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Sample records for acetone-phenol reaction products

  1. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. 721.10238 Section 721.10238 Protection of..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. 721.10238 Section 721.10238 Protection of..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. 721.10238 Section 721.10238 Protection of..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10237 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. 721.10237 Section 721.10237 Protection of Environment... acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products and phenol, sodium salts (PMN P-09-146; CAS No. 1065544-88-8) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10237 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. 721.10237 Section 721.10237 Protection of Environment... acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products and phenol, sodium salts (PMN P-09-146; CAS No. 1065544-88-8) is subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10237 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. 721.10237 Section 721.10237 Protection of Environment... acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products and phenol, sodium salts (PMN P-09-146; CAS No. 1065544-88-8) is subject to...

  7. Reaction product imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  8. Polarization in Meson Production Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, L.D.

    2000-12-31

    A comprehensive formalism for describing polarization observables in meson production reactions is presented. Particular attention is given to the complications that arise when the final state contains three particles. A general formula for the partial wave expansion of the polarization observables is presented, and a number of applications of the formalism are discussed.

  9. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown. PMID:7151750

  10. Reaction products of ozone: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Glaze, W H

    1986-01-01

    The reaction products of ozone that form during the oxidation of compounds found in aqueous media are reviewed. Reaction products of ozone are well documented only for a limited number of substrates, and mechanistic information is quite rare. Decomposition of ozone during its reactions, sometimes induced by matrix impurities or by the by-products of the reactions, will generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Thus, even reactions occurring at pH less than 7 may have radical character. More complete destruction of organic substrates may be enhanced by using catalysts, such as ultraviolet radiation or hydrogen peroxide, to accelerate radical formation. However, complete mineralization is generally not practical economically, so partially oxidized by-products can be expected under typical treatment conditions. Ozone by-products tend to be oxygenated compounds that are usually, but not always, more biodegradable and less toxic than xenobiotic precursors. Of particular interest are hydroperoxide by-products, which may have escaped detection because of their lability, and unsaturated aldehydes. Inorganic by-products tend to be in high oxidation states, which in some cases (e.g., some metallic elements) may lead to enhanced removal by flocculation and sedimentation. In other cases oxidation may lead to formation of reactive species such as hypobromous acid from bromide ion or permanganate from manganous ion. In general, more research is required before a valid assessment of the risks of ozone by-products can be made. PMID:3545802

  11. Genotoxicity testing of Maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, T

    1989-01-01

    Since the development of short-term genotoxicity tests such as the Ames assay, the mutagenicity of Maillard reaction products has been tested extensively. Some products have exhibited strong activity. For example, one of the earliest studies demonstrated some mutagenic activity in a dichloromethane extract of a D-glucose/ammonia Maillard model system. Many researchers have attempted to pinpoint the principal chemical(s) of mutagenicity of the Maillard products using various sugar-amino acid browning model systems over last two decades. However, no mutagenic individual Maillard product has been isolated and identified. Nitrite has been also used as a reactant in browning reaction model systems, primarily to investigate the formation of potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Recently some potent mutagens isolated from pyrolyzed amino acids or proteins have begun to receive attention as Maillard reaction products. PMID:2675034

  12. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Products at Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for LENR occurring on or very near to the surface of materials. Several types of experimental indications for LENR surface reactions have been reported and will be reviewed. LENR result in two types of products, energy and the appearance of new elements. The level of instantaneous power production can be written as the product of four factors: (1) the total area of the surface on which the reactions can occur, (2) the fraction of the area that is active at any time, (3) the reaction rate, that is, the number of reactions per unit active area per second, and (4) the energy produced per reaction. Each of these factors, and their limits, are reviewed. A graphical means of relating these four factors over their wide variations has been devised. The instantaneous generation of atoms of new elements can also be written as the product of the first three factors and the new elemental mass produced per reaction. Again, a graphical means of presenting the factors and their results over many orders of magnitude has been developed.

  13. Ion transport of Fr nuclear reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, J.A.; Cahn, S.B.; Dutta, S.B.

    1993-04-01

    Experiments planned for fundamental studies of radioactive atoms in magneto-optic traps require efficient deceleration and transport of nuclear reaction products to energies and locations where they can be trapped. The authors have built a low-energy ion transport system for Francium and other alkalis. A thick Au target is held on a W rod at 45{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The heavy-ion fusion reaction 115 MeV {sup 18}O + {sup 197}Au produces {sup 211,210,209}Fr recoil products which are stopped in the target. The target is heated to close to the melting point of Au to allow the Fr to diffuse to the surface, where it is ionized due to Au`s high work function, and is directly extracted by an electrode at 90{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The Fr is transported by electrostatic optics {approximately}1 m to a catcher viewed by an {alpha} detector: {ge}15% of the Fr produced in the target reaches the catcher. 2{times}10{sup 5} Fr/sec have been produced at the catcher, yielding at equilibrium a sample of 3x10{sup 7}Fr nuclei. This scheme physically decouples the target diffusion from the surface neutralization process, which can occur at a lower temperature more compatible with the neutral-atom trap.

  14. Transfer-type products accompanying cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.

    2005-12-15

    Production of nuclei heavier than the target is treated for projectile-target combinations used in cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy nuclei. These products are related to transfer-type or to asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions. The production of isotopes in the transfer-type reactions emitting of {alpha} particles with large energies is discussed.

  15. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes. PMID:7161848

  16. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes.

  17. Electroweak meson production reaction in the nucleon resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Toru

    2015-10-15

    We report on our recent study of the the neutrino-nucleon reaction in the nucleon resonance region. The dynamical reaction model of meson production reaction on the nucleon for the pion and photon induced reaction has been developed in order to investigate the spectrum of nucleon excited state. We have extended this model in order to describe the weak meson production reactions with the πN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ and ππN final states. We also studied the role of the final state interaction in the photon and the neutrino induced pion production reaction on the deuteron around the Δ(1232) resonance region.

  18. Energy distribution among reaction products. V.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anlauf, K. G.; Horne, D. S.; Macdonald, R. G.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of three reactions, one point of theoretical interest being the predicted correlation between barrier height and barrier location. The H + Br 2 reaction having a lower activation barrier than H + Cl 2, should have an earlier barrier, and hence a greater percentage attractive energy release and higher efficiency of vibrational excitation. Information is developed concerning the effect of isotopic substitution in the pair of reactions H + Cl 2 and D + Cl 2. The 'arrested relaxation' method was used. Essentially, the method involves reacting two diffuse reagent beams in a reaction vessel with background pressure less than 0.001 torr, and with walls cooled by liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

  19. Conjugate products of pyocyanin-glutathione reactions.

    PubMed

    Cheluvappa, Rajkumar; Eri, Rajaraman

    2015-08-01

    This "Letter to the Editor" is a "gentle but purposeful rejoinder" to specific comments made in pages 36-37 of your Muller and Merrett (2015) publication regarding the data presented in our Cheluvappa et al. (2008) paper. Our rebuttal topics include the effect of oxygen on the pyocyanin-glutathione reaction, relevance of reaction-duration to pathophysiology, rationale of experiments, veracity of statements germane to molecular-structure construction, and correction of hyperbole. PMID:26079058

  20. Products of the reaction of chlorine atoms and ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. H., Jr.; Merideth, C. W.; Bhatia, S.; Guillory, W. A.; Gayles, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopic studies of the gas-phase reaction of chlorine atoms and ozone are reported. It was shown that the major product of the reaction is the symmetric OClO radical, while very little of the asymmetric ClOO radical is produced. It was also shown that the presence of O2 enhances the OClO production and the ClOO is the primary product in the reaction of Cl atoms and pure O2. The radical ClO was observed for the first time in a gas-phase reaction of Cl and O3. A mechanism for these observations is proposed.

  1. Allergenicity of Maillard reaction products from peanut proteins.

    PubMed

    Chung, S Y; Champagne, E T

    1999-12-01

    It is known that peanut allergy is caused by peanut proteins. However, little is known about the impact of roasting on the allergenicity of peanuts. During roasting, proteins react with sugars to form Maillard reaction products, which could affect allergenicity. To determine if the Maillard reaction could convert a nonallergenic peanut protein into a potentially allergenic product, nonallergenic lectin was reacted with glucose or fructose at 50 degrees C for 28 days. Browning products from heat-treated peanuts were also examined. The products were analyzed in immunoblot and competitive assays, using a pooled serum (i.e., IgE antibodies) from patients with peanut anaphylaxis. Results showed that the products were recognized by IgE and had an inhibitory effect on IgE binding to a peanut allergen. Thus, the findings suggest that these Maillard reaction products are potentially allergenic and indicate the need to verify whether the Maillard reaction products formed in peanuts during roasting increase their allergenicity.

  2. Meson Production in p+d Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    GEM Collaboration

    2000-12-31

    Pion and {eta} production on the deuteron are studied at energies in the vicinity of the absolute threshold. The data are expected to be sensitive to high momentum components in the deuteron wavefunction as well as to two-step processes.

  3. Reaction rate and products for the reaction O/3P/ + H2CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. S.; Barker, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A study of reaction kinetics of O + H2CO in a discharge-flow system using mass spectrometric detection of reactants and products is presented. It was performed under both oxygen-atom-rich and formaldehyde-rich conditions over the 296 to 437 K range, showing that the global bimolecular rate constant is in agreement with other studies. This study differs from others in that the reaction products can be observed, and a substantial yield of a primary reaction product was measured with a mass spectral peak at m/e=44. This suggests that the global reaction rate probably consists of combination, as well as of simple abstraction. For the combination, one hypothesis is that triplet dioxymethylene is formed which polymerizes to triplet formic acid; the vibrationally excited triplet formic acid may decompose to form several sets of products, including HCO + OH and HCO2 + H.

  4. Products of the Benzene + O(3P) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Meloni, Giovanni; Trevitt, Adam J.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.; Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai

    2009-12-21

    The gas-phase reaction of benzene with O(3P) is of considerable interest for modeling of aromatic oxidation, and also because there exist fundamental questions concerning the prominence of intersystem crossing in the reaction. While its overall rate constant has been studied extensively, there are still significant uncertainties in the product distribution. The reaction proceeds mainly through the addition of the O atom to benzene, forming an initial triplet diradical adduct, which can either dissociate to form the phenoxy radical and H atom, or undergo intersystem crossing onto a singlet surface, followed by a multiplicity of internal isomerizations, leading to several possible reaction products. In this work, we examined the product branching ratios of the reaction between benzene and O(3P) over the temperature range of 300 to 1000 K and pressure range of 1 to 10 Torr. The reactions were initiated by pulsed-laser photolysis of NO2 in the presence of benzene and helium buffer in a slow-flow reactor, and reaction products were identified by using the multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer operating at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Phenol and phenoxy radical were detected and quantified. Cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radical were directly identified for the first time. Finally, ab initio calculations and master equation/RRKM modeling were used to reproduce the experimental branching ratios, yielding pressure-dependent rate expressions for the reaction channels, including phenoxy + H, phenol, cyclopentadiene + CO, which are proposed for kinetic modeling of benzene oxidation.

  5. Toxicity of aerosols of sodium reaction products.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, G M; Allen, M D; Stevens, D L

    1979-01-01

    Sodium is used as the heat transfer medium in several new energy technologies such as liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors and solar-thermal collection systems. Because sodium burns in air and reacts violently with water, the potential exists for an airborne release of sodium combustion products and subsequent human exposure. To help evaluate the potential short-term hazard from an accidental sodium fire, male juvenile or adult Wistar rats were exposed to sodium aerosols for 2 hours to determine the dose at which 50 percent of the animals were affected (ED50) for each age group. The estimated ED50 of 510 microgram/l for adults was not significantly different from the estimated ED50 of 489 microgram/l for juveniles. The incidence of acute laryngitis, attributed to exposure, was three times higher for juvenile rats than for adults, and the degree of severity of this lesion was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher for juveniles.

  6. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Dennis D.; Dee, Louis A.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), the product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants prepared under laboratory conditions and from firings of Shuttle Reaction Control System thrusters, has been characterized by chemical and thermal analysis. The composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depend on three factors: the fuel-oxidizer ratio at the time of formation; whether the composition of the post-formation atmosphere is reducing or oxidizing; and the reaction or post-reaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, methylammonium nitrate, and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. Thermal decomposition reactions of the FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable. Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid monomethylhydrazine and liquid nitrogen tetroxide in a confined space. These tests demonstrated that monomethylhydrazine, methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide to produce component-damaging energies. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

  7. Kinetics, mechanisms and products of reactions of Criegee intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr-Ewing, Andrew

    The atmospheric ozonolysis of alkenes such as isoprene produces Criegee intermediates which are increasingly recognized as important contributors to oxidation chemistry in the Earth's troposphere. Stabilized Criegee intermediates are conveniently produced in the laboratory by ultraviolet photolysis of diiodoalkanes in the presence of O2, and can be detected by absorption spectroscopy using their strong electronic bands in the near ultraviolet region. We have used these techniques to study a wide range of reactions of Criegee intermediates, including their self-reactions, and reactions with carboxylic acids and various other trace atmospheric constituents. In collaboration with the Sandia National Laboratory group led by Drs C.A. Taatjes and D.L. Osborn, we have used photoionization and mass spectrometry methods, combined with electronic structure calculations, to characterize the products of several of these reactions. Our laboratory studies determine rate coefficients for the Criegee intermediate reactions, many of which prove to be fast. In the case of reactions with carboxylic acids, a correlation between the dipole moments of the reactants and the reaction rate coefficients suggests a dipole-capture controlled reaction and allows us to propose a structure-activity relationship to predict the rates of related processes. The contributions of these various Criegee intermediate reactions to the chemistry of the troposphere have been assessed using the STOCHEM-CRI global atmospheric chemistry model. This work was supported by NERC grant NE/K004905/1.

  8. Evaluation of adverse reaction reports for a newly laundry product.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J E; Herrmann, K W

    1981-05-01

    The marketing of widely used consumer products inevitably results in some reports of adverse dermatologic reactions which are tentatively attributable through medical history to the use of these products. Just as it is important for manufacturers to perform thorough premarket safety testing, it also is important for them to investigate these reported reactions to confirm the safety of the product under widespread use conditions. This report describes the results of such a follow-up investigation into 300 adverse reaction reports obtained during the first year of marketing of new laundry product. The results of diagnostic patch and prick tests, controlled reuse testing, and definitive diagnoses by physicians (mostly allergists and dermatologists) demonstrated that this product was highly unlikely to have caused the reported dermatologic conditions. Widespread distribution of free samples of the new product appeared to be largely responsible for the frequency of anecdotal association of adverse reactions to use of the product. The diagnostic follow-up program is described. PMID:7240466

  9. The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, L. N.; McCall, S. K.; Saw, C. K.; Haschke, J. M.; Allen, P. G.; McLean, W.

    2014-08-01

    The product morphology of the hydrogen reaction with plutonium near the visibly observable reaction front, which separates the hydrided zone from the unreacted metal zone, has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicate the existence of a mixed phase of metal and metal hydride, located some 20-30 μm ahead of the visibly hydrided-zone. The mixed phase regions are often located next to a grain boundary network and exhibit rays of hydride advancing toward the unreacted metal regions. Analysis indicates that hydrogen transport and therefore the hydriding reaction are preferable along the grain boundary network and defects in the metal structure rather than through a homogeneous intragrain reaction. Product fracture and formation of small hydride particles during hydriding are likely results of such inhomogeneous growth.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  8. [Allergic reaction to products made of natural rubber].

    PubMed

    Antczak, M; Kuna, P; Cieślewicz, G

    In the previous few years, there has been a startling escalation in intraoperative and radiologic anaphylactic episodes, some of them lethal, that have been assigned to rubber exposure. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber pose a significant risk to patient with spina bifida and urogenital abnormalities, health care workers, and rubber industry workers. It has been estimated that 2% to 10% of physicians and nursing personnel are latex allergic. The clinical syndromes associated with reactions to latex may be divided into three broad categories a) contact dermatitis--limited to skin directly in contact with latex, b) contact urticaria syndrome a broad spectrum of contact reactions including not only immediate wheal and flare reactions, but also dyshidrotic vesiculation, and accelerated contact reactions including erythema, burning or pruritus occurring within 10-30 minutes after contact, c) systemic allergic reactions-including generalized urticaria or pruritus, rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma, as well as the multiple presentations of anaphylaxis. Contact dermatitis reactions are thought to be a T-cell mediated type IV reaction, systemic reactions to latex appear to be an IgE-mediated phenomenon. Contact urticaria syndrome seems to be a heterogeneous group of reactions. Diagnosis of latex allergy is made on clinical grounds, however, history alone is insufficient to recognize all patients at risk, and conscientious testing materials are not yet available. Prick tests utilizing extracts from latex gloves or from raw latex preparation can be used but the specificity of this test remains unknown. Skin prick testing must be considered experimental and should be only done by experienced physician. Serologic testing for latex allergy remains a safe alternative, although the sensitivity and specificity of this procedure is still undefined. Prophylactic regimes to avoid rubber exposure and decrease the antigen content of natural rubber products by the rubber

  9. Reaction mechanism and product branching ratios of the CH + C₃H₈ reaction: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joao Marcelo; Mebel, Alexander M

    2014-10-01

    The C4H9 potential energy surface accessed by the reaction of methylidyne radical, CH (X(2)Π), with propane, C3H8, including possible intermediates, transition states and dissociation products, has been studied by ab initio and density functional calculations at the CCSD(T)/CBS//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. The computed relative energies and molecular parameters were utilized to calculate collision-energy-dependent unimolecular rate constants at the zero-pressure limit for isomerization and dissociation channels of the C4H9 adducts formed in the entrance reaction channels. The rate constants were used to evaluate the product branching ratios in the CH + C3H8 reaction under single-collision conditions. The results show that the reaction can produce mostly ethene (C2H4) + ethyl radical (C2H5) and propene (C3H6) + methyl radical (CH3), and up to 14% of various butene isomers (C4H8) + H. The product branching ratios are sensitive to the initial reaction adduct (a butyl radical, C4H9) formed in the entrance channels via barrierless insertion of the CH radical into the terminal and middle C-H bonds of propane or, possibly, into the single C-C bonds. A more definite answer on relative contributions of various available CH insertion channels can be obtained through ab initio quasiclassical trajectory calculations, which are proposed for the future. The results allowed us to conclude that the CH + C3H8 reaction does not result in major amounts in the direct growth of the carbon-skeleton to four-carbon C4H8 products via the CH-for-H exchange because C-C bond cleavages in C4H9 radicals are generally more preferable than C-H bond cleavages.

  10. Clocking Surface Reaction by In-Plane Product Rotation.

    PubMed

    Anggara, Kelvin; Huang, Kai; Leung, Lydie; Chatterjee, Avisek; Cheng, Fang; Polanyi, John C

    2016-06-15

    Electron-induced reaction of physisorbed meta-diiodobenzene (mDIB) on Cu(110) at 4.6 K was studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and molecular dynamics theory. Single-electron dissociation of the first C-I bond led to in-plane rotation of an iodophenyl (IPh) intermediate, whose motion could be treated as a "clock" of the reaction dynamics. Alternative reaction mechanisms, successive and concerted, were observed giving different product distributions. In the successive mechanism, two electrons successively broke single C-I bonds; the first C-I bond breaking yielded IPh that rotated directionally by three different angles, with the second C-I bond breaking giving chemisorbed I atoms (#2) at three preferred locations corresponding to the C-I bond alignments in the prior rotated IPh configurations. In the concerted mechanism a single electron broke two C-I bonds, giving two chemisorbed I atoms; significantly these were found at angles corresponding to the C-I bond direction for unrotated mDIB. Molecular dynamics accounted for the difference in reaction outcomes between the successive and the concerted mechanisms in terms of the time required for the IPh to rotate in-plane; in successive reaction the time delay between first and second C-I bond-breaking events allowed the IPh to rotate, whereas in concerted reaction the computed delay between excitation and reaction (∼1 ps) was too short for molecular rotation before the second C-I bond broke. The dependence of the extent of motion at a surface on the delay between first and second bond breaking suggested a novel means to "clock" sub-picosecond dynamics by imaging the products arising from varying time delays between impacting pairs of electrons.

  11. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Anand, M.; Carvill, B.

    1995-09-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction (SER) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process, the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The consequences of SER are: (1) reformation reaction at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than conventional SMR (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (2) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 99+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (3) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The early focus of the program will be on the identification of an adsorbent/chemisorbent for CO{sub 2} and on the demonstration of the SER concept for SMR in our state-of-the-art bench scale process. In the latter stages, a pilot plant will be built to scale-up the technology and to develop engineering data. The program has just been initiated and no significant results for SMR will be reported. However, results demonstrating the basic principles and process schemes of SER technology will be presented for reverse water gas shift reaction as the model reaction. If successful, this technology will be commercialized by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) and used in its existing hydrogen business. APCI is the world leader in merchant hydrogen production for a wide range of industrial applications.

  12. Ether production with multi-stage reaction of olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.

    1993-07-13

    A multistage process is described for etherifying a mixed C[sub 4] + olefinic hydrocarbon feedstock containing diene, isoalkene and nalkene, comprising: contacting the olefinic feedstock and aliphatic alcohol in a first reaction stage reaction zone under etherification conditions with acid etherification catalyst to convert a major amount of the isoalkene to C[sub 5] + tertiary-alkyl ether; recovering a reactant effluent from the first stage containing tertiary-alkyl ether product, unreacted alcohol and unreacted olefin comprising n-alkene and diene; separating an ether-rich C[sub 5] + liquid product stream from the first stage effluent in a first product recovery section; reacting at least a fraction of the first stage effluent unconverted olefins and alcohol fraction under low severity oligomerization conditions comprising moderate temperature between 70 C and 280 C and space velocity of 0.5-50 WHSV based on total olefin in the feed in a secondary stage catalytic reaction zone containing porous solid acid oligomerization catalyst particles to oligomerize a major portion of diene; recovering a C[sub 5]+ liquid product stream from secondary stage effluent; and recovering n-alkene substantially free of diene from secondary stage effluent.

  13. [Fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, B.F.

    1995-05-01

    In keeping with the statement of work, I have examined the fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions. In co-authorship with the UTR (University Technical Representative) Talmadge R. England ``Evaluation and Compilation of Fission Product Yields 1993,`` LA-UR-94-3106(ENDF-349) October, (1994) was published. This is an evaluated set of fission product Yields for use in calculation of decay heat curves with improved accuracy has been prepared. These evaluated yields are based on all known experimental data through 1992. Unmeasured fission product yields are calculated from charge distribution, pairing effects, and isomeric state models developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The current evaluation has been distributed as the ENDF/B-VI fission product yield data set.

  14. Dual Position Sensitive MWPC for tracking reaction products at VAMOS++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandebrouck, M.; Lemasson, A.; Rejmund, M.; Fremont, G.; Pancin, J.; Navin, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Goupil, J.; Spitaels, C.; Jacquot, B.

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics and performance of a Dual Position Sensitive Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (DPS-MWPC) used to measure the scattering angle, the interaction position on the target and the velocity of reaction products detected in the VAMOS++ magnetic spectrometer, are reported. The detector consists of a pair of position sensitive low pressure MWPCs and provides both fast timing signals, along with the two-dimensional position coordinates required to define the trajectory of the reaction products. A time-of-flight resolution of 305(11) ps (FWHM) was measured. The measured resolutions (FWHM) were 2.5(3) mrad and 560(70) μm for the scattering angle and the interaction point at the target respectively. The subsequent improvement of the Doppler correction of the energy of the γ-rays, detected in the γ-ray tracking array AGATA in coincidence with isotopically identified ions in VAMOS++, is also discussed.

  15. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of sorbic acid-amine reaction products.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, C; Marc, F; Fritsch, P; Cassand, P; de Saint Blanquat, G

    2000-11-01

    Sorbic acid (E200) and its salts (potassium and calcium sorbate: E202 and E203) are allowed for use as preservatives in numerous processed foods. Sorbic acid had a conjugated system of double bonds which makes it susceptible to nucleophilic attack, sometimes giving mutagenic products. Under conditions typical of food processing (50-80 degrees C), we analysed the cyclic derivatives resulting from a double addition reaction between sorbic acid and various amines. Mutagenesis studies, involving Ames' test and genotoxicity studies with HeLa cells and plasmid DNA, showed that none of the products studied presented either mutagenic or genotoxic activities.

  16. Multi-strangeness production in hadron induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanos, T.; Moustakidis, Ch.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Lenske, H.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss in detail the formation and propagation of multi-strangeness particles in reactions induced by hadron beams relevant for the forthcoming experiments at FAIR. We focus the discussion on the production of the decuplet-particle Ω and study for the first time the production and propagation mechanism of this heavy hyperon inside hadronic environments. The transport calculations show the possibility of Ω-production in the forthcoming P ‾ANDA-experiment, which can be achieved with measurable probabilities using high-energy secondary Ξ-beams. We predict cross sections for Ω-production. The theoretical results are important in understanding the hyperon-nucleon and, in particular, the hyperon-hyperon interactions also in the high-strangeness sector. We emphasize the importance of our studies for the research plans at FAIR.

  17. Reaction of limonene with F2: rate coefficient and products.

    PubMed

    Bedjanian, Yuri; Romanias, Manolis N; Morin, Julien

    2014-11-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of limonene (C10H16) with F2 has been studied using a low pressure (P = 1 Torr) and a high pressure turbulent (P = 100 Torr) flow reactor coupled with an electron impact ionization and chemical ionization mass spectrometers, respectively: F2 + Limonene → products (1). The rate constant of the title reaction was determined under pseudo-first-order conditions by monitoring either limonene or F2 decay in excess of F2 or C10H16, respectively. The reaction rate constant, k1 = (1.15 ± 0.25) × 10(-12) exp(160 ± 70)/T) was determined over the temperature range 278-360 K, independent of pressure between 1 (He) and 100 (N2) Torr. F atom and HF were found to be formed in reaction 1 , with the yields of 0.60 ± 0.13 and 0.39 ± 0.09, respectively, independent of temperature in the range 296-355 K.

  18. A study of switchgrass pyrolysis: Product variability and reaction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovee, Jonathan Matthew

    Samples of the same cultivar of cave-in-rock switchgrass were harvested from plots in Frankenmuth, Roger City, Cass County, and Grand Valley, Michigan. It was determined that variation exists, between locations, among the pyrolytic compounds which can lead to variability in bio-oil and increased processing costs at bio-refineries to make hydrocarbon fuels. Washed and extractives-free switchgrass samples, which contain a lower alkali and alkaline earth metals content than untreated samples, were shown to produce lower amounts of acids, esters, furans, ketones, phenolics, and saccharides and also larger amounts of aldehydes upon pyrolysis. Although the minerals catalyzed pyrolytic reactions, there was no evidence indicating their effect on reducing the production of anhydrosugars, specifically levoglucosan. To further link minerals present in the biomass to a catalytic pathway, mathematic models were employed to determine the kinetic parameters of the switchgrass. While the calculated activation energies of switchgrass, using the FWO and KAS methods, were 227.7 and 217.8 kJ/mol, correspondingly, it was concluded that the activation energies for the switchgrass hemicellulose and cellulose peaks were 115.5 and 158.2 kJ/mol, respectively, using a modified model-fitting method. The minerals that effect the production of small molecules and levoglucosan also have an observable catalytic effect on switchgrass reaction rate, which may be quantifiable through the use of reaction kinetics so as to determine activation energy.

  19. Theoretical aspects of product formation from the NCO + NO reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.C.; He, Y. ); Melius, C.F. )

    1993-09-09

    The reaction of NCO with NO, an important elementary process involved in the reduction of NO[sub x] by HNCO, has been studied theoretically using the BAC-MP4 technique in conjunction with RRKM calculations. The computed molecular structures and thermochemical data for various intermediates and transition states suggest that the reaction takes place primarily via the singlet, ground electronic state OCNNO molecule according to the following mechanism; (step a) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] N[sub 2]O + CO; (step b) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] c-OCNNO[minus] N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2]. The formation of N[sub 2]O + CO occurs by the fragmentation of the singlet OCNNO intermediate step (a), whereas the production of N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2] by cyclization-fragmentation occurs via step b. The tight transition states leading to the formation of these products, coupled with the loose entrance channel, give rise to the experimentally observed strong negative temperature dependence which can be quantitatively accounted for by the results of RRKM calculations based on the BAC-MP4 data. The experimentally measured product branching ratio for channels a and b could be accounted for theoretically by lowering the calculated energy barrier for step a by 3.6 kcal/mol, corresponding to about 15% of the barrier height. 22 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Removal of triclosan via peroxidases-mediated reactions in water: Reaction kinetics, products and detoxification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Peng, Jianbiao; Zhang, Ya; Ji, Yuefei; Shi, Huanhuan; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated and compared reaction kinetics, product characterization, and toxicity variation of triclosan (TCS) removal mediated by soybean peroxidase (SBP), a recognized potential peroxidase for removing phenolic pollutants, and the commonly used horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with the goal of assessing the technical feasibility of SBP-catalyzed removal of TCS. Reaction conditions such as pH, H2O2 concentration and enzyme dosage were found to have a strong influence on the removal efficiency of TCS. SBP can retain its catalytic ability to remove TCS over broad ranges of pH and H2O2 concentration, while the optimal pH and H2O2 concentration were 7.0 and 8μM, respectively. 98% TCS was removed with only 0.1UmL(-1) SBP in 30min reaction time, while an HRP dose of 0.3UmL(-1) was required to achieve the similar conversion. The catalytic performance of SBP towards TCS was more efficient than that of HRP, which can be explained by catalytic rate constant (KCAT) and catalytic efficiency (KCAT/KM) for the two enzymes. MS analysis in combination with quantum chemistry computation showed that the polymerization products were generated via CC and CO coupling pathways. The polymers were proved to be nontoxic through growth inhibition of green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus). Taking into consideration of the enzymatic treatment cost, SBP may be a better alternative to HRP upon the removal and detoxification of TCS in water/wastewater treatment. PMID:26921508

  1. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  6. Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

  7. Reaction products in mass spectrometry elucidated with infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Polfer, Nick C; Oomens, Jos

    2007-08-01

    Determining the structure and dynamics of large biologically relevant molecules is one of the key challenges facing biology. Although X-ray crystallography (XRD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) yield accurate structural information, they are of limited use when sample quantities are low. Mass spectrometry (MS) on the other hand has been very successful in analyzing biological molecules down to atto-mole quantities and has hence begun to challenge XRD and NMR as the key technology in the life sciences. This trend has been further assisted by the development of MS techniques that yield structural information on biomolecules. Of these techniques, collision-induced dissociation (CID) and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) are among the most popular. Despite advances in applying these techniques, little direct experimental evidence had been available until recently to verify their proposed underlying reaction mechanisms. The possibility to record infrared spectra of mass-selected molecular ions has opened up a novel avenue in the structural characterization of ions and their reaction products. On account of its high pulse energies and wide wavelength tunability, the free electron laser for infrared experiments (FELIX) at FOM Rijnhuizen has been shown to be ideally suited to study trapped molecular ions with infrared photo-dissociation spectroscopy. In this paper, we review recent experiments in our laboratory on the infrared spectroscopic characterization of reaction products from CID and HDX, thereby corroborating some of the reaction mechanisms that have been proposed. In particular, it is shown that CID gives rise to linear fragment ion structures which have been proposed for some time, but also yields fully cyclical ring structures. These latter structures present a possible challenge for using tandem MS in the sequencing of peptides/proteins, as they can lead to a scrambling of the amino acid sequence information. In gas-phase HDX of an amino acid it is shown

  8. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10484 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10484 Section 721.10484 Protection of... Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN P-04-432; CAS No....

  14. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10428 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10428 Section 721.10428 Protection of Environment..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10445 - 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide, distn. residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10445 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with...) The chemical substance identified as 2-propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10494 - Reaction product of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and alkylene imine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of trimethylolpropane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10494 Reaction product of trimethylolpropane.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction product of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (PMN P-09-48) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-03-461) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10445 - 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide, distn. residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10445 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with...) The chemical substance identified as 2-propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10484 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10484 Section 721.10484 Protection of... Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN P-04-432; CAS No....

  3. 40 CFR 721.10494 - Reaction product of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and alkylene imine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of trimethylolpropane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10494 Reaction product of trimethylolpropane.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction product of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10428 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10428 Section 721.10428 Protection of Environment..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (PMN P-09-48) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. Link to an... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products of formalin...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-03-461) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  2. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials.

  3. Rapid electrochemiluminescence assays of polymerase chain reaction products.

    PubMed

    Kenten, J H; Casadei, J; Link, J; Lupold, S; Willey, J; Powell, M; Rees, A; Massey, R

    1991-09-01

    We demonstrate the first use of an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) label, [4-(N-succimidyloxycarbonylpropyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'- bipyridine]ruthenium(II) dihexafluorophosphate (Origen label; IGEN Inc.), in DNA probe assays. This label allows rapid (less than 25 min) quantification and detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products from oncogenes, viruses, and cloned genes. For the PCR, we used labeled oligonucleotide primers complementary to human papiloma virus and the Ha-ras oncogene. These samples were followed by ECL analysis or hybridization with specific, Origen-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These studies demonstrate the speed, specificity, and effectiveness of the new ECL labels, compared with 32P, for nucleic acid probe applications. We describe formats involving conventional methodologies and a new format that requires no wash step, allowing simple and rapid sample analysis. These rapid assays also reduce PCR contamination, by requiring less sample handling. Improvements in ECL detectability are currently under investigation for use in DNA probe assays without amplification.

  4. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S.

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  5. Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.

    1996-10-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The key consequences of SERP are: (i) reformation reaction is carried out at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than that in a conventional SMR reactor (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (ii) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 98+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (iii) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The first phase of the program has focused on the development of a sorbent for CO{sub 2} which has (a) reversible CO{sub 2} capacity >0.3 mmol/g at low partial pressures of CO{sub 2} (0.1 - 1.0 atm) in the presence of excess steam (pH{sub 2}O/pCO{sub 2}>20) at 400-500{degrees}C and (b) fast sorption-desorption kinetics for CO{sub 2}, at 400-500{degrees}C. Several families of supported sorbents have been identified that meet the target CO{sub 2} capacity. A few of these sorbents have been tested under repeated sorption/desorption cycles and extended exposure to high pressure steam at 400-500{degrees}C. One sorbent has been scaled up to larger quantities (2-3 kg) and tested in the laboratory process equipment for sorption and desorption kinetics of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2}, sorption and desorption kinetics are desirably fast. This was a critical path item for the first phase of the program and now has been successfully demonstrated. A reactor has been designed that will allow nearly isothermal operation for SERP-SMR. This reactor was integrated into an overall process flow diagram for the SERP-SMR process.

  6. Calculations of long-lived isomer production in neutron reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations for the production of the long-lived isomers: {sup 121m}Sn (11/2-, 55 yr), {sup 166m}Ho(7-, 1200 yr), {sup 184m}Re(8+, 165 d), {sup 186m}Re(8+, 2{times}10{sup 5} yr), {sup 178m}Hf(16+, 31 yr), {sup 179m}Hf(25/2-, 25 d), {sup 192m}Ir(9+, 241 yr), all which pose potential radiation activation problems in nuclear fusion reactors if produced in 14-MeV neutron-induced reactions. We consider mainly (n,2n) production modes, but also (n,n{sup {prime}}) and (n,{gamma}) where necessary, and compare our results both with experimental data (where available) and systematics. We also investigate the dependence of the isomeric cross section ratio on incident neutron energy for the isomers under consideration. The statistical Hauser-Feshbach plus preequilibrium code GNASH was used for the calculations. Where discrete state experimental information was lacking, rotational band members above the isomeric state, which can be justified theoretically but have not been experimentally resolved, were reconstructed. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. GALS - setup for production and study of multinucleon transfer reaction products: present status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemlyanoy, S.; Zagrebaev, V.; Kozulin, E.; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Fedosseev, V.; Bark, R.; Janas, Z.

    2016-06-01

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) - JINR, Dubna. GALS is planned to exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the "north-east" region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as 136Xe on 208Pb, are to be captured in a gas cell and selectively laser-ionized in a sextupole (quadrupole) ion guide extraction system.

  8. Chemical Reaction and Flow Modeling in Fullerene and Nanotube Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Farhat, Samir; Greendyke, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of processes to produce fullerenes and carbon nanotubes has largely been empirical. Fullerenes were first discovered in the soot produced by laser ablation of graphite [1]and then in the soot of electric arc evaporated carbon. Techniques and conditions for producing larger and larger quantities of fullerenes depended mainly on trial and error empirical variations of these processes, with attempts to scale them up by using larger electrodes and targets and higher power. Various concepts of how fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were formed were put forth, but very little was done based on chemical kinetics of the reactions. This was mainly due to the complex mixture of species and complex nature of conditions in the reactors. Temperatures in the reactors varied from several thousand degrees Kelvin down to near room temperature. There are hundreds of species possible, ranging from atomic carbon to large clusters of carbonaceous soot, and metallic catalyst atoms to metal clusters, to complexes of metals and carbon. Most of the chemical kinetics of the reactions and the thermodynamic properties of clusters and complexes have only been approximated. In addition, flow conditions in the reactors are transient or unsteady, and three dimensional, with steep spatial gradients of temperature and species concentrations. All these factors make computational simulations of reactors very complex and challenging. This article addresses the development of the chemical reaction involved in fullerene production and extends this to production of carbon nanotubes by the laser ablation/oven process and by the electric arc evaporation process. In addition, the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process is discussed. The article is in several parts. The first one addresses the thermochemical aspects of modeling; and considers the development of chemical rate equations, estimates of reaction rates, and thermodynamic properties where they are available. The second part

  9. [Precipitation reactions between secretory products in amphibian oviducts].

    PubMed

    Jégo, P; Chesnel, A; Joly, J

    1983-01-01

    The existence of precipitin reactions between some molecules in egg jellies (oviduct secretions) of tailed amphibians (Amphibia caudata) has been demonstrated by double diffusion on agarose plates. These reactions do not exist in frogs and toads (Amphibia salientia). One precipitin reaction was related to compounds with a common molecular site of interaction for all A. caudata: all cross-species reactions were possible; a common antigenic rate has been shown. Another precipitin reaction, positively demonstrated in Pleurodeles waltl, probably exists in other A. caudata. The putative influence of these reactions on egg jelly-spermatozoon interactions has been discussed. An homology between these intra-egg jelly reactions and cortical granule content-egg jelly reactions in A. salientia has been suggested.

  10. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  16. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10570 - Cyclic amine reaction product with acetophenone and formaldehyde acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cyclic amine reaction product with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10570 Cyclic amine reaction product... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cyclic amine reaction...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (PMN P-11-204) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  6. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10570 - Cyclic amine reaction product with acetophenone and formaldehyde acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cyclic amine reaction product with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10570 Cyclic amine reaction product... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cyclic amine reaction...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (PMN P-11-204) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  16. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  17. Perturbative resummed series for top quark production in hadron reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Edmond L.; Contopanagos, Harry

    1996-09-01

    Our calculation of the total cross section for inclusive production of tt¯ pairs in hadron collisions is presented. The principal ingredient of the calculation is resummation of the universal leading-logarithm effects of gluon radiation to all orders in the quantum chromodynamics coupling strength, restricted to the region of phase space that is demonstrably perturbative. We derive the perturbative regime of the resummed series, starting from the principal-value resummation approach, and we isolate the perturbative domain in both moment space and, upon inversion of the corresponding Mellin transform, in momentum space. We show that our perturbative result does not depend on the manner nonperturbative or infrared effects are handled in principal-value resummation. We treat both the quark-antiquark and gluon-gluon production channels consistently in the MS factorization scheme. We compare our method and results with other resummation methods that rely on the choice of infrared cutoffs. We derive the renormalization or factorization scale dependence of our re- summed cross section, and we discuss factorization scheme dependence and remaining theoretical uncertainties, including estimates of possible nonperturbative contributions. We include the full content of the exact next-to-leading order calculation in obtaining our final results. We present predictions of the physical cross section as a function of top quark mass in proton-antiproton reactions at center-of-mass energies of 1.8 and 2.0 TeV. We also provide the differential cross section as a function of the parton-parton subenergy.

  18. X (3872) production from reactions involving D and D* mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Torres, A.; Khemchandani, K. P.; Navarra, F. S.; Nielsen, M.; Abreu, Luciano M.

    2015-07-01

    In this proceeding we show the results found for the cross sections of the processes D → πX(3872), *D → πX(3872) and *D* → πX(3872), information needed for calculations of the X (3872) abundance in heavy ion collisions. Our formalism is based on the generation of X(3872) from the interaction of the hadrons 0D*0 — c.c, D-D*+ — c.c and D-sD*+s — c.c. The evaluation of the cross section associated with processes having D* meson(s) involves an anomalous vertex, X*D*, which we have determined by considering triangular loops motivated by the molecular nature of X (3872). We find that the contribution of this vertex is important. Encouraged by this finding we estimate the X*D* coupling, which turns out to be 1.95 ± 0.22. We then use it to obtain the cross section for the reaction *D* → πX and find that the X*D* vertex is also relevant in this case. We also discuss the role of the charged components of X in the determination of the production cross sections.

  19. Electrochemical device for converting carbon dioxide to a reaction product

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    An electrochemical device converts carbon dioxide to a reaction product. The device includes an anode and a cathode, each comprising a quantity of catalyst. The anode and cathode each has reactant introduced thereto. A polymer electrolyte membrane is interposed between the anode and the cathode. At least a portion of the cathode catalyst is directly exposed to gaseous carbon dioxide during electrolysis. The average current density at the membrane is at least 20 mA/cm.sup.2, measured as the area of the cathode gas diffusion layer that is covered by catalyst, and CO selectivity is at least 50% at a cell potential of 3.0 V. In some embodiments, the polymer electrolyte membrane comprises a polymer in which a constituent monomer is (p-vinylbenzyl)-R, where R is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums, pyridiniums and phosphoniums. In some embodiments, the polymer electrolyte membrane is a Helper Membrane comprising a polymer containing an imidazolium ligand, a pyridinium ligand, or a phosphonium ligand.

  20. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N.; Hullette, J.N.

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate

  1. Production of 199Ir via Exotic Nucleon Transfer Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kui; J, S. Lilley; P, V. Drumm; D, D. Warner; R, A. Cunningham; J, N. Mo

    1993-05-01

    A new nucleus 199Ir has been produced using the exotic transfer reaction 198Pt(18O, 17F)199Ir at 140 MeV. The mass of 199Ir has been measured by the determination of the reaction Q value. Its mass excess is -24.424 ± 0.034 MeV.

  2. Accessing reaction rate constants in on-column reaction chromatography: an extended unified equation for reaction educts and products with different response factors.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Oliver; Bremer, Sabrina; Weber, Sven K

    2009-11-01

    An extension of the unified equation of chromatography to directly access reaction rate constants k(1) of first-order reaction in on-column chromatography is presented. This extended equation reflects different response factors in the detection of the reaction educt and product which arise from structural changes by elimination or addition, e.g., under pseudo-first-order reaction conditions. The reaction rate constants k(1) and Gibbs activation energies DeltaG(double dagger) of first-order reactions taking place in a chromatographic system can be directly calculated from the chromatographic parameters, i.e., retention times of the educt E and product P (t(R)(A) and t(R)(B)), peak widths at half height (w(A) and w(B)), the relative plateau height (h(p)) of the conversion profile, and the individual response factors f(A) and f(B). The evaluation of on-column reaction gas chromatographic experiments is exemplified by the evaluation of elution profiles obtained by ring-closing metathesis reaction of N,N-diallytrifluoroacetamide in presence of Grubbs second-generation catalyst, dissolved in polydimethylsiloxane (GE SE 30).

  3. Maleic anhydride-polyether-polyamine reaction product and motor fuel composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.

    1987-04-21

    A material is described having a use as a motor fuel additive for controlling engine octane requirement increase (ORI), controlling and reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide engine emissions, and having carburetor detergency properties. The material is the reaction product of maleic anhydride, a polyether polyamine, preferably a polyether diamine, and a hydrocarbyl polyamine, preferably an n-alkyl-alkylene diamine. A concentrate comprising the prescribed reaction product dissolved in a hydrocarbon solvent is also described. Motor fuels containing the reaction product additive of the instant invention show improved ORI control and carburetor detergency in comparison with motor fuels without the reaction product additive.

  4. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  5. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  10. Product distribution for the reaction of HO2 with ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reports the direct measurement of the reaction product HOCl from the reaction of H2O with ClO, and sets an upper limit for the possible product O3, using a discharge flow/mass spectrometry/resonance fluorescence apparatus. The upper limits of the reaction channel producing HCl + O3 are 1.5% at 298 K and 3.0% at 248 K. It is seen that the HCl production rate from the HO2 + ClO reaction could be as large as that from the Cl + CH4 reaction in the lower and middle stratosphere. Thus, this reaction may possibly increase the HCl production rate appreciably and thereby reduce the calculated O3 destruction by chlorofluoromethanes.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  1. Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jin; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Chen, Meng-Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Formose reaction converts formaldehyde to carbohydrates. We found that formose reaction can be used linking the biomass gasification with the aqueous-phase processing (APP) to produce liquid transportation fuel in three steps. First, formaldehyde from syn-gas was converted to triose. This was followed by aldol condensation and dehydration to 4-hydroxymethylfurfural (4-HMF). Finally, 4-HMF was hydrogenated to produce 2,4-dimethylfuran (2,4-DMF) or C9-C15 branched-chain alkanes as liquid transportation fuels. In the linked strategy, high energy-consuming pretreatment as well as expensive and polluting hydrolysis of biomass were omitted, but the high energy recovery of APP was inherited. In addition, the hexoketoses via formose reaction could be converted to HMFs directly without isomerization. A potential platform molecule 4-HMF was formed simultaneously in APP. PMID:23393625

  2. Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jin; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Chen, Meng-Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Formose reaction converts formaldehyde to carbohydrates. We found that formose reaction can be used linking the biomass gasification with the aqueous-phase processing (APP) to produce liquid transportation fuel in three steps. First, formaldehyde from syn-gas was converted to triose. This was followed by aldol condensation and dehydration to 4-hydroxymethylfurfural (4-HMF). Finally, 4-HMF was hydrogenated to produce 2,4-dimethylfuran (2,4-DMF) or C(9)-C(15) branched-chain alkanes as liquid transportation fuels. In the linked strategy, high energy-consuming pretreatment as well as expensive and polluting hydrolysis of biomass were omitted, but the high energy recovery of APP was inherited. In addition, the hexoketoses via formose reaction could be converted to HMFs directly without isomerization. A potential platform molecule 4-HMF was formed simultaneously in APP. PMID:23393625

  3. Comparison of Complementary Reactions in the Production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Sarah; Gregorich, Kenneth; Dragojevic, Irena; Ellison, Paul; Garcia, Mitch Andre; Gates, Jacklyn; Stavsetra, Liv; Ali, Mazhar; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-01-21

    The new reaction 208Pb(59Co,n)266Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7+5.2-3.3 pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of 266Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied 209Bi(58Fe,n)266Mt reaction.

  4. Comparison of complementary reactions in the production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Dragojevic, I.; Ellison, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Dvorak, J.; Stavsetra, L.; Ali, M. N.

    2009-02-15

    The new reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 59}Co,n){sup 266}Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7{sub -3.3}{sup +5.2} pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of {sup 266}Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied {sup 209}Bi({sup 58}Fe,n){sup 266}Mt reaction.

  5. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-04-22

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates.

  6. Utility of spectral measurements of secondary reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.E.

    1986-02-01

    The spectra of 15 MeV protons and 14 MeV neutrons produced in the burnup of 0.8 MeV THe ions and 1 MeV tritons through the d(THe,p) and d(t,n) fusion reactions contain information on the velocity distributions of the energetic THe ions and tritons. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  7. The Phase Behavior Effect on the Reaction Engineering of Transesterification Reactions and Reactor Design for Continuous Biodiesel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csernica, Stephen N.

    transitions from two phases to a single phase, or pseudo-single phase. The transition to a single phase or pseudo-single phase is a function of the methanol content. Regardless, the maximum observed reaction rate occurs at the point of the phase transition, when the concentration of triglycerides in the methanol phase is largest. The phase transition occurs due to the accumulation of the primary product, biodiesel methyl esters. Through various experiments, it was determined that the rate of the triglyceride mass transfer into the methanol phase, as well as the solubility of triglycerides in methanol, increases with increasing methyl ester concentration. Thus, there exists some critical methyl ester concentration which favors the formation of a single or pseudo-single phase system. The effect of the by-product glycerol on the reaction kinetics was also investigated. It was determined that at low methanol to triglyceride molar ratios, glycerol acts to inhibit the reaction rate and limit the overall triglyceride conversion. This occurs because glycerol accumulates in the methanol phase, i.e. the primary reaction volume. When glycerol is at relatively high concentrations within the methanol phase, triglycerides become excluded from the reaction volume. This greatly reduces the reaction rate and limits the overall conversion. As the concentration of methanol is increased, glycerol becomes diluted and the inhibitory effects become dampened. Assuming pseudo-homogeneous phase behavior, a simple kinetic model incorporating the inhibitory effects of glycerol was proposed based on batch reactor data. The kinetic model was primarily used to theoretically compare the performance of different types of continuous flow reactors for continuous biodiesel production. It was determined that the inhibitory effects of glycerol result in the requirement of very large reactor volumes when using continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The reactor volume can be greatly reduced using tubular style

  8. Dissociation of a Product of a Surface Reaction in the Gas Phase: XeF2 Reaction with Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefty, R. C.; Holt, J. R.; Tate, M. R.; Gosalvez, D. B.; Bertino, M. F.; Ceyer, S. T.

    2004-05-01

    Xenon difluoride interacts with Si(100)2×1 by atom abstraction, whereby a dangling bond abstracts a F atom from XeF2, scattering the complementary XeF. Partitioning of the reaction exothermicity produces sufficient XeF rovibrational excitation for dissociation to occur. The resulting F and Xe atoms are shown to arise from dissociation of XeF in the gas phase by demonstrating that the angle-resolved velocity distributions of F, Xe, and XeF conserve momentum, energy, and mass. This experiment documents the first observation of dissociation of a surface reaction product in the gas phase.

  9. Effect of an allophanic soil on humification reactions between catechol and glycine: Spectroscopic investigations of reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masami; Miura, Akitaka; Sasaki, Masahide; Izumo, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Adduction of amino acids to phenols is a possible humification reaction pathway [F.J. Stevenson, Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reaction, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1994, pp. 188-211; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Sci. Total Environ. 62 (1987) 435; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55 (1991) 1156; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 112 (2003) 31; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 124 (2005) 415]. To elucidate the reaction kinetics and products of abiotic humification, the effects of an allophanic soil on the adduction of amino acids to phenols were investigated using catechol (CT) and glycine (Gly) as a model phenol and amino acid, respectively. An aqueous solution containing CT and Gly (pH 7.0) in the presence of allophanic soil was incubated for 2 weeks, and the kinetics of the humification reactions were monitored by analysis of absorptivity at 600 nm ( E600). A mixture of CT and Gly in the absence of allophanic soil was used as a control. The E600 value increased markedly in the presence of allophanic soil. In addition, unreacted CT was detected in the control reaction mixture, but not in the allophane-containing reaction mixture. Under the sterilized conditions, absorbance at 600 nm for the control reaction mixture was significantly smaller than that for the allophanic soil-containing reaction mixture, which indicates there was no microbial participation during incubation. These results indicate that the allophanic soil effectively facilitated humification reactions between CT and Gly. The reaction mixtures were acidified and humic-like acid (HLA) was isolated as a precipitate. The elemental composition, acidic functional group contents, molecular weight, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS 13C NMR, and 1H NMR spectra of the purified HLAs were analyzed. The results of these analyses indicate that the nitrogen atom of Gly binds to the aromatic carbon of CT in the HLA products.

  10. Effects of hydrolysis and carbonization reactions on hydrochar production.

    PubMed

    Fakkaew, K; Koottatep, T; Polprasert, C

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process which converts wet biomass into hydrochar. In this study, a low-energy HTC process named "Two-stage HTC" comprising of hydrolysis and carbonization stages using faecal sludge as feedstock was developed and optimized. The experimental results indicated the optimum conditions of the two-stage HTC to be; hydrolysis temperature of 170 °C, hydrolysis reaction time of 155 min, carbonization temperature of 215 °C, and carbonization reaction time of 100 min. The hydrolysis reaction time and carbonization temperature had a statistically significant effect on energy content of the produced hydrochar. Energy input of the two-stage HTC was about 25% less than conventional HTC. Energy efficiency of the two-stage HTC for treating faecal sludge was higher than that of conventional HTC and other thermal conversion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification. The two-stage HTC could be considered as a potential technology for treating FS and producing hydrochar.

  11. Effects of hydrolysis and carbonization reactions on hydrochar production.

    PubMed

    Fakkaew, K; Koottatep, T; Polprasert, C

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process which converts wet biomass into hydrochar. In this study, a low-energy HTC process named "Two-stage HTC" comprising of hydrolysis and carbonization stages using faecal sludge as feedstock was developed and optimized. The experimental results indicated the optimum conditions of the two-stage HTC to be; hydrolysis temperature of 170 °C, hydrolysis reaction time of 155 min, carbonization temperature of 215 °C, and carbonization reaction time of 100 min. The hydrolysis reaction time and carbonization temperature had a statistically significant effect on energy content of the produced hydrochar. Energy input of the two-stage HTC was about 25% less than conventional HTC. Energy efficiency of the two-stage HTC for treating faecal sludge was higher than that of conventional HTC and other thermal conversion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification. The two-stage HTC could be considered as a potential technology for treating FS and producing hydrochar. PMID:26051497

  12. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton’s second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field. PMID:27377532

  13. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction.

    PubMed

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton's second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field. PMID:27377532

  14. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-07-01

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton’s second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field.

  15. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction.

    PubMed

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-07-05

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton's second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field.

  16. The reaction of cobaloximes with hydrogen: Products and thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, Deven P.; Grills, David C.; Norton, Jack R.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, a cobalt hydride has been proposed as an intermediate in many reactions of the Co(dmgBF₂)₂L₂ system, but its observation has proven difficult. We have observed the UV–vis spectra of Co(dmgBF₂)₂L₂ (1) in CH₃CN under hydrogen pressures up to 70 atm. A Co(I) compound (6), with an exchangeable proton, is eventually formed. We have determined the bond dissociation free energy and pKa of the new O–H bond in 6 to be 50.5 kcal/mol and 13.4, respectively, in CH₃CN, matching previous reports.

  17. Production of heavy actinides in incomplete fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonenko, N. V.; Cherepanov, E. A.; Iljinov, A. S.; Mebel, M. V.

    1994-10-01

    We present preliminary results of calculations by the phenomenological model of the estimated yield of some heavy actinide isotopes. It is assumed that these isotopes are produced as a result of multinucleon transfers followed by neutrons and charged particle emission A.S. Iljinov and E.A. Cherepanov (1980). The yield P(sub Z, N)(E*) of primary excited actinides is found using the model of N.V. Antonenko and R.V. Jolos (1991). Absolute cross-sections for different binary reaction channels are obtained by summing the cross-sections for all subchannels with an appreciable yield according to J. Wilczynski et al. (1980).

  18. Product Channels in the Reaction of the Hydroxymethyl Radical with Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenhui; Janssen, Erik; Hershberger, John F

    2016-03-01

    The products of the reaction of CH2OH with NO were studied by infrared diode laser spectroscopy. Products were detected to determine the branching ratios of the CH2OH + NO reaction. HNCO was detected in 10.3 ± 2% yields. No other products were detected in significant quantities, indicating that adduct formation is the primary reaction pathway. Ab initio calculations of the potential energy surface show a low energy pathway to HNCO + H2O, but no other bimolecular channels, in agreement with the experiments.

  19. Product Channels in the Reaction of the Hydroxymethyl Radical with Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenhui; Janssen, Erik; Hershberger, John F

    2016-03-01

    The products of the reaction of CH2OH with NO were studied by infrared diode laser spectroscopy. Products were detected to determine the branching ratios of the CH2OH + NO reaction. HNCO was detected in 10.3 ± 2% yields. No other products were detected in significant quantities, indicating that adduct formation is the primary reaction pathway. Ab initio calculations of the potential energy surface show a low energy pathway to HNCO + H2O, but no other bimolecular channels, in agreement with the experiments. PMID:26845620

  20. Aspects of the atmospheric chemistry of alkylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene and their atmospheric reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated and nitrated derivatives, observed in ambient atmospheres, are confirmed or suspected mutagens and animal carcinogens. They can undergo atmospheric chemical transformation processes, including photolysis and reactions with hydroxyl (OH) radicals, nitrate (NO3) radicals, Cl atoms and ozone (O3). In this work, atmospheric reactions were simulated in environmental chambers to study the atmospheric chemistry of naphthalene, alkylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene and their atmospheric reaction products, using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Ambient measurements were conducted to assess the presence of atmospheric reaction products that were identified under laboratory conditions. Rate constants for the gas phase reactions of Cl atoms with naphthalene and alkylnaphthalenes were measured. The measured deuterium isotope effects and product yields indicate the reactions proceed by initial H- (or D-) atom abstraction. The products of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with naphthalene and alkylnaphthalenes were investigated. The major reaction products are ring-opened dicarbonyls that are 32 mass units higher in molecular weight than the parent compound, one or more ring-opened dicarbonyls of lower molecular weight resulting from loss of two beta-carbons and associated alkyl groups, and ring-containing compounds that may be epoxides. Phthalic anhydride and alkyl-substituted phthalic anhydrides were observed as second-generation products. A subsequent study investigated the photolysis and OH radical reactions of products formed from the OH radical-initiated reactions of naphthalene and alkylnaphthalenes, including phthaldialdehyde, 2-acetylbenzaldehyde and 1,2-diacetylbenzene. Environmental chamber studies have also been carried out to study the oxygenated and nitrated products from the gas-phase reactions of naphthalene and alkylnaphthalenes with NO3 radicals. Observed profiles of dimethyl

  1. Carbonyl atmospheric reaction products of aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermeyer, Genevieve; Aschmann, Sara M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    To convert gaseous carbonyls to oximes during sampling, an XAD-4 resin denuder system pre-coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine and followed by analysis with methane positive chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure carbonyls in ambient air samples in Riverside, CA. In conjunction with similar analyses of environmental chamber OH radical-initiated reactions of o- and p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 1,4-butanediol, we identified benzaldehyde, o-, m- and p-tolualdehyde and acetophenone and the dicarbonyls glyoxal, methylglyoxal, biacetyl, ethylglyoxal, 1,4-butenedial, 3-hexene-2,5-dione, 3-oxo-butanal, 1,4-butanedial and malonaldehyde in the ambient air samples. As discussed, these carbonyls and dicarbonyls can be formed from the OH radical-initiated reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere, and we conclude that in situ atmospheric formation is a major source of these carbonyls in our Riverside, CA, ambient air samples.

  2. Propulsion of a molecular machine by asymmetric distribution of reaction products.

    PubMed

    Golestanian, Ramin; Liverpool, Tanniemola B; Ajdari, Armand

    2005-06-10

    A simple model for the reaction-driven propulsion of a small device is proposed as a model for (part of) a molecular machine in aqueous media. The motion of the device is driven by an asymmetric distribution of reaction products. The propulsive velocity of the device is calculated as well as the scale of the velocity fluctuations. The effects of hydrodynamic flow as well as a number of different scenarios for the kinetics of the reaction are addressed.

  3. Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Jonathan E.

    2006-05-23

    The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

  4. Theoretical characterization of the reaction NH2+NO - products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1993-01-01

    The potential energy surface (PES) for NH2+NO is characterized using complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF)/derivative methods to locate the stationary points, followed by internally contracted configuration interaction (ICCI) calculations to determine the energetics. Production of N2+H2O is found to involve a complex mechanism, which, however, has no barrier with respect to NH2+NO. This pathway is exothermic by 124.5 kcal/mol. Production of NH2+OH can occur with no barrier other than the exothermicity from any of three isomers of HNNOH.

  5. Miscible viscous fingering involving production of gel by chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Hoshino, Kenichi

    2015-11-01

    We have experimentally investigated miscible viscous fingering with chemical reactions producing gel. Here, two systems were employed. In one system, sodium polyacrylate (SPA) solution and aluminum ion (Al3 +) solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In another system, SPA solution and ferric ion (Fe3 +) solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In the case of Al3 +, displacement efficiency was smaller than that in the non-reactive case, whereas in the case of Fe3 +, the displacement efficiency was larger. We consider that the difference in change of the patterns in the two systems will be caused by the difference in the properties of the gels. Therefore, we have measured the rheological properties of the gels by means of a rheometer. We discuss relationship between the VF patterns and the rheological measurement.

  6. Formic acid production from carbohydrates biomass by hydrothermal reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J.; Jin, F.; Kishita, A.; Tohji, K.; Enomoto, H.

    2010-03-01

    The formation of formic acid or formate salts by hydrothermal oxidation of model biomass materials (glucose, starch and cellulose) was investigated. All experiments were conducted in a batch reactor, made of SUS 316 tubing, providing an internal volume of 5.7 cm3. A 30 wt% hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution was used as an oxidant. The experiments were carried out with temperature of 250°C, reaction time varying from 0.5 min to 5 min, H2O2 supply of 240%, and alkaline concentration varying from 0 to 1.25 M. Similar to glucose, in the cases of the oxidation of hydrothermal starch and cellulose, the addition of alkaline can also improve the yield of formic acid. And the yield were glucose>starch> cellulose in cases of with or without of alkaline addition.

  7. The reaction of cobaloximes with hydrogen: products and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Estes, Deven P; Grills, David C; Norton, Jack R

    2014-12-17

    A cobalt hydride has been proposed as an intermediate in many reactions of the Co(dmgBF2)2L2 system, but its observation has proven difficult. We have observed the UV-vis spectra of Co(dmgBF2)2L2 (1) in CH3CN under hydrogen pressures of up to 70 atm. A Co(I) compound (6a) with an exchangeable proton is eventually formed. We have determined the bond dissociation free energy and pK(a) of the new O-H bond in 6a to be 50.5 kcal/mol and 13.4, respectively, in CH3CN, matching previous reports. PMID:25427140

  8. NMR Studies of Biomass and its Reaction Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass refers to biological material derived from living or recently living organisms, such as wood, agricultural products and wastes, and alcohol fuels. An increasingly popular R&D approach is to convert biomass into industrial polymers or chemicals. NMR is an excellent technique for the character...

  9. Reactions between beta-lactoglobulin and genipin: kinetics and characterization of the products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we present the first detailed report of the reaction kinetics studies and the characterization of the products from the endothermic reactions between beta-lactoglobulin and genipin. The effects of concentration, temperature, and pH were examined. In the temperature range studied, th...

  10. Use of Moessbauer spectroscopy to study reaction products of polyphenols and iron compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, J. ); Suwalski, J. )

    1994-05-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study parameters of the reaction products of iron compounds (Fe[sup III]) and polyphenols with hydroxyl (OH) groups in ortho positions. Polyphenols used in the reaction were catechol, pyrogallol, gallic acid, and oak tannin. The Fe-containing compounds were hydrated ferric sulfate (Fe[sub 2][SO[sub 4

  11. 40 CFR 721.10242 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, polysulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10242 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  12. Mapping Students' Conceptual Modes When Thinking about Chemical Reactions Used to Make a Desired Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrich, M. L.; Talanquer, V.

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this qualitative research study was to uncover major implicit assumptions that students with different levels of training in the discipline apply when thinking and making decisions about chemical reactions used to make a desired product. In particular, we elicited different ways of conceptualizing why chemical reactions happen…

  13. 40 CFR 721.10241 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, sulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10241 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10241 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, sulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10241 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10242 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, polysulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10242 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10242 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, polysulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10242 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10241 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, sulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10241 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  1. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PRODUCTS FROM THE REACTION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is of biological significance and may be implicated in the overall toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic. The course of the reaction in aqueous phase was monitored and an initial product, dimethylthioarsin...

  2. Structures of the reaction products of the AZADO radical with TCNQF4 or thiourea

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideto; Kawahara, Yuta; Akutsu, Hiroki; Yamada, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Summary While an addition product was formed by the reaction of AZADO (2-azaadamantane N-oxyl) with TCNQF4 (2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane), the reaction of AZADO with thiourea provided an inclusion compound, in which AZADO molecules are incorporated in cylindrical channels formed by thiourea molecules. PMID:23946847

  3. Glycosylation of aromatic amines I: Characterization of reaction products and kinetic scheme.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Madhushree Y; Kearney, William R; Kirsch, Lee E

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of aliphatic and aromatic amines with reducing sugars are important in both drug stability and synthesis. The formation of glycosylamines in solution, the first step in the Maillard reaction, does not typically cause browning but results in decreased potency and is hence significant from the aspect of drug instability. The purpose of this research was to present (1) unreported ionic equilibria of model reactant (kynurenine), (2) the analytical methods used to characterize and measure reaction products, (3) the kinetic scheme used to measure reaction rates and (4) relevant properties of various reducing sugars that impact the reaction rate in solution. The methods used to identify the reversible formation of two products from the reaction of kynurenine and monosaccharides included LC mass spectrometry, UV spectroscopy, and 1-D and 2-D (1)H-(1)H COSY NMR spectroscopy. Kinetics was studied using a stability-indicating HPLC method. The results indicated the formation of alpha and beta glycosylamines by a pseudo first-order reversible reaction scheme in the pH range of 1-6. The forward reaction was a function of initial glucose concentration but not the reverse reaction. It was concluded that the reaction kinetics and equilibrium concentrations of the glycosylamines were pH-dependent and also a function of the acyclic content of the reacting glucose isomer. PMID:19306062

  4. Identifying individual chemical bonds in single-molecule chemical reaction products using nc-AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenburg, Sebastian; de Oteyza, Dimas G.; Chen, Yen-Chia; Riss, Alexander; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Pedramrazi, Zahra; Bradley, Aaron J.; Ugeda, Miguel M.; Gorman, Patrick; Etkin, Grisha; Mowbray, Duncan J.; Perez, Alejandro; Rubio, Angel; Crommie, Michael F.; Fischer, Felix R.

    2014-03-01

    Determining reaction pathways and products is an integral part of chemical synthesis. Ensemble measurements are commonly used, but identifying products of complex reactions at surfaces presents a significant challenge. Here we present a non-contact AFM (nc-AFM) study to directly address this issue. We followed the change of the chemical structures, from reactants to products of enediyne cyclization reactions on metal surfaces. Thermal annealing of enediynes induced a series of cyclization cascades leading to radical species and the formation of dimers. Atomically resolved nc-AFM images reveal the precise chemical structure and the formation of chemical bonds between single molecular units. With the support of DFT calculations, we identified the underlying chemical pathways and barriers, demonstrating the potential of this atomically resolved AFM technique to study unknown reaction products in surface chemistry at the single-molecule level.

  5. Production of Printed Indexes of Chemical Reactions. I. Analysis of Functional Group Interconversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinging, R.; Lynch, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    A program is described which identifies functional group interconversion reactions, hydrogenations, and dehydrogenations in a data base containing structures encoded as Wiswesser Line Notations. Production of the data base is briefly described. (17 references) (Authors)

  6. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  7. Dynamical coupled-channels study of meson production reactions from EBAC@Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroyuki Kamano

    2011-10-01

    We present the current status of a combined and simultaneous analysis of meson production reactions based on a dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model, which is conducted at Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) of Jefferson Lab.

  8. Extraction of Nucleon Resonances From Global Analysis of Meson Production Reactions at EBAC

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroyuki Kamano

    2011-10-01

    We report the current status of exploring the dynamical aspect of the excited nucleon states through the comprehensive coupled-channels analysis of meson production reactions at the Excited Baryon Analysis Center of Jefferson Lab.

  9. Interfacing Microbial Styrene Production with a Biocompatible Cyclopropanation Reaction**

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Stephen; Balskus, Emily P.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing new reactivity into living organisms is a major challenge in synthetic biology. Despite an increasing interest in both developing aqueous-compatible small molecule catalysts and engineering enzymes to perform new chemistry in vitro, the integration of non-native reactivity into metabolic pathways for small molecule production has been underexplored. Herein we report a biocompatible iron(III) phthalocyanine catalyst capable of efficient olefin cyclopropanation in the presence of a living microorganism. By interfacing this catalyst with E. coli engineered to produce styrene, we synthesize non-natural phenyl cyclopropanes directly from D-glucose in single-vessel fermentations. This process represents the first combination of non-biological carbene-transfer reactivity with cellular metabolism for small molecule production. PMID:25925138

  10. Interfacing microbial styrene production with a biocompatible cyclopropanation reaction.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Stephen; Balskus, Emily P

    2015-06-01

    The introduction of new reactivity into living organisms is a major challenge in synthetic biology. Despite an increasing interest in both the development of small-molecule catalysts that are compatible with aqueous media and the engineering of enzymes to perform new chemistry in vitro, the integration of non-native reactivity into metabolic pathways for small-molecule production has been underexplored. Herein we report a biocompatible iron(III) phthalocyanine catalyst capable of efficient olefin cyclopropanation in the presence of a living microorganism. By interfacing this catalyst with E. coli engineered to produce styrene, we synthesized non-natural phenyl cyclopropanes directly from D-glucose in single-vessel fermentations. This process is the first example of the combination of nonbiological carbene-transfer reactivity with cellular metabolism for small-molecule production. PMID:25925138

  11. Dynamical Coupled-Channel Model of Meson Production Reactions in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    T.-S. H. Lee; A. Matsuyama; T. Sato

    2006-11-15

    A dynamical coupled-channel model is presented for investigating the nucleon resonances (N*) in the meson production reactions induced by pions and photons. Our objective is to extract the N* parameters and to investigate the meson production reaction mechanisms for mapping out the quark-gluon substructure of N* from the data. The model is based on an energy-independent Hamiltonian which is derived from a set of Lagrangians by using a unitary transformation method.

  12. Kinetics and products of the OH radical-initiated reaction of 3-methyl-2-butenal.

    PubMed

    Tuazon, Ernesto C; Aschmann, Sara M; Nishino, Noriko; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    2005-06-01

    Kinetics and products of the gas-phase reaction of OH radicals with 3-methyl-2-butenal [(CH3)2C=CHCHO] have been investigated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure of air. Using a relative rate method with methacrolein as the reference compound, a rate constant for the reaction of OH radicals with 3-methyl-2-butenal of (6.21 +/- 0.18) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at 296 +/- 2 K was measured, where the indicated error does not include the uncertainty in the rate constant for the methacrolein reference compound. Products of this reaction were investigated using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine for on-fiber derivatization of carbonyl compounds, with subsequent thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography. The products observed and the molar formation yields were: glyoxal, 40 +/- 3%; acetone, 74 +/- 6%; 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal, 4.6 +/- 0.7%; CO2, 39% initially, decreasing to 30% at greater extents of reaction; peroxyacyl nitrate(s) [RC(O)OONO2], 5-8%, increasing with the extent of reaction and with the sum of the CO2 and RC(O)OONO2 yields being 38 +/- 6%; and organic nitrates [RONO2], 8.5 +/- 2.3%. The formation of these products is readily explained by a reaction mechanism based on those previously formulated for the corresponding reactions of the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes acrolein, crotonaldehyde and methacrolein. Based on the mechanism proposed, at room temperature H-atom abstraction from the CHO group accounts for 40 +/- 6% of the overall reaction, and OH radical addition to the carbon atoms of the C=C bond accounts for 53 +/- 4% of the overall reaction. Hence 93 +/- 8% of the reaction products and pathways are accounted for.

  13. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  18. The Phase Behavior Effect on the Reaction Engineering of Transesterification Reactions and Reactor Design for Continuous Biodiesel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csernica, Stephen N.

    transitions from two phases to a single phase, or pseudo-single phase. The transition to a single phase or pseudo-single phase is a function of the methanol content. Regardless, the maximum observed reaction rate occurs at the point of the phase transition, when the concentration of triglycerides in the methanol phase is largest. The phase transition occurs due to the accumulation of the primary product, biodiesel methyl esters. Through various experiments, it was determined that the rate of the triglyceride mass transfer into the methanol phase, as well as the solubility of triglycerides in methanol, increases with increasing methyl ester concentration. Thus, there exists some critical methyl ester concentration which favors the formation of a single or pseudo-single phase system. The effect of the by-product glycerol on the reaction kinetics was also investigated. It was determined that at low methanol to triglyceride molar ratios, glycerol acts to inhibit the reaction rate and limit the overall triglyceride conversion. This occurs because glycerol accumulates in the methanol phase, i.e. the primary reaction volume. When glycerol is at relatively high concentrations within the methanol phase, triglycerides become excluded from the reaction volume. This greatly reduces the reaction rate and limits the overall conversion. As the concentration of methanol is increased, glycerol becomes diluted and the inhibitory effects become dampened. Assuming pseudo-homogeneous phase behavior, a simple kinetic model incorporating the inhibitory effects of glycerol was proposed based on batch reactor data. The kinetic model was primarily used to theoretically compare the performance of different types of continuous flow reactors for continuous biodiesel production. It was determined that the inhibitory effects of glycerol result in the requirement of very large reactor volumes when using continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The reactor volume can be greatly reduced using tubular style

  19. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5560 - Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz[c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6-oxide. 721.5560 Section 721... Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6... identified as formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10483 - Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10483 Section 721.10483... Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a... Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). (a... generically as alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429... Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids... identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10538 - Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea. 721.10538 Section 721.10538 Protection... Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea. (a... phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5560 - Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz[c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6-oxide. 721.5560 Section 721... Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6... identified as formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10285 - Formaldehyde, polymer with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10285 Section 721.10285 Protection of... with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance..., polymer with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine (PMN P-11-33;...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5560 - Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz[c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6-oxide. 721.5560 Section 721... Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6... identified as formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10481 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. 721.10481 Section 721.10481 Protection of Environment... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant new..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica (PMN P-04-429; CAS No. 630106-01-3) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10482 - Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. 721.10482 Section 721.10482 Protection of... Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica (PMN P-04-430; CAS No....

  17. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10363 - Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4â² -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (generic). 721.10363 Section... Substances § 721.10363 Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4..., reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (PMN P-10-47) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10285 - Formaldehyde, polymer with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10285 Section 721.10285 Protection of... with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance..., polymer with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine (PMN P-11-33;...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5560 - Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz[c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6-oxide. 721.5560 Section 721... Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6... identified as formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10472 - 1,3-Benzenedimethanamine, polymers with epichlorohydrin-polyethylene glycol reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with epichlorohydrin-polyethylene glycol reaction products. 721.10472 Section 721.10472 Protection of...-Benzenedimethanamine, polymers with epichlorohydrin-polyethylene glycol reaction products. (a) Chemical substance and..., polymers with epichlorohydrin-polyethylene glycol reaction products (PMN P-03-645; CAS No. 652968-34-8)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10363 - Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4â² -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (generic). 721.10363 Section... Substances § 721.10363 Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4..., reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (PMN P-10-47) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). (a... generically as alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10483 - Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10483 Section 721.10483... Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a... Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5560 - Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz[c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6-oxide. 721.5560 Section 721... Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6... identified as formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10482 - Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. 721.10482 Section 721.10482 Protection of... Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica (PMN P-04-430; CAS No....

  1. 40 CFR 721.10481 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. 721.10481 Section 721.10481 Protection of Environment... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant new..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica (PMN P-04-429; CAS No. 630106-01-3) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10472 - 1,3-Benzenedimethanamine, polymers with epichlorohydrin-polyethylene glycol reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with epichlorohydrin-polyethylene glycol reaction products. 721.10472 Section 721.10472 Protection of...-Benzenedimethanamine, polymers with epichlorohydrin-polyethylene glycol reaction products. (a) Chemical substance and..., polymers with epichlorohydrin-polyethylene glycol reaction products (PMN P-03-645; CAS No. 652968-34-8)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10538 - Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea. 721.10538 Section 721.10538 Protection... Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea. (a... phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10363 - Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4â² -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (generic). 721.10363 Section... Substances § 721.10363 Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4..., reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (PMN P-10-47) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429... Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids... identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10285 - Formaldehyde, polymer with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10285 Section 721.10285 Protection of... with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance..., polymer with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine (PMN P-11-33;...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  9. Investigation of photochemical reaction products of glucose formed during direct UV detection in CE.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Thomas; Himmelsbach, Markus; Buchberger, Wolfgang W

    2016-04-01

    In CE, saccharides are accessible to direct UV detection due to a photochemical reaction in the detection window of the separation capillary resulting in the formation of UV absorbing substances. Employing a CE method that allows long in-capillary irradiation with subsequent UV and MS detection, the present study could identify several reaction products of glucose. Among these were UV absorbing substances so far unknown to be formed during direct UV detection with the chemical formulas C4 H6 O2 , C5 H6 O4 , C5 H8 O3, and C6 H8 O5 . Investigations of the impact of the irradiation time revealed differences between these reaction products suggesting differing reaction mechanisms especially for the smallest products. More detailed information could be obtained by experiments with isotope-labeled substrates performed to determine the parts of glucose that are converted to the particular reaction products. In addition, structural formulas for the reaction products were suggested based on HPLC-MS/MS measurements of off-line irradiated glucose solutions which revealed the existence of functional groups such as carboxylic acid or aldehyde groups.

  10. Reaction Mechanism and Product Branching Ratios of the CH + C3H6 Reaction: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joao Marcelo; Mebel, Alexander M

    2016-03-24

    The mechanism of CH(X(2)Π) reaction with propene has been studied with ab initio CCSD(T)-F12/CBS//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) calculations of the C4H7 potential energy surface and RRKM/master equation calculations of unimolecular rate constants for the various isomerization and dissociation steps available to the C4H7 radicals. Product branching ratios were calculated and were found to strongly depend on the initial chemically activated C4H7 complex formed in a barrierless entrance channel. If the reaction is initiated via either CH addition to the double bond in propene or CH insertions into the terminal sp(2) C-H or single C-C bonds, then 1,3-butadiene + H are predicted to be the dominant products, ethene + C2H3 radical are minor but non-negligible products, and a small amount of 1,2-butadiene + H is also produced. The reaction then proceeds through a key CH3CHCH(•)CH2 intermediate, which loses an H atom to form either 1,3- or 1,2-butadiene or isomerizes to (•)CH2CH2CHCH2 and then dissociates to ethene + C2H3 radical. If CH inserts into a C-H bond in the CH3 group the (•)CH2CH2CHCH2 complex is formed directly and then the major reaction products are predicted to be ethene + C2H3 radical and 1,3-butadiene + H. Finally, if CH inserts into the middle sp(2) C-H bond, a branched CH3C((•)CH2)CH2 complex is produced, which predominantly decomposes to allene + CH3 radical. A comparison of the calculated reaction mechanism with available experimental data indicates that the CH addition entrance channel is favorable, in which case the computed branching ratios are in agreement with the experimental result of Loison and Bergeat, who measured the H elimination branching ratio of 78 ± 10%. However, the computed branching ratios quantitatively disagree with the experimental data by Trevitt et al., who observed a nearly 100% yield of the C4H6 + H products and also larger yields of 1,2-butadiene and 1-butyne than the calculations predict. The deviation of the theoretical results

  11. Limonene ozonolysis in the presence of nitric oxide: Gas-phase reaction products and yields

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Jason E.; Harrison, Joel C.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Wells, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OH• generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation. The molar yields of 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH) and 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) decreased by 68% and >95%; respectively, when OH• was removed. This suggests that OH• radicals significantly impact the formation of these products. Nitric oxide (NO) did not significantly affect the molar yields of limonaketone or IPOH. However, NO (20 ppb) considerably decreased the molar reaction product yields of 7H6O (62%), 2A5O (63%), and 3A6O (47%), suggesting NO reacted with peroxyl intermediates, generated during limonene ozonolysis, to form other carbonyls (not detected) or organic nitrates. These studies give insight into the transformation of limonene and its reaction products that can lead to indoor exposures. PMID:27346977

  12. Limonene ozonolysis in the presence of nitric oxide: Gas-phase reaction products and yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Jason E.; Harrison, Joel C.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Wells, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OHrad) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OHrad generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation. The molar yields of 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH) and 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) decreased by 68% and >95%; respectively, when OHrad was removed. This suggests that OHrad radicals significantly impact the formation of these products. Nitric oxide (NO) did not significantly affect the molar yields of limonaketone or IPOH. However, NO (20 ppb) considerably decreased the molar reaction product yields of 7H6O (62%), 2A5O (63%), and 3A6O (47%), suggesting NO reacted with peroxyl intermediates, generated during limonene ozonolysis, to form other carbonyls (not detected) or organic nitrates. These studies give insight into the transformation of limonene and its reaction products that can lead to indoor exposures.

  13. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  14. An Upstream By-product from Ester Activation via NHC-Catalysis Catalyzes Downstream Sulfonyl Migration Reaction.

    PubMed

    Han, Runfeng; He, Liwenze; Liu, Lin; Xie, Xingang; She, Xuegong

    2016-01-01

    A sequential reaction combining N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) catalysis allowed for the upstream by-product NHPI, which was generated in the NHC-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction, to act as the catalyst for a downstream nitrogen-to-carbon sulfonyl migration reaction. Enantiomeric excess of the major product in the cycloaddition reaction remained intact in the follow-up sulfonyl migration reaction.

  15. Reaction Product Identification in Extreme Chemical Environments by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pate, Brooks

    Molecular rotational spectroscopy has several advantages for detection of reaction intermediates and products under extreme laboratory conditions. Rotational spectroscopy has high sensitivity to the molecular structure and provides high spectral resolution in low pressure environments. Furthermore, quantum chemistry provides accurate estimates of the spectroscopic parameters. As a result, rotational spectroscopy can identify molecular species in complex reaction mixtures without the need for chromatographic separation and without the need for a previously recorded ``library spectrum'' of the molecule. The application of chirped pulse Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy methods for the identification of molecules of astrochemical interest formed in pulsed discharge sources will be described including recent advances for high-throughput mm-wave spectroscopy. The set of reaction products created in the experiment can provide insight into the reaction mechanism. Reactions involving the CN radical will be discussed. These reactions can be barrierless making them candidates for interstellar gas reactions. The possibility that interstellar cyanomethanimine is produced by gas phase radical-neutral reactions instead of surface chemistry on grain-supported ices will be discussed using recent spatially resolved chemical images in Sagittarius B2 observed with the Jansky Very Large Array. This work supported by NSF CHE 1213200.

  16. Biodiesel production from integration between reaction and separation system: reactive distillation process.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nívea de Lima; Santander, Carlos Mario Garcia; Batistella, César Benedito; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called "Intensified Process". This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min.

  17. Formaldehyde Reactions with Amines and Ammonia: Particle Formation and Product Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, M. M.; Millage, K. D.; Rodriguez, A.; Sedehi, N.; Powelson, M. H.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    Aqueous phase reactions between carbonyls and amines or ammonium salts have recently been implicated in secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon formation processes. Formaldehyde is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and is present in both the gas and aqueous phases. However, the reactions of formaldehyde in the aqueous phase have not been completely characterized. This study aims to determine the interactions between formaldehyde and amines or ammonium salts present in atmospheric droplets. Bulk phase reactions of formaldehyde with these reactive nitrogen-containing compounds were monitored with ESI-MS and NMR to determine reaction kinetics and for product characterization, while UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in light absorption over time. Hexamethylenetetramine was found to be a major product of the formaldehyde/ammonium sulfate reaction, appearing within minutes of mixing. No products were formed that absorbed light beyond 225 nm. Mono-disperse particles containing mixtures of formaldehyde and ammonium sulfate or an amine were dried and analyzed via SMPS to determine the non-volatile fraction of the reaction products. Similarly, aqueous droplets were dried in a humid atmosphere to determine residual aerosol sizes over time as a function of formaldehyde concentration. This work indicates that formaldehyde plays a key role in aqueous-phase organic processing, as it has been observed to contribute to both an increase and reduction in the diameter and volume of residual aerosol particles.

  18. Aqueous Phase Photo-Oxidation of Succinic Acid: Changes in Hygroscopic Properties and Reaction Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, P. K.; Ninokawa, A.; Hofstra, J.; de Lijser, P.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have been identified as important factors in understanding climate change. The extent to which aerosols affect climate is determined, in part, by hygroscopic properties which can change as a result of atmospheric processing. Dicarboxylic acids, components of atmospheric aerosol, have a wide range of hygroscopic properties and can undergo oxidation and photolysis reactions in the atmosphere. In this study, the hygroscopic properties of succinic acid aerosol, a non-hygroscopic four carbon dicarboxylic acid, were measured with a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and compared to reaction products resulting from the aqueous phase photo-oxidation reaction of hydrogen peroxide and succinic acid. Reaction products were determined and quantified using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a function of hydrogen peroxide:succinic acid concentration ratio and photolysis time. Although reaction products include larger non-hygroscopic dicarboxylic acids (e.g. adipic acid) and smaller hygroscopic dicarboxylic acids (e.g. malonic and oxalic acids), comparison of hygroscopic growth curves to Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) predictions suggests that the hygroscopic properties of many of the product mixtures are largely independent of the hygroscopicity of the individual components. This study provides a framework for future investigations to fully understand and predict the role of chemical reactions in altering atmospheric conditions that affect climate.

  19. Biodiesel production from integration between reaction and separation system: reactive distillation process.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nívea de Lima; Santander, Carlos Mario Garcia; Batistella, César Benedito; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called "Intensified Process". This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min. PMID:20221864

  20. Quantum Chemical Study of the Reaction of C+ with Interstellar Ice: Predictions of Vibrational and Electronic Spectra of Reaction Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woon, David E.

    2015-06-01

    The C+ cation (CII) is the dominant form of carbon in diffuse clouds and an important tracer for star formation in molecular clouds. We studied the low energy deposition of C+ on ice using density functional theory calculations on water clusters as large as 18 H2O. Barrierless reactions occur with water to form two dominant sets of products: HOC + H3O+ and CO- + 2H3O+. In order to provide testable predictions, we have computed both vibrational and electronic spectra for pure ice and processed ice clusters. While vibrational spectroscopy is expected to be able to discern that C+ has reacted with ice by the addition of H3O+ features not present in pure ice, it does not provided characteristic bands that would discern between HOC and CO-. On the other hand, predictions of electronic spectra suggest that low energy absorptions may occur for CO- and not HOC, making it possible to distinguish one product from the other.

  1. Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-11-01

    Long chain (C 16-C 18) hydroxy fatty acids are obtained among the nonlignin-derived reaction products from the CuO oxidation of a variety of geochemical samples. In order to investigate the origin of these acids, the CuO reaction products of isolated cuticles and whole leaves were investigated. The reaction products from the CuO oxidation of purified apple ( Malus pumila) cuticle include 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as major components. The distribution of these cutin-derived CuO reaction products is similar to the monomer compositions deduced from traditional methods of cutin analysis. Oxidation of whole English Holly ( Ilex aquifolium) leaves yields cutin-derived acidic reaction products (in addition to lignin-derived phenols) similar to those obtained from oxidation of the corresponding isolated cuticles, indicating that CuO oxidation of bulk plant tissue is a viable procedure of cutin analysis in geochemical applications.

  2. Reaction of zearalenone and α-zearalenol with allyl isothiocyanate, characterization of reaction products, their bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bordin, K; Saladino, F; Fernández-Blanco, C; Ruiz, M J; Mañes, J; Fernández-Franzón, M; Meca, G; Luciano, F B

    2017-02-15

    This study investigates the reduction of zearalenone (ZEA) and α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) on a solution model using allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and also determines the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the reaction products isolated and identified by MS-LIT. Mycotoxin reductions were dose-dependent, and ZEA levels decreased more than α-ZOL, ranging from 0.2 to 96.9% and 0 to 89.5% respectively, with no difference (p⩽0.05) between pH 4 and 7. Overall, simulated gastric bioaccessibility was higher than duodenal bioaccessibility for both mycotoxins and mycotoxin-AITC conjugates, with duodenal fractions representing ⩾63.5% of the original concentration. Simulated bioavailability of reaction products (α-ZOL/ZEA-AITC) were lower than 42.13%, but significantly higher than the original mycotoxins. The cytotoxicity of α-ZOL and ZEA in Caco-2/TC7 cells was also evaluated, with toxic effects observed at higher levels than 75μM. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the toxicity and estrogenic effect of α-ZOL/ZEA-AITC. PMID:27664682

  3. O/S-1/ interactions - The product channels. [collisional electron quenching and chemical reaction pathway frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1978-01-01

    The first measurements are reported of the reaction pathways for the interaction between oxygen atoms in the 4.19 eV S-1 state, and four molecules, N2O, CO2, H2O, and NO. Distinction is made between three possible paths - quenching to O(D-1), quenching to O(P-3), and chemical reaction. With N2O, the most reasonable interpretation of the data indicates that there no reaction, in sharp contrast with the interaction between O(D-1) and N2O, which proceeds entirely by reaction. Similarly, there is no reaction with CO2. With H2O, the reactive pathway is the dominant one, although electronic quenching is not negligible. With NO, O(D-1) is the preferred product.

  4. Reactions of the CN Radical with Benzene and Toluene: Product Detection and Low-Temperature Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Trevitt, Adam J.; Goulay, Fabien; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-12-23

    Low temperature rate coefficients are measured for the CN + benzene and CN + toluene reactions using the pulsed Laval nozzle expansion technique coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The CN + benzene reaction rate coefficient at 105, 165 and 295 K is found to be relatively constant over this temperature range, 3.9 - 4.9 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. These rapid kinetics, along with the observed negligible temperature dependence, are consistent with a barrierless reaction entrance channel and reaction efficiencies approaching unity. The CN + toluene reaction is measured to have a slower rate coefficient of 1.3 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 105 K. At room temperature, non-exponential decay profiles are observed for this reaction that may suggest significant back-dissociation of intermediate complexes. In separate experiments, the products of these reactions are probed at room temperature using synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry. For CN + benzene, cyanobenzene (C6H5CN) is the only product recorded with no detectable evidence for a C6H5 + HCN product channel. In the case of CN + toluene, cyanotoluene (NCC6H4CH3) constitutes the only detected product. It is not possible to differentiate among the ortho, meta and para isomers of cyanotoluene because of their similar ionization energies and the ~;; 40 meV photon energy resolution of the experiment. There is no significant detection of benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) that would suggest a H-abstraction or a HCN elimination channel is prominent at these conditions. As both reactions are measured to be rapid at 105 K, appearing to have barrierless entrance channels, it follows that they will proceed efficiently at the temperatures of Saturn?s moon Titan (~;;100 K) and are also likely to proceed at the temperature of interstellar clouds (10-20 K).

  5. Reactions of the CN radical with benzene and toluene: product detection and low-temperature kinetics.

    PubMed

    Trevitt, Adam J; Goulay, Fabien; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Leone, Stephen R

    2010-02-01

    Low-temperature rate coefficients are measured for the CN + benzene and CN + toluene reactions using the pulsed Laval nozzle expansion technique coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The CN + benzene reaction rate coefficient at 105, 165, and 295 K is found to be relatively constant over this temperature range, (3.9-4.9) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). These rapid kinetics, along with the observed negligible temperature dependence, are consistent with a barrierless reaction entrance channel and reaction efficiencies approaching unity. The CN + toluene reaction is measured to have a rate coefficient of 1.3 x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 105 K. At room temperature, nonexponential decay profiles are observed for this reaction that may suggest significant back-dissociation of intermediate complexes. In separate experiments, the products of these reactions are probed at room temperature using synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry. For CN + benzene, cyanobenzene (C(6)H(5)CN) is the only product recorded with no detectable evidence for a C(6)H(5) + HCN product channel. In the case of CN + toluene, cyanotoluene (NCC(6)H(4)CH(3)) constitutes the only detected product. It is not possible to differentiate among the ortho, meta, and para isomers of cyanotoluene because of their similar ionization energies and the approximately 40 meV photon energy resolution of the experiment. There is no significant detection of benzyl radicals (C(6)H(5)CH(2)) that would suggest a H-abstraction or a HCN elimination channel is prominent at these conditions. As both reactions are measured to be rapid at 105 K, appearing to have barrierless entrance channels, it follows that they will proceed efficiently at the temperatures of Saturn's moon Titan ( approximately 100 K) and are also likely to proceed at the temperature of interstellar clouds (10-20 K).

  6. Progress towards antihydrogen production by the reaction of cold antiprotons with positronium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, M.; Laricchia, G.; Deutch, B.I.

    1995-03-01

    An experiment aimed at producing antihydrogen atoms by the reaction of cold antiprotons stored in a Penning trap with injected ground state positronium atoms is described. The apparatus developed in an attempt to observe the charge conjugate reaction using proton projectiles is discussed. Technically feasible upgrades to this apparatus are identified which may allow, in conjunction with the PS200 trap, antihydrogen production at LEAR.

  7. Attempt to confirm superheavy element production in the 48Ca +238U reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorich, K.E.; Loveland, W.; Peterson, D.; Zielinski, P.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Chung, Y.H.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Folden III, C.M.; Aleklett,K.; Eichler, R.; Hoffman D.C.; Omtvedt, J.P.; Pang, G.K.; Schwantes,J.M.; Soverna, S.; Sprunger, P.; Sudowe, R.; Wilson, R.E.; Nitsche, H.

    2005-03-24

    An attempt to confirm production of superheavy elements in the reaction of 48Ca beams with actinide targets has been performed using the 238U(48Ca,3n)283112 reaction. Two 48Ca projectile energies were used, that spanned the energy range where the largest cross sections have been reported for this reaction. No spontaneous fission events were observed. No alpha decay chains consistent with either reported or theoretically predicted element 112 decay properties were observed. The cross section limits reached are significantly smaller than the recently reported cross sections.

  8. Mutagenicity screening of reaction products from the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of phenolic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, I.J.; Aitken, M.D.; Ball, L.M.; Heck, P.E. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    Phenol-oxidizing enzymes such as peroxidases, laccases, and mushroom polyphenol oxidase are capable of catalyzing the oxidation of a wide range of phenolic pollutants. Although the use of these enzymes in waste-treatment applications has been proposed by a number of investigators, little information exists on the toxicological characteristics of the oxidation products. The enzymes chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and mushroom polyphenol oxidase were used in this study to catalyze the oxidation of phenol, several mono-substituted phenols, and pentachlorophenol. Seventeen reaction mixtures representing selected combinations of enzyme and parent phenol were subjected to mutagenicity screening using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium plate incorporation assay; five selected mixtures were also incubated with the S9 microsomal preparation to detect the possible presence of promutagens. The majority of reaction mixtures tested were not directly mutagenic, and none of those tested with S9 gave a positive response. Such lack of mutagenicity of enzymatic oxidation products provides encouragement for establishing the feasibility of enzyme-catalyzed oxidation as a waste-treatment process. The only positive responses were obtained with reaction products from the lignin peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol. Clear positive responses were observed when strain TA100 was incubated with 2-nitrophenol reaction-product mixtures, and when strain TA98 was incubated with the 4-nitrophenol reaction mixture. Additionally, 2,4-dinitrophenol was identified as a reaction product from 4-nitrophenol, and preliminary evidence indicates that both 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrophenol are produced from the oxidation of 2-nitrophenol. Possible mechanism by which these nitration reactions occur are discussed.

  9. Light and heavy transfer products in 136Xe+238U multinucleon transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, A.; Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P.; Corradi, L.; Mijatović, T.; Montanari, D.; Szilner, S.; Bazzacco, D.; Bowry, M.; Bracco, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Désesquelles, P.; Eberth, J.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Geibel, K.; Gengelbach, A.; Giaz, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Grebosz, J.; Hess, H.; John, P. R.; Jolie, J.; Judson, D. S.; Jungclaus, A.; Korten, W.; Leoni, S.; Lunardi, S.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Montagnoli, G.; Napoli, D.; Pellegri, L.; Pollarolo, G.; Pullia, A.; Quintana, B.; Radeck, F.; Recchia, F.; Rosso, D.; Şahin, E.; Salsac, M. D.; Scarlassara, F.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Steinbach, T.; Stezowski, O.; Szpak, B.; Theisen, Ch.; Ur, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Vandone, V.; Wiens, A.

    2015-08-01

    Background: Multinucleon transfer reactions (MNT) are a competitive tool to populate exotic neutron-rich nuclei in a wide region of nuclei, where other production methods have severe limitations or cannot be used at all. Purpose: Experimental information on the yields of MNT reactions in comparison with theoretical calculations are necessary to make predictions for the production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. It is crucial to determine the fraction of MNT reaction products which are surviving neutron emission or fission at the high excitation energy after the nucleon exchange. Method: Multinucleon transfer reactions in +238U 136Xe have been measured in a high-resolution γ -ray/particle coincidence experiment. The large solid-angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA coupled to the high-resolution Advanced Gamma Tracking Array (AGATA) has been employed. Beamlike reaction products after multinucleon transfer in the Xe region were identified and selected with the PRISMA spectrometer. Coincident particles were tagged by multichannel plate detectors placed at the grazing angle of the targetlike recoils inside the scattering chamber. Results: Mass yields have been extracted and compared with calculations based on the grazing model for MNT reactions. Kinematic coincidences between the binary reaction products, i.e., beamlike and targetlike nuclei, were exploited to obtain population yields for nuclei in the actinide region and compared to x-ray yields measured by AGATA. Conclusions: No sizable yield of actinide nuclei beyond Z =93 is found to perform nuclear structure investigations. In-beam γ -ray spectroscopy is feasible for few-neutron transfer channels in U and the -2 p channel populating Th isotopes.

  10. Reaction of cyclodextrins with propylene oxide or with glycidol: analysis of product distribution.

    PubMed

    Pitha, J; Szabo, L; Fales, H M

    1987-11-01

    Reaction of cyclomalto-hexaose, -heptaose, or -octaose with propylene oxide in strong aqueous alkali gave products in which distribution of the degrees of substitution was relatively narrow and nearly symmetrical, and increased with the average degree of substitution. When an equimolar mixture of cyclomalto-hexaose, heptaose, or -octaose was used, the average degrees of substitution of all three carbohydrates were close to each other. These findings indicate that the reactivities of the hydroxyl groups of cyclomalto-hexaose, -heptaose, or -octaose, and of all their (2-hydroxypropyl) ethers formed in the reactions, are quite similar. Reaction of cyclomaltoheptaose with glycidol also yielded a product having a narrow distribution of degree of substitution, but which was slightly skewed towards the higher degrees. Thus, as it proceeds, this etherification leads to products having higher reactivity towards the epoxide.

  11. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction..., reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (PMN P-99-0531) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction..., reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (PMN P-99-0531) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction..., reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (PMN P-99-0531) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9280 - Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty acid oils and a phenolic pentaerythritol tetraester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9280 Reaction product of... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a reaction...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction..., reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (PMN P-99-0531) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9280 - Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty acid oils and a phenolic pentaerythritol tetraester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9280 Reaction product of... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a reaction...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9280 - Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty acid oils and a phenolic pentaerythritol tetraester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9280 Reaction product of... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a reaction...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9280 - Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty acid oils and a phenolic pentaerythritol tetraester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9280 Reaction product of... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a reaction...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9280 - Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty acid oils and a phenolic pentaerythritol tetraester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9280 Reaction product of... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a reaction...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction... chemical substance identified generically as Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  13. Product energy distributions and energy partitioning in O atom reactions on surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Bret; Kori, Moris

    1987-01-01

    Surface reactions involving O atoms are likely to be highly exoergic, with different consequences if energy is channeled mostly to product molecules or surface modes. Thus the surface may become a source of excited species which can react elsewhere, or a sink for localized heat deposition which may disrupt the surface. The vibrational energy distribution of the product molecule contains strong clues about the flow of released energy. Two instructive examples of energy partitioning at surfaces are the Pt catalyzed oxidations: (1) C(ads) + O(ads) yields CO* (T is greater than 1000 K); and (2) CO(ads) + O(gas) yields CO2* (T is approx. 300 K). The infrared emission spectra of the excited product molecules were recorded and the vibrational population distributions were determined. In reaction 1, energy appeared to be statistically partitioned between the product CO and several Pt atoms. In reaction 2, partitioning was non-statistical; the CO2 asymmetric stretch distribution was inverted. In gas reactions these results would indicate a long lived and short lived activated complex. The requirement that Pt be heated in O atoms to promote reaction of atomic O and CO at room temperature is specifically addressed. Finally, the fraction of released energy that is deposited in the catalyst is estimated.

  14. The vinyl + NO reaction : determining the products with time-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, David L; Zou, Peng; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the vinyl + NO reaction using time-resolved Fourier transform emission spectroscopy, complemented by electronic structure and microcanonical RRKM rate coefficient calculations. To unambiguously determine the reaction products, three precursors are used to produce the vinyl radical by laser photolysis: vinyl bromide, methyl vinyl ketone, and vinyl iodide. The emission spectra and theoretical calculations indicate that HCN + CH{sub 2}O is the only significant product channel for the C{sub 2}H{sub 3} + NO reaction near room temperature, in contradiction to several reports in the literature. Although CO emission is observed when vinyl bromide is used as the precursor, it arises from the reaction of NO with photofragments other than vinyl. This conclusion is supported by the absence of CO emission when vinyl iodide or methyl vinyl ketone is used. Prompt emission from vibrationally excited NO is evidence of the competition between back dissociation and isomerization of the initially formed nitrosoethylene adduct, consistent with previous work on the pressure dependence of this reaction. Our calculations indicate that production of products is dominated by the low energy portion of the energy distribution. The calculation also predicts an upper bound of 0.19% for the branching ratio of the H{sub 2}CNH + CO channel, which is consistent with our experimental results.

  15. Antioxidant effect of non-enzymatic browning reaction products on linoleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.S.K.

    1987-01-01

    In aqueous lysine-sucrose model systems, the effects of reaction time, pH and molar ratio were studied on the formation of non-enzymatic browning reaction (NBR) products. The extent of sucrose hydrolysis was measured and the antioxidant effect of NBR products on linoleic acid emulsions was examined. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained at various stages of browning. Sucrose produced NMR produces with lysine in an aqueous system at 100/sup 0/C. The C-13 NMR spectra indicated that the NBR started when sucrose and lysine were dissolved in water. The C-13 NMR spectra also showed that heating did not have an effect on the gross composition of polymeric species. The absorbance at 480 nm of 0.75 M lysine-sucrose solution heated up to 6 hours increased with reaction times. The pH values of heated lysine-sucrose solution gradually decreased with reaction time. When 0.75 M sucrose or lysine solution was heated separately up to 6 hours, there were no changes in absorbance in pH. In the pH range of 3.52-6.35, higher absorbance was obtained from heated lysine-sucrose solution at acidic pH levels than at neutral pH levels. As the concentration of lysine and sucrose solution was increased, the absorbance increased. At longer reaction times or acidic pH levels, enhanced hydrolysis of sucrose to reducing sugars resulted in more NBR products. NBR products obtained at a longer reaction time, an acidic pH, and higher concentration of reactants showed a darker brown color and were effective in preventing the formation of peroxides. The oxygen uptake of linoleic acid emulsion having NBR products was smaller than that of linoleic acid emulsion without NBR products. Based on these results, it was concluded that sucrose may act as an antioxidant in processed foods containing both amino acids and lipids.

  16. Dietary Maillard reaction products and their fermented products reduce cardiovascular risk in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Oh, N S; Park, M R; Lee, K W; Kim, S H; Kim, Y

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) and MRP fermented by lactic acid bacteria on antioxidants and their enhancement of cardiovascular health in ICR mouse and rat models. In previous in vitro studies, the selected lactic acid bacteria were shown to significantly affect the activity of MRP. The expression of genes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) related to antioxidant activity was upregulated by Maillard-reacted sodium caseinate (cMRP), and cMRP fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum H9 (F-cMRP) synergistically increased the expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase when compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. Bleeding time, the assay for determination of antithrombotic activity, was significantly prolonged by Maillard-reacted whey protein concentration (wMRP) and wMRP fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri H10 (F-wMRP), similar to the bleeding time of the aspirin group (positive control). In addition, the acute pulmonary thromboembolism-induced mice overcame severe body paralysis or death in both the wMRP and the F-wMRP groups. In the serum-level experiment, cMRP and F-cMRP significantly reduced the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and triglycerides but had only a slight effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase also declined in the cMRP and F-cMRP intake groups compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. In particular, F-cMRP showed the highest reducing effects on triglycerides, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Moreover, the expression of cholesterol-related genes in the F-cMRP group demonstrated greater effects than for the cMRP group in the level of cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and low-density lipoprotein receptors compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. The protective role of cMRP and F-cMRP in the high

  17. Highly stereoselective synthesis of natural-product-like hybrids by an organocatalytic/multicomponent reaction sequence.

    PubMed

    Echemendía, Radell; de La Torre, Alexander F; Monteiro, Julia L; Pila, Michel; Corrêa, Arlene G; Westermann, Bernhard; Rivera, Daniel G; Paixão, Márcio W

    2015-06-22

    In an endeavor to provide an efficient route to natural product hybrids, described herein is an efficient, highly stereoselective, one-pot process comprising an organocatalytic conjugate addition of 1,3-dicarbonyls to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes followed by an intramolecular isocyanide-based multicomponent reaction. This approach enables the rapid assembly of complex natural product hybrids including up to four different molecular fragments, such as hydroquinolinone, chromene, piperidine, peptide, lipid, and glycoside moieties. The strategy combines the stereocontrol of organocatalysis with the diversity-generating character of multicomponent reactions, thus leading to structurally unique peptidomimetics integrating heterocyclic, lipidic, and sugar moieties.

  18. Computational Raman spectroscopy of organometallic reaction products in lithium and sodium-based battery systems.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carrera, Roel S; Kozinsky, Boris

    2014-11-28

    A common approach to understanding surface reaction mechanisms in rechargeable lithium-based battery systems involves spectroscopic characterization of the product mixtures and matching of spectroscopic features to spectra of pure candidate reference compounds. This strategy, however, requires separate chemical synthesis and accurate characterization of potential reference compounds. It also assumes that atomic structures are the same in the actual product mixture as in the reference samples. We propose an alternative approach that uses first-principles computations of spectra of the possible reaction products and by-products present in advanced battery systems. We construct a library of computed Raman spectra for possible products, achieving excellent agreement with reference experimental data, targeting solid-electrolyte interphase in Li-ion cells and discharge products of Li-air cells. However, the solid-state crystalline structure of Li(Na) metal-organic compounds is often not known, making the spectra computations difficult. We develop and apply a novel technique of simplifying spectra calculations by using dimer-like representations of the solid state structures. On the basis of a systematic investigation, we demonstrate that molecular dimers of Li(Na)-based organometallic material provide relevant information about the vibrational properties of many possible solid reaction products. Such an approach should serve as a basis to extend existing spectral libraries of molecular structures relevant for understanding the link between atomic structures and measured spectroscopic data of materials in novel battery systems.

  19. Worldwide withdrawal of medicinal products because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-01

    We have systematically identified medicinal products withdrawn worldwide because of adverse drug reactions, assessed the level of evidence used for making the withdrawal decisions, and explored the patterns of withdrawals over time. We searched PubMed, the WHO database of withdrawn products, and selected texts. We included products that were withdrawn after launch from 1950 onwards, excluding non-human and over-the-counter medicines. We assessed the levels of evidence on which withdrawals were based using the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Of 353 medicinal products withdrawn from any country, only 40 were withdrawn worldwide. Anecdotal reports were cited as evidence for withdrawal in 30 (75%) and deaths occurred in 27 (68%). Hepatic, cardiac, and nervous system toxicity accounted for over 60% of withdrawals. In 28 cases, the first withdrawal was initiated by the manufacturer. The median interval between the first report of an adverse drug reaction that led to withdrawal and the first withdrawal was 1 year (range 0-43 years). Worldwide withdrawals occurred within 1 year after the first withdrawal in any country. In conclusion, the time it takes for drugs to be withdrawn worldwide after reports of adverse drug reactions has shortened over time. However, there are inconsistencies in current withdrawal procedures when adverse drug reactions are suspected. A uniform method for establishing worldwide withdrawal of approved medicinal products when adverse drug reactions are suspected should be developed, to facilitate global withdrawals. Rapid synthesis of the evidence on harms should be a priority when serious adverse reactions are suspected. PMID:26941185

  20. Kinetics and Product Yields of the Gas-Phase Reactions of Isoprene Hydroxynitrates and Isoprene Carbonynitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhamid, A.; Addala, R.; Vizenor, N.; Scruggs, A.; Tyndall, G. S.; Orlando, J. J.; Le, T.; Cardenas, E.; Maitra, S.; Hasson, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Isoprene nitrates are formed in the troposphere from the reactions of isoprene with OH in the presence of NOx during the day and with NO3 during the night. Depending on their subsequent reactions, these compounds may be reservoirs or sinks for NOx, and may contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation. In this work, two isoprene hydroxynitrates (CH2=CHC(ONO2)(CH3)CH2OH, 1,2-IHN and CH2OHCH(ONO2)C(CH3)=CH2, 4,3-IHN ) and one isoprene carbonyl nitrate (CH2=CHC(ONO2)(CH3)CHO, ICN)) were synthesized. The kinetics and product yields from their reaction with O3, OH, NO3 and Cl were then investigated in a photochemical reactor using a combination of long-path Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Measured rate coefficients are consistent with reaction with OH and NO3 as the major chemical sinks for these compounds. Measured product yields imply that NOx is not released from these compounds in their reactions with atmospheric oxidants.

  1. Production of Solar-Grade Silicon by the SiF4 and Mg Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaobing; Bao, Jianer; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2016-08-01

    Over 90 pct of the solar cells currently produced and installed are Si based, and this industrial dominance is expected to persist for the foreseeable future. The crystalline Si substrate accounts for a significant portion of the total cost of solar cells. In order to further reduce the cost of solar panels, there has been significant effort in producing inexpensive solar-grade Si, mainly through three paths: (1) modification of the Siemens process to lower production costs, (2) upgrading metallurgical-grade Si to reach solar-grade purity, and (3) by means of new metallurgical processes such as the reduction of a silicon halide, e.g., SiF4 or SiCl4, by a reactive metal such as Na or Zn. In this paper, we describe an alternative path that uses Mg to react with SiF4 to produce low-cost solar grade Si. Experimental conditions for complete reaction and separation of the products, Si and MgF2, as well as aspects of the reaction mechanism are described. The reaction involves both a heterogeneous liquid-gas phase reaction and a homogeneous gas-gas phase reaction. When pure Mg was used, the Si product obtained had sub-ppm levels of B and P impurities and is expected to be suitable for solar cell applications.

  2. Vibrational Excitation of Both Products of the Reaction of CN Radicals with Acetone in Solution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transient electronic and vibrational absorption spectroscopy unravel the mechanisms and dynamics of bimolecular reactions of CN radicals with acetone in deuterated chloroform solutions. The CN radicals are produced by ultrafast ultraviolet photolysis of dissolved ICN. Two reactive forms of CN radicals are distinguished by their electronic absorption bands: “free” (uncomplexed) CN radicals, and “solvated” CN radicals that are complexed with solvent molecules. The lifetimes of the free CN radicals are limited to a few picoseconds following their photolytic production because of geminate recombination to ICN and INC, complexation with CDCl3 molecules, and reaction with acetone. The acetone reaction occurs with a rate coefficient of (8.0 ± 0.5) × 1010 M–1 s–1 and transient vibrational spectra in the C=N and C=O stretching regions reveal that both the nascent HCN and 2-oxopropyl (CH3C(O)CH2) radical products are vibrationally excited. The rate coefficient for the reaction of solvated CN with acetone is 40 times slower than for free CN, with a rate coefficient of (2.0 ± 0.9) × 109 M–1 s–1 obtained from the rise in the HCN product v1(C=N stretch) IR absorption band. Evidence is also presented for CN complexes with acetone that are more strongly bound than the CN–CDCl3 complexes because of CN interactions with the carbonyl group. The rates of reactions of these more strongly associated radicals are slower still. PMID:26192334

  3. Vibrational Excitation of Both Products of the Reaction of CN Radicals with Acetone in Solution.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Greg T; Preston, Thomas J; Greaves, Stuart J; Greetham, Gregory M; Clark, Ian P; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2015-12-17

    Transient electronic and vibrational absorption spectroscopy unravel the mechanisms and dynamics of bimolecular reactions of CN radicals with acetone in deuterated chloroform solutions. The CN radicals are produced by ultrafast ultraviolet photolysis of dissolved ICN. Two reactive forms of CN radicals are distinguished by their electronic absorption bands: "free" (uncomplexed) CN radicals, and "solvated" CN radicals that are complexed with solvent molecules. The lifetimes of the free CN radicals are limited to a few picoseconds following their photolytic production because of geminate recombination to ICN and INC, complexation with CDCl3 molecules, and reaction with acetone. The acetone reaction occurs with a rate coefficient of (8.0 ± 0.5) × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) and transient vibrational spectra in the C═N and C═O stretching regions reveal that both the nascent HCN and 2-oxopropyl (CH3C(O)CH2) radical products are vibrationally excited. The rate coefficient for the reaction of solvated CN with acetone is 40 times slower than for free CN, with a rate coefficient of (2.0 ± 0.9) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) obtained from the rise in the HCN product v1(C═N stretch) IR absorption band. Evidence is also presented for CN complexes with acetone that are more strongly bound than the CN-CDCl3 complexes because of CN interactions with the carbonyl group. The rates of reactions of these more strongly associated radicals are slower still. PMID:26192334

  4. The Reaction of Butylated Hydroxyanisole and Its Metabolites with Some Arylamines: Investigations of Product Mutagenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Kalus, WH; Münzner, R; Filby, WG

    1994-01-01

    We examined t-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ) and t-butylquinone (t-BuQ), two of the major microsomal metabolites of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), for their ability to react with the xenobiotic arylamines aniline and N-methylaniline. A number of substances were isolated by thin-layer chromatography. The main products were quantitatively evaluated and their structures assigned. BHA and t-BHQ yielded reaction products with anilines only in the presence of an oxidant such as iodate (KIO3). We used the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay to test the new compounds for mutagenic activity. The reaction products gave no evidence of mutagenicity in the S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, with or without metabolic activation. In some instances the substituted quinone products are less toxic than t-BuQ alone. Images Figure 1. PMID:9719675

  5. Silicon-based cross-coupling reactions in the total synthesis of natural products.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Liu, Jack H-C

    2010-04-12

    Unlike other variants of transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, those based on organosilicon donors have not been used extensively in natural product synthesis. However, recent advances such as: 1) the development of mild reaction conditions, 2) the expansion of substrate scope, 3) the development of methods to stereoselectively and efficiently introduce the silicon-containing moiety, 4) the development of a large number of sequential processes, and 5) the advent of bifunctional bis(silyl) linchpin reagents, signify the coming of age of silicon-based cross-coupling reactions. The following case studies illustrate how silicon-based cross-coupling reactions play a strategic role in constructing carbon-carbon bonds in selected target molecules.

  6. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods. PMID:26904661

  7. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods.

  8. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods. PMID:26904661

  9. Expected production of new exotic α emitters 108Xe and 112Ba in complete fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Wieleczko, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    The production cross sections of neutron-deficient isotopes Xe-110108 and Ba-114112 in the complete fusion reactions Ni,5658+54Fe and Ni,5658+58Ni with stable and radioactive beams are studied with the dinuclear system model. The calculated results are compared with the available experimental data. The optimal beam energies and corresponding maximum production cross sections of new isotopes 108Xe and 112Ba are predicted.

  10. Concurrent extraction and reaction for the production of biodiesel from wet microalgae.

    PubMed

    Im, Hanjin; Lee, HanSol; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won; Lee, Jae W

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses a reliable in situ transesterification process which integrates lipid extraction from wet microalgae, and its conversion to biodiesel, with a yield higher than 90 wt.%. This process enables single-step production of biodiesel from microalgae by mixing wet microalgal cells with solvent, methanol, and acid catalyst; and then heating them in one pot. The effects of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, wet cell weight, reaction time, and catalyst volume on the conversion yield are investigated. This simultaneous extraction and transesterification of wet microalgae may enable a significant reduction in energy consumption by eliminating the drying process of algal cells and realize the economic production of biodiesel using wet microalgae.

  11. [Vigilance for veterinary medicinal products: reports of adverse reactions in the year 2012].

    PubMed

    Müntener, C R; Bruckner, L; Kupper, J; Althaus, F R; Schäublin, M

    2013-11-01

    197 adverse reactions of Swissmedic-authorized veterinary medicinal products were reported during the year 2012 (2011: 167). Species and drug classes remain unchanged over the years: most of the reports related to reactions following the use of antiparasitic products (37.6 %), antiinfectives (15.7 %) or non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (11.7 %) in companion animals (94 dogs and 53 cats) followed by cattle/calves (29). Additionally, 45 cases transmitted by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre in Zürich were processed. We discuss a paradoxical reaction under the potential influence of acepromazine as well as a modified protocol for treating permethrin intoxication in cats. Finally, the vaccinovigilance program received 95 declarations following the application of various vaccines, mainly to dogs or cats.

  12. [Vigilance for veterinary medicinal products: reports of adverse reactions in the year 2012].

    PubMed

    Müntener, C R; Bruckner, L; Kupper, J; Althaus, F R; Schäublin, M

    2013-11-01

    197 adverse reactions of Swissmedic-authorized veterinary medicinal products were reported during the year 2012 (2011: 167). Species and drug classes remain unchanged over the years: most of the reports related to reactions following the use of antiparasitic products (37.6 %), antiinfectives (15.7 %) or non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (11.7 %) in companion animals (94 dogs and 53 cats) followed by cattle/calves (29). Additionally, 45 cases transmitted by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre in Zürich were processed. We discuss a paradoxical reaction under the potential influence of acepromazine as well as a modified protocol for treating permethrin intoxication in cats. Finally, the vaccinovigilance program received 95 declarations following the application of various vaccines, mainly to dogs or cats. PMID:24168771

  13. THE OZONE REACTION WITH BUTADIENE: FORMATION OF TOXIC PRODUCTS. (R826236)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The formation yields of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and OH radicals have been measured from reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. 1,3,5-Trimethyl benzene was added to scavenge OH radicals in measurements of product ...

  14. Production of hydrogen bromide by bromine-methane reactions at elevated temperature.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Larson, Richard S.

    2003-05-01

    Hydrogen bromide is a potentially useful intermediate for hydrogen production by electrolysis because it has a low cell potential and is extremely soluble in water. Processes have been proposed to exploit these properties, but among the important issues to be resolved is the efficiency of HBr production from hydrocarbon precursors. This investigation evaluated a fundamental facet of such a technology by studying the reaction of methane and bromine at elevated temperature to determine the yield and kinetics of HBr formation. Laboratory experimentation and computational chemistry were combined to provide a description of this reaction for possible application to reactor design at a larger scale. Experimental studies with a tubular flow reactor were used to survey a range of reactant ratios and reactor residence times at temperatures between 500 C and 800 C. At temperatures near 800 C with excess methane, conversions of bromine to HBr exceeded 90% and reaction products included solid carbon (soot) in stoichiometric amounts. At lower temperatures, HBr conversion was significantly reduced, the products included much less soot, and the formation of bromocarbon compounds was indicated qualitatively. Calculations of chemical equilibrium behavior and reaction kinetics for the experimental conditions were performed using the Sandia CHEMKIN package. An elementary multistep mechanism for the gas-phase chemistry was used together with a surface mechanism that assumed facile deposition of radical species at the reactor walls. Simulations with the laminar-flow boundary-layer code of the CHEMKIN package gave reasonable agreement with experimental data.

  15. Detection and analysis of polymerase chain reaction products by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.B., Doktycz, M.J., Britt, P.F., Vass, A.A., Buchanan, M.V.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent and ongoing efforts to overcome some of the obstacles to more routine and robust application of MALDI-TOF to analysis of polymerase chain reaction products and other information- bearing nucleic acid molecules. Methods for purifying nucleic acid samples are described, as is the application of delayed extraction TOF mass spectrometry to analysis of short oligonucleotides.

  16. Polyol-acid anhydride-n-alkyl-alkylene diamine reaction product and motor fuel composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Jenkins, R.H. Jr.

    1987-02-17

    A fuel composition for an internal combustion engine comprising: (a) a major portion of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel and (b) a minor amount, as a deposit inhibitor additive, of a reaction product of a process comprising: (i) reacting a dibasic acid anhydride with a polyol, thereby forming an ester of maleic acid; (ii) reacting the ester of maleic acid with an N-alkyl-alkylene diamine, thereby forming the reaction product; and (iii) recovering the reaction product.

  17. Products of the gas-phase reactions of O{sub 3} with alkenes

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.; Tuazon, E.C.; Aschmann, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    Selected products of the gas-phase reactions of a series of alkenes (1-pentene, 1-hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene, 2,3-dimethyl-l-butene, cyclopentene and 1-methylcyclohexene) with O{sub 3} have been identified and quantified by gas chromatography and in situ Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. Because OH radicals are formed in these O{sub 3} reactions, experiments were carried out in the presence of sufficient cyclohexane or n-octane to scavenge > 90 % of the OH radicals formed. OH radical formation yields from the O{sub 3}-alkene reactions were derived from the amounts of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol formed in O{sub 3}-alkene-cyclohexane-air mixtures. The molar yields of the carbonyls products R{sub 1}C(O)R{sub 2} plus HCHO from the O{sub 3} reactions with the five 1-alkenes (R{sub 1}R{sub 2}C=CH{sub 2}) studied were 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.1, as expected from the presently accepted reaction mechanism.

  18. Optical properties of the products of α-dicarbonyl and amine reactions in simulated cloud droplets.

    PubMed

    Zarzana, Kyle J; De Haan, David O; Freedman, Miriam A; Hasenkopf, Christa A; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2012-05-01

    Secondary organic aerosol makes up a significant fraction of the total aerosol mass, and a growing body of evidence indicates that reactions in the atmospheric aqueous phase are important contributors to aerosol formation and can help explain observations that cannot be accounted for using traditional gas-phase chemistry. In particular, aqueous phase reactions between small organic molecules have been proposed as a source of light absorbing compounds that have been observed in numerous locations. Past work has established that reactions between α-dicarbonyls and amines in evaporating water droplets produces particle-phase products that are brown in color. In the present study, the complex refractive indices of model secondary organic aerosol formed by aqueous phase reactions between the α-dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal and the primary amines glycine and methylamine have been determined. The reaction products exhibit significant absorption in the visible, and refractive indices are similar to those for light absorbing species isolated from urban aerosol. However, the optical properties are different from the values used in models for secondary organic aerosol, which typically assume little to no absorption of visible light. As a result, the climatic cooling effect of such aerosols in models may be overestimated.

  19. Statistical product-state distributions for ultracold exoergic reactions in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Maykel Leonardo; Bonnet, Laurent; Larregaray, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    The first ultracold chemistry experiments were recently performed at JILA, Colorado. Using an ultracold gas of KRb molecules, the group demonstrated strong effects on reaction rates due to quantum statistics, external electric fields, and reduced dimensionality/orientation. While Quéméner and Bohn provided the theoretical interpretation of the observed loss rates, Idziaszek and coworkers, and Gao have developed simple quantum models for reaction rates and identified different universality classes. The most important open question is that of product-state distributions. These are very sensitive to the details of the reaction dynamics and could lead to a deeper understanding of the underlying physics. A priori, a rigorous description of these reactions can be derived from the quantum-mechanical formalism of Tscherbul and Krems. Yet, as argued by Mayle et al., the huge number of rovibrational states involved makes such approach impractical for most cases of current experimental interest. I will discuss our efforts in deriving statistical product-state distributions for ultracold exoergic reactions in external fields. These can be used as benchmarks for the funding assumptions of the theory and provide tests for the statistical arguments of Mayle et al. MLGM acknowledges support from FP7/2007-2013, grant No. 330623.

  20. Reduction of hydroxylated fullerene (fullerol) in water by zinc: reaction and hemiketal product characterization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiewei; Alemany, Lawrence B; Li, Wenlu; Petrie, Liza; Welker, Cara; Fortner, John D

    2014-07-01

    Water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene (fullerol) materials have recently gained increasing attention as they have been identified as the primary product(s) during the exposure of fullerenes (as water stable, nanoscale aggregated C60) to UV light in water. The physical properties and chemical reactivity of resulting fullerols, however, have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, we identified and characterized the reductive transformation of fullerol (C60(OH)x(ONa)y) by solid zinc metal (Zn(0)) through a series of batch reaction experiments and product characterization, including (13)C NMR, FTIR, XPS, UV-vis, DLS, and TEM. Results indicated the facile formation of water stable, pH sensitive hemiketal functionality as part of a relatively reduced fullerol product. Further, aqueous physical behavior of the product fullerol, as measured by octanol partitioning and surface deposition rates, was observed to significantly differ from the parent material and is consistent with a relative increase in molecular (product) hydrophobicity.

  1. Reaction of α-cedrene with ozone: mechanism, gas and particulate products distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaoui, M.; Sexton, K. G.; Kamens, R. M.

    The gas-phase reaction of ozone with α-cedrene ( I) in the absence and presence of an OH radical scavenger (cyclohexane) has been studied in the outdoor 25 m 3 Teflon film chambers at the UNC smog chamber facility. Twenty-two compounds were identified for the first time in this study. Important products identified and semi-quantified were α-cedronaldehyde ( VI), α-cedronic acid ( VIII), α-cedrinic acid ( X), α-norcedronaldehyde ( VII), 8-hydroxy-9-α-cedranone ( III), and α-norcedronic acid ( IX). Acetone, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde also were identified in this study. On average, measured gas and particle phase products accounted for ˜56% of the reacted α-cedrene. The total yield of products bearing hydroxy groups (e.g. 8-hydroxy-9-α-cedranone ( III)) and aldehydes (e.g. α-cedronaldehyde ( VI), α-norcedronaldehyde ( VII)) was found to be slightly dependent on the presence of an OH radical scavenger. Generally, the aldehyde yield was found to be higher when cyclohexane was present, and the hydroxy compounds yield was higher when cyclohexane was absent. All products identified in this study were found in the particle phase. α-Cedrinic acid ( X), α-cedronic acid ( VIII), and α-cedronaldehyde (VI) were observed in the early stage in the aerosol phase and may play an important role in the early formation of SOA. Detailed reaction schemes leading to most reaction products observed here are presented and discussed.

  2. Study of reactions with neutron production in pp and pd collisions at 1 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Baturin, V.N.; Koptev, V.P.; Maev, E.M.; Makarov, M.M.; Nelyubin, V.V.; Sulimov, V.V.; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Shcherbakov, G.V.

    1980-02-01

    Absolute doubly differential cross sections for production of neutrons of energy 350--1000 MeV on bombardment of hydrogen and deuterium with 1-GeV protons have been measured at angles 4, 7.5, 11.3, and 13.2/sup 0/. The neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight method with utilization of the time microstructure of the accelerator beam. Cross sections for neutron production in reactions with meson production were obtained. It is noted that the dominant process in these reactions is the formation of the triangle-open(1232) isobar in the intermediate state. Cross sections for quasielastic knockout of neutrons from deuterium were determined. The contribution of spin-dependent amplitudes to the pn..-->..np charge-exchange cross section was estimated an an angle 0/sup 0/.

  3. Investigation of the use of Maillard reaction inhibitors for the production of patatin-carbohydrate conjugates.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa

    2014-12-17

    Selected Maillard reaction inhibitors, including aminoguanidine, cysteine, pyridoxamine, and sodium bisulfite, were evaluated for their effect on the production of carbohydrate conjugated proteins with less cross-linking/browning. Patatin (PTT), a major potato protein, was glycated with galactose, xylose, galactooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, galactan, and xylan under controlled conditions. The effectiveness of the inhibitors to control the glycation reaction was assessed by monitoring the glycation extent, the protein cross-linking, and the formation of dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium bisulfite was the most effective inhibitor for PTT-galactose and PTT-xylan reaction systems (reaction control ratios of 210.0 and 12.8). On the other hand, aminoguanidine and cysteine led to the highest reaction control ratios for the PTT-xylose/xylooligosaccharide (160.0 and 143.0) and PTT-galactooligosaccharides/galactan (663.0 and 71.0) reaction systems, respectively. The use of cysteine and aminoguanidine as inhibitors led to 1.7-99.4% decreases in the particle size distribution of the PTT conjugates and to 0.4-9.3% increases in their relative digestibility, per 5% blocked lysine.

  4. Investigation of the use of Maillard reaction inhibitors for the production of patatin-carbohydrate conjugates.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa

    2014-12-17

    Selected Maillard reaction inhibitors, including aminoguanidine, cysteine, pyridoxamine, and sodium bisulfite, were evaluated for their effect on the production of carbohydrate conjugated proteins with less cross-linking/browning. Patatin (PTT), a major potato protein, was glycated with galactose, xylose, galactooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, galactan, and xylan under controlled conditions. The effectiveness of the inhibitors to control the glycation reaction was assessed by monitoring the glycation extent, the protein cross-linking, and the formation of dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium bisulfite was the most effective inhibitor for PTT-galactose and PTT-xylan reaction systems (reaction control ratios of 210.0 and 12.8). On the other hand, aminoguanidine and cysteine led to the highest reaction control ratios for the PTT-xylose/xylooligosaccharide (160.0 and 143.0) and PTT-galactooligosaccharides/galactan (663.0 and 71.0) reaction systems, respectively. The use of cysteine and aminoguanidine as inhibitors led to 1.7-99.4% decreases in the particle size distribution of the PTT conjugates and to 0.4-9.3% increases in their relative digestibility, per 5% blocked lysine. PMID:25400165

  5. Transformation and removal of tetrabromobisphenol A from water in the presence of natural organic matter via laccase-catalyzed reactions: reaction rates, products, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yiping; Colosi, Lisa M; Gao, Shixiang; Huang, Qingguo; Mao, Liang

    2013-01-15

    The widespread occurrence of the brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) makes it a possible source of concern. Our experiments suggest that TBBPA can be effectively transformed by the naturally occurring laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor. These reactions follow second-order kinetics, whereby apparent removal rate is a function of both substrate and enzyme concentrations. For reactions at different initial concentrations and with or without natural organic matter (NOM), reaction products are identified using liquid or gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Detailed reaction pathways are proposed. It is postulated that two TBBPA radicals resulting from a laccase-mediated reaction are coupled together via interaction of an oxygen atom on one radical and a propyl-substituted aromatic carbon atom on the other. A 2,6-dibromo-4-isopropylphenol carbocation is then eliminated from the radical dimer. All but one of the detected products arise from either substitution or proton elimination of the 2,6-dibromo-4-isopropylphenol carbocation. Three additional products are identified for reactions in the presence of NOM, which suggests that reaction occurs between NOM and TBBPA radical. Data from acute immobilization tests with Daphnia confirm that TBBPA toxicity is effectively eliminated by laccase-catalyzed TBBPA removal. These findings are useful for understanding laccase-mediated TBBPA reactions and could eventually lead to development of novel methods to control TBBPA contamination. PMID:23256593

  6. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene, Ethylene, and Diborane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The net heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction of diborane with a mixture of acetylene and ethylene was found to be 20,440 +/- 150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net-heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,850 +/- 150 Btu per pound.

  7. Production Cross Sections for Synthesis of Nuclides with Z = 118 IN Large Mass Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Jin, Xin; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, En-Guang

    The production cross sections for the synthesis of superheavy nuclei with charge number 118 are studied with the di-nuclear system model with dynamical potential surface (DNS-DyPES model). The dynamical potential energy surface (PES) and the fusion probabilities for 48Ca bombarding Cf nuclei reactions are studied. By multiplying the capture cross section, fusion probability and survival probability, the evaporation residue(ER) cross sections for superheavy nuclei with Z = 118 are obtained. And the excitation functions for the reactions with a mixture target of Cf isotopes are also shown.

  8. Production of new heavy isotopes in low-energy multinucleon transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Zagrebaev, Valery; Greiner, Walter

    2008-09-19

    It is shown that the multinucleon transfer reactions in low-energy collisions of heavy ions may be used for production of new neutron-rich nuclei at the "northeast" part of the nuclear map along the neutron closed shell N=126 which plays an important role in the r process of nucleosynthesis. More than 50 unknown nuclei might be produced in such reactions (in particular, in collision of 136Xe with 208Pb) with cross sections of not less than 1 microb. PMID:18851367

  9. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  14. Evidence for oligomer formation in clouds: reactions of isoprene oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Katye E; Carlton, Annmarie G; Lim, Ho-Jin; Turpin, Barbara J; Seitzinger, Sybil P

    2006-08-15

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to investigate product formation in laboratory experiments designed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in clouds. It has been proposed that water soluble aldehydes derived from aromatics and alkenes, including isoprene, oxidize further in cloud droplets forming organic acids and, upon droplet evaporation, SOA. Pyruvic acid is an important aqueous-phase intermediate. Time series samples from photochemical batch aqueous phase reactions of pyruvic acid and hydrogen peroxide were analyzed for product formation. In addition to the monomers predicted by the reaction scheme, products consistent with an oligomer system were found when pyruvic acid and OH radical were both present. No evidence of oligomer formation was found in a standard mix composed of pyruvic, glyoxylic, and oxalic acids prepared in the same matrix as the samples analyzed using the same instrument conditions. The distribution of high molecular weight products is consistent with oligomers composed of the mono-, oxo-, and di-carboxylic acids expected from the proposed reaction scheme.

  15. Heterogeneous and Photochemical Reactions Involving Surface Adsorbed Organics: Common Lignin Pyrolysis Products With Nitrogen Dioxide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.; Nichols, B. R.; Rapa, C.; Costa, V.

    2009-05-01

    Solid-air interfaces, such as airborne particulate matter and ground level surfaces, provide unique supports for tropospheric heterogeneous chemistry. These interfaces commonly contain surface adsorbed organics, such as lignin pyrolysis products, that can significantly alter their physical and chemical properties. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) provides an ideal tool for monitoring chemical changes in thin organic films during heterogeneous and photochemical reactions. Phenolic compounds, with and without co- adsorbed photosensitizers, were exposed to NO2 concentrations in the parts-per-billion range at 300 K and 20% relative humidity. Catechol, when mixed with benzophenone or dicyclohexylketone, formed 4- nitrocatechol as the dominant product under dark conditions. Deuterating the catechol alcohol groups caused the initial rate of reaction to decrease by a factor of 3.3±0.5, consistent with formation of the ortho- semiquinone radical as the rate determining step. The rate of 4-nitrocatechol formation did not increase under illuminated conditions, even with the presence of benzophenone a well known photosensitizer. UV-A/visible radiation did, however, initiate a photochemical reaction between benzophenone and 4-nitrocatechol, likely forming high molecular weight polymerization products. In contrast, 2-ethoxyphenol displayed no reactivity with NO2, even under illuminated conditions with a photosensitizer. Implications for the fate of lignin pyrolysis products, which are prevalent in biomass combustion smoke, will be discussed.

  16. Reactions of the OOH radical with guanine: Mechanisms of formation of 8-oxoguanine and other products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nagendra; Shukla, P. K.; Mishra, P. C.

    2010-09-01

    The mutagenic product 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua) is formed due to intermediacy of peroxyl (OOR) radicals in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation-induced DNA damage. The mechanisms of these reactions are not yet understood properly. Therefore, in the present study, the mechanisms of formation of 8-oxoGua and other related products due to the reaction of the guanine base of DNA with the hydroperoxyl radical (OOH) were investigated theoretically employing the B3LYP and BHandHLYP hybrid functionals of density functional theory and the polarizable continuum model for solvation. It is found that the reaction of the OOH radical with guanine can occur following seven different mechanisms leading to the formation of various products including 8-oxoGua, its radicals, 5-hydroxy-8-oxoguanine and CO 2. The mechanism that yields 8-oxoGua as an intermediate and 5-hydroxy-8-oxoGua as the final product was found to be energetically most favorable.

  17. Study of Ozone-Initiated Limonene Reaction Products by Low Temperature Plasma Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørgaard, Asger W.; Vibenholt, Anni; Benassi, Mario; Clausen, Per Axel; Wolkoff, Peder

    2013-07-01

    Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products were investigated in situ by low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry. Helium was used as discharge gas and the protruding plasma generated ~850 ppb ozone in front of the glass tube by reaction with the ambient oxygen. Limonene applied to filter paper was placed in front of the LTP afterglow and the MS inlet. Instantly, a wide range of reaction products appeared, ranging from m/ z 139 to ca. 1000 in the positive mode and m/ z 115 to ca. 600 in the negative mode. Key monomeric oxidation products including levulinic acid, 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene, limonene oxide, 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal, and the secondary ozonide of limonene could be identified by collision-induced dissociation. Oligomeric products ranged from the nonoxidized dimer of limonene (C20H30) and up to the hexamer with 10 oxygen atoms (C60H90O10). The use of LTP for in situ ozonolysis and ionization represents a new and versatile approach for the assessment of ozone-initiated terpene chemistry.

  18. Nucleon and triton production from nucleon-induced reactions on 7Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Guo, Hairui; Nagaoka, Kohei; Matsumoto, Takuma; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    Nucleon (N) and triton production from nucleon-induced reactions on 7Li at an incident energy of 14 MeV are analyzed by using three-body continuum discretized coupled channels method (CDCC), final state interaction (FSI) model, and sequential decay (SD) model. The CDCC is used to describe nucleon and triton production via breakup continuum channels, 7Li(N,N')7Li*→ t + α. Triton production from p(n) + 7Li → t + 5Li(5He) channel and nucleon production from sequential decay of the ground-state 5Li(5He) are calculated by the FSI model and the SD model, respectively. The calculated double differential cross sections for both nucleon and triton production are in good agreement with experimental ones except at relatively low nucleon emission energies.

  19. Apparatus for production, measurement and reaction studies of dissociated gases at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. D.; Gilbreath, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described which is used for the controlled production, characterization, and study of dissociated gases in a microwave discharge at elevated temperatures. A unique feature is the ability to produce and study a microwave discharge plasma in the heated zone. This allows elevated temperature reactions to be studied in high concentrations of dissociated gases. Further, the system permits weight change measurements of specimens in the plasma, thus facilitating reaction rate determinations. Included is a description of a cavity for use on a 50-mm diameter cylindrical reactor. The effects of flow rate, pressure, temperature, power, metal sample, and sampling position on dissociation percentage of oxygen in the apparatus are described as well as a technique for sample temperature measurements in the plasma which permits determination of high temperature recombination coefficients and reaction rates.

  20. Energy Distribution among Reaction Products. III: The Method of Measured Relaxation Applied to H + Cl2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacey, P. D.; Polyani, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    The method of measured relaxation is described for the determination of initial vibrational energy distribution in the products of exothermic reaction. Hydrogen atoms coming from an orifice were diffused into flowing chlorine gas. Measurements were made of the resultant ir chemiluminescence at successive points along the line of flow. The concurrent processes of reaction, diffusion, flow, radiation, and deactivation were analyzed in some detail on a computer. A variety of relaxation models were used in an attempt to place limits on k(nu prime), the rate constant for reaction to form HCl in specified vibrational energy levels: H+Cl2 yields (sup K(nu prime) HCl(sub nu prime) + Cl. The set of k(?) obtained from this work is in satisfactory agreement with those obtained by another experimental method (the method of arrested relaxation described in Parts IV and V of the present series.

  1. Strangeness Production in Au+Au Reactions at √ {SNN} = 62.4\\ GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsene, Ionut-Cristian

    The measurement of strangeness is a valuable tool for understanding the reaction mechanism of nuclear collisions since all the strange particles need to be created during the reaction. Also, strangeness enhancement is one of the predicted signals of the QGP. In the present work we will discuss the behaviour of the strangeness production (i.e. K/π ratio) with rapidity and baryo-chemical potential in Au+Au collisions at 62.4 A GeV. In this particular reaction, BRAHMS is able to identify particles over 3.5 rapidity units and thereby cover a wide range of bar {p}/p ratios, including the fragmentation region. We will show spectra and ratios of identified particles as a function of pT and rapidity.

  2. Isomer specific product detection in the reaction of CH with acrolein.

    PubMed

    Lockyear, Jessica F; Welz, Oliver; Savee, John D; Goulay, Fabien; Trevitt, Adam J; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Leone, Stephen R

    2013-10-31

    The products formed in the reaction between the methylidene radical (CH) and acrolein (CH2═CHCHO) are probed at 4 Torr and 298 K employing tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron light and multiplexed photoionization mass-spectrometry. The data suggest a principal exit channel of H loss from the adduct to yield C4H4O, accounting for (78 ± 10)% of the products. Examination of the photoionization spectra measured upon reaction of both CH and CD with acrolein reveals that the isomeric composition of the C4H4O product is (60 ± 12)% 1,3-butadienal and (17 ± 10)% furan. The remaining 23% of the possible C4H4O products cannot be accurately distinguished without more reliable photoionization spectra of the possible product isomers but most likely involves oxygenated butyne species. In addition, C2H2O and C3H4 are detected, which account for (14 ± 10)% and (8 +10, -8)% of the products, respectively. The C2H2O photoionization spectrum matches that of ketene and the C3H4 signal is composed of (24 ± 14)% allene and (76 ± 22)% propyne, with an upper limit of 8% placed on the cyclopropene contribution. The reactive potential energy surface is also investigated computationally, and specific rate coefficients are calculated with RRKM theory. These calculations predict overall branching fractions for 1,3-butadienal and furan of 27% and 12%, respectively, in agreement with the experimental results. In contrast, the calculations predict a prominent CO + 2-methylvinyl product channel that is at most a minor channel according to the experimental results. Studies with the CD radical strongly suggest that the title reaction proceeds predominantly via cycloaddition of the radical onto the C═O bond of acrolein, with cycloaddition to the C═C bond being the second most probable reactive mechanism.

  3. Use of Helium Production to Screen Glow Discharges for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passell, Thomas O.

    2011-03-01

    My working hypothesis of the conditions required to observe low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) follows: 1) High fluxes of deuterium atoms through interfaces of grains of metals that readily accommodate movement of hydrogen atoms interstitially is the driving variable that produces the widely observed episodes of excess heat above the total of all input energy. 2) This deuterium atom flux has been most often achieved at high electrochemical current densities on highly deuterium-loaded palladium cathodes but is clearly possible in other experimental arrangements in which the metal is interfacing gaseous deuterium, as in an electrical glow discharge. 3) Since the excess heat episodes must be producing the product(s) of some nuclear fusion reaction(s) screening of options may be easier with measurement of those ``ashes'' than the observance of the excess heat. 4) All but a few of the exothermic fusion reactions known among the first 5 elements produce He-4. Hence helium-4 appearance in an experiment may be the most efficient indicator of some fusion reaction without commitment on which reaction is occurring. This set of hypotheses led me to produce a series of sealed tubes of wire electrodes of metals known to absorb hydrogen and operate them for 100 days at the 1 watt power level using deuterium gas pressures of ~ 100 torr powered by 40 Khz AC power supplies. Observation of helium will be by measurement of helium optical emission lines through the glass envelope surrounding the discharge. The results of the first 18 months of this effort will be described.

  4. Kinetics and Product Yields in the Heterogeneous Reactions of HOBr with Reactive Halide Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, A. K.; Huff, A. K.; Abbatt, J. P.

    2001-12-01

    Routine episodes of ozone destruction in the springtime Arctic boundary layer have been well documented in recent years. After polar sunrise, field researchers working in Alaska and northern Canada report the almost complete loss of ozone from stable air masses in coastal regions. Ozone destruction is very fast, developing on a time scale from hours to days. Low ozone levels are correlated with elevated filterable bromine concentrations, suggesting that high levels of active bromine compounds are present in the atmosphere during ozone loss events. Based on these and other observations, a number of heterogeneous mechanisms involving bromine radicals have been proposed to explain the ozone-depleting chemistry. The central reactions in many of these theories are the interactions of gaseous HOBr with sea salt components in marine aerosols, snow crystals, or sea ice. Recent modeling studies suggest that tropospheric ozone destruction can not be simulated in agreement with field observations unless heterogeneous reactions with HOBr are included. The interactions of HOBr with sea salt halides also drive a proposed autocatalytic mechanism that explains many aspects of the rapid and nearly wholesale loss of ozone in the Arctic troposphere. Motivated by the central role of HOBr in these modeling studies, we have investigated its heterogeneous reactions with reactive halide-ice surfaces using a coated wall, low-pressure flow tube coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Gas-surface reaction probabilities and product yields are presented for two different temperatures and a range of halide and hydrogen ion concentrations in ice. Compared to results for similar experiments with HOCl that have been conducted previously, HOBr reaction probability values are smaller than expected, but still significant. The relative yields of gas-phase products Br2 and BrCl depend on the temperature, composition, and acidity of the reactive halide-ice surfaces. Overall, our data suggest that the

  5. Experimental study of the reactions of limonene with OH and OD radicals: kinetics and products.

    PubMed

    Braure, Tristan; Bedjanian, Yuri; Romanias, Manolis N; Morin, Julien; Riffault, Véronique; Tomas, Alexandre; Coddeville, Patrice

    2014-10-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of limonene with OH and OD radicals has been studied using a low-pressure flow tube reactor coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer: OH + C10H16 → products (1), OD + C10H16 → products (2). The rate constants of the title reactions were determined using four different approaches: either monitoring the kinetics of OH (OD) radicals or limonene consumption in excess of limonene or of the radicals, respectively (absolute method), and by the relative rate method using either the reaction OH (OD) + Br2 or OH (OD) + DMDS (dimethyl disulfide) as the reference one and following HOBr (DOBr) formation or DMDS and limonene consumption, respectively. As a result of the absolute and relative measurements, the overall rate coefficients, k1 = (3.0 ± 0.5) × 10(-11) exp((515 ± 50)/T) and k2 = (2.5 ± 0.6) × 10(-11) exp((575 ± 60)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), were determined at a pressure of 1 Torr of helium over the temperature ranges 220-360 and 233-353 K, respectively. k1 was found to be pressure independent over the range 0.5-5 Torr. There are two possible pathways for the reaction between OH (OD) and limonene: addition of the radical to one of the limonene double bonds (reactions 1a and 2a ) and abstraction of a hydrogen atom (reactions 1b and 2b ), resulting in the formation of H2O (HOD). Measurements of the HOD yield as a function of temperature led to the following branching ratio of the H atom abstraction channel: k2b/k2 = (0.07 ± 0.03) × exp((460 ± 140)/T) for T = (253-355) K.

  6. Product distributions, rate constants, and mechanisms of LiH +H reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defazio, Paolo; Petrongolo, Carlo; Gamallo, Pablo; González, Miguel

    2005-06-01

    We present a quantum-mechanical investigation of the LiH depletion reaction LiH +H→Li+H2 and of the H exchange reaction LiH +H'→LiH'+H. We report product distributions, rate constant, and mechanism of the former, and rate constant and mechanism of the latter reaction. We use the potential-energy surface by Dunne et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 336, 1 (2001)], the real-wave-packet method by Gray and Balint-Kurti [J. Chem. Phys. 108, 950 (1998)], and the J-shifting approximation. The H21 nuclear-spin statistics and progressions of vib-rotational states (v',j') rule both initial-state-resolved and thermal product distributions, which have saw-toothed shapes with odd j' preferred with respect to even j'. At high collision energies and temperatures, we obtain a regular 3-to-1 intensity alternation of rotational states. At low collision energies and temperatures, the degeneracy and density of many H2 levels can, however, give more irregular distributions. During the collision, the energy flows from the reactant translational mode to the product vibration and recoil ones. The rate constants of both reactions are not Arrhenius type because the reactions are barrier-less. The low-temperature, LiH depletion rate constant is larger than the H exchange one, whereas the contrary holds at high temperature. The real-time mechanisms show the nuclear rearrangements of the nonreactive channel and of the reactive ones, and point out that the LiH depletion is preferred over the H exchange at short times. This confirms the rate-constant results.

  7. Controlling reactivity of nanoporous catalyst materials by tuning reaction product-pore interior interactions: Statistical mechanical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Ackerman, David M.; Lin, Victor S.-Y.; Pruski, Marek; Evans, James W.

    2013-04-02

    Statistical mechanical modeling is performed of a catalytic conversion reaction within a functionalized nanoporous material to assess the effect of varying the reaction product-pore interior interaction from attractive to repulsive. A strong enhancement in reactivity is observed not just due to the shift in reaction equilibrium towards completion but also due to enhanced transport within the pore resulting from reduced loading. The latter effect is strongest for highly restricted transport (single-file diffusion), and applies even for irreversible reactions. The analysis is performed utilizing a generalized hydrodynamic formulation of the reaction-diffusion equations which can reliably capture the complex interplay between reaction and restricted transport.

  8. Urea degradation by electrochemically generated reactive chlorine species: products and reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kangwoo; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the transformation of urea by electrochemically generated reactive chlorine species (RCS). Solutions of urea with chloride ions were electrolyzed using a bismuth doped TiO2 (BiOx/TiO2) anode coupled with a stainless steel cathode at applied anodic potentials (Ea) of either +2.2 V or +3.0 V versus the normal hydrogen electrode. In NaCl solution, the current efficiency of RCS generation was near 30% at both potentials. In divided cell experiments, the pseudo-first-order rate of total nitrogen decay was an order of magnitude higher at Ea of +3.0 V than at +2.2 V, presumably because dichlorine radical (Cl2(-)·) ions facilitate the urea transformation primary driven by free chlorine. Quadrupole mass spectrometer analysis of the reactor headspace revealed that N2 and CO2 are the primary gaseous products of the oxidation of urea, whose urea-N was completely transformed into N2 (91%) and NO3(-) (9%). The higher reaction selectivity with respect to N2 production can be ascribed to a low operational ratio of free available chlorine to N. The mass-balance analysis recovered urea-C as CO2 at 77%, while CO generation most likely accounts for the residual carbon. In light of these results, we propose a reaction mechanism involving chloramines and chloramides as reaction intermediates, where the initial chlorination is the rate-determining step in the overall sequence of reactions.

  9. State-to-state mode selectivity in the HD + OH reaction: Perspectives from two product channels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2016-06-01

    The state-to-state quantum dynamics (Jtot = 0) of the HD + OH(υ2 = 0, 1) reaction is studied using a reactant coordinate based method, which allows the analysis of both the H + DOH and D + HOH channels with a single propagation. The stretching vibration of the newly formed bond, namely, the OD bond in DOH and one OH bond in HOH, is excited, thanks to its strong coupling with the reaction coordinate at the transition state. On the other hand, the vibrational energy deposited into the OH reactant (υ2 = 1) is sequestered during the reaction in the spectator OH mode. The combined effect leads to the excitation of both the OD and OH stretching modes in the DOH product, and the dominance of the (002) normal-mode state population in the HOH product, which in the local-mode picture corresponds to the excitation of both OH bonds with one quantum each. The energy flow in this prototypical tetratomic reaction can be understood in terms of the sudden vector projection model.

  10. State-to-state mode selectivity in the HD + OH reaction: Perspectives from two product channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2016-06-01

    The state-to-state quantum dynamics (Jtot = 0) of the HD + OH(υ2 = 0, 1) reaction is studied using a reactant coordinate based method, which allows the analysis of both the H + DOH and D + HOH channels with a single propagation. The stretching vibration of the newly formed bond, namely, the OD bond in DOH and one OH bond in HOH, is excited, thanks to its strong coupling with the reaction coordinate at the transition state. On the other hand, the vibrational energy deposited into the OH reactant (υ2 = 1) is sequestered during the reaction in the spectator OH mode. The combined effect leads to the excitation of both the OD and OH stretching modes in the DOH product, and the dominance of the (002) normal-mode state population in the HOH product, which in the local-mode picture corresponds to the excitation of both OH bonds with one quantum each. The energy flow in this prototypical tetratomic reaction can be understood in terms of the sudden vector projection model.

  11. Isomeric product detection in the heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals with aerosol composed of branched and linear unsaturated organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Nah, Theodora; Zhang, Haofei; Worton, David R; Ruehl, Christopher R; Kirk, Benjamin B; Goldstein, Allen H; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2014-12-11

    The influence of molecular structure (branched vs linear) on product formation in the heterogeneous oxidation of unsaturated organic aerosol is investigated. Particle phase product isomers formed from the reaction of squalene (C30H50, a branched alkene with six C═C double bonds) and linolenic acid (C18H30O2, a linear carboxylic acid with three C═C double bonds) with OH radicals are identified and quantified using two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The reactions are measured at low and high [O2] (∼1% vs 10% [O2]) to understand the roles of hydroxyalkyl and hydroxyperoxy radical intermediates in product formation. A key reaction step is OH addition to a C═C double bond to form a hydroxyalkyl radical. In addition, allylic alkyl radicals, formed from H atom abstraction reactions by hydroxyalkyl or OH radicals play important roles in the chemistry of product formation. Functionalization products dominate the squalene reaction at ∼1% [O2], with the total abundance of observed functionalization products being approximately equal to the fragmentation products at 10% [O2]. The large abundance of squalene fragmentation products at 10% [O2] is attributed to the formation and dissociation of tertiary hydroxyalkoxy radical intermediates. For linolenic acid aerosol, the formation of functionalization products dominates the reaction at both ∼1% and 10% [O2], suggesting that the formation and dissociation of secondary hydroxyalkoxy radicals are minor reaction channels for linear molecules. The distribution of linolenic acid functionalization products depends upon [O2], indicating that O2 controls the reaction pathways of the secondary hydroxyalkyl radical. For both reactions, alcohols are formed in favor of carbonyl functional groups, suggesting that there are some key differences between heterogeneous reactions involving allylic radical intermediates and those reactions of OH radicals with simple saturated hydrocarbons.

  12. Hydroxyl radical reactions with adenine: reactant complexes, transition states, and product complexes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qianyi; Gu, Jiande; Compaan, Katherine R; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-10-18

    In order to address problems such as aging, cell death, and cancer, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind reactions causing DNA damage. One specific reaction implicated in DNA oxidative damage is hydroxyl free-radical attack on adenine (A) and other nucleic acid bases. The adenine reaction has been studied experimentally, but there are few theoretical results. In the present study, adenine dehydrogenation at various sites, and the potential-energy surfaces for these reactions, are investigated theoretically. Four reactant complexes [A···OH]* have been found, with binding energies relative to A+OH* of 32.8, 11.4, 10.7, and 10.1 kcal mol(-1). These four reactant complexes lead to six transition states, which in turn lie +4.3, -5.4, (-3.7 and +0.8), and (-2.3 and +0.8) kcal mol(-1) below A+OH*, respectively. Thus the lowest lying [A···OH]* complex faces the highest local barrier to formation of the product (A-H)*+H(2)O. Between the transition states and the products lie six product complexes. Adopting the same order as the reactant complexes, the product complexes [(A-H)···H(2)O]* lie at -10.9, -22.4, (-24.2 and -18.7), and (-20.5 and -17.5) kcal mol(-1), respectively, again relative to separated A+OH*. All six A+OH* → (A-H)*+H(2)O pathways are exothermic, by -0.3, -14.7, (-17.4 and -7.8), and (-13.7 and -7.8) kcal mol(-1), respectively. The transition state for dehydrogenation at N(6) lies at the lowest energy (-5.4 kcal mol(-1) relative to A+OH*), and thus reaction is likely to occur at this site. This theoretical prediction dovetails with the observed high reactivity of OH radicals with the NH(2) group of aromatic amines. However, the high barrier (37.1 kcal mol(-1)) for reaction at the C(8) site makes C(8) dehydrogenation unlikely. This last result is consistent with experimental observation of the imidazole ring opening upon OH radical addition to C(8). In addition, TD-DFT computed electronic transitions of the N(6) product around 420 nm

  13. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry Y.S.

    2013-01-29

    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500°C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  14. A Further Study of the Products of Sc and Dioxygen Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Zhou, Mingfei; Andrews, Lester; Johnson, J. R. Tobias; Panas, Itai; Snis, Anders; Roos, Bjoern O.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The products of the reaction of Sc and dioxygen have been reinvestigated. By adding the electron-trapping molecule CC14, additional information about the IR spectra has been obtained, as well as the observation of new bands. New ab initio calculations are also performed on possible products of the Sc plus O2 reaction. The previously observed band at 722.5 per cm is assigned as the b2 mode of ScO2(-). Bands arising from ScO(+), Sc(O2)(+), and(O2)ScO are also assigned. We are still unable to assign any bands to OScO. The problems associated with the computational study of ScO2 are discussed.

  15. Abrasion-ablation model for neutron production in heavy ion reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1995-01-01

    In heavy ion reactions, neutron production at forward angles is observed to occur with a Gaussian shape that is centered near the beam energy and extends to energies well above that of the beam. This paper presents an abrasion-ablation model for making quantitative predictions of the neutron spectrum. To describe neutrons produced from the abrasion step of the reaction where the projectile and target overlap, the authors use the Glauber model and include effects of final-state interactions. They then use the prefragment mass distribution from abrasion with a statistical evaporation model to estimate the neutron spectrum resulting from ablation. Measurements of neutron production from Ne and Nb beams are compared with calculations, and good agreement is found.

  16. Entropy production of a steady-growth cell with catalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himeoka, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2014-10-01

    Cells generally convert external nutrient resources to support metabolism and growth. Understanding the thermodynamic efficiency of this conversion is essential to determine the general characteristics of cellular growth. Using a simple protocell model with catalytic reaction dynamics to synthesize the necessary enzyme and membrane components from nutrients, the entropy production per unit-cell-volume growth is calculated analytically and numerically based on the rate equation for chemical kinetics and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The minimal entropy production per unit-cell growth is found to be achieved at a nonzero nutrient uptake rate rather than at a quasistatic limit as in the standard Carnot engine. This difference appears because the equilibration mediated by the enzyme exists only within cells that grow through enzyme and membrane synthesis. Optimal nutrient uptake is also confirmed by protocell models with many chemical components synthesized through a catalytic reaction network. The possible relevance of the identified optimal uptake to optimal yield for cellular growth is also discussed.

  17. Amplification of Pressure Waves during Vibrational Equilibration of Excited Chemical Reaction Products

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M

    2004-05-11

    The Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich - von Neumann - Doring (NEZND) theory of self-sustaining detonation identified amplification of pressure wavelets during equilibration of vibrationally excited reaction products in the reaction zone as the physical mechanism by which exothermic chemical energy release sustains detonation waves. This mechanism leads to the formation of the well-known, complex three-dimensional structure of a self-sustaining detonation wave. This amplification mechanism is postulated to be a general property of subsonic and supersonic reactive flows occurring during: shock to detonation transition (SDT); hot spot ignition and growth; deflagration to detonation transition (DDT); flame acceleration by shock or compression waves; and acoustic (sound) wave amplification. The existing experimental and theoretical evidence for pressure wave amplification by chemical energy release into highly vibrationally excited product molecules under these reactive flow conditions is reviewed in this paper.

  18. Holliday intermediates and reaction by-products in FLP protein-promoted site-specific recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Leon, L; Huang, L C; Umlauf, S W; Cox, M M; Inman, R B

    1988-01-01

    Holliday structures are formed and resolved by FLP protein during site-specific recombination. These structures have been isolated and are visualized in both native and partially denatured states by electron microscopy. No single-strand breaks are found within the junction, indicating that the structure results from a reciprocal exchange of strands. These structures have properties consistent with being reaction intermediates. Double-strand cleavage products and "Y structures" are also detected and appear to be by-products of the reaction. The Y structures are three-armed branched molecules with a covalently closed junction located at the FLP recombination target site. Models are discussed, suggesting that both of these novel structures are made by aberrant cleavages during formation and resolution of the Holliday intermediate. Images PMID:3065624

  19. 40 CFR 721.10485 - Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10485 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10485 - Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10485 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  1. Possibility of production of neutron-rich Zn and Ge isotopes in multinucleon transfer reactions at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Sargsyan, V. V.; Scheid, W.

    2010-02-01

    The production cross sections of new neutron-rich Zn84,86 and Ge90,92 isotopes beyond N=50 are estimated for the first time in the multinucleon transfer reactions Ca48 + U238 and Ca48 + Pu244. The production of new isotopes in reactions with a Ca48 beam is discussed for future experiments.

  2. Jet production and high p/sub T/ phenomena in photon-photon reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wermes, N.

    1983-05-01

    The status of experimental investigations of high p/sub T/ phenomena and jet production in photon-photon collisions is reviewed. Taking the challenging questions on hard scattering processes in ..gamma gamma.. reactions as a guide, the experimental approach to these questions is summarized. Results from the PETRA experiments CELLO, JADE, PLUTO, and TASSO are presented including preliminary results on the Q/sup 2/-dependence of jet cross sections. Experimental limitations and background problems are discussed. 36 references.

  3. Identification of hydroxycinnamic acid-maillard reaction products in low-moisture baking model systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Deshou; Chiaro, Christopher; Maddali, Pranav; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Peterson, Devin G

    2009-11-11

    The chemistry and fate of hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, p-coumeric, caffeic, sinapic, and cinnamic acid) in a glucose/glycine simulated baking model (10% moisture at 200 degrees C for 15 min) were investigated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of glucose/glycine and glucose/glycine/hydroxycinnamic acid model systems confirmed the phenolics reacted with Maillard intermediates; two main reaction product adducts were reported. On the basis of isotopomeric analysis, LC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy, structures of two ferulic acid-Maillard reaction products were identified as 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-one (adduct I) and 2-(6-(furan-2-yl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-3-oxo-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)acetic acid (adduct II). In addition, a pyrazinone-type Maillard product, 2-(5-(furan-2-yl)-6-methyl-2-oxopyrazin-1(2H)-yl) acetic acid (IIa), was identified as an intermediate for reaction product adduct II, whereas 3-deoxy-2-hexosulose was identified as an intermediate of adduct I. Both adducts I and II were suggested to be generated by pericyclic reaction mechanisms. Quantitative gas chromatography (GC) analysis and liquid chromatography (LC) also indicated that the addition of ferulic acid to a glucose/glycine model significantly reduced the generation of select Maillard-type aroma compounds, such as furfurals, methylpyrazines, 2-acetylfuran, 2-acetylpyridine, 2-acetylpyrrole, and cyclotene as well as inhibited color development in these Maillard models. In addition, adducts I and II suppressed the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated expression of two prototypical pro-inflammatory genes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in an in vitro murine macrophage model; ferulic acid reported negligible activity.

  4. An Ionic Liquid Reaction and Separation Process for Production of Hydroxymethylfurfural from Sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Feng; Li, Joanne; Cooper, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been world-wide interest to making plastics out of renewable biomass feedstock for recent years. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is viewed as an attractive alternate to terephthalic acid (TPA) for production of polyesters (PET) and polyamides. Conversion of sugars into HMF has been studied in numerous publications. In this work, a complete ionic liquid reaction and separation process is presented for nearly stoichiometric conversion of fructose into HMF. Different adsorbent materials are evaluated and silicalite material is demonstrated effective for isolation of 99% pure HMF from actual ionic liquid reaction mixtures and for recovery of the un-converted sugars and reaction intermediate along with the ionic liquid. Membrane-coated silicalite particles are prepared and studied for a practical adsorption process operated at low pressure drops but with separation performances comparable or better than the powder material. Complete conversion of fresh fructose feed into HMF in the recycled ionic liquid is shown under suitable reaction conditions. Stability of HMF product is characterized. A simplified process flow diagram is proposed based on these research results, and the key equipment such as reactor and adsorbent bed is sized for a plant of 200,000 ton/year of fructose processing capacity. The proposed HMF production process is much simpler than the current paraxylene (PX) manufacturing process from petroleum oil, which suggests substantial reduction to the capital cost and energy consumption be possible. At the equivalent value to PX on the molar basis, there can be a large gross margin for HMF production from fructose and/or sugars.

  5. Reaction by-products from high energy electron irradiation of aqueous solutions of trihalomethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Cadavid, E.M.; Cooper, W.J.; Nickelsen, M.G. ); Kurucz, C.N.; Waite, T.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are formed in water when chlorine is used for disinfection. The THMs of interest are chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. This study was undertaken to study the removal of the trihalomethanes using an innovative treatment technique, high energy electrons, for drinking water treatment. In addition to removal studies experiments were undertaken at low radiation doses to determine whether other chlorinated compounds are formed as reaction by-products.

  6. Kinetics and products of the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with selected volatile organic compounds, including oxygenated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethel, Heidi Lynn

    Kinetics, products and reaction mechanisms of the OH radical-initiated reactions of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated compounds were examined. These compounds are important smog forming chemicals that are found in gasoline and many consumer products. Smog is created by the interaction of these VOCs with oxides of nitrogen in the presence of sunlight. The hydroxyl (OH) radical is a daytime species and a key initiator of the VOC reactions which lead to photochemical smog formation. Chapter II investigates the OH radical-initiated reactions of p-xylene, 1,2,3-, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene which are components of gasoline fuels, vehicle exhaust and ambient air in urban areas. Experiments were conducted at varying NO2 concentrations in indoor environmental chambers in order to determine the dependence of the product yields as a function of NO2 concentrations. From these experiments and previous literature yields, a majority of the products from these reactions under atmospheric conditions have now been elucidated. Chapter III examines the OH radical-initiated reaction of 3-hexene-2,5-dione which is formed from the reactions of p-xylene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (Chapter II). Due to its polar nature, 3-hexene-2,5-dione and its reaction products are difficult to handle experimentally. Products identified from this reaction through the use of in situ atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry were CH3C(O)CH(OH)CHO and CH 3C(O)CH(OH)CH(ONO2)C(O)CH3. Chapters IV, V, and VI examine the OH radical-initiated reactions of 6 different alcohols, including diols. The products examined in Chapters IV and V are those from 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol and 1,2-, 1,3-, and 2,3-butanediol, which are found in various solvents. Reaction rates were determined using a relative rate method. Hydroxyaldehyde and hydroxyketone products from these reactions were also quantified. Chapter VI examined the reaction rates and products formed from the OH radical

  7. Gas-phase reaction of ( E)-β-farnesene with ozone: Rate coefficient and carbonyl products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Bejan, Iustinian; Sodeau, John R.; Wenger, John C.

    The gas-phase ozonolysis of ( E)-β-farnesene was investigated in a 3.91 m 3 atmospheric simulation chamber at 296 ± 2 K and relative humidity of around 0.1%. The relative rate method was used to determine the reaction rate coefficient of (4.01 ± 0.17) × 10 -16 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, where the indicated errors are two least-squares standard deviations and do not include uncertainties in the rate coefficients for the reference compounds (γ-terpinene, cis-cyclooctene and 1,5-cyclooctadiene). Gas phase carbonyl products were collected using a denuder sampling technique and analyzed with GC/MS following derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA). The reaction products detected were acetone, 4-oxopentanal, methylglyoxal, 4-methylenehex-5-enal, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one, and ( E)-4-methyl-8-methylenedeca-4,9-dienal. A detailed mechanism for the gas-phase ozonolysis of ( E)-β-farnesene is proposed, which accounts for all of the products observed in this study. The results of this work indicate that the atmospheric reaction of ( E)-β-farnesene with ozone has a lifetime of around 1 h and is another possible source of the ubiquitous carbonyls, acetone, 4-oxopentanal and 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one in the atmosphere.

  8. Antioxidant activity of Maillard type reaction products between phosphatidylethanolamine and glucose.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2014-10-15

    Phosphatidylethanolamine and glucose were added to the degummed mustard seed oil (20.16μmol/g oil) to prepare blank oil (O), glucose added oil (OG), phosphatidylethanolamine added oil (OP), and both phosphatidylethanolamine and glucose added oil (OPG). These oils were heated at 160°C for 10min. Absorbance and fluorescence measurement confirmed the occurrence of Maillard type reactions. During oil incubation (both at 40 and 104°C), the heated OP and OPG oils showed the highest oxidative stability. Moreover, the degradations of tocols in these oils were 16-17% (72h at 104°C) and 7-20% (53days at 40°C), while that in other oils (O and OG) were 56-65% (24h at 104°C) and 20-57% (19days at 40°C), respectively. Maillard type reaction products of phosphatidylethanolamine showed potent antioxidant activity. Some of the reaction products such as Amadori product, phosphatidylethanolamine-linked pyrrolecarbaldehyde and 2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[1,2-α]pyridine-4-ylium derivatives were identified using LC-TOF MS analysis. PMID:24837915

  9. Products of the OH radical-initiated reactions of 2- and 3-hexyl nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschmann, Sara M.; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Products of the gas-phase reaction of OH radicals with 2-hexyl nitrate (containing 13% 3-hexyl nitrate) have been investigated by gas chromatography with mass spectral and flame ionization detection, and by direct air sampling atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The products identified and quantified from 2-hexyl nitrate were: 2-hexanone (8.6 ± 1.3%), propanal (3.4 ± 0.8%), butanal (2.3 ± 0.6%) and 5-hydroxy-2-hexanone (25%), where the molar yields are given in parentheses. 3-Hexanone was observed from the 3-hexyl nitrate reaction, with a molar formation yield of 9.5 ± 2.1%. Organic nitrates of molecular weight 133, 161, 177 and 208 were also observed, and these are attributed to C 4-carbonyl nitrate(s), C 6-carbonyl-nitrates, C 6-hydroxycarbonyl-nitrates and C 6-dinitrates, respectively, and are expected to account for all or most of the non-quantified reaction products from OH + 2- and 3-hexyl nitrate. 5-Hydroxy-2-hexanone formation indicates that the CH 3CH(ONO 2)CH 2CH 2CH(O rad )CH 3 alkoxy radical dominantly reacts by isomerization.

  10. Reaction products of amido-amine and epoxide useful as fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H.F.

    1988-04-12

    A method for reducing engine deposits in an internal combustion engine is described comprising the addition of a detergent fuel additive package to a hydrocarbon fuel for the engine. The fuel detergent is added in an amount effective to reduce deposits and the hydrocarbon fuel is used with detergent additive as fuel in an internal combustion engine. The detergent fuel additive package comprises: (1) a fuel detergent additive that is the reaction product prepared by reacting (a) vegetable oil or (b) higher carboxylic acid chosen from (i) aliphatic fatty acids having 10-25 carbon atoms and (ii) aralkyl acids having 12-42 carbon atoms with (c) multiamine to obtain a fist product mixture with the first product mixture reacted with alklylene oxide to produce a second product mixture and (2) a fuel detergent additive solvent compatible with the fuels.

  11. Methylidyne radical reactions with hydrocarbons: kinetics at low temperature and product branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeat, Astrid; Caubert, Philippe; Costes, Michel; Daugey, Nicolas; Loison, Jean-Christophe

    CH radical reactions with hydrocarbons could play a role in the atmospheres of Titan, Pluto or Triton as well as in interstellar clouds (ISCs), where the hydrocarbon compounds were detected and the temperatures are very low, i.e. ~ 95 K down to ~ 38 K at the surface of these satellites and planet and from 50 K down to 10 K in ISCs. In fact, in modelling the processes occurring in these low-temperature environments, researchers generally still have to extrapolate the high-temperature kinetic data mainly obtained in the temperature range above 300 K. However, for many neutral-neutral reactions studied, the rate constants exhibit essentially non-Arrhenius behaviour at low temperatures. The temperature dependences of the methylidyne radical reactions with methane, allene, methylacetylene and propene were studied in our new supersonic flow reactor coupled with pulsed laser photolysis (PLP) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques. Three Laval nozzles were designed to provide uniform supersonic expansions down to 77 K. The rate constants for the CH + CH4 reaction are in good agreement with the temperature dependence proposed by A. Canosa et al., i.e. 3.96 × 10-8 ×(T/K)-1.04 exp(-36.1K/T) in the range 23-298 K. The rate constants of the CH + C3H4 (allene), CH + C3H4 (methylacetylene) and CH + C3H6 (propene) reactions exhibit a small temperature dependence between 77 and 170 K, are close to the gas kinetic limit and could thus contribute to the chemistry in the dense molecular clouds or outer planets atmospheres (Titan, Pluto and Triton for example) rich in hydrocarbons. The reactions of CH radical with several saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons were studied, at room temperature, in a low-pressure fast-flow reactor. The absolute atomic hydrogen productions were determined at 300 K by V.U.V. resonance fluorescence, the reference used being the H production from the CH + CH4 and H2S reactions. Ab initio studies of the different stationary points relevant to some

  12. Large-Scale Refolding and Enzyme Reaction of Human Preproinsulin for Production of Human Insulin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Bae; Son, Young-Jin

    2015-10-01

    Human insulin is composed of 21 amino acids of an A-chain and 30 amino acids of a B-chain. This is the protein hormone that has the role of blood sugar control. When the recombinant human proinsulin is expressed in Escherichia coli, a serious problem is the formation of an inclusion body. Therefore, the inclusion body must be denatured and refolded under chaotropic agents and suitable reductants. In this study, H27R-proinsulin was refolded from the denatured form with β-mercaptoethanol and urea. The refolding reaction was completed after 15 h at 15°C, whereas the reaction at 25°C was faster than that at 15°C. The refolding yield at 15°C was 17% higher than that at 25°C. The refolding reaction could be carried out at a high protein concentration (2 g/l) using direct refolding without sulfonation. The most economical and optimal refolding condition for human preproinsulin was 1.5 g/l protein, 10 mM glycine buffer containing 0.6 M urea, pH 10.6, and 0.3 mM β-mercaptoethanol at 15°C for 16 h. The maximum refolding yield was 74.8% at 15°C with 1.5 g/l protein. Moreover, the refolded preproinsulin could be converted into normal mature insulin with two enzymes. The average amount of human insulin was 138.2 g from 200 L of fermentation broth after enzyme reaction with H27R-proinsulin. The direct refolding process for H27R-proinsulin was successfully set up without sulfonation. The step yields for refolding and enzyme reaction were comparatively high. Therefore, our refolding process for production of recombinant insulin may be beneficial to the large-scale production of other biologically active proteins.

  13. Microbial production of metabolites and associated enzymatic reactions under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongsheng; Jiang, Hua

    2016-11-01

    High environmental pressure exerts an external stress on the survival of microorganisms that are commonly found under normal pressure. In response, many growth traits alter, including cell morphology and physiology, cellular structure, metabolism, physical and chemical properties, the reproductive process, and defense mechanisms. The high-pressure technology (HP) has been industrially utilized in pressurized sterilization, synthesis of stress-induced products, and microbial/enzymatic transformation of chemicals. This article reviews current research on pressure-induced production of metabolites in normal-pressure microbes and their enzymatic reactions. Factors that affect the production of such metabolites are summarized, as well as the effect of pressure on the performance of microbial fermentation and the yield of flavoring compounds, different categories of induced enzymatic reactions and their characteristics in the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid, effects on enzyme activity, and the selection of desirable bacterial strains. Technological challenges are discussed, and future research directions are proposed. Information presented here will benefit the research, development, and application of the HP technology to improve microbial fermentation and enzymatic production of biologically active substances, thereby help to meet their increasing demand from the ever-expanding market.

  14. ASR prevention — Effect of aluminum and lithium ions on the reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, Andreas; Alahrache, Salaheddine; Winnefeld, Frank

    2015-10-15

    In spite of the recent progress in the understanding of the mechanisms enabling aluminum-containing SCM like metakaolin and added LiNO{sub 3} to limit the extent of ASR in mortar and concrete, some gaps still remain. They concern mainly the effect of aluminum-containing SCM on the formed ASR products and the influence of aggregate characteristics on the effectiveness of LiNO{sub 3}. In this study, a model system, concrete and mortar were investigated by pore solution analysis, TGA, XRD, NMR, SEM combined with EDX and ToF-SIMS to address these questions. The amount of aluminum present in the pore solution of concrete and mortar is only able to slow down SiO{sub 2} dissolution but not to alter morphology, structure and composition of the reaction products. LiNO{sub 3} can suppress ASR by forming dense products protecting reactive minerals from further reaction. But its effectiveness is decreasing with increasing specific surface area of the reactive minerals in aggregates. - Highlights: • Aluminum of SCM slows down SiO{sub 2} dissolution. • Aluminum of SCM does not alter morphology and structure of ASR product. • ASR suppressing effect of LiNO{sub 3} depends on specific surface area of the aggregates.

  15. Transformation products and reaction kinetics of fragrances in advanced wastewater treatment with ozone.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Niklas; Dopp, Elke; Hesse, Julia; Richards, Jessica; Türk, Jochen; Bester, Kai

    2011-11-01

    The reaction of the fragrance compounds 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta[g]isochromene (HHCB), 1-(3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-6,7-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (AHTN), 1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (musk xylene/MX), 1-(4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitrophenyl)ethanone (musk ketone/MK), and 1-(2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (OTNE) with ozone in tap water as well as waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents is described. Several transformation products are characterized by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. One transformation product (HHCB-Lactone) was confirmed by means of a true standard. Musk xylene and musk ketone do not react with ozone under the conditions used in this study. AHTN and HHCB reacted slowly to a multitude of transformation products, while OTNE reacted quickly to several stable transformation products. The reaction constants and half lives are used to predict removal efficiencies for full scale reactors.

  16. Study on Reaction Products in Plasma-Assisted Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Hayato; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tsuneo

    Since the gas discharge plasma easily converts NO to NO2, which can be reduced more actively in selective catalytic reduction with hydrocarbons (HC-SCR), the plasma-assisted HC-SCR is an effective method for NOx reduction from diesel engine exhaust gases. In this work, the relation between NOx removal and reaction products is investigated in plasma-assisted HC-SCR in simulated flue gas as parameters of gas composition, plasma specific energy and catalyst temperature. C2H4 is used as a hydrocarbon and commercially available Al2O3 is used as a catalyst. After the plasma treatment of simulated flue gas, HCHO and HCOOH were generated as by-products, while NO was effectively converted to NO2. These by-products were confirmed to be reactive at lower catalyst temperature than C2H4 in HC-SCR. The relation between NOx removal and reaction products suggests that HCHO and HCOOH contribute the effective NOx reduction at low catalyst temperature in plasma-assisted HC-SCR.

  17. A Maillard reaction product enhances eNOS activity in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christoph A; Heiss, Elke H; Schachner, Daniel; Aristei, Yasmin; Severin, Theodor; Dirsch, Verena M

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. Although dietary factors can modulate eNOS activity, putative effects of processed food are barely investigated. We aimed to examine whether the model Maillard reaction product 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propyl-4(1H)-pyridone (HMPP), formed from maltol or starch and propylamine, affects the eNOS system. Incubation of EA.hy926 endothelial cells with 30-300 microM HMPP for 18 h enhanced endothelial NO release measured with the fluorescent probe diaminofluorescein-2 and eNOS activity determined by the [14C]L-arginine-[14C]L-citrulline conversion assay. HMPP increased NO production also in two different types of primary human endothelial cells. Protein levels of eNOS and inducible NO synthase remained unaltered by HMPP. HMPP inhibited eNOS activity within the first 2-4 h, whereas it potently increased eNOS activity after 12-24 h. Levels of eNOS phosphorylation, expression of heat-shock protein 90, caveolin-1 and various antioxidant enzymes were not affected. Intracellular reactive oxygen species remained unchanged by HMPP. This is the first study to demonstrate positive effects of a Maillard reaction product on eNOS activity and endothelial NO production, which is considered favourable for cardiovascular protection. PMID:20112298

  18. Microbial production of metabolites and associated enzymatic reactions under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongsheng; Jiang, Hua

    2016-11-01

    High environmental pressure exerts an external stress on the survival of microorganisms that are commonly found under normal pressure. In response, many growth traits alter, including cell morphology and physiology, cellular structure, metabolism, physical and chemical properties, the reproductive process, and defense mechanisms. The high-pressure technology (HP) has been industrially utilized in pressurized sterilization, synthesis of stress-induced products, and microbial/enzymatic transformation of chemicals. This article reviews current research on pressure-induced production of metabolites in normal-pressure microbes and their enzymatic reactions. Factors that affect the production of such metabolites are summarized, as well as the effect of pressure on the performance of microbial fermentation and the yield of flavoring compounds, different categories of induced enzymatic reactions and their characteristics in the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid, effects on enzyme activity, and the selection of desirable bacterial strains. Technological challenges are discussed, and future research directions are proposed. Information presented here will benefit the research, development, and application of the HP technology to improve microbial fermentation and enzymatic production of biologically active substances, thereby help to meet their increasing demand from the ever-expanding market. PMID:27628338

  19. Comparison of complementary reactions for the production of {sup 261,262}Bh

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Folden III, C. M.; Dragojevic, I.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Sudowe, R.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Eichler, R.

    2008-08-15

    Two heavy-ion induced fusion reactions producing {sup 261,262}Bh were studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. An excitation function for the production of {sup 262}Bh via the reaction {sup 209}Bi({sup 54}Cr,n){sup 262}Bh was measured with a maximum cross section from a fit to the data of 430 {+-} 110 pb observed at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 15.7 MeV. New data have been measured for the 1n exit channel of the {sup 208}Pb({sup 55}Mn, n){sup 262}Bh reaction. We present an updated excitation function with an observed maximum cross section of 530{+-}100 pb at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.1 MeV. Events corresponding to the 2n exit channel for the {sup 209}Bi({sup 54}Cr,2n){sup 261}Bh and {sup 208}Pb({sup 55}Mn,2n){sup 261}Bh reactions were also observed and are presented as partial excitation functions. The measured decay properties correspond well with existing experimental data. We compare these experimental results to cross section predictions from a model by Swiatecki et al. and discuss entrance channel effects on the magnitude of 1n cross sections.

  20. Structural Analysis of Substrate, Reaction Intermediate, and Product Binding in Haemophilus influenzae Biotin Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Neau, David B.; Bonnot, Ross; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three proteins: biotin carboxylase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. The reaction mechanism involves two half-reactions with biotin carboxylase catalyzing the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin-BCCP in the first reaction. In the second reaction, carboxyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin-BCCP to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. In this report, high-resolution crystal structures of biotin carboxylase from Haemophilus influenzae were determined with bicarbonate, the ATP analogue AMPPCP; the carboxyphosphate intermediate analogues, phosphonoacetamide and phosphonoformate; the products ADP and phosphate; and the carboxybiotin analogue N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester. The structures have a common theme in that bicarbonate, phosphate, and the methyl ester of the carboxyl group of N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester all bound in the same pocket in the active site of biotin carboxylase and as such utilize the same set of amino acids for binding. This finding suggests a catalytic mechanism for biotin carboxylase in which the binding pocket that binds tetrahedral phosphate also accommodates and stabilizes a tetrahedral dianionic transition state resulting from direct transfer of CO2 from the carboxyphosphate intermediate to biotin. PMID:26020841

  1. Cross sections for the ^98Mo(d,p) reaction for ^99Tc^m production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodash, P.; Angell, C. T.; Benitez, J.; Czesumska, A.; Norman, E. B.; Shugart, H.; Swanberg, E.; Yang, H.; Pedretti, M.

    2010-11-01

    There is currently a global shortage of ^99Tc^m, one of the most widely used medical isotopes. To alleviate this shortage, alternative methods for producing ^99Mo, the parent isotope, are being evaluated. One possible technique is the use of a cyclotron to produce ^99Mo via the ^98Mo(d,p) reaction. Existing data for this reaction only covers the energy range from 0.8 to 13 MeV.ootnotetextZ. Randa and K. Svoboda, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 39 (1977) 2121 This work extends cross section data up to 65 MeV in order to better evaluate cyclotron production of ^99Mo. The stacked foil activation technique was used to measure the cross sections. Targets consisted of alternate layers of natural molybdenum and aluminum metal foils. The aluminum was used as an energy degrader, recoil catcher, and for the determination of the beam current. Cross sections for the ^98Mo(d,p) reaction were determined from 10 MeV to 65 MeV using LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron. ^99Mo production was determined by observing the 739.5 keV gamma ray using a high purity germanium detector. Results of the experiment will be presented.

  2. Biorefining: heterogeneously catalyzed reactions of carbohydrates for the production of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Reetta; Vilonen, Kati; Niemelä, Marita

    2011-08-22

    Furfurals are important intermediates in the chemical industry. They are typically produced by homogeneous catalysis in aqueous solutions. However, heterogeneously catalyzed processes would be beneficial in view of the principles of green chemistry: the elimination of homogeneous mineral acids makes the reaction mixtures less corrosive, produces less waste, and facilitates easy separation and recovery of the catalyst. Finding an active and stable water-tolerant solid acid catalyst still poses a challenge for the production of furfural (furan-2-carbaldehyde) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF). Furfural is produced in the dehydration of xylose, and HMF is formed from glucose and fructose in the presence of an acidic catalyst. Bases are not active in dehydration reaction but do catalyze the isomerization of monosaccharides, which is favorable when using glucose as a raw material. In addition to the desired dehydration of monosaccharides, many undesired side reactions take place, reducing the selectivity and deactivating the catalyst. In addition, the catalyst properties play an important role in the selectivity. In this Review, catalytic conversion approaches are summarized, focusing on the heterogeneously catalyzed formation of furfural. The attractiveness of catalytic concepts is evaluated, keeping in mind productivity, sustainability, and environmental footprint. PMID:21728248

  3. Kinetic and Product Yields of the Gas-Phase Reactions of Isoprene Hydroperoxides with Atmospheric Oxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Lozano, E. I.; Maitra, S.; Manning, D. M.; Cervantes, R.; Hasson, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Isoprene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is emitted into the atmosphere by plants and trees. It has the largest emission rate of any non-methane VOC and is very reactive, and therefore has a major impact on the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Isoprene Hydroperoxides (IHP) are formed in the atmosphere from the chemical degradation of isoprene. These compounds can then potentially react in the atmosphere with atmospheric oxidants (ozone, OH, NO3) to produce secondary products. This chemistry is potentially important as it may contribute to particle growth and to mediation of ozone concentrations. In this work, the kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of two IHPs with ozone were investigated. IHPs were synthesized and purified, and were characterized by NMR and HPLC. The gas phase chemistry of these compounds was then studied in chamber experiments using PTRMS as the primary analytical tool. The rate coefficients for reaction with ozone were measured at room temperature and 1 atmosphere using the relative rate technique, and yields of major gas phase reaction products were measured. Implications of these results will be discussed.

  4. Assessing hydrodynamic effects on jarosite dissolution rates, reaction products, and preservation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Emily M.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Hausrath, Elisabeth M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2015-04-01

    Jarosite flow-through dissolution experiments were conducted in ultrapure water (UPW), pH 2 sulfuric acid, and saturated NaCl and CaCl2 brines at 295-298 K to investigate how hydrologic variables may affect jarosite preservation and reaction products on Mars. K+-based dissolution rates in flowing UPW did not vary significantly with flow rate, indicating that mineral surface reactions control dissolution rates over the range of flow rates investigated. In all of the solutions tested, hydrologic variables do not significantly affect extent of jarosite alteration; therefore, jarosite is equally likely to be preserved in flowing or stagnant waters on Mars. However, increasing flow rate did affect the mineralogy and accumulation of secondary reaction products. Iron release rates in dilute solutions increased as the flow rate increased, likely due to nanoscale iron (hydr)oxide transport in flowing water. Anhydrite formed in CaCl2 brine flow-through experiments despite low temperatures, while metastable gypsum and bassanite were observed in batch experiments. Therefore, observations of the hydration state of calcium sulfate minerals on Mars may provide clues to unravel past salinity and hydrologic conditions as well as temperatures and vapor pressures.

  5. Pyranone Natural Products as Inspirations for Catalytic Reaction Discovery and Development

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Benjamin R.; Scheidt, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Natural products continue to provide a wealth of opportunities in the areas of chemical and therapeutic development. These structures are effective measuring sticks for the current state of chemical synthesis as a field and constantly inspire new approaches and strategies. Tetrahydropryans and tetrahydropyran-4-ones are found in numerous bioactive marine natural products and medicinal compounds. Our interest in exploring the therapeutic potential of natural products containing these motifs provided the impetus to explore new methods to access highly functionalized, chiral pyran molecules in the most direct and rapid fashion possible. This goal led to exploration and development of a Lewis acid-mediated Prins reaction between a chiral β-hydroxy-dioxinone and aldehyde to produce a pyran–dioxinone fused product that can be processed in a single pot operation to the desired tetrahydropyran-4-ones in excellent yield and stereoselectivity. Although the Prins reaction is a commonly employed approach toward pyrans, this method uniquely provides a 3-carboxy-trisubstituted pyran and utilizes dioxinones in a manner that was underexplored at the time. The 3-carboxy substituent served as a key synthetic handhold when this method was applied to the synthesis of highly functionalized pyrans within the macrocyclic natural products neopeltolide, okilactiomycin, and exiguolide. When employed in challenging macrocyclizations, this tetrahydropyranone forming reaction proved highly stereoselective and robust. Another major thrust in our lab has been the synthesis of benzopyranone natural products, specifically flavonoids, because this broad and diverse family of compounds possesses an equally broad range of biological and medicinal applications. With the goal of developing a broad platform toward the synthesis of enantioenriched flavonoid analogs and natural products, a biomimetic, asymmetric catalytic approach toward the synthesis of 2-aryl benzopyranones was developed

  6. Ovalbumin Modified with Pyrraline, a Maillard Reaction Product, shows Enhanced T-cell Immunogenicity*

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Monika; Wellner, Anne; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Ilchmann, Anne; Briza, Peter; Krause, Maren; Nagai, Ryoji; Burgdorf, Sven; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan; Henle, Thomas; Toda, Masako

    2014-01-01

    The Maillard reaction (also referred to as “glycation”) takes place between reducing sugars and compounds with free amino groups during thermal processing of foods. In the final stage of the complex reaction cascade, the so-called advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed, including proteins with various glycation structures. It has been suggested that some AGEs could have immunostimulatory effects. Here, we aimed to identify specific glycation structure(s) that could influence the T-cell immunogenicity and potential allergenicity of food allergens, using ovalbumin (OVA, an egg white allergen) as a model allergen. OVA was specifically modified with representative glycation structures: Nϵ-carboxymethyl lysine (CM-OVA), Nϵ-carboxyethyl lysine (CE-OVA), pyrraline (Pyr-OVA), or methylglyoxal-derived arginine derivatives (MGO-OVA). As well as AGE-OVA, a crude glycation product in thermal incubation of OVA with glucose, only Pyr-OVA, and not other modified OVAs, was efficiently taken up by bone marrow-derived murine dendritic cells (BMDCs). The uptake of Pyr-OVA was reduced in scavenger receptor class A (SR-A)-deficient BMDCs, but not in cells treated with inhibitors of scavenger receptor class B, galectin-3, or blocking antibodies against CD36, suggesting that pyrraline binds to SR-A. Compared with other modified OVAs, Pyr-OVA induced higher activation of OVA-specific CD4+ T-cells in co-culture with BMDCs. Furthermore, compared with native OVA, AGE-OVA and Pyr-OVA induced higher IgE production in mice. Pyrraline could induce better allergen uptake by DCs via association with SR-A and subsequently enhance CD4+ T-cell activation and IgE production. Our findings help us to understand how Maillard reaction enhances the potential allergenicity of food allergens. PMID:24505139

  7. Characterization of solid reaction products from wet oxidation of pyrite in coal using alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, R.T.; Markuszewski, R.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Oxidation of pyrite alone and pyrite embedded in coal by leaching with hot solutions of sodium carbonate containing dissolved oxygen under pressure produces hematite, the major solid reaction product. The hematite is deposited as a concentric rim surrounding the core of unreacted pyrite. The thickness of the rim is greater for products obtained after longer leaching time or under conditions of higher oxygen partial pressure. The product is identified as hematite by X-ray diffraction analysis. Data from scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis show that under these conditions of desulfurization, phase transformations occur (from pyrite to hematite). In addition, great differences in porosity of the two zones (core and rim) are observed. The nature and extent of these transformations are discussed in terms of the desulfurization potential of pyrite in coal. (10 refs.)

  8. Oxidation of Annelated Diarylamines: Analysis of Reaction Pathways to Nitroxide Diradical and Spirocyclic Products

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Shiraishi, Kouichi; Boraty; #324; ski, Przemyslaw J.; Pink, Maren; Miyasaka, Makoto; Rajca, Suchada

    2012-02-06

    Oxidation of diaryldiamine 2, a tetrahydrodiazapentacene derivative, provides diarylnitroxide diradical 1 accompanied by an intermediate nitroxide monoradical and a multitude of isolable diamagnetic products. DFT-computed tensors for EPR spectra and paramagnetic {sup 1}H NMR isotropic shifts for nitroxide diradical 1 show good agreement with the experimental EPR spectra in rigid matrices and paramagnetic {sup 1}H NMR spectra in solution, respectively. Examination of the diamagnetic products elucidates their formation via distinct pathways involving C-O bond-forming reactions, including Baeyer-Villiger-type oxidations. An unusual diiminoketone structure and two spirocyclic structures of the predominant diamagnetic products are confirmed by either X-ray crystallography or correlations between DFT-computed and experimental spectroscopic data such as {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N NMR chemical shifts and electronic absorption spectra.

  9. Studies of reactions of importance in the stratosphere. III. Rate constant and products of the reaction between ClO and HO2 radicals at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, Thomas J.; Cook, Jac-E. L.; Birks, John W.

    1980-02-01

    The rate constant for the radical-radical reaction ClO+HO2→HOCl+O2 was measured at 298 K by the discharge flow technique using mass spectrometry for detection of the HOCl product at m/e=52. The ClO radical was generated by reacting ozone with chlorine atoms produced in a microwave discharge, and the concentration of ClO determined by measuring the decrease in ion current due to Cl2+ at m/e=70 upon activation of the discharge. This method was found to be in agreement with a nitric oxide titration of ClO and with the stochiometric conversion of ClO to NO2 by reaction with a large excess of NO followed by absolute calibration for NO2 at m/e=46. Two reactions were used to generate the hydroperoxyl radical: (1) H+O2+M→HO2+M, and (2) Cl+H2O2→HCl +HO2. The rate constant k1 was found to be independent of pressure over the range 2-6 Torr, the result being k1= (4.5±0.9) ×10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, where the error includes our estimate of the maximum possible systematic error. An upper limit of 2% for the branching ratio to the alternative products of this reaction, HCl+O3, was established by attempting to detect ozone as a reaction product. For these measurements the reactions Cl+ClOCl→Cl2+ClO and Cl+OClO →2ClO were used to generate the ClO radical in the absence of ozone. No other reaction products could be identified in the mass spectrum.

  10. Cyclotron production of I-123: An evaluation of the nuclear reactions which produce this isotope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodd, V. J.; Scholz, K. L.; Blue, J. W.; Wellamn, H. N.

    1970-01-01

    The reactions studied which produce I-123 directly were Sb-121(He-4,2n) I-123, Sb-121(He-3,n) I-123, Te-122(d,n) I-123, Te-122(He-4,p2n) I-123, Te-122(He-3,pn) I-123, and Te-123(He-3,p2n) I-123. Reactions which produce I-123 indirectly through the positron decay of 2.1-hour Xe-123 were Te-122(He-4,3n) Xe-123, Te-122(He-3,2n) Xe-123 and Te-123(He-3,3n) Xe-123. Use of the gas flow I-123 cyclotron target assembly is recommended for the production of I-123 with radiochemical purity greater than 99.995%.

  11. Role of angular momentum in the production of complex fragments in fusion and quasifission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2011-05-15

    The influence of angular momentum on the competition between complete fusion followed by the decay of compound nucleus and quasifission channels is treated within the dinuclear system model. The charge distributions of the products in the reactions {sup 28}Si+{sup 96}Zr, {sup 4}He+{sup 130}Te, and {sup 40}Ca+{sup 82}Kr are predicted at bombarding energies above the Coulomb barrier. The results of calculations for the reactions {sup 93}Nb+{sup 9}Be,{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; {sup 84}Kr+{sup 27}Al; {sup 86}Kr+{sup 63}Cu; {sup 139}La+{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; and {sup 45}Sc+{sup 65}Cu are compared with the available experimental data.

  12. Enzyme immunoassay by dynamic enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of the enzyme reaction product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haiying; Dou, Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a kind of application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to immunology. In the proposed system, antibody immobilized on a solid substrate reacts with antigen, which binds with another antibody labeled with peroxidase. If this immunocomplex is subjected to reaction with o-phenylenediamine and hydrogenperoxide at 37°C, azoaniline is generated. This azo compound is adsorbed on a silver colloid and only the azo compound gives a strong surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERRS) spectrum. A linear relationship was observed between the peak intensity of the N=N stretching band and the concentration of antigen, revealing that one can determine the concentration of antigen by the SERRS measurement of the reaction product.

  13. Role of pentaquark components in ϕ meson production proton-antiproton annihilation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srisuphaphon, S.; Kaewsnod, A.; Limphirat, A.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Yan, Y.

    2016-02-01

    The pentaquark component uuds s ¯ is included in the proton wave functions to study ϕ meson production proton-antiproton annihilation reactions. With all possible configurations of the uuds subsystem proposed for describing the strangeness spin and magnetic moment of the proton, we estimate the branching ratios of the annihilation reactions at rest p p ¯→ϕ X (X =π0,η ,ρ0,ω ) from atomic p p ¯ S - and P -wave states by using effective quark line diagrams incorporating the 3P0 model. The best agreement of theoretical prediction with the experimental data is found when the pentaquark configuration of the proton wave function takes the flavor-spin symmetry [4] FS[22] F[22] S .

  14. Rapid Removal of Tetrabromobisphenol A by Ozonation in Water: Oxidation Products, Reaction Pathways and Toxicity Assessment.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants and has attracted more and more attention. In this work, the parent TBBPA with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was completely removed after 6 min of ozonation at pH 8.0, and alkaline conditions favored a more rapid removal than acidic and neutral conditions. The presence of typical anions and humic acid did not significantly affect the degradation of TBBPA. The quenching test using isopropanol indicated that direct ozone oxidation played a dominant role during this process. Seventeen reaction intermediates and products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Notably, the generation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol was first observed in the degradation process of TBBPA. The evolution of reaction products showed that ozonation is an efficient treatment for removal of both TBBPA and intermediates. Sequential transformation of organic bromine to bromide and bromate was confirmed by ion chromatography analysis. Two primary reaction pathways that involve cleavage of central carbon atom and benzene ring cleavage concomitant with debromination were thus proposed and further justified by calculations of frontier electron densities. Furthermore, the total organic carbon data suggested a low mineralization rate, even after the complete removal of TBBPA. Meanwhile, the acute aqueous toxicity of reaction solutions to Photobacterium Phosphoreum and Daphnia magna was rapidly decreased during ozonation. In addition, no obvious difference in the attenuation of TBBPA was found by ozone oxidation using different water matrices, and the effectiveness in natural waters further demonstrates that ozonation can be adopted as a promising technique to treat TBBPA-contaminated waters. PMID:26430733

  15. Rapid Removal of Tetrabromobisphenol A by Ozonation in Water: Oxidation Products, Reaction Pathways and Toxicity Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinghao; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants and has attracted more and more attention. In this work, the parent TBBPA with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was completely removed after 6 min of ozonation at pH 8.0, and alkaline conditions favored a more rapid removal than acidic and neutral conditions. The presence of typical anions and humic acid did not significantly affect the degradation of TBBPA. The quenching test using isopropanol indicated that direct ozone oxidation played a dominant role during this process. Seventeen reaction intermediates and products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Notably, the generation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol was first observed in the degradation process of TBBPA. The evolution of reaction products showed that ozonation is an efficient treatment for removal of both TBBPA and intermediates. Sequential transformation of organic bromine to bromide and bromate was confirmed by ion chromatography analysis. Two primary reaction pathways that involve cleavage of central carbon atom and benzene ring cleavage concomitant with debromination were thus proposed and further justified by calculations of frontier electron densities. Furthermore, the total organic carbon data suggested a low mineralization rate, even after the complete removal of TBBPA. Meanwhile, the acute aqueous toxicity of reaction solutions to Photobacterium Phosphoreum and Daphnia magna was rapidly decreased during ozonation. In addition, no obvious difference in the attenuation of TBBPA was found by ozone oxidation using different water matrices, and the effectiveness in natural waters further demonstrates that ozonation can be adopted as a promising technique to treat TBBPA-contaminated waters. PMID:26430733

  16. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity Testing of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product (Test Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants, or fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), has been hypothesized as a contributory cause of an anomaly which occurred in the chamber pressure (PC) transducer tube on the Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) aft thruster 467 on flight STS-51. A small hole was found in the titanium-alloy PC tube at the first bend below the pressure transducer. It was surmised that the hole may have been caused by heat and pressure resulting from ignition of FORP. The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to define the chemical characteristics of FORP, characterize its reactivity, and simulate the events in a controlled environment which may have lead to the Pc-tube failure. Samples of FORP were obtained from the gas-phase reaction of MMH with NTO under laboratory conditions, the pulsed firings of RCS thrusters with modified PC tubes using varied oxidizer or fuel lead times, and the nominal RCS thruster firings at WSTF and Kaiser-Marquardt. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC), ion chromatography (IC), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to FTIR (TGA/FTIR), and mechanical impact testing were used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the chemical, thermal, and ignition properties of FORP. These studies showed that the composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depends on the fuel loxidizer ratio at the time of formation, composition of the post-formation atmosphere (reducing or oxidizing), and reaction or postreaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate (MMHN), ammonium nitrate (AN), methylammonium nitrate (MAN), and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. The thermal decomposition

  17. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks.

  18. Kinetics and products of reactions of MTBE with ozone and ozone/hydrogen peroxide in water.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Marie M; Keller, Arturo A; Bunton, Clifford A; Rinker, Robert G; Sandall, Orville C

    2002-01-28

    Methyl-t-butyl-ether (MTBE) has become a prevalent groundwater pollutant due to its high volume use as a nationwide gasoline additive. Given its physicochemical properties, it requires new treatment approaches. Both aqueous O(3) and a combination of O(3)/H(2)O(2), which gives *OH, can remove MTBE from water, making use of O(3) a viable technology for remediation of groundwater from fuel contaminated sites. Rate constants and temperature dependencies for reactions of MTBE with O(3) or with *OH at pH 7.2, in a range of 21-45 degrees C (294-318K) were measured. The second-order rate constant for reaction of MTBE with O(3) is 1.4 x 10(18)exp(-95.4/RT) (M(-1)s(-1)), and for reaction of MTBE with *OH produced by the combination of O(3)/H(2)O(2) is 8.0 x 10(9)exp(-4.6/RT) (M(-1)s(-1)), with the activation energy (kJ mol(-1)) in both cases. At 25 degrees C, this corresponds to a rate constant of 27 M(-1)s(-1) for ozone alone, and 1.2 x 10(9) M(-1)s(-1) for O(3)/H(2)O(2). The concentration of *OH was determined using benzene trapping. Products of reactions of O(3) and O(3)/H(2)O(2) with MTBE, including t-butyl-formate (TBF), t-butyl alcohol (TBA), methyl acetate, and acetone, were determined after oxidant depletion. A reaction pathway for mineralization of MTBE was also explored. Under continuously stirred flow reactor (CSTR) conditions, addition of H(2)O(2) markedly increases the rate and degree of degradation of MTBE by O(3).

  19. Quantifying VOC-Reaction Tracers, Ozone Production, and Continuing Aerosol Production Rates in Urban and Far-Downwind Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Ren, X.; Brune, W.; Fried, A.; Schwab, J.

    2008-01-01

    reaction products) and aerosol production, looking for VOC's that might be most implicated. All three variables j(sub rads), [HCHO], and [NO] are relatively easily measured in widespread air pollution monitoring networks, and all are deducible form space-borne observations, though estimation of [NO] from [NO2] (the species observable from space) may require care. We report also on airborne and surface observations of HCHO, suggesting that concentrated (urban) and more diffuse (forest) sources may be distinguishable from space. The use of the 3.58 micron microwindow for HCHO remote sensing should allow much sharper resolution of HCHO than the UV. UV sensing requires large and expensive instruments, but even these seem justified since formaldehyde is so informative.

  20. Citronellal reactions with ozone and OH radical: Rate constants and gas-phase products detected using PFBHA derivatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. C.; Ham, J. E.; Wells, J. R.

    The bimolecular rate constants, kOH+citronellal, (150±40)×10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and, k+citronellal, (3.5±1.2)×10 -16 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, were measured using the relative rate technique for the reactions of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (O 3) with 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-al ((R)-(+)-citronellal) at (297±3) K and 1 atm total pressure. To more clearly define part of citronellal's indoor environment degradation mechanism, the products of the citronellal+OH and citronellal+O 3 reactions were also investigated. The positively identified citronellal/OH and citronellal/O 3 reaction products were: 3-methylhexanedial HC( dbnd O)CH 2CH 2CH(CH 3)CH 2C( dbnd O)H and 2-oxopropanal (methylglyoxal, CH 3C( dbnd O)C( dbnd O)H). The use of derivatizing agent O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was used to propose 3-methylhexanedial as a major citronellal/OH and citronellal/O 3 reaction product. The elucidation of this reaction product was facilitated by mass spectrometry of the derivatized reaction products coupled with plausible citronellal/OH and citronellal/O 3 reaction mechanisms based on previously published volatile organic compound/OH and volatile organic compound/O 3 gas-phase reaction mechanisms.

  1. ESR evidence for radical production from the reaction of ozone with unsaturated lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Church, D.F.; McAdams, M.L..; Pryor, W.A. )

    1991-03-15

    The authors report electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping evidence for radical production by the reaction of ozone with unsaturated compounds. Soy and egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes, fatty acid emulsions, and homogeneous aqueous solutions of 3-hexenoic acid were treated with ozone in the presence of the spin trap {alpha}-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN). Under these conditions, they observe spin adducts resulting from the trapping of both organic carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals. When the lipid-soluble antioxidant alpha-tocopherol is included in the liposomal systems, the formation of spin adducts is completely inhibited. The authors suggest that radicals giving rise to these spin adducts arise form the rapid decomposition of the 1,2,3-trioxolane intermediate that is initially formed when ozone reacts with the carbon-carbon double bonds of the substrates. These free radicals are not formed by the decomposition of the Criegee ozonide, since little of the ozonide is formed in the presence of water. Although hydrogen peroxide is the predominate peroxidic product of the ozone/alkene reaction, its decomposition is not responsible for the observed radical production since neither catalase nor iron chelators significantly affect the spin adduct yield. The radical yield is approximately 1%. Since a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) such as linoleic acid produces much higher concentrations of spin trappable radicals than does the monounsaturated fatty oleic acid, the results also suggest that sites in the lung containing higher levels of PUFA may be an important target for radical formation.

  2. A simple RNA probe system for analysis of Listeria monocytogenes polymerase chain reaction products.

    PubMed Central

    Blais, B W; Phillippe, L M

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of an RNA probe specific for the hlyA gene of Listeria monocytogenes by in vitro transcription from a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated template incorporating bacteriophage T7 promoter sequences is described. This simple method produced a high yield of RNA which hybridized specifically with hlyA PCR products on a membrane, resulting in RNA-DNA hybrids which were detected by an immunoenzymatic assay with an anti-RNA-DNA hybrid antibody. The RNA probe hybridization system was more sensitive in the analysis of the PCR products than was the conventional agarose gel electrophoresis method. When applied to the analysis of PCR samples from cultures of various Listeria and non-Listeria organisms, the RNA probe was reactive in the assay of 62 different L. monocytogenes isolates but not other Listeria species. Among the non-Listeria organisms tested, only Enterococcus faecalis gave a weak positive reaction with more than 10(9) cells per ml. This reactivity disappeared at lower cell densities. This strategy for the synthesis and application of RNA probes should facilitate the analysis of PCR products in the detection of L. monocytogenes and possibly other food pathogens. Images PMID:8215354

  3. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Zhi; Sun, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Hu, Li; Li, Xia; Wu, Xiao-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB) containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Methods Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group) were administered diets containing 9, 3, 1, or 0% of MRPB derived from chicken bone for 13 weeks. Results During the 13-week treatment period, no mortality occurred, and no remarkable changes in general condition and behavior were observed. The consumption of MRPB did not have any effect on body weight or feed and water consumption. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the weights of the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, and thymus in groups for both sexes. Serological examination showed serum alanine aminotransferase in both sexes was decreased significantly, indicating liver cell protection. No treatment-related histopathological differences were observed between the control and test groups. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, the addition of 9% MRPB in the diet had no adverse effect on both male and female SD rats during the 90-day observation. Those results would provide useful information on the safety of a meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry. PMID:27016175

  4. Insights into gas-phase reaction mechanisms of small carbon radicals using isomer-resolved product detection.

    PubMed

    Trevitt, Adam J; Goulay, Fabien

    2016-02-17

    For reactive gas-phase environments, including combustion, extraterrestrials atmospheres and our Earth's atmosphere, the availability of quality chemical data is essential for predictive chemical models. These data include reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions. This perspective overviews recent isomer-resolved production detection experiments for reactions of two of the most reactive gas phase radicals, the CN and CH radicals, with a suite of small hydrocarbons. A particular focus is given to flow-tube experiments using synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Coupled with computational studies and other experiment techniques, flow tube isomer-resolved product detection have provided significant mechanistic details of these radical + neutral reactions with some general patterns emerging.

  5. Application of micro X-ray diffraction to investigate the reaction products formed by the alkali silica reaction in concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dähn, R.; Arakcheeva, A.; Schaub, Ph.; Pattison, P.; Chapuis, G.; Grolimund, D.; Wieland, E.; Leemann, A.

    2015-12-21

    Alkali–silica reaction (ASR) is one of the most important deterioration mechanisms in concrete leading to substantial damages of structures worldwide. Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) was employed to characterize the mineral phases formed in micro-cracks of concrete aggregates as a consequence of ASR. This particular high spatial resolution technique enables to directly gain structural information on ASR products formed in a 40-year old motorway bridge damaged due to ASR. Micro-X-ray-fluorescence was applied on thin sections to locate the reaction products formed in veins within concrete aggregates. Micro-XRD pattern were collected at selected points of interest along a vein by rotating the sample. Rietveld refinement determined the structure of the ASR product consisting of a new layered framework similar to mountainite and rhodesite. Furthermore, it is conceivable that understanding the structure of the ASR product may help developing new technical treatments inhibiting ASR.

  6. In vitro antibacterial analysis of phenoloxidase reaction products from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Cong, Cong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-08-01

    Three phenoloxidases (POs) of Apostichopus japonicus, AjPOs (AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3), were partially purified from the coelomocytes with an electrophoretic method, and then employed for the in vitro antibacterial analysis. Using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as a substrate, AjPO1 and AjPO2-derived compounds inhibited the growth of Vibrio splendidus and Staphylococcus aureus, while AjPO3-derived compounds only inhibited the growth of V. splendidus. When dopamine was used as a substrate, AjPO1 and AjPO3-derived compounds inhibited the growth of V. splendidus and Vibrio harveyi, while AjPO2-derived compounds only inhibited the growth of V. splendidus. Moreover, AjPO1-derived compounds showed stronger inhibition in V. harveyi than AjPO3-derived compounds did. However, all of the three AjPO reaction products showed no inhibitions on the growth of Pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens, Shewanella baltica, Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Nocardiopsis sp. with L-DOPA or dopamine as a substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of V. harveyi treated by AjPOs and dopamine showed that AjPO1-derived compounds resulted in massive bacteriolysis, AjPO2-derived compounds caused no obvious alteration on bacterial morphology, and AjPO3-derived compounds increased the ratio of spheroidal bacteria. All these results suggested that AjPO reaction products derived by L-DOPA and dopamine had different but limited antibacterial spectrum, and the different antibacterial effects observed among three AjPOs resulted from the different reaction products generated by AjPOs with the same substrate. PMID:24931626

  7. Acute allergic reactions in Vietnamese children after drinking a new milk product.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thuan Huu; Le, Ninh Hoang; Patel, Mahomed Said; Phan, Lan Trong; Tran Minh, Nhu Nguyen

    2012-02-01

    In early October 2009, pediatricians in hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) reported an unusual increase in the number of children presenting with an acute onset of itchy rash and some with breathing difficulties shortly after drinking milk products. The pediatricians considered the illness to be an allergic reaction to milk. The objective of our investigation was to identify the cause of this acute illness. Following early case reports, all hospitals in HCMC were requested to report cases of this illness. Parents were advised to take children with symptoms to a hospital immediately. A case-series was conducted to generate hypotheses on the possible causes of the illness and was followed by a case-control study to test the hypothesis. Parents of all cases and controls were interviewed face-to-face. The association between food items and the allergy was tested using conditional logistics regression. From 9 to 28 October 2009, 19 cases fulfilled the case definition, and 16 of the 17 cases included in the study had consumed milk supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) shortly before the onset of illness. Fifty age-matched, neighborhood controls were enrolled into the case control study. Of the 30 food items consumed by study participants in the preceding 24 h, only the odds ratio (OR) of milk supplemented with GOS was statistically significant: OR=34.0 (95% CI=3.9, 294.8). Laboratory tests of this milk product did not reveal any unusual properties, chemicals, or other toxic substances. This is the first report of an acute allergic reaction to fresh milk supplemented with GOS. However, the specific allergen in this product was not identified. Further cases were not reported once this product was withdrawn from sale. Vietnam's food safety authorities should expand laboratory capacity to detect allergens in food products.

  8. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) detection or hot atom reaction product internal energy distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, C.R. Jr.; Moore, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is being utilized to investigate the rovibrational energy distributions produced by reactive and nonreactive collisions of translationally hot atoms with simple molecules. Translationally hot H atoms are produced by ArF laser photolysis of HBr. Using CARS we have monitored, in a state-specific and time-resolved manner, rotational excitation of HBr (v = 0), vibrational excitation of HBr and H/sub 2/, rovibrational excitation of H/sub 2/ produced by the reaction H + HBr ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + Br, and Br atom production by photolysis of HBr.

  9. Preparative isolation of polymerase chain reaction products using mixed-mode chromatography.

    PubMed

    Matos, T; Silva, G; Queiroz, J A; Bülow, L

    2015-11-15

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become one of the most useful techniques in molecular biology laboratories around the world. The purification of the target DNA product is often challenging, however, and most users are restricted to employing available commercial kits. The recent developments in mixed-mode chromatography have shown higher selectivity for a variety of nucleic acid-containing samples. Capto Adhere is a mixed-mode chromatography resin that offers a high-selectivity ligand and is here applied for the purification of amplified DNAs from PCR mixtures in a 10-min single step, with yields above 95%, high linearity, and high precision for different concentrations.

  10. Separation of Betti Reaction Product Enantiomers: Absolute Configuration and Inhibition of Botulinum Neurotoxin A

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The racemic product of the Betti reaction of 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, benzaldehyde, and 2-aminopyridine was separated by chiral HPLC to determine which enantiomer inhibited botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. When the enantiomers unexpectedly proved to have comparable activity, the absolute structures of (+)-(R)-1 and (−)-(S)-1 were determined by comparison of calculated and observed circular dichroism spectra. Molecular modeling studies were undertaken in an effort to understand the observed bioactivity and revealed different ensembles of binding modes, with roughly equal binding energies, for the two enantiomers. PMID:22102940

  11. Arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) reactions with zerovalent iron corrosion products.

    PubMed

    Manning, Bruce A; Hunt, Mathew L; Amrhein, Christopher; Yarmoff, Jory A

    2002-12-15

    Zerovalent iron (Fe0) has tremendous potential as a remediation material for removal of arsenic from groundwater and drinking water. This study investigates the speciation of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) after reaction with two Fe0 materials, their iron oxide corrosion products, and several model iron oxides. A variety of analytical techniques were used to study the reaction products including HPLC-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The products of corrosion of Fe0 include lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH), magnetite (Fe3O4), and/or maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3), all of which indicate Fe(II) oxidation as an intermediate step in the Fe0 corrosion process. The in-situ Fe0 corrosion reaction caused a high As(III) and As(V) uptake with both Fe0 materials studied. Under aerobic conditions, the Fe0 corrosion reaction did not cause As(V) reduction to As(III) but did cause As(III) oxidation to As(V). Oxidation of As(III) was also caused by maghemite and hematite minerals indicating that the formation of certain iron oxides during Fe0 corrosion favors the As(V) species. Water reduction and the release of OH- to solution on the surface of corroding Fe0 may also promote As(III) oxidation. Analysis of As(III) and As(V) adsorption complexes in the Fe0 corrosion products and synthetic iron oxides by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) gave predominant As-Fe interatomic distances of 3.30-3.36 A. This was attributed to inner-sphere, bidentate As(III) and As(V) complexes. The results of this study suggest that Fe0 can be used as a versatile and economical sorbent for in-situ treatment of groundwater containing As(III) and As(V).

  12. PRODUCTS OF THE GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF THE OH RADICAL WITH N-BUTYL METHYL ETHER AND 2-ISOPROPOXYETHANOL: REACTIONS OF ROC(O)< RADICALS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The products of the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with n-butyl methyl ether and 2-isopropoxyethanol in the presence of NO have been investigated at 298 ? 2 K and 740 Torr total pressure of air by gas chromatography and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization...

  13. [The properties of precipitation reactions between secretion products in the oviduct of pleurodeles: identification of a lectin].

    PubMed

    Jégo, P; Chesnel, A; Lerivray, H; Le Tallec, H

    1983-01-01

    The properties of two precipitation reactions occurring between secretory products from the oviduct of Pleurodeles waltl have been studied. It has been demonstrated that a lectin is involved in one of the reactions. This lectin precipitated glycogen and starch and required calcium; the most potent saccharide inhibitors were 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose and D-glucose, respectively. The other reaction was related to glycoproteins (probably sulfated glycoproteins) that contained sulphur. The properties of this reaction were not the same as purely ionic interactions; basic protein-acidic polysaccharide interactions have been compared. A lectin was probably implicated but this could not be demonstrated because no saccharide inhibitor was found. There are several similitudes between this reaction and the lectin-galactoside reaction which occurs in the reaction between cortical granule content and egg jellies in anurans.

  14. Production of diacylglycerols from glycerol monooleate and ethyl oleate through free and immobilized lipase-catalyzed consecutive reactions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Juan; Li, Dan; Zhu, Xue Mei; Adhikari, Prakash; Lee, Ki-Teak; Lee, Jeung-Hee

    2011-02-28

    The ability of free and immobilized lipase on the production of diacylglycerols (DAG) by transesterification of glycerol monooleate (GMO) and ethyl oleate was investigated. Among three free lipases such as lipase G (Penicillium cyclopium), lipase AK (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia), lipase PS exhibited the highest DAG productivity, and the DAG content gradually increased up to 24 hours reaction and then remained steady. The comparative result for DAG productivity between free lipase PS and immobilized lipases (lipase PS-D and Lipozyme RM IM) during nine times of 24 hours reaction indicated that total DAG production was higher in immobilized lipase PS-D (183.5mM) and Lipozyme RM IM (309.5mM) than free lipase PS (122.0mM) at the first reaction, and that the DAG production rate was reduced by consecutive reactions, in which more sn-1,3-DAG was synthesized than sn-1,2-DAG. During the consecutive reactions, the activity of lipase PS was relatively steady by showing similar DAG content, whereas DAG production of lipase PS-D and Lipozyme RM IM was gradually decreased to 69.9 and 167.1mM at 9th reaction, respectively, resulting in 62% and 46% reduced production when compared with 1st reaction. Interestingly, from 7th reaction lipase PS produced more DAG than immobilized lipase PS-D, and exhibited a stable activity for DAG production. Therefore, the present study suggested that DAG productivity between GMO and ethyl oleate was higher in immobilized lipases than free lipases, but the activity was reduced with repeated uses.

  15. Production of a covalent flavin linkage in lipoamide dehydrogenase. Reaction with 8-Cl-FAD.

    PubMed

    Moore, E G; Cardemil, E; Massey, V

    1978-09-25

    A method is described for preparation of apolipoamide dehydrogenase which gives quantitative removal of FAD. Active holoenzyme can be reconstituted by incubation with FAD. Reconstitution of apoenzyme with 8-Cl-FAD results in the fixation of most of the flavin to the protein in a covalently bound form. The portion noncovalently bound was shown to be unmodified 8-Cl-FAD. The covalently bound flavin has an absorption spectrum quite different from that of 8-Cl-FAD. It has a single band in the visible with a maximum at 459 nm (extinction coefficient of 22 mM-1 cm-1) and a shoulder at 480 nm. Model reactions between 8-Cl-Flavin (riboflavin or FAD) and organic thiols (thiophenol, beta-mercaptoethanol, or N-acetylcysteine) give products with spectra which are similar to that of FAD covalently bound to lipoamide dehydrogenase. The products of the model reactions have a single visible band with a maximum at 480 nm (extinction coefficient of 23.6 mM-1 cm-1 to 28.4 mM-1 cm-1) and a shoulder at 460 nm. The products of the model reaction and the covalently bound FAD of lipoamide dehydrogenase appear to be the result of a nucleophilic attack on the carbon at position 8 of the flavin ring by a thiolate anion, displacing the chloride. Thus, the product of the model reaction is 8-(RS)-flavin, and the product of the reaction between 8-Cl-FAD and protein probably has a cysteinyl residue covalently attacked at position 8 of FAD. Reconstitution of apoliopoamide dehydrogenase with 8-Cl-FAD gives two enzyme products which are fractionated by ammonium sulfate. Enzyme fractionating between 20% and 45% ammonium sulfate is monomeric and contains covanently bound FAD. Enzyme fractionating between 55% and 75% ammonium sulfate is dimeric and contains both covalently bound FAD and noncovalently bound 8-Cl-FAD. Both protein fractions contain one FAD per protein subunit and both are active with physiological substrates with Km values for NAD and dihydrolipoamide similar to those of native lipoamide

  16. Analysis of reversibility and reaction products of glyoxal uptake onto ammonium sulfate aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, M. M.; Chhabra, P. S.; Chan, A. W.; Surratt, J. D.; Kwan, A. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2009-04-01

    Glyoxal, the smallest alpha-dicarbonyl, is an oxidation product of both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (Fu et al. JGR 113, D15303, 2008). Despite its low molecular weight, its role in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has gained interest and a recent study suggested that it accounts for more than 15% of SOA in Mexico City (Volkamer et al. GRL 34, L19807, 2007). Despite numerous previous studies, questions remain regarding the processes controlling glyoxal uptake onto aerosol, including the role of acid catalysis, degree of reversibility, and identity of aerosol phase reaction products. We present results of chamber aerosol studies (Galloway et al. ACPD 8, 20799, 2008) and laboratory studies of bulk samples aimed at improving the understanding of these processes, in particular formation of oligomers and organosulfates of glyoxal, as well as the formation of imidazoles (carbon-nitrogen containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds) under dark and irradiated conditions. The relevance of these classes of reaction products extends beyond glyoxal, as evidence of oligomers and organosulfates other than those of glyoxal have been found in ambient aerosol (Surratt et al. JPCA 112, 8345, 2008; Denkenberger et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 5439, 2007). Experiments in which a chamber air mass was diluted after equilibration of glyoxal uptake onto ammonium sulfate seed aerosol (relative humidity 60% and glyoxal mixing ratios of 25-200 ppbv) shows that under these conditions uptake is reversible. The most important condensed phase products are hydrated oligomers of glyoxal, which are also formed reversibly under these conditions. Our studies show that organosulfates were not formed under dark conditions for neutral or acidified aerosol; similarly, Minerath et al. have recently shown that formation of a different class of organosulfates (alkyl sulfates) also proceeds very slowly even under acidic conditions (Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 4410, 2008). The

  17. Production of a covalent flavin linkage in lipoamide dehydrogenase. Reaction with 8-Cl-FAD.

    PubMed

    Moore, E G; Cardemil, E; Massey, V

    1978-09-25

    A method is described for preparation of apolipoamide dehydrogenase which gives quantitative removal of FAD. Active holoenzyme can be reconstituted by incubation with FAD. Reconstitution of apoenzyme with 8-Cl-FAD results in the fixation of most of the flavin to the protein in a covalently bound form. The portion noncovalently bound was shown to be unmodified 8-Cl-FAD. The covalently bound flavin has an absorption spectrum quite different from that of 8-Cl-FAD. It has a single band in the visible with a maximum at 459 nm (extinction coefficient of 22 mM-1 cm-1) and a shoulder at 480 nm. Model reactions between 8-Cl-Flavin (riboflavin or FAD) and organic thiols (thiophenol, beta-mercaptoethanol, or N-acetylcysteine) give products with spectra which are similar to that of FAD covalently bound to lipoamide dehydrogenase. The products of the model reactions have a single visible band with a maximum at 480 nm (extinction coefficient of 23.6 mM-1 cm-1 to 28.4 mM-1 cm-1) and a shoulder at 460 nm. The products of the model reaction and the covalently bound FAD of lipoamide dehydrogenase appear to be the result of a nucleophilic attack on the carbon at position 8 of the flavin ring by a thiolate anion, displacing the chloride. Thus, the product of the model reaction is 8-(RS)-flavin, and the product of the reaction between 8-Cl-FAD and protein probably has a cysteinyl residue covalently attacked at position 8 of FAD. Reconstitution of apoliopoamide dehydrogenase with 8-Cl-FAD gives two enzyme products which are fractionated by ammonium sulfate. Enzyme fractionating between 20% and 45% ammonium sulfate is monomeric and contains covanently bound FAD. Enzyme fractionating between 55% and 75% ammonium sulfate is dimeric and contains both covalently bound FAD and noncovalently bound 8-Cl-FAD. Both protein fractions contain one FAD per protein subunit and both are active with physiological substrates with Km values for NAD and dihydrolipoamide similar to those of native lipoamide

  18. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...