupervised robotic actuation and combinatorial optimization of procedures–all key capabilities of biological nervous systems and modern machine learning algorithms with real world application. PMID:24520315

  11. AHaH computing-from metastable switches to attractors to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Michael Alexander; Molter, Timothy Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Modern computing architecture based on the separation of memory and processing leads to a well known problem called the von Neumann bottleneck, a restrictive limit on the data bandwidth between CPU and RAM. This paper introduces a new approach to computing we call AHaH computing where memory and processing are combined. The idea is based on the attractor dynamics of volatile dissipative electronics inspired by biological systems, presenting an attractive alternative architecture that is able to adapt, self-repair, and learn from interactions with the environment. We envision that both von Neumann and AHaH computing architectures will operate together on the same machine, but that the AHaH computing processor may reduce the power consumption and processing time for certain adaptive learning tasks by orders of magnitude. The paper begins by drawing a connection between the properties of volatility, thermodynamics, and Anti-Hebbian and Hebbian (AHaH) plasticity. We show how AHaH synaptic plasticity leads to attractor states that extract the independent components of applied data streams and how they form a computationally complete set of logic functions. After introducing a general memristive device model based on collections of metastable switches, we show how adaptive synaptic weights can be formed from differential pairs of incremental memristors. We also disclose how arrays of synaptic weights can be used to build a neural node circuit operating AHaH plasticity. By configuring the attractor states of the AHaH node in different ways, high level machine learning functions are demonstrated. This includes unsupervised clustering, supervised and unsupervised classification, complex signal prediction, unsupervised robotic actuation and combinatorial optimization of procedures-all key capabilities of biological nervous systems and modern machine learning algorithms with real world application.

  12. Building Bridges for Innovation in Ageing: Synergies between Action Groups of the EIP on AHA.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Bewick, M; Cano, A; Eklund, P; Fico, G; Goswami, N; Guldemond, N A; Henderson, D; Hinkema, M J; Liotta, G; Mair, A; Molloy, W; Monaco, A; Monsonis-Paya, I; Nizinska, A; Papadopoulos, H; Pavlickova, A; Pecorelli, S; Prados-Torres, A; Roller-Wirnsberger, R E; Somekh, D; Vera-Muñoz, C; Visser, F; Farrell, J; Malva, J; Andersen Ranberg, K; Camuzat, T; Carriazo, A M; Crooks, G; Gutter, Z; Iaccarino, G; Manuel de Keenoy, E; Moda, G; Rodriguez-Mañas, L; Vontetsianos, T; Abreu, C; Alonso, J; Alonso-Bouzon, C; Ankri, J; Arredondo, M T; Avolio, F; Bedbrook, A; Białoszewski, A Z; Blain, H; Bourret, R; Cabrera-Umpierrez, M F; Catala, A; O'Caoimh, R; Cesari, M; Chavannes, N H; Correia-da-Sousa, J; Dedeu, T; Ferrando, M; Ferri, M; Fokkens, W J; Garcia-Lizana, F; Guérin, O; Hellings, P W; Haahtela, T; Illario, M; Inzerilli, M C; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Kardas, P; Keil, T; Maggio, M; Mendez-Zorrilla, A; Menditto, E; Mercier, J; Michel, J P; Murray, R; Nogues, M; O'Byrne-Maguire, I; Pappa, D; Parent, A S; Pastorino, M; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Siciliano, P; Teixeira, A M; Tsartara, S I; Valiulis, A; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Wickman, M; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Barbagallo, M; Canonica, G W; Klimek, L; Maggi, S; Aberer, W; Akdis, C; Adcock, I M; Agache, I; Albera, C; Alonso-Trujillo, F; Angel Guarcia, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Apostolo, J; Arshad, S H; Attalin, V; Avignon, A; Bachert, C; Baroni, I; Bel, E; Benson, M; Bescos, C; Blasi, F; Barbara, C; Bergmann, K C; Bernard, P L; Bonini, S; Bousquet, P J; Branchini, B; Brightling, C E; Bruguière, V; Bunu, C; Bush, A; Caimmi, D P; Calderon, M A; Canovas, G; Cardona, V; Carlsen, K H; Cesario, A; Chkhartishvili, E; Chiron, R; Chivato, T; Chung, K F; d'Angelantonio, M; De Carlo, G; Cholley, D; Chorin, F; Combe, B; Compas, B; Costa, D J; Costa, E; Coste, O; Coupet, A-L; Crepaldi, G; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Du Toit, G; Dubakiene, R; Dupeyron, A; Emuzyte, R; Fiocchi, A; Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fonseca, J; Fougère, B; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, G; Garcia-Aymeric, J; Garcia-Zapirain, B; Gemicioğlu, B; Gouder, C; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Hermosilla-Gimeno, I; Héve, D; Holland, C; Humbert, M; Hyland, M; Johnston, S L; Just, J; Jutel, M; Kaidashev, I P; Khaitov, M; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keijser, W; Kerstjens, H; Knezović, J; Kowalski, M; Koppelman, G H; Kotska, T; Kovac, M; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lepore, V; MacNee, W; Maggio, M; Magnan, A; Majer, I; Manning, P; Marcucci, M; Marti, T; Masoli, M; Melen, E; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Millot-Keurinck, J; Mlinarić, H; Momas, I; Montefort, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Moreno-Casbas, T; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nadif, R; Nalin, M; Navarro-Pardo, E; Nekam, K; Ninot, G; Paccard, D; Pais, S; Palummeri, E; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N K; Papanikolaou, C; Passalacqua, G; Pastor, E; Perrot, M; Plavec, D; Popov, T A; Postma, D S; Price, D; Raffort, N; Reuzeau, J C; Robine, J M; Rodenas, F; Robusto, F; Roche, N; Romano, A; Romano, V; Rosado-Pinto, J; Roubille, F; Ruiz, F; Ryan, D; Salcedo, T; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Scichilone, N; Siciliano, P; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Sourdet, S; Sousa-Costa, E; Spranger, O; Sooronbaev, T; Sruk, V; Sterk, P J; Todo-Bom, A; Touchon, J; Tramontano, D; Triggiani, M; Tsartara, S I; Valero, A L; Valovirta, E; van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; van den Berge, M; Vandenplas, O; Ventura, M T; Vergara, I; Vezzani, G; Vidal, D; Viegi, G; Wagemann, M; Whalley, B; Wickman, M; Wilson, N; Yiallouros, P K; Žagar, M; Zaidi, A; Zidarn, M; Hoogerwerf, E J; Usero, J; Zuffada, R; Senn, A; de Oliveira-Alves, B

    2017-01-01

    The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) proposed six Action Groups. After almost three years of activity, many achievements have been obtained through commitments or collaborative work of the Action Groups. However, they have often worked in silos and, consequently, synergies between Action Groups have been proposed to strengthen the triple win of the EIP on AHA. The paper presents the methodology and current status of the Task Force on EIP on AHA synergies. Synergies are in line with the Action Groups' new Renovated Action Plan (2016-2018) to ensure that their future objectives are coherent and fully connected. The outcomes and impact of synergies are using the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the EIP on AHA (MAFEIP). Eight proposals for synergies have been approved by the Task Force: Five cross-cutting synergies which can be used for all current and future synergies as they consider overarching domains (appropriate polypharmacy, citizen empowerment, teaching and coaching on AHA, deployment of synergies to EU regions, Responsible Research and Innovation), and three cross-cutting synergies focussing on current Action Group activities (falls, frailty, integrated care and chronic respiratory diseases).

  13. Studies of methyl 2-nitroimidazole-1-acetohydroxamate (KIN-804) 1: effect on free radical scavenging system in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zeid, M; Hori, H; Nagasawa, H; Uto, Y; Inayama, S

    2000-02-01

    Methyl 2-nitroimidazole-1-acetohydroxamate (KIN-804) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative containing a hydroxamate side chain designed to enhance the radiosensitization response of hypoxic cells. The possible sensitization of tumor tissue by KIN-804 can be evaluated through investigation of the levels of the free radical scavengers; namely, glutathione (GSH) and its complex enzyme system including glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). Female albino mice were inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma in the thigh. Administration of KIN-804 (i.p. 80 mg/kg body weight) was carried out 20 min before localized irradiation of 10 Gy. The data revealed that KIN-804 administration, followed or not by gamma irradiation, resulted in a significant decrease in GSH content in tumor tissues associated with inhibition in GR and G-6-PD activities. Blood GSH-Px was enhanced in tumor inoculated mice and the administration of KIN-804 returned it to the normal value. These changes were more noticeable in tumor bearing mice exposed to both KIN-804 and irradiation.

  14. On the inhibition of AHAS by chlorimuron ethyl: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaña, Gonzalo A.; Alderete, Joel B.; Delgado, Eduardo J.

    2011-11-01

    The reaction between chlorimuron ethyl (CE) herbicide and the HEThDP- intermediate is addressed with the tools of computational chemistry, molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry, in order to check the postulated hypothesis that the inhibition of AHAS could proceed via a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction between HEThDP- and chlorimuron ethyl. The obtained results agree well with the empirical evidence for the inhibition process of AHAS by sulfonylureas, supporting the idea that the inhibition process could proceed by this via. It is also found that the nucleophilic attack of the Cα of the intermediate on the ipso carbon of the herbicide pyrimidinic ring is the rate-limiting step.

  15. Adherence index based on the AHA 2006 diet and lifestyle recommendations is associated with select cardiovascular disease risk factors in older Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The effect of adherence to the American Heart Association (AHA) 2006 Diet and Lifestyle recommendations is unknown. Objective: To develop a unique diet and lifestyle score based on the AHA 2006 Diet and Lifestyle (AHA DL) recommendations. We evaluated this score in relation to available ...

  16. Different cross-resistance patterns to AHAS herbicides of two tribenuron-methyl resistant flixweed (Descurainiasophia L.) biotypes in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Qian; Liu, Ming Jie; Mei, Yu; Zheng, Ming Qi

    2014-06-01

    Flixweed (Descurainiasophia L.) is a troublesome weed in winter wheat fields in China. Two flixweed accessions, HB08 and HB16 with a Pro-197-Leu and Pro-197-Ser AHAS-mutation respectively, have evolved very high levels resistance to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide, tribenuron-methyl. Cross resistance of HB08 and HB16 to AHAS herbicides of SU, imidazolinone (IMI), triazolopyrimidine (TP) and pyrimidinyl-thiobenozoate (PTB) families was investigated by dose-response experiments. In addition, the effects of AHAS herbicides on the activity of AHAS extracted from HB08 and HB16 plants were evaluated. HB16 exhibited cross resistance to SU herbicides halosulfuron-methyl and triasulfuron, TP herbicides flumetsulam and penoxsulam, but displayed more sensitivity to IMI herbicide imazethapyr. By contrast, HB08 only showed cross resistance to SU herbicides halosulfuron-methyl and triasulfuron. The in vitro sensitivity of AHAS to AHAS herbicides is consistent with the results of dose-response experiments and the estimated Pearson's r values for HB08 and HB16 are 0.996 and 0.912 respectively. These indicated that altered AHAS sensitivity was responsible mainly for cross resistance patterns observed in the two resistant biotypes.

  17. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Yin, Xiaochang; Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase.

  18. A comparison of the outcome of CPR according to AHA 2005 ACLS and AHA 2010 ACLS guidelines in cardiac arrest: multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Ocal, Oktay; Ozucelik, Dogac Niyazi; Avci, Akkan; Yazicioglu, Mustafa; Aydin, Yilmaz; Ayvaci, Baris Murat; Dogan, Halil; Aciksari, Kurtulus; Cukurova, Zafer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a difference in the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival with sequel-free recovery rates between the patients who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) according to 2005 and 2010 guidelines. This study was conducted in the Bakırköy Dr. Sadi Konuk and Kartal Lütfi Kırdar Training and Research Hospital between dates of October 2010 and 28 February 2011 after approval of Ethics Committee. In the first months of the study, CPR was performed according to AHA 2005 ACLS guidelines (Group-1), while CPR was performed according to AHA 2010 ACLS guidelines after November 2010 (Group-2). Patients were assessed for neurological deficit with Cerebral Performance Categories Scale. Mean age was found as 69.01±13.05 (minimum: 21, maximum: 92) in 86 patients included. Of the 33 patients underwent CPR in the Group 1, ROSC was achieved in 51.5%; and 6.1% of these patients were discharged. Of the 53 patients underwent CPR in the Group 2, ROSC was achieved in 37.7%; and 9.4% of these patients were discharged. Although the number of living patients in Group 2 was higher than Group 1, the difference was not found statistically significant (5 versus 2), (P>0.05). But, neurological outcomes were found better with 2010 compared to 2005 guidelines (3/7 versus 0/2 good cerebral performance). It was found that the 2005 CPR guidelines practices in ED were more successful than the 2010 CPR guidelines practices in ROSC, but less successful in the rate of discharge from hospital and neurological sequel-free discharge rate.

  19. Crystal structures of TM0549 and NE1324—two orthologs of E. coli AHAS isozyme III small regulatory subunit

    PubMed Central

    Petkowski, Janusz J.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Zheng, Heping; Skarina, Tatiana; Onopriyenko, Olena; Cymborowski, Marcin T.; Koclega, Katarzyna D.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek

    2007-01-01

    Crystal structures of two orthologs of the regulatory subunit of acetohydroxyacid synthase III (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6) from Thermotoga maritima (TM0549) and Nitrosomonas europea (NE1324) were determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction methods with the use of selenomethionine derivatives at 2.3 Å and 2.5 Å, respectively. TM0549 and NE1324 share the same fold, and in both proteins the polypeptide chain contains two separate domains of a similar size. Each protein contains a C-terminal domain with ferredoxin-type fold and an N-terminal ACT domain, of which the latter is characteristic for several proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. The ferredoxin domain is stabilized by a calcium ion in the crystal structure of NE1324 and by a Mg(H2O)6 2+ ion in TM0549. Both TM0549 and NE1324 form dimeric assemblies in the crystal lattice. PMID:17586771

  20. [Evaluation of Knowledge on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Pregnant Woman among G2010 AHA-BLS-HCP Participants].

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Yamamoto, Noriyasu; Kuroda, Tatsumi; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac arrest during pregnancy is a rare event but it needs rapid and effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation to prevent loss of two lives. In this questionnaire survey, G2010 AHA-BLS Healthcare Provider Course participants answered four questions about CPR caveats which should be considered during pregnancy. The correct answer ratio is generally low among the four questions. Special situation explanation addition such as left uterine displacement in the AHA-BLS healthcare provider course may be needed for the empowerment of knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation during pregnancy.

  1. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2012, Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held for the first time in Los Angeles in 2012, with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science in the field presented and heard by physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel from 100 countries. Japan accounted for the second highest number of submitted abstracts and the Japanese Circulation Society actively contributed to the success of the AHA Scientific Sessions this year. The Late-Breaking Clinical Trial sessions comprised 27 clinical studies presented in the main hall. The FREEDOM study revealed the superiority of using a coronary artery bypass graft for diabetic multivessel coronary artery diseases over percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. A new peptide hormone, serelaxin, improved dyspnea in heart failure patients and significantly reduced mortality rates according to the RELAX-AHF study. In the basic sciences, primary necrosis in mitochondria was the hot topic, while genetics, including genome-wide association studies, and epigenetics were strong features of the basic and clinical cardiovascular (CV) science. It was also clear that regenerative medicine is now part of mainstream CV research, with several clinical trials underway and many basic research projects ongoing around the world. Induced pluripotent stem cells in particular have the potential to change CV medicine, and will underpin the next era of regenerative medicine and personal therapies for heart diseases.

  2. Operational Definition of Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA): A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Kuh, D; Bewick, M; Standberg, T; Farrell, J; Pengelly, R; Joel, M E; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Mercier, J; Bringer, J; Camuzat, T; Bourret, R; Bedbrook, A; Kowalski, M L; Samolinski, B; Bonini, S; Brayne, C; Michel, J P; Venne, J; Viriot-Durandal, P; Alonso, J; Avignon, A; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Bousquet, P J; Combe, B; Cooper, R; Hardy, R; Iaccarino, G; Keil, T; Kesse-Guyot, E; Momas, I; Ritchie, K; Robine, J M; Thijs, C; Tischer, C; Vellas, B; Zaidi, A; Alonso, F; Andersen Ranberg, K; Andreeva, V; Ankri, J; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Augé, P; Berr, C; Bertone, P; Blain, H; Blasimme, A; Buijs, G J; Caimmi, D; Carriazo, A; Cesario, A; Coletta, J; Cosco, T; Criton, M; Cuisinier, F; Demoly, P; Fernandez-Nocelo, S; Fougère, B; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Goldberg, M; Guldemond, N; Gutter, Z; Harman, D; Hendry, A; Heve, D; Illario, M; Jeandel, C; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Krys, O; Kula, D; Laune, D; Lehmann, S; Maier, D; Malva, J; Matignon, P; Melen, E; Mercier, G; Moda, G; Nizinkska, A; Nogues, M; O'Neill, M; Pelissier, J Y; Poethig, D; Porta, D; Postma, D; Puisieux, F; Richards, M; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Romano, V; Roubille, F; Schulz, H; Scott, A; Senesse, P; Slagter, S; Smit, H A; Somekh, D; Stafford, M; Suanzes, J; Todo-Bom, A; Touchon, J; Traver-Salcedo, V; Van Beurden, M; Varraso, R; Vergara, I; Villalba-Mora, E; Wilson, N; Wouters, E; Zins, M

    2015-11-01

    Health is a multi-dimensional concept, capturing how people feel and function. The broad concept of Active and Healthy Ageing was proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the process of optimizing opportunities for health to enhance quality of life as people age. It applies to both individuals and population groups. A universal Active and Healthy Ageing definition is not available and it may differ depending on the purpose of the definition and/or the questions raised. While the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) has had a major impact, a definition of Active and Healthy Ageing is urgently needed. A meeting was organised in Montpellier, France, October 20-21, 2014 as the annual conference of the EIP on AHA Reference Site MACVIA-LR (Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif en Languedoc Roussillon) to propose an operational definition of Active and Healthy Ageing including tools that may be used for this. The current paper describes the rationale and the process by which the aims of the meeting will be reached.

  3. The Hsp90 Co-chaperones Sti1, Aha1, and P23 Regulate Adaptive Responses to Antifungal Azoles

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaokui; Xue, Wei; Yin, Yajing; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Shaojie; Sun, Xianyun

    2016-01-01

    Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. However, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. In this study, by susceptibility test of Neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 Hsp90/Calcineurin system member genes (including 8 Hsp90 co-chaperone genes) to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1 (Hop1 in yeast), Aha1, and P23 (Sba1 in yeast) were required for the basal resistance to antifungal azoles and heat stress. Deletion of any of them resulted in hypersensitivity to azoles and heat. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that the toxic sterols eburicol and 14α-methyl-3,6-diol were significantly accumulated in the sti1 and p23 deletion mutants after ketoconazole treatment, which has been shown before to led to cell membrane stress. At the transcriptional level, Aha1, Sti1, and P23 positively regulate responses to ketoconazole stress by erg11 and erg6, key genes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are highly conserved in fungi, and sti1 and p23 deletion also increased the susceptibility to azoles in Fusarium verticillioides. These results indicate that Hsp90-cochaperones Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are critical for the basal azole resistance and could be potential targets for developing new antifungal agents. PMID:27761133

  4. The aesthetic aha: on the pleasure of having insights into Gestalt.

    PubMed

    Muth, Claudia; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-09-01

    Are challenging stimuli appreciated due to perceptual insights during elaboration? Drawing on the literature regarding aesthetic appreciation, several approaches can be identified. For instance, fluency of processing as well as perceptual challenge are supposed to increase appreciation: One group (Reber, Schwarz, & Winkielman, 2004) claims that fluency of processing increases appreciation. Others link aesthetics to engagement: Creation and manipulation of sense itself should be rewarding (Ramachandran & Hirstein, 1999). We experimentally tested the influence of insights during elaboration on liking. Pairs of stimuli - hardly detectable two-tone images including a face (Mooney face) and meaningless stimuli matched for complexity - were presented repeatedly. Having an insight as well as the intensity of the insight predicted subsequent gains in liking. This paper qualifies the role of insight (-aha!) on aesthetic appreciation through the effects of elaboration and problem-solving on understanding the processing of modern art.

  5. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2013, Dallas.

    PubMed

    Ishimori, Naoki; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Yamada, Satoshi; Yokoshiki, Hisashi; Mitsuyama, Hirofumi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held in Dallas on November 16-20, 2013. The meeting is one of the most leading conferences of cardiology in the world, with over 18,000 professional attendees from more than 105 countries. There were 315 invited sessions and 443 abstract sessions, comprising more than 5,000 presentations. The sessions were expanded to 26 program tracks, which included and integrated basic, translational, clinical, and population science. In the series of late-breaking sessions, updates of results from 20 clinical trials were disclosed. Japanese scientists submitted the second most abstracts to the Scientific Sessions in 2013. We appreciate the significant contribution to the sessions by Japanese cardiologists as well as the Japanese Circulation Society.

  6. Case study 7. Compiled aha moments in enzyme kinetics: authors' experiences.

    PubMed

    Tweedie, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    On 15 August 2012, USA Today reported that "aha moment" had been included in a list of new words being added to Merriam Webster's Collegiate (®) Dictionary in the year 2012 (http://content.usatoday.com/communities/entertainment/post/2012/08/oprah-has-a-moment-in-the-dictionary/1 ; accessed on 25 August 2012 and http://www.merriam-webster.com/info/newwords12.htm ; accessed on 25 August 2012). This word originated in the late 1930s, was popularized by modern day television, and symbolizes "a precise point in time in which one has sudden understanding of or insight into something," as defined by Merriam Webster (http://nws.merriam-webster.com/opendictionary/newword_display_alpha.php?letter=Ah ; accessed on 25 August 2012). The short dialogues that follow describe lessons learned and scientific epiphanies of the contributors to this book.

  7. Putting patients first. A conversation with Benjamin Chu, M.D., the new chair-elect of the AHA.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    The son of immigrants, Benjamin Chu, M.D., has followed an unusual life path from New York's Chinatown to Southern California, where he is now an executive with Kaiser Foundation Hospitals and Health Plan. Dismayed by the daunting challenges facing health care, the AHA chair-elect became a strong believer that the system can and must change, always keeping the focus firmly on the patient.

  8. Identifying Inhibitors of the Hsp90-Aha1 Protein Complex, a Potential Target to Drug Cystic Fibrosis, by Alpha Technology.

    PubMed

    Ihrig, Verena; Obermann, Wolfgang M J

    2017-01-01

    Deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 of the protein CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), a chloride channel in lung epithelium, is the most common cause for cystic fibrosis. As a consequence, folding of the CFTRΔF508 protein and delivery to the cell surface are compromised, resulting in degradation of the polypeptide. Accordingly, decreased surface presence of CFTRΔF508 causes impaired chloride ion conductivity and is associated with mucus accumulation, a hallmark of cystic fibrosis. Molecular chaperones such as Hsp90 and its co-chaperone partner Aha1 are thought to play a key role in targeting folding-deficient CFTRΔF508 for degradation. Thus, pharmacologic manipulation to inhibit Hsp90-Aha1 chaperone complex formation appears beneficial to inhibit proteolysis of CFTRΔF508 and rescue its residual chloride channel activity. Therefore, we have screened a collection of 14,400 druglike chemical compounds for inhibitors of the Hsp90-Aha1 complex by amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay (Alpha). We identified two druglike molecules that showed promising results when we tested their ability to restore chloride channel activity in culture cells expressing the mutant CFTRΔF508 protein. The two molecules were most effective in combination with the corrector VX-809 and may therefore serve as a lead compound that can be further developed into a drug to treat cystic fibrosis patients.

  9. Influence of Aldrich humic acid and metal precipitates on survivorship of mayflies (Atalophlebia spp.) to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2014-03-01

    Humic substances (HS) have been shown to decrease the toxicity of environmental stressors, but knowledge of their ability to influence the toxicity of multiple stressors such as metal mixtures and low pH associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) is still limited. The present study investigated the ability of HS to decrease toxicity of AMD to mayflies (Atalophlebia spp.). The AMD was collected from the Mount Morgan (Mount Morgan, Queensland, Australia) open pit. Mayflies were exposed to concentrations of AMD at 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% in the presence of 0 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 20 mg/L Aldrich humic acid (AHA). A U-shaped response was noted in all AHA treatments, with higher rates of mortality recorded in the 2% and 3% dilutions compared with 4%. This result was linked with increased precipitates in the lower concentrations. A follow-up trial showed significantly higher concentrations of precipitates in the 2% and 3% AMD dilutions in the 0 mg/L AHA treatment and higher precipitates in the 2% AMD, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L AHA, treatments. Humic substances were shown to significantly increase survival of mayflies exposed to AMD by up to 50% in the 20 mg/L AHA treatment. Humic substances may have led to increased survival after AMD exposure through its ability to influence animal physiology and complex heavy metals. These results are valuable in understanding the ability of HS to influence the toxicity of multiple stressors.

  10. Assessment of adherence to ACC/AHA guidelines in primary management of patients with NSTEMI in a referral cardiology hospital.

    PubMed

    Farahzadi, Mohammadreza; Shafiee, Akbar; Bozorgi, Ali; Mahmoudian, Mehran; Sadeghian, Saeed

    2015-03-01

    Acute coronary syndromes are considered as a global major health-care problem, and Iran as a developing country is of no exception. We aimed to investigate the degree of adherence to American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline for the management of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in patients who presented to the emergency department at Tehran Heart Center. Data of the patients who presented with acute chest pain to the emergency department of Tehran Heart Center within 1 year and were diagnosed as NSTEMI by the cardiologist in charge were included. The details of the initial managements based on the ACC/AHA guideline for NSTEMI of the patients were recorded from the patients' files in the emergency department for this study. Then, the frequency of guideline-related management in the study population was calculated and reported. A total of 684 patients [mean age = 62.95 ± 12.19 years; male gender = 460 (67.3%)] were diagnosed as NSTEMI at the emergency department of our center. Initial management based on the current guideline including administration of aspirin and clopidogrel was performed in 98.4% and 95.0%, respectively. Intravenous heparin was administered in 67.0% of the patients, whereas 30.8% of patients received enoxaparin. Following the initial management, coronary angiography was performed in 563 (82.3%) patients within 48 hours from the admission. Adherence to ACC/AHA guideline for the management of NSTEMI in patients who presented to a tertiary health-care center was in a high degree.

  11. Assessment of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for Statin Treatment Strategy according to ACC/AHA Guidelines in Asymptomatic Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Donghee; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Lee, Ji Hyun; Rizvi, Asim; Park, Hyo Eun; Choi, Su-Yeon; Sung, Jidong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) cholesterol management guidelines advocate the use of statin treatment for prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the usefulness of coronary artery calcium (CAC) for stratifying potential candidates of statin use among asymptomatic Korean individuals. Materials and Methods A total of 31375 subjects who underwent CAC scoring as part of a general health examination were enrolled in the current study. Statin eligibility was categorized as statin recommended (SR), considered (SC), and not recommended (SN) according to ACC/AHA guidelines. Cox regression analysis was employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidential intervals (CI) after stratifying the subjects according to CAC scores of 0, 1–100, and >100. Number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one mortality event during study follow up was calculated for each group. Results Mean age was 54.4±7.5 years, and 76.3% were male. During a 5-year median follow-up (interquartile range; 3–7), there were 251 (0.8%) deaths from all-causes. A CAC >100 was independently associated with mortality across each statin group after adjusting for cardiac risk factors (e.g., SR: HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.07–2.38; SC: HR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.09–8.13, and SN: HR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.08–9.17). Notably, patients with CAC >100 displayed a lower NNT in comparison to the absence of CAC or CAC 1–100 in SC and SN groups. Conclusion In Korean asymptomatic individuals, CAC scoring might prove useful for reclassifying patient eligibility for receiving statin therapy based on updated 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines. PMID:27873499

  12. Impact of the New ACC/AHA Guidelines on the Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in a Managed Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Josephine N.; Caglar, Toros; Stockl, Karen M.; Lew, Heidi C.; Solow, Brian K.; Chan, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Background In November 2013, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) together issued new guidelines for the treatment of patients with high cholesterol, providing a new paradigm for the management of cholesterol in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Objective To examine the impact of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment guidelines on pharmacy utilization of cholesterol-lowering drugs in a real-world managed care setting. Methods Pharmacy claims from OptumRx, a national pharmacy benefit management provider, for the period between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2013 (baseline period), were used to identify candidates for cholesterol-lowering therapy and to estimate the number of potential patients who will be starting or intensifying statin therapy based on the updated cholesterol treatment guidelines. Potential candidates for cholesterol-lowering treatments included patients with diabetes or hypertension aged 40 to 75 years who were not already receiving a cholesterol-lowering medication, as well as patients receiving cholesterol-lowering therapies during the baseline period. The baseline cholesterol-lowering medication market share was used to project changes in pharmacy utilization over the next 3 years. Results Based on the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment guidelines, there will be a 25% increase in the proportion of the overall population that is treated with statins over the next 3 years, increasing from 3,909,407 (27.7%) patients to 4,892,668 (34.7%) patients. The largest proportion of the increase in statin utilization is projected to be for primary prevention in patients aged 40 to 75 years who were not receiving any cholesterol-lowering treatment at baseline. These projected changes will increase the overall number of statin prescriptions by 25% and will decrease the number of nonstatin cholesterol-lowering medication prescriptions by 68% during the next 3 years. Conclusion The

  13. Effects of alpha-hydroxy acids on the human skin of Japanese subjects: the rationale for chemical peeling.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Uede, Koji; Yonei, Nozomi; Kishioka, Akiko; Ohtani, Toshio; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2006-01-01

    Alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) agents, such as glycolic acid and lactic acid, have been used as therapeutic agents for more than a quarter of a century. Recently, they have been used as agents to rejuvenate photo-aged skin. It is believed that these AHA agents induce the epidermis to remodel and accelerate desquamation, thus exerting their therapeutic effects. In this study, we investigated the histological differences in skin treated with glycolic, lactic, citric and acetic acids once daily for 6 weeks. The melanin pigments in the basal layer were less prominent in the glycolic and lactic acid-treated skin than in the citric and acetic acid-treated skin. The melanin deposits in the horny layers were equal for all AHA. However, the melanin deposits in the squamous layers were less prominent in the glycolic and lactic acid-treated skins than in the citric and acetic acid-treated skins; this was analogous to observations of the basal layers. Collagen I and procollagen I were increased after treatment with glycolic, lactic and citric acid in the upper dermis, but were not increased with acetic acid treatment. However, the staining of the epidermis and dermis for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) after treatment was not significantly different among the agents. Our data suggest that longer treatment intervals with glycolic and lactic acid can cause improvements in both the epidermal and dermal components and support the usefulness of AHA for rejuvenating photo-damaged skin.

  14. A novel C-terminal homologue of Aha1 co-chaperone binds to heat shock protein 90 and stimulates its ATPase activity in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meetali; Shah, Varun; Tatu, Utpal

    2014-04-17

    Cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been shown to be essential for many infectious pathogens and is considered a potential target for drug development. In this study, we have carried out biochemical characterization of Hsp90 from a poorly studied protozoan parasite of clinical importance, Entamoeba histolytica. We have shown that Entamoeba Hsp90 can bind to both ATP and its pharmacological inhibitor, 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin), with Kd values of 365.2 and 10.77 μM, respectively, and it has a weak ATPase activity with a catalytic efficiency of 4.12×10(-4) min(-1) μM(-1). Using inhibitor 17-AAG, we have shown dependence of Entamoeba on Hsp90 for its growth and survival. Hsp90 function is regulated by various co-chaperones. Previous studies suggest a lack of several important co-chaperones in E. histolytica. In this study, we describe the presence of a novel homologue of co-chaperone Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase), EhAha1c, lacking a canonical Aha1 N-terminal domain. We also show that EhAha1c is capable of binding and stimulating ATPase activity of EhHsp90. In addition to highlighting the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors as drugs against amoebiasis, our study highlights the importance of E. histolytica in understanding the evolution of Hsp90 and its co-chaperone repertoire.

  15. Mixing politics with pleasure. An AHA vice president organizes a fund-raiser for the Bush-Cheney campaign. Does this constitute a conflict of interest?

    PubMed

    Tieman, Jeff; Fong, Tony

    2003-10-06

    An American Hospital Association lobbyist's fund-raiser for the Bush-Cheney re-election campaign last week at Washington's Capitol Hill Club raised eyebrows, along with questions about the gray area between personal advocacy and the industry's political agenda. The AHA was not involved in the event, association officials say, but some observers remain skeptical.

  16. An ounce of prevention. The AHA tries to ward off political attacks by showing its worth through healthcare ROI study, election cards and a new logo.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Patrick

    2004-02-02

    Fearing political backlash, the American Hospital Association is taking the offensive, crafting an image that shows hospitals are providing essential services despite the hefty price tag. In an attempt to rebrand itself, the AHA is touting a study on healthcare return on investment, has created an election card detailing "Seven Steps to a Healthier America" and debuted a new logo.

  17. 2013 ACC/AHA versus 2004 NECP ATP III Guidelines in the Assignment of Statin Treatment in a Korean Population with Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yu Mi; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Kim, Eun Hee; Park, Duk-Woo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Woo Je

    2015-01-01

    Background The usefulness of the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of blood cholesterol in the Asian population remains controversial. In this study, we investigated whether eligibility for statin therapy determined by the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines is better aligned with the presence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis detected by CCTA (coronary computed tomography angiography) compared to the previously recommended 2004 NCEP ATP III guidelines. Methods We collected the data from 5,837 asymptomatic subjects who underwent CCTA using MDCT during routine health examinations. Based on risk factor assessment and lipid data, we determined guideline-based eligibility for statin therapy according to the 2013 ACC/AHA and 2004 NCEP ATP III guidelines. We defined the presence and severity of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis detected in CCTA according to the presence of significant coronary artery stenosis (defined as >50% stenosis), plaques, and the degree of coronary calcification. Results As compared to the 2004 ATP III guidelines, a significantly higher proportion of subjects with significant coronary stenosis (61.8% vs. 33.8%), plaques (52.3% vs. 24.7%), and higher CACS (CACS >100, 63.6% vs. 26.5%) was assigned to statin therapy using the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines (P < .001 for all variables). The area under the curves of the pooled cohort equation of the new guidelines in detecting significant stenosis, plaques, and higher CACS were significantly higher than those of the Framingham risk calculator. Conclusions Compared to the previous ATP III guidelines, the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines were more sensitive in identifying subjects with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis detected by CCTA in an Asian population. PMID:26372638

  18. Low Resolution Structural Studies Indicate that the Activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1) of Leishmania braziliensis Has an Elongated Shape Which Allows Its Interaction with Both N- and M-Domains of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Seraphim, Thiago V.; Alves, Marina M.; Silva, Indjara M.; Gomes, Francisco E. R.; Silva, Kelly P.; Murta, Silvane M. F.; Barbosa, Leandro R. S.; Borges, Júlio C.

    2013-01-01

    The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins’ interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90. PMID:23826147

  19. Differential Modulation of Functional Dynamics and Allosteric Interactions in the Hsp90-Cochaperone Complexes with p23 and Aha1: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2013-01-01

    Allosteric interactions of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 with a large cohort of cochaperones and client proteins allow for molecular communication and event coupling in signal transduction networks. The integration of cochaperones into the Hsp90 system is driven by the regulatory mechanisms that modulate the progression of the ATPase cycle and control the recruitment of the Hsp90 clientele. In this work, we report the results of computational modeling of allosteric regulation in the Hsp90 complexes with the cochaperones p23 and Aha1. By integrating protein docking, biophysical simulations, modeling of allosteric communications, protein structure network analysis and the energy landscape theory we have investigated dynamics and stability of the Hsp90-p23 and Hsp90-Aha1 interactions in direct comparison with the extensive body of structural and functional experiments. The results have revealed that functional dynamics and allosteric interactions of Hsp90 can be selectively modulated by these cochaperones via specific targeting of the regulatory hinge regions that could restrict collective motions and stabilize specific chaperone conformations. The protein structure network parameters have quantified the effects of cochaperones on conformational stability of the Hsp90 complexes and identified dynamically stable communities of residues that can contribute to the strengthening of allosteric interactions. According to our results, p23-mediated changes in the Hsp90 interactions may provide “molecular brakes” that could slow down an efficient transmission of the inter-domain allosteric signals, consistent with the functional role of p23 in partially inhibiting the ATPase cycle. Unlike p23, Aha1-mediated acceleration of the Hsp90-ATPase cycle may be achieved via modulation of the equilibrium motions that facilitate allosteric changes favoring a closed dimerized form of Hsp90. The results of our study have shown that Aha1 and p23 can modulate the Hsp90-ATPase activity

  20. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2016-11-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate.

  1. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate. PMID:27869192

  2. A novel interaction partner for the C-terminus of Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane H+-ATPase (AHA1 isoform): site and mechanism of action on H+-ATPase activity differ from those of 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Piero; Valera, Marco; Albumi, Cristina; Bonza, Maria Cristina; Giacometti, Sonia; Ravera, Giuseppe; Murgia, Irene; Soave, Carlo; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    2002-08-01

    Using the two-hybrid technique we identified a novel protein whose N-terminal 88 amino acids (aa) interact with the C-terminal regulatory domain of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase from Arabidopsis thaliana (aa 847-949 of isoform AHA1). The corresponding gene has been named Ppi1 for Proton pump interactor 1. The encoded protein is 612 aa long and rich in charged and polar residues, except for the extreme C-terminus, where it presents a hydrophobic stretch of 24 aa. Several genes in the A. thaliana genome and many ESTs from different plant species share significant similarity (50-70% at the aa level over stretches of 200-600 aa) to Ppi1. The PPI1 N-terminus, expressed in bacteria as a fusion protein with either GST or a His-tag, binds the PM H+-ATPase in overlay experiments. The same fusion proteins and the entire coding region fused to GST stimulate H+-ATPase activity. The effect of the His-tagged peptide is synergistic with that of fusicoccin (FC) and of tryptic removal of a C-terminal 10 kDa fragment. The His-tagged peptide binds also the trypsinised H+-ATPase. Altogether these results indicate that PPI1 N-terminus is able to modulate the PM H+-ATPase activity by binding to a site different from the 14-3-3 binding site and is located upstream of the trypsin cleavage site.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of two new hydroxamic acids derivatives and their metal complexes. An investigation on the keto/enol, E/Z and hydroxamate/hydroximate forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiguzel, Ekrem; Yilmaz, Fatih; Emirik, Mustafa; Ozil, Musa

    2017-01-01

    2-phenylbenzimidazole-N-acetohydroxamic acid (HL1), 2-phenylbenzimidazole-N-butanohydroxamic acid (HL2) and Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR spectrometry, LC-MS (ESI+) and thermal analyses. The results of NMR spectra and theoretical calculations showed that the hydroxamic acids were in the keto-E and keto-Z conformations. The elemental analysis and thermal analysis indicated that M:L ratio of the complexes are 1:1 and the spectral analysis confirmed that hydroxamate groups are keto form in the Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of 2-phenylbenzimidazole-N-butanohydroxamic acid and enol form in the other complexes.

  4. Development of a web-based tool for the assessment of health and economic outcomes of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) is a European Commission led policy initiative to address the challenges of demographic change in Europe. For monitoring the health and economic impact of the social and technological innovations carried out by more than 500 stakeholder's groups ('commitments') participating in the EIP on AHA, a generic and flexible web-based monitoring and assessment tool is currently being developed. Aim This paper describes the approach for developing and implementing this web-based tool, its main characteristics and capability to provide specific outcomes that are of value to the developers of an intervention, as well as a series of case studies planned before wider rollout. Methods The tool builds up from a variety of surrogate endpoints commonly used across the diverse set of EIP on AHA commitments in order to estimate health and economic outcomes in terms of incremental changes in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as well as health and social care utilisation. A highly adaptable Markov model with initially three mutually exclusive health states ('baseline health', 'deteriorated health' and 'death') provides the basis for the tool which draws from an extensive database of epidemiological, economic and effectiveness data; and also allows further customisation through remote data entry enabling more accurate and context specific estimation of intervention impact. Both probabilistic sensitivity analysis and deterministic scenario analysis allow assessing the impact of parameter uncertainty on intervention outcomes. A set of case studies, ranging from the pre-market assessment of early healthcare technologies to the retrospective analysis of established care pathways, will be carried out before public rollout, which is envisaged end 2015. Conclusion Monitoring the activities carried out within the EIP on AHA requires an approach that is both flexible and consistent in the way health and

  5. Comparison of statin eligibility according to the Adult Treatment Panel III, ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guideline, and presence of carotid plaque by ultrasound in Mexican mestizo patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Delgado, Dionicio A; Azpiri-Lopez, Jose R; Colunga-Pedraza, Iris J; Cardenas-de la Garza, Jesus A; Vera-Pineda, Raymundo; Garcia-Colunga, Judith I; Arvizu-Rivera, Rosa I; Martinez-Moreno, Adrian; Villarreal-Perez, Jesus Z; Elizondo-Riojas, Guillermo; Garza Elizondo, Mario A

    2016-11-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Guidelines of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2013 and the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) differ in their strategies to recommend initiation of statin therapy. The presence of carotid plaque (CP) by carotid ultrasound is an indication to begin statin therapy. We aimed to compare the recommendation to initiate statin therapy according to the ACC/AHA 2013 guidelines, ATP-III guidelines, and CP by carotid ultrasound. We then carried out an observational, cross-sectional study of 62 statin-naive Mexican mestizo RA patients, aged 40 to 75, who fulfilled the 1987 or 2010 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria. CP was evaluated with B-mode ultrasound. Cohen's kappa (k) was used to assess agreement between ACC/AHA 2013 guidelines, ATP-III guidelines, and the presence of CP, considering a p < 0.05 as statistically significant. Agreement was classified as slight (0.01-0.20), fair (0.21-0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), substantial (0.61-0.80), and an almost perfect agreement (0.81-1.00). Slight agreement (k = 0.096) was found when comparing statin recommendation between CP and ATP-III. Fair agreement (k = 0.242) was revealed between ACC/AHA 2013 and ATP-III. Comparison between ACC/AHA 2013 and CP showed moderate agreement (k = 0.438). ACC/AHA 2013 guidelines could be an adequate and cost-effective tool to evaluate the need of statin therapy in Mexican mestizo RA patients, with moderate agreement with the presence of CP by ultrasound.

  6. Assessment of 2013 AHA/ACC ASCVD risk scores with behavioral characteristics of an urban cohort in India

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Vidya P.; Edathadathil, Fabia; Sathyapalan, Dipu; Moni, Merlin; Don, Ann; Balachandran, Sabarish; Pushpa, Binny; Prasanna, Preetha; Sivaram, Nithu; Nair, Anupama; Vinod, Nithu; Jayaprasad, Rekha; Menon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death and disability in India. Early and sustained exposure to behavioral risk factors leads to development of CVDs. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline risk of a “hard CVD event” in subjects attending comprehensive health clinic and assess behavioral characteristics in “at risk” population. Using WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance modified questionnaire, prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and risk factors was estimated in this cross-sectional study of 4507 subjects. Baseline cardiovascular risk was determined using Framingham risk score (FRS) and American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) algorithms. Modifiable behavior associated with high CVD risk was assessed. Among 40 to 59-year olds, ASCVD risk tool derived both a 10-year and lifetime risk score, which were used to stratify the cohort into 3 risk groups, namely, a high 10-year and high lifetime, a low 10-year and high lifetime, and a low 10-year and low lifetime risks. Dyslipidemia (30.6%), hypertension (25.5%), diabetes mellitus (20%), and obstructive airway disorders (17.6%) were most prevalent NCDs in our cohort. The ASCVD score stratified 26.1% subjects into high 10-yr and 59.5% into high lifetime risk while FRS classified 17.2% into high 10-year risk. Compared with FRS, the ASCVD risk estimator identified a larger proportion of subjects “at risk” of developing CVD. A high prevalence of alcohol use (38.4%), decreased intake of fruits and vegetables (96.2%) and low physical activity (58%) were observed in “at risk” population. Logistic regression analysis showed that in 40 to 59-year group, regular and occasional drinkers were 8.5- and 3.1-fold more likely to be in high 10-year and high lifetime ASCVD risk category than in low 10-year and low lifetime risk group. Similarly, regular drinkers and occasional drinkers were 2

  7. Insights into Abundant Rumen Ureolytic Bacterial Community Using Rumen Simulation System

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Di; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Pengpeng; Zheng, Nan; Bu, Dengpan; Beckers, Yves; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Urea, a non-protein nitrogen for dairy cows, is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia by urease produced by ureolytic bacteria in the rumen, and the ammonia is used as nitrogen for rumen bacterial growth. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ureolytic bacteria community in the rumen. To explore the ruminal ureolytic bacterial community, urea, or acetohydroxamic acid (AHA, an inhibitor of urea hydrolysis) were supplemented into the rumen simulation systems. The bacterial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced by Miseq high-throughput sequencing and used to reveal the ureoltyic bacteria by comparing different treatments. The results revealed that urea supplementation significantly increased the ammonia concentration, and AHA addition inhibited urea hydrolysis. Urea supplementation significantly increased the richness of bacterial community and the proportion of ureC genes. The composition of bacterial community following urea or AHA supplementation showed no significant difference compared to the groups without supplementation. The abundance of Bacillus and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae increased significantly following urea supplementation. Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, and Actinomyces exhibited a positive response to urea supplementation and a negative response to AHA addition. Results retrieved from the NCBI protein database and publications confirmed that the representative bacteria in these genera mentioned above had urease genes or urease activities. Therefore, the rumen ureolytic bacteria were abundant in the genera of Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Bacillus, and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae. Insights into abundant rumen ureolytic bacteria provide the regulation targets to mitigate urea hydrolysis and increase efficiency of urea nitrogen utilization in ruminants. PMID:27446045

  8. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

    2013-10-01

    Most of the aqueous processes developed, or under consideration worldwide for the recycling of used nuclear fuel (UNF) utilize the oxido-reduction properties of actinides to separate them from other radionuclides. Generally, after acid dissolution of the UNF, (essentially in nitric acid solution), actinides are separated from the raffinate by liquid-liquid extraction using specific solvents, associated along the process, with a particular reductant that will allow the separation to occur. For example, the industrial PUREX process utilizes hydroxylamine as a plutonium reductant. Hydroxylamine has numerous advantages: not only does it have the proper attributes to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III), but it is also a non-metallic chemical that is readily decomposed to innocuous products by heating. However, it has been observed that the presence of high nitric acid concentrations or impurities (such as metal ions) in hydroxylamine solutions increase the likelihood of the initiation of an autocatalytic reaction. Recently there has been some interest in the application of simple hydrophilic hydroxamic ligands such as acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) for the stripping of tetravalent actinides in the UREX process flowsheet. This approach is based on the high coordinating ability of hydroxamic acids with tetravalent actinides (Np and Pu) compared with hexavalent uranium. Thus, the use of AHA offers a route for controlling neptunium and plutonium in the UREX process by complexant based stripping of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from the TBP solvent phase, while U(VI) ions are not affected by AHA and remain solvated in the TBP phase. In the European GANEX process, AHA is also used to form hydrophilic complexes with actinides and strip them from the organic phase into nitric acid. However, AHA does not decompose completely when treated with nitric acid and hampers nitric acid recycling. In lieu of using AHA in the UREX + process, formohydroxamic acid (FHA), although not commercially available, hold

  9. Prognostic factors for remission of and survival in acquired hemophilia A (AHA): results from the GTH-AH 01/2010 study.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Andreas; Klamroth, Robert; Scharf, Rüdiger E; Trappe, Ralf U; Holstein, Katharina; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Gottstein, Saskia; Geisen, Ulrich; Schenk, Joachim; Scholz, Ute; Schilling, Kristina; Neumeister, Peter; Miesbach, Wolfgang; Manner, Daniela; Greil, Richard; von Auer, Charis; Krause, Manuela; Leimkühler, Klaus; Kalus, Ulrich; Blumtritt, Jan-Malte; Werwitzke, Sonja; Budde, Eva; Koch, Armin; Knöbl, Paul

    2015-02-12

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is caused by autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII). Immunosuppressive treatment (IST) results in remission of disease in 60% to 80% of patients over a period of days to months. IST is associated with frequent adverse events, including infections as a leading cause of death. Predictors of time to remission could help guide IST intensity but have not been established. We analyzed prognostic factors in 102 prospectively enrolled patients treated with a uniform IST protocol. Partial remission (PR; defined as no active bleeding, FVIII restored >50 IU/dL, hemostatic treatment stopped >24 hours) was achieved by 83% of patients after a median of 31 days (range 7-362). Patients with baseline FVIII <1 IU/dL achieved PR less often and later (77%, 43 days) than patients with ≥1 IU/dL (89%, 24 days). After adjustment for other baseline characteristics, low FVIII remained associated with a lower rate of PR (hazard ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.81, P < .01). In contrast, PR achieved on steroids alone within ≤21 days was more common in patients with FVIII ≥1 IU/dL and inhibitor concentration <20 BU/mL (odds ratio 11.2, P < .0001). Low FVIII was also associated with a lower rate of complete remission and decreased survival. In conclusion, presenting FVIII and inhibitor concentration are potentially useful to tailor IST in AHA.

  10. Humic substances of varying types increase survivorship of the freshwater shrimp Caridina sp. D to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2014-07-01

    Differences relating to the ability of various types of humic substances (HS) to influence toxicity of pollutants have been reported in the literature, but there still remains a gap in understanding whether various HS will have the same influence on the toxicity of acid mine drainage (AMD). This study investigated differences in the ability of Aldrich humic acid (AHA), Suwannee River humic acid and Suwannee River fulvic acid to decrease toxicity of AMD to the freshwater shrimp (Caridina sp. D). Toxicity tests were conducted over 96 h and used Mount Morgan open pit water as source of AMD and Dee River water as control/diluents. Concentrations of 0-4 % AMD at 0 mg/L HS, 10 mg/L AHA, 10 mg/L Suwannee River humic acid and 10 mg/L Suwannee River fulvic acid were used. Significantly higher survival of shrimp was recorded in the HS treatments compared with the treatment containing no HS. No significant differences were found among HS type. HS considerably increased LC50 values irrespective of type, from 1.29 (0 mg/L HS) to 2.12 % (AHA); 2.19 (Suwannee River humic acid) and 2.22 % (Suwannee River fulvic acid). These results support previous work that HS decrease the toxicity of AMD to freshwater organisms, but with the novel finding that this ability occurs irrespective of HS type. These results increase the stock of knowledge regarding HS and may contribute to a possible remediation option for AMD environments.

  11. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  12. The inhibitory effect of glycolic acid and lactic acid on melanin synthesis in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Usuki, Akiko; Ohashi, Akiko; Sato, Hirofumi; Ochiai, Yasunobu; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Funasaka, Yoko

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) such as glycolic acid (GA) and lactic acid (LA) have been reported to be effective in treating pigmentary lesions such as melasma, solar lentigines, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. The mechanism of this effect might be due to epidermal remodeling and accelerated desquamation, which would result in quick pigment dispersion. However, the direct effect of AHAs on melanin synthesis has not yet been well studied. To elucidate such a direct effect of AHAs on melanogenesis, we performed melanin assays, growth curve determinations, Northern and Western blotting for melanogenic proteins [tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2], and tyrosinase and, 4-dihydroxyphenylalaninechrome tautomerase enzyme activity assays using mouse B16 and human melanoma cells. GA or LA (at doses of 300 or 500 microg/ml) inhibited melanin formation in similar dose-dependent manner, without affecting cell growth. Although the mRNA and protein expression or molecular size of tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 were not affected, tyrosinase activity was inhibited. To see whether GA and/or LA directly inhibit tyrosinase catalytic function, the effect of GA and LA on human tyrosinase purified from the melanosome-rich large granule fraction of human melanoma cells was performed. GA or LA were shown to inhibit tyrosinase enzyme activity directly, but this effect was not due to the acidity of GA or LA, because adjusting the pH to 5.6 (the pH of GA and LA at concentrations of 2500 microg/ml), did not affect tyrosinase activity. Taken together, these results show that GA and LA suppress melanin formation by directly inhibiting tyrosinase activity, an effect independent of their acidic nature. GA and LA might work on pigmentary lesions not only by accelerating the turnover of the epidermis but also by directly inhibiting melanin formation in melanocytes.

  13. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  14. Mechanisms of siderophore sorption to smectite and siderophore-enhanced release of structural Fe 3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Elizabeth A.; Johnston, Cliff T.; Maurice, Patricia A.

    2008-07-01

    Sorption of the trihydroxamate siderophores desferrioxamine-B and -D (DFOB and DFOD, respectively) and of the monohydroxamate ligand acetohydroxamic acid (aHA) to smectite were examined in batch sorption studies (pH 5.5, 0.1 M ionic strength) coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both DFOB and DFOD, which have similar molecular structures but different charge properties (cationic versus neutral, respectively) showed a high affinity for smectite. In contrast, the smaller aHA molecule did not sorb appreciably. XRD analysis indicated that DFOB and DFOD each absorbed in the interlamellar region of the clay to give d-spacings of 13.4-13.7 Å at equilibrium solution concentrations <250 μM. FTIR spectra of sorbed DFOB and DFOD indicated that the conformation of each species was distinct from its conformation in the crystalline or dissolved states. At elevated initial solution concentrations of 500-1500 μM, DFOB formed a bilayer in the clay interlayer. Changes in the FTIR spectra of the DFOB-loaded clay samples at these higher surface loadings were consistent with the presence of a metal-siderophore complex in the interlayer. DFOB and DFOD both enhanced Fe and Al release from smectite, but aHA did not. Possible dissolution mechanisms are discussed in light of the FTIR and batch dissolution results.

  15. The Language of Engagement: “Aha!” Moments from Engaging Patients and Community Partners in Two Pilot Projects of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute

    PubMed Central

    Tai-Seale, Ming; Sullivan, Greer; Cheney, Ann; Thomas, Kathleen; Frosch, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Compared with people living in the community, researchers often have different frameworks or paradigms for thinking about health and wellness. These differing frameworks are often accompanied by differences in terminology or language. The purpose of this commentary is to describe some of our “Aha!” moments from conducting two pilot studies funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. Over time, we came to understand how our language and word choices may have been acting as a wedge between ourselves and our community research partners. We learned that fruitful collaborative work must attend to the creation of a common language, which we refer to as the language of engagement. Such patient-centered language can effectively build a bridge between researchers and community partners. We encourage other researchers to think critically about their cultural competency, to be mindful of the social power dynamics between patient and physician, to reflect on how their understanding might differ from those of their patient partners, and to find ways to use a common language that engages patients and other community partners. PMID:26909777

  16. Pathways Forward in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention One and a Half Years After the Publication of the 2013 ACC/AHA Prevention Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Desai, Chintan S.; Wang, Libin; Blaha, Michael J.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Kopecky, Stephen L.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Martin, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) prevention guidelines represent an important step forward in both the risk assessment and management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in clinical practice. Differentiated risk prediction equations for women and African Americans were developed, and convenient 10-year and lifetime risk assessment tools were provided, facilitating their implementation. Lifestyle modification was portrayed as the foundation of preventive therapy. In addition, based on high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials, statins were prioritized as the first lipid-lowering pharmacologic treatment, and a shared decision-making model between the physician and the patient was emphasized as a key feature of personalized care. After their publication, however, important limitations of the guidelines were also identified. This resulted in a constructive scientific debate yielding valuable insights into potential opportunities to refine recommendations, fill gaps in guidance, and better harmonize recommendations within and outside the US. The latter point deserves emphasis because when guidelines are in disagreement, this may result in non-action on the part of professional caregivers or non-adherence by patients. In this review, we discuss the key scientific literature relevant to the guidelines published in the year and a half after their release. We aim to provide cohesive, evidence-based views that may offer pathways forward in cardiovascular prevention towards greater consensus and benefit the practice of clinical medicine. PMID:26269108

  17. The Language of Engagement: "Aha!" Moments from Engaging Patients and Community Partners in Two Pilot Projects of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Tai-Seale, Ming; Sullivan, Greer; Cheney, Ann; Thomas, Kathleen; Frosch, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Compared with people living in the community, researchers often have different frameworks or paradigms for thinking about health and wellness. These differing frameworks are often accompanied by differences in terminology or language. The purpose of this commentary is to describe some of our "Aha!" moments from conducting two pilot studies funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. Over time, we came to understand how our language and word choices may have been acting as a wedge between ourselves and our community research partners. We learned that fruitful collaborative work must attend to the creation of a common language, which we refer to as the language of engagement. Such patient-centered language can effectively build a bridge between researchers and community partners. We encourage other researchers to think critically about their cultural competency, to be mindful of the social power dynamics between patient and physician, to reflect on how their understanding might differ from those of their patient partners, and to find ways to use a common language that engages patients and other community partners.

  18. Bioorthogonal Noncanonical Amino Acid Tagging (BONCAT) Enables Time-Resolved Analysis of Protein Synthesis in Native Plant Tissue1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Moradian, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Proteomic plasticity undergirds stress responses in plants, and understanding such responses requires accurate measurement of the extent to which proteins levels are adjusted to counter external stimuli. Here, we adapt bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) to interrogate protein synthesis in vegetative Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. BONCAT relies on the translational incorporation of a noncanonical amino acid probe into cellular proteins. In this study, the probe is the Met surrogate azidohomoalanine (Aha), which carries a reactive azide moiety in its amino acid side chain. The azide handle in Aha can be selectively conjugated to dyes and functionalized beads to enable visualization and enrichment of newly synthesized proteins. We show that BONCAT is sensitive enough to detect Arabidopsis proteins synthesized within a 30-min interval defined by an Aha pulse and that the method can be used to detect proteins made under conditions of light stress, osmotic shock, salt stress, heat stress, and recovery from heat stress. We further establish that BONCAT can be coupled to tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and quantify proteins synthesized during heat stress and recovery from heat stress. Our results are consistent with a model in which, upon the onset of heat stress, translation is rapidly reprogrammed to enhance the synthesis of stress mitigators and is again altered during recovery. All experiments were carried out with commercially available reagents, highlighting the accessibility of the BONCAT method to researchers interested in stress responses as well as translational and posttranslational regulation in plants. PMID:28104718

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction and separation of uranium from other actinides.

    PubMed

    Quach, Donna L; Mincher, Bruce J; Wai, Chien M

    2014-06-15

    The feasibility of separating U from nitric acid solutions of mixed actinides using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)-modified supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was investigated. The actinides U, Np, Pu, and Am were extracted into sc-CO2 modified with TBP from a range of nitric acid concentrations, in the absence of, or in the presence of, a number of traditional reducing and/or complexing agents to demonstrate the separation of these metals from U under sc-CO2 conditions. The separation of U from Pu using sc-CO2 was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3M in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) or oxalic acid (OA) to mitigate Pu extraction, and the separation of U from Np was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 1M in the presence of AHA, OA, or sodium nitrite to mitigate Np extraction. Americium was not well extracted under any condition studied.

  20. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, P.; Riddle, C.; Campbell, K.; Mausolf, E.

    2013-07-01

    The most widely used reductant to partition plutonium from uranium in the Purex process was ferrous sulfamate, other alternates were proposed such as hydrazine-stabilized ferrous nitrate or uranous nitrate, platinum catalyzed hydrogen, and hydrazine, hydroxylamine salts. New candidates to replace hydrazine or hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) are pursued worldwide. They may improve the performance of the industrial Purex process towards different operations such as de-extraction of plutonium and reduction of the amount of hydrazine which will limit the formation of hydrazoic acid. When looking at future recycling technologies using hydroxamic ligands, neither acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) nor formohydroxamic acid (FHA) seem promising because they hydrolyze to give hydroxylamine and the parent carboxylic acid. Hydroxyethylhydrazine, HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 3} (HEH) is a promising non-salt-forming reductant of Np and Pu ions because it is selective to neptunium and plutonium ions at room temperature and at relatively low acidity, it could serve as a replacement of HAN or AHA for the development of a novel used nuclear fuel recycling process.

  1. In situ visualization of newly synthesized proteins in environmental microbes using amino acid tagging and click chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Scheller, Silvan; Tavormina, Patricia L; Babin, Brett M; Tirrell, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the application of a new click chemistry method for fluorescent tracking of protein synthesis in individual microorganisms within environmental samples. This technique, termed bioorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT), is based on the in vivo incorporation of the non-canonical amino acid L-azidohomoalanine (AHA), a surrogate for l-methionine, followed by fluorescent labelling of AHA-containing cellular proteins by azide-alkyne click chemistry. BONCAT was evaluated with a range of phylogenetically and physiologically diverse archaeal and bacterial pure cultures and enrichments, and used to visualize translationally active cells within complex environmental samples including an oral biofilm, freshwater and anoxic sediment. We also developed combined assays that couple BONCAT with ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), enabling a direct link between taxonomic identity and translational activity. Using a methanotrophic enrichment culture incubated under different conditions, we demonstrate the potential of BONCAT-FISH to study microbial physiology in situ. A direct comparison of anabolic activity using BONCAT and stable isotope labelling by nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (15NH3 assimilation) for individual cells within a sediment-sourced enrichment culture showed concordance between AHA-positive cells and 15N enrichment. BONCAT-FISH offers a fast, inexpensive and straightforward fluorescence microscopy method for studying the in situ activity of environmental microbes on a single-cell level. PMID:24571640

  2. Intracellular Proton-mediated Activation of TRPV3 Channels Accounts for the Exfoliation Effect of α-Hydroxyl Acids on Keratinocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xu; Yang, Fan; Zheng, Jie; Wang, KeWei

    2012-01-01

    α-Hydroxyl acids (AHAs) from natural sources act as proton donors and topical compounds that penetrate skin and are well known in the cosmetic industry for their use in chemical peels and improvement of the skin. However, little is known about how AHAs cause exfoliation to expose fresh skin cells. Here we report that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) channel in keratinocytes is potently activated by intracellular acidification induced by glycolic acid. Patch clamp recordings and cell death assay of both human keratinocyte HaCaT cells and TRPV3-expressing HEK-293 cells confirmed that intracellular acidification led to direct activation of TRPV3 and promoted cell death. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that an N-terminal histidine residue, His-426, known to be involved in 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate-mediated TRPV3 activation, is critical for sensing intracellular proton levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that intracellular protons can strongly activate TRPV3, and TRPV3-mediated proton sensing and cell death in keratinocytes may serve as a molecular basis for the cosmetic use of AHAs and their therapeutic potential in acidic pH-related skin disorders. PMID:22679014

  3. Successive passaging of the scrapie strains, ME7-ha and 139A-ha, generated by the interspecies transmission of mouse-adapted strains into hamsters markedly shortens the incubation times, but maintains their molecular and pathological properties.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qi; Xiao, Kang; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Li-Na; Chen, Cao; Gao, Chen; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-04-01

    As a type of zoonotic disease, prion diseases may be transmitted naturally and experimentally among species. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mouse-adapted scrapie strains, ME7 (ME7-mo) and 139A (139A-mo), can overcome the species barrier and induce experimental scrapie when inoculated into Golden hamsters and generated 2 new hamster-adapted strains, ME7 (ME7-ha) and 139A (139A-ha). In the present study, in order to assess the infectivity and other molecular and neuropathological properties of the newly formed scrapie agents, ME7-ha and 139A-ha were further intracerebrally inoculated into hamsters. Compared with infection with 1st passage strains, the incubation times and clinical courses of infection with 2nd passage strains were markedly shorter, which were quite comparable with those of the mice infected with their parent mouse strains. The glycosylation patterns of brain PrP(Sc) in the animals infected with the 2nd passage of those 2 strains maintained similar features as those in the animals infected with the 1st passage of those strains, with predominantly diglycosylated PrP(Sc). Neuropathological assays revealed comparable spongiform degeneration and microglia proliferation in the brain tissues from the infected mice and hamsters, but markedly more plaque-like deposits of PrP(Sc) and more severe astrogliosis in the brains of the hamster. These data indicate that the strains, ME7-ha 1st and 139A-ha 1st generated by interspecies infection can passage in the new host hamster and stably maintain their molecular and neuropathological characteristics.

  4. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  5. Four Statin Benefit Groups Defined by The 2013 ACC/AHA New Cholesterol Guideline are Characterized by Increased Plasma Level of Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chih-Sheng; Ke, Liang-Yin; Chan, Hua-Chen; Chan, Hsiu-Chua; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Cheng, Kai-Hung; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Chang, Ching-Tang; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Chen, Chu-Huang; Lai, Wen-Ter

    2016-01-01

    Background Significantly higher cytotoxic and thrombogenic human electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or L5, has been found in patients with stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome. We hypothesized that the statin-benefit groups (SBGs) defined by the new cholesterol guideline were of higher electronegative L5. Methods In total, 62 hyperlipidemia patients (mean age 59.4 ± 10.5, M/F 40/22) were retrospectively divided into SBGs (n = 44) and N-SBGs (n = 18). The levels of complete basic lipid panel, biochemical profile and electronegative L5 of each individual were obtained before and after rosuvastatin 10 mg/day for 3 months. Results After 3 months’ statin therapy, significant reduction of total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride were demonstrated (all p-values < 0.05), with 38.4% LDL-C reduction. The percentage of L5 was significantly reduced by 40.9% (from 4.4% to 2.6%) after statin therapy (p = 0.001). Regarding absolute L5 concentration, derived from L5% multiplied by LDL-C, there was approximate 63.8% reduction (from 6.3 mg/dL to 2.3 mg/dL) of absolute L5 (p < 0.001) after statin treatment. Notably, while plasma LDL-C levels were similar between SBGs and N-SBGs (152.8 ± 48.6 vs. 146.9 ± 35.0 mg/dL), the SBGs had significantly elevated L5% (5.2 ± 7.4% vs. 2.6 ± 1.9%, p = 0.031) and higher absolute L5 concentration (7.4 ± 10.4 vs. 3.7 ± 3.1 mg/dL, p = 0.036). Linear regression showed the significantly positive correlation between the plasma L5 concentration and the 10-year cardiovascular risk by pooled cohort equation (r = 0.297, p < 0.05). Conclusions The four SBGs defined by the 2013 ACC/AHA new cholesterol guideline tend to have increased atherogenic electronegative L5. Statin therapy can effectively reduce the electronegative L5 of these four major SBGs. PMID:27899853

  6. A summary and critical assessment of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: filling the gaps.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Simha, Vinaya; Thomas, Randal J; Allison, Thomas G; Basu, Ananda; Fernandes, Regis; Hurst, R Todd; Kopecky, Stephen L; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Thompson, Warren G; Trejo-Gutierrez, Jorge F; Wright, R Scott

    2014-09-01

    The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Task Force on Practice Guidelines has recently released the new cholesterol treatment guideline. This update was based on a systematic review of the evidence and replaces the previous guidelines from 2002 that were widely accepted and implemented in clinical practice. The new cholesterol treatment guideline emphasizes matching the intensity of statin treatment to the level of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk and replaces the old paradigm of pursuing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The new guideline also emphasizes the primacy of the evidence base for statin therapy for ASCVD risk reduction and lists several patient groups that will not benefit from statin treatment despite their high cardiovascular risk, such as those with heart failure (New York Heart Association class II-IV) and patients undergoing hemodialysis. The guideline has been received with mixed reviews and significant controversy. Because of the evidence-based nature of the guideline, there is room for several questions and uncertainties on when and how to use lipid-lowering therapy in clinical practice. The goal of the Mayo Clinic Task Force in the assessment, interpretation, and expansion of the ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment guideline is to address gaps in information and some of the controversial aspects of the newly released cholesterol management guideline using additional sources of evidence and expert opinion as needed to guide clinicians on key aspects of ASCVD risk reduction.

  7. ACCF/AHA methodology for the development of quality measures for cardiovascular technology: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Robert O; Douglas, Pamela S; Buxton, Alfred E; Cohen, David J; Curtis, Jeptha P; Delong, Elizabeth; Drozda, Joseph P; Ferguson, T Bruce; Heidenreich, Paul A; Hendel, Robert C; Masoudi, Frederick A; Peterson, Eric D; Taylor, Allen J

    2011-09-27

    Consistent with the growing national focus on healthcare quality, the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Heart Association (AHA) have taken a leadership role over the past decade in developing measures of the quality of cardiovascular care by convening a joint ACCF/AHA Task Force on Performance Measures. The Task Force is charged with identifying the clinical topics appropriate for the development of performance measures and with assembling writing committees composed of clinical and methodological experts in collaboration with appropriate subspecialty societies. The Task Force has also created methodology documents that offer guidance in the development of process, outcome, composite, and efficiency measures. Cardiovascular performance measures using existing ACCF/AHA methodology are based on Class I or Class III guidelines recommendations, usually with Level A evidence. These performance measures, based on evidence-based ACCF/AHA guidelines, remain the most rigorous quality measures for both internal quality improvement and public reporting. However, many of the tools for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease involve advanced technologies, such as cardiac imaging, for which there are often no underlying guideline documents. Because these technologies affect the quality of cardiovascular care and also have the potential to contribute to cardiovascular health expenditures, there is a need for more critical assessment of the use of technology, including the development of quality and performance measures in areas in which guideline recommendations are absent. The evaluation of quality in the use of cardiovascular technologies requires consideration of multiple parameters that differ from other healthcare processes. The present document describes methodology for development of 2 new classes of quality measures in these situations, appropriate use measures and structure/safety measures. Appropriate use measures are based on

  8. Evidence for the involvement of carbonic anhydrase and urease in calcium carbonate formation in the gravity-sensing organ of Aplysia californica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrozo, H. A.; Schwartz, Z.; Dean, D. D.; Harrison, J. L.; Campbell, J. W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Boyan, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms that could modulate the formation of otoconia, calcium carbonate granules in the inner ear of vertebrate species, we examined statoconia formation in the gravity-sensing organ, the statocyst, of the gastropod mollusk Aplysia californica using an in vitro organ culture model. We determined the type of calcium carbonate present in the statoconia and investigated the role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and urease in regulating statocyst pH as well as the role of protein synthesis and urease in statoconia production and homeostasis in vitro. The type of mineral present in statoconia was found to be aragonitic calcium carbonate. When the CA inhibitor, acetazolamide (AZ), was added to cultures of statocysts, the pH initially (30 min) increased and then decreased. The urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), decreased statocyst pH. Simultaneous addition of AZ and AHA caused a decrease in pH. Inhibition of urease activity also reduced total statoconia number, but had no effect on statoconia volume. Inhibition of protein synthesis reduced statoconia production and increased statoconia volume. In a previous study, inhibition of CA was shown to decrease statoconia production. Taken together, these data show that urease and CA play a role in regulating statocyst pH and the formation and maintenance of statoconia. CA produces carbonate ion for calcium carbonate formation and urease neutralizes the acid formed due to CA action, by production of ammonia.

  9. The ACC/AHA 2013 guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: the good the bad and the uncertain: a comparison with ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias 2011.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kausik K; Kastelein, John J P; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Nicholls, Stephen J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ballantyne, Christie M; Catapano, Alberico L; Reiner, Željko; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2014-04-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the most important public health problem of our time in both Europe and the rest of the world, accounting for the greatest expenditure in most healthcare budgets. Achieving consistency of clinical care, incorporating new evidence and their synthesis into practical recommendations for clinicians is the task of various guideline committees throughout the world. Any change in a set of guidelines therefore can have far reaching consequences, particularly if they appear to be at variance with the existing guidelines. The present article discusses the recent American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines 2013 on the control of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults. When compared with the ESC/EAS guidelines on lipid modification in 2011, the ACC/AHA guidelines of 2013 differ markedly. Specifically, (i) the scope is limited to randomized trials only, which excludes a significant body of data and promotes essentially a statin centric approach only; (ii) the abolition of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in favour of specific statin regimens that produce a 30-50% reduction in LDL-C we believe will confuse many physicians and miss the opportunity for medication adherence and patient engagement in self-management; (iii) the absence of target LDL-C levels in very high-risk patients with high absolute risk or residual risk factors will discourage clinicians to consider the addition of lipid modification treatments and individualize patient care; (iv) a reduction in the threshold for treatment in primary prevention will result in a greater number of patients being prescribed statin therapy, which is potentially good in young patients with high life time risk, but will result in a very large number of older patients offered therapy; and (v) the mixed pool risk calculator used to asses CVD risk in the guidelines for primary prevention has not

  10. Amelioration of metal-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans: utility of chelating agents in the bioremediation of metals.

    PubMed

    Harrington, James M; Boyd, Windy A; Smith, Marjolein V; Rice, Julie R; Freedman, Jonathan H; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2012-09-01

    The presence of toxic amounts of transition metals in the environment may originate from a range of human activities and natural processes. One method for the removal of toxic levels of metals is through chelation by small molecules. However, chelation is not synonymous with detoxification and may not affect the bioavailability of the metal. To test the bioavailability of chelated metals in vivo, the effects of several metal/chelator combinations were tested in the environmentally relevant organism Caenorhabditis elegans. The effect of metal exposure on nematode growth was used to determine the toxicity of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc. The restoration of growth to levels observed in nonexposed nematodes was used to determine the protective effects of the polydentate chelators: acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), cyclam, cysteine, calcium EDTA, desferrioxamine B, 1,2-dimethyl,3-hydroxy,4-pyridinone, and histidine. Cadmium toxicity was removed only by EDTA; copper toxicity was removed by all of the chelators except AHA; nickel toxicity was removed by cyclam, EDTA, and histidine; and zinc toxicity was removed by only EDTA. These results demonstrate the utility of polydentate chelators in the remediation of metal-contaminated systems. They also demonstrate that although the application of a chelator to metal contaminants may be effective, binding alone cannot be used to predict the level of remediation. Remediation depends on a number of factors, including metal complex speciation in the environment.

  11. Supramolecular architectures constructed by lanthanum, amino acids and 1,10-phenanthroline via non-covalent bond interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiang-Jun; Jin, Lin-Pei

    2003-07-01

    Three supramolecular lanthanum coordination compounds of amino acids, with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), [La 2(APA) 6(phen) 2(H 2O) 2](ClO 4) 6(phen) 4·2H 2O ( 1), [La 2(ABA) 6(phen) 2(H 2O) 2](ClO 4) 6 (phen) 6·4H 2O ( 2), and [La 2(AHA) 4(phen) 4](ClO 4) 6(phen) 4·2H 2O ( 3) (APA=3-aminopropionic acid; ABA=4-aminobutanoic acid; AHA=6-aminohexanoic acid) were synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The results show that the three coordination compounds are all composed of binuclear coordination cations built by metal-ligand coordination. Through hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions, complex 1 forms a two-dimensional supramolecular sheet structure extending in the (001) plane, complex 2 forms a three-dimensional supramolecular network with many cavities occupied by ClO 4- and lattice H 2O molecules, and complex 3 forms a two-dimensional supramolecular lamellar structure in the (100) plane.

  12. Branched-Chain Amino Acids Are Required for the Survival and Virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Swine▿

    PubMed Central

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; LeVeque, Rhiannon M.; Wagner, Trevor K.; Kirkwood, Roy N.; Kiupel, Matti; Mulks, Martha H.

    2009-01-01

    In Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes porcine pleuropneumonia, ilvI was identified as an in vivo-induced (ivi) gene and encodes the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) required for branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. ilvI and 7 of 32 additional ivi promoters were upregulated in vitro when grown in chemically defined medium (CDM) lacking BCAA. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that BCAA would be found at limiting concentrations in pulmonary secretions and that A. pleuropneumoniae mutants unable to synthesize BCAA would be attenuated in a porcine infection model. Quantitation of free amino acids in porcine pulmonary epithelial lining fluid showed concentrations of BCAA ranging from 8 to 30 μmol/liter, which is 10 to 17% of the concentration in plasma. The expression of both ilvI and lrp, a global regulator that is required for ilvI expression, was strongly upregulated in CDM containing concentrations of BCAA similar to those found in pulmonary secretions. Deletion-disruption mutants of ilvI and lrp were both auxotrophic for BCAA in CDM and attenuated compared to wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae in competitive index experiments in a pig infection model. Wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae grew in CDM+BCAA but not in CDM−BCAA in the presence of sulfonylurea AHAS inhibitors. These results clearly demonstrate that BCAA availability is limited in the lungs and support the hypothesis that A. pleuropneumoniae, and potentially other pulmonary pathogens, uses limitation of BCAA as a cue to regulate the expression of genes required for survival and virulence. These results further suggest a potential role for AHAS inhibitors as antimicrobial agents against pulmonary pathogens. PMID:19703979

  13. A new approach in gastroretentive drug delivery system using cholestyramine.

    PubMed

    Umamaheshwari, R B; Jain, Subheet; Jain, N K

    2003-01-01

    We prepared cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)-coated cholestyramine microcapsules as a intragastric floating drug delivery system endowed with floating ability due to the carbon dioxide generation when exposed to the gastric fluid. The microcapsules also have a mucoadhesive property. Ion-exchange resin particles can be loaded with bicarbonate followed by acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) and coated with CAB by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The drug concentration was monitored to maintain the floating property and minimum effective concentration. The effect of CAB: drug-resin ratio (2:1, 4:1, 6:1 w/w) on the particle size, floating time, and drug release was determined. Cholestyramine microcapsules were characterized for shape, surface characteristics, and size distribution; cholestyramine/acetohydroxamic acid interactions inside microcapsules were investigated by X-ray diffractometry. The buoyancy time of CAB-coated formulations was better than that of uncoated resin particles. Also, a longer floating time was observed with a higher polymer:drug resin complex ratio (6:1). With increasing coating thickness the particle size was increased but drug release rate was decreased. The drug release rate was higher in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) than in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The in vivo mucoadhesion studies were performed with rhodamine-isothiocyanate (RITC) by fluorescent probe method. The amount of CAB-coated cholestyramine microcapsules that remained in the stomach was slightly lower than that of uncoated resin particles. Cholestyramine microcapsules were distributed throughout the stomach and exhibited prolonged gastric residence via mucoadhesion. These results suggest that CAB-coated microcapsules could be a floating as well as a mucoadhesive drug delivery system. Thus, it has promise in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori.

  14. The effect of organic compounds in the oxidation kinetics of Cr(III) by H 2O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettine, Maurizio; Gennari, Francesca; Campanella, Luigi; Millero, Frank J.

    2008-12-01

    The oxidation of Cr(III) has been studied in NaCl solutions in the presence of two siderophore models, acetohydroxamic acid (Aha) and benzohydroxamic acid (Bha), the natural siderophore Desferal (DFOB) and the synthetic aminocarboxilate (ethylenedinitrilo)-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) as a function of pH (8-9), ionic strength (0.01-2 M) and temperature (10-50 °C), at different Cr(III)-organic compound ratios. The addition of Aha and Bha caused the rates to increase at low ligand/Cr(III) ratios and decrease at high ratios. The variation of the pseudo first order rate constant ( k1) as a function of the ligand concentration has been attributed to the formation of three Cr(III)-organo species (1:1, 1:2, 1:3), which can form in the presence of monohydroxamic acids. A kinetic model has been developed that gives a value of 600 (min -1) for the pseudo first order rate constant k and values approaching zero for k and k. These kinetic results demonstrate that these monohydroxamic acids are able to bind with Cr(III) under experimental conditions that may occur in natural waters and can increase the oxidation rates of Cr(III) with H 2O 2 by a factor of 3.5 at an Aha/Cr(III) ratio of about 50-100. The monohydroxamic acids also affect the rates on aged products of Cr(III), suggesting that these ligands are able to affect the oxidation rates by releasing reactive Cr(III). DFOB and EDTA do not have a great effect on the oxidation of Cr(III) with H 2O 2. This is thought to be due to the much longer times they need to form complexes with Cr(III) compared to Aha and Bha. The rates for the formation of DFOB and EDTA complexes with Cr(III) are not competitive with the rates of the formation of aged Cr(III). After allowing Cr(III) and DFOB to react for 5 days to form the complex, reaction rates of Cr(III) with H 2O 2 appear to be lowered probably because of steric hindrance of the chelated Cr(III).

  15. Genes associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Perez, R; Cañón, J; Dunner, S

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) influence meat tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and are beneficial to human health. The percentage of long-chain n-3 FAs in total FAs is termed the omega-3 index (O3I). It is thus of great interest to favor rising this index in bovine skeletal muscle, to obtain healthier, tastier, and more nutritive meat. This study was aimed to detect transcriptomic variations related to O3I in muscles in 15-month-old males of 4 Spanish cattle breeds raised under the same conditions. Through the analysis of extreme O3I phenotypes, 3 genes of interest (AANAT, UCP2 and AHA1) were identified. AANAT and UCP2 were strongly up-regulated, while AHA1 was repressed in animals with a high O3I. Moreover, gene expression differed between GDF8-null animal muscles (tested for nt821del11 and Q204X mutations) and the wild-type muscles for genes GDH1, IGF2R, FADS1, ASPH, and AIM1, all showing down-regulation in Asturiana de los Valles calves with muscle hypertrophy (GDF8-null). This shows that in GDF8-null animals other pathways are used for FA synthesis.

  16. Differential expression of acetohydroxyacid synthase genes in sunflower plantlets and its response to imazapyr herbicide.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Gabriela; Vega, Tatiana; Felitti, Silvina A; Picardi, Liliana; Nestares, Graciela

    2013-07-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyzes the first reaction in branch chain amino acids biosynthesis. This enzyme is the target of several herbicides, including all members of the imidazolinone family. Little is known about the expression of the three acetohydroxyacid synthase genes (ahas1, ahas2 and ahas3) in sunflower. The aim of this work was to evaluate ahas gene expression and AHAS activity in different tissues of sunflower plantlets. Three genotypes differing in imidazolinone resistance were evaluated, two of which carry an herbicide resistant-endowing mutation known as Ahasl1-1 allele. In vivo and in vitro AHAS activity and transcript levels were higher in leaves than in roots. The ahas3 transcript was the less abundant in both tissues. No significant difference was observed between ahas1 and ahas2 transcript levels of the susceptible genotype but a higher ahas1 transcript level was observed in leaves of genotypes carrying Ahasl1-1 allele. Similar transcript levels were found for ahas1 and ahas2 in roots of genotypes carrying Ahasl1-1 allele whereas higher ahas2 abundance was found in the susceptible genotype. Herbicide treatment triggered tissue-specific, gene and genotype-dependent changes in ahas gene expression. AHAS activity was highly inhibited in the susceptible genotype. Differential responses were observed between in vitro and in vivo AHAS inhibition assays. These findings enhance our understanding of AHAS expression in sunflower genotypes differing for herbicide resistance and its response to herbicide treatment.

  17. Electron transfer in acetohydroxy acid synthase as a side reaction of catalysis. Implications for the reactivity and partitioning of the carbanion/enamine form of (alpha-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate in a "nonredox" flavoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Tittmann, Kai; Schröder, Kathrin; Golbik, Ralph; McCourt, Jennifer; Kaplun, Alexander; Duggleby, Ronald G; Barak, Ze'ev; Chipman, David M; Hübner, Gerhard

    2004-07-13

    Acetohydroxy acid synthases (AHAS) are thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) and FAD-dependent enzymes that catalyze the first common step of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants, bacteria, and fungi. Although the flavin cofactor is not chemically involved in the physiological reaction of AHAS, it has been shown to be essential for the structural integrity and activity of the enzyme. Here, we report that the enzyme-bound FAD in AHAS is reduced in the course of catalysis in a side reaction. The reduction of the enzyme-bound flavin during turnover of different substrates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was characterized by stopped-flow kinetics using the intrinsic FAD absorbance. Reduction of enzyme-bound FAD proceeds with a net rate constant of k' = 0.2 s(-1) in the presence of oxygen and approximately 1 s(-1) under anaerobic conditions. No transient flavin radicals are detectable during the reduction process while time-resolved absorbance spectra are recorded. Reconstitution of the binary enzyme-FAD complex with the chemically synthesized intermediate 2-(hydroxyethyl)-ThDP also results in a reduction of the flavin. These data provide evidence for the first time that the key catalytic intermediate 2-(hydroxyethyl)-ThDP in the carbanionic/enamine form is not only subject to covalent addition of 2-keto acids and an oxygenase side reaction but also transfers electrons to the adjacent FAD in an intramolecular redox reaction yielding 2-acetyl-ThDP and reduced FAD. The detection of the electron transfer supports the idea of a common ancestor of acetohydroxy acid synthase and pyruvate oxidase, a homologous ThDP- and FAD-dependent enzyme that, in contrast to AHASs, catalyzes a reaction that relies on intercofactor electron transfer.

  18. Pharmacological evidence of the stimulation of central alpha-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Chermat, R; Puech, A J

    1983-01-01

    We studied the interactions between CRL 40028 (benzhydryl sulfinyl) acetohydroxamic acid) and the alpha 1 blocker prazosin, in mouse. CRL 40028 antagonizes prazosin-induced hypothermia and hypomotility; prazosin antagonizes the anticonvulsant effect of CRL 40028 in the quaking mouse.

  19. The use of glycolic acid as a peeling agent.

    PubMed

    Murad, H; Shamban, A T; Premo, P S

    1995-04-01

    Glycolic acid is a member of the AHA family, which occurs naturally in foods and has been used for centuries as a cutaneous rejuvenation treatment. Recently it has proved to be a versatile peeling agent and it is now widely used to treat many defects of the epidermis and papillary dermis in a variety of strengths, ranging from 20% to 70%, depending on the condition being treated. People of almost any skin type and color are candidates, and almost any area of the body can be peeled. Several weeks prior to a peel the skin may be prepared with topical tretinoin or glycolic acid, and immediately prior to the peel the skin may be degreased with a variety of agents. Following the peel the skin is carefully observed for any complications such as hyperpigmentation and infection. Results are maintained with serial peels and at-home use of tretinoin or glycolic acid, as well as sun avoidance. The glycolic acid can be applied simultaneously with TCA and is another technique for a medium-depth peel. Comparison of 35% TCA-treated skin with 70% glycolic acid-treated skin examined histologically at different times reveals similar changes in papillary dermis connective tissue proteins, epidermal necrosis seen only with TCA, and reversion at 2 years postpeel to pretreatment appearance.

  20. Humic substances increase survival of freshwater shrimp Caridina sp. D to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2013-02-01

    Humic substances (HS) are known to decrease the toxicity of heavy metals to aquatic organisms, and it has been suggested that they can provide buffering protection in low pH conditions. Despite this, little is known about the ability for HS to increase survival to acid mine drainage (AMD). In this study, the ability of HS to increase survival of the freshwater shrimp (Caridina sp. D sensu Page et al. in Biol Lett 1:139-142, 2005) to acid mine drainage was investigated using test waters collected from the Mount Morgan open pit in Central Queensland with the addition of Aldrich humic acid (AHA). The AMD water from the Mount Morgan open pit is highly acidic (pH 2.67) as well as contaminated with heavy metals (1780 mg/L aluminum, 101 mg/L copper [Cu], 173 mg/L manganese, 51.8 mg/L zinc [Zn], and 51.8 mg/L iron). Freshwater shrimp were exposed to dilutions in the range of 0.5 % to 5 % AMD water with and without the addition of 10 or 20 mg/L AHA. In the absence of HS, all shrimp died in the 2.5 % AMD treatment. In contrast, addition of HS increased survival in the 2.5 % AMD treatment by ≤66 % as well as significantly decreased the concentration of dissolved Cu, cobalt, cadmium, and Zn. The decreased toxicity of AMD in the presence of HS is likely to be due to complexation and precipitation of heavy metals with the HS; it is also possible that HS caused changes to the physiological condition of the shrimp, thus increasing their survival. These results are valuable in contributing to an improved understanding of potential role of HS in ameliorating the toxicity of AMD environments.

  1. Acetamide hydrolyzing activity of Bacillus megaterium F-8 with bioremediation potential: optimization of production and reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Sogani, Monika; Bakre, Prakash P; Mathur, Nupur; Sharma, Pratibha; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium F-8 exhibited an intracellular acetamide hydrolyzing activity (AHA) when cultivated in modified nutrient broth with 3% tryptone, 1.5% yeast extract, and 0.5% sodium chloride, at pH 7.2, 45 °C for 24 h. Maximum AHA was recorded in the culture containing 0.1 M of sodium phosphate buffer, (pH 7.5) at 45 °C for 20 min with 0.2 % of acetonitrile and resting cells of B. megaterium F-8 equivalent to 0.2 ml culture broth. This activity was stable up to 55 °C and was completely inactivated at or above 60 °C. Maximum acyl transferase activity (ATA) was recorded in the reaction medium containing 0.1 M of potassium phosphate buffer, (pH 8.0) at 55 °C for 5 min with 0.85 mM of acetamide as acyl donor and hydroxylamine hydrochloride as acyl acceptor and resting cells of B. megaterium F-8 equivalent to 0.94 mg cells (dry weight basis). This activity was stable up to 60 °C and a rapid decline in enzyme activity was recorded above it. Under the optimized conditions, this organism hydrolyzed various nitriles and amides such as propionitrile, propionamide, caprolactam, acetamide, and acrylamide to corresponding acids. Acyl group transfer capability of this organism was used for the production of acetohydroxamic acid. ATA of B. megaterium F-8 showed broad substrate specificity such as for acetamide followed by propionamide, acrylamide, and lactamide. This amide hydrolyzing and amidotransferase activity of B. megaterium F-8 has potential applications in enzymatic synthesis of hydroxamic acids and bioremediation of nitriles and amides contaminated soil and water system.

  2. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  3. Aha: A Connectionist Perspective on Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-08

    DOCUMENTATION PAGE 7, -REPORtT SEC.𔃾l CASPFC.A’C ON R7ESRtC’ vE %MARK.%GS Unclassif led 22 SECRITY C ASSPFCATION Aur~oRifv 3 ; S’R @Bu ON AjALA81L 3 F...Typically, the search perspective has been used to desc ,.,e problem solving behavior occurring on a macro-level time scale of seconds as opposed to the...unit /. The constants S, E and / (all set to .05 for the simulations described below) scale the strength of the external input, the excitatory input from

  4. Wooooooahhh! vs Aha!, is the choice obvious?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Faraz

    2016-11-01

    There has been a lot of focus towards attracting people, especially under-represented groups, to STEM fields. One of the ways to accomplish this is short demonstrations and workshops, where young students are exposed to "exciting" experiments in an effort to make STEM more appealing. We tried an alternative approach by making the students perform a deliberately "boring" experiment but one which made them think scientifically. This was tested on a small group of high school students during Girls Technology Day in New Hampshire.

  5. Exploring the subtleties of drug-receptor interactions: the case of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Ivano; Calderone, Vito; Fragai, Marco; Giachetti, Andrea; Loconte, Mauro; Luchinat, Claudio; Maletta, Massimiliano; Nativi, Cristina; Yeo, Kwon Joo

    2007-03-07

    By solving high-resolution crystal structures of a large number (14 in this case) of adducts of matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) with strong, nanomolar, inhibitors all derived from a single ligand scaffold, it is shown that the energetics of the ligand-protein interactions can be accounted for directly from the structures to a level of detail that allows us to rationalize for the differential binding affinity between pairs of closely related ligands. In each case, variations in binding affinities can be traced back to slight improvements or worsening of specific interactions with the protein of one or more ligand atoms. Isothermal calorimetry measurements show that the binding of this class of MMP inhibitors is largely enthalpy driven, but a favorable entropic contribution is always present. The binding enthalpy of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), the prototype zinc-binding group in MMP drug discovery, has been also accurately measured. In principle, this research permits the planning of either improved inhibitors, or inhibitors with improved selectivity for one or another MMP. The present analysis is applicable to any drug target for which structural information on adducts with a series of homologous ligands can be obtained, while structural information obtained from in silico docking is probably not accurate enough for this type of study.

  6. Urease activity in microbiologically-induced calcite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Bachmeier, Keri L; Williams, Amy E; Warmington, John R; Bang, Sookie S

    2002-02-14

    The role of microbial urease in calcite precipitation was studied utilizing a recombinant Escherichia coli HB101 containing a plasmid, pBU11, that encodes Bacillus pasteurii urease. The calcite precipitation by E. coli HB101 (pBU11) was significant although its precipitation level was not as high as that by B. pasteurii. Addition of low concentrations (5-100 microM) of nickel, the cofactor of urease, to the medium further enhanced calcite precipitation by E. coli (pBU11). Calcite precipitation induced by both B. pasteurii and E. coli (pBU11) was inhibited in the presence of a urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). These observations on the recombinant urease have confirmed that urease activity is essential for microbiologically-induced calcite precipitation. Partially purified B. pasteurii urease was immobilized in polyurethane (PU) foam to compare the efficacy of calcite precipitation between the free and immobilized enzymes. The immobilized urease showed higher K(m) and lower V(max) values, which were reflected by a slower overall calcite precipitation. However, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) identified that the calcite precipitation occurred throughout the matrices of polyurethane. Furthermore, PU-immobilized urease retained higher enzymatic activities at high temperatures and in the presence of a high concentration of pronase, indicating that immobilization protects the enzyme activity from environmental changes.

  7. Iron (III) Matrix Effects on Mineralization and Immobilization of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia-May S. Gong; Tyler A. Sullens; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - A number of models for the Yucca Mountain Project nuclear waste repository use studies of actinide sorption onto well-defined iron hydroxide materials. In the case of a waste containment leak, however, a complex interaction between dissolved waste forms and failed containment vessel components can lead to immediate precipitation of migratory iron and uranyl in the silicate rich near-field environment. Use of the Fe(III) and UO22+ complexing agent acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a colorimetric agent for visible spectrophotometry is well-known. Using the second derivative of these spectra a distinct shift in iron complexation in the presence of silicate is seen that is not seen with uranyl or alone. Silica also decreases the ability of uranyl and ferric solutions to absorb hydroxide, hastening precipitation. These ferric silicate precipitates are highly amorphous and soluble. Precipitates formed in the presence of uranyl below ~1 mol% exhibit lower solubility than precipitates from up to 50 mol % and of uranyl silicates alone.

  8. Strategies for Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease Based on Risk Stratification by the ACC/AHA Lipid Guidelines, ATP III Guidelines, Coronary Calcium Scoring, and C-Reactive Protein, and a Global Treat-All Strategy: A Comparative--Effectiveness Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Galper, Benjamin Z.; Wang, Y. Claire; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been proposed for risk-stratification and primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), but their comparative and cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods We constructed a state-transition microsimulation model to compare multiple approaches to the primary prevention of CHD in a simulated cohort of men aged 45–75 and women 55–75. Risk-stratification strategies included the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines, and approaches based on coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and C-reactive protein (CRP). Additionally we assessed a treat-all strategy in which all individuals were prescribed either moderate-dose or high-dose statins and all males received low-dose aspirin. Outcome measures included CHD events, costs, medication-related side effects, radiation-attributable cancers, and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) over a 30-year timeframe. Results Treat-all with high-dose statins dominated all other strategies for both men and women, gaining 15.7 million QALYs, preventing 7.3 million myocardial infarctions, and saving over $238 billion, compared to the status quo, far outweighing its associated adverse events including bleeding, hepatitis, myopathy, and new-onset diabetes. ACC/AHA guidelines were more cost-effective than ATP III guidelines for both men and women despite placing 8.7 million more people on statins. For women at low CHD risk, treat-all with high-dose statins was more likely to cause a statin-related adverse event than to prevent a CHD event. Conclusions Despite leading to a greater proportion of the population placed on statin therapy, the ACC/AHA guidelines are more cost-effective than ATP III. Even so, at generic prices, treating all men and women with statins and all men with low-dose aspirin appears to be more cost-effective than all risk-stratification approaches for the

  9. Integrated Systems Biology Analysis of Transcriptomes Reveals Candidate Genes for Acidity Control in Developing Fruits of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dingquan; Zhao, Yihong; Cao, Minghao; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless), Bingtang (low acid), and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid). Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA), which corresponds to Stage I (cell division), had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion). Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis). Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AHA10), degradation (such as APD2) and transcription (such as AIL6) and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control. PMID:27092171

  10. Integrated Systems Biology Analysis of Transcriptomes Reveals Candidate Genes for Acidity Control in Developing Fruits of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Huang, Dingquan; Zhao, Yihong; Cao, Minghao; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless), Bingtang (low acid), and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid). Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA), which corresponds to Stage I (cell division), had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion). Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis). Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AHA10), degradation (such as APD2) and transcription (such as AIL6) and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control.

  11. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

  12. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  13. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  14. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  15. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  16. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  17. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  18. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  19. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  20. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  1. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  2. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  3. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  4. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  5. A DFT investigation of base-catalyzed β-elimination reactions in water solution for systems activated by the pyridine ring: Theory vs. experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosconi, Edoardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Alunni, Sergio; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    We report a theoretical investigation of β-elimination reactions in systems activated by the pyridine ring. The investigated reaction, the acetohydroxamate-induced β-elimination in protonated N-[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]quinuclidinium, offers a unique opportunity to test computational methodologies since detailed kinetic experimental data are available. We calculated the p Kas of the acetohydroxamic acid and the substrate and thoroughly characterized the reactive free-energy profile. The reaction proceeds via a stable carbanion intermediate. Except a discrepancy in the reproduction of the p Ka of the acetohydroxamic acid, the calculated free-energy profile is in excellent agreement with the experiment, showing the general reliability of the present approach.

  6. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  7. Process for the extraction of technetium from uranium

    DOEpatents

    Gong, Cynthia-May S.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2010-12-21

    A spent fuel reprocessing method contacts an aqueous solution containing Technetium(V) and uranyl with an acidic solution comprising hydroxylamine hydrochloride or acetohydroxamic acid to reduce Tc(V) to Tc(II, and then extracts the uranyl with an organic phase, leaving technetium(II) in aqueous solution.

  8. A new dietary strategy for long-term treatment of the metabolic syndrome is compared with the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines: the MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) project.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Abete, Itziar; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Forga, Luis; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2014-02-01

    The long-term effects of dietary strategies designed to combat the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new dietary strategy based on macronutrient distribution, antioxidant capacity and meal frequency (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) diet) for the treatment of the MetS when compared with the American Heart Association guidelines, used as Control. Subjects with the MetS (fifty-two men and forty-one women, age 49 (se 1) years, BMI 36·11 (se 0·5) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. After a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, during which a nutritional assessment was made for the participants every 15 d, a 4-month self-control period began. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning anthropometry, but only the RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in body weight ( - 1·7%; P= 0·018), BMI ( - 1·7%; P= 0·019), waist circumference ( - 1·8%; P= 0·021), waist:hip ratio ( - 1·4%; P= 0·035) and android fat mass ( - 6·9%; P= 0·008). The RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations ( - 26·8%; P= 0·008 and - 14·0%; P= 0·018, respectively), while the Control group exhibited a significant increase in glucose (7·9%; P= 0·011), AST (11·3%; P= 0·045) and uric acid (9·0%; P< 0·001) concentrations. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were increased (Control group: 34·4%; P< 0·001 and RESMENA group: 33·8%; P< 0·001), but interestingly so were the LDL-C:apoB ratio (Control group: 28·7%; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 17·1%; P= 0·009) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (Control group: 21·1%; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 8·7; P= 0·001). Fibre was the dietary component that most contributed to the improvement of anthropometry, while body-weight loss explained changes in some biochemical markers. In conclusion, the RESMENA diet is a good

  9. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  10. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  11. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  12. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  13. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  14. Acid Rain

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Is Doing Acid Rain Program Cross-State Air Pollution Rule Progress Reports Educational Resources Kid's Site for ... Monitoring National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Exit Interstate Air Pollution Transport Contact Us to ask a question, provide ...

  15. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid can hide signs that you lack vitamin B12, which can cause nerve damage. 10 Do I ... Rosenberg, I.H., et al. (2007). Folate and vitamin B12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis and cognitive ...

  16. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  17. Citric acid induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) via caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ying, Tsung-Ho; Chen, Chia-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Hung, Sung-Jen; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-10-01

    Citric acid is an alpha-hydroxyacid (AHA) widely used in cosmetic dermatology and skincare products. However, there is concern regarding its safety for the skin. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of citric acid on the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. HaCaT cells were treated with citric acid at 2.5-12.5 mM for different time periods. Cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining, flow cytometry, western blot and confocal microscopy. Citric acid not only inhibited proliferation of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, but also induced apoptosis and cell cycle-arrest at the G2/M phase (before 24 h) and S phase (after 24 h). Citric acid increased the level of Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) and reduced the levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL) and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently induced apoptosis via caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Citric acid also activated death receptors and increased the levels of caspase-8, activated BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) protein, Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and Endonuclease G (EndoG). Therefore, citric acid induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. The study results suggest that citric acid is cytotoxic to HaCaT cells via induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in vitro.

  18. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  19. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1993-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  20. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  1. Cambridge Health's outreach earns alliance an AHA NOVA Award.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Cambridge Health Alliance, (CHA), Somerville, Mass., has been named for one of the five NOVA Awards given this year by the American Hospital Association. It is recognized for leading a program to improve community health by extending help to low-income and uninsured children and adults, as well as to the chronically ill and racial and ethnic minorities.

  2. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  3. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  4. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 007 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 79 - 43 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been revi

  5. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 003F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 76 - 03 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has

  6. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  7. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  8. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  9. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  10. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  11. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  12. Azelaic acid.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro-Porro, M

    1987-12-01

    This review is an update on the literature accumulated over the past 10 years following the original observation that azelaic acid, a naturally occurring and nontoxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, possesses significant biologic properties and a potential as a therapeutic agent. These studies have shown that azelaic acid is a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase and other oxidoreductases in vitro and that it inhibits mitochondrial respiration. It can also inhibit anaerobic glycolysis. Both in vitro and in vivo it has an antimicrobial effect on both aerobic and anaerobic (Propionibacterium acnes) microorganisms. In tissue culture it exerts a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on malignant melanocytes, associated with mitochondrial damage and inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Tumoral cell lines not containing tyrosinase are equally affected. Normal cells in culture exposed to the same concentrations of the diacid that are toxic for tumoral cells are in general not damaged. Radioactive azelaic acid has been shown to penetrate tumoral cells at a higher level than normal cells of the corresponding line. Topically applied (a 20% cream), it has been shown to be of therapeutic value in skin disorders of different etiologies. Its beneficial effect on various forms of acne (comedogenic, papulopustular, nodulocystic) has been clearly demonstrated. Particularly important is its action on abnormal melanocytes, which has led to the possibility of obtaining good results on melasma and highly durable therapeutic responses on lentigo maligna. It is also capable of causing regression of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but its role in melanoma therapy remains to be investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Development of Injectable Hyaluronic Acid/Cellulose Nanocrystals Bionanocomposite Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Rui M A; Silva, Marta; Gershovich, Pavel; Betta, Sefano; Babo, Pedro; Caridade, Sofia G; Mano, João F; Motta, Antonella; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2015-08-19

    Injectable hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels compose a promising class of materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. However, their limited mechanical properties restrict the potential range of application. In this study, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were employed as nanofillers in a fully biobased strategy for the production of reinforced HA nanocomposite hydrogels. Herein we report the development of a new class of injectable hydrogels composed of adipic acid dihydrazide-modified HA (ADH-HA) and aldehyde-modified HA (a-HA) reinforced with varying contents of aldehyde-modified CNCs (a-CNCs). The obtained hydrogels were characterized in terms of internal morphology, mechanical properties, swelling, and degradation behavior in the presence of hyaluronidase. Our findings suggest that the incorporation of a-CNCs in the hydrogel resulted in a more organized and compact network structure and led to stiffer hydrogels (maximum storage modulus, E', of 152.4 kPa for 0.25 wt % a-CNCs content) with improvements of E' up to 135% in comparison to unfilled hydrogels. In general, increased amounts of a-CNCs led to lower equilibrium swelling ratios and higher resistance to degradation. The biological performance of the developed nanocomposites was assessed toward human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs). HA-CNCs nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited preferential cell supportive properties in in vitro culture conditions due to higher structural integrity and potential interaction of microenvironmental cues with CNC's sulfate groups. hASCs encapsulated in HA-CNCs hydrogels demonstrated the ability to spread within the volume of gels and exhibited pronounced proliferative activity. Together, these results demonstrate that the proposed strategy is a valuable toolbox for fine-tuning the structural, biomechanical, and biochemical properties of injectable HA hydrogels, expanding their potential range of application in the biomedical field.

  14. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  15. Acidic domains around nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, G; Pack, G R

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogen ion concentration in the vicinity of DNA was mapped out within the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Experimental conditions were modeled by assuming Na-DNA to be solvated in a buffer solution containing 45 mM Tris and 3 mM Mg cations at pH 7.5. Three regions of high H+ concentration (greater than 10 microM) are predicted: one throughout the minor groove of DNA and two localized in the major groove near N7 of guanine and C5 of cytosine for a G.C base pair. These acidic domains correlate well with the observed covalent binding sites of benzo[a]pyrene epoxide (N2 of guanine) and of aflatoxin B1 epoxide (N7 of guanine), chemical carcinogens that presumably undergo acid catalysis to form highly reactive carbocations that ultimately bind to DNA. It is suggested that these regions of high H+ concentration may also be of concern in understanding interactions involving proteins and noncarcinogenic molecules with or near nucleic acids. PMID:2123348

  16. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  17. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  18. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  19. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  20. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  1. Stearidonic acid: is there a role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed

    Banz, William J; Davis, Jeremy E; Clough, Richard W; Cheatwood, Joseph L

    2012-03-01

    Obesity and its related comorbidities are major public health concerns in the United States with over two-thirds of adults and one-third of children classified as overweight or obese. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has similarly risen to an estimated 25.8 million, which accounts for a staggering $174 billion in annual healthcare costs. Identification of dietary interventions that protect against the development of T2DM would markedly reduce the medical and economic consequences of the disease. Hence, we review current evidence supporting a role of (n-3) PUFA in T2DM and explore potential therapeutic implications of stearidonic acid (SDA). The low consumption of fish in the US along with a reduced efficiency to interconvert most plant (n-3) PUFA highlights a need to find alternative sources of (n-3) PUFA. The efficient biological conversion of SDA to EPA underscores the potential implications of SDA as a source of (n-3) PUFA. The full therapeutic efficacy of SDA remains to be further determined. However, recent data have suggested a protective role of SDA consumption on markers of dyslipidemia and inflammation. The AHA recommends that healthy individuals consume oily fish at least twice per week and individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease consume 1 g of EPA+DHA/d. These goals will likely not be met by the typical American diet. Therefore, SDA may represent a sustainable alternative to marine-based (n-3) PUFA and may have novel therapeutic efficacy regarding the development of T2DM.

  2. Glycolic Acid Silences Inflammasome Complex Genes, NLRC4 and ASC, by Inducing DNA Methylation in HaCaT Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheau-Chung; Yeh, Jih-I; Hung, Sung-Jen; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Liu, Fu-Tong; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2016-03-01

    AHAs (α-hydroxy acids), including glycolic acid (GA), have been widely used in cosmetic products and superficial chemical peels. Inflammasome complex has been shown to play critical roles in inflammatory pathways in human keratinocytes. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of GA is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the expression of the inflammasome complex and epigenetic modification to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of GA in HaCaT cells. We evaluated NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2, and ASC inflammasome complex gene expression on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methylation changes were detected in these genes following treatment with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) with or without the addition of GA using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). GA inhibited the expressions of these inflammasome complex genes, and the decreases in the expressions of mRNA were reversed by 5-Aza treatment. Methylation was detected in NLRC4 and ASC on MSP, but not in NLRP3 or AIM2. GA decreased NLRC4 and ASC gene expression by increasing not only DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT-3B) protein level, but also total DNMT activity. Furthermore, silencing of DNMT-3B (shDNMT-3B) increased the expressions of NLRC4 and ASC. Our data demonstrated that GA treatment induces hypermethylation of promoters of NLRC4 and ASC genes, which may subsequently lead to the hindering of the assembly of the inflammasome complex in HaCaT cells. These results highlight the anti-inflammatory potential of GA-containing cosmetic agents in human skin cells and demonstrate for the first time the role of aberrant hypermethylation in this process.

  3. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    , reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

  4. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  5. Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

    2014-07-10

    Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications.

  6. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  7. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  8. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  9. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  10. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid ...

  11. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  12. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  13. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  14. Modeling of distribution and speciation of plutonium in the Urex extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Paulenova, A.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Krebs, J.F.

    2008-07-01

    The PUREX extraction process is used worldwide to recover uranium and plutonium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel using the tributylphosphate-nitric acid extraction system. In the recent decade, significant research progress was achieved with the aim to modify this system by addition of a salt-free agent to optimize stripping of plutonium from the tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction product (UREX). Experimental results on the extraction of Pu(IV) with and without acetohydroxamic acid in the HNO{sub 3}/TBP (30 vol %) were used for the development of a thermodynamic model of distribution and speciation of Pu(IV) in this separation process. Extraction constants for several sets of nitric acid, nitrate, and acetohydroxamic acid concentrations were used to model the obtained data. The extraction model AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction) was employed in our calculations. (authors)

  15. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  16. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  17. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  18. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  19. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  20. Spectroscopic methods of process monitoring for safeguards of used nuclear fuel separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Jamie Lee

    To support the demonstration of a more proliferation-resistant nuclear fuel processing plant, techniques and instrumentation to allow the real-time, online determination of special nuclear material concentrations in-process must be developed. An ideal materials accountability technique for proliferation resistance should provide nondestructive, realtime, on-line information of metal and ligand concentrations in separations streams without perturbing the process. UV-Visible spectroscopy can be adapted for this precise purpose in solvent extraction-based separations. The primary goal of this project is to understand fundamental URanium EXtraction (UREX) and Plutonium-URanium EXtraction (PUREX) reprocessing chemistry and corresponding UV-Visible spectroscopy for application in process monitoring for safeguards. By evaluating the impact of process conditions, such as acid concentration, metal concentration and flow rate, on the sensitivity of the UV-Visible detection system, the process-monitoring concept is developed from an advanced application of fundamental spectroscopy. Systematic benchtop-scale studies investigated the system relevant to UREX or PUREX type reprocessing systems, encompassing 0.01-1.26 M U and 0.01-8 M HNO3. A laboratory-scale TRansUranic Extraction (TRUEX) demonstration was performed and used both to analyze for potential online monitoring opportunities in the TRUEX process, and to provide the foundation for building and demonstrating a laboratory-scale UREX demonstration. The secondary goal of the project is to simulate a diversion scenario in UREX and successfully detect changes in metal concentration and solution chemistry in a counter current contactor system with a UV-Visible spectroscopic process monitor. UREX uses the same basic solvent extraction flowsheet as PUREX, but has a lower acid concentration throughout and adds acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a complexant/reductant to the feed solution to prevent the extraction of Pu. By examining

  1. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care. PMID:16812965

  3. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  4. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

  5. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... button beside the question. Good Luck! 1. Folic acid is: A a B vitamin B a form ...

  6. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  7. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  8. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  9. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetics Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Ingredients Alpha Hydroxy Acids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... for Industry: Labeling for Cosmetics Containing Alpha Hydroxy Acids The following information is intended to answer questions ...

  10. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  11. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... breaks the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this ... process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple ...

  12. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Valproic Acid and Pregnancy Wednesday, 01 July 2015 In every ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to valproic acid may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  13. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  14. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  15. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  17. Refining Lurgi tar acids

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, N.P.

    1984-04-17

    There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

  18. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  19. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic..., polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 1357486-09- 9) when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a...

  20. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  1. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  2. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  3. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  4. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Acid Lipase Disease Information Page What research is being ... research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency. Additional research studies hope to identify ...

  5. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  6. Contaminant Organic Complexes: Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Satish C. B. Myneni

    2005-12-13

    Siderophores are biological macromolecules (400-2000 Da) released by bacteria in iron limiting situations to sequester Fe from iron oxyhydroxides and silicates in the natural environment. These molecules contain hydroxamate and phenolate functional groups, and exhibit very high affinity for Fe{sup 3+}. While several studies were conducted to understand the behavior of siderophores and their application to the metal sequestration and mineral dissolution, only a few of them have examined the molecular structure of siderophores and their interactions with metals and mineral surfaces in aqueous solutions. Improved understanding of the chemical state of different functional moieties in siderophores can assist in the application of these biological molecules in actinide separation, sequestration and decontamination processes. The focus of our research group is to evaluate the (a) functional group chemistry of selected siderophores and their metal complexes in aqueous solutions, and (b) the nature of siderophore interactions at the mineral-water interfaces. We selected desferrioxamine B (desB), a hydroxamate siderophore, and its small structural analogue, acetohydroxamic acid (aHa), for this investigation. We examined the functional group chemistry of these molecules as a function of pH, and their complexation with aqueous and solid phase Fe(III). For solid phase Fe, we synthesized all naturally occurring Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite, akaganeite, feroxyhite) and hematite. We also synthesized Fe-oxides (goethite and hematite) of different sizes to evaluate the influence of particle size on mineral dissolution kinetics. We used a series of molecular techniques to explore the functional group chemistry of these molecules and their complexes. Infrared spectroscopy is used to specifically identify the variations in oxime group as a function of pH and Fe(III) complexation. Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the nature of hydroxamate binding in

  7. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  9. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  10. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  12. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  14. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  15. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  16. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  17. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  18. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  19. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  20. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  1. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  2. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  3. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  4. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  5. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  6. Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

    2000-03-01

    Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  7. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress, blocks mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, and suppresses reperfusion injury through GSK-3ß in cardiac H9c2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuxi; He, Yonggui; Cai, Zhiliang; Cai, Jianhang; Xi, Mengyao; Zhang, Yidong; Xi, Jinkun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress prevents opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and evaluates the corresponding signaling pathways involved in this process. Exposure of cardiac H9c2 cells to 800 µM H2O2 for 20 min opened mPTP in response to oxidative stress, as demonstrated by quenching of tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) fluorescence. Oxidative stress-induced mPTP opening was rescued by the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) in a dose-dependent manner at low concentrations. The PI3K and PKG inhibitors LY294002 and KT5823 inhibited the effect of TUDCA on mPTP opening, suggesting the involvement of PI3K/Akt and PKG signaling pathways. TUDCA significantly increased glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3β) phosphorylation at Ser-9, with peak effect at 30 µM TUDCA. The level of GRP78 (ER chaperone) expression was significantly upregulated by 30 µM TUDCA. TUDCA-induced increases in Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation were inhibited by LY294002, whereas KT5823 suppressed TUDCA-induced increases in VASP and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Oxidative stress severely affected cell morphology and ultrastructure. TUDCA prevented H2O2-induced ER swelling and mitochondrial damage. TUDCA boosted the viability of cells disrupted by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), indicating that TUDCA eased reperfusion injury. However, TUDCA did not improve the viability of cells expressing the constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (GSK-3β-S9A-HA) that were subjected to I/R, suggesting an essential role of GSK-3β inactivation in TUDCA-mediated cardioprotection against reperfusion damage. These data indicate that ER stress inhibition prevents mPTP opening and attenuates reperfusion injury through GSK-3β inactivation. The PI3K/Akt and PKG pathways may mediate GSK-3β inactivation. PMID:27904664

  8. Structure of Acid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Araujo, César L; Vihko, Pirkko T

    2013-01-01

    Acid phosphatases are enzymes that have been studied extensively due to the fact that their dysregulation is associated with pathophysiological conditions. This characteristic has been exploited for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. As an example, prostatic acid phosphatase was the first marker for metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis and the dysregulation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase is associated with abnormal bone resorption linked to osteoporosis. The pioneering crystallization studies on prostatic acid phosphatase and mammalian tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase conformed significant milestones towards the elucidation of the mechanisms followed by these enzymes (Schneider et al., EMBO J 12:2609-2615, 1993). Acid phosphatases are also found in nonmammalian species such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants, and most of them share structural similarities with mammalian acid phosphatase enzymes. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters following the general equation. Phosphate monoester + H2O -->/<-- alcohol + phosphate. The general classification "acid phosphatase" relies only on the optimum acidic pH for the enzymatic activity in assay conditions using non-physiological substrates. These enzymes accept a wide range of substrates in vitro, ranging from small organic molecules to phosphoproteins, constituting a heterogeneous group of enzymes from the structural point of view. These structural differences account for the divergence in cofactor dependences and behavior against substrates, inhibitors, and activators. In this group only the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a metallo-enzyme whereas the other members do not require metal-ion binding for their catalytic activity. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and erythrocytic acid phosphatase are not inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate ion while the prostatic acid phosphatase is tartrate-sensitive. This is an important

  9. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Folic Acid ... > For Parents > Folic Acid and Pregnancy A A A What's ...

  10. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  11. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  12. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  13. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  14. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  16. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  17. Production of shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam C

    2012-01-01

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Shikimic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and extraction from certain plants. An alternative production route is via biotransformation of the more readily available quinic acid. Much of the current supply of shikimic acid is sourced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum). Supply from star anise seeds has experienced difficulties and is susceptible to vagaries of weather. Star anise tree takes around six-years from planting to bear fruit, but remains productive for long. Extraction and purification from seeds are expensive. Production via fermentation is increasing. Other production methods are too expensive, or insufficiently developed. In the future, production in recombinant microorganisms via fermentation may become established as the preferred route. Methods for producing shikimic acid are reviewed.

  18. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C

    2004-11-01

    Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and alpha-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from alpha-keto acids only. BL2 also converted alpha-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

  19. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers.

  20. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  1. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  2. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  3. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

  4. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  5. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  6. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  7. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

  8. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... acidemia? In ASA, the body can’t remove ammonia or a substance called argininosuccinic acid from the ... and children include: Breathing problems High levels of ammonia in the bloodIntense headache, especially after a high- ...

  9. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  10. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The normal range is 320 ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  11. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  12. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  13. The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines.

    PubMed

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L M; Hollywood, R

    1979-09-01

    Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipoxidase, for trans fatty acid by infared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of linoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, respresenting various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated that two of them contained still higher levels of trans fatty acids (greater than 60%) and negligible amounts of linoleic acid. It is proposed that margarine could be a vehicle for the distribution of some dietary linoleic acid and that the level of linoleic acid and the summation of the saturated plus trans fatty acids be known to ascertain nutritional characteristics.

  14. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  15. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  16. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  17. The second acidic constant of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Porto, Raffaella; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Furia, Emilia

    2005-01-01

    The second dissociation constant of salicylic acid (H2L) has been determined, at 25 degrees C, in NaCl ionic media by UV spectrophotometric measurements. The investigated ionic strength values were 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 M. The protolysis constants calculated at the different ionic strengths yielded, with the Specific Interaction Theory, the infinite dilution constant, log beta1(0) = 13.62 +/- 0.03, for the equilibrium L2- + H+ <==> HL-. The interaction coefficient between Na+ and L2-, b(Na+, L2-) = 0.02 +/- 0.07, has been also calculated.

  18. Differential activation of pregnane X receptor by carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Seow, Chun Ling; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2017-03-10

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the expression of many genes, including those involved in drug metabolism and transport, and has been linked to various diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, we determined whether carnosic acid and other chemicals in rosemary extract (carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid) are PXR activators. As assessed in dual-luciferase reporter gene assays, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, activated human PXR (hPXR) and mouse PXR (mPXR), whereas carnosol and ursolic acid, but not carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid, activated rat PXR (rPXR). Dose-response experiments indicated that carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid activated hPXR with EC50 values of 0.79, 2.22, and 10.77μM, respectively. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, transactivated the ligand-binding domain of hPXR and recruited steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), SRC-2, and SRC-3 to the ligand-binding domain of hPXR. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, increased hPXR target gene expression, as shown by an increase in CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and ABCB1 mRNA expression in LS180 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Rosmarinic acid did not attenuate the extent of hPXR activation by rifampicin, suggesting it is not an antagonist of hPXR. Overall, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, are hPXR agonists, and carnosic acid shows species-dependent activation of hPXR and mPXR, but not rPXR. The findings provide new mechanistic insight on the effects of carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid on PXR-mediated biological effects.

  19. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  20. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  1. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  2. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  3. Recurrent uric acid stones.

    PubMed

    Kamel, K S; Cheema-Dhadli, S; Shafiee, M A; Davids, M R; Halperin, M L

    2005-01-01

    A 46-year-old female had a history of recurrent uric acid stone formation, but the reason why uric acid precipitated in her urine was not obvious, because the rate of urate excretion was not high, urine volume was not low, and the pH in her 24-h urine was not low enough. In his discussion of the case, Professor McCance provided new insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stone formation. He illustrated that measuring the pH in a 24-h urine might obscure the fact that the urine pH was low enough to cause uric acid to precipitate during most of the day. Because he found a low rate of excretion of NH(4)(+) relative to that of sulphate anions, as well as a high rate of citrate excretion, he speculated that the low urine pH would be due to a more alkaline pH in proximal convoluted tubule cells. He went on to suspect that there was a problem in our understanding of the function of renal medullary NH(3) shunt pathway, and he suggested that its major function might be to ensure a urine pH close to 6.0 throughout the day, to minimize the likelihood of forming uric acid kidney stones.

  4. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  5. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  6. Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Saldick, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand. PMID:4451360

  7. [Aristolochic acid nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Witkowicz, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Aristolochic acid nephropathy is a chronic, fibrosing, interstitial nephritis caused by aristolochic acid (AA), which is a component of the plants of Aristolochiacae family. It was first reported in 1993, in Belgium as a Chinese herb nephropathy, in patients who received a slimming regimen containing AA. The term aristolochic acid nephropathy also includes Balcan endemic nephropathy and other endemic tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Moreover, AA is a human carcinogen which induces urothelial cancer. The AA-containing herbs are banned in many countries and FDA published the warnings concerning the safety of AA-containing botanical remedies in 2000. Regarding the increasing interest in herbal medicines, uncontrolled access to botanical remedies and replacement of one herb by another AA-containing compounds makes thousands of people all around the world at risk of this grave disease.

  8. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  9. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  10. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented.

  11. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  12. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  13. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  14. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A; Miller, Wilson H; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L John

    2009-02-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at -30 degrees C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function.

  15. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  16. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  17. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  18. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chemical Emergencies: Case Definition: Hydrofluoric Acid . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services; 2005. Goldfrank LR, ed. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2006. Wax PM, Young A. ...

  19. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  20. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  1. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  2. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  3. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  4. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  5. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  7. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  8. Water surface is acidic

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Victoria; Milet, Anne; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel; Devlin, J. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Water autoionization reaction 2H2O → H3O− + OH− is a textbook process of basic importance, resulting in pH = 7 for pure water. However, pH of pure water surface is shown to be significantly lower, the reduction being caused by proton stabilization at the surface. The evidence presented here includes ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations of water slabs with solvated H3O+ and OH− ions, density functional studies of (H2O)48H+ clusters, and spectroscopic isotopic-exchange data for D2O substitutional impurities at the surface and in the interior of ice nanocrystals. Because H3O+ does, but OH− does not, display preference for surface sites, the H2O surface is predicted to be acidic with pH < 4.8. For similar reasons, the strength of some weak acids, such as carbonic acid, is expected to increase at the surface. Enhanced surface acidity can have a significant impact on aqueous surface chemistry, e.g., in the atmosphere. PMID:17452650

  9. Acid rain sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, T.C.; Schwieger, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of acid rain and how it can be controlled. The book is divided into seven key sections: the problem and the legislative solutions; international mitigation programs; planning the US program; emissions reduction-before combustion; emissions/reduction-during combustion; emissions reduction-after combustion and engineering solutions under development. 13 papers have been abstracted separately.

  10. The acid rain sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, T.C.; Schwieger, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    A reference collection of specialized information discussions on areas critical to the acid rain issue: problem definition, impact of legislation, emissions standards, international perspective, cost scenarios, and engineering solutions. The text is reinforced with 130 illustrations and about 50 tables. Contents: International mitigation programs. Emissions reduction: before combustion; during combustion; after combustion. Engineering solutions under development.

  11. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  12. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  13. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations.

  14. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  15. Sulfonylureas have antifungal activity and are potent inhibitors of Candida albicans acetohydroxyacid synthase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Ting; Cui, Chang-Jun; Chow, Eve W L; Pue, Nason; Lonhienne, Thierry; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fraser, James A; Guddat, Luke W

    2013-01-10

    The sulfonylurea herbicides exert their activity by inhibiting plant acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), the first enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. It has previously been shown that if the gene for AHAS is deleted in Candida albicans , attenuation of virulence is achieved, suggesting AHAS as an antifungal drug target. Herein, we have cloned, expressed, and purified C. albicans AHAS and shown that several sulfonylureas are inhibitors of this enzyme and possess antifungal activity. The most potent of these compounds is ethyl 2-(N-((4-iodo-6-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoyl)sulfamoyl)benzoate (10c), which has a K(i) value of 3.8 nM for C. albicans AHAS and an MIC₉₀ of 0.7 μg/mL for this fungus in cell-based assays. For the sulfonylureas tested there was a strong correlation between inhibitory activity toward C. albicans AHAS and fungicidal activity, supporting the hypothesis that AHAS is the target for their inhibitory activity within the cell.

  16. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  17. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  18. Radioenzymatic assay for quinolinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.C.; Okuno, E.; Brougher, D.S.; Schwarcz, R.

    1986-10-01

    A new and rapid method for the determination of the excitotoxic tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid is based on its enzymatic conversion to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and, in a second step utilizing (/sup 3/H)ATP, further to (/sup 3/H) deamido-NAD. Specificity of the assay is assured by using a highly purified preparation of the specific quinolinic acid-catabolizing enzyme, quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase, in the initial step. The limit of sensitivity was found to be 2.5 pmol of quinolinic acid, sufficient to conveniently determine quinolinic acid levels in small volumes of human urine and blood plasma.

  19. Progress in engineering acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of fermented foods, and are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effect. However, LAB encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial fermentation and application, among which acid stress is one of the most important survival challenges. Improving the acid stress resistance may contribute to the application and function of probiotic action to the host. Recently, the advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput technologies have allowed for the understanding of acid tolerance mechanisms at a systems level, and many method to improve acid tolerance have been developed. This review describes the current progress in engineering acid stress resistance of LAB. Special emphasis is placed on engineering cellular microenvironment (engineering amino acid metabolism, introduction of exogenous biosynthetic capacity, and overproduction of stress response proteins) and maintaining cell membrane functionality. Moreover, strategies to improve acid tolerance and the related physiological mechanisms are also discussed.

  20. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  1. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  2. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  3. Boric/sulfuric acid anodize - Alternative to chromic acid anodize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop, Rodney; Moji, Yukimori

    1992-04-01

    The suitability of boric acid/sulfuric acid anodizing (BSAA) solution as a more environmentally acceptable replacement of the chromic acid anodizing (CAA) solution was investigated. Results include data on the BSAA process optimization, the corrosion protection performance, and the compatibility with aircraft finishing. It is shown that the BSSA implementation as a substitude for CAA was successful.

  4. Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated co...

  5. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  6. Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23 (9) and 87.97 (9)°. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

  7. Autohydrolysis of phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Hull, S R; Gray, J S; Montgomery, R

    1999-09-10

    The autohydrolysis of phytic acid at 120 degrees C resulted in the formation of most of the phosphate esters of myo-inositol in varying amounts depending upon the reaction time. Eighteen of the 39 chromatographically distinct myo-inositol mono-, bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, pentakis-, and hexakisphosphates have been characterized using two different HPLC systems. These myo-inositol phosphates were partially purified by preparative anion-exchange chromatography under acidic and alkaline elution conditions. The combination of these two methods provides a two-tiered chromatographic approach to the rapid and sensitive identification of inositol phosphates in complex mixtures. Identification of the products was confirmed by 1D and 2D (1)H NMR analysis. The analytical procedure was applied to the autohydrolysis of the mixture of inositol phosphates from corn steep water.

  8. Optimize acid gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, D.M.; Wilkins, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Innovative design of physical solvent plants for acid gas removal can materially reduce both installation and operating costs. A review of the design considerations for one physical solvent process (Selexol) points to numerous arrangements for potential improvement. These are evaluated for a specific case in four combinations that identify an optimum for the case in question but, more importantly, illustrate the mechanism for use for such optimization elsewhere.

  9. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  10. Ideas about Acids and Alkalis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplis, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Investigates students' ideas, conceptions, and misconceptions about acids and alkalis before and after a teaching sequence in a small-scale research project. Concludes that student understanding of acids and alkalis is lacking. (DDR)

  11. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePlus

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  12. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Folic Acid Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Folic Acid Homepage Facts Quiz Frequently Asked Questions General Information ...

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  14. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A; Halo, Tiffany L; Merkel, Timothy J; Rische, Clayton H; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A; Gryaznov, Sergei M

    2015-03-31

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies.

  15. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C.; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S.; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A.; Halo, Tiffany L.; Merkel, Timothy J.; Rische, Clayton H.; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A.; Gryaznov, Sergei M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies. PMID:25775582

  16. Microbial naphthenic Acid degradation.

    PubMed

    Whitby, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are an important group of trace organic pollutants predominantly comprising saturated aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids. NAs are ubiquitous; occurring naturally in hydrocarbon deposits (petroleum, oil sands, bitumen, and crude oils) and also have widespread industrial uses. Consequently, NAs can enter the environment from both natural and anthropogenic processes. NAs are highly toxic, recalcitrant compounds that persist in the environment for many years, and it is important to develop efficient bioremediation strategies to decrease both their abundance and toxicity in the environment. However, the diversity of microbial communities involved in NA-degradation, and the mechanisms by which NAs are biodegraded, are poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is mainly due to the difficulties in identifying and purifying individual carboxylic acid compounds from complex NA mixtures found in the environment, for microbial biodegradation studies. This paper will present an overview of NAs, their origin and fate in the environment, and their toxicity to the biota. The review describes the microbial degradation of both naturally occurring and chemically synthesized NAs. Proposed pathways for aerobic NA biodegradation, factors affecting NA biodegradation rates, and possible bioremediation strategies are also discussed.

  17. Language, Literacy, and Culture: Aha! Moments in Personal and Sociopolitical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the intersections among language, literacy, and culture, and what these intersections have meant for the author personally, and what they can mean for students who have been marginalized, neglected, or made invisible by traditional understandings of the role of education. Although not linked conceptually in the past, the…

  18. Operationalizing the 2014 ACC/AHA Guidelines for Valvular Heart Disease: A Guide for Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Rick A; Carabello, Blase

    2016-05-17

    The 2014 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for valvular heart disease were released to help guide the clinician in caring for patients with this ever more prevalent and complex group of diseases and have been instrumental in providing a foundation of knowledge for the management of patients with valvular heart disease. However, there are many caveats in applying the guidelines to individual patients. As clinicians, we wish to outline important aspects to be considered by other clinicians, including the integration of the echocardiogram with the history and physical examination, recognition of discordant data within an echocardiographic examination, and proper interpretation of the cutoff measurements applied to timing of intervention. Decisions regarding management should be individualized to the institution, particularly when recommending early operation for an asymptomatic patient. Finally, all decisions should be individualized to each patient by not only recognizing specific comorbidities, but also understanding the patient's needs and preferences.

  19. AHA! A Cool Salt Water/Density Activity--The Joy of Designing a Simple Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gaylen R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes two science activities concerning water density and shares an idea for combining these activities into a third, completely new activity. Demonstrates the joy of rekindling the spirit of scientific thinking in a typical classroom. (PVD)

  20. Finding the "A-Ha" Moment: An Exploration into HE in FE Teacher Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadi-Hanifi, Karima; Keenan, John

    2016-01-01

    Five teachers of higher education (HE)-level courses working in the further education (FE) sector recalled critical moments which helped to form their self-concepts. The researchers used life history method to encourage the teachers to be open about their lives and how they formed their personal and professional selves. Three common themes were…

  1. Comparison of ESC and ACC/AHA guidelines for myocardial revascularization.

    PubMed

    Stirrup, Jim; Velasco, Alejandro; Hage, Fadi G; Reyes, Eliana

    2017-02-21

    In 2014, the Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery with the special contribution of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions published a comprehensive set of recommendations on myocardial revascularization in patients presenting with acute or chronic coronary artery disease. In the United States, pertinent guidance on this topic has been published by the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association and other relevant societies in multiple guideline documents that have been published in recent years. This document brings together European and American recommendations on myocardial revascularization with a focus on the role of cardiac imaging.

  2. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2015, Orlando.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Kimura, Mai; Kohno, Takashi; Fujita, Jun; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    The American Heart Association Scientific Sessions were held in Orlando on November 7-15, 2015. The meeting attracted more than 18,000 participants, including physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel, from more than 100 countries. Sessions over the 5 days included a comprehensive and unparalleled education delivered via more than 5,000 presentations, with 1,000 invited faculty members and 4,000 abstract presentations from the world leaders in cardiovascular disease. It also displayed the newest cardiovascular technology and resources by more than 200 exhibitors. There were 19 trials scheduled in 6 late-breaking clinical trial sessions. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) aimed to determine the most appropriate targets for the systolic blood pressure among persons without diabetes. A total of 9,361 persons with systolic blood pressure of ≥130 mmHg and an increased cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, were randomly assigned to a target systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg (intensive treatment) or a target of <140 mmHg (standard treatment). A significantly lower rate of the primary composite outcome and all-cause mortality in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group was observed. Summaries and overviews of the late-breaking trials, clinical science special report sessions, and sessions to which members of the Japanese Circulation Society contributed are presented.

  3. Taking Math Students from "Blah" to "Aha": What Can We Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalajdzievska, Darja

    2014-01-01

    In many post-secondary, introductory mathematics courses failure and withdrawal rates are reaching as high as 50% and average GPA is steadily decreasing. This is a problem that has been witnessed across the globe. With widespread reforms taking place in K-12 mathematics education, many innovative teaching strategies have been created, implemented,…

  4. Amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.; Peterson, E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies with the combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer were conducted to characterize further the amino acids found in extracts of the Murchison meteorite. With the exception of beta-aminoisobutyric acid, all of the amino acids which were found in previous studies of the Murchison meteorite and the Murray meteorite have been identified. The results obtained lend further support to the hypothesis that amino acids are present in the Murchison meteorite as the result of an extraterrestrial abiotic synthesis.

  5. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  6. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  7. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  8. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  9. Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)

  10. [Total synthesis of nordihydroguaiaretic acid].

    PubMed

    Wu, A X; Zhao, Y R; Chen, N; Pan, X F

    1997-04-01

    beta-Keto ester(5) was obtained from vanilin through etherification, oxidation and condensation with acetoacetic ester, (5) on oxidative coupling reaction by NaOEt/I2 produced dimer (6) in high yield. Acid catalyzed cyclodehydration of (6) gave the furan derivative(7), and by a series of selective hydrogenation nordihydroguaiaretic acid, furoguaiacin dimethyl ether and dihydroguaiaretic acid dimethyl ether were synthesized.

  11. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  12. Microbial degradation of poly(amino acid)s.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Natural poly(amino acid)s are a group of poly(ionic) molecules (ionomers) with various biological functions and putative technical applications and play, therefore, an important role both in nature and in human life. Because of their biocompatibility and their synthesis from renewable resources, poly(amino acid)s may be employed for many different purposes covering a broad spectrum of medical, pharmaceutical, and personal care applications as well as the domains of agriculture and of environmental applications. Biodegradability is one important advantage of naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s over many synthetic polymers. The intention of this review is to give an overview about the enzyme systems catalyzing the initial steps in poly(amino acid) degradation. The focus is on the naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s cyanophycin, poly(epsilon-L-lysine) and poly(gamma-glutamic acid); but biodegradation of structurally related synthetic polyamides such as poly(aspartic acid) and nylons, which are known from various technical applications, is also included.

  13. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  14. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  15. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  16. [Stewart's acid-base approach].

    PubMed

    Funk, Georg-Christian

    2007-01-01

    In addition to paCO(2), Stewart's acid base model takes into account the influence of albumin, inorganic phosphate, electrolytes and lactate on acid-base equilibrium. It allows a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of acid-base disorders. Particularly simultaneous and mixed metabolic acid-base disorders, which are common in critically ill patients, can be assessed. Stewart's approach is therefore a valuable tool in addition to the customary acid-base approach based on bicarbonate or base excess. However, some chemical aspects of Stewart's approach remain controversial.

  17. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  18. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

    2012-11-01

    Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 μm) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

  19. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

    2012-07-01

    Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 μm) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  20. Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

  1. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  2. New highly toxic bile acids derived from deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid.

    PubMed

    Májer, Ferenc; Sharma, Ruchika; Mullins, Claire; Keogh, Luke; Phipps, Sinead; Duggan, Shane; Kelleher, Dermot; Keely, Stephen; Long, Aideen; Radics, Gábor; Wang, Jun; Gilmer, John F

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared a new panel of 23 BA derivatives of DCA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) in order to study the effect of dual substitution with 3-azido and 24-amidation, features individually associated with cytotoxicity in our previous work. The effect of the compounds on cell viability of HT-1080 and Caco-2 was studied using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Compounds with high potency towards reduction of cell viability were further studied using flow cytometry in order to understand the mechanism of cell death. Several compounds were identified with low micromolar IC₅₀ values for reducing cell viability in the Caco-2 and HT1080 cell lines, making them among the most potent BA apoptotic agents reported to date. There was no evidence of relationship between overall hydrophobicity and cytotoxicity supporting the idea that cell death induction by BAs may be structure-specific. Compounds derived from DCA caused cell death through apoptosis. There was some evidence of selectivity between the two cell lines studied which may be due to differing expression of CD95/FAS. The more toxic compounds increased ROS production in Caco-2 cells, and co-incubation with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blunted pro-apoptotic effects. The properties these compounds suggest that there may be specific mechanism(s) mediating BA induced cell death. Compound 8 could be useful for investigating this phenomenon.

  3. Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2012-10-01

    Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

  4. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  5. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  6. Ribonucleic acid purification.

    PubMed

    Martins, R; Queiroz, J A; Sousa, F

    2014-08-15

    Research on RNA has led to many important biological discoveries and improvement of therapeutic technologies. From basic to applied research, many procedures employ pure and intact RNA molecules; however their isolation and purification are critical steps because of the easy degradability of RNA, which can impair chemical stability and biological functionality. The current techniques to isolate and purify RNA molecules still have several limitations and the requirement for new methods able to improve RNA quality to meet regulatory demands is growing. In fact, as basic research improves the understanding of biological roles of RNAs, the biopharmaceutical industry starts to focus on them as a biotherapeutic tools. Chromatographic bioseparation is a high selective unit operation and is the major option in the purification of biological compounds, requiring high purity degree. In addition, its application in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is well established. This paper discusses the importance and the progress of RNA isolation and purification, considering RNA applicability both in research and clinical fields. In particular and in view of the high specificity, affinity chromatography has been recently applied to RNA purification processes. Accordingly, recent chromatographic investigations based on biorecognition phenomena occurring between RNA and amino acids are focused. Histidine and arginine have been used as amino acid ligands, and their ability to isolate different RNA species demonstrated a multipurpose applicability in molecular biology analysis and RNA therapeutics preparation, highlighting the potential contribution of these methods to overcome the challenges of RNA purification.

  7. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  8. CELL PENETRATION BY ACIDS : VI. THE CHLOROACETIC ACIDS.

    PubMed

    Crozier, W J

    1922-09-20

    Measurements of the penetration of tissue from Chromodoris zebra are believed to show that a determining factor in penetration involves the establishment of a critical pH (near 3.5) in relation to superficial cell proteins. The rapidity with which this state is produced depends upon acid strength, and upon some property of the acid influencing the speed of absorption; hence it is necessary to compare acids within groups of chemical relationship. The actual speed of penetration observed with any acid is dependent upon two influences: preliminary chemical combination with the outer protoplasm, followed by diffusion. The variation of the temperature coefficient of penetration velocity with the concentration of acid, and the effect of size (age) of individual providing the tissue sample agree in demonstrating the significant part played by diffusion. In comparing different acids, however, their mode of chemical union with the protoplasm determines the general order of penetrating ability.

  9. Bile acids: regulation of synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, John Y L

    2009-10-01

    Bile acids are physiological detergents that generate bile flow and facilitate intestinal absorption and transport of lipids, nutrients, and vitamins. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and inflammatory agents that rapidly activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways that regulate lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids exerts important physiological functions not only in feedback inhibition of bile acid synthesis but also in control of whole-body lipid homeostasis. In the liver, bile acids activate a nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), that induces an atypical nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner, which subsequently inhibits nuclear receptors, liver-related homolog-1, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha and results in inhibiting transcription of the critical regulatory gene in bile acid synthesis, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). In the intestine, FXR induces an intestinal hormone, fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15; or FGF19 in human), which activates hepatic FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4) signaling to inhibit bile acid synthesis. However, the mechanism by which FXR/FGF19/FGFR4 signaling inhibits CYP7A1 remains unknown. Bile acids are able to induce FGF19 in human hepatocytes, and the FGF19 autocrine pathway may exist in the human livers. Bile acids and bile acid receptors are therapeutic targets for development of drugs for treatment of cholestatic liver diseases, fatty liver diseases, diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

  10. Therapeutic targeting of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The first objectives of this article are to review the structure, chemistry, and physiology of bile acids and the types of bile acid malabsorption observed in clinical practice. The second major theme addresses the classical or known properties of bile acids, such as the role of bile acid sequestration in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in therapeutics, from traditional oriental medicine to being, until recently, the drug of choice in cholestatic liver diseases; and the potential for normalizing diverse bowel dysfunctions in irritable bowel syndrome, either by sequestering intraluminal bile acids for diarrhea or by delivering more bile acids to the colon to relieve constipation. The final objective addresses novel concepts and therapeutic opportunities such as the interaction of bile acids and the microbiome to control colonic infections, as in Clostridium difficile-associated colitis, and bile acid targeting of the farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 with consequent effects on energy expenditure, fat metabolism, and glycemic control. PMID:26138466

  11. [Analysis of citric acid and citrates. Citric acid and urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Leskovar, P

    1979-08-01

    In the first part the physico-chemical, analytic chemical and physiologic biochemical properties of the citric acid are discussed. In the second part the author enters the role of the citric acid in the formation of uric calculi. In the third part is reported on the individual methods of the determination of citric acid and the method practised in the author's laboratory is described.

  12. Rotational study of the bimolecule acetic acid-fluoroacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Gang; Gou, Qian; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther

    2017-01-01

    The rotational spectrum of the acetic acid-fluoroacetic acid bimolecule was measured by using a pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. One conformer, in which fluoroacetic acid is in trans form, has been observed. The rotational transitions are split into two component lines, due to the internal rotation of the methyl group of acetic acid. From these splittings, the corresponding V3 barrier has been determined. The dissociation energy of this complex has been estimated to 66 kJ/mol. An increase of the distance between the two monomers upon the OH → OD substitution (Ubbelohde effect) has been observed.

  13. Esterification by the Plasma Acidic Water: Novel Application of Plasma Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    This work explores the possibility of plasma acid as acid catalyst in organic reactions. Plasma acidic water was prepared by dielectric barrier discharge and used to catalyze esterification of n-heptanioc acid with ethanol. It is found that the plasma acidic water has a stable and better performance than sulfuric acid, meaning that it is an excellent acid catalyst. The plasma acidic water would be a promising alternative for classic mineral acid as a more environment friendly acid.

  14. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  15. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  16. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  17. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  18. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  19. [Women's knowledge of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Salgues, Mathilde; Damase-Michel, Christine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-27

    Many trials have shown that folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects in general population. We investigated the knowledge of folic acid in women of child-bearing age. Women of child-bearing age were interviewed by 20 pharmacists living in Haute-Garonne between January and February 2014. One hundred ninety-six women were included in the present study. Out of them, 36% of women never heard of folic acid and 82% were not aware of its benefits. Knowledge was higher in older women, women in a couple and women with higher educational level (P<10(-2)). This study underlines that women are not enough aware of benefits of folic acid during pregnancy. Moreover, previous studies have shown that French women have low use of folic acid during peri-conceptional period. Information of general population will be required for a better prevention of folic acid-preventable NTDs.

  20. Flecainide acetate acetic acid solvates.

    PubMed

    Veldre, Kaspars; Actiņs, Andris; Eglite, Zane

    2011-02-01

    Flecainide acetate forms acetic acid solvates with 0.5 and 2 acetic acid molecules. Powder X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric, infrared, and potentiometric titration were used to determine the composition of solvates. Flecainide acetate hemisolvate with acetic acid decomposes to form a new crystalline form of flecainide acetate. This form is less stable than the already known polymorphic form at all temperatures, and it is formed due to kinetic reasons. Both flecainide acetate nonsolvated and flecainide acetate hemisolvate forms crystallize in monoclinic crystals, but flecainide triacetate forms triclinic crystals. Solvate formation was not observed when flecainide base was treated with formic acid, propanoic acid, and butanoic acid. Only nonsolvated flecainide salts were obtained in these experiments.

  1. A Simpler Nucleic Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, Leslie

    2000-01-01

    It has been supposed that for a nucleic acid analog to pair with RNA it must, like RNA, have a backbone with at least a sixatom repeat; a shorter backbone presumably would not stretch far enough to bind RNA properly. The Eschenmoser group has shown, however, that this first impression is incorrect.As they report in their new paper, Eschenmoser and co-workers ( I ) have now synthesized a substantial number of these polymers, which are called (L)-a-threofuranosyl oligonucleotides or TNAs. They are composed of bases linked to a threose sugar-phosphate backbone, with phosphodiester bonds connecting the nucleotides. The investigators discovered that pairs of complementary TNAs do indeed form stable Watson-Crick double helices and, perhaps more importantly, that TNAs form stable double helices with complementary RNAs and DNAs.

  2. Acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  3. Production of polymalic acid and malic acid by Aureobasidium pullulans fermentation and acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-08-01

    Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry and also a potential C4 platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. However, microbial fermentation for direct malic acid production is limited by low product yield, titer, and productivity due to end-product inhibition. In this work, a novel process for malic acid production from polymalic acid (PMA) fermentation followed by acid hydrolysis was developed. First, a PMA-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain ZX-10 was screened and isolated. This microbe produced PMA as the major fermentation product at a high-titer equivalent to 87.6 g/L of malic acid and high-productivity of 0.61 g/L h in free-cell fermentation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. Fed-batch fermentations with cells immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) achieved the highest product titer of 144.2 g/L and productivity of 0.74 g/L h. The fermentation produced PMA was purified by adsorption with IRA-900 anion-exchange resins, achieving a ∼100% purity and a high recovery rate of 84%. Pure malic acid was then produced from PMA by hydrolysis with 2 M sulfuric acid at 85°C, which followed the first-order reaction kinetics. This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application.

  4. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  5. Dipotassium maleate with boric acid.

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis; Büyükgüngör, Orhan; Aktas, Huseyin; Durlu, Tahsin Nuri

    2007-09-01

    In the title compound, poly[(mu3-boric acid)-mu4-maleato-dipotassium], [K2(C(4)H(2)O(4)){B(OH)3}]n, there are two independent K+ cations, one bonded to seven O atoms (three from boric acid and four from maleate), and the other eight-coordinate via three boric acid and four maleate O atoms and a weak eta(1)-type coordination to the C=C bond of the maleate central C atoms. Hydrogen bonding links the boric acid ligands and maleate dianions, completing the packing structure.

  6. Organic Acid Production by Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Shoichi

    1965-01-01

    Sixty-seven strains belonging to 47 species of Basidiomycetes were examined for their acid-producing abilities in glucose media, in both the presence and absence of CaCO3, in stationary and shake cultures. Some strains were found to produce large quantities of oxalic acid. The oxalic acid-producing strains could be separated into two groups. Strains of one group (mostly brown-rot fungi) were able to produce oxalic acid, regardless of whether CaCO3 was present in the medium. Strains of the other group (mostly white-rot fungi) were characterized by their ability to produce oxalic acid only when CaCO3 was added to the medium. With the latter group, shake-culturing was generally more effective than stationary culturing in respect to acid production. In the CaCO3-containing media, Schizophyllum commune, Merulius tremellosus, and Porodisculus pendulus were found to produce substantial amounts of L-malic acid as a main metabolic product, along with small quantities of oxalic and other acids in shake cultures. Especially, S. commune and M. tremellosus may be employed as malic acid-producing species. PMID:5867653

  7. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  8. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  9. Sulfuric acid as autocatalyst in the formation of sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Francisco, Joseph S; Anglada, Josep M

    2012-12-26

    Sulfuric acid can act as a catalyst of its own formation. We have carried out a computational investigation on the gas-phase formation of H(2)SO(4) by hydrolysis of SO(3) involving one and two water molecules, and also in the presence of sulfuric acid and its complexes with one and two water molecules. The hydrolysis of SO(3) requires the concurrence of two water molecules, one of them acting as a catalyzer, and our results predict an important catalytic effect, ranging between 3 and 11 kcal·mol(-1) when the catalytic water molecule is substituted by a sulfuric acid molecule or one of its hydrates. In these cases, the reaction products are either bare sulfuric acid dimer or sulfuric acid dimer complexed with a water molecule. There are broad implications from these new findings. The results of the present investigation show that the catalytic effect of sulfuric acid in the SO(3) hydrolysis can be important in the Earth's stratosphere, in the heterogeneous formation of sulfuric acid and in the formation of aerosols, in H(2)SO(4) formation by aircraft engines, and also in understanding the formation of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere of Venus.

  10. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  11. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  12. Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.; Frink, C.R.

    1983-08-05

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and Northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has also occurred in regions undergoing acidification. There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession. Thus, the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

  13. Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.; Frink, C.R.

    1983-08-05

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has also occurred in regions undergoing acidification. There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession. Thus, the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

  14. Microbial desulfonation of substituted naphthalenesulfonic acids and benzenesulfonic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Zürrer, D; Cook, A M; Leisinger, T

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur-limited batch enrichment cultures containing one of nine multisubstituted naphthalenesulfonates and an inoculum from sewage yielded several taxa of bacteria which could quantitatively utilize 19 sulfonated aromatic compounds as the sole sulfur source for growth. Growth yields were about 4 kg of protein per mol of sulfur. Specific degradation rates were about 4 to 14 mu kat/kg of protein. A Pseudomonas sp., an Arthrobacter sp., and an unidentified bacterium were examined. Each desulfonated at least 16 aromatic compounds, none of which served as a carbon source. Pseudomonas sp. strain S-313 converted 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 5-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 5-amino-1-naphthol, phenol, and 3-aminophenol, respectively. Experiments with 18O2 showed that the hydroxyl group was derived from molecular oxygen. PMID:3662502

  15. A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

  16. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  17. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  18. Fatty acids and lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P; Thies, F; Wallace, F A; Miles, E A

    2002-01-01

    The immune system acts to protect the host against pathogenic invaders. However, components of the immune system can become dysregulated such that their activities are directed against host tissues, so causing damage. Lymphocytes are involved in both the beneficial and detrimental effects of the immune system. Both the level of fat and the types of fatty acid present in the diet can affect lymphocyte functions. The fatty acid composition of lymphocytes, and other immune cells, is altered according to the fatty acid composition of the diet and this alters the capacity of those cells to produce eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2, which are involved in immunoregulation. A high fat diet can impair lymphocyte function. Cell culture and animal feeding studies indicate that oleic, linoleic, conjugated linoleic, gamma-linolenic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic, arachidonic, alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids can all influence lymphocyte proliferation, the production of cytokines by lymphocytes, and natural killer cell activity. High intakes of some of these fatty acids are necessary to induce these effects. Among these fatty acids the long chain n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid, appear to be the most potent when included in the human diet. Although not all studies agree, it appears that fish oil, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid, down regulates the T-helper 1-type response which is associated with chronic inflammatory disease. There is evidence for beneficial effects of fish oil in such diseases; this evidence is strongest for rheumatoid arthritis. Since n-3 fatty acids also antagonise the production of inflammatory eicosanoid mediators from arachidonic acid, there is potential for benefit in asthma and related diseases. Recent evidence indicates that fish oil may be of benefit in some asthmatics but not others.

  19. Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid and its derivatives : Salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Marek J.

    1981-11-01

    Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid, O-deutero-salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid crystals have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Interpretation of these spectra was based on the Witkowski-Maréchal model. Semi-quantitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra can be achieved with the simplest form of this model, with values of interaction parameters transferable for equivalent intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  20. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  2. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Separation of Uranium from Other Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Donna L. Quach; Bruce J. Mincher; Chien M. Wai

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of separating uranium from other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of an extraction and counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for used nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U(VI), Np(VI), Pu(IV), and Am(III)) were extracted in sc-CO2 modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, the separation of uranium from plutonium in sc-CO2 modified with TBP was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, and the separation of uranium from neptunium was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 1 M in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid, oxalic acid, or sodium nitrite.

  3. Synthesis of new kojic acid based unnatural α-amino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, C; Payili, Nagaraju; Yennam, Satyanarayana; Devi, P Uma; Behera, Manoranjan

    2015-11-01

    An efficient method for the preparation of kojic acid based α-amino acid derivatives by alkylation of glycinate schiff base with bromokojic acids have been described. Using this method, mono as well as di alkylated kojic acid-amino acid conjugates have been prepared. This is the first synthesis of C-linked kojic acid-amino acid conjugate where kojic acid is directly linked to amino acid through a C-C bond.

  4. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  5. Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

  6. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  7. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  8. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  9. Acid rain & electric utilities II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  10. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  11. Beneficial effects of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Rose, Maximas H

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials are playing a vital role in our day-to-day life. Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid), a biomaterial, receives special attention among them. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polyanionic natural polymer occurring as linear polysaccharide composed of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine repeats via a β-1,4 linkage. It is the most versatile macromolecule present in the connective tissues of all vertebrates. Hyaluronic acid has a wide range of applications with its excellent physicochemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and nonimmunogenicity and serves as an excellent tool in biomedical applications such as osteoarthritis surgery, ocular surgery, plastic surgery, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. It plays a key role in cushioning and lubricating the body and is abundant in the eyes, joints, and heart valves. A powerful antioxidant, hyaluronic acid is perhaps best known for its ability to bond water to tissue. Hyaluronan production increases in proliferating cells, and the polymer may play a role in mitosis. This chapter gives an overview of hyaluronic acid and its physicochemical properties and applications. This chapter gives a deep understanding on the special benefits of hyaluronic acid in the fields of pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental applications. Hyaluronic acid paves the way for beneficial research and applications to the welfare of life forms.

  12. Phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvertkina, L. V.; Khoklov, P. S.; Mironov, Vladimir F.

    1992-10-01

    The present state of work on the methods of synthesis, chemical properties, and practical applications of phosphorus-containing derivatives of salicylic acid has been reviewed. The characteristics of the chemical transformations of cyclic and acyclic phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid related to the coordination state of the phosphorus atom have been examined. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  13. Protein and amino acid nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cow protein and amino acid nutrition have a significant role in sustainable dairying. Protein, amino acids, and nitrogen are inextricably linked through effects in the rumen, metabolism of the cow, and environmental nutrient management. Feeding systems have been making progress toward emphasiz...

  14. Acid Tests and Basic Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores acids and bases using different indicators, such as turmeric, purple grape juice, and lichens. Because some of these indicators are not as sensitive as cabbage juice or litmus paper, determining to which acids and bases each indicator is sensitive presents an enjoyable, problem-solving challenge for students. Presents directions for…

  15. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela; Pontis, Silvia; Basit, Abdul; Bach, Anders; Ganesan, Anand; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphingolipid signaling in melanoma. We found that AC expression is markedly elevated in normal human melanocytes and proliferative melanoma cell lines, compared with other skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts) and non-melanoma cancer cells. High AC expression was also observed in biopsies from human subjects with Stage II melanoma. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that the subcellular localization of AC differs between melanocytes (where it is found in both cytosol and nucleus) and melanoma cells (where it is primarily localized to cytosol). In addition to having high AC levels, melanoma cells generate lower amounts of ceramides than normal melanocytes do. This down-regulation in ceramide production appears to result from suppression of the de novo biosynthesis pathway. To test whether AC might contribute to melanoma cell proliferation, we blocked AC activity using a new potent (IC50 = 12 nm) and stable inhibitor. AC inhibition increased cellular ceramide levels, decreased sphingosine 1-phosphate levels, and acted synergistically with several, albeit not all, antitumoral agents. The results suggest that AC-controlled sphingolipid metabolism may play an important role in the control of melanoma proliferation. PMID:26553872

  16. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  17. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  18. Atmospheric dust and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

  19. SIALIC ACIDS AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vinay S.; Pillai, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    summary An important underlying mechanism that contributes to autoimmunity is the loss of inhibitory signaling in the immune system. Sialic acid-recognizing Ig superfamily lectins or Siglecs are a family of cell surface proteins largely expressed in hematopoietic cells. The majority of Siglecs are inhibitory receptors expressed in immune cells that bind to sialic acid containing ligands and recruit SH2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatases to their cytoplasmic tails. They deliver inhibitory signals that can contribute to the constraining of immune cells and thus protect the host from autoimmunity. The inhibitory functions of CD22/Siglec-2 and Siglec-G and their contributions to tolerance and autoimmunity, primarily in the B lymphocyte context, are considered in some detail in this review. The relevance to autoimmunity and unregulated inflammation of modified sialic acids, enzymes that modify sialic acid, and other sialic acid binding proteins are also reviewed. PMID:26683151

  20. Reduction of hypervalent chromium in acidic media by alginic acid.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Fernando A; Bellú, Sebastian E; González, Juan C; Sala, Luis F

    2014-12-19

    Selective oxidation of carboxylate groups present in alginic acid by Cr(VI) affords CO2, oxidized alginic acid, and Cr(III) as final products. The redox reaction afforded first-order kinetics in [alginic acid], [Cr(VI)], and [H(+)], at fixed ionic strength and temperature. Kinetic studies showed that the redox reaction proceeds through a mechanism which combines Cr(VI)→Cr(IV)→Cr(II) and Cr(VI)→Cr(IV)→Cr(III) pathways. The mechanism was supported by the observation of free radicals, CrO2(2+) and Cr(V) as reaction intermediates. The reduction of Cr(IV) and Cr(V) by alginic acid was independently studied and it was found to occur more than 10(3) times faster than alginic acid/Cr(VI) reaction, in acid media. At pH 1-3, oxo-chromate(V)-alginic acid species remain in solution during several hours at 15°C. The results showed that this abundant structural polysaccharide present on brown seaweeds is able to reduce Cr(VI/V/IV) or stabilize high-valent chromium depending on pH value.

  1. Acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Laopaiboon, Pattana; Thani, Arthit; Leelavatcharamas, Vichean; Laopaiboon, Lakkana

    2010-02-01

    In order to use sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for lactic acid production, optimum conditions for acid hydrolysis of the bagasse were investigated. After lignin extraction, the conditions were varied in terms of hydrochloric (HCl) or sulfuric (H(2)SO(4)) concentration (0.5-5%, v/v), reaction time (1-5h) and incubation temperature (90-120 degrees C). The maximum catalytic efficiency (E) was 10.85 under the conditions of 0.5% of HCl at 100 degrees C for 5h, which the main components (in gl(-1)) in the hydrolysate were glucose, 1.50; xylose, 22.59; arabinose, 1.29; acetic acid, 0.15 and furfural, 1.19. To increase yield of lactic acid production from the hydrolysate by Lactococcus lactis IO-1, the hydrolysate was detoxified through amberlite and supplemented with 7 g l(-1) of xylose and 7 g l(-1) of yeast extract. The main products (in gl(-1)) of the fermentation were lactic acid, 10.85; acetic acid, 7.87; formic acid, 6.04 and ethanol, 5.24.

  2. Acid soil and acid rain, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the basic chemical processes involved in acidification in order to better assess their long-term effects on the status of soils, the health of plants and other living species that depend on them. It also discusses acidity, pH and protons their significance in bioenergetics and the consequent role of autotrophic organisms in acidifying ecosystems. This edition incorporates and integrates recent findings that render more explanations of the causes of the environmental impacts of acidity, especially in forests and lakes. Also explores current research into acid rain and soil in order to devise appropriate measures for their amelioration.

  3. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  4. Functional nucleic acid probes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2006-10-03

    The present invention provides functional nucleic acid probes, and methods of using functional nucleic acid probes, for binding a target to carry out a desired function. The probes have at least one functional nucleic acid, at least one regulating nucleic acid, and at least one attenuator. The functional nucleic acid is maintained in an inactive state by the attenuator and activated by the regulating nucleic acid only in the presence of a regulating nucleic acid target. In its activated state the functional nucleic acid can bind to its target to carry out a desired function, such as generating a signal, cleaving a nucleic acid, or catalyzing a reaction.

  5. Evaluation of clastogenicity of formic acid, acetic acid and lactic acid on cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Takeda, K; Okumura, K

    1990-03-01

    Using Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells, chromosomal aberration tests were carried out with formic acid, acetic acid and lactic acid, and the relationship between the pH of the medium and the clastogenic activity was examined. The medium used was Ham's F12 supplemented with 17 mM NaHCO3 and 10% fetal calf serum. All of these acids induced chromosomal aberrations at the initial pH of ca. 6.0 or below (about 10-14 mM of each acid) both with and without S9 mix. Exposure of cells to about pH 5.7 or below (about 12-16 mM of each acid) was found to be toxic. When the culture medium was first acidified with each of these acids and then neutralized to pH 6.4 or pH 7.2 with NaOH, no clastogenic activity was observed. Using F12 medium supplemented with 34 mM NaHCO3 as a buffer, no clastogenic activity was observed at doses up to 25 mM of these acids (initial pH 5.8-6.0). However, it was found that about 10% of the cells had aberrations at pH 5.7 or below (27.5-32.5 mM of each acid). Furthermore, when 30 mM HEPES was used as a buffer, chromosomal aberrations were not induced at doses up to 20 mM formic acid and acetic acid (initial pH 7.0-7.1), and at doses up to 30 mM lactic acid (initial pH 6.6). In the initial pH range of 6.4-6.7 (25-32.5 mM of each acid), chromosomal aberrations were observed. The above results show that these acids themselves are non-clastogenic, and the pseudo-positive reactions attributable to non-physiological pH could be eliminated by either neutralization of the treatment medium or enhancement of the buffering ability.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid... Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and....1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs naturally are...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Caprylic acid. 184.1025 Section 184.1025 Food and....1025 Caprylic acid. (a) Caprylic acid is the chemical name for octanoic acid. It is considered to be a short or medium chain fatty acid. It occurs normally in various foods and is commercially prepared...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Caprylic acid. 184.1025 Section 184.1025 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1025 Caprylic acid. (a) Caprylic acid is the chemical name for octanoic acid. It is considered to be a short or medium chain fatty acid. It occurs normally in various...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Caprylic acid. 184.1025 Section 184.1025 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1025 Caprylic acid. (a) Caprylic acid is the chemical name for octanoic acid. It is considered to be a short or medium chain fatty acid. It occurs normally in various...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Caprylic acid. 184.1025 Section 184.1025 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1025 Caprylic acid. (a) Caprylic acid is the chemical name for octanoic acid. It is considered to be a short or medium chain fatty acid. It occurs normally in various...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid... Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and....1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid (C6H6O6), CAS Reg. No. 000499-12... acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the calcium salt from cane...

  18. 21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155... Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid... in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Monochloroacetic acid is permitted in food package...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid... Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Caprylic acid. 184.1025 Section 184.1025 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1025 Caprylic acid. (a) Caprylic acid is the chemical name for octanoic acid. It is considered to be a short or medium chain fatty acid. It occurs normally in various...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid... Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1097 - Tannic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid. 184.1097 Section 184.1097 Food and....1097 Tannic acid. (a) Tannic acid (CAS Reg. No. 1401-55-4), or hydrolyzable gallotannin, is a complex polyphenolic organic structure that yields gallic acid and either glucose or quinic acid as hydrolysis...

  3. Terahertz spectrum of gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng; Zhao, Guozhong; Wang, Haiyan; Liang, Chengshen

    2009-11-01

    Gallic acid is natural polyphenol compound found in many green plants. More and more experiments have demonstrated that the gallic acid has comprehensive applications. In the field of medicine, the gallic acid plays an important role in antianaphylaxis, antineoplastic, antimycotic, anti-inflammatory, antivirotic, antiasthmatic and inhibiting the degradation of insulin. It also has a lot of applications in chemical industry, food industry and light industry. So it is important to study the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of gallic acid. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a new coherent spectral technology based on the femtosecond laser. In this work, the spectral characteristics of gallic acid in the range of 0.4 THz to 2.6 THz have been measured by THz-TDS. We obtained its absorption and refraction spectra at room temperature. The vibration absorption spectrum of the single molecule between 0.4 THz and 2.6 THz is simulated based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). It is found that the gallic acid has the spectral response to THz wave in this frequency range. The results show the abnormal dispersion at 1.51 THz and 2.05 THz. These results can be used in the qualitative analysis of gallic acid and the medicine and food inspection.

  4. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  5. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention.

  6. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ≈ Erie > Huron > Superior ≈ Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid.

  7. Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2015-01-01

    Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food.

  8. Tropospheric cycle of nitrous acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Peak, John D.; Collins, Gareth M.

    1996-06-01

    Measurements of the land surface exchange of nitrous acid over grass and sugar beet surfaces reveal both upward and downward fluxes with flux reversal occurring at an ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide of about 10 ppb. This confirms earlier preliminary findings and strengthens the hypothesis that substantial production of nitrous acid can occur on land surfaces from reaction of nitrogen dioxide and water vapor. Detailed measurements of nitrous acid have been made in central urban, suburban, and rural environments. These measurements, in conjunction with a simple box model, indicate that the atmospheric concentrations of nitrous acid are explicable in terms of a small number of basic processes in which the most important are the surface production of nitrous acid from nitrogen dioxide, atmospheric production from the NO-OH reaction and loss of nitrous acid by photolysis and dry deposition. In the suburban atmosphere, concentrations of nitrous acid are strongly correlated with nitrogen dioxide. In the rural atmosphere a different behavior is seen, with much higher nitrous acid to nitrogen dioxide ratios occurring in more polluted air with nitrogen dioxide concentrations in excess of 10 ppb. At lower nitrogen dioxide concentrations, net deposition of nitrous acid at the ground leads to very low concentrations in advected air. The model study indicates that during daytime in the suburban atmosphere, production of HONO from the NO-OH reaction can compete with photolysis giving a HONO concentration of a few tenths of a part per billion. At the highest observed daytime concentrations of HONO, production of OH radical from its photolysis can proceed at a rate more than 10 times faster than from photolysis of ozone.

  9. Renal handling of terephthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, L.M.; Quebbemann, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    By use of the Sperber in vivo chicken preparation method, infusion of radiolabeled terephthalic acid ((/sup 14/C)TPA) into the renal portal circulation revealed a first-pass excretion of the unchanged compound into the urine. This model was utilized further to characterize the excretory transport of (/sup 14/C)TPA and provide information on the structural specificity in the secretion of dicarboxylic acids. At an infusion rate of 0.4 nmol/min. 60% of the (/sup 14/C)TPA which reached the kidney was directly excreted. An infusion rate of 3 or 6 mumol/min resulted in complete removal of (/sup 14/C)TPA by the kidney. These results indicate that TPA is both actively secreted and actively reabsorbed when infused at 0.4 nmol/min and that active reabsorption is saturated with the infusion of TPA at higher concentrations. The secretory process was saturated with the infusion of TPA at 40 mumol/mn. The excretory transport of TPA was inhibited by the infusion of probenecid, salicylate, and m-hydroxybenzoic acid, indicating that these organic acids share the same organic anion excretory transport process. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid did not alter the simultaneously measured excretory transport of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), suggesting that there are different systems involved in the secretion of TPA and PAH. The structural specificity for renal secretion of dicarboxylic acids was revealed by the use of o-phthalic acid and m-phthalic acid as possible inhibitors of TPA secretion.

  10. Pediatric poisonings from household products: hydrofluoric acid and methacrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Perry, H E

    2001-04-01

    Household products continue to be a cause of poisoning morbibidity and mortality. Young children frequently are exposed to cleaning products and cosmetics in the course of exploring their environment. Most of these exposures are insignificant, but some result in death or permanent disability. This review discusses two products that have been responsible for serious injury and death in children: hydrofluoric acid and methacrylic acid. It also discusses federal initiatives designed to protect children from these and other household hazards.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.

    1987-05-01

    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with (/sup 14/C)-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% and 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA.

  12. gamma-Carboxyglutamic acid distribution.

    PubMed

    Zytkovicz, T H; Nelsestuen, G L

    1976-09-24

    The distribution of the vitamin K-dependent amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid was examined in proteins from a variety of sources. Proteins examined include purified rat and bovine coagulation proteins, barium citrate-adsorbing proteins from trout plasma, lamprey plasma, earthworm hemolymph, army worm hemolymph, lobster hemolymph, E. coli B/5, soybean leaf, the protein lysate from the hemolymph cell of the horseshoe crab and parathyroid extract. Other purified proteins examined included human alpha-1-antitrypsin, pepsinogen, S-100, fetuin, tropomyosin-troponin and complement protein C-3. Of these, only the blood-cotting proteins and the vertebrate plasma samples were shown to contain gamma-carboxyglutamic acid.

  13. Abscission: Role of Abscisic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cracker, L. E.; Abeles, F. B.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of abscisic acid on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Acala 4-42) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Red Kidney) explants was 2-fold. It increased ethylene production from the explants, which was found to account for some of its ability to accelerate abscission. Absci is acid also increased the activity of cellulase. Increased synthesis of cellulase was not du to an increase in aging of the explants but rather was an effect of abscisic acid on the processes that lead to cellulase synthesis or activity. PMID:16657181

  14. Chemiluminescent measurement of atmospheric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, D. H.; Kok, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of a gas phase acid sensitive analyzer are reported. These studies showed that the chemical system was a practical analytical method. A complete instrument was developed and prepared for field testing. A Titan 3-C rocket was scheduled for launching on February 11, 1974. Through preparations made by NASA Langley the instrument was set up to monitor the acid concentration in the rocket exhaust. Due to adverse wind conditions no acid was detected. This entire trip is described in detail.

  15. Be an acid rain detective

    SciTech Connect

    Atwill, L.

    1982-07-01

    Acid rain is discussed in a question and answer format. The article is aimed at educating sport fishermen on the subject, and also to encourage them to write their congressmen, senators, and the President about the acid rain problem. The article also announces the availability of an acid rain test kit available through the magazine, ''Sports Afield.'' The kit consists of pH-test paper that turns different shades of pink and blue according to the pH of the water tested. The color of the test paper is then compared to a color chart furnished in the kit and an approximate pH can be determined.

  16. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  17. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  18. Free acidity measurement - a review.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, T G; Vasudeva Rao, P R

    2014-01-01

    Free acidity is an important parameter especially in the presence of hydrolysable ions. Several methods have been developed for the determination of free acidity, attributing due importance to the accuracy and the precision of the measurement with the aim of the easiness of the methodology as well as post-measurement recovery in mind. This review covers important methods for the determination of free acidity with emphasis on actinide containing solutions, reported in the literature over the past several decades classifying them into different categories.

  19. Amino Acids from a Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  1. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  2. Oleic acid-based gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Umemoto, Naoki; Matsuda, Wataru; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Anionic gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups have been synthesized from oleic acid. The hydrocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via an ester bond, and the carboxylic acid headgroups are introduced to the cis double bond of oleic acid via disuccinyl units. The surfactants exhibit pH-dependent protonation-deprotonation behavior in aqueous solutions. In alkaline solutions (pH 9 in the presence of 10 mmol dm(-3) NaCl as the background electrolyte), the surfactants can lower the surface tension as well as form molecular assemblies, even in the region of low surfactant concentrations. Under acidic (pH 3) or neutral (pH 6-7) conditions, the surfactants are intrinsically insoluble in aqueous media and form a monolayer at the air/water interface. In this study, we have investigated physicochemical properties such as the function of the hydrocarbon chain length by means of static surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, surface pressure-area isotherms, and infrared external reflection measurements.

  3. In situ gels improve formation acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, V.; Shuchart, C.

    1997-01-20

    Viscosity-controlled acid effectively improves acid placement, provides more uniform damage removal, improves surface etching, and controls acid fluid loss. Viscosity-controlled acid (VCA) contains gels that break back to original viscosity 1 day after being pumped. These acids have been used for: matrix-acidizing long horizontal and vertical well intervals; controlling fluid loss in fracture acidizing to obtain longer fractures and deeper live-acid penetration. Fluid pH controls gel formation and breaking. In one operator`s horizontal wells, viscosity-controlled acid increased production by 2.5--6 fold. In carbonate formation fracture-acidizing, these acids have shown production improvements of 170 to 375%. VCA acid can be used in both cased or open hole, in vertical or deviated/horizontal wells.

  4. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  5. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please fill ... This is an amino acid that helps remove ammonia from the blood. Babies with HCY may need ...

  6. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: sialic acid storage disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions sialic acid storage disease sialic acid storage disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: lysosomal acid lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions lysosomal acid lipase deficiency lysosomal acid lipase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  9. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  10. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  11. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  12. Low acid producing solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  13. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  14. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2005-11-07

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  15. Biopreservation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M E

    1996-10-01

    Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Lactic acid bacteria have a major potential for use in biopreservation because they are safe to consume and during storage they naturally dominate the microflora of many foods. In milk, brined vegetables, many cereal products and meats with added carbohydrate, the growth of lactic acid bacteria produces a new food product. In raw meats and fish that are chill stored under vacuum or in an environment with elevated carbon dioxide concentration, the lactic acid bacteria become the dominant population and preserve the meat with a "hidden' fermentation. The same applies to processed meats provided that the lactic acid bacteria survive the heat treatment or they are inoculated onto the product after heat treatment. This paper reviews the current status and potential for controlled biopreservation of foods.

  16. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

  17. Antimicrobial Activity and Urease Inhibition of Schiff Bases Derived from Isoniazid and Fluorinated Benzaldehydes and of Their Copper(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Habala, Ladislav; Varényi, Samuel; Bilková, Andrea; Herich, Peter; Valentová, Jindra; Kožíšek, Jozef; Devínsky, Ferdinand

    2016-12-17

    In order to evaluate the influence of substitution on biological properties of Schiff bases and their metal complexes, a series of differently substituted fluorine-containing Schiff bases starting from the drug isoniazid (isonicotinylhydrazide) were prepared and their structures were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Also, four copper(II) complexes of these Schiff bases were synthesized. The prepared compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and urease inhibition. Two of the Schiff bases exerted activity against C. albicans. All copper(II) complexes showed excellent inhibitory properties against jack bean urease, considerably better than that of the standard inhibitor acetohydroxamic acid.

  18. Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Sano, Takeshi; Misasi, John; Hatch, Anson; Cantor, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is commercially prepared...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and....1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid oxidation of cyclohexanol...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid...

  9. Thermometric titration of acids in pyridine.

    PubMed

    Vidal, R; Mukherjee, L M

    1974-04-01

    Thermometric titration of HClO(4), HI, HNO(3), HBr, picric acid o-nitrobenzoic acid, 2,4- and 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid have been attempted in pyridine as solvent, using 1,3-diphenylguanidine as the base. Except in the case of 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid, the results are, in general, reasonably satisfactory. The approximate molar heats of neutralization have been calculated.

  10. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  11. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  12. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  13. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as a component in the manufacture of...

  14. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous... prescribed conditions: (a) The additives meet the following specifications: (1) Fumaric acid contains...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  16. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  18. Borinic acid catalysed peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    El Dine, Tharwat Mohy; Rouden, Jacques; Blanchet, Jérôme

    2015-11-18

    The catalytic synthesis of peptides is a major challenge in the modern organic chemistry hindered by the well-established use of stoichiometric coupling reagents. Herein, we describe for the first time that borinic acid is able to catalyse this reaction under mild conditions with an improved activity compared to our recently developed thiophene-based boronic acid. This catalyst is particularly efficient for peptide bond synthesis affording dipeptides in good yields without detectable racemization.

  19. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  20. Some factors affecting cyclopropane acid formation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Knivett, V. A.; Cullen, Julia

    1965-01-01

    1. The fatty acid composition of the extractable lipids of Escherichia coli varied with growth conditions. 2. The principal fatty acids were palmitic acid, hexadecenoic acid, octadecenoic acid and the cyclopropane acids, methylenehexadecanoic acid and methyleneoctadecanoic acid. 3. Cyclopropane acid formation from monoenoic acids was increased by acid media, poor oxygen supply, or high growth temperature. 4. Cyclopropane acid formation was decreased by alkaline media, well oxygenated conditions, the presence of citrate, or lack of Mg2+. PMID:5324304

  1. Photodissociation dynamics of hydroxybenzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yilin; Dyakov, Yuri; Lee, Y. T.; Ni, Chi-Kung; Sun Yilun; Hu Weiping

    2011-01-21

    Aromatic amino acids have large UV absorption cross-sections and low fluorescence quantum yields. Ultrafast internal conversion, which transforms electronic excitation energy to vibrational energy, was assumed to account for the photostability of amino acids. Recent theoretical and experimental investigations suggested that low fluorescence quantum yields of phenol (chromophore of tyrosine) are due to the dissociation from a repulsive excited state. Radicals generated from dissociation may undergo undesired reactions. It contradicts the observed photostability of amino acids. In this work, we explored the photodissociation dynamics of the tyrosine chromophores, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. We demonstrated that dissociation from the excited state is effectively quenched for the conformers of hydroxybenzoic acids with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Ab initio calculations show that the excited state and the ground state potential energy surfaces change significantly for the conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. It shows the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the excited state dynamics and provides an alternative molecular mechanism for the photostability of aromatic amino acids upon irradiation of ultraviolet photons.

  2. Biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Winkler, Margit

    2014-06-01

    An increasing demand for non-petroleum-based products is envisaged in the near future. Carboxylic acids such as citric acid, succinic acid, fatty acids, and many others are available in abundance from renewable resources and they could serve as economic precursors for bio-based products such as polymers, aldehyde building blocks, and alcohols. However, we are confronted with the problem that carboxylic acid reduction requires a high level of energy for activation due to the carboxylate's thermodynamic stability. Catalytic processes are scarce and often their chemoselectivity is insufficient. This review points at bio-alternatives: currently known enzyme classes and organisms that catalyze the reduction of carboxylic acids are summarized. Two totally distinct biocatalyst lines have evolved to catalyze the same reaction: aldehyde oxidoreductases from anaerobic bacteria and archea, and carboxylate reductases from aerobic sources such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. The majority of these enzymes remain to be identified and isolated from their natural background in order to evaluate their potential as industrial biocatalysts.

  3. Polymer-Nucleic Acid Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhuang-Lin; Xia, Yi-Qi; Yang, Qiu-Song; Tian, Wen-de; Chen, Kang; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Gene therapy is an important therapeutic strategy in the treatment of a wide range of genetic disorders. Polymers forming stable complexes with nucleic acids (NAs) are non-viral gene carriers. The self-assembly of polymers and nucleic acids is typically a complex process that involves many types of interaction at different scales. Electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonds are three important and prevalent interactions in the polymer/nucleic acid system. Electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds are the main driving forces for the condensation of nucleic acids, while hydrophobic interactions play a significant role in the cellular uptake and endosomal escape of polymer-nucleic acid complexes. To design high-efficiency polymer candidates for the DNA and siRNA delivery, it is necessary to have a detailed understanding of the interactions between them in solution. In this chapter, we survey the roles of the three important interactions between polymers and nucleic acids during the formation of polyplexes and summarize recent understandings of the linear polyelectrolyte-NA interactions and dendrimer-NA interactions. We also review recent progress optimizing the gene delivery system by tuning these interactions.

  4. Syngas route to adipic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kealing, H.S.

    1986-03-01

    In an era of escalating hydrocarbon prices, the development of new technology to synthesize large volume chemical intermediates from the least expensive sources of carbon and hydrogen has been a research area of increasing intensity. Adipic acid is prepared commercially by oxidative processes using either benzene or phenol as the raw material base. Since both benzene and phenol prices track with the price of crude oil, future adipic acid price will increase as the oil reserve decreases. Thus, there is a need for a new process to produce adipic acid from cheap, and readily available, raw materials such as butadiene obtained as a by-product from world scale olefin plants. One such process that capitalizes on the use of butadiene as a raw material is BASF's two-step carbonylation route to adipic acid. The butadiene in the C/sub 4/ cut from a steam cracker is transformed by a two-stage carbonylation with carbon monoxide and methanol into adipic acid dimethyl ester. Hydrolysis converts the ester into adipic acid. BASF is now engineering a 130 mm pound per year commercial plant based on this technology.

  5. Effects of acids on gravels and proppants

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, S.K.

    1988-05-01

    The effects of acids on the integrity of gravels and proppants should be considered in acid treatments. This paper reports on the influence of acid type, acid concentration, and contact duration on the acid solubility of five sands and bauxitic materials. The effects of the acids on the mechanical strength and the size distribution of the solids are determined. The authors found that intermediate-density and low-density bauxites (IDB and LDB) are very soluble in HF acid and that sintered bauxite is weakened by HF acid.

  6. Vibrational Spectra of Selected Monohalogenated Monocarboxylic Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS, INFRARED SPECTRA), (*CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, *INFRARED SPECTRA), IODINE COMPOUNDS, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, BROMINE COMPOUNDS, ACETIC ACID , ACETATES, MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, MOLECULAR ASSOCIATION

  7. Metabolic diversity in biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria involving conjugated fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2009-08-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a effectively transforms linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acids of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11-18:2. The transformation of various polyunsaturated fatty acids by washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a was investigated. Besides linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid [cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3)], gamma-linolenic acid (cis-6,cis-9,cis-12-18:3), columbinic acid (trans-5,cis-9,cis-12-18:3), and stearidonic acid [cis-6,cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4)] were found to be transformed. The fatty acids transformed by the strain had the common structure of a C18 fatty acid with the cis-9,cis-12 diene system. Three major fatty acids were produced from alpha-linolenic acid, which were identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3, trans-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3, and trans-10,cis-15-18:2. Four major fatty acids were produced from gamma-linolenic acid, which were identified as cis-6,cis-9,trans-11-18:3, cis-6,trans-9,trans-11-18:3, cis-6,trans-10-18:2, and trans-10-octadecenoic acid. The strain transformed the cis-9,cis-12 diene system of C18 fatty acids into conjugated diene systems of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-9,trans-11. These conjugated dienes were further saturated into the trans-10 monoene system by the strain. The results provide valuable information for understanding the pathway of biohydrogenation by anaerobic bacteria and for establishing microbial processes for the practical production of conjugated fatty acids, especially those produced from alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid.

  8. The essentiality of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Puder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this review is to correlate the clinical finding that patients receiving parenteral nutrition with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion do not develop essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) with an experimental murine model, thus showing that arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are likely to be the essential fatty acids. Background Conventional belief is that linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) are the essential fatty acids (EFAs). We have shown that a fish oil-based lipid emulsion containing AA (omega-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, omega-3) and insignificant quantities of LA and ALA is efficacious in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD), a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The prospect of using a fish oil-based lipid emulsion as monotherapy has raised concerns of EFAD development, hindering its adoption into clinical practice. Design Data from patients in our institution who received PN with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion was reviewed for clinical and biochemical evidence of EFAD, defined as an elevated triene-tetraene ratio (Mead acid/AA >0.2). We also investigated the minimum amount of fish oil required to prevent EFAD in a murine model and determined whether DHA and AA alone can prevent EFAD. Results No patients receiving PN with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion in our institution have developed biochemical or clinical evidence of EFAD such as an elevated triene-tetraene ratio, growth retardation or dermatitis. This observation parallels our previously published animal studies, which demonstrated prevention of EFAD when thirteen percent of total calories were from fish oil. Moreover, current work in our laboratory shows that AA and DHA provision alone is sufficient to prevent biochemical and physiologic evidence of EFAD in a murine model. Conclusions When dosed appropriately, fish oil-based lipid emulsions contain sufficient EFAs to

  9. Molecular screening of wine lactic acid bacteria degrading hydroxycinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    de las Rivas, Blanca; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; Muñoz, Rosario

    2009-01-28

    The potential to produce volatile phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. A PCR assay was developed for the detection of LAB that potentially produce volatile phenols. Synthetic degenerate oligonucleotides for the specific detection of the pdc gene encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase were designed. The pdc PCR assay amplifies a 321 bp DNA fragment from phenolic acid decarboxylase. The pdc PCR method was applied to 85 strains belonging to the 6 main wine LAB species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains produce a positive response in the pdc PCR assay, whereas Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains did not produce the expected PCR product. The production of vinyl and ethyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids in culture media was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A relationship was found between pdc PCR amplification and volatile phenol production, so that the LAB strains that gave a positive pdc PCR response produce volatile phenols, whereas strains that did not produce a PCR amplicon did not produce volatile phenols. The proposed method could be useful for a preliminary identification of LAB strains able to produce volatile phenols in wine.

  10. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in lepidopteran caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Alborn, Hans T; Nakanishi, Tomoaki; Suckling, David M; Nishida, Ritsuo; Tumlinson, James H; Mori, Naoki

    2010-03-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in noctuid as well as sphingid caterpillar oral secretions; in particular, volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants. These induced volatiles, in turn, attract natural enemies of the caterpillars. In a previous study, we showed that N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine in larval Spodoptera litura plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation which might be an explanation for caterpillars synthesizing FACs despite an increased risk of attracting natural enemies. However, the presence of FACs in lepidopteran species outside these families of agricultural interest is not well known. We conducted FAC screening of 29 lepidopteran species, and found them in 19 of these species. Thus, FACs are commonly synthesized through a broad range of lepidopteran caterpillars. Since all FAC-containing species had N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and/or N-linoleoyl-L-glutamine in common, and the evolutionarily earliest species among them had only these two FACs, these glutamine conjugates might be the evolutionarily older FACs. Furthermore, some species had glutamic acid conjugates, and some had hydroxylated FACs. Comparing the diversity of FACs with lepidopteran phylogeny indicates that glutamic acid conjugates can be synthesized by relatively primitive species, while hydroxylation of fatty acids is limited mostly to larger and more developed macrolepidopteran species.

  11. Hepatoprotective bile acid 'ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)' Property and difference as bile acids.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Kaoru; Imada, Teruaki; Tsurufuji, Makoto

    2005-10-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid, which is present in human bile at a low concentration of only 3% of total bile acids. It is a 7beta-hydroxy epimer of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). UDCA is isolated from the Chinese drug 'Yutan' a powder preparation derived from the dried bile of adult bears. For centuries, Yutan has been used in the treatment of hepatobiliary disorders. In Japan, it has also been in widespread use as a folk medicine from the mid-Edo period. In Japan, not only basic studies such as isolation, crystallization, definition of the chemical structure and establishment of the synthesis of UDCA have been conducted but clinical studies have been conducted. First reports on the effects of UDCA in patients with liver diseases came from Japan as early as 1961. In the 1970s, the first prospective study of patients with gallbladder stones treated with UDCA demonstrating gallstone dissolution was reported. In late 1980s, a number of controlled trials on the use of UDCA in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) were reported. Since then, a variety of clinical studies have shown the beneficial effect of UDCA in liver disease worldwide. To date, UDCA is utilized for the treatment of PBC for which it is the only drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In recent years, with the advent of molecular tools, the mechanisms of action of bile acids and UDCA have been investigated, and various bioactivities and pharmacological effects have been revealed. Based on the results of these studies, the bioactive substances in bile acids that are involved in digestive absorption may play important roles in signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of UDCA is evidently involved. We reveal the physicochemical properties of UDCA as bile acid and overview the established pharmacological effects of UDCA from its metabolism. Furthermore, we overview the current investigations into the mechanism of action of UDCA in

  12. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  13. Recovery of uranium from acid media by macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwal, K.N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Rao, P.R.V.; Nandy, K.K.

    1996-11-01

    The extraction of uranium from various acid media such as nitric acid, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and perchloric acid by a macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA) has been studied. The distribution coefficients for the extraction of uranium by the MPBPA resin are compared with the corresponding values reported in literature for the conventional sulphonic acid resin. The results clearly indicate the suitability of the MPBPA resin to recover uranium from different types of acid solutions of widely ranging acidities. 17 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  15. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  16. Naphthenic acids and surrogate naphthenic acids in methanogenic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Holowenko, F M; Mackinnon, M D; Fedorak, P M

    2001-08-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex mixture of naturally occurring acyclic and cyclic aliphatic carboxylic acids in petroleum. In the Athabasca oil sands. NAs have been identified as the largest component of dissolved organic matter in the tailings waters from oils sands extraction processes. They are the major contributor to the acute toxicity of the fine tailings wastewaters at the oil sands extraction plants in northeastern Alberta, Canada. In this study, three sources of NAs were studied, including commercially available NAs, those extracted from oil sands process-affected waters, and individual naphthenic-like surrogate compounds. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated differences between the commercial and extracted NAs. The NAs derived from the process-affected waters showed a short-term inhibition of methanogenesis from H2 or acetate, but with time the populations resumed methane production. It has been postulated that microbial metabolism of the carboxylated side chains of NAs would lead to methane production. The two NA mixtures failed to stimulate methanogenesis in microcosms that contained either oil sands fine tailings or domestic sewage sludge. However, in microcosms with sewage sludge, methanogenesis was stimulated by some surrogate NAs including 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid at 400-800 mg/L, 5-cyclohexylpentanoic acid at 200 mg/L or 6-phenylhexanoic acid at 200 and 400 mg/L. When added at 200 mg/L to methanogenic microcosms containing fine tailings, 3-cyclohexylpropanoic and 4-cyclohexylbutanoic acids produced methane yields that suggested mineralization of the side chain and the ring.

  17. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

    2003-06-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  18. Asymmetric Total Syntheses of Megacerotonic Acid and Shimobashiric Acid A

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, Scott W.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric total syntheses of the α-benzylidene-γ-butyrolactone natural products megacerotonic acid and shimobashiric acid A have been accomplished in nine and 11 steps, respectively, from simple, commercially available starting materials. The key step for each synthesis is the (arene)RuCl(monosulfonamide)-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution-asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (DKR-ATH) of racemic α,δ-diketo-β-aryl esters to establish the absolute stereochemistry. Intramolecular diastereoselective Dieckmann cyclization forms the lactone core, and ketone reduction/alcohol elimination installs the α-arylidene. PMID:25699999

  19. Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-11-25

    Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed.

  20. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864