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Sample records for acetoxymethyl ester bapta-am

  1. Cytological Observations of the Large Symbiotic Foraminifer Amphisorus kudakajimensis Using Calcein Acetoxymethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Toyofuku, Takashi; Nakamaura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Large benthic foraminifera are unicellular calcifying reef organisms that can form symbiotic relationships with a range of different microalgae. However, the cellular functions, such as symbiosis and calcification, and other aspects of cellular physiology in large benthic foraminifera are not fully understood. Amphisorus kudakajimensis was used as a model to determine the detailed cellular characteristics of large benthic foraminifera. We used calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein AM) as a fluorescent indicator for live confocal imaging. We demonstrated that calcein AM is a useful fluorescent indicator to stain the fine network of reticulopodia and the cytoplasm in living A. kudakajimensis. We showed that at least two types of reticulopodia exist in A. kudakajimensis: the straight bundle of reticulopodia that spreads from the aperture and the fine reticulopodia along the surface of the aperture and chamber walls. The cytoplasm in outer chambers was highly branched and contained a few dinoflagellates. In contrast, the inner chamberlets contained condensed cytoplasm and many dinoflagellates, suggesting that the cytoplasm of A. kudakajimensis performs different functions based on its location within the large test. Our confocal detailed image analysis provides real-time cellular morphology and cell physiology of living foraminifera. PMID:27812157

  2. Cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+] in whole hearts using indo-1 acetoxymethyl ester: effects of high extracellular Ca2+.

    PubMed Central

    Schreur, J H; Figueredo, V M; Miyamae, M; Shames, D M; Baker, A J; Camacho, S A

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of free cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]c) using the acetoxymethyl ester (AM) form of indo-1 may be compromised by loading of indo-1 into noncytosolic compartments, primarily mitochondria. To determine the fraction of noncytosolic fluorescence in whole hearts loaded with indo-1 AM, Mn2+ was used to quench cytosolic fluorescence. Residual (i.e., noncytosolic) fluorescence was subtracted from the total fluorescence before calculating [Ca2+]c. Noncytosolic fluorescence was used to estimate mitochondrial [Ca2+]. In hearts paced at 5 Hz (N = 17), noncytosolic fluorescence was 0.61 +/- 0.06 and 0.56 +/- 0.07 of total fluorescence at lambda 385 and lambda 456, respectively. After taking into account noncytosolic fluorescence, systolic and diastolic [Ca2+]c was 673 +/- 72 and 132 +/- 9 nM, respectively, noncytosolic [Ca2+] was 183 +/- 36 nM and increased to 272 +/- 12 when extracellular Ca2+ was increased from 2 to 6 mM. This increase in noncytosolic [Ca2+] was inhibited by ruthenium red, a blocker of Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria. We conclude that cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+] can be determined in whole hearts loaded with indo-1 AM by using Mn2+ to quench cytosolic fluorescence. PMID:8744296

  3. meso-Acetoxymethyl BODIPY dyes for photodynamic therapy: improved photostability of singlet oxygen photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, R; Durantini, A M; Greene, L E; Martínez, S R; Knox, R; Becerra, M C; Cosa, G

    2017-02-15

    We report two BODIPY based photosensitizers (Br2BOAc and I2BOAc) featuring an acetoxymethyl substituent at the meso-position. These photosensitizers show improved photostability against singlet oxygen, when compared to a BODIPY photosensitizer lacking the acetoxymethyl group. Both compounds were evaluated for photodynamic therapy against HeLa cells and photodynamic inactivation against E. coli bacteria. We show that the compounds readily embed in the lipid membranes of HeLa cervical cancer cells and efficiently induced light-dependent apoptosis at nanomolar concentration. Also, both compounds showed a substantial degree of photoinactivation of E. coli bacteria when used at low micromolar concentrations.

  4. O2-acetoxymethyl-protected diazeniumdiolate-based NSAIDs (NONO-NSAIDs): synthesis, nitric oxide release, and biological evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Carlos A; Praveen Rao, P N; Citro, Michael L; Keefer, Larry K; Knaus, Edward E

    2007-07-15

    A novel group of O2-acetoxymethyl-protected diazeniumdiolate-based non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prodrugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were synthesized by esterifying the carboxylate group of aspirin, ibuprofen, or indomethacin with O2-acetoxymethyl 1-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-methylamino]diazeniumdiolate. The resulting nitric oxide (*NO)-releasing prodrugs (7-9) did not exhibit in vitro cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity against the COX-1 and COX-2 isozymes (IC50s>100 microM). In contrast, prodrugs 7 and 8 significantly decreased carrageenan-induced rat paw edema showing enhanced in vivo anti-inflammatory activities (ID50's=552 and 174 micromol/kg, respectively) relative to those of the parent NSAIDs aspirin (ID50=714 micromol/kg) and ibuprofen (ID50=326 micromol/kg). The rate of porcine liver esterase-mediated *NO release from prodrugs 7-9 (2 mol of *NO/mol of test compound in 0.6-6.5 min) was substantially higher compared to that observed without enzymatic catalysis (about 1 mol of *NO/mol of test compound in 40-48 h). These incubation studies suggest that both *NO and the parent NSAID would be released upon in vivo activation (hydrolysis) by esterases. Data acquired in an in vivo ulcer index (UI) assay showed that NONO-aspirin (UI=0.8), NONO-indomethacin (UI=1.3), and particularly NONO-ibuprofen (UI=0) were significantly less ulcerogenic compared to the parent drugs aspirin (UI=57), ibuprofen (UI=46) or indomethacin (UI=34) at equimolar doses. The release of aspirin and *NO from the NONO-aspirin (7) prodrug constitutes a potentially beneficial property for the prophylactic prevention of thrombus formation and adverse cardiovascular events such as stroke and myocardial infarction.

  5. Antiapoptotic activity of Akt is down-regulated by Ca2+ in myocardiac H9c2 cells. Evidence of Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of protein phosphatase 2Ac.

    PubMed

    Yasuoka, Chie; Ihara, Yoshito; Ikeda, Satoshi; Miyahara, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Takahito; Kohno, Shigeru

    2004-12-03

    Cell survival signaling of the Akt/protein kinase B pathway was influenced by a change in the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) for over 2 h via the regulation of a Ser/Thr phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2Ac (PP2Ac), in rat myocardiac H9c2 cells. Akt was down-regulated when [Ca2+]i was elevated by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, but was up-regulated when it was suppressed by 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl)ester (BAPTA-AM), a cell permeable Ca2+ chelator. The inactivation of Akt was well correlated with the susceptibility to oxidant-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. To investigate the mechanism of the Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of Akt via the regulation of PP2A, we examined the transcriptional regulation of PP2Acalpha in H9c2 cells with Ca2+ modulators. Transcription of the PP2Acalpha gene was increased by thapsigargin but decreased by BAPTA-AM. The promoter activity was examined and the cAMP response element (CRE) was found responsible for the Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of PP2Acalpha. Furthermore, phosphorylation of CRE-binding protein increased with thapsigargin but decreased with BAPTA-AM. A long term change of [Ca2+]i regulates PP2Acalpha gene transcription via CRE, resulting in a change in the activation status of Akt leading to an altered susceptibility to apoptosis.

  6. Relationship of intracellular calcium and oxygen radicals to Cisplatin-related renal cell injury.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yoshiko; Nakao, Takafumi; Kunimura, Naoshi; Kohda, Yuka; Gemba, Munekazu

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium in nephrotoxicity related to an antitumor agent, cisplatin. In this study, we employed cultured renal epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). Cisplatin at 500 microM significantly increased the production of ROS 5 h and caused cell injury. This agent significantly increased the intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner 1 h or more after exposure. DPPD (N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine), an antioxidant, inhibited a cisplatin-related increase in active oxygen production and cell injury but did not inhibit an early increase in the [Ca2+]i level. An intracellular calcium-chelating compound BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl) ester) inhibited an increase in ROS production and cell injury induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, BAPTA-AM suppressed the rise of [Ca2+]i level in 1 h after exposure; however, an extracellular calcium chelator EGTA and a calcium antagonist nicardipine did not inhibit the rise in [Ca2+]i level in the early phase. An NADPH oxidase inhibitor inhibited a cisplatin-related increase in ROS production and cell disorder. These results suggest that cisplatin-related calcium release from the site of intracellular calcium storage in the early phase causes oxidative stress in renal tubular epithelial cells. Cisplatin may increase the intracellular production of ROS via NADPH oxidase.

  7. Cytoplasmic calcium mediates oxidative damage in an excitotoxic /energetic deficit synergic model in rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Konigsberg, Mina; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Herrera-Mundo, Nieves; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Morán, Julio; Fortoul-van der Goes, Teresa; Rondán-Zárate, Adrián; Maldonado, Perla D; Ali, Syed F; Santamaría, Abel

    2008-03-01

    Excessive calcium is responsible for triggering different potentially fatal metabolic pathways during neurodegeneration. In this study, we evaluated the role of calcium on the oxidative damage produced in an in vitro combined model of excitotoxicity/energy deficit produced by the co-administration of quinolinate and 3-nitropropionate to brain synaptosomal membranes. Synaptosomal fractions were incubated in the presence of subtoxic concentrations of these agents (21 and 166 microm, respectively). In order further to characterize possible toxic mechanisms involved in oxidative damage in this experimental paradigm, agents with different properties - dizocilpine, acetyl L-carnitine, iron porphyrinate and S-allylcysteine - were tested at increasing concentrations (10-1000 microm). Lipid peroxidation was assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. For confirmatory purposes, additional fractions were incubated in parallel in the presence of the intracellular calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Under physiological conditions of extracellular calcium availability, synaptomes exposed to both toxins displayed an increased lipoperoxidation (76% above controls), and this effect was partially attenuated by the tested agents as follows: dizocilpine = iron porphyrinate > acetyl L-carnitine > S-allylcysteine. When the incubation medium was deprived of calcium, the lipoperoxidative effect achieved in this experimental paradigm was still high (49% above the control), and the order of attenuation was: iron porphyrinate > S-allylcysteine > acetyl L-carnitine > dizocilpine. BAPTA-AM was effective in preventing the pro-oxidant action of both toxins, promoting even lower peroxidative levels than those quantified under basal conditions. Our results suggest that the lipid peroxidation induced in synaptosomal fractions by quinolinate plus 3-nitropropionate is largely dependent on the cytoplasmic

  8. Calcium-mediated activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and apoptosis in response to cadmium in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Sharma, Raghubir P

    2004-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known carcinogenic and immunotoxic metal commonly found in cigarette smoke and industrial effluent. An altered intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) level has been implicated in the pathophysiology of immune dysfunction. The present study was designed to determine the possible involvement of calcium (Ca(2+)) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways on cadmium-induced cell death in J774A.1 murine macrophage cells. Cadmium caused a low-amplitude [Ca(2+)](i) elevation at 20 microM and rapid and high-amplitude [Ca(2+)](i) elevation at 500 microM. Exposure to cadmium dose-dependently induced phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and deactivated p38 MAPK. Use of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 suggested that activation of JNK is pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic. Buffering of the calcium response with 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxy-methyl) ester (BAPTA-AM) and ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) completely blocked cadmium-induced apoptotic response. The pretreatment of cells with BAPTA-AM and EGTA suppressed the cadmium-induced cell injury, including growth arrest, mitochondrial activity impairment, and necrosis, and it also recovered the cadmium-altered JNK and p38 MAPK activity. Chelating [Ca(2+)](i) also reversed cadmium-induced hydrogen peroxide generation, suggesting that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is related to [Ca(2+)](i). The present study showed that cadmium induces a [Ca(2+)](i)-ROS-JNK-caspase-3 signaling pathway leading to apoptosis. Furthermore, cadmium-induced [Ca(2+)](i) regulates phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of JNK and p38, and it modulates signal transduction pathways to proliferation, mitochondrial activity, and necrosis.

  9. Platelet activating factor antagonist design. 3. X-ray crystal structure and intermolecular crystal lattice interactions of methyl trans-4-acetoxymethyl-4,5-dihydro-2,5-bis(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)- 3-furancarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J R; Horsley, D B; Brozik, J A; Rogers, R D

    1989-08-15

    C23H20O9, Mr = 440.41, monoclinic, P21/c, a = 11.433 (1), b = 7.808 (2), c = 23.313 (3) A, beta = 99.67 (1) degree, V = 2052 A3, Z = 4, Dx = 1.43 g cm-3, lambda(MoK alpha) = 0.71073 A, mu = 0.69 cm-1, F(000) = 920, T = 293 K, final R = 0.048 for 1645 observed [Fo greater than or equal to 5 sigma(Fo)] reflections. The observed structure reveals a trans relationship for the 4-acetoxymethyl and 5-aryl substituents. The 4,5-dihydrofuran ring system adopts an envelope conformation. There is no crystallographically imposed symmetry. Several intermolecular van der Waals interactions occur in the cell lattice of this compound.

  10. Fibroblast Circadian Rhythms of PER2 Expression Depend on Membrane Potential and Intracellular Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Takako; Wang, Connie W.; Pan, Haiyun

    2012-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus synchronizes circadian rhythms of cells and tissues throughout the body. In SCN neurons, rhythms of clock gene expression are suppressed by manipulations that hyperpolarize the plasma membrane or lower intracellular Ca2+. However, whether clocks in other cells also depend on membrane potential and calcium is unknown. In this study, we investigate the effects of membrane potential and intracellular calcium on circadian rhythms in mouse primary fibroblasts. Rhythms of clock gene expression were monitored using a PER2::LUC knockin reporter. We found that rhythms were lost or delayed at lower (hyperpolarizing) K+ concentrations. Bioluminescence imaging revealed that this loss of rhythmicity in cultures was due to loss of rhythmicity of single cells rather than desynchrony among cells. In lower Ca2+ concentrations, rhythms were advanced or had shorter periods. Buffering intracellular Ca2+ by the calcium chelator 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) or manipulation of IP3-sensitive intracellular calcium stores by thapsigargin delayed rhythms. These results suggest that the circadian clock in fibroblasts, as in SCN neurons, is regulated by membrane potential and Ca2+. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ may mediate the effects of membrane potential that we observed. PMID:22734566

  11. Fibroblast circadian rhythms of PER2 expression depend on membrane potential and intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Takako; Wang, Connie W; Pan, Haiyun; Welsh, David K

    2012-07-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus synchronizes circadian rhythms of cells and tissues throughout the body. In SCN neurons, rhythms of clock gene expression are suppressed by manipulations that hyperpolarize the plasma membrane or lower intracellular Ca(2+). However, whether clocks in other cells also depend on membrane potential and calcium is unknown. In this study, the authors investigate the effects of membrane potential and intracellular calcium on circadian rhythms in mouse primary fibroblasts. Rhythms of clock gene expression were monitored using a PER2::LUC knockin reporter. Rhythms were lost or delayed at lower (hyperpolarizing) K(+) concentrations. Bioluminescence imaging revealed that this loss of rhythmicity in cultures was due to loss of rhythmicity of single cells rather than loss of synchrony among cells. In lower Ca(2+) concentrations, rhythms were advanced or had shorter periods. Buffering intracellular Ca(2+) by the calcium chelator 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) or manipulation of inositol triphosphate (IP(3))-sensitive intracellular calcium stores by thapsigargin delayed rhythms. These results suggest that the circadian clock in fibroblasts, as in SCN neurons, is regulated by membrane potential and Ca(2+). Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) may mediate the effects of membrane potential observed in this study.

  12. Block of Na+,K+-ATPase and induction of hybrid death by 4-aminopyridine in cultured cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue Qing; Xiao, Ai Ying; Yang, Aizhen; LaRose, Lori; Wei, Ling; Yu, Shan Ping

    2003-05-01

    K(+) channel blockers such as 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) can be toxic to neurons; the cellular mechanism underlying the toxicity, however, is obscure. In cultured mouse cortical neurons, we tested the hypothesis that the toxic effect of 4-AP might result from inhibiting the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (Na(+),K(+)-pump) and thereafter induction of a hybrid death of concomitant apoptosis and necrosis. The Na(+),K(+)-pump activity, monitored as whole-cell membrane currents, was markedly blocked by 4-AP in concentration- and voltage-dependent manners in low millimolar ranges. At similar concentrations, 4-AP induced a neuronal death sensitive to attenuation by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK (Z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone) or Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester). Electron microscopy confirmed hybrid ultrastructural features of coexisting apoptotic and necrotic components in same cells. We suggest that 4-AP is a potent antagonist of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and an inducer of the hybrid death of central neurons.

  13. Kapok oil methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specificati...

  14. Kenaf methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Additional or alternative feedstocks are one of the major areas of interest regarding biodiesel. In this paper, for the first time, the fuel properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil methyl esters are comprehensively reported. This biodiesel is also relatively unique by containing small ...

  15. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  16. Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

  17. Lipoate ester multifunctional lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven lipoate esters were synthesized by esterification of lipoic acid with different structures of alcohols in the presence of a solid acid catalyst and without solvent. The esters were obtained in good yield, characterized using 1H NMR and GPC; and their physical properties investigated. Four of t...

  18. The involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in eugenol-induced cell death in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Zhe; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-01-05

    Eugenol, a natural phenolic constituent of clove oil, has a wide range of applications in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic. However, the effect of eugenol on human glioblastoma is unclear. This study examined whether eugenol elevated intracellular free Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i) and induced apoptosis in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells. Eugenol evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises which were reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). Eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises were not altered by store-operated Ca(2+) channel blockers but were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and the transient receptor potential channel melastatin 8 (TRPM8) antagonist capsazepine. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 significantly inhibited eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Eugenol killed cells which were not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Eugenol induced apoptosis through increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, releasing cytochrome c and activating caspase-9/caspase-3. Together, in DBTRG-05MG cells, eugenol evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises by inducing PLC-dependent release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum and caused Ca(2+) influx possibly through TRPM8 or PKC-sensitive channels. Furthermore, eugenol induced the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  19. Calcium Uptake via Mitochondrial Uniporter Contributes to Palmitic Acid-induced Apoptosis in Mouse Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zeting; Cao, Aili; Liu, Hua; Guo, Henjiang; Zang, Yingjun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yunman; Wang, Hao; Yin, Peihao; Peng, Wen

    2017-02-09

    Podocytes are component cells of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their loss by apoptosis is the main cause of proteinuria that leads to diabetic nephropathy (DN). Therefore, insights into podocyte apoptosis mechanism would allow a better understanding of DN pathogenesis and thus help develop adequate therapeutic strategies. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitic acid-inhibited cell death in mouse podocytes, and found that palmitic acid increased cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Palmitic acid induces apoptosis in podocytes through up-regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) , mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytochrome c release and depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) , The intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N, N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), partially prevented this up-regulation whereas 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor; dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor; and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostibene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an anion exchange inhibitor, had no effect. Interestingly, ruthenium red and Ru360, both inhibitors of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), blocked palmitic acid-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, and apoptosis. siRNA to MCU markedly reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that Ca(2+) uptake via mitochondrial uniporter contributes to palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse podocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of deoxycholic acid on Ca2+ movement, cell viability and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jau-Min; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chang, Hong-Tai; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Kuo, Soong-Yu; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Pochuen; Ho, Chin-Man; Lin, Jia-Rong; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-02-01

    Deoxycholic acid (DOA) is one of the secondary bile acids used as a mild detergent for the isolation of membrane associated proteins. This study examined whether the secondary bile acid, DOA, altered Ca(2+) movement, cell viability and apoptosis in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was used to measure [Ca(2+)]i. DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises concentration dependently. The response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). DOA-evoked Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by store-operated Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (nifedipine, econazole and SKF96365), the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In Ca(2+)-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) abolished DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. Conversely, treatment with DOA abolished TG-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. At 100-500 μM, DOA decreased cell viability, which was not changed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM). DOA between 100 and 300 μM also induced apoptosis. Collectively, in SCM1 cells, DOA-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by evoking phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via store-operated Ca(2+) channels. DOA also caused Ca(2+)-independent apoptosis.

  1. Changes in taste receptor cell [Ca2+]i modulate chorda tympani responses to salty and sour taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    Desimone, John A; Ren, Zuojun; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Heck, Gerard L; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Lyall, Vijay

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between taste receptor cell (TRC) Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to salty [NaCl and NaCl+benzamil (Bz)] and sour (HCl, CO(2), and acetic acid) taste stimuli was investigated before and after lingual application of ionomycin+Ca(2+), 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), U73122 (phospholipase C blocker), and thapsigargin (Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor) under open-circuit or lingual voltage-clamp conditions. An increase in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) attenuated the tonic Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response and the apical membrane Na(+) conductance. A decrease in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) enhanced the tonic Bz-sensitive and Bz-insensitive NaCl CT responses and apical membrane Na(+) conductance but did not affect CT responses to KCl or NH(4)Cl. An increase in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) did not alter the phasic response but attenuated the tonic CT response to acidic stimuli. A decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) did not alter the phasic response but attenuated the tonic CT response to acidic stimuli. In a subset of TRCs, a positive relationship between [H(+)](i) and [Ca(2+)](i) was obtained using in vitro imaging techniques. U73122 inhibited the tonic CT responses to NaCl, and thapsigargin inhibited the tonic CT responses to salty and sour stimuli. The results suggest that salty and sour taste qualities are transduced by [Ca(2+)](i)-dependent and [Ca(2+)](i)-independent mechanisms. Changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) in a BAPTA-sensitive cytosolic compartment regulate ion channels and cotransporters involved in the salty and sour taste transduction mechanisms and in neural adaptation. Changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) in a separate subcompartment, sensitive to inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin but inaccessible to BAPTA, are associated with neurotransmitter release.

  2. Calcium/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/c-Src signalling cascade mediates disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA/AM) or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (Ask1) or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto-phosphorylation of c-Src. The present study demonstrates that Ca(2+)/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/cSrc signalling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight

  3. Glutamate receptors modulate sodium-dependent and calcium-independent vitamin C bidirectional transport in cultured avian retinal cells.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Camila Cabral; Miya, Vivian Sayuri; Calaza, Karin da Costa; Santos, Rochelle Alberto Martins; Paes-de-Carvalho, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin C is transported in the brain by sodium vitamin C co-transporter 2 (SVCT-2) for ascorbate and glucose transporters for dehydroascorbate. Here we have studied the expression of SVCT-2 and the uptake and release of [(14)C] ascorbate in chick retinal cells. SVCT-2 immunoreactivity was detected in rat and chick retina, specially in amacrine cells and in cells in the ganglion cell layer. Accordingly, SVCT-2 was expressed in cultured retinal neurons, but not in glial cells. [(14)C] ascorbate uptake was saturable and inhibited by sulfinpyrazone or sodium-free medium, but not by treatments that inhibit dehydroascorbate transport. Glutamate-stimulated vitamin C release was not inhibited by the glutamate transport inhibitor l-beta-threo-benzylaspartate, indicating that vitamin C release was not mediated by glutamate uptake. Also, ascorbate had no effect on [(3)H] D-aspartate release, ruling out a glutamate/ascorbate exchange mechanism. 2-Carboxy-3-carboxymethyl-4-isopropenylpyrrolidine (Kainate) or NMDA stimulated the release, effects blocked by their respective antagonists 6,7-initroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) or (5R,2S)-(1)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK-801). However, DNQX, but not MK-801 or 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), blocked the stimulation by glutamate. Interestingly, DNQX prevented the stimulation by NMDA, suggesting that the effect of NMDA was mediated by glutamate release and stimulation of non-NMDA receptors. The effect of glutamate was neither dependent on external calcium nor inhibited by 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N',N',N',N',-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxy-methyl ester) (BAPTA-AM), an internal calcium chelator, but was inhibited by sulfinpyrazone or by the absence of sodium. In conclusion, retinal cells take up and release vitamin C, probably through SVCT-2, and the release can be stimulated by NMDA or non-NMDA glutamate receptors.

  4. Calcium increases Xylella fastidiosa surface attachment, biofilm formation, and twitching motility.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luisa F; Cobine, Paul A; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2012-03-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, a process thought to be influenced by the chemical composition of xylem sap. In this work, the effect of calcium on the production of X. fastidiosa biofilm and movement was analyzed under in vitro conditions. After a dose-response study with 96-well plates using eight metals, the strongest increase of biofilm formation was observed when medium was supplemented with at least 1.0 mM CaCl(2). The removal of Ca by extracellular (EGTA, 1.5 mM) and intracellular [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM), 75 μM] chelators reduced biofilm formation without compromising planktonic growth. The concentration of Ca influenced the force of adhesion to the substrate, biofilm thickness, cell-to-cell aggregation, and twitching motility, as shown by assays with microfluidic chambers and other assays. The effect of Ca on attachment was lost when cells were treated with tetracycline, suggesting that Ca has a metabolic or regulatory role in cell adhesion. A double mutant (fimA pilO) lacking type I and type IV pili did not improve biofilm formation or attachment when Ca was added to the medium, while single mutants of type I (fimA) or type IV (pilB) pili formed more biofilm under conditions of higher Ca concentrations. The concentration of Ca in the medium did not significantly influence the levels of exopolysaccharide produced. Our findings indicate that the role of Ca in biofilm formation may be related to the initial surface and cell-to-cell attachment and colonization stages of biofilm establishment, which rely on critical functions by fimbrial structures.

  5. Calcitonin receptor-mediated CFTR activation in human intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongguang; Singla, Amika; Ao, Mei; Gill, Ravinder K; Venkatasubramanian, Jayashree; Rao, Mrinalini C; Alrefai, Waddah A; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract High levels of calcitonin (CT) observed in medullary thyroid carcinoma and other CT-secreting tumours cause severe diarrhoea. Previous studies have suggested that CT induces active chloride secretion. However, the involvement of CT receptor (CTR) and the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of intestinal electrolyte secreting intestinal epithelial cells have not been investigated. Therefore, current studies were undertaken to investigate the direct effects of CT on ion transport in intestinal epithelial cells. Real time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of CTR in intestinal epithelial T84 cells. Exposure of T84 cells to CT from the basolateral but not from apical side significantly increased short circuit current (ISC) in a dose-dependent manner that was blocked by 1 μM of CTR antagonist, CT8–32. CT-induced ISC was blocked by replacing chloride in the bath solutions with equimolar gluconate and was significantly inhibited by the specific cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitor, CFTR127inh. Further, biotinylation studies showed that CT increased CFTR levels on the apical membrane. The presence of either the Ca2+ chelator, bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl (BAPTA-AM) ester or the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, significantly inhibited ISC induced by CT (∼32–58% reduction). Response to CT was retained after permeabilization of the basolateral or the apical membranes of T84 cells with nystatin. In conclusion, the activation of CTR by CT induced chloride secretion across T84 monolayers via CFTR channel and the involvement of PKA- and Ca2+-dependent signalling pathways. These data elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying CT-induced diarrhoea. PMID:21251218

  6. Mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) action on synaptic transmission at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, E; Lebedeva, J; Yakovlev, A; Zefirov, A; Giniatullin, R; Sitdikova, G

    2015-09-10

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a widespread gasotransmitter also known as a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. However, the action of H2S in peripheral synapses is much less studied. In the current project we studied the modulatory effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on synaptic transmission in the mouse neuromuscular junction using microelectrode technique. Using focal recordings of presynaptic response and evoked transmitter release we have shown that NaHS (300 μM) increased evoked end-plate currents (EPCs) without changes of presynaptic waveforms which indicated the absence of NaHS effects on sodium and potassium currents of motor nerve endings. Using intracellular recordings it was shown that NaHS increased the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) without changing their amplitudes indicating a pure presynaptic effect. Furthermore, NaHS increased the amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPPs) without influencing the resting membrane potential of muscle fibers. L-cysteine, a substrate of H2S synthesis induced, similar to NaHS, an increase of EPC amplitudes whereas inhibitors of H2S synthesis (β-cyano-L-alanine and aminooxyacetic acid) had the opposite effect. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase using MDL 12,330A hydrochloride (MDL 12,330A) or elevation of cAMP level with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP) completely prevented the facilitatory action of NaHS indicating involvement of the cAMP signaling cascade. The facilitatory effect of NaHS was significantly diminished when intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) was buffered by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (EGTA-AM). Activation of ryanodine receptors by caffeine or ryanodine increased acetylcholine release and prevented further action of NaHS on transmitter release, likely due to

  7. New lipophilic tyrosyl esters. Comparative antioxidant evaluation with hydroxytyrosyl esters.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Raquel; Trujillo, Mariana; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Madrona, Andrés; Cert, Arturo; Espartero, José Luis

    2008-11-26

    New lipophilic esters of tyrosol, a naturally occurring phenol with interesting biological properties, have been synthesized in good yields by a chemoselective procedure, using lipase from Candida antarctica or p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalysts. Their antioxidant activities have been evaluated by the Rancimat test in lipophilic food matrices, as well as by FRAP and ABTS assays in methanolic solutions, and compared with those of previously synthesized hydroxytyrosyl esters. Free tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, butylhydroxytoluene, and alpha-tocopherol were used as standards. All methods used for the antioxidant activity evaluation emphasized the high influence of the ortho-diphenolic structure on the antioxidant capacity, tyrosol and its derivatives being less active than hydroxytyrosol and its analogues and even less than BHT and alpha-tocopherol. In addition, the Rancimat test revealed a lower activity for ester derivatives than for their respective reference compounds (HTy or Ty), in agreement with the polar paradox. On the other hand, FRAP and ABTS methods reported an opposite behavior between the synthetic esters and their respective references. Thus, hydroxytyrosyl esters were more active than HTy, whereas tyrosyl esters were less active than Ty. The length and nature of the acyl side chain did not seem to play an important role in the antioxidant activity of either the hydroxytyrosyl or tyrosyl ester series, since no significant differences were observed among them.

  8. Fiberite 954: cyanate ester systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almen, G. R.; Mackenzie, P. D.; Malhotra, Vinay; Maskell, R. K.

    1992-09-01

    Cost and weight savings achieved by the use of composites have allowed these materials to displace their metal counterparts in space applications. Epoxy matrix based carbon fiber reinforced composites, such as Fiberite 934, have been used for a number of years. Relative to these systems, cyanate esters offer a number of unique attributes such as excellent hydrophobicity and electrical properties, reduced residual stress and better microcrack resistance, and improved radiation resistance. The significant reduction in water sorption and the low response to uptake make it possible to achieve much improved dimensional stability and reduced outgassing. These features may be used to advantage in electro-optical applications in space. ICI Fiberite has developed cyanate ester based prepreg systems that are penetrating the satellite, military radome and structural aerospace markets. Features of these systems will be presented and the properties of the cyanate ester based prepreg, Fiberite 954- 3, will be compared to those of Fiberite 934.

  9. Synthesis and Utility of Dihydropyridine Boronic Esters**

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Santanu; Coffin, Aaron; Nguyen, Q. Nhu; Tantillo, Dean; Ready, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    When activated by an acylating agent, pyridine boronic esters react with organometallic reagents to form a dihydropyridine boronic ester. This intermediate allows access to a number of valuable substituted pyridine, dihydropyridine and piperidine products. PMID:26694785

  10. Synthesis and Utility of Dihydropyridine Boronic Esters.

    PubMed

    Panda, Santanu; Coffin, Aaron; Nguyen, Q Nhu; Tantillo, Dean J; Ready, Joseph M

    2016-02-05

    When activated by an acylating agent, pyridine boronic esters react with organometallic reagents to form a dihydropyridine boronic ester. This intermediate allows access to a number of valuable substituted pyridine, dihydropyridine, and piperidine products.

  11. Liquid Crystalline Thermosets from Ester, Ester-imide, and Ester-amide Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingemans, Theodorus J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Main chain thermotropic liquid crystal esters, ester-imides, and ester-amides were prepared from AA, BB, and AB type monomeric materials and end-capped with phenylacetylene, phenylmaleimide, or nadimide reactive end-groups. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are thermotropic and have, preferably, molecular weights in the range of approximately 1000-15,000 grams per mole. The end-capped liquid crystaloligomers have broad liquid crystalline melting ranges and exhibit high melt stability and very low melt viscosities at accessible temperatures. The end-capped liquid crystal oli-gomers are stable forup to an hour in the melt phase. They are highly processable by a variety of melt process shape forming and blending techniques. Once processed and shaped, the end-capped liquid crystal oigomers were heated to further polymerize and form liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT). The fully cured products are rubbers above their glass transition temperatures.

  12. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3034 - Methylamine esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylamine esters. 721.3034 Section... Substances § 721.3034 Methylamine esters. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as methylamine esters (PMN P-94-982) is...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.537 - Organosilane ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organosilane ester. 721.537 Section... § 721.537 Organosilane ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an organosilane ester (PMN P-96-1661/P-95-1654)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3034 - Methylamine esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylamine esters. 721.3034 Section... Substances § 721.3034 Methylamine esters. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as methylamine esters (PMN P-94-982) is...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.537 - Organosilane ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organosilane ester. 721.537 Section... § 721.537 Organosilane ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an organosilane ester (PMN P-96-1661/P-95-1654)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3034 - Methylamine esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylamine esters. 721.3034 Section... Substances § 721.3034 Methylamine esters. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as methylamine esters (PMN P-94-982) is...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3034 - Methylamine esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylamine esters. 721.3034 Section... Substances § 721.3034 Methylamine esters. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as methylamine esters (PMN P-94-982) is...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3034 - Methylamine esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylamine esters. 721.3034 Section... Substances § 721.3034 Methylamine esters. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as methylamine esters (PMN P-94-982) is...

  3. Metabolic properties of phosphonate esters.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, G; Buchwald, P; Bodor, N

    2004-05-01

    The object of the present work was to investigate the difference in the metabolism of the phosphonate derivatives of primary or secondary hydroxyl groups. To study the phosphorolytic cleavage of such P-O bonds, zidovudine (AZT) hexanoyloxymethyl-methylphosphonate (HOM-AZT-P), an ester of a primary OH functionality, and methyl-pivaloyloxymethyl-testosterylphosphonate (POM-T-P), an ester of a secondary OH functionality, were prepared. The actions of pure enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase and phosphodiesterase on the corresponding phosphonate compounds (AZT-P and T-P) were investigated at various pH values. The phosphonate derivative of the secondary hydroxyl group of testosterone proved completely resistant to such phosphorolytic attacks, and release of free testosterone could not be detected. The phosphonate derivative of the primary hydroxyl group of zidovudine proved resistant to phosphodiesterase, but not to alkaline phosphatase, and in this second case, release of free zidovudine could be detected.

  4. Methods of making alkyl esters

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-08-03

    A method comprising contacting an alcohol, a feed comprising one or more glycerides and equal to or greater than 2 wt % of one or more free fatty acids, and a solid acid catalyst, a nanostructured polymer catalyst, or a sulfated zirconia catalyst in one or more reactors, and recovering from the one or more reactors an effluent comprising equal to or greater than about 75 wt % alkyl ester and equal to or less than about 5 wt % glyceride.

  5. Liquid crystalline thermosets from ester, ester-imide, and ester-amide oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingemans, Theodorous J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Main chain thermotropic liquid crystal esters, ester-imides, and ester-amides were prepared from AA, BB, and AB type monomeric materials and were end-capped with phenylacetylene, phenylmaleimide, or nadimide reactive end-groups. The resulting reactive end-capped liquid crystal oligomers exhibit a variety of improved and preferred physical properties. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are thermotropic and have, preferably, molecular weights in the range of approximately 1000-15,000 grams per mole. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers have broad liquid crystalline melting ranges and exhibit high melt stability and very low melt viscosities at accessible temperatures. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are stable for up to an hour in the melt phase. These properties make the end-capped liquid crystal oligomers highly processable by a variety of melt process shape forming and blending techniques including film extrusion, fiber spinning, reactive injection molding (RIM), resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film injection (RFI), powder molding, pultrusion, injection molding, blow molding, plasma spraying and thermo-forming. Once processed and shaped, the end-capped liquid crystal oligomers were heated to further polymerize and form liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT). The fully cured products are rubbers above their glass transition temperatures. The resulting thermosets display many properties that are superior to their non-end-capped high molecular weight analogs.

  6. Liquid Crystalline Thermosets from Ester, Ester-Imide, and Ester-Amide Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingemans, Theodornus J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); SaintClair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Main chain thermotropic liquid crystal esters, ester-imides, and ester-amides were prepared from AA, BB, and AB type monomeric materials and were end-capped with phenylacetylene, phenylmaleimide, or nadimide reactive end-groups. The resulting reactive end-capped liquid crystal oligomers exhibit a variety of improved and preferred physical properties. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are thermotropic and have, preferably, molecular weights in the range of approximately 1000-15,OOO grams per mole. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers have broad liquid crystalline melting ranges and exhibit high melt stability and very low melt viscosities at accessible temperatures. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are stable for up to an hour in the melt phase. These properties make the end-capped liquid crystal oligomers highly processable by a variety of melt process shape forming and blending techniques including film extrusion, fiber spinning, reactive injection molding (RIM), resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film injection (RFI), powder molding, pultrusion, injection molding, blow molding, plasma spraying and thermo-forming. Once processed and shaped, the end- capped liquid crystal oligomers were heated to further polymerize and form liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT). The fully cured products are rubbers above their glass transition temperatures. The resulting thermosets display many properties that are superior to their non-end-capped high molecular weight analogs.

  7. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  8. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  9. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  10. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  11. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    DOEpatents

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  12. Cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to alcohols: unexpected reactivity trend indicates ester enolate intermediacy.

    PubMed

    Srimani, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Arup; Goldberg, Alexander F G; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Shimon, Linda J W; Ben David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    The atom-efficient and environmentally benign catalytic hydrogenation of carboxylic acid esters to alcohols has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts, with few exceptions. Presented here is the first cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to the corresponding alcohols. Unexpectedly, the evidence indicates the unprecedented involvement of ester enolate intermediates.

  13. Prodrug behaviour of nicotinoylmorphine esters.

    PubMed

    Broekkamp, C L; Oosterloo, S K; Rijk, H W

    1988-06-01

    Morphine and its nicotinoyl esters, dinicotinoylmorphine (nicomorphine), 6-mononicotinoylmorphine (6-MNM) and 3-mononicotinoylmorphine (3-MNM) were tested in mice for central activity to obtain time-effect profiles of these compounds in rats. Two effects, analgesia with the hot plate test and locomotor stimulation in activity cages were measured and nicomorphine, 6-MNM and 3-MNM were found to have a faster onset of action compared with morphine. The effects of 3-MNM and morphine lasted longer than the effect of nicomorphine and 6-MNM. The prodrug behaviour of 3-MNM and nicomorphine for morphine and 6-MNM, respectively, is discussed.

  14. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2014-04-01

    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l(-1)). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters.

  15. 40 CFR 721.537 - Organosilane ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.537 Organosilane ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an organosilane ester (PMN P-96-1661/P-95-1654)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.537 - Organosilane ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.537 Organosilane ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an organosilane ester (PMN P-96-1661/P-95-1654)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.537 - Organosilane ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.537 Organosilane ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an organosilane ester (PMN P-96-1661/P-95-1654)...

  18. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l−1). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters. PMID:24609358

  19. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  20. Ethanolysis of rapeseed oil - distribution of ethyl esters, glycerides and glycerol between ester and glycerol phases.

    PubMed

    Cernoch, Michal; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-04-01

    The distribution of ethyl esters, triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, and glycerol between the ester and glycerol phase was investigated after the ethanolysis of rapeseed oil at various reaction conditions. The determination of these substances in the ester and glycerol phases was carried out by the GC method. The amount of ethyl esters in the glycerol phase was unexpectedly high and therefore the possibility of the reduction of this amount was investigated. The distribution coefficients and the weight distributions of each investigated substance were calculated and compared mutually. The distribution coefficients between the ester and glycerol phase increase in this sequence: glycerol, monoglycerides, diglycerides, ethyl esters, and triglycerides. Soaps and monoglycerides in the reaction mixture cause a worse separation of ethyl esters from the reaction mixture. The existence of a non-separable reaction mixture was observed also, and its composition was determined.

  1. Direct amidation of esters with nitroarenes

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chi Wai; Ploeger, Marten Leendert; Hu, Xile

    2017-01-01

    Esters are one of the most common functional groups in natural and synthetic products, and the one-step conversion of the ester group into other functional groups is an attractive strategy in organic synthesis. Direct amidation of esters is particularly appealing due to the omnipresence of the amide moiety in biomolecules, fine chemicals, and drug candidates. However, efficient methods for direct amidation of unactivated esters are still lacking. Here we report nickel-catalysed reductive coupling of unactivated esters with nitroarenes to furnish in one step a wide range of amides bearing functional groups relevant to the development of drugs and agrochemicals. The method has been used to expedite the syntheses of bio-active molecules and natural products, as well as their post-synthetic modifications. Preliminary mechanistic study indicates a reaction pathway distinct from conventional amidation methods using anilines as nitrogen sources. The work provides a novel and efficient method for amide synthesis. PMID:28345585

  2. [Benzenedithiol esters with antimycotic activity].

    PubMed

    Pavanetto, F; Montanari, L; Modena, T; Mazza, M

    1982-06-01

    Some diesters of benzen-1,2-dithiol wit aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids were prepared and tested for in vitro antifungal activity. The diacetate and dipropionate of benzen-1,3- and 1,4-dithiol were used as comparison compounds. The substances (Table I; substances I leads to X) were obtained by condensation of benzenedithiols with suitable acylating agents. The fungistatic activity of the products was tested in vitro against the following fungal strains: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The results show that the diester of benzen-1,2-dithiols with alkanoic acids (Table I) have marked antimycotic activity, much greater than that of clotrimazol. The diaroyl esters of benzen-1,2-dithiol and the diesters of benzen-1,3- and 1,4-dithiols are inactive or only slightly active.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  4. Sunflower oil methyl ester as diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Hasan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methyl ester formation represents one approach to overcome the problems associated with the relatively high viscosity of sunflower oil when used as a diesel fuel replacement. Sunflower oil methyl ester is being prepared at the University of North Dakota Engieering Experiment Station. Physical and chemical properties of this material at varying levels of refinement and purity will be used to define fuel properties. Engine testing is being carried out to determine if the fouling characteristics of methyl ester are significantly less than those of sunflower oil. 1 figure, 1 table.

  5. Identification of allyl esters in garlic cheese.

    PubMed

    Herbrand, Klaus; Hammerschmidt, Franz J; Brennecke, Stefan; Liebig, Margit; Lösing, Gerd; Schmidt, Claus Oliver; Gatfield, Ian; Krammer, Gerhard; Bertram, Heinz-Jürgen

    2007-09-19

    This study describes the identification of six allyl esters in a garlic cheese preparation and in a commercial cream cheese. The extracts were prepared by liquid/liquid extraction and concentrated by the SAFE process. The identification of the allyl esters of acetic, butyric, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acids is based on the correlation of their mass spectrometric data and chromatographic retention time data obtained from the extracts with those of authentic standards. In addition to the gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry analysis, the flavor ingredients were characterized by GC sniffing by a trained flavorist. Some of the esters were isolated by preparative GC.

  6. New ester alkaloids from lupins (genus lupinus).

    PubMed

    Mühlbauer, P; Witte, L; Wink, M

    1988-06-01

    Esters of 13-hydroxylupanine and 4-hydroxylupanine with acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, tiglic, benzoic, and TRANS-cinnamic acid have been synthesized and characterized by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (EI-MS, CI-MS). In LUPINUS POLYPHYLLUS, L. ALBUS, L. ANGUSTIFOLIUS, and L. MUTABILIS we could identify new ester alkaloids (e.g. 13-propyloxylupanine, 13-butyryloxylupanine, 13-isobutyryloxylupanine, and 4-tigloyloxylupanine) besides the known esters, i.e. 13-acetoxylupanine, 13-isovaleroyloxylupanine, 13-angeloyloxylupanine, 13-tigloyloxylupanine, 13-benzoyloxylupanine, 13- CIS-cinnamoyloxylupanine nine, and 13- TRANS-cinnamoyloxylupanine.

  7. Phorbol ester attenuates the KCl-induced increase in (Ca/sup 2 +/) and inhibits spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca/sup 2 +/ release, in rat cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansford, R.G.; Capogrossi, M.C.; Kaku, T.; Pelto, D.J.; Filburn, C.H.; Lakatta, E.G.

    1986-03-01

    Partial membrane depolarization induced by increasing the KCl concentration of the medium bathing cardiac myocytes leads to an increase in cell (Ca/sup 2 +/), and accelerates the frequency of spontaneous contractile waves (W) caused by periodic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca/sup 2 +/ release. In suspensions of myocytes bathed in 1.0mM Ca/sup 2 +/ at 37 (pH 7.4) and loaded with the fluorescent Ca/sup 2 +/ - indicator Fura-2, by incubation with 2 ..mu..M acetoxymethyl ester for 30 min, the addition of KCl to raise (K/sup +/) from 5 to 30 mM is associated with a rapid (< 10 sec) increase in fluorescence, corresponding to an increased cell (Ca/sup 2 +/). Prior exposure (3 min) to 10/sup -7/ M phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) diminishes this response to 44 +/- 10% of that in control suspensions (n = 9). Under the same conditions W frequency (min/sup -1/) in individual cells in 30 mM KCl averaged 8.3 +/- 0.6. Addition of PMA abolished W within 1 min. Diacylglycerol (10 ..mu..M L..cap alpha..-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, di C8) had a similar effect on W frequency. The thesis is that PMA attenuates cell Ca/sup 2 +/ overload and its associated potentiation of spontaneous SR Ca/sup 2 +/ oscillations. In view of the efficacy of PMA and di C8, it is suggested that the effect is mediated by protein kinase c, and it may involve an alteration in the intracellular distribution of this enzyme.

  8. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as... prepared food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a) The acrylate ester copolymer is a...

  9. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-,...

  10. Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers trace LDL cholesteryl esters but not HDL cholesteryl esters in the rat.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, A H

    1995-01-06

    The intravascular metabolism of cholesteryl [1-14C]oleoyl ester and [1,2-3H(N)]cholesteryl palmityl ether was compared in the rat, an animal species without plasma cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA). The tracers had identical plasma disappearance rates when they were incorporated into human or rat low density lipoproteins (LDL). Fractional catabolic rates (FCR) were 0.081 +/- 0.014 h-1 and 0.080 +/- 0.013 h-1 for human LDL ester and ether and 0.098 +/- 0.007 h-1 and 0.101 +/- 0.007 h-1 for rat LDL ester and ether, respectively. In contrast, the ether had plasma disappearance rates that were 24%-25% lower than the ester when they were incorporated into human or rat high density lipoproteins (HDL). FCR were 0.230 +/- 0.020 and 0.173 +/- 0.030 h-1 for human HDL ester and ether and 0.131 +/- 0.020 h-1 and 0.100 +/- 0.017 h-1 for rat HDL ester and ether respectively. Biological screening of the rat HDL preparations did not affect these differences. The results of these studies indicate that in the absence of plasma CETA, cholesteryl ethers can be used to trace LDL cholesteryl esters but not to trace HDL cholesteryl esters.

  11. Stereodivergent Olefination of Enantioenriched Boronic Esters

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Roly J.; García‐Ruiz, Cristina; Myers, Eddie L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A stereodivergent coupling reaction between vinyl halides and boronic esters is described. This coupling process proceeds without a transition‐metal catalyst, instead proceeding by electrophilic selenation or iodination of a vinyl boronate complex followed by stereospecific syn or anti elimination. Chiral, nonracemic boronic esters could be coupled with complete enantiospecificity. The process enables the highly stereoselective synthesis of either the E or Z alkene from a single isomer of a vinyl coupling partner. PMID:27958668

  12. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, David E

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic)....

  14. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic)....

  15. Esculetin, a natural coumarin compound, evokes Ca(2+) movement and activation of Ca(2+)-associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways that involved cell cycle arrest in ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Tai; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Lin, You-Sheng; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Jan, Chung-Ren; Liang, Wei-Zhe

    2016-04-01

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), a derivative of coumarin compound, is found in traditional medicinal herbs. It has been shown that esculetin triggers diverse cellular signal transduction pathways leading to regulation of physiology in different models. However, whether esculetin affects Ca(2+) homeostasis in breast cancer cells has not been explored. This study examined the underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by esculetin and established the relationship between Ca(2+) signaling and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. The results showed that esculetin induced concentration-dependent rises in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in ZR-75-1 (but not in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. In ZR-75-1 cells, this Ca(2+) signal response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by the store-operated Ca(2+) channel blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). In Ca(2+)-free medium, pre-treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) abolished esculetin-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Conversely, incubation with esculetin abolished TG-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Esculetin induced cytotoxicity that involved apoptosis, as supported by the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c and the proteolytic activation of caspase-9/caspase-3, which were partially reversed by pre-chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Moreover, esculetin increased the percentage of cells in G2/M phase and regulated the expressions of p53, p21, CDK1, and cyclin B1. Together, in ZR-75-1 cells, esculetin induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by releasing Ca(2+) from the ER and causing Ca(2+) influx through 2-APB-sensitive store-operated Ca(2+) entry. Furthermore, esculetin activated Ca(2+)-associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways that involved G2/M cell cycle arrest. Graphical abstract The summary of esculetin

  16. Involvement of S1P1 receptor pathway in angiogenic effects of a novel adenosine-like nucleic acid analog COA-Cl in cultured human vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Junsuke; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Kubota, Yasuo; Shoji, Kazuyo; Maruyama, Tokumi; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Takuwa, Yoh; Ujihara, Yoshihiro; Katanosaka, Yuki; Mohri, Satoshi; Naruse, Keiji; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Ryuji; Hirano, Katsuya; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Takata, Maki; Konishi, Ryoji; Tsukamoto, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    COA-Cl (2Cl-C.OXT-A) is a recently developed adenosine-like nucleic acid analog that promotes angiogenesis via the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK1/2. Endothelial S1P1 receptor plays indispensable roles in developmental angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the functions of S1P1 in COA-Cl-induced angiogenic responses. Antagonists for S1P1, W146, and VPC23019, substantially but still partly inhibited the effects of COA-Cl with regard to ERK1/2 activation and tube formation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Antagonists for adenosine A1 receptor and purinergic P2Y1 receptor were without effect. Genetic knockdown of S1P1 with siRNA, but not that of S1P3, attenuated COA-Cl-elicited ERK1/2 responses. The signaling properties of COA-Cl showed significant similarities to those of sphingosine 1-phosphate, an endogenous S1P1 ligand, in that both induced responses sensitive to pertussis toxin (Gα i/o inhibitor), 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA-AM), (calcium chelator), and PP2 (c-Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor). COA-Cl elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration and induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas, a substrate of c-Src, in HUVEC. COA-Cl displaced [3H]S1P in a radioligand-binding competition assay in chem-1 cells overexpressing S1P1. However, COA-Cl activated ERK1/2 in CHO-K1 cells that lack functional S1P1 receptor, suggesting the presence of additional yet-to-be-defined COA-Cl target in these cells. The results thus suggest the major contribution of S1P1 in the angiogenic effects of COA-Cl. However, other mechanism such as that seen in CHO-K1 cells may also be partly involved. Collectively, these findings may lead to refinement of the design of this nucleic acid analog and ultimately to development of small molecule-based therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:25505610

  17. Hepatocyte growth factor activates phosphoinositide 3-kinase C2 beta in renal brush-border plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Crljen, Vladiana; Volinia, Stefano; Banfic, Hrvoje

    2002-01-01

    Upon stimulation of renal cortical slices with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), inositol lipid metabolism was studied in basal-lateral plasma membranes (BLM) and brush-border plasma membranes (BBM). Whereas in BLM rapid increases in 1,2-diacylglycerol, PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2) were observed, suggesting that in BLM HGF activates both phospholipase C (PLC) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in BBM only HGF-induced transient accumulation of PtdIns3P was seen, which was temporarily delayed from signalling events in BLM and could be blocked by the PtdIns-specific-PLC inhibitor ET-18-OCH(3) and the calpain inhibitor calpeptin, suggesting that 3-kinase activation in BBM lies downstream of PLC activation in BLM and is a calpain-mediated event. Moreover, the increase in immunoprecipitable PI3K-C2 beta activity, which is sensitive to wortmannin (10 nM) and shows strong preference for PtdIns over PtdIns4P as a substrate, was observed only in BBM upon stimulation of renal cortical slices with HGF and could be mimicked by the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 and blocked by the cell-penetrant Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM [1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester)]. On Western blots PI3K-C2 beta revealed a single immunoreactive band of 180 kDa in BLM and BBM, while after stimulation with HGF a gel shift of 18 kDa was noticed only in BBM, suggesting that the observed enzyme activation is achieved by proteolysis. When BBM were subjected to short-term (15 min) exposure to mu-calpain, a similar gel shift together with an increase in PI3K-C2 beta activity was observed, when compared with the BBM harvested after HGF stimulation. The above-mentioned gel shift and increase in PI3K-C2 beta activity could be prevented by the calpain inhibitor calpeptin. The data presented in this report show that in renal cells there is a spatial separation of the inositol lipid signalling system between BLM and BBM, and that HGF causes activation of PLC and

  18. Copper-catalyzed cascade reactions of α,β-unsaturated esters with keto esters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chongnian; Li, Zengchang

    2015-01-01

    Summary A copper-catalyzed cascade reaction of α,β-unsaturated esters with keto esters is reported. It features a copper-catalyzed reductive aldolization followed by a lactonization. This method provides a facile approach to prepare γ-carboxymethyl-γ-lactones and δ-carboxymethyl-δ-lactones under mild reaction conditions. PMID:25815072

  19. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  20. Detection of testosterone esters in blood.

    PubMed

    Forsdahl, Guro; Erceg, Damir; Geisendorfer, Thomas; Turkalj, Mirjana; Plavec, Davor; Thevis, Mario; Tretzel, Laura; Gmeiner, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Injections of synthetic esters of testosterone are among the most common forms of testosterone application. In doping control, the detection of an intact ester of testosterone in blood gives unequivocal proof of the administration of exogenous testosterone. The aim of the current project was to investigate the detection window for injected testosterone esters as a mixed substance preparation and as a single substance preparation in serum and plasma. Furthermore, the suitability of different types of blood collection devices was evaluated. Collection tubes with stabilizing additives, as well as non-stabilized serum separation tubes, were tested. A clinical study with six participants was carried out, comprising a single intramuscular injection of either 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate (Nebido(®)) or a mixture of 30 mg testosterone propionate, 60 mg testosterone phenylpropionate, 60 mg testosterone isocaproate, and 100 mg testosterone decanoate (Sustanon(®)). Blood was collected throughout a testing period of 60 days. The applied analytical method for blood analysis included liquid-liquid extraction and preparation of oxime derivatives, prior to TLX-sample clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection. All investigated testosterone esters could be detected in post-administration blood samples. The detection time depended on the type of ester administered. Furthermore, results from the study show that measured blood concentrations of especially short-chained testosterone esters are influenced by the type of blood collection device applied. The testosterone ester detection window, however, was comparable.

  1. Production and biological function of volatile esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Saerens, Sofie M G; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Thevelein, Johan M

    2010-03-01

    The need to understand and control ester synthesis is driven by the fact that esters play a key role in the sensorial quality of fermented alcoholic beverages like beer, wine and sake. As esters are synthesized in yeast via several complex metabolic pathways, there is a need to gain a clear understanding of ester metabolism and its regulation. The individual genes involved, their functions and regulatory mechanisms have to be identified. In alcoholic beverages, there are two important groups of esters: the acetate esters and the medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) ethyl esters. For acetate ester synthesis, the genes involved have already been cloned and characterized. Also the biochemical pathways and the regulation of acetate ester synthesis are well defined. With respect to the molecular basis of MCFA ethyl ester synthesis, however, significant progress has only recently been made. Next to the characterization of the biochemical pathways and regulation of ester synthesis, a new and more important question arises: what is the advantage for yeast to produce these esters? Several hypotheses have been proposed in the past, but none was satisfactorily. This paper reviews the current hypotheses of ester synthesis in yeast in relation to the complex regulation of the alcohol acetyl transferases and the different factors that allow ester formation to be controlled during fermentation.

  2. Production and biological function of volatile esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Saerens, Sofie M. G.; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The need to understand and control ester synthesis is driven by the fact that esters play a key role in the sensorial quality of fermented alcoholic beverages like beer, wine and sake. As esters are synthesized in yeast via several complex metabolic pathways, there is a need to gain a clear understanding of ester metabolism and its regulation. The individual genes involved, their functions and regulatory mechanisms have to be identified. In alcoholic beverages, there are two important groups of esters: the acetate esters and the medium‐chain fatty acid (MCFA) ethyl esters. For acetate ester synthesis, the genes involved have already been cloned and characterized. Also the biochemical pathways and the regulation of acetate ester synthesis are well defined. With respect to the molecular basis of MCFA ethyl ester synthesis, however, significant progress has only recently been made. Next to the characterization of the biochemical pathways and regulation of ester synthesis, a new and more important question arises: what is the advantage for yeast to produce these esters? Several hypotheses have been proposed in the past, but none was satisfactorily. This paper reviews the current hypotheses of ester synthesis in yeast in relation to the complex regulation of the alcohol acetyl transferases and the different factors that allow ester formation to be controlled during fermentation. PMID:21255318

  3. Curdlan ester derivatives: synthesis, structure, and properties.

    PubMed

    Marubayashi, Hironori; Yukinaka, Kazuyori; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Takemura, Akio; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2014-03-15

    A series of ester derivatives of curdlan, which is a β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by microorganism, with varying alkyl chain lengths (C2-C12) were synthesized by the heterogeneous reaction using trifluoroacetic anhydride. As a result, high-molecular-weight (Mw ≥ 6 × 10(5)) and fully-acylated curdlan was obtained with relatively high yield (>70%). Thermal stability of curdlan was greatly improved by esterification. Crystallization was observed for curdlan esters with C2-C6 side chains. Both Tg (170 → 50 °C) and Tm (290 → 170 °C) of curdlan esters decreased with increasing the side-chain length. By the increase in the side-chain carbon number, curdlan esters showed lower Young's modulus and tensile strength, and larger elongation at break. Thus, material properties of curdlan esters can be controlled by changing the side-chain length. It was found that the increase of the side-chain length resulted in the decrease of crystallinity and the change of crystal structures.

  4. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Haines, Troy D; Adlaf, Kevin J; Pierceall, Robert M; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC-TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC-TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed.

  5. Glycerol esters as fuel economy additives

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, P.W.; Smith, C.R.; Gowland, F.W.

    1987-07-28

    A lubricating oil composition formulated is described for use as a crankcase lubricating oil composition for gasoline or diesel engines consisting essentially of a major amount of a mineral oil of a lubricating viscosity which has incorporated about 0.20 weight percent of a glycerol partial ester. The partial ester is a mixture of glycerol monooleate and glycerol dioleate. The mixture has a weight ratio of 3 parts of glycerol monooleate to 2 parts of glycerol dioleate the ester providing a fuel economy improvement of about 1 to 3 percent when the lubricating oil composition is employed in the crankcase of the engine. An ashless dispersant, a metal detergent additive, a zinc dihdyrocarbyl dithiophosphate anti-wear additive and an antioxidant. The dispersant, detergent, anti-wear additive and antioxidant are present in conventional amounts to provide their normal attendant functions.

  6. Bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithiophosphinic Methyl Ester

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Klaehn; Dean R. Peterman; Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Lee M. Daniels

    2011-05-01

    When bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithiophosphinic acid (1) was dissolved in methanol, crystals of bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithiophosphinic methyl ester (2) were isolated. The structure of dithiophosphinic methyl ester (2) has been identified via single-crystal X-ray diffraction and multinuclear NMR studies. Compound 2 is remarkable in that the dithiophosphinic (PS2) core is preserved during this transformation. Many dithiophosphinic acids degrade to other compounds over time which results in formation of dithiophosphinic dimers, like the bis(dithiophosphinic) anhydride. The transformation to 2 suggests that the o-trifluoromethylphenyl groups on phosphorus assist in retaining the PS2 core, possibly by steric hindrance.

  7. Phthalate esters: Testing for ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Thompson, R.; Croudace, C.; Stewart, K.; Williams, N.

    1995-12-31

    Ortho-phthalate esters are produced in high tonnages for use as plasticizers, in particular for PVC. Their physical chemical properties are typically very low water solubility and high octanol/water partition coefficient. This combination of properties presents a number of experimental difficulties in the design and interpretation of ecological effect studies. These difficulties are described and results presented showing techniques for the performance of reproduction studies with the water flea, Daphnia magna, in aqueous solution and with the midge, Chironomus riparius, in sediments. The results which showed no effect for the phthalate esters tested are discussed in the context of other ecotoxicity data obtained on these products.

  8. Novel Membrane Based Process for Producing Lactate Esters

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    Lactate Esters from Renewable Carbohydrate Feedstocks can Replace Petroleum-Derived Solvents. Lactate esters are versatile solvents that are biodegradable, nontoxic, and applicable to a wide range of industrial and consumer uses.

  9. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  10. 21 CFR 556.240 - Estradiol and related esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Estradiol and related esters. 556.240 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.240 Estradiol and related esters. No residues of estradiol, resulting from the use of estradiol or any of the related esters, are permitted in excess of the...

  11. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2121 - Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiosubstituted carbonate ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2121 Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (PMN P-99-0654) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  18. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  19. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 21 CFR 172.735 - Glycerol ester of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glycerol ester of rosin. 172.735 Section 172.735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.735 Glycerol ester of rosin. Glycerol ester of wood...

  2. 21 CFR 556.240 - Estradiol and related esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estradiol and related esters. 556.240 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.240 Estradiol and related esters. No residues of estradiol, resulting from the use of estradiol or any of the related esters, are permitted in excess of the...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2121 - Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thiosubstituted carbonate ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2121 Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (PMN P-99-0654) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 21 CFR 172.735 - Glycerol ester of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glycerol ester of rosin. 172.735 Section 172.735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.735 Glycerol ester of rosin. Glycerol ester of wood...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10685 - Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10685 Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid, mixed esters (PMN P-13-170) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  1. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10305 - Modified cyclohexane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified cyclohexane esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10305 Modified cyclohexane esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... cyclohexane esters (PMN P-00-1108) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  3. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 21 CFR 172.735 - Glycerol ester of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glycerol ester of rosin. 172.735 Section 172.735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.735 Glycerol ester of rosin. Glycerol ester of wood...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2121 - Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thiosubstituted carbonate ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2121 Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (PMN P-99-0654) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10560 - Alkanoldioic dialkyl esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkanoldioic dialkyl esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10560 Alkanoldioic dialkyl esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... dialkyl esters (PMNs P-07-143 and P-07-144) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10715 - Carbonic acid, dialkyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbonic acid, dialkyl ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10715 Carbonic acid, dialkyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and..., dialkyl ester (PMN P-13-346) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10438 - Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.10438 Section 721.10438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10438 Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (PMN P-00-346) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester (PMN...

  15. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10314 - Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10314 Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (PMNs P-02-778, P-02-779, and P-02-780) are subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  1. 21 CFR 556.240 - Estradiol and related esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Estradiol and related esters. 556.240 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.240 Estradiol and related esters. No residues of estradiol, resulting from the use of estradiol or any of the related esters, are permitted in excess of the...

  2. 21 CFR 556.240 - Estradiol and related esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Estradiol and related esters. 556.240 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.240 Estradiol and related esters. No residues of estradiol, resulting from the use of estradiol or any of the related esters, are permitted in excess of the...

  3. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10560 - Alkanoldioic dialkyl esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkanoldioic dialkyl esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10560 Alkanoldioic dialkyl esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... dialkyl esters (PMNs P-07-143 and P-07-144) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2121 - Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thiosubstituted carbonate ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2121 Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (PMN P-99-0654) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10305 - Modified cyclohexane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified cyclohexane esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10305 Modified cyclohexane esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... cyclohexane esters (PMN P-00-1108) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10305 - Modified cyclohexane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified cyclohexane esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10305 Modified cyclohexane esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... cyclohexane esters (PMN P-00-1108) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10314 - Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10314 Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (PMNs P-02-778, P-02-779, and P-02-780) are subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 21 CFR 172.735 - Glycerol ester of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glycerol ester of rosin. 172.735 Section 172.735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....735 Glycerol ester of rosin. Glycerol ester of wood rosin, gum rosin, or tall oil rosin may be...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10314 - Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10314 Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (PMNs P-02-778, P-02-779, and P-02-780) are subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  6. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2121 - Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thiosubstituted carbonate ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2121 Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Thiosubstituted carbonate ester (PMN P-99-0654) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN...

  12. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10438 - Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.10438 Section 721.10438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10438 Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (PMN P-00-346) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  17. 21 CFR 556.240 - Estradiol and related esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Estradiol and related esters. 556.240 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.240 Estradiol and related esters. No residues of estradiol, resulting from the use of estradiol or any of the related esters, are permitted in excess of the...

  18. 21 CFR 172.735 - Glycerol ester of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glycerol ester of rosin. 172.735 Section 172.735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.735 Glycerol ester of rosin. Glycerol ester of wood...

  19. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. An overview of the properties of fatty acid alkyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid alkyl esters of plant oils, especially in the form of methyl esters, have numerous applications with fuel use having received the most attention in recent times due to the potential high volume. Various properties imparted by neat fatty acid alkyl esters have been shown to influence fuel ...

  1. Synthesis and physical properties of new estolide esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides are a class of esters based on vegetable oils that, in this case, are formed when the carboxylic acid functionality of one fatty acid reacts at the site of unsaturation of another fatty acid to form an ester linkage. The objective of this preliminary study was to synthesize new esters of e...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  10. The MPEG monophosphate ester: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Penczek, Stanislaw; Kaluzynski, Krzysztof; Wisniewski, Blazej; Pretula, Julia; Szymanski, Ryszard; Lapienis, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    Methods of preparation of the phosphoric ester of monomethyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG-P) from MPEG (M(n) = 550 and 2000) and phosphoric acid (P), or its derivatives - pyrophosphoric acid (PY), polyphosphoric acid (PP) and POCl(3)- are described and compared. MPEG-P was isolated in a pure state (no detectable impurities) and characterized.

  11. Total synthesis of zincophorin methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Defosseux, Magali; Blanchard, Nicolas; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine

    2003-10-30

    [reaction: see text]. A convergent total synthesis of the methyl ester of zincophorin, an ionophore antibiotic, has been realized relying on a diastereoselective titanium-mediated aldol coupling between the C1-C12 and C13-C25 subunits. The latter fragment was prepared by using a Carroll-Claisen rearrangement.

  12. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2805 Acrylate ester. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an...

  13. Oxidative stability of estolide esters using PDSC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides are obtained by the formation of a carbocation that can undergo nucleophilic addition with or without carbocation migration along the length of the chain. The carboxylic acid functionality of one fatty acid links to the site of unsaturation of another fatty acid to form oligomeric esters. ...

  14. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, incl...

  15. CELLULOSE NITRATE-ACETATE MIXED ESTERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    cellulose acetate . The degree of polymerization of the products, as estimated from viscosity data, shows the occurrence of chain degradation for both...mixed esters showed tensile strength at least comparable to that of films of cellulose nitrate or cellulose acetate . The impact sensitivity of the

  16. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of catonic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrogen hydrolysis rate constant.

  17. Expanding the modular ester fermentative pathways for combinatorial biosynthesis of esters from volatile organic acids.

    PubMed

    Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic acids are byproducts of fermentative metabolism, for example, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes, and are often times undesired inhibiting cell growth and reducing directed formation of the desired products. Here, we devised a general framework for upgrading these volatile organic acids to high-value esters that can be used as flavors, fragrances, solvents, and biofuels. This framework employs the acid-to-ester modules, consisting of an AAT (alcohol acyltransferase) plus ACT (acyl CoA transferase) submodule and an alcohol submodule, for co-fermentation of sugars and organic acids to acyl CoAs and alcohols to form a combinatorial library of esters. By assembling these modules with the engineered Escherichia coli modular chassis cell, we developed microbial manufacturing platforms to perform the following functions: (i) rapid in vivo screening of novel AATs for their catalytic activities; (ii) expanding combinatorial biosynthesis of unique fermentative esters; and (iii) upgrading volatile organic acids to esters using single or mixed cell cultures. To demonstrate this framework, we screened for a set of five unique and divergent AATs from multiple species, and were able to determine their novel activities as well as produce a library of 12 out of the 13 expected esters from co-fermentation of sugars and (C2-C6) volatile organic acids. We envision the developed framework to be valuable for in vivo characterization of a repertoire of not-well-characterized natural AATs, expanding the combinatorial biosynthesis of fermentative esters, and upgrading volatile organic acids to high-value esters. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1764-1776. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Triterpene hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters and a quinic acid purpurogallin carbonyl ester from the leaves of Castanopsis fissa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Lin; Tsujita, Takaaki; Tanaka, Takashi; Matsuo, Yosuke; Kouno, Isao; Li, Dian-Peng; Nonaka, Gen-ichiro

    2011-11-01

    Triterpene hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) esters have only been isolated from Castanopsis species, and the distribution of these esters in nature is of chemotaxonomical interest. In this study, the chemical constituents of the leaves of Castanopsis fissa were examined in detail to identify and isolate potential HHDP esters. Together with 53 known compounds, 3,4-di-O-galloyl-1-O-purpurogallin carbonyl quinic acid (1) and 3,24-(S)-HHDP-2α,3β,23,24-tetrahydroxytaraxastan-28,20β-olide (2) were isolated and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The polyphenols of the leaves were mainly composed of galloyl quinic acids, triterpenes HHDP esters, ellagitannins and flavonol glycosides. In particular, the isolation yields of 1,3,4-trigalloyl quinic acid and compound 2 were 1.53% and 0.27%, respectively, from the fresh leaves. The presence of lipid soluble HHDP esters of oleanane-type triterpenes as one of the major metabolites is an important chemotaxonomical discovery. Lipase inhibition activities and ORAC values of the major constituents were compared. The triterpene HHDP ester showed moderate lipase inhibition activity and myricitrin gave the largest ORAC value.

  19. Flavor-active esters: adding fruitiness to beer.

    PubMed

    Verstrepen, Kevin J; Derdelinckx, Guy; Dufour, Jean-Pierre; Winderickx, Joris; Thevelein, Johan M; Pretorius, Isak S; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2003-01-01

    As they are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages, volatile esters constitute an important group of aromatic compounds in beer. In modern high-gravity fermentations, which are performed in tall cylindroconical vessels, the beer ester balance is often sub-optimal, resulting in a clear decrease in beer quality. Despite the intensive research aimed at unravelling the precise mechanism and regulation of ester synthesis, our current knowledge remains far from complete. However, a number of factors that influence flavor-active ester production have already been described, including wort composition, wort aeration and fermentor design. A thoughtful adaptation of these parameters allows brewers to steer ester concentrations and thus to control the fruity character of their beers. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the biochemistry behind yeast ester synthesis and discusses the different factors that allow ester formation to be controlled during brewery fermentation.

  20. One new triterpene ester from Nepeta suavis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Khan, Farman Ullah; Ur Rehman, Najeeb; Ullah, Riaz; Mohmmad, Zia; Tasleem, S; Naeem, A; Shah, M Raza

    2009-12-01

    One new tetracyclic triterpene ester (1) has been isolated from the chloroform-soluble portion of the whole plant of Nepeta suavis along with two known compounds, namely artemetin (2) and jaceidin (3). The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR techniques such as COSY, HMQC, and HMBC experiments and comparison with the literature data.

  1. Withanolides and Sucrose Esters from Physalis neomexicana.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cong-Mei; Wu, Xiaoqing; Kindscher, Kelly; Xu, Liang; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2015-10-23

    Four withanolides (1-4) and two sucrose esters (5, 6) were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis neomexicana. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated through a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity studies of the isolates revealed that 2 inhibited human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) with IC50 values of 1.7 and 6.3 μM, respectively.

  2. Bacteriopheophorbide esters: photosensitizers without "threshold dose"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Joerg G.; Ostrowsky, Andreas; Guemuesdagli, Maria; Kleiber, Beate

    1994-03-01

    Uptake and phototoxicity of the methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl, and 2-propyl esters of 132- hydroxy bacteriopheophorbide a were studied in OAT 75 SCLC cells and 3 different amelanotic melanoma cell lines. (A 375, Melur SP 18, SkAMel 25). Specific phototoxicity did not substantially differ for the different esters. Most surprisingly, these photosensitizers did not show any significant threshold behavior: even at 25 (mu) W/cm2 (775 nm, diode laser) cancer cell suspensions were killed in a time-dependent logarithmic fashion. Furthermore, phototoxicity is enhanced at low power densities if compared with the effects at 1 - 10 mW/cm2. This can be related only in part to a lack of oxygen at higher power densities. Complementary experiments confirmed that threshold is power but not dose dependent. Thus, threshold power density should be included into a prospective list of criteria characterizing photosensitizers suitable for photodynamic cancer therapy. The obvious lack of a limiting power density in bacteriopheophobide a esters make these sensitizers a prospective tool for tumor therapy in considerable tissue depth.

  3. Calorimetric study of peroxycarboxylic ester synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, L; Knorr, A

    2009-04-30

    Exothermic reactions involving organic peroxides carry a high potential hazard and must be considered with care. A safe handling requires, among others, the assessment of thermal process safety, for which safety characteristics like overall heat production and the resulting adiabatic temperature rise are essential. The article presents the results of the calorimetric investigation of the synthesis of four peroxycarboxylic esters, three tert-Butyl and one tert-Amyl peroxycarboxylic ester. In the two-step synthesis the second one clearly shows the higher exothermic potential. The overall heat production lies in the range of 126-135 kJ/mol and is nearly independent of the carboxylic acid residual in the tert-Butyl peroxycarboxylic ester. The calculated adiabatic temperature rise is 70-80K. Influence of temperature and feed rate on the heat generation is discussed for one species. A grading of the synthesis with respect to temperature levels according to the criticality classes by Stoessel leads to the most critical for an exothermic reaction.

  4. Parameters Affecting Ethyl Ester Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Fermentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Saerens, S. M. G.; Delvaux, F.; Verstrepen, K. J.; Van Dijck, P.; Thevelein, J. M.; Delvaux, F. R.

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

  5. Design, Synthesis and Study of Catalysts for Organophosphate Ester Hydrolysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    catalysts for phosphate ester hydrolyses which are modelled after carbonic anhydrase (CA) and alkaline phosphatase (APase). Section II describes the...Catalysts for Hydrolysis of Phosphate Esters. Alkaline phosphatases (APases) are Zn(II)- and Mg(II)- containing metalloenzymes found in virtually every...E TA "APR 14 07 k-1 le -p /m mm Alkaline phosphatase , models, catalysis, organophosphate ester, hydrolysis, metal ion 2"n.VUAC? - ",N-060 p MV ad& N

  6. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  7. Specific binding of phorbol ester tumor promoters

    PubMed Central

    Driedger, Paul E.; Blumberg, Peter M.

    1980-01-01

    [20-3H]Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate bound to particulate preparations from chicken embryo fibroblasts in a specific, saturable, reversible fashion. Equilibrium binding occurred with a Kd of 25 nM; this value is very close to the 50% effective dose (ED50), 50 nM, previously determined for the biological response (induction of fibronectin loss) in growing chicken embryo fibroblasts. At saturation, 1.4 pmol of [20-3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate was bound per mg of protein (approximately 7 × 104 molecules per cell). Binding was inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (Ki = 2 nM), mezerein (Ki = 180 nM), phorbol 12,13-dibenzoate (Ki = 180 nM), phorbol 12,13-diacetate (Ki = 1.7 μM), phorbol 12,13,20-triacetate (Ki = 39 μM), and phorbol 13-acetate (Ki = 120 μM). The measured Ki values are all within a factor of 3.5 of the ED50 values of these derivatives for inducing loss of fibronectin in intact cells. Binding was not inhibited by the inactive compounds phorbol (10 μg/ml) and 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (10 μg/ml) or by the inflammatory but nonpromoting phorbol-related diterpene esters resiniferatoxin (100 ng/ml) and 12-deoxyphorbol 13-isobutyrate 20-acetate (100 ng/ml). These data suggest that biological responses to the phorbol esters in chicken embryo fibroblasts are mediated by this binding activity and that the binding activity corresponds to the phorbol ester target in mouse skin involved in tumor promotion. Binding was not inhibited by the nonphorbol promoters anthralin (1 μM), phenol (1 mM), iodoacetic acid (1.7 μM), and cantharidin (75 μM), or by epidermal growth factor (100 ng/ml), dexamethasone acetate (2 μM), retinoic acid (10 μM), or prostaglandin E2 (1 μM). These agents thus appear to act at a target distinct from that of the phorbol esters. PMID:6965793

  8. Bioactive caffeic acid esters from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    PubMed

    Dey, Surajit; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Setty, Manjunath; D'Souza, Prashanth; Agarwal, Amit; Sangli, Gopal Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Thin layer chromatography bioautography (using DPPH spray reagent) guided fractionation of Glycyrrhiza glabra led to the isolation of two caffeic acid derivative esters, viz. eicosanyl caffeate (1) and docosyl caffeate (2). The two compounds exhibited potent elastase inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.99 microg mL(-1) and 1.4 microg mL(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The compounds also showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The results indicate a possible role of caffeic acid derivatives, in addition to flavonoids in the anti-ulcer properties of G. glabra.

  9. Transferable force field for carboxylate esters: application to fatty acid methylic ester phase equilibria prediction.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Boutin, Anne

    2012-03-15

    In this work, a new transferable united-atoms force field for carboxylate esters is proposed. All Lennard-Jones parameters are reused from previous parametrizations of the AUA4 force field, and only a unique set of partial electrostatic charges is introduced for the ester chemical function. Various short alkyl-chain esters (methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate) and two fatty acid methylic esters (methyl oleate and methyl palmitate) are studied. Using this new force field in Monte Carlo simulations, we show that various pure compound properties are accurately predicted: saturated liquid densities, vapor pressures, vaporization enthalpies, critical properties, liquid-vapor surface tensions. Furthermore, a good accuracy is also obtained in the prediction of binary mixture pressure-composition diagrams, without introducing empirical binary interaction parameters. This highlights the transferability of the proposed force field and gives the opportunity to simulate mixtures of industrial interest: a demonstration is performed through the simulation of the methyl oleate + methanol mixture involved in the purification sections of biodiesel production processes.

  10. Effects of high-melting methyl esters on crystallization properties of fatty acid methyl ester mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats. The most common form of biodiesel in the United States are fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from soybean, canola, and used cooking oils, waste greases, and tallow. Cold flow properties of biodiesel depend on th...

  11. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity. Localization and role in distribution of cholesteryl ester among lipoproteins in man.

    PubMed

    Groener, J E; Van Rozen, A J; Erkelens, D W

    1984-03-01

    The cholesteryl ester exchange/transfer protein is involved in the transport of cholesteryl ester from high density lipoproteins (HDL) to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL). Localization of cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) in plasma was studied by measuring CETA in various delipidated fractions from a single step density ultracentrifugation gradient of plasma. CETA was measured in an in vitro system by calculating the exchange of cholesteryl ester in a standard mixture of [3H]CE-HDL and LDL. The method used for the delipidation of plasmas and fractions to be tested was critical. Optimal results were obtained by delipidation with diisopropylether-butanol (60: 40, v/v) at O degrees C. The bulk of CETA was detected in HDL3 (1.125 less than d less than 1.210 g/ml) when the lipoproteins were separated by single-step density gradient ultracentrifugation and in the 'lipoprotein-free' fraction (d greater than 1.250 g/ml) when the lipoproteins were separated by flotation ultracentrifugation including two washes. To determine whether CETA plays a role in the distribution of cholesteryl ester among the various lipoproteins, it was measured in whole plasma from normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. Plasma was delipidated before the assay in order to prevent bias due to variation of cholesterol content. CETA was higher in delipidated plasma of hyperlipidemic subjects (117.3 +/- 36.5 nmol CE/ml/h) than in delipidated plasma of normolipidemic controls (68.7 +/- 17.6 nmol CE/ml/h) (P less than 0.005). A positive correlation (r = 0.80, P less than 0.005) was found between CETA and (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol levels. A negative correlation (r = 0.57, P less than 0.05) existed between CETA and HDL cholesterol. This correlation was found both in the group as a whole and within the normal and the hyperlipidemic groups separately. The activity of the cholesteryl ester transfer appears to be a regulatory factor in the distribution of cholesteryl

  12. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC–TOFMS

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC–TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC–TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

  13. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10309 - Ethoxylated, propoxylated diamine diaryl substituted phenylmethane ester with alkenylsuccinate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diaryl substituted phenylmethane ester with alkenylsuccinate (generic). 721.10309 Section 721.10309... Ethoxylated, propoxylated diamine diaryl substituted phenylmethane ester with alkenylsuccinate (generic). (a... generically as ethoxylated, propoxylated diamine diaryl substituted phenylmethane ester with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  6. Engineering modular ester fermentative pathways in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2014-11-01

    Sensation profiles are observed all around us and are made up of many different molecules, such as esters. These profiles can be mimicked in everyday items for their uses in foods, beverages, cosmetics, perfumes, solvents, and biofuels. Here, we developed a systematic 'natural' way to derive these products via fermentative biosynthesis. Each ester fermentative pathway was designed as an exchangeable ester production module for generating two precursors- alcohols and acyl-CoAs that were condensed by an alcohol acyltransferase to produce a combinatorial library of unique esters. As a proof-of-principle, we coupled these ester modules with an engineered, modular, Escherichia coli chassis in a plug-and-play fashion to create microbial cell factories for enhanced anaerobic production of a butyrate ester library. We demonstrated tight coupling between the modular chassis and ester modules for enhanced product biosynthesis, an engineered phenotype useful for directed metabolic pathway evolution. Compared to the wildtype, the engineered cell factories yielded up to 48 fold increase in butyrate ester production from glucose.

  7. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  12. Physical and monolayer film properties of potential fatty ester biolubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Linxing; Hammond, Earl G; Wang, Tong; Bu, Wei; Vaknin, David

    2014-04-03

    The desire to replace petroleum-based lubricants with alternatives that are environmentally friendly and made from sustainable sources has encouraged the development of biolubricants based on vegetable oils. To be good lubricants, the materials should have low melting points, appropriate viscosity and oxidative stability. In this paper, we report the melting point and viscosity of oleate esters of ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, and pentaerythritol as well as the decanoate esters of 2,3-butanediol and the 12-methyltetradecanoate esters of 1,2-propanediol. Polyol esters that have a free hydroxy group had lower melting points than the completely esterified polyols, but the completely esterified polyol esters exhibited less change in viscosity with temperature than those having a free hydroxy group. 2, 3-Butanediol monooleate, which melted at -48.6°C shows promise as a biolubricant, but its viscosity index was estimated to be 100. Pentaerythritol oleate esters, with melting points below -10°C and viscosity indices in the range of 170–197, may be suitable candidates as biolubricants. The behavior of esters spread as a monomolecular film at air/water interface may provide insight into the way they behave when spread on metal or polar surfaces, so the pressure-area isotherms of 2,3-butanediol monoleate and selected esters are also reported.

  13. The Preparation and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Library of Esters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Smith, Traci L.

    2008-01-01

    An investigative case study involving the preparation of a library of esters using Fischer esterification and alcoholysis of acid chlorides and their subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by pig liver esterase and orange peel esterase is described. Students work collaboratively to prepare and characterize the library of esters and complete and evaluate…

  14. Preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakar; Spivey, James Jerry; Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  15. 75 FR 71556 - Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters; the... unsaturated, fatty acids containing up to 15% water by weight reacted with a minimum of three moles of...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  19. Preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-09-15

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  20. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  2. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  3. Use of bis-(chiral alpha-methylbenzyl)glycine esters for synthesis of enantiopure beta-hydroxyamino esters.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Ayako; Norton, Emily B; Williamson, R Thomas; Ho, Douglas M; Sinishtaj, Sandra; Mansour, Tarek S

    2003-09-04

    [reaction: see text] Aldol reactions using bis-(chiral alpha-methylbenzyl)glycine esters with aldehydes gave excellent diastereoselectivity. Thus, an enantiopure ribosylglycine was prepared for the synthesis of analogues of the natural antibiotics muraymycin. This method was extended for formation of beta-hydroxyamino esters.

  4. Cognitive effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jonathan; Kritikos, Minos; Tiplady, Brian

    2009-12-01

    Supplementation with creatine-based substances as a means of enhancing athletic performance has become widespread. Until recently, however, the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance has been given little attention. This study used a new form of creatine--creatine ethyl ester--to investigate whether supplementation would improve performance in five cognitive tasks, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Creatine dosing led to an improvement over the placebo condition on several measures. Although creatine seems to facilitate cognition on some tasks, these results require replication using objective measures of compliance. The improvement is discussed in the context of research examining the influence of brain energy capacity on cognitive performance.

  5. Cholesteryl esters in human malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tosi, M R; Bottura, G; Lucchi, P; Reggiani, A; Trinchero, A; Tugnoli, V

    2003-01-01

    Cholesteryl esters (CholE) were detected in human malignant neoplasms by means of in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis of the total lipid extracts obtained from cerebral tumors revealed appreciable amount of esterified cholesterol in high grade gliomas such as glioblastomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, characterized by prominent neovascularity. The finding that no CholE were detected in the healthy brain and in low grade and benign tumors supports a possible correlation between this class of lipids and histological vascular proliferation. Compared with high grade gliomas, renal cell carcinomas show higher levels of CholE, absent in the healthy renal parenchyma and in benign oncocytomas. In nefro-carcinomas, cytoplasmic lipid inclusions and prominent vascularization contribute to the increased levels of CholE present mainly as oleate. CholE are discussed as potential biochemical markers of cancer and as a target for new therapeutic strategies.

  6. Phosphorylation of Kraft fibers with phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Belosinschi, Dan; Brouillette, François; Belfkira, Ahmed; Chabot, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    Phosphate esters, derived from two different long-chain aliphatic alcohols, were used as phosphorylating reagents for Kraft pulp fibers. High phosphorus contents and almost non-degraded fibers were obtained by following this pathway. The phosphorylation efficiency was influenced by the alkyl chain length of PEs since the phosphorus content in modified fibers was higher for the shorter chain reagent. Due to the heterogeneous reaction environment, the amount of grafted phosphorus was found to be almost three times higher at the surface than in the bulk of the fibers. Analyses also indicated that the phosphorus was bonded to fibers as a phosphate-like structure. Furthermore, the situation seemed to be different for the fiber surface where significant amounts of phosphorus were present in more complex structures like pyrophosphate or even oligo-phosphate.

  7. Ketone ester effects on metabolism and transcription.

    PubMed

    Veech, Richard L

    2014-10-01

    Ketosis induced by starvation or feeding a ketogenic diet has widespread and often contradictory effects due to the simultaneous elevation of both ketone bodies and free fatty acids. The elevation of ketone bodies increases the energy of ATP hydrolysis by reducing the mitochondrial NAD couple and oxidizing the coenzyme Q couple, thus increasing the redox span between site I and site II. In contrast, metabolism of fatty acids leads to a reduction of both mitochondrial NAD and mitochondrial coenzyme Q causing a decrease in the ΔG of ATP hydrolysis. In contrast, feeding ketone body esters leads to pure ketosis, unaccompanied by elevation of free fatty acids, producing a physiological state not previously seen in nature. The effects of pure ketosis on transcription and upon certain neurodegenerative diseases make approach not only interesting, but of potential therapeutic value.

  8. Ketone ester effects on metabolism and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Veech, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis induced by starvation or feeding a ketogenic diet has widespread and often contradictory effects due to the simultaneous elevation of both ketone bodies and free fatty acids. The elevation of ketone bodies increases the energy of ATP hydrolysis by reducing the mitochondrial NAD couple and oxidizing the coenzyme Q couple, thus increasing the redox span between site I and site II. In contrast, metabolism of fatty acids leads to a reduction of both mitochondrial NAD and mitochondrial coenzyme Q causing a decrease in the ΔG of ATP hydrolysis. In contrast, feeding ketone body esters leads to pure ketosis, unaccompanied by elevation of free fatty acids, producing a physiological state not previously seen in nature. The effects of pure ketosis on transcription and upon certain neurodegenerative diseases make approach not only interesting, but of potential therapeutic value. PMID:24714648

  9. Occurrence of 3-monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters in commercial infant formulas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jessica; MacMahon, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    This work presents occurrence data for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol in 98 infant formula samples purchased in the United States. These contaminants are considered potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in refined oils and foods a potential health risk. Recently, attention has focused on methodology to quantify MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula for risk-assessment purposes. Occurrence data for 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters were produced using a procedure for extracting fat from infant formula and an LC-MS/MS method for analysing fat extracts for intact esters. Infant formulas were produced by seven manufacturers, five of which use palm oil and/or palm olein in their formulations. In formulas containing palm/palm olein, concentrations for bound 3-MCPD and glycidol ranged from 0.021 to 0.92 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm) and from < LOQ to 0.40 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm), respectively. Formulas not containing palm/palm olein, bound 3-MCPD and glycidol concentrations ranged from 0.072 to 0.16 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm) and from 0.005 to 0.15 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm), respectively. Although formulas from manufacturers A and G did not contain palm/palm olein, formulas from manufacturer E (containing palm olein) had the lowest concentrations of bound 3-MCPD and glycidol, demonstrating the effectiveness of industrial mitigation strategies.

  10. Short-chain aliphatic ester synthesis using Thermobifida fusca cutinase.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingqia; Hong, Ruoyu; Guo, Xiaojie; Wu, Jing; Xia, Yongmei

    2016-09-01

    Short-chain aliphatic esters are commonly used as fruit flavorings in the food industry. In this study, Thermobifida fusca (T. fusca) cutinase was used for the synthesis of aliphatic esters, and the maximum yield of ethyl caproate reached 99.2% at a cutinase concentration of 50U/ml, 40°C, and water content of 0.5%, representing the highest ester yield to date. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification displayed strong tolerance for water content (up to 8%) and acid concentration (up to 0.8M). At substrate concentrations ⩽0.8M, the ester yield remained above 80%. Moreover, ester yields of more than 98% and 95% were achieved for acids of C3-C8 and alcohols of C1-C6, respectively, indicating extensive chain length selectivity of the cutinase. These results demonstrate the superior ability of T. fusca cutinase to catalyze the synthesis of short-chain esters. This study provides the basis for industrial production of short-chain esters using T. fusca cutinase.

  11. Preparation of polyol esters based on vegetable and animal fats.

    PubMed

    Gryglewicz, S; Piechocki, W; Gryglewicz, G

    2003-03-01

    The possibility of using some natural fats: rapeseed oil, olive oil and lard, as starting material for the preparation of neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylol propane (TMP) esters is reported. The syntheses of final products were performed by alcoholysis of fatty acid methyl esters, obtained from natural fats studied, with the appropriate polyhydric alcohol using calcium methoxide as a catalyst. The basic physicochemical properties of the NPG and TMP esters synthesized were the following: viscosity at 40 degrees C in the range of 13.5-37.6 cSt, pour point between -10.5 and -17.5 degrees C and very high viscosity indices, higher than 200. Generally, the esters of neopentyl alcohols were characterized by higher stability in thermo-oxidative conditions in comparison to native triglycerides. Due to the low content of polyunsaturated acids, the olive oil based esters showed the highest thermo-oxidative resistance. Also, methyl esters of fatty acids of lard would constitute a good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils, provided that their saturated acids content was lowered. This permits synthesis of NPG and TMP esters with a lower pour point (below -10 degrees C) than natural lard (+33 degrees C).

  12. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    PubMed

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  13. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  14. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  15. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... additive is a mixture of esters produced by the lactylation of a product obtained by reacting edible...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  17. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... additive is a mixture of esters produced by the lactylation of a product obtained by reacting edible...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  20. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  1. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  2. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... additive is a mixture of esters produced by the lactylation of a product obtained by reacting edible...

  3. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... additive is a mixture of esters produced by the lactylation of a product obtained by reacting edible...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  5. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  6. Synthesis and low temperature characterization of iso-oleic ester derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new iso-oleic ester derivatives (i.e., isopropyl esters (IOA-iPrE), n-butyl esters (IOA-n-BuE), and 2-ethylhexyl esters (IOA-2-EHE)) were synthesized from iso-oleic acid (IOA) using a standard esterification method. These esterified alcohols were chosen because of their bulky and branched-cha...

  7. Structure-activity correlations for organophosphorus ester anticholinesterases. Part 2: CNDO/2 calculations applied to ester hydrolysis rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships are presented for the hydrolysis of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. CNDO/2 calculations provide values for molecular parameters that correlate with alkaline hydrolysis rates. For each subset of esters with the same leaving group, X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constants. For the whole set of esters with different leaving groups, equations are derived that relate charge, orbital energy and bond order to the hydrolysis rate constants.

  8. Stereoselective formation of trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters by the acid-mediated elimination of α-hydroxyboronate esters.

    PubMed

    Guan, Weiye; Michael, Alicia K; McIntosh, Melissa L; Koren-Selfridge, Liza; Scott, John P; Clark, Timothy B

    2014-08-01

    The copper-catalyzed diboration of ketones followed by an acid-catalyzed elimination leads to the formation of 1,1-disubstituted and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters with moderate to good yields and selectivity. Addition of tosic acid to the crude diboration products provides the corresponding vinyl boronate esters upon elimination. The trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters are formed as the (Z)-olefin isomer, which was established by subjecting the products to a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction to obtain alkenes of known geometry.

  9. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material

    PubMed Central

    Isherwood, F. A.; Barrett, F. C.

    1967-01-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol–water–aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether–formic acid–2-methylpropan-2-ol–water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5′-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract

  10. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  11. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  12. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty... physical or technical effect. (c) Polyglycerol esters of a mixture of stearic, oleic, and coconut...

  13. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) They are prepared from corn oil, cottonseed oil, lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil...) Polyglycerol esters of a mixture of stearic, oleic, and coconut fatty acids are used as a cloud inhibitor...

  14. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty... physical or technical effect. (c) Polyglycerol esters of a mixture of stearic, oleic, and coconut...

  15. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty... physical or technical effect. (c) Polyglycerol esters of a mixture of stearic, oleic, and coconut...

  16. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty... physical or technical effect. (c) Polyglycerol esters of a mixture of stearic, oleic, and coconut...

  17. Long-acting contraceptive agents: testosterone esters of unsaturated acids.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C G; Freire, R; Gawronski, J; Hernández, R; Kielczewski, M; Salazar, J A; Savabi, F; Shafiee, A; Strekowski, L; Suárez, E

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of 13 new esters of testosterone is described, with the esterifying acids bearing acetylenic, olefinic, or polyunsaturated functions in the chain, for evaluation as long-acting androgens.

  18. Long-acting contraceptive agents: levonorgestrel esters of unsaturated acids.

    PubMed

    Wan, A S; Ngiam, T L; Leung, S L; Go, M L; Francisco, C G; Freire, R; Hernandez, R; Salazar, J A; Suarez, E; García, G A

    1983-03-01

    Esters of levonorgestrel (13 beta-ethyl-17 beta-ethynyl-17 beta-hydroxygon-4-en-3-one) with a variety of unsaturated carboxylic acids have been synthesized for evaluation as potential long-acting, injectable contraceptive agents.

  19. [The breakdown of phthalic acid esters by microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Samsonova, A S; Slizen', Z M

    1990-01-01

    The distribution in environment of phthalic acid esters classified according to their inherent toxicity, teratogenic, mutagenic properties and cancerogenic activity into a group of priority pollutants of biosphere is described in this review. The role of microbial community in degradation of phthalate esters has been demonstrated. The effect of such environmental factors as pH of the medium, temperature, humidity, concentration of organic matter, the introduction of promising microbial strains in natural biocenoses has been examined. The pathways of phthalate ester metabolism have been analysed in representatives of active bacterial destructors belonging to genera Nocardia, Pseudomonas and Micrococcus. The decomposition rate of phthalate esters has been shown to be correlated with structure, concentration and culture conditions.

  20. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  1. New sucrose esters from the fruits of Physalis solanaceus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castorena, Ana-Lidia; Luna, Minerva; Martínez, Mahinda; Maldonado, Emma

    2012-05-01

    Three new sucrose esters (1-3) along with several known compounds were isolated from the fruits of Physalis solanaceus. The structural elucidation of the isolates was based on their spectroscopic characteristics mainly those of MS and NMR.

  2. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  3. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  4. Incorporation of Epicatechin Esters into Lignin Enhances Cell Wall Fermentability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenolic catechin esters are potentially attractive targets for lignin bioengineering because their copolymerization with monolignols could reduce lignin hydrophobicity and cross-linking to polysaccharides, or facilitate delignification by biomass pretreatments. To test this hypothesis, we biomi...

  5. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  6. Hydrolysis of organic esters at the mineral/water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Torrents, A.

    1992-01-01

    Organic esters are widely used as insecticides and are part of many commercial products and industrial processes. When these compounds are released into the environment, they contaminate natural resources. To assess their fate and transport it is important to explore degradation and retainment processes. Numerous previous studies have studied the role of adsorption in lowering pollutant concentration and retarding pollutant migration into soils. However, adsorption at the mineral/water interface also affects the mechanisms of degradation and reaction rates. This dissertation research focuses on the ability of metal oxides to catalyze ester hydrolysis and a reaction mechanism is proposed. Furthermore, the authors studied the role of natural occurring adsorbates on the reaction rates. The oxides used in this study are amorphous silica (SiO[sub 2]), [gamma]-aluminum oxide (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]), anatase (TiO[sub 2]), and geothite (FeOOH). These either occur naturally, or are similar to naturally occurring surfaces. The capability of such oxides to catalyze ester hydrolysis was studied in batch reactors. The organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acid esters and organophosphate pesticides. The hydrolysis of several esters was catalyzed by the presence of oxide suspensions; the extent of catalysis was dependent on the ester structure, the metal oxide, and solution composition. Results suggest that catalysis for carboxylate esters occurs via a surface chelate formation between the carbonyl oxygen, a second donor group of the ester and the surface metal. The presence of organic co-solvents appears to diminish the catalytic effect. Inhibition of surface catalysis was also observed from specific adsorption of naturally occurring ions onto the oxide surface. Natural organic matter was also observed to influence surface catalysis. This research suggests that mineral surfaces may have a role in abiotic transformations of organic pollutants.

  7. Pyrazinoic acid esters with broad spectrum in vitro antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Cynamon, M H; Gimi, R; Gyenes, F; Sharpe, C A; Bergmann, K E; Han, H J; Gregor, L B; Rapolu, R; Luciano, G; Welch, J T

    1995-09-29

    A series of substituted pyrazinoic acid esters has been prepared and examined for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium kansasii as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Modification of both the pyrazine nucleus and the ester functionality have been very successful in expanding the activity of pyrazinamide to include M. avium and M. kansasii, organisms normally not susceptible to pyrazinamide. Several of these compounds have activities 100-1000-fold greater than that of pyrazinamide against M. tuberculosis.

  8. Cyanate Ester Composite Resins Derived from Renewable Polyphenol Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    time to prepare model compounds 3 and 4 (Scheme 4). Recently a chiral version of compound 4 was prepared although no cure chemistry of the cyanate ester...the cure exotherm and its peak temperature near 200 °C suggest that the system is self- catalyzing , either through the presence of impurities or...this could be due to degradation or other chemical reactions triggered at high temperature. Ester groups have been shown to catalyze the cure of

  9. Sunflower methyl esters for direct injected diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.

    1984-11-01

    A methyl ester of sunflower oil was durability tested in direct injected, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. A test cycle recommended by the Alternate Fuels Committee of the Engine Manufacturer's Assocation was used. The results are compared to a baseline test using diesel fuel. Based on the results, the methyl ester fuel successfully completed the 200-hour durability test. Field tests and engine manufacturers evaluations are needed to further quantify the long term effect of the fuel on engine durability. 14 references.

  10. Progress Report: Oxidation Stability Studies of Deuterated Esters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-26

    esterification goes to completion and hydrolysis does not occur. *i (ii) In the presence of a catalyst (p-toluene sulphonic -" acid ), a fairly low...compounds with the antioxidant. The enhancement in oxidation stability attributable to deuteration (97%) of the acid moiety of the ester appears to be 3...meet these requirements. These esters exhibit very good thermal and oxidative stability at high temperatures (>2000C), excellent viscosity

  11. Kinetic modelling of vinyl ester resin polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dhulipala, R.; Kreig. G.; Hawley, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    The study of kinetics offers a substantional incentive in the endeavor to manufacture polymer matrix composites at high speeds. The study enables one to optimize the curing cycle based on the specific curing characteristics of the resin and also makes it possible to simulate the curing process. This paper reports the results of the modelling of the thermal curing of the vinyl ester resin. The parameters for the proposed model have been calculated based on conversion-vs-data generated at various temperatures and Benzoyl peroxide (initiator) concentrations. The extent of cure of the resin mixture was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. In this model the termination rate constant is considered to drop with extent of cure until a limiting value is reached. The limiting value is a consequence of the active chain ends possessing a degree of mobility due to the propagation reaction even though the translational motion of the growing for radicals in increasingly restricted with conversion. Good agreements is observed between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  12. Fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

    2012-05-01

    During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence.

  13. Differences in substrate specificities of five bacterial wax ester synthases.

    PubMed

    Barney, Brett M; Wahlen, Bradley D; Garner, EmmaLee; Wei, Jiashi; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2012-08-01

    Wax esters are produced in certain bacteria as a potential carbon and energy storage compound. The final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a range of fatty alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. We report here the isolation and substrate range characterization for five WS/DGAT enzymes from four different bacteria: Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, Acinetobacter baylyi, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5. The results from kinetic studies of isolated enzymes reveal a differential activity based on the order of substrate addition and reveal subtle differences between the substrate selectivity of the different enzymes. These in vitro results are compared to the wax ester and triacylglyceride product profiles obtained from each organism grown under neutral lipid accumulating conditions, providing potential insights into the role that the WS/DGAT enzyme plays in determining the final wax ester products that are produced under conditions of nutrient stress in each of these bacteria. Further, the analysis revealed that one enzyme in particular from M. aquaeolei VT8 showed the greatest potential for future study based on rapid purification and significantly higher activity than was found for the other isolated WS/DGAT enzymes. The results provide a framework to test prospective differences between these enzymes for potential biotechnological applications such as high-value petrochemicals and biofuel production.

  14. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  15. Incomplete hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters during the enzymatic cholesterol determination as evidenced by aqueous cholesteryl ester solutions: comparison of six enzymatic procedures with the Liebermann-Burchard method.

    PubMed

    Tel, R M; Berends, G T

    1980-10-01

    Aqueous solutions of cholesterol and some cholesteryl esters were prepared. The hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters with enzymatic methods could therefore be studied in some detail. The total cholesterol concentration of the aqueous cholesterol and cholesteryl ester solutions was determined by 6 different enzymatic procedures as well as the Liebermann-Burchard method. For some esters (acetate and arachidonate esters) the esterase reaction is not complete within the usual reaction time, whereas most other esters gave analytical results lower than the theoretical. With the Liebermann-Burchard method all esters reacted completely within the reaction time. The esterase have very different specificities for the various cholesteryl esters. With the enzymatic method several commercial control sera as well as human sera gave lower cholesterol concentrations than the Liebermann-Burchard method. These differences can be explained mainly by this incomplete hydrolysis. Some practical recommendations are given.

  16. Request from the Phthalate Esters Panel of the American Chemistry Council for correction of EPA's Action Plan for Phthalate Esters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Phthalate Esters Panel (Panel) of the American Chemistry Council submits this Request for Correction to EPA under the Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity, of Information Disseminated by the Environmental Protection Agency

  17. Involvement of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 in platelet activation: tyrosine phosphorylation mostly dependent on alphaIIbbeta3 integrin and protein kinase C, translocation to the cytoskeleton and association with Shc through Grb2.

    PubMed Central

    Ohmori, T; Yatomi, Y; Asazuma, N; Satoh, K; Ozaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) (also known as RAFTK, CAKbeta or CADTK) has been identified as a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family of protein-tyrosine kinases and it has been suggested that the mode of Pyk2 activation is distinct from that of FAK. In the present study we investigated the mode of Pyk2 activation in human platelets. When platelets were stimulated with thrombin, Pyk2, as well as FAK, was markedly tyrosine-phosphorylated, in a manner mostly dependent on alphaIIbbeta3 integrin-mediated aggregation. The residual Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation observed in the absence of platelet aggregation was completely abolished by pretreatment with BAPTA/AM [bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid acetoxymethyl ester]. The Pyk2 phosphorylation was inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors at concentrations that inhibited platelet aggregation. In contrast, direct activation of PKC with the active phorbol ester PMA induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK but only when platelets were fully aggregated with the exogenous addition of fibrinogen (the ligand for alphaIIbbeta3 integrin). Furthermore, PMA-induced Pyk2 (and FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation was also observed when platelets adhered to immobilized fibrinogen. The activation of the von Willebrand factor (vWF)--glycoprotein Ib pathway with botrocetin together with vWF failed to induce Pyk2 (and FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation. Most Pyk2 and FAK was present in the cytosol and membrane skeleton fractions in unstimulated platelets. When platelets were stimulated with thrombin, both Pyk2 and FAK were translocated to the cytoskeleton in an aggregation-dependent manner. In immunoprecipitation studies, Pyk2, as well as FAK, seemed to associate with Shc through Grb2. With the use of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing Shc-SH2, Grb2-SH2, and Grb2 N-terminal and C-terminal SH3 domains, it was implied that the proline-rich region of Pyk2 (and FAK) binds to the N

  18. Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jessica K; MacMahon, Shaun

    2016-12-14

    A method was developed for the extraction of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol from infant formula, followed by quantitative analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These process-induced chemical contaminants are found in refined vegetable oils, and studies have shown that they are potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction, where powdered infant formula is dissolved in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Following shaking, centrifugation, and drying of the organic phase, the resulting fat extract is cleaned-up using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance was confirmed by verifying the percent recovery of each 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester in a homemade powdered infant formula reference material. Average ester recoveries in the reference material ranged from 84.9 to 109.0% (0.6-9.5% RSD). The method was also validated by fortifying three varieties of commercial infant formulas with a 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester solution. Average recoveries of the esters across all concentrations and varieties of infant formula ranged from 88.7 to 107.5% (1.0-9.5% RSD). Based on the validation results, this method is suitable for producing 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester occurrence data in all commercially available varieties of infant formula.

  19. Analytical approaches for MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in food and biological samples: a review and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Crews, C; Chiodini, A; Granvogl, M; Hamlet, C; Hrnčiřík, K; Kuhlmann, J; Lampen, A; Scholz, G; Weisshaar, R; Wenzl, T; Jasti, P R; Seefelder, W

    2013-01-01

    Esters of 2 - and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (MCPD) and glycidol esters are important contaminants of processed edible oils used as foods or food ingredients. This review describes the occurrence and analysis of MCPD esters and glycidol esters in vegetable oils and some other foods. The focus is on the analytical methods based on both direct and indirect methods. Methods of analysis applied to oils and lipid extracts of foods have been based on transesterification to free MCPD and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (indirect methods) and by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (direct methods). The evolution and performance of the different methods is described and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The application of direct and indirect methods to the analysis of foods and to research studies is described. The metabolism and fate of MCPD esters and glycidol esters in biological systems and the methods used to study these in body tissues studies are described. A clear understanding of the chemistry of the methods is important when choosing those suitable for the desired application, and will contribute to the mitigation of these contaminants.

  20. Rape oil methyl ester (RME) and used cooking oil methyl ester (UOME) as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria. As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self-made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organizations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels. The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.

  1. Fibers by bioresorbable poly(ester-ether-ester)s as potential suture threads: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Guerra, G D; Cerrai, P; Tricoli, M; Maltinti, S; Anguillesi, I; Barbani, N

    1999-01-01

    Fibers made by a bioresorbable poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-block-poly(oxyethylene)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer, having a number average molecular mass of about 200,000 Da and an average molar composition of 66% oxycaproyl units and 34% oxyethylene units, were melt-spun, with the aim at using them as suture threads. Their properties were investigated by the stress-strain test and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained show that the properties of this material depend very strongly on the alignment of its macromolecules. In particular, the only partial alignment, obtainable by a relatively moderate drawing just after the extrusion, leads to values of elongation at break too high for use of the fibers as suture threads. The DSC analysis reveals interesting properties of the material, but also confirms their strong dependence on the extrusion procedure and on the mechanical treatment. In conclusion, the results of this preliminary study show that the spinning technique must be improved, and that further investigations are necessary to ascertain the possibility of using these poly(ester-ether-ester)s for the fabrication of suture threads.

  2. Light induced degradation of phorbol esters.

    PubMed

    Yunping, Bu; Ha, Bui Thi Ngoc; Eunice, Yeo; Chueng, Lo Loong; Yan, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Jatropha curcas (Jatropha) is a tropical shrub that is gaining popularity as a biofuel feedstock plant. Phorbol esters (PEs) are tetracyclic tiglian diterpenoids that are present in Jatropha seeds and other parts of plant. Epidermal cell irritating and cancer promoting PEs not only reduce commercial values of Jatropha seed cake but also cause some safety and environment concerns on PE leaching to soil. A simple bioassay of PE toxicity was conducted by incubating 48 h old brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii with Jatropha oil for 24 h. 1-4% of Jatropha oil (corresponding to PE concentration of 25-100 mg L(-1)) had mortality rate of 5-95%, with LC50 estimated to be 2.7% of oil or 67 mg L(-1) of PE. Jatropha oil was incubated with clay or black soil (autoclaved or non-autoclaved) in the darkness or under sunlight for different periods of time before oil was re-extracted and tested for PE content by HPLC and for remaining toxicity with the brine shrimp bioassay. Under sunlight, PE decreased to non-detectable level within six days. Toxicity reduced to less than 5% mortality rate that is comparable to rapeseed oil control within the same period. In contrast, PE level and toxicity remained little changed when Jatropha oil was incubated in the darkness. Such PE degradation/detoxification was also found independent of the presence of soil or soil microorganisms. We conclude that sunlight directly degrades and detoxifies PEs and this finding should alleviate the concern on long term environmental impact of PE leaching.

  3. Lipoprotein products of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesteryl ester transfer.

    PubMed

    Rose, H G; Ellerbe, P

    1982-09-14

    High-density lipoprotein substrates and products of human plasma lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase have been labelled with radioisotopic cholesteryl esters in order to facilitate identification. [3H]Cholesteryl esters were formed by endogenous HDL3/VHDL enzyme (d greater than 1.125 g/ml) following incubation with mixed vesicles of phosphatidylcholine, unesterified cholesterol and 3H-labelled unesterified cholesterol. Transfer of labelled esters to acceptor lipoproteins (VLDL+LDL, d less than 1.063 g/ml) was employed to distinguish a hypothetical transfer complex. Separation of labelled HDL3/VHDL was by gel-permeation chromatography. The results indicate that a subpopulation of labelled HDL3/VHDL cholesteryl esters (43-61% of total) were removed by VLDL/LDL during a 3 h transfer period and these derive from the smaller lipoproteins of the spectrum. HDL carrying non-transferable [3H]cholesteryl esters localize to the larger HDL3. Transfer rates were proportional to ratios of acceptor to donor lipoproteins. Net transfer of cholesteryl esters from the smaller HDL3 also occurred, but was smaller in magnitude (about 10.5% of total). Acyltransferase assays indicated that enzyme distribution is skewed to larger-sized HDL3, suggesting that the non-transferable components might be lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase-containing parent complexes, while the smaller transfer products contain little acyltransferase. The results fit the hypothesis that a parent HDL3-lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase complex generates a smaller-sized lipoprotein product which is active in cholesteryl ester transport.

  4. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol.

  5. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters... following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive consists of a mixture of either methyl or ethyl esters...

  6. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters... following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive consists of a mixture of either methyl or ethyl esters...

  7. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters... following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive consists of a mixture of either methyl or ethyl esters...

  8. Synthesis and properties of differently charged chemiluminescent acridinium ester labels.

    PubMed

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David

    2013-02-14

    Chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl esters containing N-sulfopropyl groups in the acridinium ring are highly sensitive, hydrophilic labels that are used in automated immunoassays for clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered with alkaline peroxide in the presence of a cationic surfactant. At physiological pH, N-sulfopropyl acridinium esters exist as water adducts that are commonly referred to as pseudobases. Pseudobase formation, which results from addition of water to the zwitterionic N-sulfopropyl acridinium ring, neutralizes the positive charge on the acridinium nitrogen and imparts a net negative charge to the label due to the sulfonate moiety. As a consequence, N-sulfopropyl acridinium ester conjugates of small molecule haptens as well as large molecules such as proteins gain negative charges at neutral pH. In the current study, we describe the synthesis and properties of two new hydrophilic acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels where the net charge in the labels was altered. In one label, the structure of the hydrophilic N-alkyl group attached to the acridinium ring was changed so that the pseudobase of the label contains no net charge. In the second acridinium ester, two additional negative charges in the form of sulfopropyl groups were added to the acridinium ring to make this label's pseudobase strongly anionic. Chemiluminescence measurements of these labels, as well as their conjugates of an antibody with a neutral pI, indicate that acridinium ester charge while having a modest effect on emission kinetics has little influence on light output. However, our results demonstrate that acridinium ester charge can affect protein pI, apparent chemiluminescence stability and non-specific binding of protein conjugates to microparticles. These results emphasize the need for careful consideration of acridinium ester charge in order to optimize reagent stability and performance in immunoassays. In the current study, we observed that

  9. Effect of temperature stress on protein methyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, W.; Kracaw, K.

    1986-05-01

    Protein methyl esters have been implicated in a number of physiological processes. They have measured the effect of temperature stress on the levels of protein methyl esters in the mesophilic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum (PCPS) and the thermophilic fungus P. duponti (PD). PD and PCPS were incubated with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine. The mycelia were collected by filtration, frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground to a fine powder. The nitrogen powder was extracted with either phosphate buffer or with SDS, glycerol, phosphate, 2-mercaptoethanol. Insoluble material was removed by centrifugation. The supernatants were assayed for protein methyl esters. The released (/sup 3/H)methanol was extracted into toluene:isoamyl alcohol (3:2) and quantitated by liquid scintillation. The production of volatile methanol was confirmed by use of Conway diffusion cells. Soluble proteins accounted for about one-fourth of the total protein methyl ester extracted by SDS. In PCPS, the SDS extracted proteins have about three times the level of esterification of the soluble proteins whereas in PD there is little difference between soluble and SDS extracted protein. The level of protein esterification in PD is about one-tenth that observed in PCPS. Temperature stress caused large changes in the level of protein esterification. The data suggest protein methyl esters may contribute to the adaptation to environmental stress.

  10. Determination of testosterone esters and estradiol esters in bovine and porcine blood serum.

    PubMed

    Rejtharová, Martina; Rejthar, Libor; Čačková, Katarína

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring of steroid esters in blood serum is desirable in order to detect the possible illegal use of natural hormones as growth promoters. A method for the determination of testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone isocaproate, testosterone decanoate and estradiol benzoate in bovine and porcine blood serum was developed. The procedure consists of protein precipitation and removal of phospholipids using a HybridSPE®-Phospholipid column followed by clean-up on a hydrophilic modified styrene polymer Supel(TM)-Select HLB column and LC-MS/MS measurement. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Decision limits for all analytes were observed in the range 5-30 pg ml(-)(1). The method was shown to be robust for bovine and porcine serum analyses and can be applied for both screening and confirmatory determination in routine residue monitoring.

  11. Simultaneous determination and differentiation of glycidyl esters and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (MCPD) esters in different foodstuffs by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Küsters, Markus; Bimber, Ute; Reeser, Sebastian; Gallitzendörfer, Rainer; Gerhartz, Michael

    2011-06-08

    The aim of this study was the development of a method for the simultaneous determination and differentiation of fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters) and glycidol (glycidyl esters) in different foodstuffs. The esters were isolated from fat-rich food samples using a single extraction step and separated from interfering substances. For differentiation of 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters the glycidol moiety was converted into 3-methoxypropane-1,2-diol (3-MPD) by acidic alcoholysis. Subsequent determination was achieved by isotope dilution GC-MS after transesterification using an isotope-labeled 3-MCPD ester as internal standard. During optimization of the procedure, critical parameters affecting simultaneous determination and differentiation of these analytes were investigated. Rapid ester cleavage and derivatization at ambient temperature proved to be essential for the simultaneous determination of these analytes. The method was validated for various fat-rich foodstuffs such as bakery products, sweets, gravy, and soup powders as well as edible fats and oils. LODs of 8 and 15 μg/kg (fat-rich foodstuffs) as well as 50 and 65 μg/kg (edible oils and fats) were obtained for 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters, respectively. Recoveries for 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters ranged within 98 ± 4 and 88 ± 2% in all tested foodstuffs (0.05-2.5 mg/kg) and within 99 ± 16 and 93 ± 13% for edible oils and fats (0.15-3 mg/kg) over a wide concentration range. These results proved an accurate and differentiated determination of 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters with successful application to the fast screening of samples, avoiding tedious and laborious sample preparation.

  12. Ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Meador, Michael A.; Morales, Wilfredo

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin film microoxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing .001 M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period, or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity was inversely proportional to test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  13. Gas Phase Spectroscopic Investigation of Chromate-Esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Sydney H.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2012-06-01

    Chromate and dichromate ions are frequently used in the oxidation of alcohols. Chromate esters containing a Cr--O--C bridge are thought to be important intermediates in such reactions. We report the photofragment action spectra of two chromate ester complexes in the UV and visible regions, both of which primarily undergo cleavage of the chromate ester bond resulting in reduction of the chromate from Cr(VI) to Cr(V). Comparison to the UV/Vis absorption spectrum of a methanolic dichromate solution suggests the electronic transitions are the same ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions in both environments. Comparing the spectral features for different fragment channels leads to insight into the energetics and fragmentation mechanism of these species.

  14. Production of phthalate esters by nuisance freshwater algae and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Babu, Bakthavachalam; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong

    2010-10-01

    Phthalate esters are widely distributed pollutants which originate from synthetic plasticizer and are known to act as toxicants as well as environmental pheromones in the aquatic ecosystems. From investigating sixteen species of freshwater algae and cyanobacteria we revealed that some of them were capable of producing either di(n-butyl)phthalate (DBP) or mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) or both. These phthalate esters would be released into the environment under stress conditions. The incubation of the cells in culture medium containing NaH(13)CO(3) confirmed that both phthalates were de novo synthesized by the studied cells. This study suggested that the nuisance freshwater micro-algae and cyanobacteria growing in eutrophic waters might affect the aquatic ecosystem via the production of these phthalate esters.

  15. Maximization of fructose esters synthesis by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Neta, Nair Sampaio; Peres, António M; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of fructose fatty acid ester was performed in organic solvent media, using a purified lipase from Candida antartica B immobilized in acrylic resin. Response surface methodology with a central composite rotatable design based on five levels was implemented to optimize three experimental operating conditions (temperature, agitation and reaction time). A statistical significant cubic model was established. Temperature and reaction time were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum operational conditions for maximizing the synthesis of fructose esters were 57.1°C, 100 rpm and 37.8 h. The model was validated in the identified optimal conditions to check its adequacy and accuracy, and an experimental esterification percentage of 88.4% (±0.3%) was obtained. These results showed that an improvement of the enzymatic synthesis of fructose esters was obtained under the optimized conditions.

  16. Spectroscopy reveals that ethyl esters interact with proteins in wine.

    PubMed

    Di Gaspero, Mattia; Ruzza, Paolo; Hussain, Rohanah; Vincenzi, Simone; Biondi, Barbara; Gazzola, Diana; Siligardi, Giuliano; Curioni, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Impairment of wine aroma after vinification is frequently associated to bentonite treatments and this can be the result of protein removal, as recently demonstrated for ethyl esters. To evaluate the existence of an interaction between wine proteins and ethyl esters, the effects induced by these fermentative aroma compounds on the secondary structure and stability of VVTL1, a Thaumatin-like protein purified from wine, was analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The secondary structure of wine VVTL1 was not strongly affected by the presence of selected ethyl esters. In contrast, VVTL1 stability was slightly increased by the addition of ethyl-octanoate, -decanoate and -dodecanoate, but decreased by ethyl-hexanoate. This indicates the existence of an interaction between VVTL1 and at least some aroma compounds produced during fermentation. The data suggest that proteins removal from wine by bentonite can result in indirect removal of at least some aroma compounds associated with them.

  17. Boric Ester-Type Molten Salt via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Toyota, Yoshiyuki; Joshi, Prerna; Puneet, Puhup; Vedarajan, Raman; Takekawa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Novel boric ester-type molten salt was prepared using 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a key starting material. After an ion exchange reaction of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride with lithium (bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide) (LiNTf2), the resulting 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium NTf2 was reacted with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN) to give the desired boric ester-type molten salt in a moderate yield. The structure of the boric ester-type molten salt was supported by 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR spectra. In the presence of two different kinds of lithium salts, the matrices showed an ionic conductivity in the range of 1.1 × 10−4–1.6 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 51 °C. This was higher than other organoboron molten salts ever reported. PMID:25405738

  18. Removal of cholesteryl ester from hepatic reticuloendothelial cells in vivo is not enhanced by plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Stein, O; Dabach, Y; Hollander, G; Stein, Y

    1991-01-28

    The putative role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in the removal of cholesteryl ester from hepatic reticuloendothelial cells in vivo was studied in hamsters. The parameter tested was retention of [3H]cholesteryl linoleyl ether ([3H]CLE), a nonhydrolysable analog of cholesteryl ester, in the liver after injection of [3H]CLE labeled acetylated LDL, which is targetted to nonparenchymatous littoral cells. In hamsters fed laboratory chow, plasma cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) was 10.6 +/- 0.9 units and the retention of [3H]CLE in the liver 28 days after injection was 86% of the 4 h value. It was about 55% in rats fed the same diet, in which CETA was not detectable. When the diet was supplemented with 2% cholesterol and 15% margarine, CETA activity in hamsters increased 2-fold, yet no change in retention of [3H]CLE in liver was seen after 28 days. In rats, the retention of [3H]CLE in the liver was also not changed by the dietary fat supplementation. These results do not support the role of CETP in vivo in removal of cholesteryl ester from intact reticuloendothelial cells.

  19. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  20. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  1. The polymorphic and mesomorphic behavior of four esters of cholesterol.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, W. G.; Cole, G. D.; Walker, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    The techniques of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, and positron annihilation have been used to study the polymorphic and mesomorphic behavior of the following esters of cholesterol: cholesteryl formate, cholesteryl butyrate, cholesteryl benzoate, and cholesteryl cinnamate. Each of these compounds exhibits a single mesophase of the cholesteric type. The solid phase formed from the melt for each ester was observed to be structurally different from the solid phase obtained from solution. Solvents from which the solution-grown samples were crystallized were as follows: cholesteryl formate and cholesteryl butyrate from acetone, cholesteryl benzoate from benzene, and cholesteryl cinnamate from 2-butanone.

  2. Effect of ester impurities in PMR-polyimide resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral and chomatographic studies were conducted which established the presence of tri- and tetraester impurities in aged monomer solutions employed in fabrication of PMR-polyimide resin composites. The equilibrium constant and apparent rate of the esterification were determined. It was demonstrated, using differential scanning calorimetry, that the ortho-ester moiety of these impurities does not completely react at typical cure conditions. It is concluded that voids formed in composites fabricated with aged monomer solution are due to gaseous decomposition products evolved by ester impurities and/or unreacted amine during elevated temperature post-cure treatment.

  3. Switchable Surface Wettability by Using Boronic Ester Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Taleb, Sabri; Noyer, Elisabeth; Godeau, Guilhem; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2016-01-18

    Here, we report for the first time the use of a boronic ester as an efficient tool for reversible surface post-functionalization. The boronic ester bond allows surfaces to be reversibly switched from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Based on the well-known boronic acid/glycol affinity, this strategy offers the opportunity to play with surface hydrophobic properties by adding various boronic acids onto substrates bearing glycol groups. The post-functionalization can then be reversed to regenerate the starting glycol surface. This pathway allows for the preparation of various switchable surfaces for a large range of applications in biosensors, liquid transportation, and separation membranes.

  4. Sunflower oil methyl ester as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Hasan, A.R.

    1983-06-01

    The University of North Dakota Engineering Experiment Station is currently engaged in research to investigate the chemistry, fuel performance, and economics of chemically modified sunflower oil for use as an emergency replacement diesel fuel Physical and chemical properties of this fuel at varying levels of refinement are being used to determine fuel properties. Engine testing carried out to date indicates that unrefined methyl ester, defined as at least 90 percent methyl ester with unreacted or partially reacted sunflower oil as the remainder, has about the same tendency to foul engines as Number 2 diesel fuel.

  5. Self-Motion Depending on the Physicochemical Properties of Esters as the Driving Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Satoshi; Matsuo, Kyoko; Kirisaka, Junko

    2007-01-01

    The self-motion of an ester boat is investigated depending on the physicochemical properties of the surface-active substance. The results show that the ester boat moves towards the higher surface tension generating as the driving force.

  6. Selective association of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters with liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Rinninger, F; Jaeckle, S; Greten, H; Windler, E

    1993-02-24

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl esters are taken up by hepatocytes without parallel uptake of HDL apolipoproteins. This selective uptake of HDL cholesteryl esters is mediated by a non-endocytotic mechanism. Recently, selective uptake of cholesteryl esters also from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was demonstrated. In this study, the role of the plasma membrane in selective uptake by the liver was investigated. Plasma membranes were prepared from rat liver or from human Hep G2 hepatoma cells. Human HDL3 (d = 1.125-1.21 g/ml) was either radioiodinated or labeled with [3H]cholesteryl oleate. Human low-density lipoprotein (d = 1.019-1.05 g/ml) was labeled in its protein and in its lipid moiety as well. Labeled lipoproteins, unlabeled lipoproteins and membranes were incubated. After separation by ultracentrifugation, apparent lipoprotein particle association with membranes was determined. Plasma membranes from rat liver and Hep G2 cells bound 125I-HDL3, indicating specific HDL3 particle binding. With both types of membrane, apparent HDL3 particle association according to [3H]cholesteryl oleate-labeled HDL3 was in significant excess on that due to 125I-HDL3. This indicates selective, i.e., particle binding independent, association of cholesteryl esters with the membrane. Excess unlabeled HDL3 competed for selective association, indicating a specific process. Selective association of HDL3 cholesteryl esters was concentration-, time-, temperature-dependent; however, parameters differed from HDL3 particle binding. HDL3 was modified by nitration; this modification inhibited HDL3 particle binding in contrast to unchanged selective association. These results suggested distinct membrane sites for HDL3 particle binding and selective cholesteryl ester association. Regulation of selective association was investigated. Hep G2 cells were cholesterol-loaded or cholesterol-depleted. Cellular cholesterol-loading down-regulated selective association of HDL3 cholesteryl esters

  7. The transition from linear to highly branched poly(β-amino ester)s: Branching matters for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dezhong; Cutlar, Lara; Gao, Yongsheng; Wang, Wei; O’Keeffe-Ahern, Jonathan; McMahon, Sean; Duarte, Blanca; Larcher, Fernando; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Greiser, Udo; Wang, Wenxin

    2016-01-01

    Nonviral gene therapy holds great promise but has not delivered treatments for clinical application to date. Lack of safe and efficient gene delivery vectors is the major hurdle. Among nonviral gene delivery vectors, poly(β-amino ester)s are one of the most versatile candidates because of their wide monomer availability, high polymer flexibility, and superior gene transfection performance both in vitro and in vivo. However, to date, all research has been focused on vectors with a linear structure. A well-accepted view is that dendritic or branched polymers have greater potential as gene delivery vectors because of their three-dimensional structure and multiple terminal groups. Nevertheless, to date, the synthesis of dendritic or branched polymers has been proven to be a well-known challenge. We report the design and synthesis of highly branched poly(β-amino ester)s (HPAEs) via a one-pot “A2 + B3 + C2”–type Michael addition approach and evaluate their potential as gene delivery vectors. We find that the branched structure can significantly enhance the transfection efficiency of poly(β-amino ester)s: Up to an 8521-fold enhancement in transfection efficiency was observed across 12 cell types ranging from cell lines, primary cells, to stem cells, over their corresponding linear poly(β-amino ester)s (LPAEs) and the commercial transfection reagents polyethyleneimine, SuperFect, and Lipofectamine 2000. Moreover, we further demonstrate that HPAEs can correct genetic defects in vivo using a recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa graft mouse model. Our findings prove that the A2 + B3 + C2 approach is highly generalizable and flexible for the design and synthesis of HPAEs, which cannot be achieved by the conventional polymerization approach; HPAEs are more efficient vectors in gene transfection than the corresponding LPAEs. This provides valuable insight into the development and applications of nonviral gene delivery and demonstrates great prospect for their

  8. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  9. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  11. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6180 - Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6180 Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic). (a... generically as polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (PMN P-98-0903) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  19. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.8160 - Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester. 721.8160 Section 721.8160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8160 Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester (PMN P-89-1058) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of... octanoate esters in or on all food commodities when used in accordance with good agricultural practices....

  2. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkanediyl ester (generic). 721.10142 Section 721.10142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- -, methyl ester (generic). 721.2078 Section 721.2078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester... Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester...

  9. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1277 - Dibasic esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dibasic esters; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1277 Dibasic esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Dibasic esters (CAS Reg. No. 95481-62-2) is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2920 - tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2920 tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... alkylene ester (PMN P-85-1180) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The additive meets...

  15. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3063 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phenyl esters (generic name). 721.3063 Section 721.3063 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (PMNs...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkanediyl ester (generic). 721.10142 Section 721.10142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester... Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1277 - Dibasic esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dibasic esters; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1277 Dibasic esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Dibasic esters (CAS Reg. No. 95481-62-2) is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of... octanoate esters in or on all food commodities when used in accordance with good agricultural practices....

  5. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  6. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3063 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phenyl esters (generic name). 721.3063 Section 721.3063 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (PMNs...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  12. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  14. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- -, methyl ester (generic). 721.2078 Section 721.2078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2920 - tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2920 tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... alkylene ester (PMN P-85-1180) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... ester and mixed metal oxides (PMN P-07-198) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The additive meets...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6180 - Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6180 Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic). (a... generically as polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (PMN P-98-0903) is subject to reporting...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6180 - Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6180 Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic). (a... generically as polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (PMN P-98-0903) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkanediyl ester (generic). 721.10142 Section 721.10142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... ester and mixed metal oxides (PMN P-07-198) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkanediyl ester (generic). 721.10142 Section 721.10142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10412 - Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10412 Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706). (a) Chemical substance... phosphonic acid ester (PMN P-07-706) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester... Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic). 721.10348 Section 721.10348 Protection of Environment...-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to..., tetraalkane esters (PMNs P-06-623 and P-06-624) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10542 - Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.10542 Section 721.10542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10542 Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester (PMN P-03-624; CAS No. 1731-79-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  2. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1277 - Dibasic esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dibasic esters; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1277 Dibasic esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Dibasic esters (CAS Reg. No. 95481-62-2) is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10555 - Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10555 Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical... acid nonyl ester, branched and linear (PMN P-06-370; CAS No. 670241-72-2) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1277 - Dibasic esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dibasic esters; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1277 Dibasic esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Dibasic esters (CAS Reg. No. 95481-62-2) is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10555 - Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10555 Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical... acid nonyl ester, branched and linear (PMN P-06-370; CAS No. 670241-72-2) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10548 - Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phosphate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10548 Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (PMN P-04-624) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10542 - Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester. 721.10542 Section 721.10542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10542 Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester (PMN P-03-624; CAS No. 1731-79-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  17. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The additive meets...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1277 - Dibasic esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dibasic esters; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1277 Dibasic esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Dibasic esters (CAS Reg. No. 95481-62-2) is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2920 - tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2920 tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... alkylene ester (PMN P-85-1180) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The additive meets...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... ester and mixed metal oxides (PMN P-07-198) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8160 - Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester. 721.8160 Section 721.8160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8160 Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester (PMN P-89-1058) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2920 - tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2920 tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... alkylene ester (PMN P-85-1180) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3020 - Ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethylpropyl ester. 721.3020 Section 721.3020 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3020 Ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester. (a) Chemical... ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester (PMN P-85-680; CAS No. 690-83-5) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  8. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this...

  9. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2920 - tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2920 tert-Amyl peroxy alkylene ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... alkylene ester (PMN P-85-1180) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10412 - Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10412 Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706). (a) Chemical substance... phosphonic acid ester (PMN P-07-706) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8160 - Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester. 721.8160 Section 721.8160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8160 Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester (PMN P-89-1058) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The ester stearyl palmitate or...

  17. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol may be safely used...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6180 - Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6180 Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic). (a... generically as polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (PMN P-98-0903) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10498 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10498 Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products... chemical substances identified generically as substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10412 - Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10412 Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706). (a) Chemical substance... phosphonic acid ester (PMN P-07-706) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  6. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600 Section 178.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester... Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of... octanoate esters in or on all food commodities when used in accordance with good agricultural practices....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic). 721.10348 Section 721.10348 Protection of Environment...-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to..., tetraalkane esters (PMNs P-06-623 and P-06-624) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  14. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section and applied on aluminum may be safely used as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic). 721.10348 Section 721.10348 Protection of Environment...-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to..., tetraalkane esters (PMNs P-06-623 and P-06-624) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3063 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phenyl esters (generic name). 721.3063 Section 721.3063 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (PMNs...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10498 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10498 Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products... chemical substances identified generically as substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of... octanoate esters in or on all food commodities when used in accordance with good agricultural practices....

  1. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of... octanoate esters in or on all food commodities when used in accordance with good agricultural practices....

  4. 40 CFR 721.10548 - Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phosphate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10548 Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (PMN P-04-624) is subject to reporting under this...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester... Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  7. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816... § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the methyl glucoside-coconut oil...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- -, methyl ester (generic). 721.2078 Section 721.2078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6180 - Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6180 Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic). (a... generically as polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (PMN P-98-0903) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  11. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  15. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  16. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The additive meets...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  4. 40 CFR 721.8160 - Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.8160 Section 721.8160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8160 Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester (PMN P-89-1058) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1101 Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkanediyl ester (generic). 721.10142 Section 721.10142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3063 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phenyl esters (generic name). 721.3063 Section 721.3063 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (PMNs...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...