Science.gov

Sample records for acetone ethyl acetate

  1. Acetone and Ethyl Acetate in Commercial Nail Polish Removers: A Quantitative NMR Experiment Using an Internal Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, David W.

    1997-12-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of commercial nail polish removers is performed on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer. After taking NMR spectra of the polish removers, students can make peak assignments for the known components of acetone and ethyl acetate. Using these spectra, students are also able to identify the unknown alcohol present in the remover as ethanol. Quantitative analysis of either the acetone or ethyl acetate in the nail polish removers is accomplished by comparing the analyte peak intensities with that of an internal standard. The system in which deuterated acetone is used as a solvent and methylene chloride as an internal standard gave precise results for both commercial removers and for standards prepared from pure acetone or an ethyl acetate/ethanol mixture. As recovery from the standards was approximately 96 - 98% of what was anticipated, the analysis of the commercial products is also believed to be accurate.

  2. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  3. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  4. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  5. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  6. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  7. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  8. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  9. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  10. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  11. Effects of acetone on methyl ethyl ketone peroxide runaway reaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Fu; Tseng, Jo-Ming; Wu, Tsung-Chih; Shu, Chi-Min

    2008-05-30

    Runaway reactions by methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) are an important issue in Asia, due to its unstable structure and extensive heat release during upset situations. This study employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to draw the experimental data for MEKPO 31 mass% and with acetone 99 mass% on three types of heating rate of 2, 4, and 10 degrees C/min; the kinetic and safety parameters were then evaluated via curve fitting. Through the reproducible tests in each condition, the results show that acetone is not a contaminant, because it could increase the activation energy (Ea) and onset temperature (To) when combined with MEKPO, which differs from the hazard information of the material safety data sheet (MSDS).

  12. Determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tai, D.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water samples were developed. Concentrations in the milligram-per-liter range were determined by injecting an aqueous sample into the analysis system through an injection port, trapping the organics on Tenax-GC at room temperature, and thermally desorbing the organics into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector for analysis. Concentrations in the microgram-per-liter range were determined by sweeping the headspace vapors over a water sample at 50C, trapping on Tenax-GC, and thermally desorbing the organics into the gas chromatograph. The precision for two operators of the milligram-per-liter concentration procedure, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was generally less than 2 percent for concentrations ranging from 16 to 160 milligrams per liter. The precision from two operators of the microgram-per-liter concentration procedure was between 2 and 4 percent for concentrations of 20 and 60 micrograms per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  14. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  15. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  16. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  17. Expression of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 Genes in Escherichia coli for Acetone Production and Acetate Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Lourdes L.; Welker, Neil E.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    1998-01-01

    A synthetic acetone operon (ace4) composed of four Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 genes (adc, ctfAB, and thl, coding for the acetoacetate decarboxylase, coenzyme A transferase, and thiolase, respectively) under the control of the thl promoter was constructed and was introduced into Escherichia coli on vector pACT. Acetone production demonstrated that ace4 is expressed in E. coli and resulted in the reduction of acetic acid levels in the fermentation broth. Since different E. coli strains vary significantly in their growth characteristics and acetate metabolism, ace4 was expressed in three E. coli strains: ER2275, ATCC 11303, and MC1060. Shake flask cultures of MC1060(pACT) produced ca. 2 mM acetone, while both strains ER2275(pACT) and ATCC 11303(pACT) produced ca. 40 mM acetone. Glucose-fed cultures of strain ATCC 11303(pACT) resulted in a 150% increase in acetone titers compared to those of batch shake flask cultures. External addition of sodium acetate to glucose-fed cultures of ATCC 11303(pACT) resulted in further increased acetone titers. In bioreactor studies, acidic conditions (pH 5.5 versus 6.5) improved acetone production. Despite the substantial acetone evaporation due to aeration and agitation in the bioreactor, 125 to 154 mM acetone accumulated in ATCC 11303(pACT) fermentations. These acetone titers are equal to or higher than those produced by wild-type C. acetobutylicum. This is the first study to demonstrate the ability to use clostridial genes in nonclostridial hosts for solvent production. In addition, acetone-producing E. coli strains may be useful hosts for recombinant protein production in that detrimental acetate accumulation can be avoided. PMID:9501448

  18. Disposition of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and cyclohexanone in acute poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sakata, M; Kikuchi, J; Haga, M; Ishiyama, N; Maeda, T; Ise, T; Hikita, N

    1989-01-01

    A case of coma due to the drinking of a liquid cement for polyvinyl chloride resin, containing acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, cyclohexanone and polyvinyl chloride is described. The patient also simultaneously ingested the alcoholic beverage, sake. After gastric lavage, plasma exchanges and direct hemoperfusions, the patient recovered. The concentrations of these chemicals in plasma and urine were analyzed at various time intervals to estimate the clearance. The elimination half lives for acetone and methyl ethyl ketone were 18 hours and 10 hours, respectively. Although cyclohexanone made up the largest component in the solvents, the blood level was extremely low and a large amount of cyclohexanol, a metabolite of cyclohexanone was detected in the blood and urine. The glucuronide metabolite of cyclohexanol was also estimated after the hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase. Since the conversion of cyclohexanone to cyclohexanol is known to be catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase, possible interactions between sake ingestion and cyclohexanone metabolism is proposed.

  19. Neurotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and cyclohexanone.

    PubMed

    Mitran, E; Callender, T; Orha, B; Dragnea, P; Botezatu, G

    1997-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and cyclohexanone on Romanian workers and the impact of those effects on industry environmental standards have been controversial subjects. To scientifically substantiate the standards, a study was conducted on three groups of workers to determine the changes induced by ketone solvents on the central and peripheral nervous systems. Groups of exposed workers and matched controls were studied for each solvent: acetone, 71 exposed and 86 controls from a coin printing factory; MEK, 41 exposed and 63 controls from a cable factory; and cyclohexanone, 75 exposed and 85 controls from a furniture factory. The subjects' mean age was 36 years. The mean length of exposure was 14 years. Study participants completed a questionnaire, responded to questions about alcohol consumption, submitted to a clinical examination, submitted samples for identification of biological exposure markers, and underwent motor nerve conduction velocity and neurobehavioral tests. Results showed that workers exposed to acetone were most affected in terms of human performance and evidence of neurotoxicity, followed by workers exposed to MEK and workers exposed to cyclohexanone. On the basis of the results, it was proposed that the 6-hr permissible exposure limits for acetone, MEK, and cyclohexanone be reduced to less than 500, 200, and 150 mg/m3, respectively.

  20. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  1. Acetone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetone ; CASRN 67 - 64 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  2. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm.

  3. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. PMID:26297692

  4. Crystal Structure and Desolvation Behaviour of the Tadalafil Monosolvates with Acetone and Methyl Ethyl Ketone.

    PubMed

    Miclaus, Maria O; Kacso, Irina E; Martin, Flavia A; David, Leontin; Pop, Mihaela M; Filip, Claudiu; Filip, Xenia

    2015-11-01

    Crystal structures of Tadalafil (TDF) monosolvated forms with acetone (ACE) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in which same persistent chains of TDF molecules are present as in the reported structures. The solvates crystallize in a higher orthorhombic symmetry than the known forms with monoclinic structures. Weak interactions between TDF and solvent molecules are present in both solvates, leading to slight conformational distortions of TDF molecules. The MEK solvate showed slightly higher stability than the ACE solvate, regardless of their highly similar molecular conformations and crystal packing. Desolvation into anhydrous TDF was achieved by heating, exposure to temperature and relative humidity and by mechanical stress. The high solubility of TDF in ACE and MEK solvents combined with the ease of desolvation of the resulting solvated forms indicates the viability of the solvates use as intermediates in the TDF crystallization process.

  5. Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity.

  6. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  7. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  8. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz; Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L. E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  9. Measurements of acetone, acetic acid, and formic acid in the northern midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, Thomas; MöHler, Ottmar; Arnold, Frank

    1999-06-01

    We have measured acetone, acetic acid, and formic acid concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Germany. The measurements were performed by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry using new kinetic data on ion molecule reactions of formic and acetic acids with negative ions obtained at our laboratory. Mean volume mixing ratios between 384 and 832 parts per trillion (pptv) for acetone, 110 and 357 pptv for acetic acid, and 59 and 215 pptv for formic acid were obtained. The correlation between formic acid and acetic acid was very poor (r2 = 0.14). A better correlation could be observed for acetone and acetic acid, with a correlation coefficient r2 = 0.46 and a slope (acetic acid/acetone) of 0.31. For acetic acid a maximum around 9 km was observed. A significant fraction of the acetic acid observed in the lower stratosphere may be due to in situ photochemical production by reactions of HO2 and CH3O2 with peroxy acetyl radicals produced by the photolysis of acetone. In the upper troposphere, vertical transport is much more efficient, and significant acetic acid production is only possible if HOx concentrations are elevated, making the production of acetic acid fast enough to compete with vertical transport.

  10. Application of finite inverse gas chromatography in hypromellose acetate succinate-water-acetone systems.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sheng-Wei; Sturm, Derek R; Moser, Justin D; Danner, Ronald P

    2016-09-30

    A modification of a GC was developed to investigate both infinitely dilute and finite concentrations of solvents in polymers. Thermodynamic properties of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-L)-acetone-water systems are important for the optimization of spray-drying processes used in pharmaceutical manufacturing of solid dispersion formulations. These properties, at temperatures below the glass transition temperature, were investigated using capillary column inverse gas chromatography (CCIGC). Water was much less soluble in the HPMCAS-L than acetone. Experiments were also conducted at infinitely dilute concentrations of one of the solvents in HPMCAS-L that was already saturated with the other solvent. Overall the partitioning of the water was not significantly affected by the presence of either water or acetone in the polymer. The acetone partition coefficient decreased as either acetone or water was added to the HPMCAS-L. A representation of the HPMCAS-L structure in terms of UNIFAC groups has been developed. With these groups, the UNIFAC-vdw-FV model did a reasonable job of predicting the phase equilibria in the binary and ternary systems. The Flory-Huggins correlation with fitted interaction parameters represented the data well. PMID:27629480

  11. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  12. Subchronic inhalation neurotoxicity studies of ethyl acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Greg R; Hansen, John F; Leung, Hon-Wing

    2003-12-01

    Rats were exposed to 0, 350, 750 or 1500 ppm of ethyl acetate by inhalation for 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks. Functional observational battery (FOB) and motor activity tests occurred on non-exposure days during weeks 4, 8 and 13, after which tissues were microscopically examined for neuropathology. A subset of rats was monitored during a 4-week recovery period. Exposure to 750 and 1500 ppm, diminished behavioral responses to unexpected auditory stimuli during the exposure session and appeared to be an acute sedative effect. There were no signs of acute intoxication 30 min after exposure sessions ended. Rats exposed to 750 and 1500 ppm had reduced body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency, which fully or partially recovered within 4 weeks. Reductions in body weight gain and feed efficiency were observed in male rats exposed to 350 ppm. The principal behavioral effect of subchronic exposure was reduced motor activity in the 1500 ppm females, an effect that was not present after the 4-week recovery period. All other FOB and motor activity parameters were unaffected, and no pathology was observed in nervous system tissues. Operant sessions were conducted in another set of male rats preconditioned to a stable operant baseline under a multiple fixed ratio-fixed interval (FR-FI) schedule of food reinforcement. FR response rate, FR post-reinforcement pause duration, and the pattern of FI responding were not affected during or after the exposure series. In contrast, within-group FI rate for the treatment groups increased over time whereas those of the controls decreased. A historical control group, however, also showed a similar pattern of increase, indicating that these changes did not clearly represent a treatment-related effect. Results from these studies indicate a LOEL of 350 ppm for systemic toxicity based on the decreased body weight gain in male rats, and a LOEL of 1500 ppm for neurotoxicity based on the transient reduction in

  13. Atmospheric Oxidation Mechanisms for Diethyl Ether and its Oxidation Products, Ethyl Formate and Ethyl Acetate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon-containing compounds are present in the earth's atmosphere as the result of emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere, initiated by such oxidants as OH, ozone, and nitrate radicals, leads to potentially harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone, carbonyl species, organic acids and aerosols. Ethers and esters are two classes of compounds that contribute to the complex array of organic compounds found in anthropogenically-influenced air. Additional ester is present as a result of the oxidation of the ethers. In this paper, the oxidation of diethyl ether and its two main oxidation products, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate, are studied over ranges of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and NOx concentration, using an environmental chamber / FTIR absorption technique. Major end-products (the esters from diethyl ether; organic acids and anhydrides from the esters) are quantified, and these data are interpreted in terms of the chemistry of the various alkoxy and peroxy radicals generated. Emphasis is placed on the effects of chemical activation on the behavior of the alkoxy radicals, as well as on a novel peroxy radical rearrangement that may contribute to the observed products of ether oxidation under some conditions. Finally, the data are used, in conjunction with data on similar species, to provide a general representation of ether and ester oxidation in the atmosphere.

  14. Photooxidation of Acetone on TiO2(110): Conversion to Acetate via Methyl Radical Ejection

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2005-06-23

    It is generally held that radicals form and participate in heterogeneous photocatalytic processes on oxide surfaces, although understanding the mechanistic origins and fates of such species is difficult. In this study, photodesorption and thermal desorption techniques show that acetone is converted into acetate on the surface of TiO(110) in a two step process that involves, first, a thermal reaction between acetone and coadsorbed oxygen to make a surface acetone-oxygen complex, followed second by a photochemical reaction that ejects a methyl radical from the surface and converts the acetone-oxygen complex into acetate. Designation of the photodesorption species to methyl radicals was confirmed using isotopically labeled acetone. The yield of photodesorbed methyl radicals correlates well with the amount depleted of acetone and with the yield of acetate left on the surface, both gauged using post-irradiation temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The thermal reaction between adsorbed acetone and oxygen to form the acetone-oxygen complex exhibits an approximate activation barrier of about 10 kJ/mol. A prerequisite to this reaction is the presence of surface Ti?? sites that enable O? adsorption. Creation of these sites by vacuum reduction of the surface prior to acetone and oxygen co-adsorption results in an initial spike in the photodecomposition rate, but replenishment of these sites by photolytic means (i.e., by trapping excited electrons at the surface) appears to be a slow step a sustained reaction. Evidence in this study for the ejection of organic radicals from the surface during photo-oxidation catalysis on TiO provides support for mechanistic pathways that involve both adsorbed and non-adsorbed species.

  15. Biofiltration of ethyl acetate by Pseudomonas putida immobilized on walnut shell.

    PubMed

    Zare, Hossein; Najafpour, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Tardast, Ali; Gilani, Saeedeh

    2012-11-01

    A biofilter packed with walnut shells was used to eliminate ethyl acetate from an air stream. The shells treated with NaOH were used as medium for immobilization of Pseudomonas putida PTCC 1694. At an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 60s, a removal efficiency of 99% was achieved at inlet concentrations lower than 430ppm of ethyl acetate. The removal efficiency decreased below 80% with an increase in inlet concentration of ethyl acetate. When the EBRT was increased to 75 s, the removal efficiency remained above 80% even though the inlet loading rate was increased to 421g/m(3)h. Michaelis-Menten type and zero-order diffusion limited models were employed and the predicted data perfectly matched the experimental data. Thus P. putida immobilized on walnut shell has potential for the removal of ethyl acetate from air streams.

  16. Biofiltration of ethyl acetate by Pseudomonas putida immobilized on walnut shell.

    PubMed

    Zare, Hossein; Najafpour, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Tardast, Ali; Gilani, Saeedeh

    2012-11-01

    A biofilter packed with walnut shells was used to eliminate ethyl acetate from an air stream. The shells treated with NaOH were used as medium for immobilization of Pseudomonas putida PTCC 1694. At an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 60s, a removal efficiency of 99% was achieved at inlet concentrations lower than 430ppm of ethyl acetate. The removal efficiency decreased below 80% with an increase in inlet concentration of ethyl acetate. When the EBRT was increased to 75 s, the removal efficiency remained above 80% even though the inlet loading rate was increased to 421g/m(3)h. Michaelis-Menten type and zero-order diffusion limited models were employed and the predicted data perfectly matched the experimental data. Thus P. putida immobilized on walnut shell has potential for the removal of ethyl acetate from air streams. PMID:22940351

  17. Acetone-soluble cellulose acetate extracted from waste blended fabrics via ionic liquid catalyzed acetylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xunwen; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Dong; Zhang, Xinxing

    2013-10-15

    Isolation of cellulose from waste polyester/cotton blended fabrics (WBFs) is a bottleneck for recycling and exploiting waste textiles. The objective of this study was to provide a new environmental-friendly and efficient approach for extracting cellulose derivatives and polyester from WBFs. A Bronsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-imidazolium bisulfate, [Hmim]HSO4, was used as a novel catalyst for acetylation of cellulose rather than a solvent with the aim to overcome low isolation efficiency associated with the very high viscosity and relatively high costs of ILs. The extraction yield of acetone-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) was 49.3%, which corresponded to a conversion of 84.5% of the cellulose in the original WBFs; meanwhile, 96.2% of the original poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was recovered. The extracted CA was characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, XRD and TGA analysis, and the results indicated that high purity acetone-soluble CA and carbohydrate-free PET could be isolated in this manner from WBFs.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  2. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products.

  3. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products. PMID:25069743

  4. Models construction for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations with acetate/butyrate consecutively feeding by graph theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Several fermentations with consecutively feeding of acetate/butyrate were conducted in a 7 L fermentor and the results indicated that exogenous acetate/butyrate enhanced solvents productivities by 47.1% and 39.2% respectively, and changed butyrate/acetate ratios greatly. Then extracellular butyrate/acetate ratios were utilized for calculation of acids rates and the results revealed that acetate and butyrate formation pathways were almost blocked by corresponding acids feeding. In addition, models for acetate/butyrate feeding fermentations were constructed by graph theory based on calculation results and relevant reports. Solvents concentrations and butanol/acetone ratios of these fermentations were also calculated and the results of models calculation matched fermentation data accurately which demonstrated that models were constructed in a reasonable way.

  5. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction. PMID:25742923

  6. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction.

  7. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 μM. PMID:24514562

  8. Investigating the performance of CoxOy/activated carbon catalysts for ethyl acetate catalytic combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Zhou, Guilin; He, Xiaoling; Lan, Hai; Jiang, Zongxuan

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic properties of Co-supported activated carbon (AC) catalysts for ethyl acetate catalytic elimination in air were investigated. Results showed that air atmosphere promoted the generation of high-valence state cobalt oxides, and promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the Co3O4/AC catalyst. ROS crucially functioned in improving the catalytic activity of Co3O4/AC catalysts. Therefore, CoACA catalyst prepared in air exhibited higher catalytic activity than CoACN catalyst prepared in nitrogen, and CoACA catalyst led to high ethyl acetate conversion (>93%) and stability at a low reaction temperature (210 °C).

  9. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for the treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an herb used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves extract are completely unknown. Materials and Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate) in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml) of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: This study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. PMID:27069722

  10. Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponins isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Dai, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Xie, Jian-Wei; Gu, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two new cucurbitacins I (1 and 2), together with eight known compounds (3-10), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis. Compounds 3, 5-9 were isolated from C. colocynthis for the first time. The structures of new compounds were determined primarily from IR, HR-MS, 1D-, and 2D-NMR analysis.

  11. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    PubMed Central

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  12. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    PubMed Central

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  13. Raman spectroscopy study of rotational isomerism and molecular conformation of ethyl through hexadecyl acetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mido, Yoshiyuki; Shono, Tomofumi; Matsuura, Hiroatsu

    1991-06-01

    Raman spectra of ethyl through hexadecyl acetates have been recorded in the liquid and crystalline states. The spectra were analysed on the basis of the relations between the observed wavenumbers and the number of alkyl carbon atoms, comparisons of the wavenumbers of the accordion vibrations between the acetates and n-alkanes, and normal coordinate treatment. The results indicate that the acetate molecules in crystals, except for butyl and pentyl acetates, are in the alltrans conformation with the acetoxy-group part incorporated and that the molecules of butyl and pentyl homologues are in the TTGT and TTGTT forms (T, trans; G, gauche), respectively. The spectral analyses suggest that the crystal structure of several acetates is orthorhombic.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  15. Molecular Interactions in 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate Ion Pair: A Density Functional Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhumal, Nilesh R.; Kim, Hyung J.; Kiefer, Johannes

    2009-08-01

    The density functional method is used to obtain the molecular structure, electron density topography, and vibrational frequencies of the ion pair 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Different conformers are simulated on the basis of molecular interactions between the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and acetate anion. The lowest energy conformers exhibit strong C-H···O interionic interactions compared with other conformers. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of the ion pair and their shifts with respect to free ions are analyzed via the natural bond orbitals and difference electron density maps coupled with molecular electron density topology. Theoretically scaled vibrational frequencies are also compared with the spontaneous Raman scattering and attenuated total reflection infrared absorption measurements.

  16. Crystal structures of the solvates of diethylaminogossypol with ethyl acetate and pyridine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The crystal structures of diethylaminogossypol with ethyl acetate (DEAG-EA) and pyridine (DEAG-P) were studied by room-temperature X-ray diffraction. The host-to-guest molecule ratio in these complexes is 2:1 for DEAG-EA and 2:5 for DEAG-P. The crystal and cell parameters for DEAG-EA are C34H40N2O6...

  17. Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponins isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Dai, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Xie, Jian-Wei; Gu, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two new cucurbitacins I (1 and 2), together with eight known compounds (3-10), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis. Compounds 3, 5-9 were isolated from C. colocynthis for the first time. The structures of new compounds were determined primarily from IR, HR-MS, 1D-, and 2D-NMR analysis. PMID:25761128

  18. Location and Mapping of an Ethyl Acetate Plume in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Knighton, W.; Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Jobson, T.; Alexander, M.; Prazeller, P.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C.

    2004-12-01

    A major goal of the 2003 Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) field campaign was to gain a better understanding of the dispersion and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in this urban airshed. Continuous monitoring of VOCs in the atmosphere and identification and quantification of their emission sources is complicated by two factors: first, there are hundreds of different VOC species released daily in the MCMA atmosphere, and second, few real time (1-10 second) measurement techniques have been available to provide the high resolution spatial and/or temporal data usually required to locate VOC emission sources and measure their flux strength. A relatively new technique, Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectometery (PTR-MS) provides this capability and was used to locate and quantify a significant source of ethyl acetate in the Iztapalapa region of Mexico City. Two PTR-MS systems were deployed during the 2003 MCMA campaign, the MSU PTR-MS was operated on-board the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory while the PNNL instrument located on the roof at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental or CENICA). The uniqueness of the ethyl acetate signature allowed the MSU PTR-MS on-board the mobile lab to track the ethyl acetate plume back to its source. A short movie documenting the plume mapping and location of the source of the ethyl acetate emission will be shown. Knowing of the plume source location and the local meteorological conditions, the time resolved responses from the PNNL PTR-MS at the CENCIA location have been applied to a simple plume model to estimate the plume's emission flux strength.

  19. Determination of inorganic anions in ethyl acetate by ion chromatography with an electromembrane extraction method.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Huadong; Yao, Chaoying; Zhu, Yan

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the determination of inorganic anions in slightly water-soluble organic solvents (ethyl acetate) was realized by ion chromatography (IC) with a novel-efficient electromembrane extraction method. From an 8 mL ethyl acetate sample, three inorganic anions migrated through the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane, and into deionized water inside the lumen of the hollow fiber by the application of 600 V. The transport was forced by an electrical potential difference sustained over the liquid membrane, resulting in electrokinetic migration of inorganic anions from the donor compartment to the acceptor solution. After the electromembrane extraction, the acceptor solution was analyzed by IC with a sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluent. The applied voltage, stirring speed, and extraction time for controlling the extraction efficiency were optimized. Within 10 min of operation at 600 V, chloride, bromide, and sulfate were extracted with recoveries in the range 76-110%, which corresponded to a linear range of 0.01-1 mg/L. The procedure was applied to the analysis of inorganic anions in a real ethyl acetate sample and expands onto other slightly water-soluble organic solvents. PMID:21859536

  20. Use of a Batch Reactive Distillation with Dynamic Optimization Strategy to Achieve Industrial Grade Ethyl Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakom, Kwantip; Saengchan, Aritsara; Kittisupakorn, Paisan; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.

    2011-08-01

    Industrial grade ethyl acetate is available with minimum purity of 85.0%. It is mostly produced by an ethanol esterification in a distillation process on both batch and continuous modes. However, researches on high purity production with short operating time are rarely achieved. Therefore, the objective in this work is to study an approach to produce ethyl acetate of 90.0% by 8 hours using a batch reactive distillation column. Based on open-loop simulations, the distillation with constant reflux ratio cannot achieve the product specification. Thus, the dynamic optimization strategy is proposed to handle this problem. For the process safety—preventing the dried column and fractured, a minimum reflux ratio must be determined in advance and then an optimal reflux profile is calculated to achieve optimal product yield. Simulation results show that the industrial grade ethyl acetate can be produced by the dynamic optimization programming with two or more time intervals. Besides, the increasing of time intervals can produce more distillate product.

  1. Yeast tolerance to the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Shi, Shuang; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Simmons, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the target feedstock for production of second-generation biofuels. Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment can enhance deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. Although biomass is typically washed following IL pretreatment, small quantities of residual IL can inhibit fermentative microorganisms downstream, such as the widely used ethanologenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The aim of this study was to identify yeasts tolerant to the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, one of the top performing ILs known for biomass pretreatment. One hundred and sixty eight strains spanning the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla were selected for screening, with emphasis on yeasts within or closely related to the Saccharomyces genus and those tolerant to saline environments. Based on growth in media containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, tolerance to IL levels ranging 1-5% was observed for 80 strains. The effect of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate concentration on maximum cell density and growth rate was quantified to rank tolerance. The most tolerant yeasts included strains from the genera Clavispora, Debaryomyces, Galactomyces, Hyphopichia, Kazachstania, Meyerozyma, Naumovozyma, Wickerhamomyces, Yarrowia, and Zygoascus. These yeasts included species known to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides and those capable of ethanol fermentation. These yeasts warrant further investigation for use in saccharification and fermentation of IL-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol or other products. PMID:25348480

  2. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1 261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

  3. Synthesis of dipeptide precursors with an immobilized thermolysin in ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Nagayasu, T; Miyanaga, M; Tanaka, T; Sakiyama, T; Nakanishi, K

    1994-05-01

    N-(Benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (Z-AspPheOMe), a precursor of the aspartame, and N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-Lphenylalanine methyl ester (Z-PhePheOMe) were synthesized from the respective amino acid derivatives with an immobilized thermolysin (EC 3.4.24.4) in ethyl acetate. Various factors affecting the synthesis of these dipeptide precursors were clarified. The initial synthetic rate was the highest at the water content of 3.5% for both reactions. The substrate concentration dependencies of the initial synthetic rate of Z-AspkPheOMe and Z-PhePheOMe with the immobilized enzyme in ethyl acetate were different from those in an aqueous buffer solution saturated with ethyl acetate but similar to those in the aqueous/organic biphasic system using the free enzyme. Particularly, the initial synthetic rate of Z-AspPhOMe increased in order higher than first order with respect to the concentration of L-phenylalanine methyl ester (PheOMe), whereas it decreased sharply with the concentration of N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-aspartic acid (Z-Asp). Such kinetic behavior could be explained by regarding the inside of the immobilized enzyme as being a biphasic mode composed from the organic phase and aqueous phase where the enzymatic reaction takes place. The reaction in the aqueous/organic biphasic system using the free enzyme could be simulated by taking into consideration the partition of the substrate and the initial rate of synthesis in the aqueous buffer saturated with ethyl acetate. Based on this analysis, the rate of reaction with the immobilized enzyme in ethyl acetate could also be predicted. Z-AsPheOMe and Z-PhePheOMe were synthesized by the fed-batch method where the acid component of the substrate was intermittently added during the course of reaction and by the batch method. In the synthesis of Z-AspPheOMe, the synthetic rate and maximum yield of reaction as well as the stability of the immobilized enzyme were higher in the fed

  4. Simulating the vibrational spectra of ionic liquid systems: 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and its mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Martin; Brehm, Martin; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Kelemen, Zsolt; Nyulászi, László; Pasinszki, Tibor; Kirchner, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    The vibrational spectra of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and its mixtures with water and carbon dioxide are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and the results are compared to experimental data. The new implementation of a normal coordinate analysis in the trajectory analyzer TRAVIS is used to assign the experimentally observed bands to specific molecular vibrations. The applied computational approaches prove to be particularly suitable for the modeling of bulk phase effects on vibrational spectra, which are highly important for the discussion of the microscopic structure in systems with a strong dynamic network of intermolecular interactions, such as ionic liquids.

  5. Simulating the vibrational spectra of ionic liquid systems: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and its mixtures.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Martin; Brehm, Martin; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Kelemen, Zsolt; Nyulászi, László; Pasinszki, Tibor; Kirchner, Barbara

    2014-07-14

    The vibrational spectra of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and its mixtures with water and carbon dioxide are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and the results are compared to experimental data. The new implementation of a normal coordinate analysis in the trajectory analyzer TRAVIS is used to assign the experimentally observed bands to specific molecular vibrations. The applied computational approaches prove to be particularly suitable for the modeling of bulk phase effects on vibrational spectra, which are highly important for the discussion of the microscopic structure in systems with a strong dynamic network of intermolecular interactions, such as ionic liquids. PMID:25028030

  6. Ethyl 2-[(2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)­oxy]acetate

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Quah, Ching Kheng; Aich, Krishnendu; Das, Sangita; Goswami, Shyamaprosad

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H12O5, the mean plane of the 2H-chromene ring system (r.m.s deviation = 0.026 Å) forms a dihedral angle of 81.71 (6)° with the mean plane of ethyl 2-hy­droxy­acetate moiety (r.m.s deviation = 0.034 Å). In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of zigzag layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:23634050

  7. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G. P; Karthikeyan, M.; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P < 0.001) fall in fasting blood glucose level, TBARS, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24716175

  8. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  9. Studies on the mechanism of synthesis of ethyl acetate in Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Keil, Peter; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus converts whey-borne sugar into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent with many applications. K. marxianus DSM 5422 presumably synthesizes ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA. Iron limitation as a trigger for this synthesis is explained by a diminished aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase activity (both enzymes depend on iron) causing diversion of acetyl-SCoA from the tricarboxic acid cycle to ester synthesis. Copper limitation as another trigger for ester synthesis in this yeast refers to involvement of the electron transport chain (all ETC complexes depend on iron and complex IV requires copper). This hypothesis was checked by using several ETC inhibitors. Malonate was ineffective but carboxin partially inhibited complex II and initiated ester synthesis. Antimycin A and cyanide as complexes III and IV inhibitors initiated ester synthesis only at moderate levels while higher concentrations disrupted all respiration and caused ethanol formation. A restricted supply of oxygen (the terminal electron acceptor) also initiated some ester synthesis but primarily forced ethanol production. A switch from aerobic to anaerobic conditions nearly stopped ester synthesis and induced ethanol formation. Iron-limited ester formation was compared with anaerobic ethanol production; the ester yield was lower than the ethanol yield but a higher market price, a reduced number of process stages, a faster process, and decreased expenses for product recovery by stripping favor biotechnological ester production. PMID:25487884

  10. Studies on the mechanism of synthesis of ethyl acetate in Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Keil, Peter; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus converts whey-borne sugar into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent with many applications. K. marxianus DSM 5422 presumably synthesizes ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA. Iron limitation as a trigger for this synthesis is explained by a diminished aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase activity (both enzymes depend on iron) causing diversion of acetyl-SCoA from the tricarboxic acid cycle to ester synthesis. Copper limitation as another trigger for ester synthesis in this yeast refers to involvement of the electron transport chain (all ETC complexes depend on iron and complex IV requires copper). This hypothesis was checked by using several ETC inhibitors. Malonate was ineffective but carboxin partially inhibited complex II and initiated ester synthesis. Antimycin A and cyanide as complexes III and IV inhibitors initiated ester synthesis only at moderate levels while higher concentrations disrupted all respiration and caused ethanol formation. A restricted supply of oxygen (the terminal electron acceptor) also initiated some ester synthesis but primarily forced ethanol production. A switch from aerobic to anaerobic conditions nearly stopped ester synthesis and induced ethanol formation. Iron-limited ester formation was compared with anaerobic ethanol production; the ester yield was lower than the ethanol yield but a higher market price, a reduced number of process stages, a faster process, and decreased expenses for product recovery by stripping favor biotechnological ester production.

  11. Fabrication of porous ethyl cellulose microspheres based on the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system: Controlling porosity via the solvent-removal mode.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Watanabe, Chie; Kurumado, Yu; Takama, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    Porous ethyl cellulose (EC) microspheres were prepared from the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system using an oil/water (O/W)-type emulsion solvent extraction method. The O/ W type emulsion was prepared using acetone dissolved ethyl cellulose as an oil phase and aqueous glycerin as a water phase. The effects of the different solvent extraction modes on the porosity of the microspheres were investigated. The specific surface area of the porous EC microspheres was estimated by the gas adsorption method. When the solvent was extracted rapidly by mixing the emulsion with water instantaneously, porous EC microspheres with a maximum specific surface area of 40.7±2.1 m2/g were obtained. On the other hand, when water was added gradually to the emulsion, the specific surface area of the fabricated microspheres decreased rapidly with an increase in the infusion period, with the area being 25-45% of the maximum value. The results of an analysis of the ternary phase diagram of the system suggested that the penetration of water and glycerin from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase before solidification affected the porosity of the fabricated EC microspheres.

  12. [Autochthonous yeasts isolated in Tenerife wines and their influence on ethyl acetate and higher alcohol concentrations analyzed by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Salvadores, M P; Díaz, M E; Cardell, E

    1993-12-01

    A taxonomic study of yeasts present on Tenerife wines, (Tacoronte-Acentejo Specific Denomination) has been carried out. Nine species of the genera: Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, Brettanomyces, Kluyveromyces, Debaryomyces, Saccharomycodes, Hansenula, Pichia and Candida have been isolated. Parallely we analysed volatile compounds of the wines such as ethyl acetate, methanol, isobutanol and amylic alcohols by gas chromatography. Appreciable quantities of ethyl acetate were detected due to the low fermentative power of species such as Candida glabrata and Debaryomyces hansenii. The greatest concentration of amylic alcohols were found in wines containing yeast with high alcohol producing power like Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  13. Macroscopic and microscopic study of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hall, Craig A; Le, Kim A; Rudaz, Cyrielle; Radhi, Asanah; Lovell, Christopher S; Damion, Robin A; Budtova, Tatiana; Ries, Michael E

    2012-10-25

    Mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) and water across the entire composition range, from pure [C2mim][OAc] to pure water, have been investigated using density, viscosity, and NMR spectroscopy, relaxometry, and diffusion measurements. These results have been compared to ideal mixing laws for the microscopic data obtained from the NMR results and macroscopic data through the viscosity and density. It was also found that the mixing of the two fluids is exothermal. The proton spectra indicate though that [C2mim][OAc] and water are interacting without the formation of new compounds. The maximal deviations of experimental data from theoretical mixing rules were all found to occur within the range 0.74 ± 0.06 mol fraction of water, corresponding to approximately three water molecules per [C2mim][OAc] molecule. PMID:23020276

  14. Preparation of corn starch-g-polystyrene copolymer in ionic liquid: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Men, Yongjun; Du, Xiyan; Shen, Jianan; Wang, Leli; Liu, Zhengping

    2015-05-01

    The copolymer of starch grafted with polystyrene (starch-g-PS) was synthesized with high grafting percentage by utilizing the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Ac) as solvent and potassium persulfate as initiator. The effect of various parameters upon the polymerization were studied including: initiator concentration, styrene:starch weight ratio, the reaction time and temperature. Grafting percentages were calculated using an FT-IR calibration method, with values up to 114%. The resulting copolymer was characterized using FT-IR, SEM, WAXD and TGA, which demonstrated that polystyrene side chains were evenly distributed on the starch backbone. Our results indicate that ionic liquid dissolution of starch, prior to polystyrene grafting, is a versatile methodology for the synthesis of amphiphilic, polysaccharide-based graft copolymers, having high grafting percent. PMID:25659709

  15. Influence of water on swelling and dissolution of cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Carina; Idström, Alexander; Nordstierna, Lars; Westman, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effect of residual coagulation medium (water) on cellulose dissolution in an ionic liquid is discussed. Solubility of dissolving grade pulp; HWP and SWP, and microcrystalline cellulose in binary solvents, mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate and water, was investigated by turbidity measurements, light microscopy, rheometry, and CP/MAS (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The viscoelastic properties of the cellulose solutions imply that residual water affect the cellulose dissolution. However, it is not obvious that this always necessarily poses serious drawbacks for the solution properties or that the effects are as severe as previously believed. Turbidity measurements, viscosity data and crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose correlated well and an increased conversion to cellulose II was found at low water and cellulose contents with an apparent maximum of conversion at 2-5 wt% water. At high water content, above 10 wt%, dissolution and conversion was largely inhibited. PMID:24274528

  16. Glucosamine condensation catalyzed by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: mechanistic insight from NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lingyu; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Qiao, Yan; Deng, Tiansheng; Zuo, Pingping; Ge, Wenzhi; Qin, Zhangfeng; Hou, Xianglin; Wang, Yingxiong

    2015-09-21

    The basic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) could efficiently catalyze the conversion of 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose (GlcNH2) into deoxyfructosazine (DOF) and fructosazine (FZ). Mechanistic investigation by NMR studies disclosed that [C2C1Im][OAc], exhibiting strong hydrogen bonding basicity, could coordinate with the hydroxyl and amino groups of GlcNH2via the promotion of hydrogen bonding in bifunctional activation of substrates and further catalyzing product formation, based on which a plausible reaction pathway involved in this homogeneous base-catalyzed reaction was proposed. Hydrogen bonding as an activation force, therefore, is responsible for the remarkable selectivity and rate enhancement observed. PMID:26278065

  17. Study of extraction of cyclohexanone and ethyl acetate from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Vozin, V.G.; Diyarov, I.N.; Gainullin, I.F.; Gur'yanov, A.I.

    1986-01-10

    For evaluation of their extractive properties, the authors studied liquid-liquid equilibria in water-cyclohexanone (CH), ethyl acetate (EA) extraction systems. With the use of toluene as the extractant, the CH and EA contents in both coexisting phases, extract (C /SUB e/ ) and aqueous (C /SUB w/ ), were determined chromatographically. In systems with diesel fuel, the CH and EA contents in the extract phase were calculated from thier concentrations in the aqueous phase, determined chromatographically. Technical and economic calculations show that the energy costs for purification of water and recovery of CH and EA by the proposed method are lower by a factor of 1.8-2.0 than by the use of azeotropic distillation.

  18. Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.W.; Reddy, A. P.; Gladden, J. M.; Guo, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B. A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.

    2010-12-15

    This work aims to characterize microbial tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), ionic liquid that has emerged as a novel biomass pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Enrichment experiments performed using inocula treated with [C2mim][OAc] under solid and liquid cultivation yielded fungal populationsdominated by Aspergilli. Ionic liquid-tolerant Aspergillus isolates from these enrichments were capable of growing in a radial plate growth assay in the presence of 10% [C2mim][OAc]. When a [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus strain was grown in the presence of switchgrass, endoglucanases and xylanases were secreted that retained residual enzymatic activity in the presence of 20% [C2mim][OAc]. The results of the study suggest tolerance to ionic liquids is a general property of Aspergilli. Tolerance to an industrially important ionic liquid was discovered in a fungal genera that is widely used in biotechnology, including biomass deconstruction.

  19. Influence of water on swelling and dissolution of cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Carina; Idström, Alexander; Nordstierna, Lars; Westman, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effect of residual coagulation medium (water) on cellulose dissolution in an ionic liquid is discussed. Solubility of dissolving grade pulp; HWP and SWP, and microcrystalline cellulose in binary solvents, mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate and water, was investigated by turbidity measurements, light microscopy, rheometry, and CP/MAS (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The viscoelastic properties of the cellulose solutions imply that residual water affect the cellulose dissolution. However, it is not obvious that this always necessarily poses serious drawbacks for the solution properties or that the effects are as severe as previously believed. Turbidity measurements, viscosity data and crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose correlated well and an increased conversion to cellulose II was found at low water and cellulose contents with an apparent maximum of conversion at 2-5 wt% water. At high water content, above 10 wt%, dissolution and conversion was largely inhibited.

  20. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto; Sjamsuridzal, Wellyzar

    2015-06-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications. PMID:26190921

  1. The effect of ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix on systemic exposure of verapamil in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Suad M; Irshaid, Yacoub M; Gharaibeh, Munir N; Arafat, Tawfiq A

    2011-04-01

    The effect of ethyl acetate extract of pomelo fruit on systemic exposure of verapamil was explored in rabbits. Two groups each of 8 locally-inbred New Zealand male rabbits were used. The first group was used for single-dose treatment (both verapamil and pomelo extract). The second group was used for multiple-dose treatment, pomelo extract (once daily for 14 days) and verapamil single doses (at days 7 and 14). A verapamil dose of 30 mg/kg and a pomelo extract dose of 45 mg/kg were used. Single-dose treatment with pomelo extract resulted in a minor change in mean C(max) of verapamil in plasma, while a decrease of 37.8% in AUC(0-24) and 28.3% in AUC(0-∞) was observed but did not reach statistical significance. After the first period of multiple dose treatment (pomelo extract for 7 days), the combination increased the concentration of verapamil in plasma with a significant increase in mean C(max), AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-∞) by 461.9%, 299.7%, and 261.1%, respectively (p values were 0.005, 0.002, and 0.006, respectively). In contrast, after the second period (day 14 of pomelo extract use), the combination decreased the concentration of verapamil in the plasma with a substantial decrease in mean C(max), AUC(0-24), and AUC(0-∞), by 68.2%, 69.7% and 58.3%, respectively. This decrease did not reach statistical significance (p values were 0.073, 0.081 and 0.083, respectively). The T(max) was not affected significantly in both studies. The study illustrates a complex time-dependent interaction between verapamil and the ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix. More intensive studies are needed to further understand the nature of the interaction. PMID:21457137

  2. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto

    2015-01-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications. PMID:26190921

  3. Ethyl acetate extracts of Fructus Ligustri Lucide induce cell apoptosis in human neuroglioma cell

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yun-Bao; Shao, Yi-Meng; Chen, Jing; Xu, Song-Bai; Zhang, Xing-Dong; Liu, Hai-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown that Fructus Ligustri Lucide (FLL) can be used to improve the tumor cells sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and promote cell death. However, the mechanism by which FLL mediate this effect is unclear. In the present study, ethyl acetate extracts of FLL induced cell apoptosis in human neuroglioma cell was investigated. Methods: The cell viability was detected by the CCK8 assay. The cell apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-PI double-labeling staining and hoechst 33342 staining. The protein expression of cell cycle regulators and tumor suppressors were analyzed by western blotting. Results: Treatment of human neuroglioma cell with FLL induced cell death in a dose-and time-dependent manner by using CCK8 assay. Consistent with the CCK8 assay, the flow cytometry results showed that the proportion of the early and terminal phase of apoptosis cells had gained after FLL treatment as compared to untreatment group. Moreover, human neuroglioma cells were exposed to the ethyl acetate extracts of FLL for 48 h, which resulted in an accumulation of cells in G2/Mphase. Apoptotic bodies were clearly observed in human neuroglioma cells that had been treated with FLL for 48 h and then stained with Hochest 33342. The expression of Cyclin B1, CDC2 and cdc25C were downregulated upon FLL treatment in human neuroglioma cells. The expression level of Cyclin B1, CDC2 and cdc25C was negatively correlated with the time of treatment by FLL. In contrast, p53, p21 and p16 were obviously upregulated by FLL treatment in a time-dependent manner. Conclusions: These results confirmed that FLL could induce apoptosis in human neuroglioma cells, the underlying molecular mechanisms, at least partially, through activation p21/p53 and suppression CDC2/cdc25C signaling in vitro. PMID:26064281

  4. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Francis, A J

    2015-06-01

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Pseudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L(-1) and inhibited at >2.5 g L(-1) of [EMIM][Ac]. The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presence of 0.5 g L(-1) [EMIM][Ac]. Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment. PMID:25703901

  5. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Nancharaiah, Y. V.; Francis, A. J.

    2015-02-19

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.

  6. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria

    DOE PAGES

    Nancharaiah, Y. V.; Francis, A. J.

    2015-02-19

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulationmore » of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.« less

  7. A green approach to ethyl acetate: quantitative conversion of ethanol through direct dehydrogenation in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gaofeng; Chen, Tao; He, Lipeng; Pinnau, Ingo; Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Pincers do the trick: The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate and hydrogen was achieved using a pincer-Ru catalyst in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. Near quantitative conversions and yields could be achieved without the need for acid or base promoters or hydrogen acceptors (see scheme). PMID:23136053

  8. Potential biofuel additive from renewable sources--Kinetic study of formation of butyl acetate by heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of ethyl acetate with butanol.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sami H; Al-Rashed, Osama; Azeez, Fadhel A; Merchant, Sabiha Q

    2011-11-01

    Butyl acetate holds great potential as a sustainable biofuel additive. Heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of biobutanol and bioethylacetate can produce butyl acetate. This route is eco-friendly and offers several advantages over the commonly used Fischer Esterification. The Amberlite IR 120- and Amberlyst 15-catalyzed transesterification is studied in a batch reactor over a range of catalyst loading (6-12 wt.%), alcohol to ester feed ratio (1:3 to 3:1), and temperature (303.15-333.15K). A butanol mole fraction of 0.2 in the feed is found to be optimum. Amberlite IR 120 promotes faster kinetics under these conditions. The transesterifications studied are slightly exothermic. The moles of solvent sorbed per gram of catalyst decreases (ethanol>butanol>ethyl acetate>butyl acetate) with decrease in solubility parameter. The dual site models, the Langmuir Hinshelwood and Popken models, are the most successful in correlating the kinetics over Amberlite IR 120 and Amberlyst 15, respectively.

  9. Macroscopic and microscopic study of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate-DMSO mixtures.

    PubMed

    Radhi, Asanah; Le, Kim Anh; Ries, Michael E; Budtova, Tatiana

    2015-01-29

    Macroscopic (steady-state viscosity, density) and microscopic (NMR chemical shifts, (1)H NMR relaxation times, and diffusion) properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][OAc])-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture were studied in detail as a function of DMSO molar fraction at various temperatures. Temperature dependencies were used to calculate the activation energies. NMR results indicate that at low molar fraction of DMSO (<0.4), it weakly associates with the cation and in doing so disrupts the strong ion-ion association that exists in the pure ionic liquid. Stokes-Einstein equation, which linearly correlates the diffusion coefficient of a spherical molecule and macroscopic viscosity, was shown to work well for the [EMIM][OAc]-DMSO mixture. The influence of DMSO on the "anomalous" diffusion in [EMIM][OAc] ("quick" cation vs "slow" anion) was investigated; it was demonstrated that DMSO makes the cation diffusion slower. All parameters studied showed relatively small deviations from the ideal mixing rule behavior (from 20% to 50% difference between experimental and theoretically predicted results), confirming weak interactions between the components. PMID:25565058

  10. Reversible Carbene Formation in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Acetate by Vaporization and Condensation.

    PubMed

    Kar, Bishnu Prasad; Sander, Wolfram

    2015-12-01

    The role of N-heterocyclic carbenes in the chemistry of ionic liquids based on imidazolium salts has long been discussed. Here, we present experimental evidence that 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-ylidene (EMIm) can coexist with its protonated imidazolium cation (EMImH(+) ) at low temperatures. If the vapor of the ionic liquid [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] is trapped in solid argon or nitrogen at 9 K, only acetic acid (AcOH) and the carbene, but no ionic species, are found by IR spectroscopy. This indicates that during the evaporation of [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] proton transfer occurs to form the neutral species. If the vapor of [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] is trapped at 9 K as film in the absence of a host matrix, a solid consisting of EMImH(+) , EMIm, AcO(-) , and AcOH is formed. During warming to room temperature the proton transfer in the solid to form back the IL [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] can be monitored by IR spectroscopy. This clearly demonstrates that evaporation and condensation of the IL [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] results in a double proton transfer, and the carbene EMIm is only metastable even at low temperatures. PMID:26376583

  11. Monitoring of cellulose depolymerization in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by shear and elongational rheology.

    PubMed

    Michud, Anne; Hummel, Michael; Haward, Simon; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-03-01

    The thermal stability of cellulose in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim]OAc was investigated. For this purpose, Eucalyptus urugrandis prehydrolysis kraft pulp was first dissolved in [emim]OAc by means of a vertical kneader and then stored at three different temperatures to study the time-depended behavior of the cellulose-[emim]OAc system. Cellulose depolymerization was assessed by characterizing the precipitated cellulose and the rheological behavior of the cellulose-[emim]OAc solutions. The results show decreases in the weight average molecular mass and in the shear viscosity at temperatures exceeding 60 °C, which can be related to progressing degradation of cellulose in the IL upon storage at elevated temperature. The changes in behavior of the solutions under extensional stresses also attest the gradual depolymerization of cellulose. The degradation has been analyzed using appropriate kinetic models. Propyl gallate appeared to be an efficient stabilizer of the cellulose-[emim]OAc system during the dissolution step even though the mechanism has not been fully understood yet. PMID:25498646

  12. Physical insight into switchgrass dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Gurau, Gabriela; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neil, Hugh; Evans, Barbara R; Urban, Volker S; Heller, William T; Rogers, Robin D

    2014-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize solutions of switchgrass and the constituent biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a physical mixture of them mimicking the composition of switchgrass, dissolved in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. The results demonstrate that the IL dissolves the cellulose fibrils of switchgrass, although a supramolecular biopolymer network remains that is not present in solutions of the individual biopolymers and that does not self-assemble in a solution containing the physical mixture of the individual biopolymers. The persistence of a network-like structure indicates that dissolving switchgrass in the IL does not disrupt all of the physical entanglements and covalent linkages between the biopolymers created during plant growth. Reconstitution of the IL-dissolved switchgrass yields carbohydrate-rich material containing cellulose with a low degree of crystallinity, as determined by powder X-ray diffraction, which impacts potential down-stream uses of the biopolymers produced by the process. The data suggests that the use of chemical additives which would break bonds that exist between the lignin and hemicellulose might improve the purity of the resulting product, but may not be able to disrupt the highly physically-entangled biopolymer network sufficiently to facilitate their separation.

  13. Antitussive Efficacy and Safety Profile of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Terminalia chebula

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Abdul; Ayub, Khurshed; Sherkheli, M. Azhar; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

    2013-01-01

    Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500 mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60 min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10 mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10 mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265 mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3 mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3 mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated. PMID:24024039

  14. Experimental Determination of Densities and Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate with Alcohols (C3 and C4) at 0.3 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susial, Pedro; Estupiñan, Esteban J.; Castillo, Victor D.; Rodríguez-Henríquez, José J.; Apolinario, José C.

    2013-10-01

    The densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for the methyl acetate + 1-propanol, methyl acetate + 1-butanol, and ethyl acetate + 1-butanol mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibria data at 0.3 MPa for these binary systems were obtained using a stainless steel equilibrium still. The activity coefficients were obtained from the experimental data using the Hayden and O’Connell method and the Yen and Woods equation. The binary systems in this study showed positive deviations from ideality. The experimental VLE data were verified with the point-to-point test of van Ness using the Barker routine and the Fredenslund criterion. The different versions of the UNIFAC and the ASOG group contribution models were applied.

  15. Coagulation of chitin and cellulose from 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ionic-liquid solutions using carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Barber, Patrick S; Griggs, Chris S; Gurau, Gabriela; Liu, Zhen; Li, Shan; Li, Zengxi; Lu, Xingmei; Zhang, Suojiang; Rogers, Robin D

    2013-11-18

    Chemisorption of carbon dioxide by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2 mim][OAc]) provides a route to coagulate chitin and cellulose from [C2 mim][OAc] solutions without the use of high-boiling antisolvents (e.g., water or ethanol). The use of CO2 chemisorption as an alternative coagulating process has the potential to provide an economical and energy-efficient method for recycling the ionic liquid. PMID:24115399

  16. Antioxidant and protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of podophyllum hexandrum rhizome on carbon tetrachloride induced rat liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, α-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg dose prior to CCl(4) administration (1 ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl(4)-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities.

  17. Antioxidant and Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Podophyllum Hexandrum Rhizome on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rat Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, α-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg dose prior to CCl4 administration (1 ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:21394192

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B1); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B2). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R2 = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R2 = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Conclusions Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms. PMID

  19. Therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis on phthalic anhydride-induced skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Seo, Eun-Ji; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Dong-Seob; Son, Hong-Joo; Lee, Chung-Yeoul; Lee, Hee-Seob; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2016-03-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis has been used to treat various diseases including fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease, while IL-4 cytokine has been considered as key regulator on the skin homeostasis and the predisposition toward allergic skin inflammation. However, few studies have investigated its effects and IL-4 correlation on skin inflammation to date. To quantitatively evaluate the suppressive effects of ethyl acetate extracts of A. cochinchinensis (EaEAC) on phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced skin inflammation and investigate the role of IL-4 during their action mechanism, alterations in general phenotype biomarkers and luciferase-derived signals were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice with PA-induced skin inflammation after treatment with EaEAC for 2 weeks. Key phenotype markers including lymph node weight, immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, epidermis thickness and number of infiltrated mast cells were significantly decreased in the PA+EaEAC treated group compared with the PA+Vehicle treated group. In addition, expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was also decreased in the PA+EaEAC cotreated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the luciferase signal derived from IL-4 promoter was detected in the abdominal region, submandibular lymph node and mesenteric lymph node of the PA+EaEAC treated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC treatment could successfully improve PA-induced skin inflammation of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice, and that IL-4 cytokine plays a key role in the therapeutic process of EaEAC. PMID:27051441

  20. Ethyl Acetate Abatement on Copper Catalysts Supported on Ceria Doped with Rare Earth Oxides.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, Sónia Alexandra Correia; Konsolakis, Michalis; Marnellos, George Emmanouil-Nontas; Asad, Muhammad Faizan; Soares, Olívia Salomé Gonçalves Pinto; Tavares, Pedro Bandeira; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro; Órfão, José Joaquim de Melo; Figueiredo, José Luís

    2016-01-01

    Different lanthanide (Ln)-doped cerium oxides (Ce0.5Ln0.5O1.75, where Ln: Gd, La, Pr, Nd, Sm) were loaded with Cu (20 wt. %) and used as catalysts for the oxidation of ethyl acetate (EtOAc), a common volatile organic compound (VOC). For comparison, both Cu-free (Ce-Ln) and supported Cu (Cu/Ce-Ln) samples were characterized by N₂ adsorption at -196 °C, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction in H₂. The following activity sequence, in terms of EtOAc conversion, was found for bare supports: CeO₂ ≈ Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Gd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Nd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5La0.5O1.75. Cu addition improved the catalytic performance, without affecting the activity order. The best catalytic performance was obtained for Cu/CeO₂ and Cu/Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 samples, both achieving complete EtOAc conversion below ca. 290 °C. A strong correlation was revealed between the catalytic performance and the redox properties of the samples, in terms of reducibility and lattice oxygen availability. Νo particular correlation between the VOC oxidation performance and textural characteristics was found. The obtained results can be explained in terms of a Mars-van Krevelen type redox mechanism involving the participation of weakly bound (easily reduced) lattice oxygen and its consequent replenishment by gas phase oxygen.

  1. Ethyl Acetate Abatement on Copper Catalysts Supported on Ceria Doped with Rare Earth Oxides.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, Sónia Alexandra Correia; Konsolakis, Michalis; Marnellos, George Emmanouil-Nontas; Asad, Muhammad Faizan; Soares, Olívia Salomé Gonçalves Pinto; Tavares, Pedro Bandeira; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro; Órfão, José Joaquim de Melo; Figueiredo, José Luís

    2016-01-01

    Different lanthanide (Ln)-doped cerium oxides (Ce0.5Ln0.5O1.75, where Ln: Gd, La, Pr, Nd, Sm) were loaded with Cu (20 wt. %) and used as catalysts for the oxidation of ethyl acetate (EtOAc), a common volatile organic compound (VOC). For comparison, both Cu-free (Ce-Ln) and supported Cu (Cu/Ce-Ln) samples were characterized by N₂ adsorption at -196 °C, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction in H₂. The following activity sequence, in terms of EtOAc conversion, was found for bare supports: CeO₂ ≈ Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Gd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Nd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5La0.5O1.75. Cu addition improved the catalytic performance, without affecting the activity order. The best catalytic performance was obtained for Cu/CeO₂ and Cu/Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 samples, both achieving complete EtOAc conversion below ca. 290 °C. A strong correlation was revealed between the catalytic performance and the redox properties of the samples, in terms of reducibility and lattice oxygen availability. Νo particular correlation between the VOC oxidation performance and textural characteristics was found. The obtained results can be explained in terms of a Mars-van Krevelen type redox mechanism involving the participation of weakly bound (easily reduced) lattice oxygen and its consequent replenishment by gas phase oxygen. PMID:27196886

  2. Therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis on phthalic anhydride-induced skin inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Seo, Eun-Ji; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Dong-Seob; Son, Hong-Joo; Lee, Chung-Yeoul; Lee, Hee-Seob

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis has been used to treat various diseases including fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease, while IL-4 cytokine has been considered as key regulator on the skin homeostasis and the predisposition toward allergic skin inflammation. However, few studies have investigated its effects and IL-4 correlation on skin inflammation to date. To quantitatively evaluate the suppressive effects of ethyl acetate extracts of A. cochinchinensis (EaEAC) on phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced skin inflammation and investigate the role of IL-4 during their action mechanism, alterations in general phenotype biomarkers and luciferase-derived signals were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice with PA-induced skin inflammation after treatment with EaEAC for 2 weeks. Key phenotype markers including lymph node weight, immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, epidermis thickness and number of infiltrated mast cells were significantly decreased in the PA+EaEAC treated group compared with the PA+Vehicle treated group. In addition, expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was also decreased in the PA+EaEAC cotreated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the luciferase signal derived from IL-4 promoter was detected in the abdominal region, submandibular lymph node and mesenteric lymph node of the PA+EaEAC treated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC treatment could successfully improve PA-induced skin inflammation of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice, and that IL-4 cytokine plays a key role in the therapeutic process of EaEAC. PMID:27051441

  3. [Chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of flower of Albizia julibrissin].

    PubMed

    Rong, Guang-Qing; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the flower of Albizia julibrissin was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI GEL CHP-20P column chromatography to yield 29 compounds. Their structures were elucidated as 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (1), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (la), 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2a), (2E, 6S)-2, 6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-D-xylpyranosyloxy-2, 7-menthia-folic acid (3), clovan-2beta, 9alpha-diol (4), 2beta-O-formyl-clovan-9alpha-ol (4a), 2beta, 9alpha-O-diformyl-clovan (4b), vomifoliol (5), (6S, 9R)-roseoside (6), vanillin (7), 4-O-ethylgallic acid (8), 3-ethoxy4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), gallic acid (11), protocatechoic acid (12), stearic acid (13), palmitic acid (14), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate (15), linoleic acid (16), scopoletin (17), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (18), 2-furoic acid (19), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (20), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (21), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 9, 22-trien-3beta-ol (22), (+)-lariciresinol 9'-stearate (23), formononetin (24) and uridine (25). Compounds 1a, 2a, 4a and 4b were new artifacts from the separation process, and others were obtained from A. julibrissin for the first time. PMID:25282893

  4. Acetonitrile hydration and ethyl acetate hydrolysis by pyrazolate-bridged cobalt(II) dimers containing hydrogen-bond donors.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Paul J; Sorrell, Thomas N; Powell, Douglas R; Day, Victor W; Borovik, A S

    2007-11-26

    The preparation of new CoII-mu-OH-CoII dimers with the binucleating ligands 3,5-bis{bis[(N'-R-ureaylato)-N-ethyl]aminomethyl}-1H-pyrazolate ([H4PRbuam]5-, R=tBu, iPr) is described. The molecular structure of the isopropyl derivative reveals that each CoII center has a trigonal-bipyramidial coordination geometry, with a Co...Co separation of 3.5857(5) A. Structural and spectroscopic studies show that there are four hydrogen-bond (H-bond) donors near the CoII-micro-OH-CoII moiety; however, they are too far away to be form intramolecular H-bonds with the bridging hydroxo ligand. Treating [CoII2H4PRbuam(micro-OH)]2- with acetonitrile led to the formation of bridging acetamidato complexes, [CoII2H4PRbuam(micro-1,3-OC(NH)CH3)]2-; in addition, these CoII-micro-OH-CoII dimers hydrolyze ethyl acetate to form CoII complexes with bridging acetato ligands. The CoII-1,3-micro-X'-CoII complexes (X'=OAc-, [OC(NH)CH3]-) were prepared independently by reacting [CoII2H3PRbuam]2- with acetamide or [CoII2H4PRbuam]- with acetate. X-ray diffraction studies show that the orientation of the acetate ligand within the H-bonding cavity depends on the size of the R substituent appended from the urea groups. The tetradentate ligand 3-{bis[(N'-tert-butylureaylato)-N-ethyl]aminomethyl}-5-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazolato ([H2PtBuuam]3-) was also developed and its CoII-OH complex prepared. In the crystalline state, [CoIIH2PtBuuam(OH)]2- contains two intramolecular H-bonds between the urea groups of [H2PtBuuam]3- and the terminal hydroxo ligand. [nPr4N]2[CoIIH2PtBuuam(OH)] does not hydrate acetonitrile or hydrolyze ethyl acetate. In contrast, K2[CoIIH2PtBuuam(OH)] does react with ethyl acetate to produce KOAc; this enhanced reactivity is attributed to the presence of the K+ ions, which can possibly interact with the CoII-OH unit and ester substrate to assist in hydrolysis. However, K2[CoIIH2PtBuuam(OH)] was still unable to hydrate acetonitrile.

  5. Synthesis of Highly Polymerized Water-soluble Cellulose Acetate by the Side Reaction in Carboxylate Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jinhui; Liu, Xin; Yang, Jun; Lu, Fachuang; Wang, Bo; Xu, Feng; Ma, Mingguo; Zhang, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we describe a novel one-step method to prepare water-soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) with higher degree of polymerization values (DP = 650-680) by in situ activation of carboxyl group in ionic liquid. First of all, cellulose was dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) and reacted with dichloroacetyl chloride (Cl2AcCl) in order to make cellulose dichloroacetate. Under various conditions, a series of water soluble products were produced. Elemental analysis and NMR results confirmed that they were cellulose acetate with DS (degree of substitution) values in the range from 0.30 to 0.63. NMR studies demonstrated that Cl2AcCl reacted with acetate anion of EmimAc producing a mixed anhydride that acetylated cellulose. Other acylating reagents such as benzoyl chloride, chloroacetyl chloride can also work similarly. 2D NMR characterization suggested that 6-mono-O-acetyl moiety, 3,6-di-O-acetylcellulose and 2,6-di-O-acetyl cellulose were all synthesized and the reactivity of hydroxyl groups in anhydro-glucose units was in the order C-6>C-3>C-2. This work provides an alternative way to make WSCA, meanwhile, also services as a reminder that the activity of EmimAc toward carbohydrate as acylating reagents could be a problem, because the expected acylated products may not be resulted and recycling of this ionic liquid could also be difficult. PMID:27644545

  6. Synthesis of Highly Polymerized Water-soluble Cellulose Acetate by the Side Reaction in Carboxylate Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jinhui; Liu, Xin; Yang, Jun; Lu, Fachuang; Wang, Bo; Xu, Feng; Ma, Mingguo; Zhang, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we describe a novel one-step method to prepare water-soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) with higher degree of polymerization values (DP = 650–680) by in situ activation of carboxyl group in ionic liquid. First of all, cellulose was dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) and reacted with dichloroacetyl chloride (Cl2AcCl) in order to make cellulose dichloroacetate. Under various conditions, a series of water soluble products were produced. Elemental analysis and NMR results confirmed that they were cellulose acetate with DS (degree of substitution) values in the range from 0.30 to 0.63. NMR studies demonstrated that Cl2AcCl reacted with acetate anion of EmimAc producing a mixed anhydride that acetylated cellulose. Other acylating reagents such as benzoyl chloride, chloroacetyl chloride can also work similarly. 2D NMR characterization suggested that 6-mono-O-acetyl moiety, 3,6-di-O-acetylcellulose and 2,6-di-O-acetyl cellulose were all synthesized and the reactivity of hydroxyl groups in anhydro-glucose units was in the order C-6>C-3>C-2. This work provides an alternative way to make WSCA, meanwhile, also services as a reminder that the activity of EmimAc toward carbohydrate as acylating reagents could be a problem, because the expected acylated products may not be resulted and recycling of this ionic liquid could also be difficult. PMID:27644545

  7. Synthesis of Highly Polymerized Water-soluble Cellulose Acetate by the Side Reaction in Carboxylate Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Jinhui; Liu, Xin; Yang, Jun; Lu, Fachuang; Wang, Bo; Xu, Feng; Ma, Mingguo; Zhang, Xueming

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we describe a novel one-step method to prepare water-soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) with higher degree of polymerization values (DP = 650–680) by in situ activation of carboxyl group in ionic liquid. First of all, cellulose was dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) and reacted with dichloroacetyl chloride (Cl2AcCl) in order to make cellulose dichloroacetate. Under various conditions, a series of water soluble products were produced. Elemental analysis and NMR results confirmed that they were cellulose acetate with DS (degree of substitution) values in the range from 0.30 to 0.63. NMR studies demonstrated that Cl2AcCl reacted with acetate anion of EmimAc producing a mixed anhydride that acetylated cellulose. Other acylating reagents such as benzoyl chloride, chloroacetyl chloride can also work similarly. 2D NMR characterization suggested that 6-mono-O-acetyl moiety, 3,6-di-O-acetylcellulose and 2,6-di-O-acetyl cellulose were all synthesized and the reactivity of hydroxyl groups in anhydro-glucose units was in the order C-6>C-3>C-2. This work provides an alternative way to make WSCA, meanwhile, also services as a reminder that the activity of EmimAc toward carbohydrate as acylating reagents could be a problem, because the expected acylated products may not be resulted and recycling of this ionic liquid could also be difficult.

  8. Synthesis of Highly Polymerized Water-soluble Cellulose Acetate by the Side Reaction in Carboxylate Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jinhui; Liu, Xin; Yang, Jun; Lu, Fachuang; Wang, Bo; Xu, Feng; Ma, Mingguo; Zhang, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we describe a novel one-step method to prepare water-soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) with higher degree of polymerization values (DP = 650-680) by in situ activation of carboxyl group in ionic liquid. First of all, cellulose was dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) and reacted with dichloroacetyl chloride (Cl2AcCl) in order to make cellulose dichloroacetate. Under various conditions, a series of water soluble products were produced. Elemental analysis and NMR results confirmed that they were cellulose acetate with DS (degree of substitution) values in the range from 0.30 to 0.63. NMR studies demonstrated that Cl2AcCl reacted with acetate anion of EmimAc producing a mixed anhydride that acetylated cellulose. Other acylating reagents such as benzoyl chloride, chloroacetyl chloride can also work similarly. 2D NMR characterization suggested that 6-mono-O-acetyl moiety, 3,6-di-O-acetylcellulose and 2,6-di-O-acetyl cellulose were all synthesized and the reactivity of hydroxyl groups in anhydro-glucose units was in the order C-6>C-3>C-2. This work provides an alternative way to make WSCA, meanwhile, also services as a reminder that the activity of EmimAc toward carbohydrate as acylating reagents could be a problem, because the expected acylated products may not be resulted and recycling of this ionic liquid could also be difficult.

  9. Decreasing the Level of Ethyl Acetate in Ethanolic Fermentation Broths of Escherichia coli KO11 by Expression of Pseudomonas putida estZ Esterase†

    PubMed Central

    Hasona, Adnan; York, S. W.; Yomano, L. P.; Ingram, L. O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2002-01-01

    During the fermentation of sugars to ethanol relatively high levels of an undesirable coproduct, ethyl acetate, are also produced. With ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 as the biocatalyst, the level of ethyl acetate in beer containing 4.8% ethanol was 192 mg liter−1. Although the E. coli genome encodes several proteins with esterase activity, neither wild-type strains nor KO11 contained significant ethyl acetate esterase activity. A simple method was developed to rapidly screen bacterial colonies for the presence of esterases which hydrolyze ethyl acetate based on pH change. This method allowed identification of Pseudomonas putida NRRL B-18435 as a source of this activity and the cloning of a new esterase gene, estZ. Recombinant EstZ esterase was purified to near homogeneity and characterized. It belongs to family IV of lipolytic enzymes and contains the conserved catalytic triad of serine, aspartic acid, and histidine. As expected, this serine esterase was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and the histidine reagent diethylpyrocarbonate. The native and subunit molecular weights of the recombinant protein were 36,000, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. By using α-naphthyl acetate as a model substrate, optimal activity was observed at pH 7.5 and 40°C. The Km and Vmax for α-naphthyl acetate were 18 μM and 48.1 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1, respectively. Among the aliphatic esters tested, the highest activity was obtained with propyl acetate (96 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1), followed by ethyl acetate (66 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1). Expression of estZ in E. coli KO11 reduced the concentration of ethyl acetate in fermentation broth (4.8% ethanol) to less than 20 mg liter−1. PMID:12039716

  10. The C-H bond activation in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate-copper(II) acetate-water-air (dioxygen) systems.

    PubMed

    Shtyrlin, Valery G; Serov, Nikita Yu; Islamov, Daut R; Konkin, Alexander L; Bukharov, Mikhail S; Gnezdilov, Oleg I; Krivolapov, Dmitry B; Kataeva, Ol'ga N; Nazmutdinova, Gulnara A; Wendler, Frank

    2014-01-14

    Ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2C1im][AcO])-copper(ii) diacetate monohydrate-water-air (O2) systems have been investigated by (13)C NMR, EPR, spectrophotometry, HPLC, and synthetic chemistry methods at different temperatures. The C-H bond activation of [C2C1im](+) with the formation of the unusual dication 1,1'-diethyl-3,3'-dimethyl-2,2'-biimidazolium ([(C2C1im)2](2+)) at 50 °C and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-2(3H)-one (C2C1imO) at 50-85 °C was revealed. Two new complexes with the above compounds, [(C2C1im)2][Cu(AcO)4] and Cu2(AcO)4(C2C1imO)2, were isolated from the systems and characterized by X-ray structural analysis. Catalytic cycles with the participation of copper(ii) acetate and dioxygen and the production of [(C2C1im)2](2+) and C2C1imO have been proposed. The catalysis presumably includes the formation of the Cu(II)(O2)Cu(II) active centre with μ-η(2):η(2)-peroxide bridging in analogy with tyrosinase and catechol oxidase activity. PMID:24154681

  11. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha

    PubMed Central

    Adefuye, Anthonio O.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant cells fundamentally are chemical factories containing a rich supply of therapeutically useful phytocompounds that have the potential of being developed into potent antimicrobial agents. Aim of the Study: To investigate the antibacterial activity of fractionated extracts of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography were used to purify the extracts and antimicrobial activity performed on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Helicobacter pylori using direct and indirect bioautographic methods respectively. Furthermore, the eluted compound fractions were then assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) using the 96-well micro dilution technique. Results: Better separation of phytocompounds was obtained from the non-polar Benzene/Ethanol/Ammonia (BEA) and intermediate-polar Chloroform/Ethyl acetate/Formic acid (CEF) eluents compared to the polar Ethanol/Methanol/Water (EMW). Bioautography revealed the presence of three bioactive compounds (Rf values; 0.12, 0.20, and 0.42) on the BEA plates, designated fractions 3, 7, and 8 with MIC50 values; 0.0048mg/mL to 1.25mg/mL (fraction 3), 0.0024mg/mL to 5 mg/mL (fraction 7), and 0.0024mg/mL to 2.5mg/mL (fraction 8). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ethyl acetate extract of the stem-bark of B. micrantha possess potent bioactive phytocompounds that may be developed into new antimicrobials. PMID:23661993

  12. Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v) of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml). Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v) and gentamycin (reference drug) eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw) did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides were significantly (p < 0.05) affected positively. Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections. PMID:21615960

  13. A DFT study on the Cu (1 1 1) surface for ethyl acetate synthesis from ethanol dehydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruzhen; Zhang, Minhua; Yu, Yingzhe

    2012-07-01

    Copper-based catalysts have shown excellent catalytic performances. Despite extensive studies in the field, the microscopic mechanism of ethanol dehydrogenation to ethyl acetate (EA) on Cu-based catalysts remains controversial. Aiming to provide insight into the catalytic roles of Cu, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the elementary reactions involved in ethanol dehydrogenation to EA on Cu surfaces. In this work, the adsorption properties of ethanol, ethoxy, acetaldehyde, acetyl and EA on the Cu (1 1 1) catalyst surface were investigated. Based on two pathways, many transition states involved are located. The results show that the route proposed by Colley is more likely to happen.

  14. Constructing a polyfunctional zeolite-encaged metal catalyst for the multistage oxidation of ethanol into ethyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Shakhtakhtinskii, T.N.; Aliev, A.M.; Kuliev, A.R.

    1995-08-01

    To construct an efficient polyfunctional catalyst for the given multistage reaction, the authors previously studied the catalysts HNaY, clinosorb, H-clinoptilolite, and H-mordenite in the reaction of esterification of ethanol with acetic acid; CuH-clinoptilolite, Cu-clinosorb, CuH-mordenite, and CuHNaY in the reaction of oxidative dehydration of ethanol; PdH-clinoptilolite, Pd-clinosorb, PdH-mordenite, and PdHNaY in the oxidation of ethanol; and CuPdH-clinoptilolite in the oxidative transformation of ethanol into ethyl acetate. The catalytic activity of these zeolites and other Pd- and Cu-containing zeolite catalysts, which the authors synthesized by the ion-exchange technique, was studied in a flow-circulating set-up.

  15. Quantitative Screening of Agrochemical Residues in Fruits and Vegetables by Buffered Ethyl Acetate Extraction and LC-MS/MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Manjusha R; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2015-05-13

    A buffered ethyl acetate extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous analysis of 296 agrochemicals in a wide range of fruit and vegetable matrices by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The optimized quantity of acetate buffer (1% acetic acid + 0.5 g of sodium acetate per 10 g of sample) adjusted the pH of each test matrix to 5-6, which in turn significantly improved recoveries of acidic and basic compounds. The role of diethylene glycol (used in the evaporation step) on signal suppression of certain compounds was evaluated, and its quantity was optimized to minimize such an effect. The method was validated in grape, mango, drumstick, bitter gourd, capsicum, curry leaf, and okra as per the DG-SANCO/12571/2013 guidelines. Recoveries in the fortification range of 1-40 μg/kg were within 70-120% with associated relative standard deviations below 20% for most of the compounds. The method has potential for regulatory and commercial applications with a generic approach. PMID:25639652

  16. Upgrading oxygenated Fischer-Tropsch derivatives and one-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate from ethanol - examples of the desirability of research on simple chemical compounds transformations.

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenates formed as by-products of Fischer-Tropsch syntheses can be transformed into other Fischer-Tropsch derived oxygenates instead of treating them as unwanted chemicals. One-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate from ethanol is feasible with the use of some heterogeneous catalysts. Despite their apparent simplicity, both transformations are discussed as targeted fields of research. Furthermore, the two concepts are justified due to the environmental protection. Arguments regarding the Fischer-Tropsch process are focused on the opportunities of the utilization of undesirable by-products. The effective striving for their utilization can make the oxygenates the targeted products of this process. Arguments regarding the one-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate underline the environmental protection and sustainability as a less waste-generating method but, above all, highlight the possibility of reducing the glycerol overproduction problem. The production of ethyl acetate from bioethanol and then transesterification of fats and oils with the use of ethyl acetate allows managing all the renewable raw materials. Thus, the process enables the biosynthesis of biodiesel without glycerine by-product and potentially would result in the increase in the demand for ethyl acetate. Graphical Abstract.

  17. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  18. Synthesis of aspartame precursor: alpha-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester in ethyl acetate using thermolysin entrapped in polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Yang, C P; Su, C S

    1988-08-20

    Cross-linked polyurethane (PU) was prepared for entrapping thermolysin. Using the immobilized thermolysin (IT), Z-L-aspartic acid (ZA) was reacted with -Lphenylalanine methyl ester (L-PM) in water-saturated ethyl acetate to give only alpha-Z-L-aspartylL-phenylalanine methyl ester (alpha-ZAPM). Ninety-four percent conversion of alpha-ZAPM was obtained for 30 h of reaction at 40 degrees C when 46 mg of enzyme was entrapped. PU support prepared from polypropylene glycol (#2000) showed better properties than from polypropylene (#1000) and polyethylene (#1000). Addition of polyol could increase the gel fraction of PU. The IT PU-ll-G-3, prepared from 1/2 mole ratio of PPG (#2000)/glycerin, gave the highest gel fraction and best swelling, and 89.0% of residual activity was obtained after four times of reuse (72 h). The stability of immobilized thermolysin was good; the activity loss resulting from degradatin and leak of enzyme in each time of reuse were found only about 2%. The kinetics of immobilized thermolysin-catalyzed condensation reaction of ZA with L-PM in water-saturated ethyl acetate was found to be first order in L-PM and the Lineweaver-Burk plot of 1/V against 1/[ZA] yields a straight line, showing that the reaction involves consecutive reactions of ZA and L-PM with the immobilized enzyme and with the ZA-immobilized enzyme complex, with the second reaction being the rate determining step.

  19. Ethyl Radical Ejection During Photodecomposition of Butanone on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-10-15

    The photodecomposition of acetone and butanone were examined on the (110) surface of rutile TiO2 using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). In both cases, photodecomposition was proceeded by a required thermal reaction between the adsorbed ketone and coadsorbed oxygen resulting in a diolate species. The diolate photodecomposed by ejection of an organic radical from the surface leaving behind a carboxylate species. In the acetone case, only methyl radical PSD was detected and acetate was left on the surface. In the butanone case there was a possibility of either methyl or ethyl radical ejection, with propionate or acetate left behind, respectively. However, only ethyl radical PSD was detected and the species left on the surface (acetate) was the same as in the acetone case. The preference for ethyl radical ejection is linked to the greater thermal stability of the ethyl radical over that of the methyl radical. Unlike in the acetone case, where the ejected methyl radicals did not participate in thermal chemistry on the TiO2(110) surface after photoactivation of the acetone diolate, ethyl radicals photodesorbing at 100 K from butanone diolate showed a preference for dehydrogenation to ethene through the influence of coadsorbed oxygen. These results reemphasize the mechanistic importance of organic radical production during photooxidation reactions on TiO2 surface.

  20. Ethyl Radical Ejection During Photodecomposition of Butanone on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-10-15

    The photodecomposition of acetone and butanone were examined on the (110) surface of rutile TiO2 using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). In both cases, photodecomposition was proceeded by a required thermal reaction between the adsorbed ketone and coadsorbed oxygen resulting in a diolate species. The diolate photodecomposed by ejection of an organic radical from the surface leaving behind a carboxylate species. In the acetone case, only methyl radical PSD was detected and acetate was left on the surface. In the butanone case there was a possibility of either methyl or ethyl radical ejection, with propionate or acetate left behind, respectively. However, only ethyl radical PSD was detected and the species left on the surface (acetate) was the same as in the acetone case. The preference for ethyl radical ejection is linked to the greater thermal stability of the ethyl radical over that of the methyl radical. Unlike in the acetone case, where the ejected methyl radicals did not participate in thermal chemistry on the TiO2(110) surface after photoactivation of the acetone diolate, ethyl radicals photodesorbing at 100 K from butanone diolate showed a preference for dehydrogenation to ethene through the influence of coadsorbed oxygen. These results reemphasize the mechanistic importance of organic radical production during photooxidation reactions on TiO2 surface. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  1. The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Zolfaghari, B; Mirdamadi, M

    2013-07-01

    Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract.

  2. The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A.; Zolfaghari, B.; Mirdamadi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×108cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×108cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract. PMID:24019825

  3. [Allosteric regulation of glucosamine synthetase activity by naphthoquinone derivatives and ethyl ester of di-(4-oxycumarinyl-3)-acetic acid].

    PubMed

    Sharaev, P N; Bogdanov, N G; Sarycheva, I K; Zhukova, E E

    1981-02-01

    The effects of derivatives of naphthoquinone, e.g. 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K1), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3), 3-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-2-sodium sulfonate (vicasol), derivatives of naphthohydroxyquinone, e.g. 2-methyl-1,4-naphthohydroxyquinone 1-monoacetate, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthohydroxyquinone 1,4-diacetate and the oxycumarine derivative di-(4-oxycumarinyl-3)-acetate ethyl ester (pelentan) on the activity of purified glutamine synthetase (EC 5.3.1.19) from rat liver were studied. The enzyme activity was increased under effects of vitamins K1 and K3 and was inhibited by pelentan. The data obtained are indicative of the allosteric effect of these compounds on the enzyme. PMID:7195738

  4. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bing-Hua; Gao, Hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Hui-Li; Cheng, Kun

    2016-03-02

    Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia.

  5. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment of eucalyptus wood for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    Ground eucalyptus wood was pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions with different mixing ratios under various conditions. The changes in the composition and structure of the biomass were investigated; and the enzymatic hydrolysis performance of the pretreated biomass was evaluated. [EMIM]OAc-DMSO pretreatment had a relatively mild effect on the composition of the biomass, but excessively high pretreatment temperatures led to massive loss of xylan after pretreatment. The enzymatic digestibility of the biomass was significantly improved with increased pretreatment temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the disruption of cellulose crystal structure by [EMIM]OAc at a sufficiently high temperature was primarily responsible for the remarkable improvement in the digestibility. Appropriate addition of DMSO could help minimize the consumption of [EMIM]OAc without impairing the performance of the ionic liquid, and contribute to the improvement in pretreatment efficiency due to the viscosity reduction effect on the pretreatment liquor. PMID:23685645

  6. Solvent effects of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: solvation and dynamic behavior of polar and apolar solutes.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Volker; Heuer, Andreas; Holm, Christian; Smiatek, Jens

    2015-04-01

    We study the solvation properties of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM](+)[ACE](-)) and the resulting dynamic behavior for differently charged model solutes at room temperature via atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 300 ns length and 200 ns equilibration time. The solutes are simple model spheres which are either positively or negatively charged with a valency of one, or uncharged. The numerical findings indicate a distinct solvation behavior with the occurrence of well-pronounced solvation shells whose composition significantly depends on the charge of the solute. All the results of our simulations evidence the existence of a long-range perturbation effect in presence of the solutes. Our findings validate the dominance of electrostatic interactions with regard to unfavorable entropic ordering effects which elucidates the enthalpic character of the solvation process in ionic liquids for charged solutes. PMID:25680082

  7. Mössbauer study of iron-based perovskite-type materials as potential catalysts for ethyl acetate oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneva, D.; Dimitrov, M.; Velinov, N.; Kolev, H.; Kozhukharov, V.; Tsoncheva, T.; Mitov, I.

    2010-03-01

    La-Sr-Fe perovskite-type oxides were prepared by the nitrate-citrate method. The basic object of this study is layered Ruddlesden-Popper phase LaSr3Fe3O10. The phase composition and structural properties of the obtained materials are investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The preliminary catalytic tests show a high potential of these materials for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) elimination as they possess high conversion ability and selectivity to total oxidation of ethyl acetate. Catalytic performance of LaSr3Fe3O10 is depended on the stability of structure and Fe4+-oxidation state.

  8. In-vivo Antioxidant Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Mentha spicata L. on 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide Injected Mice.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Mentha spicata (L.) were evaluated against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide injected mice. For this study, experiment setup consisted of 36 albino mice of either sex divided into 6 groups: Control (25% DMSO in water), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) alone group (80, 160 mg/Kg body weight-bwt), 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt-IP) alone and 4-NQO + EAF. EAF and vehicles were administered orally for five consecutive days. 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally on the 6(th) day. After 24 h, the animals were killed; liver sample was extracted and used for bio-assay. 4-NQO alone treated group decreased (27-60%) the antioxidant activities and promoted lipid peroxidation (LPO-60%) over their respective control values. Pretreatment with EAF, at the maximum dose (160 mg/Kg bwt) brought down the LPO up to 87% enhanced by 4-NQO. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was the most affected enzyme with 4-NQO and the least was catalase (CAT). Pretreatment with EAF (160 mg/Kg bwt), the restoration of antioxidants like glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and CAT were found equal or less than 1.2 fold higher than that of the respective control values whereas, GST was observed to be the most restored antioxidant. Be reduced glutathione (GSH) and the least vitamin C over their control values. EAF restored the GSH and Vitamin E levels were found to be 1.2 fold higher than the respective control values.

  9. Nephroprotective effects of Zingiber zerumbet Smith ethyl acetate extract against paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Budin, Siti Balkis; Wen Jie, Ng; Hamid, Asmah; Husain, Khairana; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol (PCM) overdose can cause nephrotoxicity with oxidative stress as one of the possible mechanisms mediating the event. In this study, the effects of ethyl acetate extract of Zingiber zerumbet rhizome [200 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg) and 400 mg/kg] on PCM-induced nephrotoxicity were examined. Rats were divided into five groups containing 10 rats each. The control group received distilled water while other groups were treated with extract alone (400 mg/kg), PCM alone (750 mg/kg), 750 mg/kg PCM+200 mg/kg extract (PCM+ 200-extract), and 750 mg/kg PCM+400 mg/kg extract (PCM+400-extract), respectively, for seven consecutive days. The Z. zerumbet extract was given intraperitoneally concurrent with oral administration of PCM. Treatment with Z. zerumbet extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg prevented the PCM-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative impairments of the kidney, as evidenced by a significantly reduced (P<0.05) level of plasma creatinine, plasma and renal malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma protein carbonyl, and renal advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP). Furthermore, both doses were also able to induce a significant increment (P<0.05) of plasma and renal levels of glutathione (GSH) and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The nephroprotective effects of Z. zerumbet extract were confirmed by a reduced intensity of renal cellular damage, as evidenced by histological findings. Moreover, Z. zerumbet extract administered at 400 mg/kg was found to show greater protective effects than that at 200 mg/kg. In conclusion, ethyl acetate extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome has a protective role against PCM-induced nephrotoxicity and the process is probably mediated through its antioxidant properties. PMID:22374609

  10. Acetone poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Dimethyl formaldehyde poisoning; Dimethyl ketone poisoning; Nail polish remover poisoning ... Acetone can be found in: Nail polish remover Some cleaning solutions Some glues, including rubber cement Some lacquers Other products may also contain acetone.

  11. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Imamoglu, Husniye; Oktem Olgun, Elmas

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n = 18). The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices. PMID:27293962

  12. Application of acetone acetals as water scavengers and derivatization agents prior to the gas chromatographic analysis of polar residual solvents in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Niels; Wolfs, Kris; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2015-12-18

    The sensitivity of gas chromatography (GC) combined with the full evaporation technique (FET) for the analysis of aqueous samples is limited due to the maximum tolerable sample volume in a headspace vial. Using an acetone acetal as water scavenger prior to FET-GC analysis proved to be a useful and versatile tool for the analysis of high boiling analytes in aqueous samples. 2,2-Dimethoxypropane (DMP) was used in this case resulting in methanol and acetone as reaction products with water. These solvents are relatively volatile and were easily removed by evaporation enabling sample enrichment leading to 10-fold improvement in sensitivity compared to the standard 10μL FET sample volumes for a selection of typical high boiling polar residual solvents in water. This could be improved even further if more sample is used. The method was applied for the determination of residual NMP in an aqueous solution of a cefotaxime analogue and proved to be considerably better than conventional static headspace (sHS) and the standard FET approach. The methodology was also applied to determine trace amounts of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous samples like contact lens fluids, where scavenging of the water would avoid laborious extraction prior to derivatization. During this experiment it was revealed that DMP reacts quantitatively with EG to form 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (2,2-DD) under the proposed reaction conditions. The relatively high volatility (bp 93°C) of 2,2-DD makes it possible to perform analysis of EG using the sHS methodology making additional derivatization reactions superfluous.

  13. CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF 6,6´-DIMETHOXY-GOSSYPOL:ACETIC ACID (1:1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By crystallization from dilute solutions of acetic acid (2-4%) in diethyl ether, acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone, 6,6´-dimethoxy-gossypol forms an inclusion complex with acetic acid in a one-to-one molar ratio. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic P1bar1¯space group and has unit cell dimensio...

  14. Mixtures of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ionic liquid with different inorganic salts: insights into their interactions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Filipe S; Cabrita, Eurico J; Todorovic, Smilja; Bernardes, Carlos E S; Lopes, José N Canongia; Hodgson, Jennifer L; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Rebelo, Luís P N; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2016-01-28

    In this work, we explore the interactions between the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolim acetate and different inorganic salts belonging to two different cation families, those based on ammonium and others based on sodium. NMR and Raman spectroscopy are used to screen for changes in the molecular environment of the ions in the ionic liquid + inorganic salt mixtures as compared to pure ionic liquid. The ion self-diffusion coefficients are determined from NMR data, allowing the discussion of the ionicity values of the ionic liquid + inorganic salt mixtures calculated using different methods. Our data reveal that preferential interactions are established between the ionic liquid and ammonium-based salts, as opposed to sodium-based salts. Computational calculations show the formation of aggregates between the ionic liquid and the inorganic salt, which is consistent with the spectroscopic data, and indicate that the acetate anion of the ionic liquid establishes preferential interactions with the ammonium cation of the inorganic salts, leaving the imidazolium cation less engaged in the media. PMID:26725329

  15. Electrochemical Partial Reforming of Ethanol into Ethyl Acetate Using Ultrathin Co3O4 Nanosheets as a Highly Selective Anode Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical partial reforming of organics provides an alternative strategy to produce valuable organic compounds while generating H2 under mild conditions. In this work, highly selective electrochemical reforming of ethanol into ethyl acetate is successfully achieved by using ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets with exposed (111) facets as an anode catalyst. Those nanosheets were synthesized by a one-pot, templateless hydrothermal method with the use of ammonia. NH3 was demonstrated critical to the overall formation of ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. With abundant active sites on Co3O4 (111), the as-synthesized ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activities toward water and ethanol oxidations in alkaline media. More importantly, over the Co3O4 nanosheets, the electrooxidation from ethanol to ethyl acetate was so selective that no other oxidation products were yielded. With such a high selectivity, an electrolyzer cell using Co3O4 nanosheets as the anode electrocatalyst and Ni–Mo nanopowders as the cathode electrocatalyst has been successfully built for ethanol reforming. The electrolyzer cell was readily driven by a 1.5 V battery to achieve the effective production of both H2 and ethyl acetate. After the bulk electrolysis, about 95% of ethanol was electrochemically reformed into ethyl acetate. This work opens up new opportunities in designing a material system for building unique devices to generate both hydrogen and high-value organics at room temperature by utilizing electric energy from renewable sources.

  16. Electrochemical Partial Reforming of Ethanol into Ethyl Acetate Using Ultrathin Co3O4 Nanosheets as a Highly Selective Anode Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical partial reforming of organics provides an alternative strategy to produce valuable organic compounds while generating H2 under mild conditions. In this work, highly selective electrochemical reforming of ethanol into ethyl acetate is successfully achieved by using ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets with exposed (111) facets as an anode catalyst. Those nanosheets were synthesized by a one-pot, templateless hydrothermal method with the use of ammonia. NH3 was demonstrated critical to the overall formation of ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. With abundant active sites on Co3O4 (111), the as-synthesized ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activities toward water and ethanol oxidations in alkaline media. More importantly, over the Co3O4 nanosheets, the electrooxidation from ethanol to ethyl acetate was so selective that no other oxidation products were yielded. With such a high selectivity, an electrolyzer cell using Co3O4 nanosheets as the anode electrocatalyst and Ni–Mo nanopowders as the cathode electrocatalyst has been successfully built for ethanol reforming. The electrolyzer cell was readily driven by a 1.5 V battery to achieve the effective production of both H2 and ethyl acetate. After the bulk electrolysis, about 95% of ethanol was electrochemically reformed into ethyl acetate. This work opens up new opportunities in designing a material system for building unique devices to generate both hydrogen and high-value organics at room temperature by utilizing electric energy from renewable sources. PMID:27610415

  17. Preparation of Ag-M (M: Fe, Co and Mn)-ZSM-5 bimetal catalysts with high performance for catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Jodaei, A; Salari, D; Niaei, A; Khatamian, M; Caylak, N

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate has been investigated in a series of mono-metal silver and bimetal Ag-M (M: Fe, Co and Mn)-modified HZSM-5 zeolites. The objective was to find a catalyst with high superior activity, selectivity towards deep oxidation product and stability. The catalyst activity was measured under excess oxygen condition in a fixed bed reactor operated at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) = 30000 h(-1), reaction temperature between 150 and 450 degrees C and ethyl acetate inlet concentration of 1000 ppm. Both Fe-Ag-ZSM-5 and Co-Ag-ZSM-5 catalysts exhibited high activity in the oxidation of ethyl acetate. The sequences of catalytic activity and catalytic stability were as follows: Fe-Ag-ZSM-5 > Co-Ag-ZSM-5 > Mn-Ag-ZSM-5 > Ag-ZSM-5 > HZSM-5. Total conversion of ethyl acetate was achieved at above 250 degrees C. The catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  18. Electrochemical Partial Reforming of Ethanol into Ethyl Acetate Using Ultrathin Co3O4 Nanosheets as a Highly Selective Anode Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Qin, Qing; Zhao, Xiaojing; Xu, Chaofa; Hu, Chengyi; Mo, Shiguang; Wang, Yu Olivia; Lin, Shuichao; Tang, Zichao; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-08-24

    Electrochemical partial reforming of organics provides an alternative strategy to produce valuable organic compounds while generating H2 under mild conditions. In this work, highly selective electrochemical reforming of ethanol into ethyl acetate is successfully achieved by using ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets with exposed (111) facets as an anode catalyst. Those nanosheets were synthesized by a one-pot, templateless hydrothermal method with the use of ammonia. NH3 was demonstrated critical to the overall formation of ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. With abundant active sites on Co3O4 (111), the as-synthesized ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activities toward water and ethanol oxidations in alkaline media. More importantly, over the Co3O4 nanosheets, the electrooxidation from ethanol to ethyl acetate was so selective that no other oxidation products were yielded. With such a high selectivity, an electrolyzer cell using Co3O4 nanosheets as the anode electrocatalyst and Ni-Mo nanopowders as the cathode electrocatalyst has been successfully built for ethanol reforming. The electrolyzer cell was readily driven by a 1.5 V battery to achieve the effective production of both H2 and ethyl acetate. After the bulk electrolysis, about 95% of ethanol was electrochemically reformed into ethyl acetate. This work opens up new opportunities in designing a material system for building unique devices to generate both hydrogen and high-value organics at room temperature by utilizing electric energy from renewable sources. PMID:27610415

  19. Diffusion of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate in glucose, cellobiose, and cellulose solutions.

    PubMed

    Ries, Michael E; Radhi, Asanah; Keating, Alice S; Parker, Owen; Budtova, Tatiana

    2014-02-10

    Solutions of glucose, cellobiose and microcrystalline cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([C2mim][OAc]) have been examined using pulsed-field gradient (1)H NMR. Diffusion coefficients of the cation and anion across the temperature range 20-70 °C have been determined for a range of concentrations (0-15% w/w) of each carbohydrate in [C2mim][OAc]. These systems behave as an "ideal mixture" of free ions and ions that are associated with the carbohydrate molecules. The molar ratio of carbohydrate OH groups to ionic liquid molecules, α, is the key parameter in determining the diffusion coefficients of the ions. Master curves for the diffusion coefficients of cation, anion and their activation energies are generated upon which all our data collapses when plotted against α. Diffusion coefficients are found to follow an Arrhenius type behavior and the difference in translational activation energy between free and associated ions is determined to be 9.3 ± 0.9 kJ/mol. PMID:24405090

  20. Diffusion of 1-Ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Acetate in Glucose, Cellobiose, and Cellulose Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Solutions of glucose, cellobiose and microcrystalline cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([C2mim][OAc]) have been examined using pulsed-field gradient 1H NMR. Diffusion coefficients of the cation and anion across the temperature range 20–70 °C have been determined for a range of concentrations (0–15% w/w) of each carbohydrate in [C2mim][OAc]. These systems behave as an “ideal mixture” of free ions and ions that are associated with the carbohydrate molecules. The molar ratio of carbohydrate OH groups to ionic liquid molecules, α, is the key parameter in determining the diffusion coefficients of the ions. Master curves for the diffusion coefficients of cation, anion and their activation energies are generated upon which all our data collapses when plotted against α. Diffusion coefficients are found to follow an Arrhenius type behavior and the difference in translational activation energy between free and associated ions is determined to be 9.3 ± 0.9 kJ/mol. PMID:24405090

  1. An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-02-18

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  2. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Pankla Sranujit, Rungnapa; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

  3. Identification of Neuroactive Constituents of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Cyperi Rhizoma Using Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Yeomoon; Choi, Jin Gyu; Gu, Pil Sung; Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kang, Insug; Jang, Dae Sik; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-01-01

    Cyperi Rhizoma (CR), the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L., exhibits neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal diseases. Nevertheless, no study has aimed at finding the neuroactive constituent(s) of CR. In this study, we identified active compounds in a CR extract (CRE) using bioactivity-guided fractionation. We first compared the anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities of four fractions and the CRE total extract. Only the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction revealed strong activity, and further isolation from the bioactive EA fraction yielded nine constituents: scirpusin A (1), scirpusin B (2), luteolin (3), 6′-acetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (4), 4′,6′ diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (5), p-coumaric acid (6), ferulic acid (7), pinellic acid (8), and fulgidic acid (9). The activities of constituents 1–9 were assessed in terms of anti-oxidative, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-amyloid-β activities. Constituents 1, 2, and 3 exhibited strong activities; constituents 1 and 2 were characterized for the first time in this study. These results provide evidence for the value of CRE as a source of multi-functional neuroprotectants, and constituents 1 and 2 may represent new candidates for further development in therapeutic use against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27350341

  4. Ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract-loaded chitosan-based hydrogel film for wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mohammad A; Khatoon, Fehmeeda; Rizvi, Moshahid A; Zafaryab, Md

    2015-01-01

    High toxicity and multidrug resistance associated with various standard antimicrobial drugs have necessitated search for safer alternatives in plant-derived materials. In this study, we performed biological examination of chitosan-based hydrogel film loaded with ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract against 11 standard laboratory strains. FTIR showed regeneration of saccharide peak in CP1A at 1047 cm(-1) and increased in height of other peaks. DSC exothermic decomposition peaks at 112 °C, 175 °C and 251 °C reveal the effect of extract on hydrogel film. From FESEM images, three-dimensional cross-linking and extract easily seen in the globular form from the surface. MTT assay on HEK 293 cells showed that CP1A was non-toxic. Minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 4000 μg/ml to 125 μg/ml. Enterococcus faecium, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis were the most resistant, while Salmonella typhi and Candida guilliermondii were the most susceptible micro-organisms.

  5. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent. PMID:25915032

  6. Protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum against ultraviolet B-irradiated damage in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei Jing; Yoon, Weon Jong; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Kim, Dong Sam; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cell damage in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). SME exhibited scavenging activity toward the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). SME also scavenged the hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO(4) + H(2)O(2)), which was detected using electron spin resonance spectrometry. In addition, SME decreased the level of lipid peroxidation that was increased by UVB radiation, and restored the level of protein expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes that were decreased by UVB radiation. Furthermore, SME reduced UVB-induced apoptosis as shown by decreased DNA fragmentation and numbers of apoptotic bodies. These results suggest that SME protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant activity in cells, thereby inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:22174656

  7. [Comparison of protective effects of eight ethyl acetate extracts from Eclipta prostrate on NHBE cells based on component structure theory].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shu-Min; Liu, Dan; Feng, Liang; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-08-01

    To analyze and compare the protective effects of active components in different ethyl acetate extracts (EAEEPs) from Eclipta prostrate, in order to study the comparison of materials bases protecting normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. The MTT assay was taken to compare the protective effect of different EAEEPs on cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) -induced NHBE cells. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was applied to analyze the content of phenolic acid, coumaric grass ether and flavonoid in EAEEPs. According to the results, all of the eight EAEEPs (0-200 mg x L(-1)) showed certain protective effect on NHBE cells, with statistical difference. Specifically, the total mass of EAEEP VII (89.15 mg x L(-1)) and EAEEP VIII (57.44 mg x L(-1)), which showed the strongest activity, was not the highest, while EAEEP III (132.25 mg x L(-1)) displayed the highest total mass. In the combination with the "component structure" theory, the analysis showed a significant difference in the mass structure among phenolic acid, coumaric grass ether and flavonoid in EAEEP VIII and EAEEP VIII, which were 1.0: 1. 0: 0.5 and 1.0: 1.9: 0.8, respectively. The results suggested a specific optimal "component structure" relationship may exist in EAEEP, which could provide reference for the material base study and quality control.

  8. An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

  9. Characteristics of starch-based films with different amylose contents plasticised by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fengwei; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Li, Ming; Truss, Rowan W; Halley, Peter J; Gidley, Michael J; McNally, Tony; Shamshina, Julia L; Rogers, Robin D

    2015-05-20

    Starch-based films plasticised by an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]), were prepared by a simple compression moulding process, facilitated by the strong plasticisation effect of [Emim][OAc]. The effects of amylose content of starch (regular vs. high-amylose maize) and relative humidity (RH) during ageing of the samples on a range of structural and material characteristics were investigated. Surprisingly, plasticisation by [Emim][OAc] made the effect of amylose content insignificant, contrary to most previous studies when other plasticisers were used. In other words, [Emim][OAc] changed the underlying mechanism responsible for mechanical properties from the entanglement of starch macromolecules (mainly amylose), which has been reported as a main responsible factor previously. The crystallinity of the plasticised starch samples was low and thus was unlikely to have a major contribution to the material characteristics, although the amylose content impacted on the crystalline structure and the mobility of amorphous parts in the samples to some extent. Therefore, RH conditioning and thus the sample water content was the major factor influencing the mechanical properties, glass transition temperature, and electrical conductivity of the starch films. This suggests the potential application of ionic liquid-plasticised starch materials in areas where the control of properties by environmental RH is desired.

  10. Determination of glucose and cellobiose dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Johannes; Obert, Katharina; Fries, Jürgen; Bösmann, Andreas; Wasserscheid, Peter; Leipertz, Alfred

    2009-09-01

    The conversion of biogenic carbohydrate feedstock to chemicals or energy equivalents is a promising approach to solve the problem of limited fossil fuel reserves. Some concepts to accomplish these transformations are based on ionic liquids (ILs) due to their ability to dissolve biopolymers, such as cellulose, and even complex biopolymer mixtures, such as wood. However, concerning control of such conversions, a reliable tool for process analytics is required. In this paper we demonstrate the applicability of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to perform quantitative concentration measurements of glucose and cellobiose as two examples of carbohydrates dissolved in the room-temperature ionic liquid [EMIM][OAc] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate). For this purpose, binary mixtures in the range 0-20 wt% have been studied. A previously developed method for the data analysis, which was based on the Beer-Lambert relation, has been universalized by employing empirical correlations between the measured quantity (i.e., extinction) and the carbohydrate concentration. In the entire spectral range under investigation (500-4000 cm(-1)) numerous individual wave-numbers have been identified, allowing quantitative measurements with high accuracy and precision.

  11. (N,N'-Di-ethyl-thio-urea-κS)tris-(triphenylphosphane-κP)silver(I) acetate methanol monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Wattanakanjana, Yupa; Nimthong, Arunpatcha; Kamrod, Chanakan

    2014-06-01

    In the mononuclear title complex, [Ag(C5H12N2S)(C18H15P)3](CH3COO)·CH3OH, the Ag(I) ion is in a distorted tetra-hedral coordination geometry formed by three P atoms from three tri-phenyl-phosphane ligands and one S atom from an N,N'-di-ethyl-thio-urea ligand. In the crystal, the acetate anion is connected to the complex mol-ecule via a pair of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds [graph-set motif R (2) 2(8)] and the solvent methanol mol-ecule is connected to the anion via an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. This aggregate is further connected through a weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bond, forming a chain along [100]. In addition, sixfold phenyl embraces with inter-molecular distances of 6.6463 (13)-6.667 (2) Å are arranged in a chain along [001]. The combination of hydrogen bonding and phen-yl⋯phenyl inter-actions leads to the formation of a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). PMID:24940203

  12. Characteristics of starch-based films with different amylose contents plasticised by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fengwei; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Li, Ming; Truss, Rowan W; Halley, Peter J; Gidley, Michael J; McNally, Tony; Shamshina, Julia L; Rogers, Robin D

    2015-05-20

    Starch-based films plasticised by an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]), were prepared by a simple compression moulding process, facilitated by the strong plasticisation effect of [Emim][OAc]. The effects of amylose content of starch (regular vs. high-amylose maize) and relative humidity (RH) during ageing of the samples on a range of structural and material characteristics were investigated. Surprisingly, plasticisation by [Emim][OAc] made the effect of amylose content insignificant, contrary to most previous studies when other plasticisers were used. In other words, [Emim][OAc] changed the underlying mechanism responsible for mechanical properties from the entanglement of starch macromolecules (mainly amylose), which has been reported as a main responsible factor previously. The crystallinity of the plasticised starch samples was low and thus was unlikely to have a major contribution to the material characteristics, although the amylose content impacted on the crystalline structure and the mobility of amorphous parts in the samples to some extent. Therefore, RH conditioning and thus the sample water content was the major factor influencing the mechanical properties, glass transition temperature, and electrical conductivity of the starch films. This suggests the potential application of ionic liquid-plasticised starch materials in areas where the control of properties by environmental RH is desired. PMID:25817655

  13. Identification of Neuroactive Constituents of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Cyperi Rhizoma Using Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yeomoon; Choi, Jin Gyu; Gu, Pil Sung; Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kang, Insug; Jang, Dae Sik; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-07-01

    Cyperi Rhizoma (CR), the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L., exhibits neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal diseases. Nevertheless, no study has aimed at finding the neuroactive constituent(s) of CR. In this study, we identified active compounds in a CR extract (CRE) using bioactivity-guided fractionation. We first compared the anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities of four fractions and the CRE total extract. Only the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction revealed strong activity, and further isolation from the bioactive EA fraction yielded nine constituents: scirpusin A (1), scirpusin B (2), luteolin (3), 6'-acetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (4), 4',6' diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (5), p-coumaric acid (6), ferulic acid (7), pinellic acid (8), and fulgidic acid (9). The activities of constituents 1-9 were assessed in terms of anti-oxidative, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-amyloid-β activities. Constituents 1, 2, and 3 exhibited strong activities; constituents 1 and 2 were characterized for the first time in this study. These results provide evidence for the value of CRE as a source of multi-functional neuroprotectants, and constituents 1 and 2 may represent new candidates for further development in therapeutic use against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27350341

  14. Ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract-loaded chitosan-based hydrogel film for wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mohammad A; Khatoon, Fehmeeda; Rizvi, Moshahid A; Zafaryab, Md

    2015-01-01

    High toxicity and multidrug resistance associated with various standard antimicrobial drugs have necessitated search for safer alternatives in plant-derived materials. In this study, we performed biological examination of chitosan-based hydrogel film loaded with ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract against 11 standard laboratory strains. FTIR showed regeneration of saccharide peak in CP1A at 1047 cm(-1) and increased in height of other peaks. DSC exothermic decomposition peaks at 112 °C, 175 °C and 251 °C reveal the effect of extract on hydrogel film. From FESEM images, three-dimensional cross-linking and extract easily seen in the globular form from the surface. MTT assay on HEK 293 cells showed that CP1A was non-toxic. Minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 4000 μg/ml to 125 μg/ml. Enterococcus faecium, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis were the most resistant, while Salmonella typhi and Candida guilliermondii were the most susceptible micro-organisms. PMID:26525493

  15. Healing mechanisms of the hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) on chronic gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Borato, Débora Gasparin; Scoparo, Camila Toledo; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luísa Mota; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Iacomini, Marcello; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2016-03-01

    Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity.

  16. Comparison of Kato-Katz, ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep® in the diagnosis of hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris infections in the context of an evaluation of rural sanitation in India.

    PubMed

    Funk, Anna L; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2013-06-01

    The Kato-Katz, conventional ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep(®) methods for diagnosing infection with soil-transmitted helminths were compared. The Kato-Katz technique gave the best overall diagnostic performance with the highest results in all measures (prevalence, faecal egg count, sensitivity) followed by the conventional ethyl-acetate and then the Midi Parasep(®) technique. The Kato-Katz technique showed a significantly higher faecal egg count and sensitivity for both hookworm and Trichuris as compared to the Midi Parasep(®) technique. The conventional ethyl-acetate technique produced smaller pellets and showed lower pellet mobility as compared to the Midi Parasep(®).

  17. Electronic state spectroscopy by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of ethyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmialek, Malgorzata A.; Łabuda, Marta; Guthmuller, Julien; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Delwiche, Jacques; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    The high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of ethyl acetate, C4H8O2, is presented over the energy range 4.5-10.7 eV (275.5-116.0 nm). Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series observed in the photoabsorption spectrum, have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Also, the photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of this ester in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km). Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionisation energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of ethyl acetate and are compared with a newly recorded photoelectron spectrum (from 9.5 to 16.7 eV). Vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band of this molecule for the first time.

  18. Leea indica Ethyl Acetate Fraction Induces Growth-Inhibitory Effect in Various Cancer Cell Lines and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yau Hsiung, Wong; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2011-01-01

    The anticancer potential of Leea indica, a Chinese medicinal plant was investigated for the first time. The crude ethanol extract and fractions (ethyl acetate, hexane, and water) of Leea indica were evaluated their cytotoxicity on various cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF 7, MDA-MB-435, KB, HEP G2, WRL 68, and Vero) by MTT assay. Leea indica ethyl acetate fraction (LIEAF) was found showing the greatest cytotoxic effect against Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in LIEAF-treated cells. Early signs of apoptosis such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated apoptosis induction. This was further substantiated by dose- and time-dependent accumulation of sub-G1 cells, depletion of intracellular glutathione, and activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggested that LIEAF inhibited cervical cancer cells growth by inducing apoptosis and could be developed as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:21423690

  19. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) inhibition and anti-inflammation activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the anti-cancer properties of soil-borne actinobacteria, MJM 8637, the glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) assay, anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α assay, the level of antioxidant potential by DPPH radical scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, and ABTS radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate extract were determined. The 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637, which was isolated from Hambak Mountain, Korea, has 99.5% similarity to Streptomyces atratus strain NBRC 3897. The physiological and the morphological characteristics of the strain MJM 8637 were also identified. The ethyl acetate extract of MJM 8637 inhibited TNF-α production approximately 61.8% at concentration 100 μg/ml. The IC50 value of the strain MJM 8637 extract on GST-pi was identified to be 120.2 ± 1.6 μg/ml. In DPPH, NO, and ABTS radical scavenging assays, the IC50 values of the strain MJM 8637 extract were found to be 977.2 μg/ml, 1143.7 μg/ml, and 454.4 μg/ml, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of the strain MJM 8637 showed 97.2 ± 1.3% of cell viability at 100 μg/ml in RAW 264.7 cell viability assay. The results obtained from this study suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637 could be considered as a potential source of drug for the cancers that have multidrug resistance with its GST-pi inhibition and anti-inflammation activities, and low cytotoxicity.

  20. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) inhibition and anti-inflammation activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the anti-cancer properties of soil-borne actinobacteria, MJM 8637, the glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) assay, anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α assay, the level of antioxidant potential by DPPH radical scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, and ABTS radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate extract were determined. The 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637, which was isolated from Hambak Mountain, Korea, has 99.5% similarity to Streptomyces atratus strain NBRC 3897. The physiological and the morphological characteristics of the strain MJM 8637 were also identified. The ethyl acetate extract of MJM 8637 inhibited TNF-α production approximately 61.8% at concentration 100 μg/ml. The IC50 value of the strain MJM 8637 extract on GST-pi was identified to be 120.2 ± 1.6 μg/ml. In DPPH, NO, and ABTS radical scavenging assays, the IC50 values of the strain MJM 8637 extract were found to be 977.2 μg/ml, 1143.7 μg/ml, and 454.4 μg/ml, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of the strain MJM 8637 showed 97.2 ± 1.3% of cell viability at 100 μg/ml in RAW 264.7 cell viability assay. The results obtained from this study suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637 could be considered as a potential source of drug for the cancers that have multidrug resistance with its GST-pi inhibition and anti-inflammation activities, and low cytotoxicity. PMID:26587003

  1. Inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extract of the shaggy inc cap medicinal mushroom, Coprinus comatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) fruit bodies on cell growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rouhana-Toubi, Amal; Wasser, Solomon P; Agbarya, Abed; Fares, Fuad

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we screened organic extracts of different mushroom mycelia and picked ethyl acetate extract of Coprinus comatus as one of the most active extracts against human ovarian cancer cells. In the current study, we extracted a dry powder of C. comatus fruit bodies using ethyl acetate and examined its effect on the viability of three cell lines originated from human ovarian cancer (ES-2, SKOV-3, and SW-626). This extract was active against all tested cell lines, in a dose-dependent manner (concentrations 50-200 µg/mL, P<0.01). In an attempt to segregate the active fraction, we subjected the extract to chromatography on a silica gel column. The effect of six different fractions and of the crude extract on the viability of ES-2 cells was examined after exposure time of 24 h. Fraction F (last eluted) was significantly more effective than crude extract in the reduction of cell viability (P<0.01). Fraction F was also significantly more active than crude extract in the reduction of viability of SKOV-3 cells. We next identified some of the compounds of fraction F (mainly fatty acids) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In summary, ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus reduced viability of three lines of human ovarian cancer. Fractionation of this extract by a silica gel column enabled the selection of a fraction significantly more active than the original extract. PMID:24266371

  2. Oxidation of ethyl acetate by a high performance nanostructure (Ni, Mn)-Ag/ZSM-5 bimetallic catalysts and development of an artificial neural networks predictive modeling.

    PubMed

    Jodaei, Azadeh; Salari, Darush; Niaei, Ali; Khatamian, Masumeh; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate in low concentration was investigated over mono-metallic Ag/ZSM5 and bimetallic (Ni, Mn)-Ag/ZSM-5 catalysts. Catalytic studies were carried out in a catalytic fixed bed reactor under atmospheric pressure. The sequence of catalytic activity was as follows: Ni-Ag-ZSM-5 > Mn-Ag-ZSM-5 > Ag-ZSM-5 > H-ZSM-5. The catalysts were characterized by ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD), low temperature nitrogen adsorption, NH(3)-TPD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectra (UV-vis). An artificial neural networks (ANN) model was developed to predict the performance of catalytic oxidation process over bimetallic Ni-Ag/ZSM-5 catalyst based on experimental data. For this purpose the standard feed forward back propagation algorithm was employed to train the model by using laboratory experimental data. A good agreement was resulted between experimental results and those obtained by ANN. Following order for variables effects on conversion yield of ethyl acetate was predicted by ANN model: reaction temperature (32.99%) > Ag loading (27.38%) > initial ethyl acetate concentration (23.58%) > Ni loading (16.05%). PMID:21104495

  3. Harpagophytum Procumbens Ethyl Acetate Fraction Reduces Fluphenazine-Induced Vacuous Chewing Movements and Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Larissa Finger; de Freitas, Catiuscia Molz; Chiapinotto Ceretta, Ana Paula; Peroza, Luis Ricardo; de Moraes Reis, Elizete; Krum, Bárbara Nunes; Busanello, Alcindo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Wagner, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Long-term treatment with fluphenazine is associated with manifestation of extrapyramidal side effects, such as tardive dyskinesia. The molecular mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of TD remain unclear, and several hypotheses, including a role for oxidative stress, have been proposed. Harpagophytum procumbens is an herbal medicine used mainly due to anti-inflammatory effects, but it also exhibits antioxidant effects. We investigated the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of H. procumbens (EAF HP) in fluphenazine-induced orofacial dyskinesia by evaluating behavioral parameters at different times (vacuous chewing movements (VCM's) and locomotor and exploratory activity), biochemical serological analyses, and biochemical markers of oxidative stress of the liver, kidney, cortex, and striatum. Chronic administration of fluphenazine (25 mg/kg, intramuscular (i.m) significantly increased the VCMs at all analyzed times (2, 7, 14, and 21 days), and this was inhibited by EAF HP (especially at a dose of 30 mg/kg). Fluphenazine decreased locomotion and exploratory activity, and EAF HP did not improve this decrease. Fluphenazine induced oxidative damage, as identified by changes in catalase activity and ROS levels in the cortex and striatum, which was reduced by EAF HP, especially in the striatum. In the cortex, EAF HP was protective against fluphenazine-induced changes in catalase activity but not against the increase in ROS level. Furthermore, EAF HP was shown to be safe, since affected serum biochemical parameters or parameters of oxidative stress in the liver and kidney. These findings suggest that the H. procumbens is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of involuntary oral movements. PMID:26732278

  4. Activation of apoptosis by ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Dianthus superbus in HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Qing; Yin, Yan; Lei, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiu-Qiao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Cheng-Li; Wu, Shan; He, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yan-Wen; Zou, Guo-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Dianthus superbus L. is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine. We recently showed that ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from ethanol extract of D. superbus exhibited the strongest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. In this study, we examined apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS, and the mechanism underlying apoptosis was also investigated. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EE-DS (20-80 μg/ml) for 48 h led to a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase by analysis of the content of DNA in cells, and a large number of apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments were observed in cells treated with 80 μg/ml of EE-DS for 24 h by using Hoechst 33258 staining. These data show that EE-DS can induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that EE-DS significantly suppressed the expressions of Bcl-2 and NF-κB. Treatment of cells with EE-DS (80 μg/ml) for 48 h resulted in significant increase of cytochrome c in the cytosol, which indicated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 were also determined when the cells treated with EE-DS. The results suggest that apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS could be through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data showed that the composition of EE-DS is complicated. Further studies are needed to find the effective constituents of EE-DS.

  5. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy. PMID:27219840

  6. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yong-Han; Chao, Wen-Wan; Chen, Miaw-Ling; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA). The cytokine profile and life span of BALB/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of 15 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory mice were negatively correlated with serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta at 9 hr after LPS-injection, which indicated that suppressing these cytokines in the late phase of inflammation may be beneficial for survival. The in vitro experiment then showed that ASEA significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1beta production and the NF-kappaB trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ASEA in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 25 mg ASEA/kg BW/day in 50 microl sunflower oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent) groups were tube-fed with 50 microl sunflower oil/day only. After one week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50 mg/kg BW PDTC and one hour later, all of the mice were injected with 15 mg/kg BW LPS. The results showed that the ASEA and PDTC groups had significantly lower serum TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta levels at 9 hr after LPS challenge, and significantly higher survival rates than the control group. This study suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards. PMID:19594948

  7. Different characteristic effects of ageing on starch-based films plasticised by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and by glycerol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binjia; Xie, Fengwei; Zhang, Tianlong; Chen, Ling; Li, Xiaoxi; Truss, Rowan W; Halley, Peter J; Shamshina, Julia L; McNally, Tony; Rogers, Robin D

    2016-08-01

    The focus of this study was on the effects of plasticisers (the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, or [Emim][OAc]; and glycerol) on the changes of starch structure on multiple length scales, and the variation in properties of plasticised starch-based films, during ageing. The films were prepared by a simple melt compression moulding process, followed by storage at different relative humidity (RH) environments. Compared with glycerol, [Emim][OAc] could result in greater homogeneity in [Emim][OAc]-plasticised starch-based films (no gel-like aggregates and less molecular order (crystallites) on the nano-scale). Besides, much weaker starch-starch interactions but stronger starch-[Emim][OAc] interactions at the molecular level led to reduced strength and stiffness but increased flexibility of the films. More importantly, [Emim][OAc] (especially at high content) was revealed to more effectively maintain the plasticised state during ageing than glycerol: the densification (especially in the amorphous regions) was suppressed; and the structural characteristics especially on the nano-scale were stabilised (especially at a high RH), presumably due to the suppressed starch molecular interactions by [Emim][OAc] as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Such behaviour contributed to stabilised mechanical properties. Nonetheless, the crystallinity and thermal stability of starch-based films with both plasticisers were much less affected by ageing and moisture uptake during storage (42 days), but mostly depended on the plasticiser type and content. As starch is a typical semi-crystalline bio-polymer containing abundant hydroxyl groups and strong hydrogen bonding, the findings here could also be significant in creating materials from other similar biopolymers with tailored sensitivity and properties to the environment. PMID:27112852

  8. Modification and re-validation of the ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for pesticides in produce

    PubMed Central

    Rooseboom, Astrid; van Dam, Ruud; Roding, Marleen; Arondeus, Karin; Sunarto, Suryati

    2007-01-01

    The ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in produce has been modified for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis by implementation of dispersive solid-phase extraction (using primary–secondary amine and graphitized carbon black) and large-volume (20 μL) injection. The same extract, before clean-up and after a change of solvent, was also analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS). All aspects related to sample preparation were re-assessed with regard to ease and speed of the analysis. The principle of the extraction procedure (solvent, salt) was not changed, to avoid the possibility invalidating data acquired over past decades. The modifications were made with techniques currently commonly applied in routine laboratories, GC–MS and LC–MS–MS, in mind. The modified method enables processing (from homogenization until final extracts for both GC and LC) of 30 samples per eight hours per person. Limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.01 mg kg−1 were achieved with both GC–MS (full-scan acquisition, 10 mg matrix equivalent injected) and LC–MS–MS (2 mg injected) for most of the pesticides. Validation data for 341 pesticides and degradation products are presented. A compilation of analytical quality-control data for pesticides routinely analyzed by GC–MS (135 compounds) and LC–MS–MS (136 compounds) in over 100 different matrices, obtained over a period of 15 months, are also presented and discussed. At the 0.05 mg kg−1 level acceptable recoveries were obtained for 93% (GC–MS) and 92% (LC–MS–MS) of pesticide–matrix combinations. PMID:17563885

  9. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Marina Suênia de Araújo; de Souza, Graziene Lopes; Vilar, Daniela de Araújo; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Nogueira, Fernando Henrique Andrade; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra; Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly de Lima

    2016-01-01

    The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc) of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%), Indomethacin (10 mg/kg), Bradykinin (6 nmol) and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg) at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o.) for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p.) for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase. PMID:27548136

  10. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy.

  11. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-[2-(4-methyl-benzo-yl)-5-p-tolyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl]acetate.

    PubMed

    Prabha, E Arockia Jeya Yasmi; Kumar, S Suresh; Padala, Anil K; Ahmed, Qazi Naveed; Athimoolam, S

    2016-03-01

    In the title compound, C22H22N2O3, the plane of the five-membered ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 45.4 (1) and 52.5 (1)° to the phenyl rings. Furthermore, this ring makes an angle of 85.2 (2)° with the plane of the ethyl acetate substituent. The mol-ecular structure is affected by an intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond between an H atom from the p-tolyl group and the carbonyl O atom of the acetate. The methyl group of the ethyl acetate residue is disordered over two sites with equal occupancies. The crystal structure features inter-molecular C-H⋯O and C-H⋯N inter-actions. One of the C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forms a C(5) chain motif extending along the a axis. In addition, C-H⋯N contacts form inversion dimers with R 2 (2)(12) ring motifs, linking the imidazole ring system to the benzene ring of the p-tolyl substituent. PMID:27006805

  12. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-[2-(4-methyl­benzo­yl)-5-p-tolyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl]acetate

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, E. Arockia Jeya Yasmi; Kumar, S. Suresh; Padala, Anil K.; Ahmed, Qazi Naveed; Athimoolam, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C22H22N2O3, the plane of the five-membered ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 45.4 (1) and 52.5 (1)° to the phenyl rings. Furthermore, this ring makes an angle of 85.2 (2)° with the plane of the ethyl acetate substituent. The mol­ecular structure is affected by an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond between an H atom from the p-tolyl group and the carbonyl O atom of the acetate. The methyl group of the ethyl acetate residue is disordered over two sites with equal occupancies. The crystal structure features inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N inter­actions. One of the C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds forms a C(5) chain motif extending along the a axis. In addition, C—H⋯N contacts form inversion dimers with R 2 2(12) ring motifs, linking the imidazole ring system to the benzene ring of the p-tolyl substituent. PMID:27006805

  13. Effect of total hydroalcholic extract of Nigella sativa and its n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions on ACHN and GP-293 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Samira; Khajavirad, Abolfazl; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Tabasi, Nafisa Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are noted for their many advantages including the ability to treat diseases such as cancer. In this study, we examined the antitumor effect of the medicinal plant Nigella sativa on the morphology, survival, and apoptosis of ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma) and GP-293 (normal renal epithelial) cell lines. From a hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were extracted. Cells were treated with various concentrations of total hydroalcholic extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions; cell viability, morphological changes, and apoptosis were then determined. Results were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the statistical analysis of the data. The total extract and the fractions in a dose- and time-dependent manner reduced the cell viability in ACHN with no effect on the GP-293 cell line. In addition, the total extract resulted in more morphological changes in the ACHN cells compared to the GP-293 cells. The effect of the total extract in inducing apoptosis after 48 hours in the ACHN cell line was greater than in GP-293. In addition, the effect of the two fractions was lower than the total extract at all used concentrations. Therefore, the effect of total extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of N. sativa on cell viability and apoptosis in the ACHN cell line is greater than in the GP-293 cell line. However, the effect of the total extract is higher than either of the two fractions on their own. PMID:26870685

  14. Effect of total hydroalcholic extract of Nigella sativa and its n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions on ACHN and GP-293 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Samira; Khajavirad, Abolfazl; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Tabasi, Nafisa Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are noted for their many advantages including the ability to treat diseases such as cancer. In this study, we examined the antitumor effect of the medicinal plant Nigella sativa on the morphology, survival, and apoptosis of ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma) and GP-293 (normal renal epithelial) cell lines. From a hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were extracted. Cells were treated with various concentrations of total hydroalcholic extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions; cell viability, morphological changes, and apoptosis were then determined. Results were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the statistical analysis of the data. The total extract and the fractions in a dose- and time-dependent manner reduced the cell viability in ACHN with no effect on the GP-293 cell line. In addition, the total extract resulted in more morphological changes in the ACHN cells compared to the GP-293 cells. The effect of the total extract in inducing apoptosis after 48 hours in the ACHN cell line was greater than in GP-293. In addition, the effect of the two fractions was lower than the total extract at all used concentrations. Therefore, the effect of total extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of N. sativa on cell viability and apoptosis in the ACHN cell line is greater than in the GP-293 cell line. However, the effect of the total extract is higher than either of the two fractions on their own. PMID:26870685

  15. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun-lan; Zhang, Jiali; Min, Dong; Hongyan, Zhou; Lin, Niu; Li, Qing-shan

    2016-01-01

    Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ) with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (p<0.01) at 125 μmol/L. HepG2 cells treated with the fraction and DMQ visualized morphologically using light and fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V—fluorescein isothiocyanate / propidium iodide staining flow cytometry, DNA ladder and cell cycle distribution assays. Mechanistic studies showed up-regulation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 proteases activities (p<0.001), indicating involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species in DMQ and the fraction treated HepG2 cells increased (p<0.01) while mitochondrial membrane potential reduced significantly (p<0.001) compared to the control by flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis showed that Bax, p53, Fas, FasL, p21 and cytoplasmic cytochrome C were up-regulated (p<0.01), while Bcl-2, mitochondrial cytochrome C, cyclin E and CDK 2 were down-regulated dose-dependently (p<0.01). The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax increased (p<0.001) while that of Bcl-2 decreased (p<0.001). Pre-treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, attenuated the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of DMQ and the fraction

  16. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm fruit pulp fixed ethyl acetate extract on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Bezerra; de Araújo, Joana Cláudia Bezerra; Pereira, Anamaria Falcão; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro; Gondim, Delane Viana; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Vale, Mariana Lima

    2015-11-01

    The ethyl acetate extract from the fruit pulp of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm (Caryocaraceae), popularly known as pequi, has wide applications in popular medicine. Preclinical tests have demonstrated the therapeutic properties of the oil. We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Pequi C. coriaceum Wittm ethyl acetate extract (PCCO) on zymosan-induced arthritis in rat knee joint. The animals were pretreated with PCCO for 7 consecutive days or with a single dose. Paw elevation time (PET), leukocyte infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and cytokine levels were assessed 4h after zymosan injection. Synovial tissue was harvested for immunohistochemical analysis, edema and vascular permeability. We observed a significant decrease in PET with PCCO pretreatment. PCCO showed a significant reduction of leukocyte migration and a decrease in MPO. Decreases were observed in cytokine release in the synovial fluid and TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-1 immunostaining in synovial tissue. Edema was inhibited by treatment with all doses of PCCO. The data suggest that PCCO exerts antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on arthritis in rats.

  17. Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom ethyl acetate extract protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating kinase phosphorylation in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji-Su; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model. PMID:26726030

  18. Antibacterial efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract on experimental Escherichia coli (O78) infection in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.; Tijjani, M. B.; Gambo, H. I.; Gulani, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was desingned to examine the efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of aqueous extracted Psidium guajava leaves on chicks experimentally-infected with diarrheagenic strain of Escherichia coli O78. Methods: A total of 60 ISA brown male chicks were randomly divided into 6 Groups of ten chicks each in separate cages. Group A was not infected and not treated. Groups B, C and D were infected and treated with extracts at a dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively for 10 days. Group E was infected and treated with oxytetracycline while Group F was infected, but left untreated. Chicks from all groups were closely monitored for clinical signs, body weight change and fecal bacterial shedding load during the course of the experiment. Results: Diarrhea, vents pasted with feces, drop in feed intake accompanied by slow weight gain and decreased activity was observed in infected untreated groups. Groups treated with graded doses of the extract experienced a dose-dependent decreased in severity of the clinical signs shown compared to the infected untreated group. Bacterial shedding load was found to be lower in groups treated with the extract and oxytetracycline than those without intervention. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate soluble fraction of leaf extract of Psidium guajava effectively controlled diarrhea and decreased the severity of other clinical signs caused by experimental E. coli infections in chicks. PMID:27047097

  19. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm fruit pulp fixed ethyl acetate extract on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Bezerra; de Araújo, Joana Cláudia Bezerra; Pereira, Anamaria Falcão; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro; Gondim, Delane Viana; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Vale, Mariana Lima

    2015-11-01

    The ethyl acetate extract from the fruit pulp of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm (Caryocaraceae), popularly known as pequi, has wide applications in popular medicine. Preclinical tests have demonstrated the therapeutic properties of the oil. We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Pequi C. coriaceum Wittm ethyl acetate extract (PCCO) on zymosan-induced arthritis in rat knee joint. The animals were pretreated with PCCO for 7 consecutive days or with a single dose. Paw elevation time (PET), leukocyte infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and cytokine levels were assessed 4h after zymosan injection. Synovial tissue was harvested for immunohistochemical analysis, edema and vascular permeability. We observed a significant decrease in PET with PCCO pretreatment. PCCO showed a significant reduction of leukocyte migration and a decrease in MPO. Decreases were observed in cytokine release in the synovial fluid and TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-1 immunostaining in synovial tissue. Edema was inhibited by treatment with all doses of PCCO. The data suggest that PCCO exerts antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on arthritis in rats. PMID:26341615

  20. Characteristics of lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds with mixture of ethyl acetate and ethanol for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, neutral lipids (NLs) extraction capacity and selectivity of six solvents were firstly compared. In addition, an eco-friendly solvent combination of ethyl acetate and ethanol (EA/E) was proposed and tested for lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds and effect of extraction variables on lipid yield were intensively studied. Results indicated that lipid extraction yield was increased with solvent to biomass ratio but did not vary significantly when the value exceeded 20:1. Lipid yield was found to be strongly dependent on extraction temperature and time. Finally, fatty acid profiles of lipid were determined and results indicated that the major components were octadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, demonstrating that the lipid extracted from the Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds by EA/E was suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  1. Determination of imidacloprid and benzimidazole residues in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after ethyl acetate multiresidue extraction.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alba, A R; Tejedor, A; Agüera, A; Contreras, M; Garrido, J

    2000-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry is described for the determination of 4 benzimidazole pesticides (carbendazim, thiabendazole, benomyl, and thiophanate-methyl) and imidacloprid in vegetables and fruits. Food samples were typically extracted with ethyl acetate to draw the analytes into the organic phase. No cleanup step was necessary before injection into the liquid chromatographic (LC) system with electrospray mass spectrometric detection. The analytes were separated on a reversed-phase C8LC column. Limits of detection for the compounds were in the microg/L range. Results are reported for validation studies with fortified pear and tomato samples and for residues of the target compounds found in the pesticide residue monitoring program during 1998. PMID:10868600

  2. Synergistic effect of delignification and treatment with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on enzymatic digestibility of poplar wood.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Kumagai, Akio; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effects of removing key recalcitrance factors by ionic liquid (IL) treatment on the cellulase digestibility of poplar wood. Ground biomass was subjected to chlorite delignification and IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) treatment alone or in combination. The compositional and structural features of differentially treated biomass samples and their hydrolysis performance at various cellulase loadings were investigated. IL treatment caused minor compositional changes but drastically decreased cellulose crystallinity; in particular, when administered after delignification, an X-ray diffractogram similar to that of cellulose II polymorph was observed, suggesting that in the absence of lignin, the cellulose was dissolved in the IL and regenerated in water with a polymorphic transformation. The structural changes induced by the combined delignification-IL treatment facilitated the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; the biomass could be fully degraded within 72 h by 4 FPU of cellulase per gram glucan, with cellobiose degradation being the rate-limiting step. PMID:24755318

  3. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by an ethyl acetate subfraction separated from Polygonum cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Shih-Ying; Yang, Tsai-Hsiu; Chang, Che-Jung; Yeh, Dong-Bor; Chen, Yi-Jie; Lin, Tsuey-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum is widely used as a medicinal herb in Asia. In this study, we examined the ethyl acetate subfraction F3 obtained from P. cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin, for their capacity to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle. The cell viability was determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method. The expression of EBV lytic proteins was analyzed by immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to assess the EBV DNA replication and the transcription of lytic genes, including BRLF1 and BZLF1. Results showed that the F3 and its major component emodin inhibit the transcription of EBV immediate early genes, the expression of EBV lytic proteins, including Rta, Zta, and EA-D and reduces EBV DNA replication, showing that F3 and emodin are potentially useful as an anti-EBV drug. PMID:24448066

  4. Calculation for liquid-liquid equilibria of quaternary alkane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water systems used in counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Zhao, Mengqiang; Yu, Yanmei; Li, Zongcheng

    2007-06-01

    The calculation of liquid-liquid equilibrium compositions of solvent systems is very important for the work on counter-current chromatography (CCC), especially the phase composition and volume ratio obtained from liquid-liquid equilibrium calculation. In this work, liquid-liquid equilibria of quaternary Arizona solvent systems, alkane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water, and related ternary systems are correlated and predicted using the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). Hexane, heptane and isooctane are the used alkanes. The parameters in the model are regressed only with the special systems considered. Detailed comparison with experimental data shows that liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems can be predicted with greatly improved accuracy as compared to the group contribution method (UNIFAC).

  5. Photolytic degradation of chlorophenols from industrial wastewaters by organic oxidants peroxy acetic acid, para nitro benzoic acid and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide: identification of reaction products.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi; Murthy, Zagabathuni Venkata Panchakshari

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, chlorophenol (CP) containing industrial wastewater was remediated by ultraviolet irradiation in conjunction with organic oxidants, peroxy acetic acid (PAA); para nitro benzoic acid (PNBA); and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). CP mineralization was studied with regard to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride ion release under identical test conditions. COD depletion to the extent of 81% by PAA, 66% by PNBA, and 67% by MEKP was noted along with an upwardly mobile trend of chloride ion release upon irradiation of samples at 254 nm. A 90-99% decrease in CP concentration (as per high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis) was achieved with an additional 15.0 ml of organic oxidant in all cases. Gas chromatography high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) results also indicated the formation of such reaction products as are free from chlorine substitutions. This treatment also leads to total decolorization of the collected samples. PMID:24647192

  6. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by an ethyl acetate subfraction separated from Polygonum cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Shih-Ying; Yang, Tsai-Hsiu; Chang, Che-Jung; Yeh, Dong-Bor; Chen, Yi-Jie; Lin, Tsuey-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum is widely used as a medicinal herb in Asia. In this study, we examined the ethyl acetate subfraction F3 obtained from P. cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin, for their capacity to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle. The cell viability was determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method. The expression of EBV lytic proteins was analyzed by immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to assess the EBV DNA replication and the transcription of lytic genes, including BRLF1 and BZLF1. Results showed that the F3 and its major component emodin inhibit the transcription of EBV immediate early genes, the expression of EBV lytic proteins, including Rta, Zta, and EA-D and reduces EBV DNA replication, showing that F3 and emodin are potentially useful as an anti-EBV drug.

  7. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Nade, Vandana S.; Kanhere, Sampat V.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT) and passive avoidance test (PAT) were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o). Results: The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF) attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI) was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL). EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH). Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders. PMID:21572646

  8. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of [2-[2-(N, N-disubstituted thiocarbamoyl-sulfanyl)-acylamino] thiazol-4-yl]acetic acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Oznur; Gürsoy, Aysel; Altintaş, Handan; Otük, Gülten; Birteksöz, Seher

    2003-03-01

    [2-[2-(N, N-Disubstituted thiocarbamoyl-sulfanyl)acylamino ]thiazol-4-yl]acetic acid ethyl esters (3a-x) were synthesized by the reaction of potassium salts of N, N-disubstituted dithiocarbamoic acids with [2-(2-chloroalkanoyl)amino-thiazol-4-yl]acetic acid ethyl esters. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analyses, UV, IR, (1)H-NMR, and EI mass spectral data. The antimicrobial activities of all the compounds were investigated by microbroth dilution technique using Mueller-Hinton broth and Mueller-Hinton agar. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AT CC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 14153 and Candida albicans ATCC10231 were used as test microorganisms. Among the tested compounds 3a, d, e, f, h, k, w activity against S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 (MIC: 156 mg/L, 78 mg/L, 62.5 mg/L, 78 mg/L, 62.5 mg/L, 312 mg/L, 250 mg/L, respectively), compound 3d had some activity against S. aureus ATCC 6538 (MIC: 156 mg/L) and C. albicans ATCC 10231(MIC: 156 mg/L). Compounds 3l, 3x also evaluated for antituberculosis activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the BACTEC 460 radiometric system and BACTEC 12B medium. The preliminary results indicated that all of the tested compounds were inactive against the test organism. PMID:12666252

  9. Neuroprotective effects of the Phellinus linteus ethyl acetate extract against H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death of SK-N-MC cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Doo Jin; Cho, Sarang; Seo, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Hyang Burm; Park, Yong Il

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that neuronal cells are protected against oxidative stress-induced cell damage by antioxidants, such as polyphenolic compounds. Phellinus linteus (PL) has traditionally been used to treat various symptoms in East Asian countries. In the present study, we prepared an ethyl acetate extract from the fruiting bodies of PL (PLEA) using hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and ethyl acetate extraction. The PLEA contained polyphenols as its major chemical component, and thus, we predicted that it may exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. The results showed that the pretreatment of human brain neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells with the PLEA (0.1-5 μg/mL) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the cytotoxicity of H2O2 and the intracellular ROS levels and enhanced the expression of HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) and antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT (catalase), GPx-1 (glutathione peroxidase-1), and SOD-1 and -2 (superoxide dismutase-1 and -2). The PLEA also directly scavenged free radicals. PLEA pretreatment also significantly attenuated DNA fragmentation and suppressed the mRNA expression and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 kinase, which are induced by oxidative stress and lead to cell death. PLEA pretreatment inhibited the activation of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. These results demonstrate that the PLEA has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced neuronal cell death via its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. PLEA should be investigated in an in vivo model on its potential to prevent or ameliorate neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26773779

  10. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  11. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  12. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  13. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  14. Evaluation of Antiradical and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ethyl Acetate and Butanolic Subfractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius (DC.) Polhill & Wiens (Loranthaceae) Using Equine Myeloperoxidase and Both PMA-Activated Neutrophils and HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Rainatou; Franck, Thierry; Kohnen, Stephan; Lompo, Marius; Guissou, Innocent Pierre; Dubois, Jacques; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2015-01-01

    The ethyl acetate and n-butanolic subfractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius were investigated for their antioxidant and antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and dichlorofluorescein- (DCF-) induced fluorescence techniques from phorbol myristate acetate- (PMA-) stimulated equine neutrophils and human myeloid cell line HL-60, respectively. In parallel, the effects of the tested subfractions were evaluated on the total MPO release by stimulated neutrophils and on the specific MPO activity by means of immunological assays. The results showed the potent activity of the butanolic subfraction, at least in respect of the chemiluminescence test (IC50 = 0.3 ± 0.1 µg/mL) and the ELISA and SIEFED assays (IC50 = 2.8 ± 1.2 µg/mL and 1.3 ± 1.0 µg/mL), respectively. However, the ethyl acetate subfraction was found to be the most potent in the DCF assay as at the highest concentration, DCF fluorescence intensity decreases of about 50%. Moreover, we demonstrated that the ethyl acetate subfraction was rich in catechin (16.51%) while it was not easy to identify the main compounds in the butanolic subfraction using the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Nevertheless, taken together, our results provide evidence that Agelanthus dodoneifolius subfractions may represent potential sources of natural antioxidants and of antimyeloperoxidase compounds. PMID:25821497

  15. Standardized ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Brassica rapa attenuates the experimental arthritis by down regulating inflammatory responses and inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Yun, Chang Hyeon; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Bang, Myun-Ho; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Cho, Young-Wuk; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2014-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-arthritic potential of a standardized ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Brassica rapa (EABR) and to explore the molecular mechanisms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats and macrophages. In AIA-induced arthritic rats, EABR significantly reduced paw swelling, an arthritic index, serum rheumatoid factor, and tissue expression ratio of RANKL/OPG versus vehicle-administered group. This was found to be well correlated with significant suppressions in productions of PGE2, NO, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and in activations of NF-κB in AIA-induced paw tissues and LPS-induced macrophages. EABR attenuated NF-κB activation by reducing the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of the p65 NF-κB, which were accompanied by parallel reductions in the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα after blocking the phosphorylation mediated IKK activation. The findings suggest EABR exerts its anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory properties via NF-κB inactivation in vitro and in vivo, and that EABR is a potential therapeutic for the treatment of arthritis and inflammation-associated disorders.

  16. Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Amomum xanthioides Exerts Antihepatofibrotic Actions via the Regulation of Fibrogenic Cytokines in a Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Bae; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Hyo-Seon; Lee, Jin-Seok; Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Won-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Amomum xanthioides has been traditionally used to treat diverse digestive system disorders in the Asian countries. We investigated antihepatofibrotic effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Amomum xanthioides (EFAX). Liver fibrosis is induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) injection (intraperitoneally, 10 mg/kg of DMN for 4 weeks to Sprague-Dawley rats). EFAX (25 or 50 mg/kg), silymarin (50 mg/kg), or distilled water was orally administered every day. The DMN injection drastically altered body and organ mass, serum biochemistry, and platelet count, while EFAX treatment significantly attenuated this alteration. Severe liver fibrosis is determined by trichrome staining and measurement of hydroxyproline contents. EFAX treatment significantly attenuated these symptoms as well as the increase in oxidative by-products of lipid and protein metabolism in liver tissues. DMN induced a dramatic activation of hepatic stellate cells and increases in the levels of protein and gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), platelet derived growth factor-beta (PDGF-β), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Immunohistochemical analyses revealed increases in the levels of protein and gene expression of α-smooth muscle actin. These alterations were significantly normalized by EFAX treatment. Our findings demonstrate the potent antihepatofibrotic properties of EFAX via modulation of fibrogenic cytokines, especially TGF-β in the liver fibrosis rat model. PMID:27594891

  17. Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Amomum xanthioides Exerts Antihepatofibrotic Actions via the Regulation of Fibrogenic Cytokines in a Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Bae; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Hyo-Seon; Lee, Jin-Seok; Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Won-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Amomum xanthioides has been traditionally used to treat diverse digestive system disorders in the Asian countries. We investigated antihepatofibrotic effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Amomum xanthioides (EFAX). Liver fibrosis is induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) injection (intraperitoneally, 10 mg/kg of DMN for 4 weeks to Sprague-Dawley rats). EFAX (25 or 50 mg/kg), silymarin (50 mg/kg), or distilled water was orally administered every day. The DMN injection drastically altered body and organ mass, serum biochemistry, and platelet count, while EFAX treatment significantly attenuated this alteration. Severe liver fibrosis is determined by trichrome staining and measurement of hydroxyproline contents. EFAX treatment significantly attenuated these symptoms as well as the increase in oxidative by-products of lipid and protein metabolism in liver tissues. DMN induced a dramatic activation of hepatic stellate cells and increases in the levels of protein and gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), platelet derived growth factor-beta (PDGF-β), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Immunohistochemical analyses revealed increases in the levels of protein and gene expression of α-smooth muscle actin. These alterations were significantly normalized by EFAX treatment. Our findings demonstrate the potent antihepatofibrotic properties of EFAX via modulation of fibrogenic cytokines, especially TGF-β in the liver fibrosis rat model.

  18. Protection against oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and preliminary photosafety assessment of Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsions entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction.

    PubMed

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Vinardell, Maria Pilar

    2015-12-25

    The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of nanoemulsion entrapping pomegranate peel polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) prepared from pomegranate seed oil and medium chain triglyceride to protect human erythrocyte membrane from oxidative damage and to assess preliminary in vitro photosafety. In order to evaluate the phototoxic effect of nanoemulsions, human red blood cells (RBCs) are used as a biological model and the rate of haemolysis and photohaemolysis (5 J cm(-2) UVA) is assessed in vitro. The level of protection against oxidative damage caused by the peroxyl radical generator AAPH in human RBCs as well as its effects on bilayer membrane characteristics such as fluidity, protein profile and RBCs morphology are determined. EAF-loaded nanoemulsions do not promote haemolysis or photohaemolysis. Anisotropy measurements show that nanoemulsions significantly retrain the increase in membrane fluidity caused by AAPH. SDS-PAGE analysis reveals that AAPH induced degradation of membrane proteins, but that nanoemulsions reduce the extension of degradation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations corroborate the interaction between AAPH, nanoemulsions and the RBC membrane bilayer. Our work demonstrates that Punica granatum nanoemulsions are photosafe and protect RBCs against oxidative damage and possible disturbance of the lipid bilayer of biomembranes. Moreover it suggests that these nanoemulsions could be promising new topical products to reduce the effects of sunlight on skin.

  19. Chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile analysis of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata by ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunlan; Wang, Li; Liu, Xinxin; Cheng, Mengchun; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-02-01

    The chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of traditional Chinese medicine is very complicated and has been a great challenge. In the present study, chemical fingerprint of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata (EtAcGE) and metabolic profile of rat plasma sample after intragastric administration of EtAcGE (2.5g/kg) were investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). A total of 38 chemical constituents of EtAcGE were identified by comparing their retention time, accurate molecular mass and characteristic fragment ions with those of references, or tentatively characterized by comparing molecular formula, fragment ions with that of known compound or information available in literature. And 40 compounds were detected in dosed rat plasma sample, including 16 prototypes and 24 metabolites underwent metabolic process of glucuronidation, glucosylation, sulfation, methylation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation or mixed modes. The metabolic "soft spots" was hydroxyl or carboxy group. This is the first research for chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of EtAcGE, which lay a foundation for the further investigation of EtAcGE. PMID:26621783

  20. Protection against oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and preliminary photosafety assessment of Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsions entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction.

    PubMed

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Vinardell, Maria Pilar

    2015-12-25

    The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of nanoemulsion entrapping pomegranate peel polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) prepared from pomegranate seed oil and medium chain triglyceride to protect human erythrocyte membrane from oxidative damage and to assess preliminary in vitro photosafety. In order to evaluate the phototoxic effect of nanoemulsions, human red blood cells (RBCs) are used as a biological model and the rate of haemolysis and photohaemolysis (5 J cm(-2) UVA) is assessed in vitro. The level of protection against oxidative damage caused by the peroxyl radical generator AAPH in human RBCs as well as its effects on bilayer membrane characteristics such as fluidity, protein profile and RBCs morphology are determined. EAF-loaded nanoemulsions do not promote haemolysis or photohaemolysis. Anisotropy measurements show that nanoemulsions significantly retrain the increase in membrane fluidity caused by AAPH. SDS-PAGE analysis reveals that AAPH induced degradation of membrane proteins, but that nanoemulsions reduce the extension of degradation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations corroborate the interaction between AAPH, nanoemulsions and the RBC membrane bilayer. Our work demonstrates that Punica granatum nanoemulsions are photosafe and protect RBCs against oxidative damage and possible disturbance of the lipid bilayer of biomembranes. Moreover it suggests that these nanoemulsions could be promising new topical products to reduce the effects of sunlight on skin. PMID:26407526

  1. Ethyl acetate fraction of Amomum xanthioides improves bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis of rat model via modulation of pro-fibrogenic cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Suk Lee, Jong; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-01-01

    We investigated anti-hepatofibrotic effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Ammomum xanthoides (EFAX) using bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced hepatic fibrosis in a rat model. Male SD rats (6 weeks old) underwent BDL followed by 15 days of orall administration of EFAX (12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg) or ursodeoxycholic acid (25 mg/kg). BDL caused animal death, ascites formation, alterations in serum biochemistries, and severe hepatic injury with excessive collagen deposition, whereas EFAX treatment significantly attenuated these effects. BDL markedly increased the pro-fibrogenic cytokines (TGF-β, PDGF-β, and CTGF) and the extracellular matrix indicators α-SMA, TIMP-1 and collagen type 1 in hepatic proteins and gene expression levels, which were notably normalized by EFAX treatment. EFAX also markedly normalized pro-fibrogenic signaling molecules including Smad2/3, Smad7, Akt, p44/42, and p38. We further explored EFAX mechanisms of actions using LX-2 cells (human derived hepatic stellate cell line). Pre-treatment with EFAX drastically attenuated the activation of α-SMA and Smad2/3, which are downstream molecules of TGF-β. These findings suggest that EFAX may be a potent anti-hepatofibrotic agent, and its corresponding mechanisms primarily involve the modulation of pro-fibrogenic cytokines. PMID:26412144

  2. Ethyl acetate fraction of Amomum xanthioides improves bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis of rat model via modulation of pro-fibrogenic cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Lee, Jong Suk; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-09-28

    We investigated anti-hepatofibrotic effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Ammomum xanthoides (EFAX) using bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced hepatic fibrosis in a rat model. Male SD rats (6 weeks old) underwent BDL followed by 15 days of orall administration of EFAX (12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg) or ursodeoxycholic acid (25 mg/kg). BDL caused animal death, ascites formation, alterations in serum biochemistries, and severe hepatic injury with excessive collagen deposition, whereas EFAX treatment significantly attenuated these effects. BDL markedly increased the pro-fibrogenic cytokines (TGF-β, PDGF-β, and CTGF) and the extracellular matrix indicators α-SMA, TIMP-1 and collagen type 1 in hepatic proteins and gene expression levels, which were notably normalized by EFAX treatment. EFAX also markedly normalized pro-fibrogenic signaling molecules including Smad2/3, Smad7, Akt, p44/42, and p38. We further explored EFAX mechanisms of actions using LX-2 cells (human derived hepatic stellate cell line). Pre-treatment with EFAX drastically attenuated the activation of α-SMA and Smad2/3, which are downstream molecules of TGF-β. These findings suggest that EFAX may be a potent anti-hepatofibrotic agent, and its corresponding mechanisms primarily involve the modulation of pro-fibrogenic cytokines.

  3. Isolation and Bioactivity Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from Acer tegmentosum Using In Vitro Assay and On-Line Screening HPLC-ABTS+ System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Na-Young; Oh, You Chang; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-01-01

    The Acer tegmentosum (3 kg) was extracted using hot water, and the freeze-dried extract powder was partitioned successively using dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), butyl alcohol (n-BuOH), and water. From the EA extract fraction (1.24 g), five phenolic compounds were isolated by the silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Based on spectroscopic methods such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC/MS the chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed as feniculin (1), avicularin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (−)-epicatechin (4), and 6′-O-galloyl salidroside (5). Moreover, a rapid on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ system for individual bioactivity of the EA-soluble fraction (five phenolic compounds) was developed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 were first isolated from the A. tegmentosum. The anti-inflammatory activities and on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ assay method of these compounds in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages were rapid and efficient for the investigation of bioactivity of A. tegmentosum. PMID:25386382

  4. Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Amomum xanthioides Exerts Antihepatofibrotic Actions via the Regulation of Fibrogenic Cytokines in a Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Bae; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Hyo-Seon; Lee, Jin-Seok; Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Won-Yong; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Amomum xanthioides has been traditionally used to treat diverse digestive system disorders in the Asian countries. We investigated antihepatofibrotic effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Amomum xanthioides (EFAX). Liver fibrosis is induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) injection (intraperitoneally, 10 mg/kg of DMN for 4 weeks to Sprague-Dawley rats). EFAX (25 or 50 mg/kg), silymarin (50 mg/kg), or distilled water was orally administered every day. The DMN injection drastically altered body and organ mass, serum biochemistry, and platelet count, while EFAX treatment significantly attenuated this alteration. Severe liver fibrosis is determined by trichrome staining and measurement of hydroxyproline contents. EFAX treatment significantly attenuated these symptoms as well as the increase in oxidative by-products of lipid and protein metabolism in liver tissues. DMN induced a dramatic activation of hepatic stellate cells and increases in the levels of protein and gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), platelet derived growth factor-beta (PDGF-β), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Immunohistochemical analyses revealed increases in the levels of protein and gene expression of α-smooth muscle actin. These alterations were significantly normalized by EFAX treatment. Our findings demonstrate the potent antihepatofibrotic properties of EFAX via modulation of fibrogenic cytokines, especially TGF-β in the liver fibrosis rat model. PMID:27594891

  5. Chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile analysis of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata by ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunlan; Wang, Li; Liu, Xinxin; Cheng, Mengchun; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-02-01

    The chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of traditional Chinese medicine is very complicated and has been a great challenge. In the present study, chemical fingerprint of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata (EtAcGE) and metabolic profile of rat plasma sample after intragastric administration of EtAcGE (2.5g/kg) were investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). A total of 38 chemical constituents of EtAcGE were identified by comparing their retention time, accurate molecular mass and characteristic fragment ions with those of references, or tentatively characterized by comparing molecular formula, fragment ions with that of known compound or information available in literature. And 40 compounds were detected in dosed rat plasma sample, including 16 prototypes and 24 metabolites underwent metabolic process of glucuronidation, glucosylation, sulfation, methylation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation or mixed modes. The metabolic "soft spots" was hydroxyl or carboxy group. This is the first research for chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of EtAcGE, which lay a foundation for the further investigation of EtAcGE.

  6. Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

    2014-06-12

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.

  7. Major improvement in the rate and yield of enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse via pretreatment with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim] [Ac]).

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana da Silva, Ayla; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi; Bon, Elba P S

    2011-11-01

    In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by six ionic liquids (ILs) using a bagasse/IL ratio of 1:20 (wt%). The solubilization of bagasse in the ILs was followed by water precipitation. On using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim] [Ac] at 120 °C for 120 min, 20.7% of the bagasse components remained dissolved and enzymatic saccharification experiments resulted on 80% glucose yield within 6h, which evolved to over 90% within 24 h. Moreover, FE-SEM analysis of the precipitated material indicated a drastic lignin extraction and the exposure of nanoscopic cellulose microfibrils with widths of less than 100 nm. The specific surface area (SSA) of the pretreated bagasse (131.84 m2/g) was found to be 100 times that of untreated bagasse. The ability of [Emim] [Ac] to simultaneously increase the SSA and to decrease the biomass crystallinity is responsible for the improved bagasse enzymatic saccharification rates and yields obtained in this work.

  8. Ethyl acetate extract from marine sponge Hyattella cribriformis exhibit potent anticancer activity by promoting tubulin polymerization as evidenced mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Pazhanimuthu; Thayman, Malini; Rajan, Sowmiya; Raman, Lakshmi Sundaram; Ramasubbu, Sankar; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marine sponges are important sources of bioactive compounds. Objective: This study investigated the anticancer properties of Hyattella cribriformis ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in various cancer and normal cell lines. Materials and Methods: anticancer assay was carried out in 15 cell lines to evaluate the anticancer potential of the EA fraction. Impact on cell cycle distribution was determined using flow cytometry. The fraction was investigated for interfering microtubules assembly in both in vitro and cellular assay. Further studies were conducted to determine the fraction induced cell death (apoptosis) using calcein/propidium iodide dual staining, activated caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 protein at Ser70. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to confirm the apoptosis. Results: EA fraction exhibited potent inhibition of cancer cell growth and resulted in 50% growth inhibition (GI50) of 0.27 μg/mL in A673 cell line. Sarcoma (MG-63, Saos-2) and ovarian (SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3) cancer cell lines also showed superior anticancer activity GI50 of 1.0 μg/mL. Colon and breast cancer cell lines exhibited moderate GI compare other cancer cell lines and normal human lung fibroblast showed GI50 of 15.6 μg/mL. EA fraction showed potent G2/M phase arrest in A673 cell line and induced apoptosis at 48 h exposure. EA fraction promoted microtubule polymerization in tubulin polymerization assay and increased level of polymerized tubulin in the HeLa cells. Fraction induced the activation of caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. Fraction induced DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells as evidence of apoptosis. Conclusion: Marine sponge H. cribriformis EA fraction exhibited potent anticancer activity through tubulin polymerization and induction of apoptosis. PMID:25829774

  9. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

  10. Characteristics of starch-based films plasticised by glycerol and by the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fengwei; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Li, Ming; Sangwan, Parveen; Truss, Rowan W; Halley, Peter J; Strounina, Ekaterina V; Whittaker, Andrew K; Gidley, Michael J; Dean, Katherine M; Shamshina, Julia L; Rogers, Robin D; McNally, Tony

    2014-10-13

    This paper reports the plasticisation effect of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]), as compared with the traditionally used plasticiser, glycerol, on the characteristics of starch-based films. For minimising the additional effect of processing, a simple compression moulding process (which involves minimal shear) was used for preparation of starch-based films. The results show that [Emim][OAc] was favourable for plasticisation, i.e., disruption of starch granules (by scanning electron microscopy), and could result in a more amorphous structure in the starch-based materials (by X-ray diffraction and dynamic mechanical analysis). (13)C CP/MAS and SPE/MAS NMR spectroscopy revealed that not only was the crystallinity reduced by [Emim][OAc], but also the amorphous starch present was plasticised to a more mobile form as indicated by the appearance of amorphous starch in the SPE/MAS spectrum. Mechanical results illustrate that, when either glycerol or [Emim][OAc] was used, a higher plasticiser content could contribute to higher flexibility. In spite of the accelerated thermal degradation of starch by [Emim][OAc] as shown by thermogravimetric analysis, the biodegradation study revealed the antimicrobial effect of [Emim][OAc] on the starch-based materials. Considering the high-amylose starch used here which is typically difficult to gelatinise in a traditional plasticiser (water and/or glycerol), [Emim][OAc] is demonstrated to be a promising plasticiser for starch to develop "green" flexible antimicrobial materials for novel applications. PMID:25037423

  11. Effective biosynthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by supplementation of l-glutamine, d-xylose and β-cyclodextrin in n-butyl acetate-water media.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Ding, Yun; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Wu, Yin-Qin; Lu, Yun; Liu, Feng; Xue, Yu-Feng; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Jian-He

    2015-06-10

    To avoid adding NAD(+) and effectively transform ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate, the mixture of l-glutamine (200mM) and d-xylose (250mM) was added into in n-butyl acetate-water (10:90, v/v) biphasic system instead of NAD(+) for increasing the biocatalytic efficiency. To further improve the synthesis of optically pure ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (>99% ee), β-cyclodextrin was also added into this reaction media, and ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (>99% ee) could be effectively synthesized from 800mM ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate in the yield of 100% by whole-cells of recombinant E. coli CCZU-A13. Finally, the possible mechanism for improving the reductase activity by supplementation of l-glutamine, d-xylose and β-CD was proposed. In conclusion, this strategy has high potential for the effective biosynthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (>99% ee).

  12. Spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR) and molecular docking study of ethyl 2-(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Azab, Adel S.; Jalaja, K.; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A.-M.; Al-Obaid, Abdulrahman M.; Sheena Mary, Y.; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2016-09-01

    The vibrational wavenumbers, molecular structure, MEP, NLO, NBO and HOMO, LUMO analysis of Ethyl 2-(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-acetate (EPDA) were reported. The change in electron density in the antibonding orbitals and stabilization energies have been calculated by NBO analysis to give clear evidence of stabilization in the hyperconjugation of hydrogen bonded interaction. The difference in HOMO and LUMO energy support the charge transfer interaction within the molecule. NMR studies and Fukui functions are also reported. From molecular electrostatic potential plot it is evident that the negative charge covers the carbonyl groups, phenyl rings and the positive region is over the CH2 groups with the acetate group. Molecular docking studies shows that the title compound forms a stable complex with pyrrole inhibitor and gives a binding affinity value of -8.3 kcal/mol and the results suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against pyrrole inhibitor.

  13. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  14. Proton transfer and polarity changes in ionic liquid-water mixtures: a perspective on hydrogen bonds from ab initio molecular dynamics at the example of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate-water mixtures--part 1.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Martin; Weber, Henry; Pensado, Alfonso S; Stark, Annegret; Kirchner, Barbara

    2012-04-21

    The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C(2)C(1)Im][OAc] shows a great potential to dissolve strongly hydrogen bonded materials, related with the presence of a strong hydrogen bond network in the pure liquid. A first step towards understanding the solvation process is characterising the hydrogen bonding ability of the ionic liquid. The description of hydrogen bonds in ionic liquids is a question under debate, given the complex nature of this media. The purpose of the present article is to rationalise not only the existence of hydrogen bonds in ionic liquids, but also to analyse their influence on the structure of the pure liquid and how the presence of water, an impurity inherent to ionic liquids, affects this type of interaction. We perform an extensive study using ab initio molecular dynamics on the structure of mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate with water, at different water contents. Hydrogen bonds are present in the pure liquid, and the presence of water modifies and largely disturbs the hydrogen bond network of the ionic liquid, and also affects the formation of other impurities (carbenes) and the dipole moment of the ions. The use of ab initio molecular dynamics is the recommended tool to explore hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids, as an explicit electronic structure calculation is combined with the study of the condensed phase.

  15. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production.

  16. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production. PMID

  17. Anti-inflammatory potential of an ethyl acetate fraction isolated from Justicia gendarussa roots through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kavitha S; Vijayan, Viji; Bhaskar, Shobha; Krishnan, Kripa; Shalini, V; Helen, A

    2012-01-01

    Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. (J. gendarussa) is a plant used as traditional medicine in different parts of India and China to treat inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. But its mechanism of anti-inflammatory action is still unclear. Hence in this context, the objective of our study is to reveal the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of J. gendarussa which would form an additional proof to the traditional knowledge of this plant. The anti-inflammatory function and mechanism(s) of action was studied in an ethyl acetate fraction isolated from methanolic extract of J. gendarussa roots (EJG). Anti-inflammatory studies were conducted on rats using partitioned fractions isolated from methanolic extract of J. gendarussa roots. In carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, ethyl acetate fraction brought about 80% and 93% edema inhibition at 3rd and 5th hour at a dose of 50 mg/kg, when compared to other extracts and Voveran. We investigated whether EJG inhibits the release of cycloxygenase (COX), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in LPS stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). Results shows that EJG dose dependently inhibited LPS-activated COX, 5-LOX, IL-6, and NF-κB in hPBMCs. EJG also reduced LPS induced levels of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression in hPBMCs. This study provides an insight into the probable mechanism(s) underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of EJG and therefore, we report the first confirmation of the anti-inflammatory potential of this traditionally employed herbal medicine in vitro. PMID:22063737

  18. Rubrene endoperoxide acetone monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Shinashi, Kiyoaki; Uchida, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The title acetone solvate, C42H28O2·C3H6O [systematic name: 1,3,10,12-tetra­phenyl-19,20-dioxapenta­cyclo­[10.6.2.02,11.04,9.013,18]icosa-2(11),3,5,7,9,13,15,17-octa­ene acetone monosolvate], is a photooxygenation product of rubrene (systematic name: 5,6,11,12-tetra­phenyl­tetra­cene). The mol­ecule bends at the bridgehead atoms, which are linked by the O—O transannular bond, with a dihedral angle of 49.21 (6)° between the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system of the tetra­cene unit. In the crystal, the rubrene mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a column along the c axis. The acetone solvent mol­ecules form a dimer around a crystallographic inversion centre through a carbon­yl–carbonyl dipolar inter­action. A C—H⋯O hydrogen bond between the rubrene and acetone mol­ecules is also observed. PMID:22590045

  19. Rubrene endoperoxide acetone monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Shinashi, Kiyoaki; Uchida, Akira

    2012-04-01

    The title acetone solvate, C(42)H(28)O(2)·C(3)H(6)O [systematic name: 1,3,10,12-tetra-phenyl-19,20-dioxapenta-cyclo-[10.6.2.0(2,11).0(4,9).0(13,18)]icosa-2(11),3,5,7,9,13,15,17-octa-ene acetone monosolvate], is a photooxygenation product of rubrene (systematic name: 5,6,11,12-tetra-phenyl-tetra-cene). The mol-ecule bends at the bridgehead atoms, which are linked by the O-O transannular bond, with a dihedral angle of 49.21 (6)° between the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system of the tetra-cene unit. In the crystal, the rubrene mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a column along the c axis. The acetone solvent mol-ecules form a dimer around a crystallographic inversion centre through a carbon-yl-carbonyl dipolar inter-action. A C-H⋯O hydrogen bond between the rubrene and acetone mol-ecules is also observed. PMID:22590045

  20. Dichloridobis[ethyl 2-(2-amino-1,3-thia­zol-4-yl)acetate-κ2 O,N 3]cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lai-Jun; Chen, Fa-Yun; Liu, Guang-Yi; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Zhi-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [CdCl2(C7H10N2O2S)2], contains two complex molecules with similar configurations. The CdII atoms are each six-coordinated by two thiazole N and two carbonyl O atoms from the 2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)acetate ligand, and by two Cl− anions in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. In the crystal, intra- and inter­molecular N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds create parallel chains along [1-10]. C—H⋯Cl inter­actions also occur. PMID:22719339

  1. Photodegradation of acetone in dilute aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, M.I.; Bolton, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Photochemical methods for destroying organic pollutants found in industrial wastewaters and groundwaters are being used successfully in environment treatment systems. This study focuses on acetone photodegradation in aqueous solution by UV irradiation (1 kW medium pressure Hg lamp) in the presence and absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Intermediates such as acetic and formic acids were detected. The kinetic data were evaluated and the reaction mechanisms were postulated considering the influence of oxygen concentration and pH. The generation of {sm_bullet}OH radicals from the photolysis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induces a faster decomposition of acetone (depending on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration) than does direct photolysis.

  2. Effect of Coadsorbed Water on the Photodecomposition of Acetone on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-06-10

    The influence of coadsorbed water on the photodecomposition of acetone on TiO2 was examined using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and the rutile TiO2(110) surface as a model photocatalyst. Of the two major influences ascribed to water in the heterogeneous photocatalysis literature (promotion via OH radical supply and inhibition due to site blocking), only the negative influence of water was observed. As long as the total water and acetone coverage was maintained well below the first layer saturation coverage (‘1 ML’), little inhibition of acetone photodecomposition was observed. However, as the total water+acetone coverage exceeded 1 ML, acetone was preferentially displaced from the first layer to physisorbed states by water and the extent of acetone photodecomposition attenuated. The displacement originated from water compressing acetone into high coverage regions where increased acetone-acetone repulsions caused displacement from the first layer. The immediate product of acetone photodecomposition was adsorbed acetate, which occupies twice as many surface sites per molecule as compared to acetone. Since the acetate intermediate was more stable on the TiO2(110) surface than either water or acetone (as gauged by TPD) and since its photodecomposition rate was less than that of acetone, additional surface sites were not opened up during acetone photodecomposition for previously displaced acetone molecules to re-enter the first layer. Results in this study suggest that increased molecular-level repulsions between organic molecules brought about by increased water coverage are as influential in the inhibiting effect of water on photooxidation rates as are water-organic repulsions.

  3. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePlus

    ... pharmacist if you are allergic to icosapent ethyl; fish, including shellfish (clams, scallops, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, crab, ... and ticlopidine (Ticlid); aspirin or aspirin-containing products; beta-blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol ( ...

  4. A new way to interpret perturbation-correlation moving-window two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy: probing the dynamic interaction of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate to absorb atmospheric water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Mu, Tiancheng

    2015-01-01

    A rule to interpret perturbation-correlation moving-window two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (PCMW2D) was developed. Compared with Morita's rule, this proposed rule retains the ability to obtain interval features (i.e., monotonicity, concavity, and convexity) and adds the function to quickly and accurately determine both tipping points (i.e., local extrema and inflection points). It could be described as follows: the local extrema and inflection point could be determined by the zero point with an opposite sign on its left and right side in ΠΦ (synchronous PCMW2D) and ΠΨ (asynchronous PCMW2D), respectively. Specifically, a negative left (right) side and a positive right (left) side of point indicates a local minimal (maximal) value. By using the rule to interpret ΠIR (PCMW2D infrared spectroscopy) of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac]-atmospheric water (H2O) as a function of time, we found that the atmospheric water was absorbed only into the bulk of [EMIM][Ac] before 150 min by hydrogen-bonding interaction, only onto the surface of [EMIM][Ac] after 330 min by van der Waals force, and both to the bulk and surface of [EMIM][Ac] between 150 and 330 min by hydrogen-boding and van der Waals force simultaneously. The proportion of bulk water sorption and surface water sorption to [EMIM][Ac] was about 4 and 96%, respectively. PMID:25280060

  5. Crystal structure of (Z)-ethyl 2-{5-[(2-benzyl-idene-3-oxo-2,3-di-hydro-benzo[b][1,4]thia-zin-4-yl)meth-yl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl}acetate.

    PubMed

    Ellouz, M; Sebbar, N K; Essassi, E M; Ouzidan, Y; Mague, J T

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C22H20N4O3S, features two fused six-membered rings linked to a 1,2,3-triazole ring which is attached to an ethyl acetate group. The heterocycle in the benzo-thia-zine residue has an envelope conformation with the S atom being the flap. The conformation of the ethyl acetate side chain, which is directed to the same side of the mol-ecule as the C6 ring of the fused-ring system, may be partially established by a pair of weak intra-molecular C-H⋯O(carbon-yl) inter-actions. The three-dimensional packing is aided by inter-molecular C-H⋯O and C-H⋯N inter-actions. PMID:26870477

  6. Proteomic analysis of nitrate-dependent acetone degradation by Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC.

    PubMed

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J; Boeren, Sjef; Atashgahi, Siavash; Plugge, Caroline M; Schaap, Peter J; Stams, Alfons J M

    2015-06-01

    Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC grows anaerobically on acetone with nitrate as electron acceptor. Comparative proteomics of cultures of A. denitrificans strain BC grown on either acetone or acetate with nitrate was performed to study the enzymes involved in the acetone degradation pathway. In the proposed acetone degradation pathway, an acetone carboxylase converts acetone to acetoacetate, an AMP-dependent synthetase/ligase converts acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA, and an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase cleaves acetoacetyl-CoA to two acetyl-CoA. We also found a putative aldehyde dehydrogenase associated with acetone degradation. This enzyme functioned as a β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of surplus acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate that may be converted to the energy and carbon storage compound, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate. Accordingly, we confirmed the formation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in acetone-grown cells of strain BC. Our findings provide insight in nitrate-dependent acetone degradation that is activated by carboxylation of acetone. This will aid studies of similar pathways found in other microorganisms degrading acetone with nitrate or sulfate as electron acceptor.

  7. Density and viscosity of binary mixtures of ethyl acetate with methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, butan-1-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol, and 2-methylpropan-2-ol at (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K

    SciTech Connect

    Nikam, P.S.; Mahale, T.R.; Hasan, M.

    1996-09-01

    Densities and viscosities have been measured for the binary mixtures of ethyl acetate with linear and branched alkanols (C{sub 1}-C{sub 4}) at (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. The experimental density ({zeta}) and viscosity ({eta}) values were used to calculate the excess molar volume (V{sup E}) and viscosity deviation ({Delta}{eta}). The V{sup E} and {Delta}{eta} values have been fitted to a Redlich-Kister polynomial.

  8. Acetone production with metabolically engineered strains of Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Gerdom, Marzena; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Linder, Sonja; Flüchter, Sebastian; Öztürk, Hatice; Blümke, Wilfried; May, Antje; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Bahl, Hubert; Dürre, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Expected depletion of oil and fossil resources urges the development of new alternative routes for the production of bulk chemicals and fuels beyond petroleum resources. In this study, the clostridial acetone pathway was used for the formation of acetone in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The acetone production operon (APO) containing the genes thlA (encoding thiolase A), ctfA/ctfB (encoding CoA transferase), and adc (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase) from Clostridium acetobutylicum were cloned under the control of the thlA promoter into four vectors having different replicons for Gram-positives (pIP404, pBP1, pCB102, and pCD6). Stable replication was observed for all constructs. A. woodii [pJIR_actthlA] achieved the maximal acetone concentration under autotrophic conditions (15.2±3.4mM). Promoter sequences of the genes ackA from A. woodii and pta-ack from C. ljungdahlii were determined by primer extension (PEX) and cloned upstream of the APO. The highest acetone production in recombinant A. woodii cells was achieved using the promoters PthlA and Ppta-ack. Batch fermentations using A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] in a bioreactor revealed that acetate concentration had an effect on the acetone production, due to the high Km value of the CoA transferase. In order to establish consistent acetate concentration within the bioreactor and to increase biomass, a continuous fermentation process for A. woodii was developed. Thus, acetone productivity of the strain A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] was increased from 1.2mgL(-1)h(-1) in bottle fermentation to 26.4mgL(-1)h(-1) in continuous gas fermentation. PMID:26971669

  9. Acetone production with metabolically engineered strains of Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Gerdom, Marzena; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Linder, Sonja; Flüchter, Sebastian; Öztürk, Hatice; Blümke, Wilfried; May, Antje; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Bahl, Hubert; Dürre, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Expected depletion of oil and fossil resources urges the development of new alternative routes for the production of bulk chemicals and fuels beyond petroleum resources. In this study, the clostridial acetone pathway was used for the formation of acetone in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The acetone production operon (APO) containing the genes thlA (encoding thiolase A), ctfA/ctfB (encoding CoA transferase), and adc (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase) from Clostridium acetobutylicum were cloned under the control of the thlA promoter into four vectors having different replicons for Gram-positives (pIP404, pBP1, pCB102, and pCD6). Stable replication was observed for all constructs. A. woodii [pJIR_actthlA] achieved the maximal acetone concentration under autotrophic conditions (15.2±3.4mM). Promoter sequences of the genes ackA from A. woodii and pta-ack from C. ljungdahlii were determined by primer extension (PEX) and cloned upstream of the APO. The highest acetone production in recombinant A. woodii cells was achieved using the promoters PthlA and Ppta-ack. Batch fermentations using A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] in a bioreactor revealed that acetate concentration had an effect on the acetone production, due to the high Km value of the CoA transferase. In order to establish consistent acetate concentration within the bioreactor and to increase biomass, a continuous fermentation process for A. woodii was developed. Thus, acetone productivity of the strain A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] was increased from 1.2mgL(-1)h(-1) in bottle fermentation to 26.4mgL(-1)h(-1) in continuous gas fermentation.

  10. Fate of acetone in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Stephens, D.W.; Shultz, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and biological processes that might affect the concentration of acetone in water were investigated in laboratory studies. Processes considered included volatilization, adsorption by sediments, photodecomposition, bacterial degradation, and absorption by algae and molds. It was concluded that volatilization and bacterial degradation were the dominant processes determining the fate of acetone in streams and rivers. ?? 1982.

  11. Ethyl carbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl carbamate ; CASRN 51 - 79 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  13. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Anti-wrinkle effects of Sargassum muticum ethyl acetate fraction on ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mouse skin and mechanistic evaluation in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Piao, Mei Jing; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoon, Weon Jong; Ko, Mi Hee; Lee, Nam Ho; Lee, Mi Young; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the photoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin damage and photoaging in a mouse model. HR-1 strain hairless male mice were divided into three groups: An untreated control group, a UVB-irradiated vehicle group and a UVB-irradiated SME group. The UVB-irradiated mice in the SME group were orally administered with SME (100 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 ml water per day) and then exposed to radiation at a dose of 60–120 mJ/cm2. Wrinkle formation and skin damage were evaluated by analysis of skin replicas, epidermal thickness and collagen fiber integrity in the dermal connective tissue. The mechanism underlying the action of SME was also investigated in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line following exposure of the cells to UVB at a dose of 30 mJ/cm2. The protein expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and the binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) to the MMP-1 promoter were assessed in the HaCaT cells using western blot analysis, an MMP-1 fluorescent assay and a chromatin immune-precipitation assay, respectively. The results showed that the mean length and depth of the wrinkles in the UVB-exposed hairless mice were significantly improved by oral administration of SME, which also prevented the increase in epidermal thickness triggered by UVB irradiation. Furthermore, a marked increase in collagen bundle formation was observed in the UVB-treated mice with SME administration. SME pretreatment also significantly inhibited the UVB-induced upregulation in the expression and activity of MMP-1 in the cultured HaCaT keratinocytes, and the UVB-enhanced association of AP-1 with the MMP-1 promoter. These results suggested that SME may be useful as an anti-photoaging resource for the skin. PMID:27573915

  15. An ethyl acetate fraction derived from Houttuynia cordata extract inhibits the production of inflammatory markers by suppressing NF-кB and MAPK activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethyl acetate fraction derived from a Houttuynia cordata extract (HCE-EA) on the production of inflammatory mediators and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Methods To measure the effects of HCE-EA on pro-inflammatory cytokine and inflammatory mediator’s expression in RAW 264.7 cells, we used the following methods: cell viability assay, Griess reagent assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis. Results HCE-EA downregulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL-6) production in the cells, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Furthermore, HCE-EA suppressed nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit, which correlated with an inhibitory effect on IκBα (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha) phosphorylation. HCE-EA also attenuated the activation of MAPKs (p38 and JNK). Conclusions Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of HCE-EA may stem from the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators via suppression of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:25012519

  16. Search for Deuterated methyl acetate in the ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, Prasanta; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan

    2016-07-01

    Methyl acetate (CH_3COOCH_3 ) has been recently observed by IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion. But the existence of its deuterated form are yet to be confirmed. Here, we study the properties of methyl acetate and its singly deuterated forms (CH_3COOCH_3, CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D). Our simulation results reveal that deuterated forms of methyl acetate could efficiently be produced both in gas as well as in ice phase. Production of methyl acetate could follow radical-radical reaction between acetyl (CH_3CO) and methoxy (CH_3O) radicals. To predict abundances of CH_3COOCH_3 along with its two singly deuterated isotopomers and its two isomers (ethyl formate and hydroxy acetone), we prepare a large gas-grain chemical network to study chemical evolution of these molecules. Since gas phase rate coefficients of our newly adopted network for methyl acetate and its related species were unknown, in our simulation, either we consider similar rate coefficients for similar types of reactions (by following existing data bases) or we carry out quantum chemical calculations to estimate the unknown rate coefficients. For the surface reactions, we use adsorption energies of reactants from some earlier studies. Moreover, we perform quantum chemical calculations to find out various spectral properties of various forms of methyl acetate in infrared, ultraviolet and sub-millimeter regions. We prepare two catalog files for the rotational transitions of CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D in JPL format, which might be useful for its detection in regions of interstellar media where CH_3COOCH_3 has already been observed.

  17. Acetone-based cellulose solvent.

    PubMed

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acetone containing tetraalkylammonium chloride is found to be an efficient solvent for cellulose. The addition of an amount of 10 mol% (based on acetone) of well-soluble salt triethyloctylammonium chloride (Et3 OctN Cl) adjusts the solvent's properties (increases the polarity) to promote cellulose dissolution. Cellulose solutions in acetone/Et3 OctN Cl have the lowest viscosity reported for comparable aprotic solutions making it a promising system for shaping processes and homogeneous chemical modification of the biopolymer. Recovery of the polymer and recycling of the solvent components can be easily achieved.

  18. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by weight. (5) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. Not less than 0.882. (6) Distillation range. (For.... (5) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. Not less than 0.899. (6) Distillation range. (For applicable...

  19. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by weight. (5) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. Not less than 0.882. (6) Distillation range. (For.... (5) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. Not less than 0.899. (6) Distillation range. (For applicable...

  20. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by weight. (5) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. Not less than 0.882. (6) Distillation range. (For.... (5) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. Not less than 0.899. (6) Distillation range. (For applicable...

  1. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by weight. (5) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. Not less than 0.882. (6) Distillation range. (For.... (5) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. Not less than 0.899. (6) Distillation range. (For applicable...

  2. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by weight. (5) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. Not less than 0.882. (6) Distillation range. (For.... (5) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. Not less than 0.899. (6) Distillation range. (For applicable...

  3. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601 Twinbrook.../federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent in the decaffeination of coffee and tea....

  4. Acetone Chemistry on Oxidized and Reduced TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A

    2004-12-09

    The chemistry of acetone on the oxidized and reduced surfaces of TiO2(110) was examined using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The reduced surface was prepared with about 7% oxygen vacancy sites by annealing in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) at 850 K, and the oxidized surface was prepared by exposure of the reduced surface to molecular oxygen at 95 K followed by heating the surface to a variety of temperatures between 200 and 500 K. Acetone adsorbs molecularly on the reduced surface with no evidence for either decomposition or preferential binding at vacancy sites. Based on HREELS, the majority of acetone molecules adsorbed in an η¹ configuration at Ti⁴⁺ sites through interaction of lone pair electrons on the carbonyl oxygen atom. Repulsive acetone-acetone interactions shift the desorption peak from 345 K at low coverage to 175 K as the first layer saturates with a coverage of ~ 1 ML. In contrast, about 7% of the acetone adlayer decomposes when the surface is pretreated with molecular oxygen. Acetate is among the detected decomposition products, but only comprises about 1/3rd of the amount of acetone decomposed and its yield depends on the temperature at which the O₂ exposed surface was preheated to prior to acetone adsorption. Aside from the small level of irreversible decomposition, about 0.25 ML of acetone is stabilized to 375 K by coadsorbed oxygen. These acetone species exhibit an HREELS spectrum unlike that of η¹-acetone or of any other species proposed to exist from the interaction of acetone with TiO₂ powders. Based on the presence of extensive ¹⁶O/¹⁸O exchange between acetone and coadsorbed oxygen in the 375 K acetone TPD state, it is proposed that a polymeric form of acetone forms on the TiO₂(110) surface through nucleophilic attack of oxygen on the carbonyl carbon atom of acetone, and is propagated to neighboring η¹-acetone molecules. This process is initiated

  5. Induction of Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via Oxidative Stress Generation, Mitochondria-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Pathway by Ethyl Acetate Extract of Dillenia suffruticosa and Its Chemical Profile

    PubMed Central

    Tor, Yin Sim; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Foo, Jhi Biau; Wibowo, Agustono; Ismail, Norsharina; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Abdullah, Rasedee; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2015-01-01

    Dillenia suffruticosa, which is locally known as Simpoh air, has been traditionally used to treat cancerous growth. The ethyl acetate extract of D. suffruticosa (EADs) has been shown to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in our previous study. The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in EADs-induced apoptosis and to identify the major compounds in the extract. EADs was found to promote oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells that led to cell death because the pre-treatment with antioxidants α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of the extract (P<0.05). DCFH-DA assay revealed that treatment with EADs attenuated the generation of intracellular ROS. Apoptosis induced by EADs was not inhibited by the use of caspase-inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that the cell death is caspase-independent. The use of JC-1 dye reflected that EADs caused disruption in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The related molecular pathways involved in EADs-induced apoptosis were determined by GeXP multiplex system and Western blot analysis. EADs is postulated to induce cell cycle arrest that is p53- and p21-dependent based on the upregulated expression of p53 and p21 (P<0.05). The expression of Bax was upregulated with downregulation of Bcl-2 following treatment with EADs. The elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that EADs-induced apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent. The expression of oxidative stress-related AKT, p-AKT, ERK, and p-ERK was downregulated with upregulation of JNK and p-JNK. The data indicate that induction of oxidative-stress related apoptosis by EADs was mediated by inhibition of AKT and ERK, and activation of JNK. The isolation of compounds in EADs was carried out using column chromatography and elucidated using the nuclear resonance magnetic analysis producing a total of six compounds including 3-epimaslinic acid, kaempferol, kaempferide, protocatechuic

  6. Anti-wrinkle effects of Sargassum muticum ethyl acetate fraction on ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mouse skin and mechanistic evaluation in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Piao, Mei Jing; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoon, Weon Jong; Ko, Mi Hee; Lee, Nam Ho; Lee, Mi Young; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the photoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)‑induced skin damage and photoaging in a mouse model. HR‑1 strain hairless male mice were divided into three groups: An untreated control group, a UVB‑irradiated vehicle group and a UVB‑irradiated SME group. The UVB‑irradiated mice in the SME group were orally administered with SME (100 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 ml water per day) and then exposed to radiation at a dose of 60‑120 mJ/cm2. Wrinkle formation and skin damage were evaluated by analysis of skin replicas, epidermal thickness and collagen fiber integrity in the dermal connective tissue. The mechanism underlying the action of SME was also investigated in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line following exposure of the cells to UVB at a dose of 30 mJ/cm2. The protein expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase‑1 (MMP‑1), and the binding of activator protein‑1 (AP‑1) to the MMP‑1 promoter were assessed in the HaCaT cells using western blot analysis, an MMP‑1 fluorescent assay and a chromatin immune‑precipitation assay, respectively. The results showed that the mean length and depth of the wrinkles in the UVB‑exposed hairless mice were significantly improved by oral administration of SME, which also prevented the increase in epidermal thickness triggered by UVB irradiation. Furthermore, a marked increase in collagen bundle formation was observed in the UVB‑treated mice with SME administration. SME pretreatment also significantly inhibited the UVB‑induced upregulation in the expression and activity of MMP‑1 in the cultured HaCaT keratinocytes, and the UVB‑enhanced association of AP‑1 with the MMP‑1 promoter. These results suggested that SME may be useful as an anti-photoaging resource for the skin. PMID:27573915

  7. Induction of Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via Oxidative Stress Generation, Mitochondria-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Pathway by Ethyl Acetate Extract of Dillenia suffruticosa and Its Chemical Profile.

    PubMed

    Tor, Yin Sim; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Foo, Jhi Biau; Wibowo, Agustono; Ismail, Norsharina; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Abdullah, Rasedee; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2015-01-01

    Dillenia suffruticosa, which is locally known as Simpoh air, has been traditionally used to treat cancerous growth. The ethyl acetate extract of D. suffruticosa (EADs) has been shown to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in our previous study. The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in EADs-induced apoptosis and to identify the major compounds in the extract. EADs was found to promote oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells that led to cell death because the pre-treatment with antioxidants α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of the extract (P<0.05). DCFH-DA assay revealed that treatment with EADs attenuated the generation of intracellular ROS. Apoptosis induced by EADs was not inhibited by the use of caspase-inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that the cell death is caspase-independent. The use of JC-1 dye reflected that EADs caused disruption in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The related molecular pathways involved in EADs-induced apoptosis were determined by GeXP multiplex system and Western blot analysis. EADs is postulated to induce cell cycle arrest that is p53- and p21-dependent based on the upregulated expression of p53 and p21 (P<0.05). The expression of Bax was upregulated with downregulation of Bcl-2 following treatment with EADs. The elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that EADs-induced apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent. The expression of oxidative stress-related AKT, p-AKT, ERK, and p-ERK was downregulated with upregulation of JNK and p-JNK. The data indicate that induction of oxidative-stress related apoptosis by EADs was mediated by inhibition of AKT and ERK, and activation of JNK. The isolation of compounds in EADs was carried out using column chromatography and elucidated using the nuclear resonance magnetic analysis producing a total of six compounds including 3-epimaslinic acid, kaempferol, kaempferide, protocatechuic

  8. Insights into Acetone Photochemistry on Rutile TiO2(110). 1. Off-Normal CH3 Ejection from Acetone Diolate.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Henderson, Michael A.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

    2015-06-04

    Thermal- and photon-stimulated reactions of acetone co-adsorbed with oxygen on rutile TiO2(110) surface are studied with infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (IRAS) combined with temperature programmed desorption and angle-resolved photon stimulated desorption. IRAS results show that n2-acetone diolate ((CH3)2COO) is produced via thermally-activated reactions between the chemisorbed oxygen with co-adsorbed acetone. Formation of acetone diolate is also consistent with 18O / 16O isotopic exchange experiments. During UV irradiation at 30 K, CH3 radicals are ejected from the acetone diolate with a distribution that is peaked at .-. +- 66 degrees from the surface normal along the azimuth (i.e. perpendicular to the rows of bridging oxygen and Ti5c ions). This distribution is also consistent with the orientation of the C–CH3 bonds in the n2-acetone diolate on TiO2(110). The acetone diolate peaks disappear from the IRAS spectra after UV irradiation and new peaks are observed and associated with n2-acetate. The data presented here demonstrate direct signatures of the proposed earlier 2-step mechanism for acetone photooxidation on TiO2(110)

  9. Cellulose esters synthesized using a tetrabutylammonium acetate and dimethylsulfoxide solvent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongqi; Miao, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Zeming; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Liping

    2016-07-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were homogeneously synthesized in a novel tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system, without any catalyst, at temperatures below 70 °C. The molecular structures of the cellulose esters (CEs) and distributions of the substituents in the anhydroglucose repeating units were determined using 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the degree of substitution (DS) values were determined using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the CEs, regenerated cellulose (RC), and pulp were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of the products were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The temperatures of initial decomposition of the CEs were up to 40 °C higher than those of the RC and pulp. All the CEs were highly soluble in DMSO, but were insoluble in acetone. CAs with DS values less than 2.6 swelled or were poorly dissolved in CHCl3, but those with DS values above 2.9 dissolved rapidly. CAPs with DS values above 2.6 had good solubilities in ethyl acetate.

  10. 21 CFR 173.210 - Acetone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetone. 173.210 Section 173.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD... Substances § 173.210 Acetone. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for acetone in...

  11. 21 CFR 173.210 - Acetone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetone. 173.210 Section 173.210 Food and Drugs..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.210 Acetone. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for acetone in spice oleoresins when present therein as a residue from the extraction of spice....

  12. 21 CFR 173.210 - Acetone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetone. 173.210 Section 173.210 Food and Drugs..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.210 Acetone. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for acetone in spice oleoresins when present therein as a residue from the extraction of spice....

  13. 21 CFR 173.210 - Acetone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetone. 173.210 Section 173.210 Food and Drugs..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.210 Acetone. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for acetone in spice oleoresins when present therein as a residue from the extraction of spice....

  14. 21 CFR 173.210 - Acetone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetone. 173.210 Section 173.210 Food and Drugs..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.210 Acetone. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for acetone in spice oleoresins when present therein as a residue from the extraction of spice....

  15. Fermentation and genomic analysis of acetone-uncoupled butanol production by Clostridium tetanomorphum.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fuyu; Bao, Guanhui; Zhao, Chunhua; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Dong, Hongjun

    2016-02-01

    In typical acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, acetone is the main by-product (50 % of butanol mass) of butanol production, resulting in a low yield of butanol. It is known that some Clostridium tetanomorphum strains are able to produce butanol without acetone in nature. Here, we described that C. tetanomorphum strain DSM665 can produce 4.16 g/L butanol and 4.98 g/L ethanol at pH 6.0, and 9.81 g/L butanol and 1.01 g/L ethanol when adding 1 mM methyl viologen. Butyrate and acetate could be reassimilated and no acetone was produced. Further analysis indicated that the activity of the acetate/butyrate:acetoacetyl-CoA transferase responsible for acetone production is lost in C. tetanomorphum DSM665. The genome of C. tetanomorphum DSM665 was sequenced and deposited in DDBJ, EMBL, and GenBank under the accession no. APJS00000000. Sequence analysis indicated that there are no typical genes (ctfA/B and adc) that are typically parts of an acetone synthesis pathway in C. tetanomorphum DSM665. This work provides new insights in the mechanism of clostridial butanol production and should prove useful for the design of a high-butanol-producing strain.

  16. Acetone and isopropanol in ruminal fluid and feces of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Shiogama, Yumiko

    2010-03-01

    Acetone and its metabolite isopropanol are produced by gut microbes as well as by the host's metabolism. To evaluate the production of acetone and isopropanol in alimentary tracts, a total of 80 pair-samples of feces and ruminal fluid were taken in lactating dairy cows that had been fed silage-containing diets. Acetone and isopropanol were analyzed, together with ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Isopropanol was detected in 57 fecal and all the ruminal samples; however, the ruminal isopropanol and ethanol concentrations were distinctly lower than those in the feces. Acetone was detected in 13 fecal and 53 ruminal samples; however, there was no significant difference in acetone concentrations between the feces and the ruminal fluid. The group with higher fecal isopropanol concentration showed higher fecal proportions of acetate accompanied by low proportion of minor VFA, which consisted of isobutyrate and iso- and n-valerate. In the group with higher ruminal isopropanol concentration, ethanol concentration was higher; the ruminal VFA profiles showed only a negligible difference. Fecal and ruminal ethanol concentrations were not affected by feed ethanol. Thus, the colon showed an accelerated alcoholic fermentation compared with the rumen of dairy cows; however, acetone was present at higher frequency in the rumen than in the feces.

  17. Student Preparation of Acetone from 2-Propanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, J. M.; McKee, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and materials needed are provided for an experiment in which acetone is produced from 2-propanol. The experiment does not use magnetic stirring, avoids the necessity for exhaustive extractions with ether, and produces a 60-percent yield of redistilled acetone within a two-and-one-half-hour laboratory period.…

  18. Mesoxalaldehyde acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

    1987-11-10

    The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

  19. Lipid extraction and iontophoretic transport of leuprolide acetate through porcine epidermis.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S K; Singh, J

    2001-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of lipid extraction by the simple alkyl acetates of increasing carbon chain lengths (e.g. methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, and octyl acetates) and iontophoresis on the in-vitro transport of leuprolide acetate through porcine epidermis. The extent of lipid extraction from the stratum corneum (SC) by alkyl acetates was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Ethyl, propyl, pentyl, hexyl, and octyl acetates significantly increased (P < 0.05) the permeability of leuprolide acetate through the epidermis in comparison to the control (epidermis without alkyl acetate treatment). Iontophoresis further increased (P < 0.05) the permeability of leuprolide acetate for all the alkyl acetates studied, when compared to their corresponding passive permeability. Ethyl acetate produced the maximum passive (13.47 microg/cm(2)/h) and iontophoretic (89.79 microg/cm(2)/h) flux among all the alkyl acetates studied. The SC treated with alkyl acetates showed a decrease in peak heights and areas of asymmetric and symmetric C--H stretching absorbances in comparison to untreated SC. A greater percentage decrease in peak heights and areas was obtained by ethyl acetate. Chloroform:methanol(2:1) [C:M(2:1)] was used as a positive control for lipid extraction. Our findings provide evidence that alkyl acetates cause lipid extraction, which leads to an enhancement in the passive and iontophoretic permeability of leuprolide acetate. PMID:11250109

  20. Kinetic study of the reaction of the hydroxyl radical (OH) with methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) and its deuterated isotopomers at low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljegren, J. A.; Stevens, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) in the atmosphere comes from a variety of sources. It is produced commercially as an industrial ketone. It can be formed as a result of the OH or Cl-initiated oxidation of C4-C6 alkanes, primarily n-butane, or from the reaction of some alkenes with OH or O3. Biogenic sources include direct emissions from certain plants as well as emissions from decaying plant matter. Methyl ethyl ketone is removed from the atmosphere primarily by its reaction with OH. A product of this reaction includes acetaldehyde, which is a hazardous air pollutant, can further react to produce peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN), and can be a significant source of free radicals to the atmosphere. The absolute rate constant for the reaction of OH with methyl ethyl ketone has been measured as a function of temperature at low pressure using discharge-flow techniques coupled with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection of OH. In addition, measurements of the rate constants for the reactions of OH with two deuterated isotopomers of methyl ethyl ketone, including CD3C(O)CH2CH3 and CH3C(O)CD2CD3, will be presented to gain a better understanding of the mechanism for this reaction. Theoretical studies of the potential energy surface for this reaction suggest that the reaction proceeds through the formation of a hydrogen-bonded pre-reactive complex, similar to that of several other atmospherically relevant oxygenated VOCs such as acetone, acetic acid, and hydroxyacetone.

  1. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Hosseini Salekdeh, Ghasem; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated. PMID:26725518

  2. Separation of polyphenols and caffeine from the acetone extract of fermented tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) using high-performance countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Jung; Hong, Yong Deog; Lee, Bumjin; Park, Jun Seong; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Kim, Wan Gi; Shin, Song Seok; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-07-21

    Leaves from Camellia sienensis are a popular natural source of various beverage worldwide, and contain caffeine and polyphenols derived from catechin analogues. In the current study, caffeine (CAF, 1) and three tea polyphenols including (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg, 2), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg, 3), and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg, 4) were isolated and purified by flow-rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:9:1:9, v/v). Two hundred milligrams of acetone-soluble extract from fermented C. sinensis leaves was separated by HPCCC to give 1 (25.4 mg), 2 (16.3 mg), 3 (11.1 mg) and 4 (4.4 mg) with purities over 98%. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by QTOF-MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR, and the obtained data were compared to the previously reported values.

  3. Ethyl-2-(3,5-Dihidroxyfenol): Phloroglucinol derivatives as potential anticancer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumaningsih, Triana; Firdaus, Maulidan; Widyo Wartono, Muhammad; Nur Artanti, Anif; Suci Handayani, Desi; Eryanto Putro, Angga

    2016-02-01

    Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroxyfenol) based phloroglucinol compounds have been synthesized. Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroksifenol) were synthesized by reacting phloroglucinol with ethyl 2-chloro acetate in excess. Phloroglucinol reaction using 2-chloro ethyl acetate was carried out under reflux for 24 hours at a temperature of 56 oC. The reaction products were identified by a thin layer chromatography and were characterized by melting point test. Analysis of the structure of the products was obtained by FTIR spectrophotometer, H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The result of the reaction between phloroglucinol and 2-chloro ethyl acetate was brownish black solid, and has a melting point of 191 oC. Based on the structural analysis by FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, the reaction product was a mixture of compounds which is ethyl 2- (3,5-dihidroksifenol) acetate, ethyl-2-(2,4,6-trioxocyclohexyl) acetate, and the rest of phloroglucinol which can not react.

  4. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  5. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  8. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate as an inhibitor of phagocytosis of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Kataoka, T; Tajika, T; Uramoto, M; Magae, J; Nagai, K

    1995-08-01

    We screened extracts of edible plants for inhibitors of phagocytosis by peritoneal exudate macrophages. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Languas galanga, and this compound strongly inhibited phagocytosis at an IC50 value of 1.2 microM with negligible effects on pinocytosis and cell viability. Target(s) of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate was suggested to be downstream of the signal transduction pathway that is mediated by protein kinase C.

  9. High-yield synthesis of bioactive ethyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-Hao; Zhang, Jiang-Yan; Chen, Na; Zhi, Gao-Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate through esterification of cinnamic acid with ethanol was studied. In order to increase the yield of ethyl cinnamate, several media, including acetone, isooctane, DMSO and solvent-free medium, were investigated in this reaction. The reaction showed a high yield by using isooctane as reaction medium, which was found to be much higher than the yields reported previously. Furthermore, several parameters such as shaking rate, water activity, reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio and enzyme loading had important influences on this reaction. For instance, when temperature increased from 10 to 50 °C, the initial reaction rate increased by 18 times and the yield of ethyl cinnamate increased by 6.2 times. Under the optimum conditions, lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate gave a maximum yield of 99%, which was of general interest for developing industrial processes for the preparation of ethyl cinnamate.

  10. Bacterial degradation of acetone in an outdoor model stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Stephens, D.W.; Tai, D.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Diurnal variations of the acetone concentration in an outdoor model stream were measured with and without a nitrate supplement to determine if the nitrate supplement would stimulate bacterial degradation of the acetone. Acetone loss coefficients were computed from the diurnal data using a fitting procedure based on a Lagrangian particle model. The coefficients indicated that bacterial degradation of the acetone was occurring in the downstream part of the stream during the nitrate addition. However, the acetone concentrations stabilized at values considerably above the limit of detection for acetone determination, in contrast to laboratory respirometer studies where the acetone concentration decreased rapidly to less than the detection limit, once bacterial acclimation to the acetone had occurred. One possible explanation for the difference in behavior was the limited 6-hour residence time of the acetone in the model stream.

  11. Relationship of O2 Photodesorption in Photooxidation of Acetone on TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-07-31

    Organic photooxidation on TiO2 invariably involves the coexistence of organic species with oxygen on the surface at the same time. In the case of acetone and oxygen, both species exhibit their own interesting photochemistry on TiO2, but interdependences between the two are not understood. In this study, a rutile TiO2(110) surface possessing 7% surface oxygen vacancy sites is used as a model surface to probe the relationship between O2 photodesorption and acetone photodecomposition. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements indicate that coadsorbed oxygen is essential to acetone photodecomposition on this surface, however the form of oxygen (molecular and dissociative) is not known. The first steps in acetone photodecomposition on TiO2(110) involve thermal activation with oxygen to form an acetone diolate ((CH3)2COO) species followed by photochemical decomposition to adsorbed acetate (CH3COO) and an ejected CH3 radical that is detected in PSD. Depending on the surface conditions, O2 PSD is also observed during the latter process. However, the time scales for the two PSD events (CH3 and O2) are quite different, withthe former occurring at ~10 times faster than the latter. By varying the preheating conditions or performing pre-irradiation on an O2 exposed surface, it becomes clear that the two PSD events are uncorrelated. That is, the O2 species responsible for O2 PSD is not a significant participant in the photochemistry of acetone on TiO2(110) and likely originates from a minority form of O2 on the surface. The CH3 and O2 PSD events do not appear to be in competition with each other suggesting either that ample charge carriers exist under the experimental conditions employed or that different charge carriers or excitation mechanisms are involved.

  12. {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibited Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in Bel-7402 Cells and Its Resistant Variants by Activation of NOX4 and SIRT3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiaoxue; Sun, Shiyue; Xu, Xiaoyu; Qu, Xian-jun

    2015-01-01

    {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) is a novel indole compound, which possessed high efficacy against many cancers xenografted in mice without obvious toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Bel-7402 cells and its resistant variants Bel-7402/5FU. MIAM inhibited the growth of HCC more potent in Bel-7402/5FU cells than its parent cells. MIAM increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, induced cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. MIAM might exert its action on Bel-7402/5FU cells through activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)/p22phox, Sirtuin3 (SIRT3)/SOD2, and SIRT3/p53/p21Waf1/Cip pathways. MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through the modulation of SIRT3. When SIRT3 was silenced, the inhibitory effect of MIAM on Bel-7402/5FU was lowered, showing the characteristic of resistance against MIAM, whereas Bel-7402/5FU cells with high expression of SIRT3 by SIRT3 adenovirus infection demonstrated the high sensitivity to MIAM. These results suggested that MIAM might exert its action against Bel-7402/5FU growth through upregulation of SIRT3. We suggested that MIAM might be a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent targeting NOX4 and SIRT3 activation. PMID:25961022

  13. Parameters Affecting Ethyl Ester Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Fermentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Saerens, S. M. G.; Delvaux, F.; Verstrepen, K. J.; Van Dijck, P.; Thevelein, J. M.; Delvaux, F. R.

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

  14. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acetone peroxide, with minor proportions of higher polymers, manufactured by reaction of hydrogen peroxide... grams to 10 grams of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in flour maturing and bleaching; or (2) approximately 0.75 gram of hydrogen peroxide equivalent...

  15. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acetone peroxide, with minor proportions of higher polymers, manufactured by reaction of hydrogen peroxide... grams to 10 grams of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in flour maturing and bleaching; or (2) approximately 0.75 gram of hydrogen peroxide equivalent...

  16. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acetone peroxide, with minor proportions of higher polymers, manufactured by reaction of hydrogen peroxide... grams to 10 grams of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in flour maturing and bleaching; or (2) approximately 0.75 gram of hydrogen peroxide equivalent...

  17. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acetone peroxide, with minor proportions of higher polymers, manufactured by reaction of hydrogen peroxide... grams to 10 grams of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in flour maturing and bleaching; or (2) approximately 0.75 gram of hydrogen peroxide equivalent...

  18. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... proportions of higher polymers, manufactured by reaction of hydrogen peroxide and acetone. (b) The additive...; or (2) approximately 0.75 gram of hydrogen peroxide equivalent per 100 grams of the additive, plus... agent in bread and roll production at not to exceed the quantity of hydrogen peroxide...

  19. Flow injection spectrofluorimetric determination of reserpine in tablets by on-line acetone sensitized photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; He, Q

    2000-11-01

    On-line photochemical reaction of reserpine in the presence of acetone was investigated. Acetone was found to speed up the on-line photochemical conversion of reserpine into an intensively fluorescent compound. Not only reaction acidity but also the acetate buffer concentration affected the on-line photochemical induced fluorescence signal. Based on the observation an automated flow injection photochemical fluorimetric approach was developed. An injected sample zone was carried by a water stream to be merged with a acetate buffer (pH 3.4) solution containing 0.02% acetone in a knotted PTFE reactor (KR), which was freely coiled around a 6-W low pressure mercury lamp. While passing the KR, reserpine was transformed into an intensively fluorescent compound. It was on-line detected in a flow-through cell at the emission wavelength of 490 nm and excitation wavelength of 386 nm. At optimized conditions, a detection limit 0.45 mug l(-1) was achieved at a sampling rate of 90 h(-1). Eleven determinations of a 0.5 mg l(-1) reserpine standard solution gave a R.S.D. of 0.3%. The linear dynamic range of reserpine calibration curve was 0.01-0.75 mg l(-1). The proposed method was applied to assay the reserpine content in tablets and to monitor the dissolution profile of reserpine tablets. Satisfactory results were obtained for both the assays and dissolution studies. PMID:18968131

  20. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  1. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  2. Chlorimuron-ethyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorimuron - ethyl ; CASRN 90982 - 32 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  3. Breath acetone analyzer: diagnostic tool to monitor dietary fat loss.

    PubMed

    Kundu, S K; Bruzek, J A; Nair, R; Judilla, A M

    1993-01-01

    Acetone, a metabolite of fat catabolism, is produced in excessive amounts in subjects on restricted-calorie weight-loss programs. Breath acetone measurements are useful as a motivational tool during dieting and for monitoring the effectiveness of weight-loss programs. We have developed a simple, easy-to-read method that quantifies the amount of acetone in a defined volume of exhaled breath after trapping the sample in a gas-analyzer column. The concentration of acetone, as measured by the length of a blue color zone in the analyzer column, correlates with results obtained by gas chromatography. Using the breath acetone analyzer to quantify breath acetone concentrations of dieting subjects, we established a correlation between breath acetone concentration and rate of fat loss (slope 52.2 nmol/L per gram per day, intercept 15.3 nmol/L, n = 78, r = 0.81). We also discussed the possibility of using breath acetone in diabetes management.

  4. 46 CFR 153.1035 - Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. 153.1035... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1035 Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. No person may operate a tankship carrying a cargo of acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions, unless that cargo is...

  5. 46 CFR 153.1035 - Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. 153.1035... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1035 Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. No person may operate a tankship carrying a cargo of acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions, unless that cargo is...

  6. 46 CFR 153.1035 - Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. 153.1035... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1035 Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. No person may operate a tankship carrying a cargo of acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions, unless that cargo is...

  7. 46 CFR 153.1035 - Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. 153.1035... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1035 Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. No person may operate a tankship carrying a cargo of acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions, unless that cargo is...

  8. 46 CFR 153.1035 - Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. 153.1035... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1035 Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. No person may operate a tankship carrying a cargo of acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions, unless that cargo is...

  9. Promotion of dropwise condensation of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, and acetone by polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Coating condensing surfaces with thin layer of nonpolar Teflon results in dropwise condensation of polar organic vapor. Greater heat transfer coefficients are produced increasing effectiveness of condensing system. Investigation shows that vapors with strong dipole moment tend to condense dropwise.

  10. Acetone-butanol fermentation of marine macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Huesemann, Michael H; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay; Gill, Gary A; Roesijadi, Guri

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to subject mannitol, either as a sole carbon source or in combination with glucose, and aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., containing mannitol and laminarin, to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  11. Synthesis of rapeseed biodiesel using short-chained alkyl acetates as acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we conducted experiments using a response surface methodology to determine the optimal reaction conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel from rapeseed oil and short-chained alkyl acetates, such as methyl acetate or ethyl acetate, as the acyl acceptor at 40 degrees C. Based on our response surface methodology experiments, the optimal reaction conditions for the synthesis of biodiesel were as follows: methyl acetate as acyl acceptor, catalyst concentration of 16.50%, oil-to-methyl acetate molar ratio of 1:12.44, and reaction time of 19.70 h; ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor, catalyst concentration of 16.95%, oil-to-ethyl acetate molar ratio of 1:12.56, and reaction time of 19.73 h. The fatty acid ester content under the above conditions when methyl acetate and ethyl acetate were used as the acyl acceptor was 58.0% and 62.6%, respectively. The statistical method described in this study can be applied to effectively optimize the enzymatic conditions required for biodiesel production with short-chained alkyl acetates.

  12. Synthesis of rapeseed biodiesel using short-chained alkyl acetates as acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we conducted experiments using a response surface methodology to determine the optimal reaction conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel from rapeseed oil and short-chained alkyl acetates, such as methyl acetate or ethyl acetate, as the acyl acceptor at 40 degrees C. Based on our response surface methodology experiments, the optimal reaction conditions for the synthesis of biodiesel were as follows: methyl acetate as acyl acceptor, catalyst concentration of 16.50%, oil-to-methyl acetate molar ratio of 1:12.44, and reaction time of 19.70 h; ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor, catalyst concentration of 16.95%, oil-to-ethyl acetate molar ratio of 1:12.56, and reaction time of 19.73 h. The fatty acid ester content under the above conditions when methyl acetate and ethyl acetate were used as the acyl acceptor was 58.0% and 62.6%, respectively. The statistical method described in this study can be applied to effectively optimize the enzymatic conditions required for biodiesel production with short-chained alkyl acetates. PMID:19802734

  13. Increasing butanol/acetone ratio and solvent productivity in ABE fermentation by consecutively feeding butyrate to weaken metabolic strength of butyrate loop.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Zhigang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we attempted to increase butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in ABE fermentations with corn- and cassava-based media, by consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate/acetate during solventogenic phase to weaken the metabolic strengths in butyrate/acetate closed-loops. Consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate (a total of 3.0 g/L-broth) is most effective in improving performance of corn-based ABE fermentations, as it simultaneously increased average butanol/acetone ratio by 23 % (1.92-2.36) and total solvent productivity by 16 % (0.355-0.410 g/L/h) as compared with those of control. However, the butyrate feeding strategy could not improve butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in cassava-based ABE fermentations, where the metabolic strength of butyrate closed-loop had already been very low.

  14. High-flux cellulose acetate membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Finken, H.; Wenzlaff, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three routes to increase the permeate flux of asymmetric cellulose diacetate membranes of the Loeb-Sourirajan type were investigated: increasing the hydrophilicity of the membranes; increasing their compaction stability, and employing a swelling agent which allows for higher solvent-to-polymer ratio in the casting solution. The effect of casting solution composition on flux and rejection of formamide-modified cellulose acetate membrane is included, illustrating the general capability of this membrane type as function of solvent concentration. Membranes of casting solution composition cellulose diacetate/acetone/formamide 23/52/25 were used as reference membranes in the work. 6 figures. (DP)

  15. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus... formate, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethyl alcohol, 2-butanone, acetic acid, and acetoin. (b) The...

  16. Economic evaluation of the acetone - butanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, T.G.; Morevra, A.R.

    1980-12-01

    The economics of producing acetone and 1-butanol via fermentation have been examined for a 45 X 10 to the power of 6 kg of solvents/year plant. For a molasses substrate, the total annual production costs were about $24.4 million vs. a total annual income of $36 million, with about $20 million total required capital. Molasses cost of about $24.4 million/year was critical to these economics. Liquid whey was next evaluated as an alternative feed. Whey feed saved about $11 million annually in feed costs and yielded about $7 million net additional annual revenues from protein sale. These primary differences gave an annual gross profit of about $15 million for the whey case and resulted in a discounted cash flow rate of return of 29%. It is concluded that waste based acetone-butanol production via fermentation deserves further attention in view of the attractive whey-based economics and the excellent potential of butanol as a fuel extender, especially for diesohol blending.

  17. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  18. Enzymology of acetone-butanol-isopropanol formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiann-Shin.

    1992-01-01

    The long-term goal of the project is to understand the fundamental properties of biological solvent production. Our approach is to elucidate first the molecular properties of solvent-producing enzymes and then to apply to information gained from the enzymological study to investigate control mechanisms for the solvent-producing pathways and the expression of solvent-production genes. Our research primarily involves two strains of Clostridium beijerinckii: C. Beijerinckii NRRL B593 which produces isopropanol in addition to acetone, butanol, and ethanol, and C. beijerinckii NRRL B592 which produces acetone, butanol and ethanol, but not isopropanol. In more recent studies, we also included another solvent-producing organism, Bacillus macerans. Objectives for the reporting period were: to characterize the distinct types of alcohol dehydrogenase; to purify and characterize acetoacetyl-CoA-reacting enzymes; and to clone and sequence the gene encoding the primary/secondary alcohol dehydrogenase of C beijerinckii NRRL B593 and to search for the promoter region for solvent-production genes.

  19. Excellent acetone sensing properties of porous ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Bai; Liu, Xing-Yi; Wang, Sheng-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Porous ZnO was obtained by hydrothermal method. The results of scanning electron microscope revealed the porous structure in the as-prepared materials. The acetone sensing test results of porous ZnO show that porous ZnO possesses excellent acetone gas sensing properties. The response is 35.5 at the optimum operating temperature of 320 °C to 100 ppm acetone. The response and recovery times to 50 ppm acetone are 2 s and 8 s, respectively. The lowest detecting limit to acetone is 0.25 ppm, and the response value is 3.8. Moreover, the sensors also exhibit excellent selectivity and long-time stability to acetone. Projected supported by the Project of Challenge Cup for College Students, China (Grant No. 450060497053).

  20. Acetone evaporation monitoring using a caterpillar-like microstructured fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, A. D.; Ferreira, M. F. S.; Moura, J. P.; André, R. M.; Silva, S. O.; Kobelke, J.; Bierlich, J.; Wondraczek, K.; Schuster, K.; Frazão, O.

    2015-09-01

    A new microstructured optical fiber is demonstrated to detect acetone evaporation by observing the time response of the reflected signal at 1550nm. The sensor consists on a caterpillar-like fiber, with a transversal microfluidic channel created with a Focused Ion Beam technique, spliced to a single-mode fiber. Different stages were visible between the dipping and the evaporation of acetone and of a mixture of water and acetone. It was also possible to detect the presence of water vapor.

  1. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Wenqing

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  2. Dissociative electron attachment studies on acetone

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S. Tadsare, Vishvesh; Ghosh, Sanat; Gope, Krishnendu; Davis, Daly; Krishnakumar, E.

    2014-10-28

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetone is studied in terms of the absolute cross section for various fragment channels in the electron energy range of 0–20 eV. H{sup −} is found to be the most dominant fragment followed by O{sup −} and OH{sup −} with only one resonance peak between 8 and 9 eV. The DEA dynamics is studied by measuring the angular distribution and kinetic energy distribution of fragment anions using Velocity Slice Imaging technique. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of H{sup −} and O{sup −} fragments suggest a many body break-up for the lone resonance observed. The ab initio calculations show that electron is captured in the multi-centered anti-bonding molecular orbital which would lead to a many body break-up of the resonance.

  3. Ionothermal synthesis of homochiral framework with acetate-pillared cobalt-camphorate architecture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shumei; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2008-07-01

    A new organically templated homochiral material (EMIm)[Co 2( d-cam) 2(ac)] ( 1; d-H 2cam = d-camphoric acid; ac = acetate; EMIm = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium) has been ionothermally synthesized, and it features an unusual acetate-pillared cobalt-camphorate architecture encapsulating the cationic component of the ionic liquid.

  4. Topical treatment of acne rosacea with benzoyl peroxide acetone gel.

    PubMed

    Montes, L F; Cordero, A A; Kriner, J; Loder, J; Flanagan, A D

    1983-08-01

    A group of patients with acne rosacea was treated with 5 percent benzoyl peroxide acetone gel for four weeks and then with 10 percent benzoyl peroxide acetone gel for an additional four weeks. A parallel group of patients was treated with a matching placebo (acetone gel vehicle). At the end of the first four weeks of treatment the dropout rate due to lack of improvement was 23 and 63 percent for benzoyl peroxide acetone gel and placebo, respectively. Benzoyl peroxide acetone gel was superior to placebo with respect to improvement in the overall severity of the lesions when judged by photographs, and by reduction of erythema, papules, and pustules. Results after treatment with benzoyl peroxide acetone gel were better during weeks five to eight than during weeks one to four for all lesions except telangiectasia. Benzoyl peroxide acetone gel was superior to placebo when the overall responses were compared. In addition, the benzoyl peroxide acetone gel-treated group, but not the placebo-treated group, showed a significantly better response during weeks five to eight compared to weeks one to four.

  5. Effect of Cobalt Particle Size on Acetone Steam Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Zhang, He; Yu, Ning; Davidson, Stephen D.; Wang, Yong

    2015-06-11

    Carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles with different particle sizes were synthesized and characterized by complementary characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, N-2 sorption, acetone temperature-programmed desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and CO chemisorption. Using acetone steam reforming reaction as a probe reaction, we revealed a volcano-shape curve of the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency of acetone) and the CO2 selectivity as a function of the cobalt particle size with the highest activity and selectivity observed at a particle size of approximately 12.8nm. Our results indicate that the overall performance of acetone steam reforming is related to a combination of particle-size-dependent acetone decomposition, water dissociation, and the oxidation state of the cobalt nanoparticles.

  6. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO2(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Calaza, Florencia C.; Chen, Tsung -Liang; Mullins, David R.; Xu, Ye; Steven H. Overbury

    2015-05-02

    Adsorption and reaction of acetic acid on a CeO2(1 1 1) surface was studied by a combination of ultra-highvacuum based methods including temperature desorption spectroscopy (TPD), soft X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (sXPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and reflection absorption IRspectroscopy (RAIRS), together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO2 surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products. The combination of sXPS and NEXAFS demon-strate that acetate forms upon adsorption at low temperature and is stable to above 500 K, above whichpoint ketene, acetone and acetic acid desorb. Furthermore, DFT and RAIRS show that below 500 K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption.

  7. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO2(111)

    DOE PAGES

    Calaza, Florencia C.; Chen, Tsung -Liang; Mullins, David R.; Xu, Ye; Steven H. Overbury

    2015-05-02

    Adsorption and reaction of acetic acid on a CeO2(1 1 1) surface was studied by a combination of ultra-highvacuum based methods including temperature desorption spectroscopy (TPD), soft X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (sXPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and reflection absorption IRspectroscopy (RAIRS), together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO2 surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products. The combination of sXPS and NEXAFS demon-strate that acetate forms upon adsorption at low temperature and is stable to above 500 K, above whichpoint ketene, acetone and acetic acidmore » desorb. Furthermore, DFT and RAIRS show that below 500 K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption.« less

  8. Photo-catalytic oxidation of acetone on a TiO2 powder: An in situ FTIR investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Szanyi, János; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2015-09-01

    In situ transmission infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the photo-oxidation of acetone on a commercial, oxidized TiO2 (P25) powder catalyst under UV irradiation at ambient temperature, in the absence and presence of gas phase O2. The photochemistry of a number of organic molecules (1-butanone, methanol and acetic acid,) under the same conditions was also studied in order to identify reaction intermediates and products formed in the photo-oxidation of acetone. Under anaerobic conditions (in the absence of gas phase oxygen) limited extent of photo-oxidation of acetone took place on the oxidized TiO2 sample. In the presence of O2 in the gas phase, however, acetone was completely converted to acetates and formates, and ultimately CO2. The initial step in the sequence of photo-induced reactions is the ejection of a methyl radical, resulting in the formation of surface acetates (from the acetyl group) and formates (from the methyl radicals). Acetate ions are also converted to formates, that, in turn, photo-oxidized to CO2. Under the experimental conditions applied the accumulation of carbonates and bicarbonates were observed on the TiO2 surface as the photo-oxidation of acetone proceeded (this was also observed during the course of photo-oxidation of all the other organics studied here). When the initial radical ejection step produced hydrocarbons containing more than one C atoms (as in the case in 2-butanone and mesytil oxide), the formation of aldehydes on the catalyst surface was also observed as a result of secondary reactions. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. JHK also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2014 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea). The authors thank M

  9. EPA dashes ethyl`s hopes for MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, K.

    1992-01-15

    Up until the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington) decided to deny Ethyl`s (Richmond, VA) petition to sell manganese-based gasoline additive MMT, many on Wall Street were bullish. Bets were that MMT sales could create an up to $200 million/year sales windfall for Ethyl with $60 million/year income, and push its near $26/share price up by at least 50 cts. But EPA ruled January 8 against MMT in unleaded gas due to its potential to increase hydrocarbon emissions. What kept analysts hoping is that octane enhancer MMT`s environmental impacts are mixed. An Ethyl spokesman says that MMT cut tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxide by 20% and carbon monoxide by 7%. Ethyl also points out that MMT could save as much as 85,000 barrels/day of imported oil because of lower energy requirements in blending. And the product has sold for 13 years in Canada with no reported ill health effects. But, points out Smith, Barney (New York) analyst James Wilbur, Canada is not the congested Los Angeles basin, where the unknown effects of small amounts of heavy metal manganese would show up a lot faster if every car burnt MMT. For now, the financial effect of the decision is negligible, although at some point Ethyl may have to take a write-down on its Orangeburg, NC plant.

  10. Ethyl`s MMT ready to hit the road

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.

    1996-01-03

    After spending two decades and about $30 million on the fight to sell the fuel octane booster methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), Ethyl has started marketing the product. Ethyl president and chief operating officer Thomas Gottwald says he expects a profit from MMT from the outset. {open_quotes}MMT is a gangbuster new product,{close_quotes} says Paul Raman, an analyst with S.G. Warburg (New York), {open_quotes}and it will be very profitable for Ethyl.{close_quotes} Ethyl`s effort to bring MMT to market faced pressure from EPA and automakers. EPA says MMT should not be marketed until more research is done on health effects of the manganese-based additive. US automakers oppose MMT, fearing it will damage catalytic converters. Last October Ethyl won a federal appeals court decision compelling EPA to approve MMT use. Gottwald says the MMT fight has been well worth it: {open_quotes}We fought with our eye on the bottom line.{close_quotes}

  11. Acetone odor and irritation thresholds obtained from acetone-exposed factory workers and from control (occupationally unexposed) subjects.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, C J; Dalton, P; Brody, M J; Lawley, H J

    1997-10-01

    Sensitivity of olfaction (smell) and chemesthesis (irritation) was evaluated for 2-propanone (acetone) and 1-butanol in acetone-exposed workers (AEW; N = 32) during a workday and unexposed subjects (microES; N = 32). Irritation sensitivity was assessed using a method that relies on the ability of individuals to localize irritants on the body. When a volatile compound is inhaled into one nostril and air into the other, the stimulated side can be determined (lateralized) only after the concentration reaches a level that stimulates the trigeminal nerve (irritation); compounds stimulating olfaction alone cannot be lateralized. Intranasal lateralization thresholds offer an objective measure of sensory irritation elicited by volatile compounds. Test results indicated that neither olfactory nor lateralization thresholds for butanol differed between AEW and microES. Olfactory thresholds to acetone in AEW (855 ppm) were elevated relative to those of microES (41 ppm), as were lateralization thresholds (36,669 ppm and 15,758 ppm, respectively). Within AEW, level of occupational exposure was not correlated with thresholds. Other measures revealed that microES used more irritation descriptors than did AEW on trials where the acetone concentration was below the lateralization threshold. This is noteworthy because microES received lower concentrations of acetone to evaluate than did AEW. These results suggest that exposures to acetone induce changes in acetone sensitivity that are specific to acetone. The acetone concentrations eliciting sensory irritation using the lateralization technique were all well above current occupational exposure standards. The current study indicates that acetone is a weak sensory irritant and that sensory adaptation is an important factor affecting its overall irritancy. PMID:9342830

  12. An ethanolamine plasmalogen artifact formed by acetone extraction of freeze-dried tissue.

    PubMed

    Helmy, F M; Hack, M H

    1966-07-01

    Extraction of freeze-dried tissues by acetone results in the in vitro production of an acetone derivative (imine) of the ethanolamine phosphatides. Some of the properties of the acetone imine of ethanolamine plasmalogen are discussed.

  13. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endogenous acetone production is a by‐product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. Results BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non‐dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. Conclusions When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non‐invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. PMID:26524104

  14. Acetone cluster ion beam irradiation on solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryuto, H.; Kakumoto, Y.; Itozaki, S.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.

    2013-11-01

    Acetone cluster ions were produced by the adiabatic expansion method without using a support gas. The acceleration voltage of the acetone cluster ion beam was from 3 to 9 kV. The sputter depths of silicon irradiated with acetone cluster ion beams increased with acceleration voltage and fluence of the acetone cluster ion beams. The sputter depth was close to that induced by the ethanol cluster ion beam accelerated at the same acceleration voltage. The sputtering yield of silicon by the acetone cluster ion beam at an acceleration voltage of 9 kV was approximately 100 times larger than that for an argon monomer ion beam at 9 keV. The sputter depths of silicon dioxide irradiated with the acetone cluster ion beams were smaller than those of silicon, but larger than those induced by ethanol cluster ion beams. The XPS analysis of silicon surface indicated that the silicon surface was more strongly oxidized by the irradiation of acetone cluster ion beam than ethanol cluster ion beam.

  15. [Use of sodium acetate in feed rations in ketotic cows].

    PubMed

    Vojtísek, B; Hamrík, J; Hronová, B; Diblíková, I; Minksová, E

    1989-10-01

    On a farm where the ration of cows contained 88.0 g of butyric acid, an experimental group of cows (n = 8), producing milk containing 7.9 mg or more acetone per litre, was studied for 14 days for the effect of a 250 g supplement of sodium acetate to the ration (combined with single i.m. administration of vitamins A, D2 and E) on selected metabolism parameters and on milk production. As distinct from the control group of cows (n = 8) from the same farm which produced milk containing 3.9 mg or less acetone per litre and which were fed without sodium acetone supplements, a tendency of increased alkaemia of the organism was suggested in the experimental cows. This tendency manifested itself during the trial in increased pH values, increased base excess (BE) and standard bicarbonate (SB) in the blood, and in an increase in the pH value and net acido basic secretion in urine. A decrease was recorded in the concentration of the acetone + acetacetic acid sum, the same as beta-hydroxybutyric acid in blood and the sum of acetone and acetacetic acid in milk (P less than 0.01). An insignificant increase of the activity of gammaglutamyl transpeptidase (GMT) was recorded in the blood serum of the experimental cows and a significant increase occurred in the content of potassium (up to P less than 0.01) and urea (up to P less than 0.01) in urine. The supplement of sodium acetate to the feed ration did not influence the degree of ketonuria and the finding of urobilinogen in urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  17. Toward portable breath acetone analysis for diabetes detection.

    PubMed

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes is a lifelong condition that may cause death and seriously affects the quality of life of a rapidly growing number of individuals. Acetone is a selective breath marker for diabetes that may contribute to the monitoring of related metabolic disorder and thus simplify the management of this illness. Here, the overall performance of Si-doped WO(3) nanoparticles, made by flame spray pyrolysis, as portable acetone detectors is critically reviewed focusing on the requirements for medical diagnostics. The effect of flow rate, chamber volume and acetone dissociation within the measuring chamber is discussed with respect to the calibration of the sensor response. The challenges for the fabrication of portable breath acetone sensors based on chemo-resistive detectors are underlined indicating possible solutions and novel research directions. PMID:21828897

  18. Toward Portable Breath Acetone Analysis for Diabetes Detection

    PubMed Central

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a lifelong condition that may cause death and seriously affects the quality of life of a rapidly growing number of individuals. Acetone is a selective breath marker for diabetes that may contribute to the monitoring of related metabolic disorder and thus simplify the management of this illness. Here, the overall performance of Si-doped WO3 nanoparticles made by flame spray pyrolysis as portable acetone detectors is critically reviewed focusing on the requirements for medical diagnostic. The effect of flow rate, chamber volume and acetone dissociation within the measuring chamber are discussed with respect to the calibration of the sensor response. The challenges for the fabrication of portable breath acetone sensors based on chemo-resistive detectors are underlined indicating possible solutions and novel research directions. PMID:21828897

  19. Characterisation of cellulose films regenerated from acetone/water coagulants.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongjuan; Yuan, Zaiwu; Fan, Qingrui; Dai, Xiaonan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhaojiang; Qin, Menghua

    2014-02-15

    A precooled aqueous solution of 7 wt% NaOH/12 wt% urea was used to dissolve cellulose up to a concentration of 2 wt%, which was then coagulated in an acetone/water mixture to regenerate cellulose film. The volume ratio of acetone to water (φ) had a dominant influence on film dimensional stability, film-forming ability, micromorphology, and mechanical strength. The film regenerated at φ=2.0 showed excellent performance in both dimensional stability and film-forming ability. Compared to that from pure acetone, the cellulose film from the acetone/water mixture with φ=2.0 was more densely interwoven, since the cellulosic fibrils formed during regeneration had pores with smaller average diameter. The alkali capsulated in the film during film formation could be released at quite a slow rate into the surrounding aqueous solution. The regenerated cellulose film with adjustable structure and properties may have potential applications in drug release and ultra filtration.

  20. Acetone sensor based on zinc oxide hexagonal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hastir, Anita Singh, Onkar Anand, Kanika Singh, Ravi Chand

    2014-04-24

    In this work hexagonal tubes of zinc oxide have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. For structural, morphological, elemental and optical analysis synthesized powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning microscope, EDX, UV-visible and FTIR techniques. For acetone sensing thick films of zinc oxide have been deposited on alumina substrate. The fabricated sensors exhibited maximum sensing response towards acetone vapour at an optimum operating temperature of 400°C.

  1. Maximizing recovery of water-soluble proteins through acetone precipitation.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Andrew M J; Wall, Mark J; Doucette, Alan A

    2013-09-24

    Solvent precipitation is commonly used to purify protein samples, as seen with the removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate through acetone precipitation. However, in its current practice, protein loss is believed to be an inevitable consequence of acetone precipitation. We herein provide an in depth characterization of protein recovery through acetone precipitation. In 80% acetone, the precipitation efficiency for six of 10 protein standards was poor (ca. ≤15%). Poor recovery was also observed for proteome extracts, including bacterial and mammalian cells. As shown in this work, increasing the ionic strength of the solution dramatically improves the precipitation efficiency of individual proteins, and proteome mixtures (ca. 80-100% yield). This is obtained by including 1-30 mM NaCl, together with acetone (50-80%) which maximizes protein precipitation efficiency. The amount of salt required to restore the recovery correlates with the amount of protein in the sample, as well as the intrinsic protein charge, and the dielectric strength of the solution. This synergistic approach to protein precipitation in acetone with salt is consistent with a model of ion pairing in organic solvent, and establishes an improved method to recover proteins and proteome mixtures in high yield.

  2. Achievements and perspectives to overcome the poor solvent resistance in acetone and butanol-producing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ezeji, Thaddeus; Milne, Caroline; Price, Nathan D; Blaschek, Hans P

    2010-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria such as the solventogenic clostridia can ferment a wide range of carbon sources (e.g., glucose, galactose, cellobiose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose) to produce carboxylic acids (acetic and butyric) and solvents such as acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE). The fermentation process typically proceeds in two phases (acidogenic and solventogenic) in a batch mode. Poor solvent resistance by the solventogenic clostridia and other fermenting microorganisms is a major limiting factor in the profitability of ABE production by fermentation. The toxic effect of solvents, especially butanol, limits the concentration of these solvents in the fermentation broth, limiting solvent yields and adding to the cost of solvent recovery from dilute solutions. The accepted dogma is that toxicity in the ABE fermentation is due to chaotropic effects of butanol on the cell membranes of the fermenting microorganisms, which poses a challenge for the biotechnological whole-cell bio-production of butanol. This mini-review is focused on (1) the effects of solvents on inhibition of cell metabolism (nutrient transport, ion transport, and energy metabolism); (2) cell membrane fluidity, death, and solvent tolerance associated with the ability of cells to tolerate high concentrations of solvents without significant loss of cell function; and (3) strategies for overcoming poor solvent resistance in acetone and butanol-producing microorganisms.

  3. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) Fermentation Wastewater Treatment by Oleaginous Yeast Trichosporon cutaneum.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lian; Huang, Chao; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xue-Fang; Wang, Bo; Wang, Can; Zeng, Xin-An; Chen, Xin-De

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) value (about 18,000 mg/L) was biologically treated by oleaginous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum without any pretreatment. During fermentation, most COD degradation was finished within 48 h and finally, a maximum COD degradation of 68% was obtained. The highest biomass and lipid content was 4.9 g/L and 14.7%, respectively. Various materials including sugars (glucose and xylose), organic acids (acetic acid and butyric acid), and alcohol compounds (ethanol and butanol) could be utilized as carbon sources by T. cutaneum simultaneously; thus, it has a broad carbon source spectrum and is a potential microorganism for biological treatment for various wastewaters. Overall, the lipid composition of microbial oils produced by this bioconversion is similar to that of vegetable oils, and thus, it could be used for biodiesel production.

  4. Synthesis, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities of novel 2-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolin-1-yl] acetic acids, 2-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolin-1-yl]propionic acids and related derivatives.

    PubMed

    Al-Deeb, Omar A; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; El-Brollosy, Nasser R; Habib, Elsayed E; Ibrahim, Tarek M; El-Emam, Ali A

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of 3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-1,2,4-triazoline-5-thiones 3a-g with sodium chloroacetate, in ethanolic sodium hydroxide yielded the corresponding N1-acetic acid derivatives 4a-g. The interaction of 3a-g with ethyl 2-bromopropionate in acetone, in the presence of potassium carbonate, yielded the corresponding N1-ethyl propionate derivatives 5a-g, which upon hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide afforded the corresponding propionic acid derivatives 6a-g. Similarly, the reaction of 3-(1-adamantyl)-4-amino-1,2,4-triazoline-5-thione 7 with sodium chloroacetate in ethanolic sodium hydroxide yielded the corresponding N1-acetic acid derivative 8. On the other hand, the reaction of 2-(1-adamantyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-5-thione 9 with sodium chloroacetate yielded the corresponding S-acetic acid derivative 10. Compounds 4a-g, 5b, 5c, 5g, 6a-g, 8 and 10 were tested for in vitro activities against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Several derivatives produced good or moderate activities particularly against Bacillus subtilis. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds were determined using the carrageenin-induced paw oedema method in rats. Compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, 4f, 6f, 6g and 10 produced good dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:16478004

  5. Quantitative Clinical Diagnostic Analysis of Acetone in Human Blood by HPLC: A Metabolomic Search for Acetone as Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Akgul Kalkan, Esin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Ulker Cakir, Dilek; Alpaslan, Duygu; Yilmaz, Selehattin

    2016-01-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) as a derivatizing reagent, an analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of acetone in human blood. The determination was carried out at 365 nm using an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diode array detector (DAD). For acetone as its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative, a good separation was achieved with a ThermoAcclaim C18 column (15 cm × 4.6 mm × 3 μm) at retention time (tR) 12.10 min and flowrate of 1 mL min−1 using a (methanol/acetonitrile) water elution gradient. The methodology is simple, rapid, sensitive, and of low cost, exhibits good reproducibility, and allows the analysis of acetone in biological fluids. A calibration curve was obtained for acetone using its standard solutions in acetonitrile. Quantitative analysis of acetone in human blood was successfully carried out using this calibration graph. The applied method was validated in parameters of linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, and precision. We also present acetone as a useful tool for the HPLC-based metabolomic investigation of endogenous metabolism and quantitative clinical diagnostic analysis. PMID:27298750

  6. Acetone in the atmosphere: Distribution, sources, and sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; O'Hara, D.; Herlth, D.; Sachse, W.; Blake, D. R.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Kanakidou, M.; Crutzen, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    Acetone (CH3COCH3) was found to be the dominant nonmethane organic species present in the atmosphere sampled primarily over eastern Canada (0-6 km, 35 deg-65 deg N) during ABLE3B (July to August 1990). A concentration range of 357 to 2310 ppt (= 10(exp -12) v/v) with a mean value of 1140 +/- 413 ppt was measured. Under extremely clean conditions, generally involving Arctic flows, lowest (background) mixing ratios of 550 +/- 100 ppt were present in much of the troposphere studied. Correlations between atmospheric mixing ratios of acetone and select species such as C2H2, CO, C3H8, C2Cl4 and isoprene provided important clues to its possible sources and to the causes of its atmospheric variability. Biomass burning as a source of acetone has been identified for the first time. By using atmospheric data and three-dimensional photochemical models, a global acetone source of 40-60 Tg (= 10(exp 12) g)/yr is estimated to be present. Secondary formation from the atmospheric oxidation of precursor hydrocarbons (principally propane, isobutane, and isobutene) provides the single largest source (51%). The remainder is attributable to biomass burning (26%), direct biogenic emissions (21%), and primary anthropogenic emissions (3%). Atmospheric removal of acetone is estimated to be due to photolysis (64%), reaction with OH radicals (24%), and deposition (12%). Model calculations also suggest that acetone photolysis contributed significantly to PAN formation (100-200 ppt) in the middle and upper troposphere of the sampled region and may be important globally. While the source-sink equation appears to be roughly balanced, much more atmospheric and source data, especially from the southern hemisphere, are needed to reliably quantify the atmospheric budget of acetone.

  7. Acetone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: Impact on trace gases and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, F.; Bürger, V.; Droste-Fanke, B.; Grimm, F.; Krieger, A.; Schneider, J.; Stilp, T.

    Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric acetone measurements have been performed in summer and winter 1994 through 1996 at latitudes between 30°N and 75°N using ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometry. We observed very high acetone volume mixing ratios of up to 3000 pptv (parts per trillion by volume) in extended air masses and in summer when acetone destruction by photodissociation is fast. This indicates efficient transport of acetone and photochemical acetone precursors to the upper troposphere and efficient upper tropospheric formation of acetone products, especially HOx radicals and PAN. Our data indicate large HOx production from acetone which has important implications for other trace gases and aerosols.

  8. S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    S - Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate ( EPTC ) ; CASRN 759 - 94 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  9. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  10. Biogenic and biomass burning sources of acetone to the troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, C.S.

    1997-04-01

    Acetone may be an important source of reactive odd hydrogen in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This source of odd hydrogen may affect the concentration of a number of species, including ozone, nitrogen oxides, methane, and others. Traditional, acetone had been considered a by-product of the photochemical oxidation of other species, and had not entered models as a primary emission. However, recent work estimates a global source term of 40-60 Tg acetone/year. Of this, 25% is directly emitted during biomass burning, and 20% is directly emitted by evergreens and other plants. Only 3% is due to anthropogenic/industrial emissions. The bulk of the remainder, 51% of the acetone source, is a secondary product from the oxidation of propane, isobutane, and isobutene. Also, while it is speculated that the oxidation of pinene (a biogenic emission) may also contribute about 6 Tg/year, this term is highly uncertain. Thus, the two largest primary sources of acetone are biogenic emission and biomass burning, with industrial/anthropogenic emissions very small in comparison.

  11. Sensor gas analyzer for acetone determination in expired air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Vitaly V.

    2001-05-01

    Diseases and changes in the way of life change the concentration and composition of the expired air. Our adaptable gas analyzer is intended for the selective analysis of expired air and can be adapted for the solution of current diagnostic and analytical tasks by the user (a physician or a patient). Having analyzed the existing trends in the development of noninvasive diagnostics we have chosen the method of noninvasive acetone detection in expired air, where the acetone concentration correlates with blood and urine glucose concentrations. The appearance of acetone in expired air is indicative of disorders that may be caused not only by diabetes but also be wrong diet, incorrect sportsmen training etc. To control the disorders one should know the acetone concentration in the human body. This knowledge allows one to judge upon the state of the patient, choose a correct diet that will not cause damage to the patient's health, determine sportsmen training efficiency and results and solve the artificial pancreas problem. Our device provide highly accurate analysis, rapid diagnostics and authentic acetone quantification in the patient's body at any time aimed at prediction of the patient's state and assessing the efficiency of the therapy used. Clinical implementation of the device will improve the health and save lives of many thousands of diabetes sufferers.

  12. Nitrate-Dependent Degradation of Acetone by Alicycliphilus and Paracoccus Strains and Comparison of Acetone Carboxylase Enzymes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dullius, Carlos Henrique; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Schink, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    A novel acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing bacterium, strain KN Bun08, was isolated from an enrichment culture with butanone and nitrate as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The cells were motile short rods, 0.5 to 1 by 1 to 2 μm in size, which gave Gram-positive staining results in the exponential growth phase and Gram-negative staining results in the stationary-growth phase. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was assigned to the genus Alicycliphilus. Besides butanone and acetone, the strain used numerous fatty acids as substrates. An ATP-dependent acetone-carboxylating enzyme was enriched from cell extracts of this bacterium and of Alicycliphilus denitrificans K601T by two subsequent DEAE Sepharose column procedures. For comparison, acetone carboxylases were enriched from two additional nitrate-reducing bacterial species, Paracoccus denitrificans and P. pantotrophus. The products of the carboxylase reaction were acetoacetate and AMP rather than ADP. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of cell extracts and of the various enzyme preparations revealed bands corresponding to molecular masses of 85, 78, and 20 kDa, suggesting similarities to the acetone carboxylase enzymes described in detail for the aerobic bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 (85.3, 78.3, and 19.6 kDa) and the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Protein bands were excised and compared by mass spectrometry with those of acetone carboxylases of aerobic bacteria. The results document the finding that the nitrate-reducing bacteria studied here use acetone-carboxylating enzymes similar to those of aerobic and phototrophic bacteria. PMID:21841031

  13. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  14. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  15. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower.

    PubMed

    Habib, M Rowshanul; Karim, M Rezaul

    2009-03-01

    A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2.

  16. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower

    PubMed Central

    Habib, M. Rowshanul

    2009-01-01

    A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

  17. Acetone Powder From Dormant Seeds of Ricinus communis L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Elisa D. C.; Maciel, Fábio M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina C. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    The influence of several factors on the hydrolytic activity of lipase, present in the acetone powder from dormant castor seeds (Ricinus communis) was evaluated. The enzyme showed a marked specificity for short-chain substrates. The best reaction conditions were an acid medium, Triton X-100 as the emulsifying agent and a temperature of 30°C. The lipase activity of the acetone powder of different castor oil genotypes showed great variability and storage stability of up to 90%. The toxicology analysis of the acetone powder from genotype Nordestina BRS 149 showed a higher ricin (toxic component) content, a lower 2S albumin (allergenic compound) content, and similar allergenic potential compared with untreated seeds.

  18. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose...

  19. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose...

  20. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production in a novel continuous flow system.

    PubMed

    Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the potential of using a novel integrated biohydrogen reactor clarifier system (IBRCS) for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using a mixed culture at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The results of this study showed that using a setting tank after the fermenter and recycle the settled biomass to the fermenter is a practical option to achieve high biomass concentration in the fermenter and thus sustainable ABE fermentation in continuous mode. The average ABE concentrations of 2.3, 7.0, and 14.6gABE/L which were corresponding to ABE production rates of 0.4, 1.4, and 2.8gABE/Lreactorh were achieved at OLRs of 21, 64, and 128gCOD/Lreactord, respectively. The main volatile fatty acids components in the effluent were acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Acetic acid was the predominant component in the OLR-1, while butyric acid was the predominant acid in OLRs 2 and 3.

  1. Specific Anion Effects on the Kinetics of Iodination of Acetone.

    PubMed

    Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Mazzini, Virginia; Ninham, Barry W; Ambrosi, Moira; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-08-18

    Specific ion effects on the kinetics of iodination of acetone in an acidic medium are investigated by UV/Vis spectrophotometry as a function of nature of the acid and temperature. The results indicate that the order of the reaction with respect to acetone is practically unaffected by the composition of the acid while the value of the mixed constant k1 K increases according to the sequence HBr

  2. Acne vulgaris: treatment with topical benzoyl peroxide acetone gel.

    PubMed

    Montes, L F

    1977-05-01

    The topical effect on acne of a benzoyl peroxide acetone gel was studied over an eight week period and simultaneously compared with the effect of a benzoyl peroxide lotion and a vitamin A acid cream. The three formulations produced a significant reduction in the number of comedones. The two benzoyl peroxide formulations substantially reduced the number of papules, but this effect was not observed to a significant degree with the vitamin A acid. Burning sensation following application, a common problem with the benzoyl peroxide alcohol gels, was not reported by patients using the benzoyl peroxide acetone gel.

  3. Recovery of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions using catalytic dehydrative esterification with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Yagyu, Daisuke; Ohishi, Tetsuo; Igarashi, Takeshi; Okumura, Yoshikuni; Nakajo, Tetsuo; Mori, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Shū

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a direct esterification of aqueous acetic acid with ethanol (molar ratio=1:1) catalyzed by polystyrene-supported or homogeneous sulfonic acids toward the recovery of acetic acid from wastewater in chemical plants. The equilibrium yield was significantly increased by the addition of toluene, which had a high ability to extract ethyl acetate from the aqueous phase. It was shown that low-loading and alkylated polystyrene-supported sulfonic acid efficiently accelerated the reaction. These results suggest that the construction of hydrophobic reaction environments in water was critical in improving the chemical yield. Addition of inorganic salts was also effective for the reaction under not only biphasic conditions (toluene-water) but also toluene-free conditions, because the mutual solubility of ethyl acetate and water was suppressed by the salting-out effect. Among the tested salts, CaCl(2) was found to be the most suitable for this reaction system. PMID:23290939

  4. Acetate ester production by Chinese yellow rice wine yeast overexpressing the alcohol acetyltransferase-encoding gene ATF2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhang, C; Qi, Y; Dai, L; Ma, H; Guo, X; Xiao, D

    2014-01-01

    Acetate ester, which are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction, are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as Chinese yellow rice wine. Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase) is currently believed to be the key enzyme responsible for the production of acetate ester. In order to determine the precise role of the ATF2 gene in acetate ester production, an ATF2 gene encoding a type of AATase was overexpressed and the ability of the mutant to form acetate esters (including ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate) was investigated. The results showed that after 5 days of fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate in yellow rice wines fermented with EY2 (pUC-PIA2K) increased to 137.79 mg/L (an approximate 4.9-fold increase relative to the parent cell RY1), 26.68 mg/L, and 7.60 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms that the ATF2 gene plays an important role in the production of acetate ester production during Chinese yellow rice wine fermentation, thereby offering prospects for the development of yellow rice wine yeast starter strains with optimized ester-producing capabilities. PMID:25501183

  5. Determination of trace amounts of formaldehyde in acetone.

    PubMed

    Huang, X H Hilda; Ip, H S Simon; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2007-12-01

    A method to quantify sub-ppm levels of formaldehyde in acetone has been developed and it is reported here. In this method, the different reactivities and stabilities of sulfite with formaldehyde and acetone are used to separate the two carbonyl compounds. Sulfite reacts with formaldehyde to form hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS), the non-volatile and stable nature of which allows its separation from bulk acetone solvent. The resulting HMS is then converted back to formaldehyde under basic conditions, and formaldehyde is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and quantified in its DNP hydrazone form using high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection. The method detection limit at the 99% confidence level was 0.051 mg L(-1). A batch of samples can be processed within 4 h. The method has been applied to quantify the amount of formaldehyde in an analytical-grade acetone and in a commercial nail polish remover and the level of formaldehyde was found to be 0.175 and 0.184 mg L(-1), respectively. PMID:17996534

  6. NASOPHARYNGEAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HUMAN VOLUNTEER BREATHING ACETONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to examine the absorption of a common chemical into the nasopharyngeal region in humans, a 57 year old male volunteer inhaled uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at 1.4 ppm for 30 min while performing different breathing maneuvers; nose inhale, nose exhale (NINE); mouth ...

  7. Engineering of a modular and synthetic phosphoketolase pathway for photosynthetic production of acetone from CO2 in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 under light and aerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Chwa, Jun-Won; Kim, Wook Jin; Sim, Sang Jun; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min

    2016-08-01

    Capture and conversion of CO2 to valuable chemicals is intended to answer global challenges on environmental issues, climate change and energy security. Engineered cyanobacteria have been enabled to produce industry-relevant chemicals from CO2 . However, the final products from cyanobacteria have often been mixed with fermented metabolites during dark fermentation. In this study, our engineering of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 enabled continuous conversion of CO2 to volatile acetone as sole product. This process occurred during lighted, aerobic culture via both ATP-driven malonyl-CoA synthesis pathway and heterologous phosphoketolase (PHK)-phosphotransacetylase (Pta) pathway. Because of strong correlations between the metabolic pathways of acetate and acetone, supplying the acetyl-CoA directly from CO2 in the engineered strain, led to sole production of acetone (22.48 mg/L ± 1.00) without changing nutritional constraints, and without an anaerobic shift. Our engineered S. elongatus strains, designed for acetone production, could be modified to create biosolar cell factories for sustainable photosynthetic production of acetyl-CoA-derived biochemicals. PMID:26879003

  8. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  9. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  10. Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of acetone in succinonitrile at its melting point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chopra, M. A.; Glicksman, M. E.; Singh, N. B.

    1988-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of acetone in liquid succinonitrile at 331.1 K was determined using the method of McBain and Dawson (1935). Only dilute mixtures of SCN-acetone were studied. The interdiffusion constant was determined to be 0.0000127 sq cm/s and was essentially independent of the acetone concentration over the range investigated (0.5 to 18 mol pct acetone).

  11. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and....1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH. (b) The ingredient meets...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  16. Methane from acetate.

    PubMed

    Ferry, J G

    1992-09-01

    The general features are known for the pathway by which most methane is produced in nature. All acetate-utilizing methanogenic microorganisms contain CODH which catalyzes the cleavage of acetyl-CoA; however, the pathway differs from all other acetate-utilizing anaerobes in that the methyl group is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group of acetyl-CoA to CO2. The current understanding of the methanogenic fermentation of acetate provides impressions of nature's novel solutions to problems of methyl transfer, electron transport, and energy conservation. The pathway is now at a level of understanding that will permit productive investigations of these and other interesting questions in the near future. PMID:1512186

  17. Economic evaluation of the acetone-butane fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, T.G.; Moreira, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The economics of producing acetone as 1-butanol via fermentation have been examined for a 45 x 1 kg of solvents/year plant. For a molasses substrate the total annual production costs were approximately $39 million vs. a total annual income of $36 million, with approximatley $20 million total required capital. Molasses cost of approximately $24.4 million/year was critical to these economics. Liquid whey was next evaluated as an alternative feed. Whey feed saved approximately 11 million dollars annually in feed costs and yielded approximately 8 million net additional annual revenues from protein sale. The primary differences gave an annual gross profit of approximately $15 million for the whey case and resulted in a discounted cash flow rate return of 29%. Waste-based acetone-butanol production via fermentation deserves further attention in view of the attractive whey-based economics and the excellent potential of butanol as a fuel extender, especially for diesohol blending.

  18. Conversion of Acetic Acid from the Catalytic Pyrolysis of Xylan Over CeO2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heejin; Ko, Jeong Huy; Kwon, Woo Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-05-01

    CeO2 was synthesized hydrothermally in supercritical water and applied to the catalytic pyrolysis of xylan. Acetic acid, which is the main component in bio-oil produced from the non-catalytic pyrolysis of xylan, deteriorates the fuel quality of the oil. Catalysis over CeO2 effectively converted the acetic acid to ketone species, such as acetone, thereby reducing the acidity of the oil considerably. The content of aromatics in bio-oil was also increased substantially by catalysis. PMID:27483777

  19. Ethanol, acetone and ammonia gas room temperature operated sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Iqbal; Bedi, R. K.

    2013-06-01

    CuO nanocrystalline thick films were fabricated from powder synthesized by a sol-gel auto combustion route at different pH value of the precursor solution. The gas sensing response of thick film samples towards ethanol, acetone and ammonia gases has been tested and response has been found to be higher for ammonia gas. The sensor recovers its original state after ammonia exposure.

  20. Self-Associating Behavior of Acetone in Liquid Krypton.

    PubMed

    De Beuckeleer, Liene I; Herrebout, Wouter A

    2016-02-18

    Acetone molecules are inclined to self-associate through dipole-dipole interactions because of their large dipole moment. Infrared spectroscopy of compounds dissolved in liquid noble gases supported by high level ab initio calculations allows investigating the self-associating behavior and determining the thermodynamical properties. In this study, infrared spectra of various concentrations of acetone dissolved in liquid krypton are recorded at constant temperature. Overlapping monomer and dimer spectra are separated by analyzing the obtained data sets with numerical methods based on least-squares fitting. Although acetone is known to self-associate, only a few spectral features have been presented in literature before. In this study, the application of new numerical approaches succeeds in resolving overlapping spectra and allows observing isolated acetone dimer absorption bands for the complete mid infrared spectrum. By use of data sets of spectra recorded at temperatures between 134 and 142 K, the experimental standard dimerization enthalpy was determined to be -10.8 kJ mol(-1). MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations predicted a stacked and planar dimer geometry of which the stacked geometry is more stable. Combining MP2 energies and single point corrections involving CCSD(T) calculations and complete basis set extrapolations based on the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ equilibrium geometry lead to complexation energy of -28.4 kJ mol(-1) for the stacked geometry and -15.1 kJ mol(-1) for the planar geometry. The corresponding values for the complexation enthalpies in solution, obtained by combining these values with corrections for thermal and solvent influences are -13.7 and -5.8 kJ mol(-1).

  1. Self-Associating Behavior of Acetone in Liquid Krypton.

    PubMed

    De Beuckeleer, Liene I; Herrebout, Wouter A

    2016-02-18

    Acetone molecules are inclined to self-associate through dipole-dipole interactions because of their large dipole moment. Infrared spectroscopy of compounds dissolved in liquid noble gases supported by high level ab initio calculations allows investigating the self-associating behavior and determining the thermodynamical properties. In this study, infrared spectra of various concentrations of acetone dissolved in liquid krypton are recorded at constant temperature. Overlapping monomer and dimer spectra are separated by analyzing the obtained data sets with numerical methods based on least-squares fitting. Although acetone is known to self-associate, only a few spectral features have been presented in literature before. In this study, the application of new numerical approaches succeeds in resolving overlapping spectra and allows observing isolated acetone dimer absorption bands for the complete mid infrared spectrum. By use of data sets of spectra recorded at temperatures between 134 and 142 K, the experimental standard dimerization enthalpy was determined to be -10.8 kJ mol(-1). MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations predicted a stacked and planar dimer geometry of which the stacked geometry is more stable. Combining MP2 energies and single point corrections involving CCSD(T) calculations and complete basis set extrapolations based on the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ equilibrium geometry lead to complexation energy of -28.4 kJ mol(-1) for the stacked geometry and -15.1 kJ mol(-1) for the planar geometry. The corresponding values for the complexation enthalpies in solution, obtained by combining these values with corrections for thermal and solvent influences are -13.7 and -5.8 kJ mol(-1). PMID:26805773

  2. Reverse osmosis application for butanol-acetone fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.; Iannotti, E.L.; Fischer, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The problems of dilute solvent concentration in butanol-acetone fermentation can be solved by using reverse osmosis to dewater the fermentation liquor. Polyamide membranes exhibited butanol rejection rates as high as 85%. Optimum rejection of butanol occurs at a pressure of approximately 5.5 to 6.5 MPa and hydraulic recoveries of 50-70%. Flux ranged from 0.5 to 1.8 l.

  3. Acetone oxidation using ozone on manganese oxide catalysts.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yan; Reed, Corey; Lee, Yong-Kul; Oyama, S Ted

    2005-09-22

    Supported manganese oxide catalysts were prepared by the impregnation of alumina foam blocks washcoated with alumina and silica. The manganese content based on the weight of the washcoats was 10 wt % calculated as MnO2. Fourier transform profiles of the Mn K-edge EXAFS spectra for these samples gave three distinctive peaks at 0.15, 0.25, and 0.32 nm and were close to the profiles of Mn3O4 and beta-MnO2. The number of surface active sites was determined through oxygen chemisorption measurements at a reduction temperature (Tred = 443 K) obtained from temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) experiments. Acetone catalytic oxidation was studied from room temperature to 573 K, and was found to be highly accelerated by the use of ozone on both catalysts with substantial reductions in the reaction temperature. The only carbon-containing product detected was CO2. The alumina-supported catalyst was found to be more active than the silica-supported catalyst in acetone and ozone conversion, with higher turnover frequencies (TOFs) for both reactions. The pressure drop through the foam was low and increased little (0.003 kPa/10 000 h(-1)) with space velocity. In situ steady-state Raman spectroscopy measurements during the acetone catalytic oxidation reaction showed the presence of an adsorbed acetone species with a C-H bond at 2930 cm(-1) and a peroxide species derived from ozone with an O-O bond at 890 cm(-1).

  4. Acetone Oxidation using Ozone on Manganese Oxide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Xi,Y.; Reed, C.; Lee, Y.; Oyama, S.

    2005-01-01

    Supported manganese oxide catalysts were prepared by the impregnation of alumina foam blocks washcoated with alumina and silica. The manganese content based on the weight of the washcoats was 10 wt % calculated as MnO{sub 2}. Fourier transform profiles of the Mn K-edge EXAFS spectra for these samples gave three distinctive peaks at 0.15, 0.25, and 0.32 nm and were close to the profiles of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and {beta}-MnO{sub 2}. The number of surface active sites was determined through oxygen chemisorption measurements at a reduction temperature (T{sub red} = 443 K) obtained from temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) experiments. Acetone catalytic oxidation was studied from room temperature to 573 K, and was found to be highly accelerated by the use of ozone on both catalysts with substantial reductions in the reaction temperature. The only carbon-containing product detected was CO{sub 2}. The alumina-supported catalyst was found to be more active than the silica-supported catalyst in acetone and ozone conversion, with higher turnover frequencies (TOFs) for both reactions. The pressure drop through the foam was low and increased little (0.003 kPa/10 000 h{sup -1}) with space velocity. In situ steady-state Raman spectroscopy measurements during the acetone catalytic oxidation reaction showed the presence of an adsorbed acetone species with a C-H bond at 2930 cm{sup -1} and a peroxide species derived from ozone with an O-O bond at 890 cm{sup -1}.

  5. Inhibition of acetate ester biosynthesis in banana (Musa sapientum L.) fruit pulp under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wendakoon, Sumithra K; Ueda, Yoshinori; Imahori, Yoshihiro; Ishimaru, Megumi

    2004-03-24

    The effect of anaerobic conditions on acetate ester biosynthesis in ripened banana pulp was investigated. Incubation of the pulp in less than 1% O(2) resulted in a significant reduction in the formation of ethyl acetate. Regardless of the presence of a large amount of endogenous ethanol and the remaining exogenous isobutyl alcohol after complete anaerobic incubation with the pulp, the production of acetate ester decreased. The effect of addition of pyruvate, isobutyl alcohol, acetate, and methyl hexanoate on acetate ester formation in 100% N(2) was also investigated. The addition of pyruvate and isobutyl alcohol to the pulp gave lower acetate esters in N(2) than in air, whereas the pulp incubated with acetate and isobutyl alcohol produced more acetate ester in both conditions. Therefore, the lack of acetyl CoA, or more precisely acetate, in the tissue is the main reason for the inhibition of acetate ester formation under anaerobic conditions. The activity of beta-oxidation measured by incubation with methyl hexanoate was detected only in the samples incubated in air. The formation of acetyl CoA, derived from pyruvate through mitochondria and through beta-oxidation, was inhibited by anaerobic conditions, which suggests that mitochondrial activity and/or beta-oxidation are essential for ester biosynthesis.

  6. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  7. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  8. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  9. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  10. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  11. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  12. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  13. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  14. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  15. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  16. Acetate Production by Methanogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Mah, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Methanosarcina barkeri MS and 227 and Methanosarcina mazei S-6 produced acetate when grown on H2-CO2, methanol, or trimethylamine. Marked differences in acetate production by the two bacterial species were found, even though methane and cell yields were nearly the same. M. barkeri produced 30 to 75 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4 formed, but M. mazei produced only 8 to 9 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4. PMID:16348006

  17. Acetate dependence of tumors.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P

    2014-12-18

    Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors.

  18. Phase transitions of amorphous solid acetone in confined geometry investigated by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kang, Hani; Kim, Jun Soo; Kang, Heon

    2014-11-26

    We investigated the phase transformations of amorphous solid acetone under confined geometry by preparing acetone films trapped in amorphous solid water (ASW) or CCl4. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to monitor the phase changes of the acetone sample with increasing temperature. An acetone film trapped in ASW shows an abrupt change in the RAIRS features of the acetone vibrational bands during heating from 80 to 100 K, which indicates the transformation of amorphous solid acetone to a molecularly aligned crystalline phase. Further heating of the sample to 140 K produces an isotropic solid phase, and eventually a fluid phase near 157 K, at which the acetone sample is probably trapped in a pressurized, superheated condition inside the ASW matrix. Inside a CCl4 matrix, amorphous solid acetone crystallizes into a different, isotropic structure at ca. 90 K. We propose that the molecularly aligned crystalline phase formed in ASW is created by heterogeneous nucleation at the acetone-water interface, with resultant crystal growth, whereas the isotropic crystalline phase in CCl4 is formed by homogeneous crystal growth starting from the bulk region of the acetone sample.

  19. Molybdenum disulfide catalyzed tungsten oxide for on-chip acetone sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Park, Sangwook; Cai, Lili; Zhao, Jiheng; He, Jiajun; Zhou, Minjie; Park, Joonsuk; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-09-01

    Acetone sensing is critical for acetone leak detection and holds a great promise for the noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes. It is thus highly desirable to develop a wearable acetone sensor that has low cost, miniature size, sub-ppm detection limit, great selectivity, as well as low operating temperature. In this work, we demonstrate a cost-effective on-chip acetone sensor with excellent sensing performances at 200 °C using molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) catalyzed tungsten oxide (WO3). The WO3 based acetone sensors are first optimized via combined mesoscopic nanostructuring and silicon doping. Under the same testing conditions, our optimized mesoporous silicon doped WO3 [Si:WO3(meso)] sensor shows 2.5 times better sensitivity with ˜1000 times smaller active device area than the state-of-art WO3 based acetone sensor. Next, MoS2 is introduced to catalyze the acetone sensing reactions for Si:WO3(meso), which reduces the operating temperature by 100 °C while retaining its high sensing performances. Our miniaturized acetone sensor may serve as a wearable acetone detector for noninvasive diabetes monitoring or acetone leakage detection. Moreover, our work demonstrates that MoS2 can be a promising nonprecious catalyst for catalytic sensing applications.

  20. Acetone PLIF concentration measurements in a submerged round turbulent jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Z. D.; Chikishev, L. M.; Dulin, V. M.

    2016-10-01

    Transport of passive scalar in near-field of a submerged turbulent jet, was studied experimentally by using the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique. The jet issued from a round pipe with the inner diameter and length of 21 mm and 700 mm, respectively. Three cases of Reynolds numbers were studied: Re=3000, 6000, and 9000. Vapor of acetone, mixed to the jet flow, served as a passive fluorescent tracer. The paper describes data processing utilized to convert intensity of fluorescence images to the instantaneous concentration.

  1. Isolation of cellulose from rice straw and its conversion into cellulose acetate catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guozhi; Wang, Min; Liao, Chongjing; Fang, Tao; Li, Jianfen; Zhou, Ronghui

    2013-04-15

    Cellulose was isolated from rice straw by pretreatment with dilute alkaline and acid solutions successively, and it was further transferred into cellulose acetate in the presence of acetic anhydride and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40·6H2O). The removal of hemicellulose and lignin was affected by the concentration of KOH and the immersion time in acetic acid solution, and 83wt.% content of cellulose in the treated rice straw was obtained after pretreatment with 4% KOH and immersion in acetic acid for 5h. Phosphotungstic acid was found to be an effective catalyst for the acetylation of the cellulose derived from rice straw. The degree of substitution (DS) values revealed a significant effect for the solubility of cellulose acetate, and the acetone-soluble cellulose acetate with DS values around 2.2 can be obtained by changing the amount of phosphotungstic acid and the time of acetylation. Both the structure of cellulose separated from rice straw and cellulose acetate were confirmed by FTIR and XRD.

  2. Uptake and Reactions of Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Propanal and Ethanol in Sulfuric Acid solutions at 200-240 K: Implications for upper tropospheric aerosol composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Williams, M. B.; Axson, J.; Michelsen, R.

    2007-12-01

    The production of light absorbing, organic material in aerosol that is normally considered to be transparent in the UV and visible wavelength regions has significant implications for biogeochemical cycling and climate modelling. Production mechanisms likely involve carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde and propanal that are present in significant quantities in the upper troposphere (UT). In this study, we have performed experiments focusing on a class of acid catalyzed carbonyl reactions, the formation of acetals. R2C=O + 2R'OH --> R2C(OR')2 + H2O Using a Knudsen cell apparatus, we have measured the rate of uptake of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, and ethanol into sulfuric acid solutions ranging between 40-70 wt% of acid, containing 0-0.1 M of ethanol, acetone or formaldehyde at temperatures of 220-250 K. For all reactant pairs, the aldol condensation path, including self reaction, should be insignificant at the acidities studied. Evidence for reaction between organics was observed for all pairs, except those involving propanal which were likely limited by the very low solubility. We attribute enhanced uptake to the formation of acetals, such as 1,1-diethoxyethane and 2,2- diethoxypropane, among others. Enhanced uptake was observed to proceed on timescales > 1 hour and sometimes shows complex dependence on acidity that is likely related to speciation of the individual carbonyls in acidic solution. The acetal products do not absorb in the visible but are less volatile than parent molecules, allowing for accumulation in sulfuric acid particles, and enhanced uptake. Cross reactions of carbonyls with alcohols in sulfuric acid medium have not been previously measured, yet methanol and ethanol show high solubility and are present at significant concentrations in the UT. Thus even at slow reaction rates, the acetal reaction has ample starting material and proceeds under conditions common to the UT. We will present results for the

  3. Acetone-Assisted Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yaobiao; Zhang, Bo; Ye, Jingyun; Ge, Qingfeng; Zhang, Zhenrong

    2012-10-18

    We have studied the dynamic relationship between acetone and bridge-bonded oxygen (Ob) vacancy (VO) defect sites on the TiO2(110)-1 × 1 surface using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density function theory (DFT) calculations. We report an adsorbate-assisted VO diffusion mechanism. The STM images taken at 300 K show that acetone preferably adsorbs on the VO site and is mobile. The sequential isothermal STM images directly show that the mobile acetone effectively migrates the position of VO by a combination of two acetone diffusion channels: one is the diffusion along the Ob row and moving as an alkyl group, which heals the initial VO; another is the diffusion from the Ob row to the fivecoordinated Ti4+ row and then moving along the Ti4+ row as an acetone, which leaves a VO behind. The calculated acetone diffusion barriers for the two channels are comparable and agree with experimental results.

  4. Fate of acetone in an outdoor model stream in southern Mississippi, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Stephens, D.W.; Shultz, D.J.; Tai, D.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The fate of acetone in water was investigated in an outdoor model stream located in southern Mississippi, U.S.A. Acetone was injected continuously for 32 days resulting in small milligram-perliter concentrations in the stream. Rhodamine-WT dye was injected at the beginning and at the end of the study to determine the time-of-travel and dispersion characteristics of the stream. A 12-h injection of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was used to determine the volatilization characteristics of the stream. Volatilization controlled the acetone concentration in the stream. Significant bacterial degradation of acetone did not occur, contrary to expectations based on previous laboratory studies. Attempts to induce degradation of the acetone by injecting glucose and a nutrient solution containing bacteria acclimated to acetone were unsuccessful. Possible explanations for the lack of bacterial degradation included a nitrate limitation and a limited residence time in the stream system. ?? 1988.

  5. Amidation reaction of eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester with 1,3 diaminopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, V.; Wibowo, F. R.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Wibowo, A. H.; Khumaidah, S. A.; Wijayanti, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Eugenol having various substituents on the aromatic ring (hydroxy, methoxy and allyl) are useful for starting material in synthesizing of its derivatives. Eugenol derivatives have shown wide future potential applications in many areas, especially as future drugs against many diseases. The aim of this work was to synthesize an amide of eugenol derivative. The starting material used was eugenol from clove oil and the reaction was conducted in 3 step reactions to give the final product. Firstly, eugenol was converted into eugenyl oxyacetate [2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetic acid] as a white crystal with 70.5% yield, which was then esterified with ethanol to have eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester [ethyl 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetate] as brown liquid in 75.7%. The last step was the reaction between eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester and 1,3 diaminopropane to give 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-N-(3-aminopropyl) acetamide as a brown powder with 71.6% yield, where the amidation reaction was occurred.

  6. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1995-12-19

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

  7. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

  8. Potential antibacterial activity of coumarin and coumarin-3-acetic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Fauzia Anjum; Munawar, Munawar Ali; Nisa, Mehrun; Ashraf, Mohammad; Kousar, Samina; Arshad, Shafia

    2015-05-01

    Coumarin and coumarin-3-acetic acid derivatives were synthesized by reacting phenols with malic acid, ethyl acetoacetate and ethyl acetylsuccinate in appropriate reaction conditions. All synthesized compounds were subjected to test for their antimicrobial activities against variety of gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacterial stains (Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli) by agar dilution method. Several of them exhibited appreciable good antibacterial activity against the different strains of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. These findings suggest a great potential of these compounds for screening and use as antibacterial agents for further studies with a battery of bacteria.

  9. Fabrication of a SnO2-based acetone gas sensor enhanced by molecular imprinting.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenhu; Ruan, Xiaofan; Yu, Qiuxiang; Yu, Zetai; Huang, Xintang

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new route to design a highly sensitive SnO2-based sensor for acetone gas enhanced by the molecular imprinting technique. Unassisted and acetone-assisted thermal synthesis methods are used to synthesis SnO2 nanomaterials. The prepared SnO2 nanomaterials have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption. Four types of SnO2 films were obtained by mixing pure deionized water and liquid acetone with the two types of as-prepared powders, respectively. The acetone gas sensing properties of sensors coated by these films were evaluated. Testing results reveal that the sensor coated by the film fabricated by mixing liquid acetone with the SnO2 nanomaterial synthesized by the acetone-assisted thermal method exhibits the best acetone gas sensing performance. The sensor is optimized for the smooth adsorption and desorption of acetone gas thanks to the participation of acetone both in the procedure of synthesis of the SnO2 nanomaterial and the device fabrication, which results in a distinct response-recovery behavior.

  10. Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of the Acetone Leaf Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina in Some Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Adedapo, Adeolu Alex; Aremu, Olujoke Janet; Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vernonia amygdalina is a medicinal plant of great importance that has its fresh leaves rich in vitamins and salt hence, it is valuable in human diet. The anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of its acetone leaf extract were evaluated in this study to validate its folkloric use. Methods: The acetone extract is prepared by dissolving ground plant materials (200g) in 1 L of acetone for 48 h, filtered, and then dried using rotary evaporator before it is used for the pharmacological investigations. Standard phytochemical methods were used to test for the presence of phytoactive compounds in the plant. Acute toxicity was carried out in mice to determine safe doses for use. The anti-inflammatory activities were conducted using carrageenan and histamine to induce oedema in rats while analgesic activities were embarked upon using acetic acid- induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw lick test. The anti-oxidant activities were assessed in vitro using ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total polyphenolics. Results: The results from this study showed that the 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of the acetone extract caused significant reduction in oedema induced by both carrageenan and histamine. Similar effect was observed in analgesic tests which were comparable to that of indomethacin, the reference drug used in the study. Conclusion: The anti-oxidant effects were also good and the pharmacological activities may be due to the presence of polyphenols and other phytochemicals contained in the plant. The study may have thus validated the folkloric use of this plant as a medicinal and nutritional agent. PMID:25671194

  11. Improved ethyl caproate production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing fatty acid synthesis genes with OPI1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yefu; Luo, Weiwei; Gong, Rui; Xue, Xingxiang; Guan, Xiangyu; Song, Lulu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-09-01

    During yeast fermentation, ethyl esters play a key role in the development of the flavor profiles of Chinese liquor. Ethyl caproate, an ethyl ester eliciting apple-like flavor, is the characteristic flavor of strong aromatic liquor, which is the best selling liquor in China. In the traditional fermentation process, ethyl caproate is mainly produced at the later fermentation stage by aroma-producing yeast, bacteria, and mold in a mud pit instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the expense of grains and fermentation time. To improve the production of ethyl caproate by Chinese liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae) with less food consumption and shorter fermentation time, we constructed three recombinant strains, namely, α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1), and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2) with OPI1 (an inositol/choline-mediated negative regulatory gene) deletion, respectively. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate, the contents of ethyl caproate produced by α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 increased by 0.40-, 1.75-, and 0.31-fold, correspondingly, compared with the initial strain α5. The contents of other fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0) also increased. In comparison, the content of FAEEs produced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1 significantly improved. Meanwhile, the contents of acetyl-CoA and ethyl acetate were enhanced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1. Overall, this study offers a promising platform for the development of pure yeast culture fermentation of Chinese strong aromatic liquor without the use of a mud pit. PMID:27344573

  12. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies.

  13. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  14. Effect of acetone accumulation on structure and dynamics of lipid membranes studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Posokhov, Yevgen O; Kyrychenko, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The modulation of the properties and function of cell membranes by small volatile substances is important for many biomedical applications. Despite available experimental results, molecular mechanisms of action of inhalants and organic solvents, such as acetone, on lipid membranes remain not well understood. To gain a better understanding of how acetone interacts with membranes, we have performed a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a POPC bilayer in aqueous solution in the presence of acetone, whose concentration was varied from 2.8 to 11.2 mol%. The MD simulations of passive distribution of acetone between a bulk water phase and a lipid bilayer show that acetone favors partitioning into the water-free region of the bilayer, located near the carbonyl groups of the phospholipids and at the beginning of the hydrocarbon core of the lipid membrane. Using MD umbrella sampling, we found that the permeability barrier of ~0.5 kcal/mol exists for acetone partitioning into the membrane. In addition, a Gibbs free energy profile of the acetone penetration across a bilayer demonstrates a favorable potential energy well of -3.6 kcal/mol, located at 15-16Å from the bilayer center. The analysis of the structural and dynamics properties of the model membrane revealed that the POPC bilayer can tolerate the presence of acetone in the concentration range of 2.8-5.6 mol%. The accumulation of the higher acetone concentration of 11.2 mol% results, however, in drastic disordering of phospholipid packing and the increase in the membrane fluidity. The acetone molecules push the lipid heads apart and, hence, act as spacers in the headgroup region. This effect leads to the increase in the average headgroup area per molecule. In addition, the acyl tail region of the membrane also becomes less dense. We suggest, therefore, that the molecular mechanism of acetone action on the phospholipid bilayer has many common features with the effects of short chain alcohols, DMSO, and

  15. Evaluating the Potential Importance of Monoterpene Degradation for Global Acetone Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelp, M. M.; Brewer, J.; Keller, C. A.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, but estimates of the global source of acetone vary widely. A better understanding of acetone sources is essential because acetone serves as a source of HOx in the upper troposphere and as a precursor to the NOx reservoir species peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Although there are primary anthropogenic and pyrogenic sources of acetone, the dominant acetone sources are thought to be from direct biogenic emissions and photochemical production, particularly from the oxidation of iso-alkanes. Recent work suggests that the photochemical degradation of monoterpenes may also represent a significant contribution to global acetone production. We investigate that hypothesis using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. In this work, we calculate the emissions of eight terpene species (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, Δ3-carene, myrcene, sabinene, trans-β-ocimene, and an 'other monoterpenes' category which contains 34 other trace species) and couple these with upper and lower bound literature yields from species-specific chamber studies. We compare the simulated acetone distributions against in situ acetone measurements from a global suite of NASA aircraft campaigns. When simulating an upper bound on yields, the model-to-measurement comparison improves for North America at both the surface and in the upper troposphere. The inclusion of acetone production from monoterpene degradation also improves the ability of the model to reproduce observations of acetone in East Asian outflow. However, in general the addition of monoterpenes degrades the model comparison for the Southern Hemisphere.

  16. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors.

    PubMed

    Arts, J H E; Mojet, J; van Gemert, L J; Emmen, H H; Lammers, J H C M; Marquart, J; Woutersen, R A; Feron, V J

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure limits for acetone. A literature survey was carried out focusing on the differences in results between studies using subjective (neuro)behavioral methods (questionnaires) and studies using objective measurements to detect odor and irritation thresholds. A critical review of published studies revealed that the odor detection threshold of acetone ranges from about 20 to about 400 ppm. Loss of sensitivity due to adaptation and/or habituation to acetone odor may occur, as was shown in studies comparing workers previously exposed to acetone with previously unexposed subjects. It further appeared that the sensory irritation threshold of acetone lies between 10,000 and 40,000 ppm. Thus, the threshold for sensory irritation is much higher than the odor detection limit, a conclusion that is supported by observations in anosmics, showing a ten times higher irritation threshold level than the odor threshold found in normosmics. The two-times higher sensory irritation threshold observed in acetone-exposed workers compared with previously nonexposed controls can apart from adaptation be ascribed to habituation. An evaluation of studies on subjectively reported irritation at acetone concentrations < 1000 ppm shows that perception of odor intensity, information bias, and exposure history (i.e., habituation) are confounding factors in the reporting of irritation thresholds and health symptoms. In conclusion, subjective measures alone are inappropriate for establishing sensory irritation effects and sensory irritation threshold levels of odorants such as acetone. Clearly, the sensory irritation threshold of acetone should be based on objective measurements. PMID:11852913

  17. Method of making a cellulose acetate low density microcellular foam

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Low-density microcellular foam having a cell size of not greater than 2 .mu.m and method of making by dissolving cellulose acetate in an acetone-based solvent, gelling the solution in a water bath maintained at 0-10.degree. C for a selected period of time to allow impurities to diffuse out, freezing the gel, and then freeze-drying wherein water and solvents sublime and the gel structure solidifies into low-density microcellular foam. The foam has a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3 and cell size of about 0.3 to 2 .mu.m. The small cell size foam is particularly adaptable for encapsulation of laser targets.

  18. Brønsted Acid/Lewis Acid Cooperatively Catalyzed Addition of Diazoester to 2H-chromene Acetals

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Yi; Qi, Yue; Gao, Hongyi; Ma, Qianqian; Schaus, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel Brønsted acid/Lewis acid dual catalyst system has been developed to promote an efficient C–C bond formation between a range of oxocarbenium precursors derived from chromene acetals and ethyl diazoacetate. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions and is tolerant of common functionalized 2H-chromene and isochromene acetals. In addition, an asymmetric variant of diazoacetate addition towards 2H-chromene acetal is described. Continued investigations include the further optimization of asymmetric induction towards the formation of diazo ester substituted 2H-chromene. PMID:25411552

  19. [Adsorption characteristics of acetone and butanone onto honeycomb ZSM-5 molecular sieve].

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Luan, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Qiang; Ye, Ping-Wei; Li, Kai; Wang, Xi-Qin

    2013-12-01

    Adsorption capacity of acetone and acetone-butanone mixture onto honeycomb ZSM-5 molecular sieve was measured in this paper, and the influences of relative humidity, initial adsorbate concentration and airflow velocity on the adsorption process were investigated. Besides, adsorption performance parameters were calculated by Wheeler's equation. The results showed that relative humidity had no obvious influence on the acetone adsorption performance, which suggests that this material has good hydrophobic ability; in the low concentration range, the dynamic saturated adsorption capacity of acetone increased with the increase of initial concentration, but in the occasion of high concentration of acetone gas (more than 9 mg x L(-1)), the dynamic saturated adsorption capacity maintained at a certain level and did not vary with the increase of initial concentration; the increase of air flow velocity resulted in significant increase of acetone adsorption rate constant, at the same time the critical layer thickness of the adsorbent bed also increased significantly. In the cases of acetone-butanone mixture, the adsorption capacity of butanone onto ZSM-5 was clearly higher than that of acetone.

  20. Densities and refractive indices of acetone + methanol + 2-methyl-2-butanol at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Orge, B.; Iglesias, M.; Tojo, J.; Legido, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    Densities and refractive indices at 298.15 K for acetone + methanol + 2-methyl-2-butanol and the binary acetone + 2-methyl-2-butanol and methanol + 2-methyl-2-butanol mixtures have been measured as a function of the mole fraction at atmospheric pressure. Results have been correlated with analytical expressions.

  1. Increased microsomal interaction with iron and oxygen radical generation after chronic acetone treatment.

    PubMed

    Puntarulo, S; Cederbaum, A I

    1988-01-12

    In vivo administration of acetone influences a variety of reactions catalyzed by rat liver microsomes. The effect of chronic treatment with acetone (1% acetone in the water for 10-12 days) on interaction with iron and subsequent oxygen radical generation by liver microsomes was evaluated. Microsomes from the acetone-treated rats displayed elevated rates of H2O2 generation, an increase in iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, and enhanced chemiluminescence upon the addition of t-butylhydroperoxide. The ferric EDTA-catalyzed production of formaldehyde from DMSO or of ethylene from 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyrate was increased 2-fold after acetone treatment. This increase in hydroxyl radical generation was accompanied by a corresponding increase in NADPH utilization and was sensitive to inhibition by catalase and a competitive scavenger, ethanol, but not to superoxide dismutase. In vitro addition of acetone to microsomes had no effect on oxygen radical generation. Associated with the chronic acetone treatment was a 2-fold increase in the microsomal content of cytochrome P-450 and in the activity of NADPH-cytochrome-P-450 reductase. It appears that increased oxygen radical generation by microsomes after chronic acetone treatment reflects the increase in the major enzyme components which comprise the mixed-function oxidase system.

  2. In vitro antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Potentilla chinensis in osteosarcoma cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guang; Tao, Jin-Gang; Wang, Guo-Dong; Liu, Shen-Peng; Zhao, Hong-Xing; Liang, Qiu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of the ethanol extract of Potentilla chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of MG-63 human osteosarcoma cancer cells and fR-2 cells. Furthermore, the effect of the extract on apoptosis induction, cell cycle phase distribution and inhibition of cell migration in the MG63 human osteosarcoma cancer cell line was evaluated. The effect of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI). Phase contrast microscopy detected the morphological changes in MG63 cancer cells following extract treatment. The results of the study demonstrated that the extract was cytotoxic to MG63 cancer cells, while the normal cell line (epithelial cell line) showed lower susceptibility. Phase contrast microscopy showed distinguishing morphological features, such as cell shrinkage and blebbing induced by the extract treatment in osteosarcoma cancer cells. The average proportion of Annexin V-positive cells (total apoptotic cells) significantly increased from 5.6% in the control to 24.2, 38.8 and 55.7% in the 40, 80 and 150 µg/ml groups, respectively. The extract induced early and late apoptosis in the cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract induced G0/G1-cell cycle arrest, which also showed significant dose-dependence. The extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in cell migration. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was also examined by observation of the formation of DNA ladders. It was demonstrated that DNA fragmentation was increased with extract concentration compared with that in the control. Taken together, EEPC may serve as potential therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma, provided that the toxicity profile and in vivo investigations demonstrate that it is safe. PMID:27573158

  3. Detection of acetone processing of castor bean mash for forensic investigation of ricin preparation methods.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Helen W; Wahl, Jon H; Metoyer, Candace N; Colburn, Heather A; Wahl, Karen L

    2010-07-01

    Samples containing the toxic castor bean protein ricin have been recently seized in connection with biocriminal activity. Analytical methods that enable investigators to determine how the samples were prepared and to match seized samples to potential source materials are needed. One commonly described crude ricin preparation method is acetone extraction of crushed castor beans. Here, we describe the use of solid-phase microextraction and headspace analysis to determine whether castor beans were processed by acetone extraction. We prepared acetone-extracted castor bean mash, along with controls of unextracted mash and mash extracted with nonacetone organic solvents. Samples of acetone-extracted mash and unextracted mash were stored in closed containers for up to 109 days at both room temperature and -20 degrees C, and in open containers at room temperature for up to 94 days. Acetone-extracted bean mash could consistently be statistically distinguished from controls, even after storage in open containers for 94 days. PMID:20345778

  4. Integration of stable isotope and trace contaminant concentration for enhanced forensic acetone discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, James J.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wahl, Jon H.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2013-07-18

    We analyzed 21 neat acetone samples from 15 different suppliers to demonstrate the utility of a coupled stable isotope and trace contaminant strategy for distinguishing forensically-relevant samples. By combining these two pieces of orthogonal data we could discriminate all of the acetones that were produced by the 15 different suppliers. Using stable isotope ratios alone, we were able to distinguish 9 acetone samples, while the remaining 12 fell into four clusters with highly similar signatures. Adding trace chemical contaminant information enhanced discrimination to 13 individual acetones with three residual clusters. The acetones within each cluster shared a common manufacturer and might, therefore, not be expected to be resolved. The data presented here demonstrates the power of combining orthogonal data sets to enhance sample fingerprinting and highlights the role disparate data could play in future forensic investigations.

  5. Boron nitride nanotube based nanosensor for acetone adsorption: a DFT simulation.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Masoud Darvish; Rezvani, Mahyar

    2013-03-01

    We have investigated the adsorption properties of acetone on zigzag single-walled BNNTs using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results obtained show that acetone is strongly bound to the outer surface of a (5,0) BNNT on the top site directly above the boron atom, with a binding energy of -96.16 kJ mol(-1) and a B-O binding distance of 1.654 Å. Our first-principles calculations also predict that the ability of zigzag BNNTs to adsorb acetone is significantly stronger than the corresponding ability of zigzag CNTs. A comparative investigation of BNNTs with different diameters indicated that the ability of the side walls of the tubes to adsorb acetone decreases significantly for nanotubes with larger diameters. Furthermore, the stability of the most stable acetone/BNNT complex was tested using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation at room temperature. PMID:23179768

  6. Quantum magnetic deflagration in acetate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mínguez, A; Hernandez, J M; Macià, F; García-Santiago, A; Tejada, J; Santos, P V

    2005-11-18

    We report controlled ignition of magnetization reversal avalanches by surface acoustic waves in a single crystal of acetate. Our data show that the speed of the avalanche exhibits maxima on the magnetic field at the tunneling resonances of Mn(12). Combined with the evidence of magnetic deflagration in Mn(12) acetate, this suggests a novel physical phenomenon: deflagration assisted by quantum tunneling. PMID:16384178

  7. Quantum magnetic deflagration in acetate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mínguez, A; Hernandez, J M; Macià, F; García-Santiago, A; Tejada, J; Santos, P V

    2005-11-18

    We report controlled ignition of magnetization reversal avalanches by surface acoustic waves in a single crystal of acetate. Our data show that the speed of the avalanche exhibits maxima on the magnetic field at the tunneling resonances of Mn(12). Combined with the evidence of magnetic deflagration in Mn(12) acetate, this suggests a novel physical phenomenon: deflagration assisted by quantum tunneling.

  8. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism.

  9. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. PMID:26079672

  10. Molecular modeling of phase behavior and microstructure of acetone-chloroform-methanol binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Ganesh; Georgiev, Grigor; Potoff, Jeffrey J

    2005-10-20

    Force fields based on a Lennard-Jones (LJ) 12-6 plus point charge functional form are developed for acetone and chloroform specifically to reproduce the minimum pressure azeotropy found experimentally in this system. Point charges are determined from a CHELPG population analysis performed on an acetone-chloroform dimer. The required electrostatic surface for this dimer is determined from ab initio calculations performed with MP2 theory and the 6-31g++(3df,3pd) basis set. LJ parameters are then optimized such that the liquid-vapor coexistence curve, critical parameters, and vapor pressures are well reproduced by simulation. Histogram-reweighting Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble are used to determine the phase diagrams for the binary mixtures acetone-chloroform, acetone-methanol, and chloroform-methanol. The force fields developed in this work reproduce the minimum pressure azeotrope in the acetone-chloroform mixture found in experiment. The predicted azeotropic composition of x(CHCl3) = 0.77 is in fair agreement with the experimental value of x(CHCl3)expt = 0.64. The new force fields were also found to provide improved predictions of the pressure-composition behavior of acetone-methanol and chloroform-methanol when compared to other force fields commonly used for vapor-liquid equilibria calculations. NPT simulations were conducted at 300 K and 1 bar for equimolar mixtures of acetone-chloroform, acetone-methanol, and methanol-chloroform. Analysis of the microstructure reveals significant hydrogen bonding occurring between acetone and chloroform. Limited interspecies hydrogen bonding was found in the acetone-methanol or chloroform-methanol mixtures.

  11. Probing the Methyl Torsional Barriers of the E and Z Isomers of Butadienyl Acetate by Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, Atef; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Kleiner, Isabelle; Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The Fourier transform microwave spectra of the E and the Z isomer of butadienyl acetate have been measured in the frequency range from 2 to 26.5 GHz under molecular beam conditions. The most stable conformer of each isomer, in which all heavy atoms are located in a symmetry plane, was identified after analyzing the spectrum by comparison with results from quantum chemical calculations. The barrier to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group was found to be 149.1822(20) cm-1 and 150.2128(48) cm-1 for the E and the Z isomer, respectively, which are similar to that of vinyl acetate. A comparison between two theoretical approaches treating internal rotations, the rho axis method (using the program BELGI-Cs) and combined axis method (using the program XIAM), is also performed. Since several years we study the barriers to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group in acetates, CH3-COOR. Currently, we assume that all acetates can be divided into three classes. Class I contains α,β saturated acetates, where the torsional barrier is always close to 100 cm-1. Examples are a series of alkyl acetates such as methyl acetate and ethyl acetate. Class II contains α,β-unsaturated acetates where the C=C double bond is located in the COO plane. This is the case of vinyl acetate and butadienyl acetate. Finally, in class III with isopropenyl acetate and phenyl acetate as two representatives, α,β-unsaturated acetates, in which the double bond is not located in the COO plane, are collected. There, we observed a barrier height around 135 cm-1. This observation will be discussed in details. B. Velino, A. Maris, S. Melandri, W. Caminati, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2009, 256, 228 H. V. L. Nguyen, A. Jabri, V. Van, and W. Stahl, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2014, 118, 12130.

  12. Removal of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cations with bacterial biosorbents from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Won, Sung Wook; Choi, Sun Beom; Mao, Juan; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2013-01-15

    This study aims to determine whether biosorption can be used for the removal of ionic liquids (ILs), especially their cationic parts, from aqueous media. As a model IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc) was used. Five types of bacterial biosorbents were prepared from fermentation wastes through chemical modification of the bacterial surface. Screening study was performed to compare the cationic [EMIM] biosorption capacity among the bacterial biosorbents, indicating that the succinated Escherichia coli biomass (SB-E) was the best biosorbent for removing [EMIM] cations. The [EMIM] biosorption performance of SB-E was evaluated in detail through various experiments. The optimal pH range for [EMIM] biosorption was from 7 to 10, and biosorption equilibrium was reached within 10 min. The maximum uptake of SB-E was also estimated to be 72.6 mg/g. Moreover, [EMIM] cations were easily desorbed from [EMIM]-sorbed SB-E by adding acetic acid. PMID:23246948

  13. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  16. Formation of halogenated acetones in the lower troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Tobias; Wittmer, Julian; Krause, Torsten; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich; Kamilli, Katharina; Held, Andreas; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Ofner, Johannes; Atlas, Elliot

    2015-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its saline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters and consists of ephemeral saline and saline groundwater fed lakes with a pH range from 2.5 to 7.1. In 2012 a novel PTFE-chamber was setup directly on the lakes. The 1.5 m³ cubic chamber was made of UV transparent PTFE foil to permit photochemistry while preventing dilution of the air due to lateral wind transport. This experimental setup allows linking measured data directly to the chemistry of and above the salt lakes. Air samples were taken using stainless steel canisters and measured by GC-MS/ECD. Sediment, crust and water samples were taken for investigation of potential VOC and VOX emissions in the laboratory using GC-MS. Several lakes were investigated and canister samples were taken over the day to see diurnal variations. The first samples were collected at 6 a.m. and from this time every 2 hours a canister was filled with chamber air. Concentrations of chloroacetone up to 15 ppb and of bromoacetone up to 40 ppb in the air samples were detected. The concentrations vary over the day and display their highest values around noon. Soil and water samples showed a variety of highly volatile and semi-volatile VOC/VOX but no halogenated acetones. An abiotic formation of these VOC/VOX seems conclusive due to iron-catalysed reactions below the salt crust [1]. The salt crust is the interface through which VOC/VOX pass from soil/groundwater to the atmosphere where they were photochemically altered. This explains the finding of halo acetones only in the air samples and not in water and soil samples measured in the laboratory. The main forming pathway for these haloacetones is the direct halogenation due to atomic chlorine and bromine above the salt lakes [2]. A minor pathway is the atmospheric degradation of chloropropane and bromopropane [3]. These halopropanes were found

  17. Acetone and Water on TiO₂ (110): Competition for Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2005-04-12

    The competitive interaction between acetone and water for surface sites on TiO? (110) was examined using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Two surface pretreatment methods were employed, one involving vacuum reduction of the surface by annealing at 850 K in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and another involving surface oxidation with molecular oxygen. In the former case the surface possessed about 7% oxygen vacancy sites and in the latter reactive oxygen species (adatoms and molecules) were deposited on the surface as a result of oxidative filling of vacancy sites. On the reduced surface, excess water displaced all but about 20% of a saturated d6-acetone first layer to physisorbed desorption states, whereas about 40% of the first layer d6-acetone was stabilized on the oxidized surface against displacement by water through a reaction between oxygen and d6-acetone. The displacement of acetone on both surface is explained in terms of the relative desorption energies of each molecule on the clean surface and role of intermolecular repulsions in shifting their respective desorption features to lower temperatures with increasing coverage. Although first layer water desorbs from TiO? (110) at slightly lower temperature (275 K) than submonolayer coverages of d6-acetone (340 K), intermolecular repulsions between d6-acetone molecules shift its leading edge for desorption to 170 K as the first layer is saturated In contrast, the desorption leading edge for first layer water (with or without coadsorbed d6-acetone) was at 210 K. This small difference in the onsets for d6-acetone and water desorption resulted in the majority of d6-acetone being compressed into islands by water and eventually displaced from the first layer when excess water was adsorbed. On the oxidized surface the species resulting from reaction of d6-acetone and oxygen was not influence by increasing water coverages. This species was stable on the clean surface up to 375 K (well past the first layer water TPD

  18. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-07-30

    Breath analysis has been considered a suitable tool to evaluate diseases of the respiratory system and those that involve metabolic changes, such as diabetes. Breath acetone has long been known as a biomarker for diabetes. However, the results from published data by far have been inconclusive regarding whether breath acetone is a reliable index of diabetic screening. Large variations exist among the results of different studies because there has been no "best-practice method" for breath-acetone measurements as a result of technical problems of sampling and analysis. In this mini-review, we update the current status of our development of a laser-based breath acetone analyzer toward real-time, one-line diabetic screening and a point-of-care instrument for diabetic management. An integrated standalone breath acetone analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique has been developed. The instrument was validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linear fittings suggest that the obtained acetone concentrations via both methods are consistent. Breath samples from each individual subject under various conditions in total, 1257 breath samples were taken from 22 Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, which is one of the largest numbers of T2D subjects ever used in a single study, and 52 non-diabetic healthy subjects. Simultaneous blood glucose (BG) levels were also tested using a standard diabetic management BG meter. The mean breath acetone concentrations were determined to be 4.9 ± 16 ppm (22 T1D), and 1.5 ± 1.3 ppm (312 T2D), which are about 4.5 and 1.4 times of the one in the 42 non-diabetic healthy subjects, 1.1 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively. A preliminary quantitative correlation (R = 0.56, p < 0.05) between the mean individual breath acetone concentration and the mean individual BG levels does exist in 20 T1D subjects with no ketoacidosis. No direct correlation is observed in T1D subjects, T2D

  19. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-01-01

    Breath analysis has been considered a suitable tool to evaluate diseases of the respiratory system and those that involve metabolic changes, such as diabetes. Breath acetone has long been known as a biomarker for diabetes. However, the results from published data by far have been inconclusive regarding whether breath acetone is a reliable index of diabetic screening. Large variations exist among the results of different studies because there has been no "best-practice method" for breath-acetone measurements as a result of technical problems of sampling and analysis. In this mini-review, we update the current status of our development of a laser-based breath acetone analyzer toward real-time, one-line diabetic screening and a point-of-care instrument for diabetic management. An integrated standalone breath acetone analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique has been developed. The instrument was validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linear fittings suggest that the obtained acetone concentrations via both methods are consistent. Breath samples from each individual subject under various conditions in total, 1257 breath samples were taken from 22 Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, which is one of the largest numbers of T2D subjects ever used in a single study, and 52 non-diabetic healthy subjects. Simultaneous blood glucose (BG) levels were also tested using a standard diabetic management BG meter. The mean breath acetone concentrations were determined to be 4.9 ± 16 ppm (22 T1D), and 1.5 ± 1.3 ppm (312 T2D), which are about 4.5 and 1.4 times of the one in the 42 non-diabetic healthy subjects, 1.1 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively. A preliminary quantitative correlation (R = 0.56, p < 0.05) between the mean individual breath acetone concentration and the mean individual BG levels does exist in 20 T1D subjects with no ketoacidosis. No direct correlation is observed in T1D subjects, T2D

  20. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-01-01

    Breath analysis has been considered a suitable tool to evaluate diseases of the respiratory system and those that involve metabolic changes, such as diabetes. Breath acetone has long been known as a biomarker for diabetes. However, the results from published data by far have been inconclusive regarding whether breath acetone is a reliable index of diabetic screening. Large variations exist among the results of different studies because there has been no “best-practice method” for breath-acetone measurements as a result of technical problems of sampling and analysis. In this mini-review, we update the current status of our development of a laser-based breath acetone analyzer toward real-time, one-line diabetic screening and a point-of-care instrument for diabetic management. An integrated standalone breath acetone analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique has been developed. The instrument was validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linear fittings suggest that the obtained acetone concentrations via both methods are consistent. Breath samples from each individual subject under various conditions in total, 1257 breath samples were taken from 22 Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, which is one of the largest numbers of T2D subjects ever used in a single study, and 52 non-diabetic healthy subjects. Simultaneous blood glucose (BG) levels were also tested using a standard diabetic management BG meter. The mean breath acetone concentrations were determined to be 4.9 ± 16 ppm (22 T1D), and 1.5 ± 1.3 ppm (312 T2D), which are about 4.5 and 1.4 times of the one in the 42 non-diabetic healthy subjects, 1.1 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively. A preliminary quantitative correlation (R = 0.56, p < 0.05) between the mean individual breath acetone concentration and the mean individual BG levels does exist in 20 T1D subjects with no ketoacidosis. No direct correlation is observed in T1D subjects, T

  1. Conditioned Place Preference to Acetone Inhalation and the Effects on Locomotor Behavior and 18FDG Uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, J.C.; Dewey, S.L.; Schiffer, W.; Lee, D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetone is a component in many inhalants that have been widely abused. While other solvents have addictive potential, such as toluene, it is unclear whether acetone alone contains addictive properties. The locomotor, relative glucose metabolism and abusive effects of acetone inhalation were studied in animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and [18F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) imaging. The CPP apparatus contains two distinct conditioning chambers and a middle adaptation chamber, each lined with photocells to monitor locomotor activity. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16; 90-110 g) were paired with acetone in least preferred conditioning chamber, determined on the pretest day. The animals were exposed to a 10,000 ppm dose for an hour, alternating days with air. A CPP test was conducted after the 3rd, 6th and 12th pairing. In these same animals, the relative glucose metabolism effects were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18FDG. Following the 3rd pairing, there was a significant aversion to the acetone paired chamber (190.9 ± 13.7 sec and 241.7 ± 16.9 sec, acetone and air, respectively). After the 6th pairing, there was no significant preference observed with equal time spent in each chamber (222 ± 21 sec and 207 ± 20 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). A similar trend was observed after the 12th pairing (213 ± 21 sec and 221 ± 22 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). Locomotor analysis indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) from air pairings to acetone pairings on the first and sixth pairings. The observed locomotor activity was characteristic of central nervous system (CNS) depressants, without showing clear abusive effects in this CPP model. In these studies, acetone vapors were not as reinforcing as other solvents, shown by overall lack of preference for the acetone paired side of the chamber. PET imaging indicated a regionally specific distribution of 18FDG uptake following

  2. Biochemical activities of acetone extracts of Hyssopus angustifolius.

    PubMed

    Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Baharfar, Robabeh; Zare, Mahboobeh; Azimi, Razieh; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of acetone extracts of Hyssopus angustifolius flowers, leaf and stems were investigated employing different in vitro and ex vivo assay systems. IC50, for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity were 239.4 +/- 8.4 microg/mL for flowers, 357.8 +/- 11.1 microg/mL for stems and 182.5 +/- 7.5 microg/mL for leaf. All extracts showed moderate nitric oxide scavenging activity. The leaf extract exhibited better hydrogen peroxide scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activity than the others (IC50 were 261.0 +/- 6.2 microg/mL for hydrogen peroxide and 534.0 +/- 9.9 microg/mL for Fe3+ chelating activity). The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid peroxidation system and weak reducing power ability. The leaf extract showed better antihemolytic activity than the flower and stem (IC50 = 65.7 +/- 1.8 microg/mL).

  3. Derivatization reaction-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detection of trace acetone.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying; Chen, Zhuo; Zheng, Chengbin; Lee, Yong-Ill; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Li; Tian, Yunfei

    2016-08-01

    A facile method was developed for determination of trace volatile acetone by coupling a derivatization reaction to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). With iodide modified Ag nanoparticles (Ag IMNPs) as the SERS substrate, acetone without obvious Raman signal could be converted to SERS-sensitive species via a chemical derivatization reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH). In addition, acetone can be effectively separated from liquid phase with a purge-sampling device and then any serious interference from sample matrices can be significantly reduced. The optimal conditions for the derivatization reaction and the SERS analysis were investigated in detail, and the selectivity and reproducibility of this method were also evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for acetone was 5mgL(-1) or 0.09mM (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 80mgL(-1) acetone (n=9) was 1.7%. This method was successfully used for the determination of acetone in artificial urine and human urine samples with spiked recoveries ranging from 92% to 110%. The present method is convenient, sensitive, selective, reliable and suitable for analysis of trace acetone, and it could have a promising clinical application in early diabetes diagnosis. PMID:27216660

  4. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetone over CeOX(111) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, David R; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Gordon, Wesley O; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the interaction of acetone (CH3COCH3), the simplest ketone, with well ordered CeO2(111) thin film surfaces. The fully oxidized CeO2(111) surface shows a weak interaction with acetone with the sole desorption product (TPD) being acetone at 210 K. The chemisorbed molecule binds to the surface as the ?1-acetone species rather than through a bridge-bonded dioxy-configuration. Exposure of a CeO2(111) surface to acetone at 600K removes oxygen as CO and results in the conversion of Ce4+ to Ce3+. Acetone chemisorbs strongly on reduced CeO2-x(111) with molecular acetone desorbing near 500 K. Decomposition also occurs with H2 desorbing between 450 and 600 K and C reacting with O in the ceria to desorb above 650 K. A stable species exists from 200 to 500 K on the reduced surface that has three unique types of C. High resolution C 1s XPS spectra indicate these are Ce-CH2, C-CH3 and C-O species. C k-edge NEXAFS indicates the presence of C{double_bond}C and C{double_bond}O bonds. It is postulated that the intermediate is a carbanion bonded through both O and C atoms to Ce cations.

  5. Derivatization reaction-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detection of trace acetone.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying; Chen, Zhuo; Zheng, Chengbin; Lee, Yong-Ill; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Li; Tian, Yunfei

    2016-08-01

    A facile method was developed for determination of trace volatile acetone by coupling a derivatization reaction to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). With iodide modified Ag nanoparticles (Ag IMNPs) as the SERS substrate, acetone without obvious Raman signal could be converted to SERS-sensitive species via a chemical derivatization reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH). In addition, acetone can be effectively separated from liquid phase with a purge-sampling device and then any serious interference from sample matrices can be significantly reduced. The optimal conditions for the derivatization reaction and the SERS analysis were investigated in detail, and the selectivity and reproducibility of this method were also evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for acetone was 5mgL(-1) or 0.09mM (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 80mgL(-1) acetone (n=9) was 1.7%. This method was successfully used for the determination of acetone in artificial urine and human urine samples with spiked recoveries ranging from 92% to 110%. The present method is convenient, sensitive, selective, reliable and suitable for analysis of trace acetone, and it could have a promising clinical application in early diabetes diagnosis.

  6. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetone over CeOx(111) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Senanayake, S.; Gordon, W; Overbury, S; Mullins, D

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the interaction of acetone (CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}), the simplest ketone, with well ordered CeO2(111) thin film surfaces. The fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) surface shows a weak interaction with acetone with the sole desorption product (TPD) being acetone at 210 K. The chemisorbed molecule binds to the surface as the 1-acetone species rather than through a bridge-bonded dioxy-configuration. Exposure of a CeO{sub 2}(111) surface to acetone at 600K removes oxygen as CO and results in the conversion of Ce{sup 4+} to Ce{sup 3+}. Acetone chemisorbs strongly on reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111) with molecular acetone desorbing near 500 K. Decomposition also occurs with H{sub 2} desorbing between 450 and 600 K and C reacting with O in the ceria to desorb above 650 K. A stable species exists from 200 to 500 K on the reduced surface that has three unique types of C. High resolution C 1s XPS spectra indicate these are Ce-CH{sub 2}, C-CH{sub 3} and C-O species. C k-edge NEXAFS indicates the presence of C{double_bond}C and C{double_bond}O bonds. It is postulated that the intermediate is a carbanion bonded through both O and C atoms to Ce cations.

  7. A cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on diabetic metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Yong; Lu, Xiaoyong; Huang, Yanping; Liu, Yu; Cheng, Shouquan; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-02-26

    Breath acetone is a known biomarker for diabetes mellitus in breath analysis. In this work, a cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on clinical metabolic disorders of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was carried out. Breath acetone concentrations of 113 T2DM patients and 56 apparently healthy individuals were measured at a single time point. Concentrations varied from 0.22 to 9.41 ppmv (mean 1.75 ppmv) for T2DM, which were significantly higher than those for normal controls (ranged from 0.32 to 1.96 ppmv, mean 0.72 ppmv, p = 0.008). Observations in our work revealed that breath acetone concentrations elevated to different degrees, along with the abnormality of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride and cholesterol. Breath acetone showed obviously positive correlations with blood ketone and urine ketone. Possible metabolic relations between breath acetone and diabetic disorders were also discussed. This work aimed at giving an overall assessment of breath acetone from the perspective of clinical parameters for type 2 diabetes.

  8. Catalytic function of the mycobacterial binuclear iron monooxygenase in acetone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Nakao, Tomomi; Kino, Kuniki

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium smegmatis strain mc(2)155 and Mycobacterium goodii strain 12523 are able to grow on acetone and use it as a source of carbon and energy. We previously demonstrated by gene deletion analysis that the mimABCD gene cluster, which encodes a binuclear iron monooxygenase, plays an essential role in acetone metabolism in these mycobacteria. In the present study, we determined the catalytic function of MimABCD in acetone metabolism. Whole-cell assays were performed using Escherichia coli cells expressing the MimABCD complex. When the recombinant E. coli cells were incubated with acetone, a product was detected by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Based on the retention time and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) spectrum, the reaction product was identified as acetol (hydroxyacetone). The recombinant E. coli cells produced 1.02 mM of acetol from acetone within 24 h. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MimABCD also was able to convert methylethylketone (2-butanone) to 1-hydroxy-2-butanone. Although it has long been known that microorganisms such as mycobacteria metabolize acetone via acetol, this study provides the first biochemical evidence for the existence of a microbial enzyme that catalyses the conversion of acetone to acetol.

  9. Interactions of ionic liquids and acetone: thermodynamic properties, quantum-chemical calculations, and NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Elia; Ferro, Victor R; Palomar, Jose; Ortega, Juan; Rodriguez, Juan Jose

    2013-06-20

    The interactions between ionic liquids (ILs) and acetone have been studied to obtain a further understanding of the behavior of their mixtures, which generally give place to an exothermic process, mutual miscibility, and negative deviation of Raoult's law. COSMO-RS was used as a suitable computational method to systematically analyze the excess enthalpy of IL-acetone systems (>300), in terms of the intermolecular interactions contributing to the mixture behavior. Spectroscopic and COSMO-RS results indicated that acetone, as a polar compound with strong hydrogen bond acceptor character, in most cases, establishes favorable hydrogen bonding with ILs. This interaction is strengthened by the presence of an acidic cation and an anion with dispersed charge and non-HB acceptor character in the IL. COSMO-RS predictions indicated that gas-liquid and vapor-liquid equilibrium data for IL-acetone systems can be finely tuned by the IL selection, that is, acting on the intermolecular interactions between the molecular and ionic species in the liquid phase. NMR measurements for IL-acetone mixtures at different concentrations were also carried out. Quantum-chemical calculations by using molecular clusters of acetone and IL species were finally performed. These results provided additional evidence of the main role played by hydrogen bonding in the behavior of systems containing ILs and HB acceptor compounds, such as acetone. PMID:23688030

  10. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2010-02-01

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected π* shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  11. Ethyl p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate (EPN)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl p - nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate ( EPN ) ; CASRN 2104 - 64 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Ha

  12. Protein precipitation of diluted samples in SDS-containing buffer with acetone leads to higher protein recovery and reproducibility in comparison with TCA/acetone approach.

    PubMed

    Santa, Cátia; Anjo, Sandra I; Manadas, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    Proteomic approaches are extremely valuable in many fields of research, where mass spectrometry methods have gained an increasing interest, especially because of the ability to perform quantitative analysis. Nonetheless, sample preparation prior to mass spectrometry analysis is of the utmost importance. In this work, two protein precipitation approaches, widely used for cleaning and concentrating protein samples, were tested and compared in very diluted samples solubilized in a strong buffer (containing SDS). The amount of protein recovered after acetone and TCA/acetone precipitation was assessed, as well as the protein identification and relative quantification by SWATH-MS yields were compared with the results from the same sample without precipitation. From this study, it was possible to conclude that in the case of diluted samples in denaturing buffers, the use of cold acetone as precipitation protocol is more favourable than the use of TCA/acetone in terms of reproducibility in protein recovery and number of identified and quantified proteins. Furthermore, the reproducibility in relative quantification of the proteins is even higher in samples precipitated with acetone compared with the original sample.

  13. Comment on "Can existing models quantitatively describe the mixing behavior of acetone with water" [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 124516 (2009)].

    PubMed

    Kang, Myungshim; Perera, Aurelien; Smith, Paul E

    2009-10-21

    A recent publication indicated that simulations of acetone-water mixtures using the KBFF model for acetone indicate demixing at mole fractions less than 0.28 of acetone, in disagreement with experiment and two previously published studies. Here, we indicate some inconsistancies in the current study which could help to explain these differences. PMID:20568888

  14. Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Singh, R K; Mohanty, S S; Dash, A P

    2008-12-01

    Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with An. culicifacies Giles species A, An. stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. The LC50 values of leaf acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 117, 124, 168 and 185 ppm respectively. The LC50 values of seed acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 100, 72, 91 and 91 ppm respectively. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. A significant (P<0.004) higher concentration of acetone extract leaf was required to kill equal number of larvae i.e. against acetone extract of seed. The seed acetone extract showed strong repellent activity against adults mosquitoes. Per cent protection obtained against Anopheles culicifacies species A 100% repellency in 1 h, 6 h; Anopheles stephensi 100% repellency in 0 h, 4 h, 6 h; and Culex quinquefasciatus 100% repellency in 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, at 10% concentration respectively. Against Deet- 2.5% An. culicifacies Giles species A has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, An. stephensi Liston 99% repellency in 4 h, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h.

  15. Chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) during early life-stage development

    SciTech Connect

    Mank, M.; Swigert, J.

    1995-12-31

    A 28-day post-hatch early life-stage development toxicity test was conducted to determine the chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). In this study, less than 24-hour old fathead minnow embryos were exposed to 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mL acetone/L and a negative control for a 4-day pre-hatch period and 28 days following hatch. During the pre-hatch period, no adverse effects on embryo survival or hatching success were observed in any of the treatment groups tested when compared to the negative control. From completion of matching to test termination, fathead minnows exposed to 4.0 mL acetone/L, experienced reduced survival, a statistically significant reduction in growth and impairment of critical behavioral functions when compared to the negative control group. Growth of fathead minnows exposed to 2.0 mL acetone/L also experienced a statistically significant effect upon growth when compared to the negative control, however, survival and behavior were not affected during the post-hatch period. Survival, growth, and behavior of fathead minnows exposed to 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 mL acetone/L from hatching to test termination was comparable to the control group. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows exposed to acetone during early life-stage development was 1.0 mL acetone/L, and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 2.0 mL acetone/L. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was calculated to be 1.4 mL acetone/L.

  16. Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Singh, R K; Mohanty, S S; Dash, A P

    2008-12-01

    Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with An. culicifacies Giles species A, An. stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. The LC50 values of leaf acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 117, 124, 168 and 185 ppm respectively. The LC50 values of seed acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 100, 72, 91 and 91 ppm respectively. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. A significant (P<0.004) higher concentration of acetone extract leaf was required to kill equal number of larvae i.e. against acetone extract of seed. The seed acetone extract showed strong repellent activity against adults mosquitoes. Per cent protection obtained against Anopheles culicifacies species A 100% repellency in 1 h, 6 h; Anopheles stephensi 100% repellency in 0 h, 4 h, 6 h; and Culex quinquefasciatus 100% repellency in 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, at 10% concentration respectively. Against Deet- 2.5% An. culicifacies Giles species A has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, An. stephensi Liston 99% repellency in 4 h, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h. PMID:19579717

  17. Characteristics of acetone cluster ion beam for surface processing and modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryuto, H.; Kakumoto, Y.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.

    2014-02-01

    An acetone cluster ion beam was produced by the adiabatic expansion method without using helium as a support gas. The cluster source for the production of ethanol clusters was replaced with that sealed with metal gaskets. The Laval nozzle for the production of ethanol clusters was also replaced with a stainless steel conical nozzle. The cluster size distributions of the acetone cluster ion beams had mean values approximately at 2 × 103 molecules and increased with source pressure. The typical beam current density of the acetone cluster ion beam was approximately 0.5 μA/cm2.

  18. Characteristics of acetone cluster ion beam for surface processing and modification.

    PubMed

    Ryuto, H; Kakumoto, Y; Takeuchi, M; Takaoka, G H

    2014-02-01

    An acetone cluster ion beam was produced by the adiabatic expansion method without using helium as a support gas. The cluster source for the production of ethanol clusters was replaced with that sealed with metal gaskets. The Laval nozzle for the production of ethanol clusters was also replaced with a stainless steel conical nozzle. The cluster size distributions of the acetone cluster ion beams had mean values approximately at 2 × 10(3) molecules and increased with source pressure. The typical beam current density of the acetone cluster ion beam was approximately 0.5 μA/cm(2).

  19. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions. (a) The additive is a cellulose ether having the...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  2. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Orthisiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Sleesen. (Family: Labiatae) against mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Orthosiphon thymiflorus leaves against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Methods: Larvicidal activity was determined in laboratory bioassays using var...

  3. DFT study on the chemical sensitivity of C3N nanotubes toward acetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Zargham

    2016-02-01

    Potential application of single-walled C3N nanotubes was investigated as chemical sensors for acetone molecules based on the density functional theory calculations. It was found that the pristine nanotube weakly adsorbs an acetone molecule with the adsorption energy of - 9.7 kcal/mol, and its electronic properties are not sensitive to this molecule. By replacing a C atom with a Si atom, the nanotube becomes a p-type semiconductor. The adsorption energy of the acetone molecule on the Si-doped nanotube becomes much more negative (Ead=-67.4 kcal/mol). The adsorption process leads to a sizable increase in the resistance of the Si-doped tube, thereby, it can show the presence of acetone molecule, creating an electronic signal. Also, the sensitivity of these devices can be controlled by the doping level of Si atoms. By increasing the number of dopant atoms from 1 to 4, the sensitivity is gradually increased.

  4. Preparation of spherical optical microresonators and their resonance spectra in air and gaseous acetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matějec, Vlastimil; Todorov, Filip; Jelínek, Michal; Fibrich, Martin; Chomát, Miroslav; Kubeček, Vaclav; Barton, Ivo; Martan, Tomas; Berková, Daniela

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with the preparation of spherical silica whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators and with their resonance spectra measured in air and in acetone vapors. Spherical microresonators with a diameter ranging from 320 to 360 micrometers have been prepared by heating the tip of a silica fiber by a hydrogen-oxygen burner. Details of this preparation are shown on spherical and spheroidal microresonators. The prepared microspheres were excited by a fiber taper and their resonance spectra were measured and Q factors estimated. Changes in the resonance spectra of the microspheres due to their contact with acetone vapor heated to 55 °C or with liquid acetone have been observed. These changes are explained by interaction of acetone with silica and by temperature changes of the microspheres.

  5. Site Competition During Coadsorption of Acetone with Methanol and Water on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2011-08-02

    The competitive interaction between acetone and two solvent molecules (methanol and water) for surface sites on rutile TiO2(110) was studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). On a vacuum reduced TiO2(110) surface, which possessed ~5% oxygen vacancy sites, excess methanol displaced preadsorbed acetone molecules to weakly bound and physisorbed desorption states below 200 K, whereas acetone was stabilized to 250 K against displacement by methanol on an oxidized surface through formation of an acetone-diolate species. These behaviors of acetone differ from the competitive interactions between acetone and water in that acetone is less susceptible to displacement by water. Examination of acetone+methanol and acetone+water multilayer combinations shows that acetone is more compatible in water-ice films than in methanol-ice films, presumably because water has greater potential as a hydrogen-bond donor than does methanol. Acetone molecules displaced from the TiO2(110) surface by water are more likely to be retained in the near-surface region, having a greater opportunity to revisit the surface, than when methanol is used as a coadsorbate. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  6. Electrocatalytic reduction of acetone in a proton-exchange-membrane reactor: a model reaction for the electrocatalytic reduction of biomass.

    PubMed

    Green, Sara K; Tompsett, Geoffrey A; Kim, Hyung Ju; Bae Kim, Won; Huber, George W

    2012-12-01

    Acetone was electrocatalytically reduced to isopropanol in a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) reactor on an unsupported platinum cathode. Protons needed for the reduction were produced on the unsupported Pt-Ru anode from either hydrogen gas or electrolysis of water. The current efficiency (the ratio of current contributing to the desired chemical reaction to the overall current) and reaction rate for acetone conversion increased with increasing temperature or applied voltage for the electrocatalytic acetone/water system. The reaction rate and current efficiency went through a maximum with respect to acetone concentration. The reaction rate for acetone conversion increased with increasing temperature for the electrocatalytic acetone/hydrogen system. Increasing the applied voltage for the electrocatalytic acetone/hydrogen system decreased the current efficiency due to production of hydrogen gas. Results from this study demonstrate the commercial feasibility of using PEM reactors to electrocatalytically reduce biomass-derived oxygenates into renewable fuels and chemicals. PMID:22961747

  7. Electrocatalytic reduction of acetone in a proton-exchange-membrane reactor: a model reaction for the electrocatalytic reduction of biomass.

    PubMed

    Green, Sara K; Tompsett, Geoffrey A; Kim, Hyung Ju; Bae Kim, Won; Huber, George W

    2012-12-01

    Acetone was electrocatalytically reduced to isopropanol in a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) reactor on an unsupported platinum cathode. Protons needed for the reduction were produced on the unsupported Pt-Ru anode from either hydrogen gas or electrolysis of water. The current efficiency (the ratio of current contributing to the desired chemical reaction to the overall current) and reaction rate for acetone conversion increased with increasing temperature or applied voltage for the electrocatalytic acetone/water system. The reaction rate and current efficiency went through a maximum with respect to acetone concentration. The reaction rate for acetone conversion increased with increasing temperature for the electrocatalytic acetone/hydrogen system. Increasing the applied voltage for the electrocatalytic acetone/hydrogen system decreased the current efficiency due to production of hydrogen gas. Results from this study demonstrate the commercial feasibility of using PEM reactors to electrocatalytically reduce biomass-derived oxygenates into renewable fuels and chemicals.

  8. Evaluation of acetone vapors toxicity on Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Pourmirza, Ali Asghr; Nasab, Fershteh Sadeghi; Zadeh, Abas Hossein

    2007-08-01

    The efficacy of acetone vapors against carefully aged eggs of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) at 17+/-1 and 27+/-1 degrees C at different dosage levels of acetone over various exposure times was determined. Acetone was found to be toxic to Indian meal moth eggs. Considerable variation in the susceptibility of different age groups of eggs was apparent in the fiducial limits of the LD50 values. An inverse relationship between LD50 values and exposure times was observed in age groups of tested eggs. At 27+/-1 degrees C and 24 h exposure period, eggs aged 1-2 day-old were more tolerant to acetone than other age groups, followed by 0-1 day-old, 2-3 day-old and 3-4 day-old eggs. A similar pattern of susceptibility of eggs was observed at 72 h exposure. In all bioassays, eggs exposed to higher dosages of acetone developed at smaller rate. This was significant for the eggs, which were exposed to the highest dosage for 24 h. Increasing the temperature from 17+/-1 to 27+/-1 degrees C greatly increased the efficacy of acetone. At 27+/-1 degrees C eggs of P. interpunctella were killed by less than one-third of the dosage required for control at 17+/-1 degrees C. Acetone achieved 50% mortality with a dosage of 82.76 mg L(-1) in 1-2 day-old eggs at 27+/-1 degrees C. At this temperature hatching was retarded and greatly diminished when eggs aged 1-2 day-old were exposed to 80 mg L(-1) of acetone for the 24 h exposure period. There was no evidence of a hatch delay longer than the time spent under vapors for eggs exposed at 17+/-1 or 27+/-1 degrees C, indicating that some development must have occurred under fumigation.

  9. Upper Bound for Neutron Emission from Sonoluminescing Bubbles in Deuterated Acetone

    SciTech Connect

    Camara, C. G.; Putterman, S. J.; Hopkins, S. D.; Suslick, K. S.

    2007-02-09

    An experimental search for nuclear fusion inside imploding bubbles of degassed deuterated acetone at 0 degree sign C driven by a 15 atm sound field and seeded with a neutron generator reveals an upper bound that is a factor of 10 000 less than the signal reported by Taleyarkhan et al. The strength of our upper bound is limited by the weakness of sonoluminescence, which we ascribe to the relatively high vapor pressure of acetone.

  10. The Marangoni convection induced by acetone desorption from the falling soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Yong; Li, Zhangyun; Wang, Yongyi; Huang, Jiali

    2012-05-01

    By means of the falling soap film tunnel and the Schlieren optical method, the Marangoni convection were observed directly in the immediate interfacial neighborhood during the desorption process of acetone from the falling soap film. Moreover, the hydraulic characteristics of the falling soap film tunnel, the acetone concentration, the surface tension of the soap liquid and the mass transfer has been investigated in details through the experimental or theoretical method.

  11. KI-catalyzed α-acyloxylation of acetone with carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Dong; Huang, Bei; Zhang, Yue-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Dai, Jian-Jun; Xu, Jun; Xu, Hua-Jian

    2016-07-01

    The KI-catalyzed reaction of acetone with aromatic carboxylic acids is achieved, leading to α-acyloxycarbonyl compounds in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. The present method exhibits good functional-group compatibility. Notably, this reaction system is even suitable for cinnamic acid, 3-phenylpropiolic acid and 4-phenylbutanoic acid. A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) study indicates that C-H cleavage of the acetone is the rate-limiting step in the catalytic cycle. PMID:27251323

  12. Densities and refractive indices for acetone + methanol + 1-propanol at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, M.; Orge, B.; Tojo, J.

    1996-03-01

    Densities and refractive indices at 298.15 K for acetone + methanol + 1-propanol and the binary acetone + 1-propanol and methanol + 1-propanol mixtures have been measured as a function of the mole fraction at atmospheric pressure. Parameters of analytical expressions which represent the composition dependences of physical properties and excess values are reported. The refractive index results are compared with estimation methods. The excess properties for the ternary mixture are compared with those estimated on the basis of binary property contributions.

  13. Cellulose acetate from oil palm empty fruit bunch via a one step heterogeneous acetylation.

    PubMed

    Wan Daud, Wan Rosli; Djuned, Fauzi Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    Acetone soluble oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose acetate (OPEFB-CA) of DS 2.52 has been successfully synthesized in a one-step heterogeneous acetylation of OPEFB cellulose without necessitating the hydrolysis stage. This has only been made possible by the mathematical modeling of the acetylation process by manipulating the variables of reaction time and acetic anhydride/cellulose ratio (RR). The obtained model was verified by experimental data with an error of less than 2.5%. NMR analysis showed that the distribution of the acetyl moiety among the three OH groups of cellulose indicates a preference at the C6 position, followed by C3 and C2. XRD revealed that OPEFB-CA is highly amorphous with a degree of crystallinity estimated to be ca. 6.41% as determined from DSC. The OPEFB-CA films exhibited good mechanical properties being their tensile strength and Young's modulus higher than those of the commercial CA. PMID:26256348

  14. Cellulose acetate from oil palm empty fruit bunch via a one step heterogeneous acetylation.

    PubMed

    Wan Daud, Wan Rosli; Djuned, Fauzi Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    Acetone soluble oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose acetate (OPEFB-CA) of DS 2.52 has been successfully synthesized in a one-step heterogeneous acetylation of OPEFB cellulose without necessitating the hydrolysis stage. This has only been made possible by the mathematical modeling of the acetylation process by manipulating the variables of reaction time and acetic anhydride/cellulose ratio (RR). The obtained model was verified by experimental data with an error of less than 2.5%. NMR analysis showed that the distribution of the acetyl moiety among the three OH groups of cellulose indicates a preference at the C6 position, followed by C3 and C2. XRD revealed that OPEFB-CA is highly amorphous with a degree of crystallinity estimated to be ca. 6.41% as determined from DSC. The OPEFB-CA films exhibited good mechanical properties being their tensile strength and Young's modulus higher than those of the commercial CA.

  15. Adsorption study of acetone on acid-doped ice surfaces between 203 and 233 K.

    PubMed

    Journet, E; Le Calvé, S; Mirabel, Ph

    2005-07-28

    Adsorption studies of acetone on pure ice surfaces obtained by water freezing or deposition or on frozen ice surfaces doped either with HNO3 or H2SO4 have been performed using a coated wall flow tube coupled to a mass spectrometric detection. The experiments were conducted over the temperature range 203-233 K and freezing solutions containing either H2SO4 (0.2 N) or HNO3 (0.2-3 N). Adsorption of acetone on these ice surfaces was always found to be totally reversible whatever were the experimental conditions. The number of acetone molecules adsorbed per ice surface unit N was conventionally plotted as a function of acetone concentration in the gas phase. For the same conditions, the amount of acetone molecules adsorbed on pure ice obtained by deposition are about 3-4 times higher than those measured on frozen ice films, H2SO4-doped ice surfaces lead to results comparable to those obtained on pure ice. On the contrary, N increases largely with increasing concentrations of nitric acid in ice surfaces, up to about 300 times under our experimental conditions and for temperatures ranging between 213 and 233 K. Finally, the results are discussed and used to reestimate the partitioning of acetone between the ice and gas phases in clouds of the upper troposphere.

  16. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  17. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  18. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  3. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production.

    PubMed

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-11-20

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor.

  4. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production

    PubMed Central

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  5. Computer assisted modeling of ethyl sulfate pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Georg; Halter, Claudia C; Aderjan, Rolf; Auwaerter, Volker; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-01-30

    For 12 volunteers of a drinking experiment the concentration-time-courses of ethyl sulfate (EtS) and ethanol were simulated and fitted to the experimental data. The concentration-time-courses were described with the same mathematical model as previously used for ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The kinetic model based on the following assumptions and simplifications: a velocity constant k(form) for the first order formation of ethyl sulfate from ethanol and an exponential elimination constant k(el). The mean values (and standard deviations) obtained for k(form) and k(el) were 0.00052 h(-1) (0.00014) and 0.561 h(-1) (0.131), respectively. Using the ranges of these parameters it is possible to calculate minimum and maximum serum concentrations of EtS based on stated ethanol doses and drinking times. The comparison of calculated and measured concentrations can prove the plausibility of alleged ethanol consumption and add evidence to the retrospective calculation of ethanol concentrations based on EtG concentrations. PMID:19913378

  6. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia . PMID:22883637

  7. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value.

  8. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:23969233

  9. [Research of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives. XXX. Synthesis and properties of (imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acid derivatives].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, V A; Tolpygin, I E; Spasov, A A; Serdiuk, T S; Sukhov, A G

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl esters of (9-subtituted-imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acids were synthesized. The chemical properties of these esters (hydrolysis, decarboxylation, hydrazinolysis) and biological activity (fungicidal, antimicrobial, antiarrhythmic activity, and also affects on the brain rhythmogenesis) of the prepared compounds were studied.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  15. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  16. Acetone and Water on TiO₂(110): H/D Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2005-04-12

    Isotopic H/D exchange between coadsorbed acetone and water on the TiO?(110) surface was examined using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) as a function of coverage and two surface pretreatments (oxidation and reduction). Coadsorbed acetone and water interact repulsively on reduced TiO?(110) based on results from the companion paper to this study, with water exerting a greater influence in destabilizing acetone and acetone having only a nominal influence on water. Despite the repulsive interaction between these coadsorbates, about 0.02 ML of a 1 ML d6-acetone on the reduced surface exhibits H/D exchange with coadsorbed water, with the exchange occurring exclusively in the high temperature region of the d?-acetone TPD spectrum at {approx}340 K. The effect was confirmed with combinations of d?-acetone and D?O. The extent of exchange decreased on the reduced surface with water coverages above {approx}0.3 ML due to the ability of water to displace coadsorbed acetone from first layer sites to the multilayer. In contrast, the extent of exchange increased by a factor of 3 when the surface was pre-oxidized prior to coadsorption. In this case, there was no evidence for the negative influence of high water coverages on the extent of H/D exchange. Comparison of the TPD spectra from the exchange products (either d?- or d?-acetone depending on the coadsorption pairing) suggests that, in addition to the 340 K exchange process seen on the reduced surface, a second exchange process was observed on the oxidized surface at {approx}390 K. In both cases (oxidized and reduced), desorption of the H/D exchange products appeared to be reaction limited and to involve the influence of OH/OD groups (or water formed during recombinative desorption of OH/OD groups) instead of molecularly adsorbed water. The 340 K exchange process is assigned to reaction at step sites and the 390 K exchange process is attributed to the influence of oxygen adatoms deposited during surface oxidation. The H

  17. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. 721.10001 Section 721.10001 Protection of...-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. (a) Chemical substances and significant...-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and...

  18. Determination of residual acetone and acetone related impurities in drug product intermediates prepared as Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) using gas chromatography with headspace autosampling (GCHS).

    PubMed

    Quirk, Emma; Doggett, Adrian; Bretnall, Alison

    2014-08-01

    Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) are uniform mixtures of a specific ratio of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and polymer prepared via a spray drying process. Volatile solvents are employed during spray drying to facilitate the formation of the SDD material. Following manufacture, analytical methodology is required to determine residual levels of the spray drying solvent and its associated impurities. Due to the high level of polymer in the SDD samples, direct liquid injection with Gas Chromatography (GC) is not a viable option for analysis. This work describes the development and validation of an analytical approach to determine residual levels of acetone and acetone related impurities, mesityl oxide (MO) and diacetone alcohol (DAA), in drug product intermediates prepared as SDDs using GC with headspace (HS) autosampling. The method development for these analytes presented a number of analytical challenges which had to be overcome before the levels of the volatiles of interest could be accurately quantified. GCHS could be used after two critical factors were implemented; (1) calculation and application of conversion factors to 'correct' for the reactions occurring between acetone, MO and DAA during generation of the headspace volume for analysis, and the addition of an equivalent amount of polymer into all reference solutions used for quantitation to ensure comparability between the headspace volumes generated for both samples and external standards. This work describes the method development and optimisation of the standard preparation, the headspace autosampler operating parameters and the chromatographic conditions, together with a summary of the validation of the methodology. The approach has been demonstrated to be robust and suitable to accurately determine levels of acetone, MO and DAA in SDD materials over the linear concentration range 0.008-0.4μL/mL, with minimum quantitation limits of 20ppm for acetone and MO, and 80ppm for DAA.

  19. Cobalt (II) chloride promoted formation of honeycomb patterned cellulose acetate films.

    PubMed

    Naboka, Olga; Sanz-Velasco, Anke; Lundgren, Per; Enoksson, Peter; Gatenholm, Paul

    2012-02-01

    CoCl(2) containing honeycomb patterned films were prepared from cellulose acetate (CA)/CoCl(2)/acetone solutions by the breath figure method in a wide range of humidities. Size and pore regularity depend on the CA/CoCl(2) molar ratio and humidity. When replacing CoCl(2) with Co(NO(3))(2) or CoBr(2), no formation of ordered porosity in the cellulose acetate films is observed. According to data from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the key role in the formation of honeycomb structures can be attributed to the physical and chemical properties of CoCl(2) - hygroscopicity, low interaction with CA, and extraction from CA/CoCl(2)/acetone solution by water droplets condensed on the surface of the CA/CoCl(2) solution. Obtained films are prospective for using in catalysis, hydrogen fuel cells, and optical sensing materials.

  20. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  1. Theoretical study of the decomposition of ethyl and ethyl 3-phenyl glycidate.

    PubMed

    Josa, Daniela; Peña-Gallego, Angeles; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of the decomposition of ethyl and ethyl 3-phenyl glycidate in gas phase was studied by density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 methods. A proposed mechanism for the reaction indicates that the ethyl side of the ester is eliminated as ethylene through a concerted six-membered cyclic transition state, and the unstable intermediate glycidic acid decarboxylates rapidly to give the corresponding aldehyde. Two possible pathways for glycidic acid decarboxylation were studied: one via a five-membered cyclic transition state, and the other via a four-membered cyclic transition state. The results of the calculations indicate that the decarboxylation reaction occurs via a mechanism with five-membered cyclic transition state.

  2. Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethyl acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safrany, A.; Biro, A.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1993-10-01

    Ethyl- and hydroxy ethyl acrylate show high reactivities with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical intermediates of water radiolysis. The electron adduct reversibly protonate with pK values of 5.7 and 7.3. The adducts may take part in irreversible protonation at the β carbon atom forming α-carboxyl alkyl radicals. Same type of radical forms in reaction of acrylates with OH: at low concentration the adduct mainly disappear in self termination reactions. Above 5 mmol dm -1 the signals showed the startup of oligomerization.

  3. Phosphate-solubilizing and plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1 improves greengram performance in quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop amended soil.

    PubMed

    Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2010-02-01

    The quizalafop-p-ethyl- and clodinafop-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing and plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1 isolated from the rhizospheric soils of mustard was used to determine its phosphate-solubilizing activity and other plant-growth-promoting traits both in the presence and absence of technical grade quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop under in vitro conditions. Quizalafop-p-ethyl (at 40, 80, and 120 ppb) and clodinafop (at 400, 800, and 1200 ppb) reduced the P-solubilizing activity, synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, and siderophores progressively with increasing concentrations of each herbicide. Hydrogen cyanide and ammonia synthesisized by this strain, however, did not change. Furthermore, the effects of three concentrations each of quizalafop-p-ethyl [40 (recommended dose), 80, and 120 ppb] and clodinafop [400 (recommended dose), 800, and 1200 ppb] were evaluated on plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PS1 inoculated greengram plants, grown in sandy clay loam soil. Generally, all of the concentrations of both quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop showed phytotoxicity and severely affected the growth, symbiosis, grain yield, and nutrient uptake by greengram plants. The toxicity of quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop enhanced gradually with the increase in the dose rate of herbicides. Quizalafop-p-ethyl was more toxic than clodinafop. In contrast, herbicide-tolerant P. aeruginosa strain PS1 when used with herbicides increased the measured parameters at all concentrations. Both quizalafop-p-ethyl at 120 ppb and clodinafop at 400 ppb increased total chlorophyll content, leghemoglobin, root N, shoot N, root P, shoot P, seed yield, and seed protein, relative to the uninoculated control. The study suggests that the phytotoxicity of herbicides to legumes could be reduced by applying the growth-promoting herbicide-tolerant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1. PMID:19756846

  4. Phenyl acetate derivatives, fluorine-substituted on the phenyl group, as rapid recovery hypnotic agents with reflex depression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Xu, Xiangqing; Chen, Yin; Qiu, Yinli; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bi-Feng; Zhang, Guisen

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of novel, potentially hypnotic fluorine-substituted phenyl acetate derivatives. We describe the structure-activity relationship that led us to the promising derivative: ethyl 2-(4-(2-(diethylamino)-2-oxoethoxy)-5-ethoxy-2-fluorophenyl) acetate (55). The unique pharmacological features of compound 55 are its relatively high affinity for the GABAA receptor, together with a unique affinity for the NMDA receptor, different to propanidid and AZD3043. In animal models, compound 55 showed stronger hypnotic potency and longer duration of LORR than propanidid and AZD3043, but also maintained a rapid recovery time to walking and behavioral recovery. In particular, compound 55 displayed reflex depression during infusion.

  5. Comparison of methods for extraction of ethyl carbamate from alcoholic beverages in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Mirzoian, Armen; Mabud, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    A procedure to analyze ethyl carbamate (EC) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was optimized and validated. Deuterated EC (d5-EC) was added to the samples as an internal standard followed by extraction with polystyrene crosslinked polystyrene cartridges using minimal volumes of ethyl acetate. The EC response was measured in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode and found to be linear in the range between the limit of quantitation (10 micro/L) and 1000 microg/L. EC recoveries varied from 92 to 112%, with the average value of 100 +/- 8%. The procedure compared well (r2 = 0.9970) with the existing AOAC Official Method with the added benefits of minimal solvent usage and reduced matrix interferences. PMID:16915844

  6. Metabolism of (2-14C)acetate and its use in assessing hepatic Krebs cycle activity and gluconeogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, W.C.; Magnusson, I.; Chandramouli, V.; Kumaran, K.; Wahren, J.; Landau, B.R. )

    1991-04-15

    To examine the fate of the carbons of acetate and to evaluate the usefulness of labeled acetate in assessing intrahepatic metabolic processes during gluconeogenesis, (2-14C)acetate, (2-14C)ethanol, and (1-14C)ethanol were infused into normal subjects fasted 60 h and given phenyl acetate. Distributions of 14C in the carbons of blood glucose and glutamate from urinary phenylacetylglutamine were determined. With (2-14C)acetate and (2-14C)ethanol, carbon 1 of glucose had about twice as much 14C as carbon 3. Carbon 2 of glutamate had about twice as much 14C as carbon 1 and one-half to one-third as much as carbon 4. There was only a small amount in carbon 5. These distributions are incompatible with the metabolism of (2-14C)acetate being primarily in liver. Therefore, (2-14C)acetate cannot be used to study Krebs cycle metabolism in liver and in relationship to gluconeogenesis, as has been done. The distributions can be explained by: (a) fixation of 14CO2 from (2-14C)acetate in the formation of the 14C-labeled glucose and glutamate in liver and (b) the formation of 14C-labeled glutamate in a second site, proposed to be muscle. (1,3-14C)Acetone formation from the (2-14C)acetate does not contribute to the distributions, as evidenced by the absence of 14C in carbons 2-4 of glutamate after (1-14C)ethanol administration.

  7. Acetone laser-induced fluorescence for temperature and multiparameter imaging in gaseous flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Mark Clinton

    1999-10-01

    Acetone (CH3COCH3) is an excellent tracer for planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging in gaseous flows due to its low toxicity, high vapor pressure, and accessible absorption (225-320 nm) and fluorescence (350-550 nm) features. A fluorescence yield limited by rapid intersystem crossing reduces the importance of collisional effects. Since the initial work of Lozano (1992), acetone PLIF has been applied with quantitative success in studies of gas-phase mixing under isothermal, isobaric conditions. More recently, improved understanding of acetone fluorescence dependences has opened up possibilities for new diagnostics across a range of conditions. Through modeling and experimental measurement of fluorescence dependences, the current work aims to make existing diagnostics more quantitative and to allow development of new diagnostics for other parameters, in particular temperature. To this end, temperature dependences of fluorescence are measured at excitation wavelengths across the acetone absorption spectrum. Fluorescence per unit acetone mole fraction decreases significantly with increasing temperature for short wavelengths (248 and 266 nm) and weakly (308 nm) or not at all (320 nm) for longer wavelengths. These effects are related to changes in absorption cross-section and fluorescence yield with temperature. A quantitative multistep decay model of fluorescence yield explains the observed temperature and wavelength functionalities and also predicts effects of pressure and composition. Measurements of pressure and composition dependences of acetone fluorescence between 0.5 and 16 atm, with excitation at 248, 266, and 308 nm, are found to agree with model predictions. A mild fluorescence quenching effect of oxygen is observed, which the model, with slight modification, can explain as well. Temperature and multiparameter imaging diagnostics are made possible by the improved understanding of acetone photophysical behavior. Excitation at 248 or 266 nm is

  8. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, a superoxide anion generation inhibitor, potently inhibits tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in ICR mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Ohura, S; Nakamura, Y; Koshimizu, K; Ohigashi, H

    1996-01-01

    The anti-tumor-promoting activity of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) was examined in a two-stage carcinogenesis experiment in ICR mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (0.19 mumol) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 1.6 nmol). Topical application of ACA (160 nmol) markedly reduced the average number of tumors per mouse and the ratio of tumor-bearing mice: inhibition ratios 90% (p < 0.001) and 42% (p < 0.005), respectively. ACA even at a dose equimolar to TPA (1.6 nmol) significantly reduced the average number of tumors per mouse: inhibitory ratio 44% (p < 0.05). ACA potently inhibited TPA-induced superoxide (O2-) generation in differentiated HL-60 cells (IC50 = 4.3 microM) and suppressed the lipid hydroperoxide formation by 42% (p < 0.001) in the ethyl linoleate autoxidation test.

  9. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO3 gas sensors

    PubMed Central

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio; Gass, Samuel; Schmid, Alex; Amann, Anton; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO3 nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone (~20 ppb) with short response (10–15 s) and recovery times (35–70 s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80–90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques. PMID:22790702

  10. Recovery and reuse of spent acetone via a mobile solvent recovery unit

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, M.W.

    1996-11-01

    The Monsanto Chemical Company operates a plastics and resins plant located in Addyston, Ohio. The process equipment requires routine rinsing with technical grade acetone between batches. Due to the volumes of spent acetone generated and the associated RCRA hazardous waste regulations, the plant sought to recycle and reuse the acetone to reduce the purchase cost of virgin acetone and the cost of spent acetone disposal. One of the first options explored was package unit distillation units. The cost of these units was in the $20--$30,000 range in 1989 dollars. Even though the cost of a package unit was not deemed unreasonable, there were additional costs and concerns that led to elimination of this option. The unit would have required additional manpower to operate and maintain, i.e., at least a fraction of an operator and mechanic. For plant safety reasons, it was desired to operate this package unit outside the production building, thus construction of an outbuilding would have added to the expense of the project. Additionally, there were concerns of package unit reliability. During this evaluation, tractor-trailer mounted distillation units were discovered. The portable units were equipped with either thin-film evaporator technology capable of processing 240 to 480 gallons per hour, or pot still (batch) distillation technology capable of rates from 120 to 240 gallons per hour. Both units were constructed of stainless steel.

  11. Field Demonstration of Acetone Pretreatment and Composting of Particulate-TNT-Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Radtke, Corey William; Smith, D.; Owen, S.; Roberto, Francisco Figueroa

    2002-02-01

    Solid fragments of explosives in soil are common in explosives testing and training areas. In this study we initially sieved the upper 6 in of contaminated soil through a 3-mm mesh, and found 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) fragments. These contributed to an estimated concentration of 1.7 kg per cubic yard soil, or for 2000 ppm TNT in the soil. Most of the fragments ranged 4 mm to 10 mm diameter in size, but explosives particles weighing up to 56 g (about 4 cm diameter) were frequently observed. An acetone pretreatment/composting system was then demonstrated at field scale. The amount of acetone required for a TNT-dissolving slurry process was controlled by the viscosity of the soil/acetone mix rather than the TNT dissolution rate. The amount needed was estimated at about 55 gallons acetone per cubic yard soil. Smaller, 5- to 10-mm-diameter fragments went into solution in less than 15 min at a mixer speed of 36 rpm, with a minimum of 2 g TNT going into solution per 30 min for the larger chunks. The slurries were than mixed with compost starting materials and composted in a vented 1 yd3 container. After 34 days incubation time TNT was below the site-specific regulatory threshold of 44 ppm. TNT metabolites and acetone were also below their regulatory thresholds established for the site.

  12. The Reactions of Acetone with the Surfaces of Uranium Dioxide Single Crystal and Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    King,R.; Senanayake, S.; Chong, S.; Idriss, H.

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of acetone, as an example of a carbonyl compound, is studied over UO2 (1 1 1) single crystal and thin film surfaces. Over the stoichiometric single crystal surface, acetone is molecularly and weakly adsorbed with a computed activation energy for desorption in the range of 95-65 kJ/mol with pre-exponential factors between 1011 and 1013 s-1. On the contrary, acetone reacts very strongly on the O-defected single crystal and thin film surfaces. In addition to total decomposition evidence of aldolization and cyclization reactions were seen. The thin film of UO2 was studied by synchrotron light, providing high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy in the core level, and high sensitivity in the both the core and valence band regions. The U5f line was considerably enhanced at grazing angle when compared to that obtained at normal angle for the O-defected surface, showing that the surface is more reduced than the next layers. The U 4f lines indicated the presence of U cations in lower oxidation states than +4 for the O-defected surface. These lines were considerably attenuated upon adsorption of acetone, due to surface oxidation by C{double_bond}O bond dissociation. The reaction pathway for acetone on the O-defected surface is presented, and compared to that of the previously studied acetaldehyde molecule.

  13. Dielectric barrier discharge micro-plasma emission spectrometry for the detection of acetone in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Dong-Xue; Yu, Yong-Liang; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is a predominant volatile organic compound (VOC) in the exhaled breath and a promising biomarker for diabetes and ketoacidosis. A non-thermal micro-plasma generated in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used as a radiation source for the excitation of gaseous acetone followed by its quantification with optical emission spectrometry (OES). Gaseous acetone can be directly sampled, while liquid acetone is evaporated by heated tungsten coil and then introduced into the DBD micro-plasma by a helium carrier flow for performing optical emission and detection at a 519 nm emission line. In the present study, the exhaled breath is collected and transferred into aqueous medium for sampling. With a sampling volume of 7 μL in a micro-drop, a linear range of 40-1600 mg L(-1) is obtained along with a detection limit of 44 ng and a precision of 5.7% RSD. The present system is successfully applied to the determination of breath acetone for both diabetic patients and healthy volunteers.

  14. Study of the exhaled acetone in type 1 diabetes using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Reyes, Adonis; Horsten, Roland C; Urbach, H Paul; Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    The acetone concentration exhaled in the breath of three type 1 diabetes patients (two minors and one adult) and one healthy volunteer is studied using a quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system. Using the acetone signature between 1150 and 1250 cm(-1) and a multiline fitting method, the concentration variations on the order of parts per billion by volume were measured. Blood glucose and ketone concentrations in blood measurements were performed simultaneously to study their relation with acetone in exhaled breath. We focus on personalized studies to better understand the role of acetone in diabetes. For each volunteer, we performed a series of measurements over a period of time, including overnight fastings of 11 ± 1 h and during ketosis-hyperglycemia events for the minors. Our results highlight the importance of performing personalized studies because the response of the minors to the presence of ketosis was consistent but unique for each individual. Also, our results emphasize the need for performing more studies with T1D minors, because the acetone concentration in the breath of the minors differs, with respect to those reported in the literature, which are based on adults.

  15. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO3 gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio; Gass, Samuel; Schmid, Alex; Amann, Anton; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2012-08-13

    Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO(3) nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone (∼20ppb) with short response (10-15s) and recovery times (35-70s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80-90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques. PMID:22790702

  16. Photochemical degradation of citrate buffers leads to covalent acetonation of recombinant protein therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Valliere-Douglass, John F; Connell-Crowley, Lisa; Jensen, Randy; Schnier, Paul D; Trilisky, Egor; Leith, Matt; Follstad, Brian D; Kerr, Jennifer; Lewis, Nathan; Vunnum, Suresh; Treuheit, Michael J; Balland, Alain; Wallace, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Novel acetone and aldimine covalent adducts were identified on the N-termini and lysine side chains of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Photochemical degradation of citrate buffers, in the presence of trace levels of iron, is demonstrated as the source of these modifications. The link between degradation of citrate and the observed protein modifications was conclusively established by tracking the citrate decomposition products and protein adducts resulting from photochemical degradation of isotope labeled 13C citrate by mass spectrometry. The structure of the acetone modification was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on modified–free glycine and found to correspond to acetone linked to the N-terminus of the amino acid through a methyl carbon. Results from mass spectrometric fragmentation of glycine modified with an acetone adduct derived from 13C labeled citrate indicated that the three central carbons of citrate are incorporated onto protein amines in the presence of iron and light. While citrate is known to stoichiometrically decompose to acetone and CO2 through various intermediates in photochemical systems, it has never been shown to be a causative agent in protein carbonylation. Our results point to a previously unknown source for the generation of reactive carbonyl species. This work also highlights the potential deleterious impact of trace metals on recombinant protein therapeutics formulated in citrate buffers. PMID:20836085

  17. Vibrational Excitation of Both Products of the Reaction of CN Radicals with Acetone in Solution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transient electronic and vibrational absorption spectroscopy unravel the mechanisms and dynamics of bimolecular reactions of CN radicals with acetone in deuterated chloroform solutions. The CN radicals are produced by ultrafast ultraviolet photolysis of dissolved ICN. Two reactive forms of CN radicals are distinguished by their electronic absorption bands: “free” (uncomplexed) CN radicals, and “solvated” CN radicals that are complexed with solvent molecules. The lifetimes of the free CN radicals are limited to a few picoseconds following their photolytic production because of geminate recombination to ICN and INC, complexation with CDCl3 molecules, and reaction with acetone. The acetone reaction occurs with a rate coefficient of (8.0 ± 0.5) × 1010 M–1 s–1 and transient vibrational spectra in the C=N and C=O stretching regions reveal that both the nascent HCN and 2-oxopropyl (CH3C(O)CH2) radical products are vibrationally excited. The rate coefficient for the reaction of solvated CN with acetone is 40 times slower than for free CN, with a rate coefficient of (2.0 ± 0.9) × 109 M–1 s–1 obtained from the rise in the HCN product v1(C=N stretch) IR absorption band. Evidence is also presented for CN complexes with acetone that are more strongly bound than the CN–CDCl3 complexes because of CN interactions with the carbonyl group. The rates of reactions of these more strongly associated radicals are slower still. PMID:26192334

  18. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii from sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Carolina; Infante, Celia; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; Lucas, Susana; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2015-08-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) has been investigated as a promising feedstock for ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii. Although lignin content in SBP is low, a pretreatment is needed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields. Autohydrolysis at pH 4 has been selected as the best pretreatment for SBP in terms of sugars release and acetone and butanol production. The best overall sugars release yields from raw SBP ranged from 66.2% to 70.6% for this pretreatment. The highest ABE yield achieved was 0.4g/g (5.1g/L of acetone and 6.6g/L butanol) and 143.2g ABE/kg SBP (62.3g acetone and 80.9g butanol) were obtained when pretreated SBP was enzymatically hydrolyzed at 7.5% (w/w) solid loading. Higher solid loadings (10%) offered higher acetone and butanol titers (5.8g/L of acetone and 7.8g/L butanol). All the experiments were carried out under not-controlling pH conditions reaching about 5.3 in the final samples.

  19. Vibrational Excitation of Both Products of the Reaction of CN Radicals with Acetone in Solution.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Greg T; Preston, Thomas J; Greaves, Stuart J; Greetham, Gregory M; Clark, Ian P; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2015-12-17

    Transient electronic and vibrational absorption spectroscopy unravel the mechanisms and dynamics of bimolecular reactions of CN radicals with acetone in deuterated chloroform solutions. The CN radicals are produced by ultrafast ultraviolet photolysis of dissolved ICN. Two reactive forms of CN radicals are distinguished by their electronic absorption bands: "free" (uncomplexed) CN radicals, and "solvated" CN radicals that are complexed with solvent molecules. The lifetimes of the free CN radicals are limited to a few picoseconds following their photolytic production because of geminate recombination to ICN and INC, complexation with CDCl3 molecules, and reaction with acetone. The acetone reaction occurs with a rate coefficient of (8.0 ± 0.5) × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) and transient vibrational spectra in the C═N and C═O stretching regions reveal that both the nascent HCN and 2-oxopropyl (CH3C(O)CH2) radical products are vibrationally excited. The rate coefficient for the reaction of solvated CN with acetone is 40 times slower than for free CN, with a rate coefficient of (2.0 ± 0.9) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) obtained from the rise in the HCN product v1(C═N stretch) IR absorption band. Evidence is also presented for CN complexes with acetone that are more strongly bound than the CN-CDCl3 complexes because of CN interactions with the carbonyl group. The rates of reactions of these more strongly associated radicals are slower still. PMID:26192334

  20. Destruction of acetone using a small-scale arcjet plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, H.R.; Fleddermann, C.B.; Gahl, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    A small-scale thermal plasma torch has been constructed to determine the feasibility of its use to dispose of hazardous solvent wastes. The system has been studied using acetone as a test compound. The plasma jet is generated using argon and a commercial AC/DC welding supply. The system is operated using torch currents ranging from 50 to 200 A and solvent flow rates in the range 0--200 ml/h. Oxygen is added to alter the chemistry occurring in the reaction chamber. The destruction of acetone and the relative amounts of the reaction by-products are monitored using a residual gas analyzer. The pyrolysis products consist primarily of CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and other C{sub x}H{sub y} radicals when no oxygen is added to the system. By adding oxygen to the system, thermal oxidation processes occur that increase the production of CO{sub 2} and significantly decrease the amount of acetone in the exhaust gases. This paper includes data on the destruction efficiency of acetone as a function of solvent flow rate, torch power, argon flow rate and oxygen injection rate. The results indicate that greater than 99% destruction efficiency of acetone can be achieved with addition of oxygen to the reaction mixture using an arcjet current of 75 A.