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Sample records for acetyl nitrate pan

  1. Global satellite retrievals of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN) in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, V.; Alvarado, M.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Worden, J.; Kulawik, S. S.; Fischer, E. V.

    2013-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) is a thermally unstable reservoir for NOx that allows NOx to be transported over large distances, enabling ozone formation far downwind from the original source. Satellite retrievals of PAN could potentially provide substantial information on the fate of NOx emissions from a range of sources including biomass burning and anthropogenic combustion. PAN has previously been retrieved in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere on a global scale from limb-sounding satellite instruments. PAN signatures have also been detected in nadir-viewing satellite observations of smoke plumes from fires. However, to our knowledge, PAN has not yet been retrieved in the nadir view on a global scale. Here we present global observations of tropospheric PAN from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), a thermal infrared spectrometer flying on the Aura satellite since 2004. PAN can be detected in TES spectra for cases where the PAN signal is above the instrument noise. The detection limit for a single TES measurement is dependent on the atmospheric and surface conditions. For observations where the cloud optical depth is less than 0.5, we find that the TES detection limit for PAN is in the region of 200 to 300 pptv. We present example distributions of elevated PAN concentrations associated with (1) trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution, (2) boreal biomass burning and (3) the Tropical South Atlantic in austral spring.

  2. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the urban atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Bok; Yoon, Joong-Sup; Jung, Kweon; Eom, Seok-Won; Chae, Young-Zoo; Cho, Seog-Ju; Kim, Shin-Do; Sohn, Jong Ryeul; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in air has been well known as the indicator of photochemical smog due to its frequent occurrences in Seoul metropolitan area. This study was implemented to assess the distribution characteristics of atmospheric PAN in association with relevant parameters measured concurrently. During a full year period in 2011, PAN was continuously measured at hourly intervals at two monitoring sites, Gwang Jin (GJ) and Gang Seo (GS) in the megacity of Seoul, South Korea. The annual mean concentrations of PAN during the study period were 0.64±0.49 and 0.57±0.46 ppb, respectively. The seasonal trends of PAN generally exhibited dual peaks in both early spring and fall, regardless of sites. Their diurnal trends were fairly comparable to each other. There was a slight time lag (e.g., 1 h) in the peak occurrence pattern between O3 and PAN, as the latter trended to peak after the maximum UV irradiance period (16:00 (GJ) and 17:00 (GS)). The concentrations of PAN generally exhibited strong correlations with particulates. The results of this study suggest that PAN concentrations were affected sensitively by atmospheric stability, the wet deposition of NO2, wind direction, and other factors.

  3. An Alternative Strategy for Pan-acetyl-lysine Antibody Generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiongyi; Tang, Hui; Brunmeir, Reinhard; Pan, Hong; Karnani, Neerja; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Kangling; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in cell signaling. In acetylome studies, a high-quality pan-acetyl-lysine antibody is key to successful enrichment of acetylated peptides for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. Here we show an alternative method to generate polyclonal pan-acetyl-lysine antibodies using a synthesized random library of acetylated peptides as the antigen. Our antibodies are tested to be specific for acetyl-lysine peptides/proteins via ELISA and dot blot. When pooled, five of our antibodies show broad reactivity to acetyl-lysine peptides, complementing a commercial antibody in terms of peptide coverage. The consensus sequence of peptides bound by our antibody cocktail differs slightly from that of the commercial antibody. Lastly, our antibodies are tested in a proof-of-concept to analyze the acetylome of HEK293 cells. In total we identified 1557 acetylated peptides from 416 proteins. We thus demonstrated that our antibodies are well-qualified for acetylome studies and can complement existing commercial antibodies. PMID:27606599

  4. An Alternative Strategy for Pan-acetyl-lysine Antibody Generation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Yee; Sim, Choon Kiat; Zhang, Qiongyi; Tang, Hui; Brunmeir, Reinhard; Pan, Hong; Karnani, Neerja; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Kangling; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in cell signaling. In acetylome studies, a high-quality pan-acetyl-lysine antibody is key to successful enrichment of acetylated peptides for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. Here we show an alternative method to generate polyclonal pan-acetyl-lysine antibodies using a synthesized random library of acetylated peptides as the antigen. Our antibodies are tested to be specific for acetyl-lysine peptides/proteins via ELISA and dot blot. When pooled, five of our antibodies show broad reactivity to acetyl-lysine peptides, complementing a commercial antibody in terms of peptide coverage. The consensus sequence of peptides bound by our antibody cocktail differs slightly from that of the commercial antibody. Lastly, our antibodies are tested in a proof-of-concept to analyze the acetylome of HEK293 cells. In total we identified 1557 acetylated peptides from 416 proteins. We thus demonstrated that our antibodies are well-qualified for acetylome studies and can complement existing commercial antibodies.

  5. An Alternative Strategy for Pan-acetyl-lysine Antibody Generation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Yee; Sim, Choon Kiat; Zhang, Qiongyi; Tang, Hui; Brunmeir, Reinhard; Pan, Hong; Karnani, Neerja; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Kangling; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in cell signaling. In acetylome studies, a high-quality pan-acetyl-lysine antibody is key to successful enrichment of acetylated peptides for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. Here we show an alternative method to generate polyclonal pan-acetyl-lysine antibodies using a synthesized random library of acetylated peptides as the antigen. Our antibodies are tested to be specific for acetyl-lysine peptides/proteins via ELISA and dot blot. When pooled, five of our antibodies show broad reactivity to acetyl-lysine peptides, complementing a commercial antibody in terms of peptide coverage. The consensus sequence of peptides bound by our antibody cocktail differs slightly from that of the commercial antibody. Lastly, our antibodies are tested in a proof-of-concept to analyze the acetylome of HEK293 cells. In total we identified 1557 acetylated peptides from 416 proteins. We thus demonstrated that our antibodies are well-qualified for acetylome studies and can complement existing commercial antibodies. PMID:27606599

  6. On the use of an explicit chemical mechanism to dissect peroxy acetyl nitrate formation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xinfeng; Blake, Donald R; Gao, Jian; Nie, Wei; Gao, Rui; Gao, Xiaomei; Xu, Zheng; Ding, Aijun; Huang, Yu; Lee, Shuncheng; Chen, Yizhen; Wang, Shulan; Chai, Fahe; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-12-01

    Peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) is a key component of photochemical smog and plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Though it has been known that PAN is produced via reactions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), it is difficult to quantify the contributions of individual precursor species. Here we use an explicit photochemical model--Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) model--to dissect PAN formation and identify principal precursors, by analyzing measurements made in Beijing in summer 2008. PAN production was sensitive to both NOx and VOCs. Isoprene was the predominant VOC precursor at suburb with biogenic impact, whilst anthropogenic hydrocarbons dominated at downtown. PAN production was attributable to a relatively small class of compounds including NOx, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes, trans/cis-2-butenes, toluene, and propene. MCM can advance understanding of PAN photochemistry to a species level, and provide more relevant recommendations for mitigating photochemical pollution in large cities. PMID:25194270

  7. Evidence of Reactive Aromatics As a Major Source of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate over China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yuhang; Gu, Dasa; Zhao, Chun; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, Robert; Liao, Jin; Shao, Min; Zhu, T.; Zeng, Limin; Liu, Shaw C.; Chang, Chih-Chung; Amoroso, Antonio; Costabile, Francesa

    2010-09-15

    We analyze the observations of near-surface peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) and its precursors in Beijing, China in August of 2007. The levels of PAN are remarkably high (up to 14 ppbv), surpassing those measured over other urban regions in recent years. Analyses employing a 1-D version of a chemical transport model (Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model, REAM) indicate that aromatic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are the dominant (55-75%) PAN source. The major oxidation product of aromatics that produces acetyl peroxy radicals is methylglyoxal (MGLY). PAN and O3 in the observations are correlated at daytime; aromatic NMHCs appear to play an important role in O3 photochemistry. Previous NMHC measurements indicate the presence of reactive aromatics at high levels over broad polluted regions of China. Aromatics are often ignored in global and (to a lesser degree) regional 3D photochemical transport models; their emissions over China as well as photochemistry are quite uncertain.Our findings suggest that critical assessments of aromatics emissions and chemistry (such as the yields of MGLY) are necessary to understand and assess ozone photochemistry and regional pollution export in China.

  8. Indoor/outdoor concentrations of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN).

    PubMed

    Jakobi, G; Fabian, P

    1997-05-01

    Photochemical pollutants such as ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) could adversely affect human health, especially with relation to effects on lung function. For a realistic assessment of ambient concentrations, both outdoor and indoor measurements of ozone and PAN are required, because people stay indoors for most of the time. Indoor/outdoor concentration ratios, indoor half-life times and indoor chemistry including physicochemical reactions on surfaces are quite well known for ozone, but not for PAN. While ozone is removed very rapidly mainly by heterogeneous reactions on surfaces or by gasphase reactions with e.g. carpet emissions, no such processes are known for PAN at present. The main removal process for PAN is thermal decay. Indoor concentrations of ozone and PAN can be a significant fraction of those outdoors highly depending on the ventilation pattern. Our measurements in various kinds of non-air-conditioned rooms show maximal indoor concentrations between 80 and 100% of those outdoors for ozone and PAN, respectively. Average indoor/outdoor ratios were calculated of 0.5 for ozone and between 0.7 and 0.9 for PAN. The half-life times ranged between only a few minutes for ozone and 0.5 to 1 h for PAN.

  9. Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): a global budget and source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Millet, D. B.; Mao, J.; Paulot, F.; Singh, H. B.; Roiger, A.-E.; Ries, L.; Talbot, R. W.; Dzepina, K.; Pandey Deolal, S.

    2013-10-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), is the principal tropospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2). PAN enables the transport and release of NOx to the remote troposphere with major implications for the global distributions of ozone and OH, the main tropospheric oxidants. Simulation of PAN is a challenge for global models because of the dependence of PAN on vertical transport as well as complex and uncertain NMVOC sources and chemistry. Here we use an improved representation of NMVOCs in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and show that it can simulate PAN observations from aircraft campaigns worldwide. The immediate carbonyl precursors for PAN formation include acetaldehyde (44% of the global source), methylglyoxal (30%), acetone (7%), and a suite of other isoprene and terpene oxidation products (19%). A diversity of NMVOC emissions is responsible for PAN formation globally including isoprene (37%) and alkanes (14%). Anthropogenic sources are dominant in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere outside the growing season. Open fires appear to play little role except at high northern latitudes in spring, although results are very sensitive to plume chemistry and plume rise. Lightning NOx is the dominant contributor to the observed PAN maximum in the free troposphere over the South Atlantic.

  10. Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): a global budget and source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Millet, D. B.; Mao, J.; Paulot, F.; Singh, H. B.; Roiger, A.; Ries, L.; Talbot, R. W.; Dzepina, K.; Pandey Deolal, S.

    2014-03-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is the principal tropospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2). PAN enables the transport and release of NOx to the remote troposphere with major implications for the global distributions of ozone and OH, the main tropospheric oxidants. Simulation of PAN is a challenge for global models because of the dependence of PAN on vertical transport as well as complex and uncertain NMVOC sources and chemistry. Here we use an improved representation of NMVOCs in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and show that it can simulate PAN observations from aircraft campaigns worldwide. The immediate carbonyl precursors for PAN formation include acetaldehyde (44% of the global source), methylglyoxal (30%), acetone (7%), and a suite of other isoprene and terpene oxidation products (19%). A diversity of NMVOC emissions is responsible for PAN formation globally including isoprene (37%) and alkanes (14%). Anthropogenic sources are dominant in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere outside the growing season. Open fires appear to play little role except at high northern latitudes in spring, although results are very sensitive to plume chemistry and plume rise. Lightning NOx is the dominant contributor to the observed PAN maximum in the free troposphere over the South Atlantic.

  11. Global sources and significance of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Payer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) serves as a thermally unstable reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NO and NO2, collectively termed NOx). PAN permits NOx to impact the global distribution of the two most important atmospheric oxidants, ozone (O3) and the OH radical. PAN is also a critical channel through which climate-driven changes to the biosphere will affect atmospheric composition, notably through biogenic NMVOC emissions and fires. We use a 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) constrained by a global suite of observations to evaluate the sources and significance of PAN. We quantify individual NMVOC and NOX contributions to PAN formation, and we identify where PAN has a significant impact on remote O3, OH and nitrogen deposition. We find that a simulation with improved budgets for key NMVOCs (ethane, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetone and select aromatic species) is able to reproduce the main features of the global PAN distribution. We also show that the treatment of PAN formation in fires plays an important role in determining the global impact of this PAN source. The contributions of acetaldehyde, acetone and methylglyoxal to PAN formation reflect the sources and lifetimes of these immediate precursors. Acetaldehyde, which is emitted directly from biogenic sources and formed via hydrocarbon oxidation, is the most important peroxyacetyl radical precursor globally. Methylglyoxal, an oxidation product of both isoprene and aromatic species, is responsible for about a third of peroxyactyl radical formation in the lower troposphere. Isoprene oxidation products, other than methylglyoxal, are also significant for the global PAN budget. With updated (lower) photolysis yields, acetone is less important for PAN formation than previously thought. It is responsible for less peroxyactyl radical formation globally than each of the other immediate precursors below 200 hPa. Lightning

  12. Summertime distributions of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN) in Beijing: Understanding the sources and major sink of PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gen; Mu, Yujing; Zhou, Lingxi; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Fang, Shuangxi; Yao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), a major secondary pollutant in the atmosphere, has received much concern for its particular importance in atmospheric chemistry and adverse effects on human and plants. Atmospheric PAN and PPN were measured by using a gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) from June to September 2010, and the source and major sink for PAN were firstly studied in Beijing. The distinct diurnal variations of PAN and PPN with maximum in the afternoon were observed, and the mean and maximum values were 2.61 ± 2.57 ppbv (N = 839) and 12.5 ppbv for PAN and 0.52 ± 0.38 ppbv (N = 152) and 2.16 ppbv for PPN during the measuring period, respectively. Good correlation (R = 0.85) between PAN and PPN with a slope (ΔPPN/ΔPAN) of 0.134 indicated that anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs) dominated the photochemical formation of PANs in Beijing. Further, we found acetaldehyde was the predominant carbonyl precursor of PAN with the contribution of 59.7% to the total peroxyacetyl (PA) radical. Methyl glyoxal, methacrolein, acetone, methyl vinyl ketone, and biacetyl contributed 7.1%, 8.8%, 19.7%, 3.4%, and 1.3% to total PA radical, respectively. Anti-correlation between PAN concentrations and the NO/NO2 ratios was found during the whole investigating period. In addition, the amount of PAN lost by thermal decomposition (TPAN) accounted for remarkable fractions of PAN observed under high temperature during both daytime and nighttime.

  13. Improvements in analysis of atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, Detlev; Müller, Josef; Klein, Werner

    Common analytical techniques for PAN determination were modified in order to obtain a sensitive and automatic analysis system. PAN was synthesized by nitration of peracetic acid in hexane, The PAN/hexane solution was purified by water extraction. The quantification was performed determining acetate or nitrite by ion chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The validity was checked by liquid i.r. speetroscopy. NMR studies revealed a singulet signal at 2.27 ppm. The precision and sensitivity of the gas Chromatographic analyses were improved by the use of wide bore capillary columns coated with Carbowax 400. The developed system enables automatic and continuous PAN measurements at a 10 min sampling sequence and with a detection limit of 50 ppt.

  14. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on water stress in bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, T.E.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.; Merrill, W.

    1981-08-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cvs. Provider and Stringless Black Valentine) were exposed to 395 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant potential of PAN-sensitive Provider resulting in visible wilting and reduced soil moisture content. There was no effect of PAN on the water relations of the PAN-tolerant Stringless Black Valentine.

  15. Measurement of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN), Peroxypropionyl Nitrate (PPN) and Peroxymethacryloyl Nitrate (MPAN) during TRACE-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flocke, Frank; Weinheimer, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    In Fall 2000, the PANs gas chromatograph (GC) was improved and prepared for installation on the NASA P-3. A number of experiments were conducted in conjunction with the NCAR NO,, instrument (B. Ridley) to settle some of the fine details of the output of the calibration system for each instrument. In addition, the sampling frequency was improved.

  16. A convenient method for preparation of pure standards of peroxyacetyl nitrate for atmospheric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Torben; Hansen, Anne Maria; Thomsen, Erling Lund

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is synthesized by nitration of peracetic acid (1.2 M), extracted by n- heptane, and purified with normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified PAN solution is free of acetyl nitrate. The content of PAN is determined by means of hydrolysis of PAN into nitrite, and determination by ion chromatography of nitrite and nitrate (formed by oxidation of nitrite). The purified PAN solution is used for the calibration of the gas Chromatograph with electron capture detection.

  17. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements at a remote site in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Prestbo, E. ); Gaffney, J.S. )

    1988-09-01

    Photochemical oxidants are not limited to the criteria pollutant, ozone. Peroxyactyl nitrate (PAN) is probably one of the better known non-criteria oxidants. PAN was originally referred to as compound X, as it caused a unique type of plant damage to numerous crops in southern California. PAN was associated with Los Angeles photochemical smog and ozone in the late 1950s and 60s. It should not be confused with X-agent which has also been associated with photochemical oxidants. PAN has been found to be an important means of transporting NOx in remote regions. This is due to its rather long atmospheric lifetime. It reacts slowly with OH radical, is photochemically stable, and has a low water solubility. Its principal loss is due to unimolecular decomposition. The authors have been making ozone, NO, NO{sup 2}, and PAN measurements at a remote site near Los Alamos, New Mexico for an extended period of time. An automated gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector is used to make the PAN measurements. Diffusion tubes with PAN/n-tridecane solutions are used to calibrate the instrument. Typical PAN data obtained at the sight are presented. The collected PAN and oxidant data are examined, and have been modeled to determine the possible concentrations of peracetic acid and methyl hydroperoxide in remote air. These studies are discussed in light of their possible implications for peroxide contributions to environmental impacts and aqueous chemistry reactions.

  18. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at the urban core site of Seoul during 2015 MAPS / KORUS - AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    A few measurements of atmospheric PAN were made in Seoul for the last decade. One study showed the average and maximum PAN concentration in summer of 2004 and 2005 with 0.8 ppb and 10.4 ppb and another study specified 0.64 ppb and 5.03 ppb, respectively in 2011. In this study, the measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) have been conducted at an urban site situated in KIST campus (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 127° 2'E, 37° 36'N) from May 18 to June 12, 2015. PAN was measured every 2 minutes by a fast chromatography with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. Concentration of PAN ranged from 0.15ppbv to 4.37ppbv, with the average of 0.57 ppbv. PAN revealed its peak between 2 and 4 pm matching with the photochemical activities and precursor emission. When comparing with historic data of PAN in urban Seoul during the past decade, it has decreased about 50%. The rather rapid decrease of summertime PAN level for last ten years in Seoul will be discussed further with the behaviors of its precursor species.

  19. Wintertime peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the megacity Beijing: role of photochemical and meteorological processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hualong; Xu, Xiaobin; Lin, Weili; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Previous measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in Asian megacities were scarce and mainly conducted for relative short periods in summer. Here, we present and analyze the measurements of PAN, O3, NO(x), etc., made at an urban site (CMA) in Beijing from 25 January to 22 March 2010. The hourly concentration of PAN averaged 0.70 x 10(-9) mol/mol (0.23 x 10(-9) -3.51 x 10(-9) mol/mol) and was well correlated with that of NO2 but not O3, indicating that the variations of the winter concentrations of PAN and 03 in urban Beijing are decoupled with each other. Wind conditions and transport of air masses exert very significant impacts on O3, PAN, and other species. Air masses arriving at the site originated either from the boundary layer over the highly polluted N-S-W sector or from the free troposphere over the W-N sector. The descending free-tropospheric air was rich in O3, with an average PAN/O3 ratio smaller than 0.031, while the boundary layer air over the polluted sector contained higher levels of PAN and primary pollutants, with an average PAN/O3 ratio of 0.11. These facts related with transport conditions can well explain the observed PAN-O3 decoupling. Photochemical production is important to PAN in the winter over Beijing. The concentration of the peroxyacetyl (PA) radical was estimated to be in the range of 0.0014 x 10(-12) -0.0042 x 10(-12) mol/mol. The contributions of the formation reaction and thermal decomposition to PAN's variation were calculated and found to be significant even in the colder period in air over Beijing, with the production exceeding the decomposition. PMID:24649694

  20. Source analysis of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in Guangzhou, China: a yearlong observation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. G.; Zhu, D.; Zou, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhou, L.; Ouyang, X.; Shao, H. F.; Deng, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, photochemical smog has been a major cause of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Guangzhou, China, with a continuing increase in the concentrations of photochemical pollutants. The concentration of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) has often been found to reach very high levels, posing a potential threat to the public health. To better understand the changes in PAN concentration and its sources, a study was carried from January to December of 2012 at the Guangzhou Panyu Atmospheric Composition Station (GPACS) to measure the atmospheric concentrations of PAN as well as those of ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC). These data were analyzed to investigate the quantitative relationships between PAN and its precursors. In the study period, the hourly concentrations of PAN varied from below instrument detection limit to 12.0 ppbv. The yearly mean concentration of PAN was 0.84 ppbv, with the daily mean concentration exceeding 5 ppbv in 32 of the total observation days. Calculations indicate that among the measured NMHC species, alkenes accounted for 53 % of the total NMHC contribution to the PAN production, with aromatics and alkanes accounting for about 11 and 7 % of the total, respectively. During the period of our observation only a modest correlation was found between the concentrations of PAN and O3 for daytime hours, and observed PAN concentrations were relatively high even though the observed NMHCs/NOx ratio was low. This suggests regional air mass transport of pollutants had a major impact on the PAN concentrations in Guangzhou area.

  1. Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO2 at the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeon, J.; Song, D.; Lee, J. S.; Rhee, T. S.; Park, K.; Lee, G.

    2014-12-01

    We measured peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO2 in remote marine boundary area during the SHIPPO (Shipborne Pole to Pole Observation). The measurements were made on the R/V Araon from Christ church, New Zealand to Gwangyang, South Korea along the western Pacific Ocean from March 30th to April 25th, 2014. Both PAN and NO2 were analyzed every 2 minute by a fast chromatograph with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. In order to improve their detection limits, random noise from PMT has been successfully reduced by ensembled chromatograms with every 30 samples. Additionally, we replaced Nylon membrane surface with reflective aluminum surface and applied the new Luminol solution, which enhanced the signals significantly with detection limits of 6 pptv and 40 ppbv for PAN and NO2, respectively. Average concentrations of PAN and NO2 were 8 pptv for PAN and 80 pptv for NO2 during the experiment. The back trajectory analysis showed that the directly influenced air masses from anthropogenic activities were rare except the latitudes higher than 20°N. Relatively good correlations between PAN and NO2 were consistently observed, while PAN and O3 were not clearly correlated except in the air masses recently originated from land masses.

  2. Towards New Constraints on Ozone Production from Lightning NOx via Satellite Measurements of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, V.; Fischer, E. V.; Kulawik, S. S.; Zhu, L.; Worden, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the strength and distribution of the source of nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx) from lightning, and the impact of this source on tropospheric ozone, is critical to understanding the contribution of anthropogenic vs natural sources of ozone as well as feedbacks between climate change and atmospheric chemistry. In the presence of biogenic volatile organic compounds, lightning NOx may be converted to peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). PAN formation acts to sequester NOx and decrease ozone formation, thereby playing an important role in determining the oxidation capacity of the troposphere. However, comprehensive in situ measurements of reactive nitrogen species in the upper troposphere are insufficient for the purpose of validation of the representation of the relevant processes in chemical transport models. New satellite measurements of PAN from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) provide an opportunity to place new constraints on the influence of lightning NOx on ozone production. Here we show that TES provides direct observations of enhanced PAN concentrations downwind of convective events over the US in summertime, evaluate the ability of the GEOS-Chem model to reproduce these enhancements and quantify the reduction in ozone formation that would result from the observed PAN. We will also discuss the prospects for PAN retrievals from other nadir-viewing satellite instruments.

  3. Peroxyacetyl nitrate /PAN/ in the unpolluted atmosphere - An important reservoir for nitrogen oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H. B.; Hanst, P. L.

    1981-08-01

    Large concentrations of acetaldehyde, acetone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are predicted to exist in the unpolluted atmosphere. Predictions are based on the measured atmospheric distributions of ethane and propane, and a simplified mechanism for their oxidation. Average acetaldehyde concentrations of 22, 3, and 7 parts per trillion (ppt), average acetone concentrations of 111, 15, and 3 ppt, and average PAN concentrations of 17 to 34, 90 to 360, and 40 to 85 ppt are estimated for the troposphere and lower stratosphere respectively. Calculations indicate that nitrogen oxides in an organic form may be more abundant than those in an inorganic form in the troposphere. The organic form of reactive nitrogen is found in a chemical equilibrium with inorganic NO2, and measurement methods for PAN verify the predicted results.

  4. Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN) at selected urban, rural and remote sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, Louis J.

    1989-01-01

    PAN and PPN were measured in a series of eight field studies performed at urban, rural and remote locations in the contiguous U.S. during 1983-1985. Seven of the eight studies were performed in the winter/spring period, a period of sparsely available data. Nearly 2000 air samples were analyzed during these studies. Mean PAN and PPN levels in the range of 45-1600 ppt (max. 7.9 ppb) and 5-230 ppt (max. 0.9 ppb), respectively, were measured. Despite a great deal of observed variability, PAN and PPN showed virtually identical behavior at all sites and in all seasons, supporting the view that these nitrogenous compounds are produced and destroyed by very similar mechanisms. On the average PPN concentrations were about 8 percent (range 3-14 percent) of PAN values. It is inferred that PPN/PAN ratio is highest in urban areas and declines as polluted air masses are transported over long distances.

  5. Biomonitoring of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and ozone with indicator plant set

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, E.J.; Cheng, M.L.

    1997-12-31

    Studies on the responses of several indicator plants to peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and ozone during the past four years in the exposure chambers and in the greenhouse in Taiwan showed that some indicator plant sets were suitable for biomonitoring these two pollutants. Four plant species including Sword-leaf lettuce, black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), quickweed (Galinsoga parviflora) and Double-fortune tomato were recommended for use in together to monitor both PAN and ozone simultaneously. Some of the plants were from tissue culture to increase the genetic uniformity. There was no sensitivity difference between the tissue culture plantlets and the seed-grown plants. The specific symptoms of bronzing, silvering and glazing as expressed on lettuce, black nightshade or quickweed can be used as indication if PAN concentrations over 4--5 ppbv in Taiwan. Whereas the fleck and stippling on tomato leaves indicated that ozone was at least over 50 ppbv. Totally about 30 indicator plant stations had been set up in four major urban areas (Taipei, Taichung, Chayi, and Kaohsiung) to comprehensively monitor the occurrence of PAN and ozone in the atmosphere. A standardized procedure for cultivating the plants was established. As the cost is low, the operation is easy, and no electric power is needed, the application of this technique is very promising, especially in the developing countries.

  6. Rate constants for the gas phase reaction of OH radicals with peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at 273 and 297 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallington, Timothy J.; Atkinson, Roger; Winer, Arthur M.

    1984-09-01

    Recently, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) has been postulated to be a potential tropospheric reservoir of oxides of nitrogen, and to be important in their long-range transport. To better assess its atmospheric chemistry, absolute rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) have been determined using a flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. Rate constants of (1.13 ± 0.06) × 10-13 cm³ molecule-1 s-1 and (1.37 ± 0.05) × 10-13 cm³ molecule-1 s-1, independent of total pressure over the range 25-100 torr of argon, were determined at 273 ± 2 and 297 ± 2 K, respectively. (The errors limits represent two standard deviations; systematic errors could contribute an additional ˜10% uncertainty.) These rate constants imply that reaction with the OH radical is the most important removal process for PAN in the upper troposphere.

  7. Regional and hemispheric influences on measured spring peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) mixing ratios at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malley, Christopher S.; Cape, J. Neil; Jones, Matthew R.; Leeson, Sarah R.; Coyle, Mhairi; Braban, Christine F.; Heal, Mathew R.; Twigg, Marsailidh M.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents 15-min averaged measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) obtained during spring 2014 (24/04/2014 - 06/05/2014) at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite (southeast Scotland). The aim of this analysis was to investigate the conditions producing the distribution of PAN mixing ratios at the supersite in spring 2014. Air mass back trajectories showed the majority of air masses to have spent substantial time over the UK, continental Europe or Scandinavia prior to arrival at Auchencorth. The median and 95th percentile PAN mixing ratios observed were 0.46 ppb and 1.03 ppb, respectively. The median mixing ratio was elevated compared with previous PAN measurements during springtime (April-May) in southeast Scotland (corresponding median mixing ratios April-May 1994-1998: 0.1-0.3 ppb), which is hypothesised to be due to conditions conducive to regional (European) photochemical PAN production. Additionally, PAN mixing ratios during regionally influenced conditions (0.4-1.5 ppb) were substantially more elevated from hemispheric background mixing ratios (0.4-0.6 ppb) than for ozone (O3, regional: 10-45 ppb, hemispheric: 30-40 ppb). PAN and O3 both impact upon vegetation and human health and it is necessary to understand the extent to which hemispheric and regional processes contribute to their abundances in different locations. Regional processes can both increase and decrease PAN and O3 mixing ratios compared to imported hemispheric background mixing ratios. This study concludes that during the measurement period in spring 2014 at the Auchencorth supersite, regional PAN and O3 modifying processes enhanced PAN mixing ratios more than for O3.

  8. Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) as an indicator of long range transport of air pollutants over the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Han, J.; Lee, G.; Choi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) was measured at Gosan ABC Superstation, Korea during 19 October ~ 6 November 2010. PAN and NO2 were separated onto a GC column and then quantified by luminol chemiluminescence at 425 nm every 2 minutes. PAN concentrations ranged from 0.2 ppbv to 2.4 ppbv with an average of 0.6 ppbv. The highest PAN concentrations were observed during the two haze events, when stagnant condition developed over the Yellow Sea. Particularly, PAN was surprisingly well correlated with PM10 for the whole experiment period (r = 0.88) (Fig. 1). The PM10 concentration was raised up to 216 μg/m3 during the second event. In addition, PAN concentrations were noticeably enhanced when air masses passed over the populated or industrialized areas in China or Korea and aged over the Sea, which were identified by backward air mass trajectories. In this study, PAN was suggested to be a good indicator of the long range transport of air pollutants.

  9. The measurement of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the regional background marine boundary air, Baengyeong Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Choi, H.; Lee, T.; Lee, D.; Park, J.; Jang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Concurrent measurements of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), other photochemically reactive species including O3, CO, NO, NOy, selected species of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and aerosol chemical (water soluble ionic species, OC/EC, trace metals) compositions were made in an atmospheric monitoring station in Baengyeong Island from Aug. 2nd to 14th of 2010. This island is located at the far western part of Korea in the middle of Yellow Sea between China and Korea. PAN was determined every 3 minutes by a fast chromatograph with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. Mixing ratios of PAN ranged from the below the detection limit of 0.005 to 1.04 ppb with an average of 0.09 ppb. Over the same period, hourly averaged O3 ranged from 0 to 63 ppb (average of 32 ppb). Although our measurements were made over the relatively clean marine boundary air, significant and rapid increases of PAN were frequently observed. These increases of PAN were coincided with increases of its precursors and wind pattern changes. After detailed analysis of aerosol compositions using local wind variation, back-trajectory and synoptic analysis of air masses, the degree of influences and chemistry related with PAN from surrounding land areas, China, South Korea and North Korea will be identified. Also, the role of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species to ozone formation and its transport over the Yellow Sea are planned to be addressed.

  10. Using New Observations from TES to Evaluate the Contribution of Fires to Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) over North America and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Payne, V.; Zhu, L.; Worden, J. R.; Jiang, Z.; Kulawik, S. S.; Brey, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Neither the mechanisms or the magnitude of the contribution of fires to ozone are completely understood, but peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry is certainly part of the puzzle. In situ observations show that PAN is formed rapidly in fire plumes, and its eventual decomposition can provide an important NOx redistribution pathway capable of sustaining efficient ozone production under the right conditions. Satellite measurements of PAN from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) offer a new opportunity to look at when and where elevated PAN abundances in the troposphere are due to fires, placing new constraints on our understanding of the air quality impacts of smoke plumes. We will present an overview of what we have learned about fires and PAN from TES, and what types of analyses have been required to pull information out of this emerging dataset. We will focus on TES retrievals of PAN over Asia and North America collected between 2005 and 2011 during spring and summer months. We have found that fires are a major source of the PAN observed by TES in both regions, but there is significant observed interannual variability driven by a combination of emissions and dynamics.

  11. Methodology for the analysis of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the unpolluted atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H. B.; Salas, L. J.

    A light weight electron capture gas chromatograph has been laboratory- and field-tested to conduct surface and airborne PAN measurements in the unpolluted troposphere. A dynamic calibration system based on CH3CHO/NO2/Cl2 photolysis studies by Gay et al. (1976) was constructed and successfully tested. A sensitivity of 5 parts per trillion (ppt) and an overall accuracy of + or - 20 percent is estimated. It is shown that gas phase coulometry (GPC) is unsuited for absolute PAN analysis -principally, because a significant fraction of PAN is destroyed prior to coulometric detection. PAN measurements at a marine Pacific site, and aboard an aircraft, show that PAN is always present at a concentration range of 10-100 ppt, although concentrations as high as 400 ppt were measured at an altitude of 4.6 km over the Pacific Ocean. Surface PAN measurements at a Pacific marine site indicate a distinct diurnal behavior, tentatively attributed to photochemistry involving alkenes, alkanes and NOx.

  12. Solubility and reactivity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in dilute aqueous salt solutions and in sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, A.; Kutsuna, S.; Takeuchi, K.; Ibusuki, T.

    The loss rates of PAN in several dilute aqueous salt solutions (NaBr, Na 2SO 3, KI, NaNO 2, FeCl 3, and FeSO 4) and in sulphuric acid were measured at 279 K with a simple bubbler experiment. They are little different from that in pure water. For 5 M sulphuric acid hydrolysis and solubility were determined in the temperature range of 243-293 K. The hydrolysis rate kh=3.2×10 -4 s -1 at 293 K is close to that in water. The observed temperature dependence of the Henry's Law constant H=10- 6.6±0.6exp((4780±420)/T) M atm -1 leads to enthalpy and entropy of solvation Δ Hsolv=-39.7±3.5 kJ mol -1 and Δ Ssolv=-126±11 J mol -1 K -1, respectively.

  13. Dry deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): Determination of its deposition velocity at night from measurements of the atmospheric PAN and 222Radon concentration gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrimpf, Wolfram; Lienaerts, Karlheinz; Müller, Klaus Peter; Rudolph, Jochen; Neubert, Rolf; Schüßler, Wolfram; Levin, Ingeborg

    During the field campaign POPCORN (Photooxidant Formation by Plant Emitted Compounds and OH-Radicals in North-Eastern Germany) in August 1994 we measured the nighttime deposition velocities of PAN above a corn field. These are the first absolute measurements of PAN deposition velocities in the field. The deposition velocities were derived using a novel method, which uses measurements of the gradients of PAN and 222Rn and of the emission rates of 222Rn from the soil. A unique data set of about 250 field measurements of the PAN deposition velocity at night was thus obtained. The deposition velocity at night proved to be highly variable with an average of 0.54 cm/s and a standard deviation of 0.94 cm/s. Recent presumptions by Shepson et al. [1992] that the PAN deposition velocity is strongly reduced with increasing relative humidity could not be confirmed by our measurements.

  14. Resveratrol as a Pan-HDAC Inhibitor Alters the Acetylation Status of Jistone Proteins in Human-Derived Hepatoblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Alexander; Busch, Christian; Weiland, Timo; Noor, Seema; Leischner, Christian; Schleicher, Sabine; Mayer, Mascha; Weiss, Thomas S.; Bischoff, Stephan C.; Lauer, Ulrich M.; Bitzer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The polyphenolic alcohol resveratrol has demonstrated promising activities for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Different modes of action have been described for resveratrol including the activation of sirtuins, which represent the class III histone deacetylases (HDACs). However, little is known about the activity of resveratrol on the classical HDACs of class I, II and IV, although these classes are involved in cancer development or progression and inhibitors of HDACs (HDACi) are currently under investigation as promising novel anticancer drugs. We could show by in silico docking studies that resveratrol has the chemical structure to inhibit the activity of different human HDAC enzymes. In vitro analyses of overall HDAC inhibition and a detailed HDAC profiling showed that resveratrol inhibited all eleven human HDACs of class I, II and IV in a dose-dependent manner. Transferring this molecular mechanism into cancer therapy strategies, resveratrol treatment was analyzed on solid tumor cell lines. Despite the fact that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be particularly resistant against conventional chemotherapeutics, treatment of HCC with established HDACi already has shown promising results. Testing of resveratrol on hepatoma cell lines HepG2, Hep3B and HuH7 revealed a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on all cell lines. Interestingly, only for HepG2 cells a specific inhibition of HDACs and in turn a histone hyperacetylation caused by resveratrol was detected. Additional testing of human blood samples demonstrated a HDACi activity by resveratrol ex vivo. Concluding toxicity studies showed that primary human hepatocytes tolerated resveratrol, whereas in vivo chicken embryotoxicity assays demonstrated severe toxicity at high concentrations. Taken together, this novel pan-HDACi activity opens up a new perspective of resveratrol for cancer therapy alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics. Moreover, resveratrol may serve as a lead

  15. Trends in peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over southern Asia during the summer monsoon season: regional impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadnavis, S.; Schultz, M. G.; Semeniuk, K.; Mahajan, A. S.; Pozzoli, L.; Sonbawne, S.; Ghude, S. D.; Kiefer, M.; Eckert, E.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze temporal trends of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) retrievals from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) during 2002-2011 in the altitude range 8-23 km over the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) region. The greatest enhancements of PAN mixing ratios in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are seen during the summer monsoon season from June to September. During the monsoon season, the mole fractions of PAN show statistically significant (at 2σ) positive trends from 0.2 ± 0.05 to 4.6 ± 3.1 ppt yr-1 (except between 12 and 14 km) which is higher than the annual mean trends of 0.1 ± 0.05 to 2.7 ± 0.8 ppt yr-1. These rising concentrations point to increasing NOx (= NO + NO2) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from developing nations in Asia, notably India and China. We analyze the influence of monsoon convection on the distribution of PAN in UTLS with simulations using the global chemistry-climate model ECHAM5-HAMMOZ. During the monsoon, transport into the UTLS over the Asian region primarily occurs from two convective zones, one the South China Sea and the other over the southern flank of the Himalayas. India and China host NOx-limited regimes for ozone photochemical production, and thus we use the model to evaluate the contributions from enhanced NOx emissions to the changes in PAN, HNO3 and O3 concentrations in the UTLS. From a set of sensitivity experiments with emission changes in particular regions, it can be concluded that Chinese emissions have a greater impact on the concentrations of these species than Indian emissions. According to SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) NO2 retrievals NOx emissions increases over India have been about half of those over China between 2002 and 2011.

  16. Trends in Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Southern Asia during the summer monsoon season: regional impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadnavis, S.; Schultz, M. G.; Semeniuk, K.; Mahajan, A. S.; Pozzoli, L.; Sonbawane, S.; Ghude, S. D.; Kiefer, M.; Eckert, E.

    2014-07-01

    We analyze temporal trends of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) retrievals from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) during 2002-2011 in the altitude range 8-23 km over the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) region. The greatest enhancements of PAN mixing ratios in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are seen during the summer monsoon season from June to September. During the monsoon season, the mole fractions of PAN show statistically significant (at 2 sigma level) positive trends from 0.2 ± 0.05 to 4.6 ± 3.1 ppt year-1 (except between 12-14 km) which is higher than the annual mean trends of 0.1 ± 0.05 to 2.7 ± 0.8 ppt year-1. These rising concentrations point to increasing NOx (=NO+NO2) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from developing nations in Asia, notably India and China. We analyze the influence of monsoon convection on the distribution of PAN in UTLS with simulations using the global chemistry-climate model ECHAM5-HAMMOZ. During the monsoon, transport into the UTLS over the Asian region primarily occurs from two convective zones, one extending from the Bay of Bengal to the South China Sea and the other over the southern flank of the Himalayas. India and China are NOx limited regions, and thus we use the model to evaluate the contributions from enhanced NOx emissions to the changes in PAN, HNO3 and O3 concentrations in the UTLS. From a set of sensitivity experiments with emission changes in particular regions it can be concluded that Chinese emissions have a greater impact on the concentrations of these species than Indian emissions. NOx emissions increases over India are about half of those over China.

  17. Nitrate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrate ; CASRN 14797 - 55 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  18. MUTAGENICITY IN LUNG OF BIG BLUE ((R) MICE AND INDUCTION OF TANDEM-BASE SUBSTITUTIONS IN SALMONELLA BY THE AIR POLLUTANT PEROXYACETYL NITRATE (PAN): PREDICTED FORMATION OF INTRASTRAND CROSS-LINKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is a ubiquitous air pollutant formed from N02 reacting with acetoxy radicals generated from ambient aldehydes in the presence of sunlight and ozone. It contributes to eye irritation associated with photochemical smog and is present in most urban air. ...

  19. Alcohol fuel use: Implications for atmospheric levels of aldehydes, organic nitrates, pans, and peroxides: Separating sources using carbon isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Tanner, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed DiNitroPhenylHydrazone (DNPH) derivatization--high performance liquid chromatographic methods for measuring aldehydes in ambient samples with detection limits of approximately 1ppbV. These methods can be used for air or precipitation studies, and have been used for indoor measurements at much higher levels using shorter integration times. We are using gas chromatographs with electron capture detection (GCECD) to measure ambient levels of peroxyacyl nitrates and organic nitrates. Diffusion tubes with synthetically produced organic nitrates in n-tridecane solution are used to calibrate these systems. These compounds are important means of transporting NO/sub x/ over large scales due to their reduced tropospheric reactivity, low water solubilities, photolytic, and thermal stability. Their chemistries are coupled to aldehyde chemistry and are important greenhouse gases as well as phytotoxins. We have completed preliminary studies in Rio de Janeiro examining the atmospheric chemistry consequences of ethanol fuel usage. The urban air mass has been effected by the direct uncontrolled usage of ethanolgasoline and ethanoldiesel mixtures. We are exploring the use of luminol chemiluminescent detection of peroxides using gas chromatography to separate the various organic and inorganic peroxides. These compounds are coupled to the aldehyde chemistry, particularly in remote chemistries down-wind of urban sources. 13 refs.

  20. Mutagenicity in lung of big Blue((R)) mice and induction of tandem-base substitutions in Salmonella by the air pollutant peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): predicted formation of intrastrand cross-links.

    PubMed

    DeMarini, D M; Shelton, M L; Kohan, M J; Hudgens, E E; Kleindienst, T E; Ball, L M; Walsh, D; de Boer, J G; Lewis-Bevan, L; Rabinowitz, J R; Claxton, L D; Lewtas, J

    2000-12-20

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is a ubiquitous air pollutant formed from NO(2) reacting with acetoxy radicals generated from ambient aldehydes in the presence of sunlight and ozone. It contributes to eye irritation associated with photochemical smog and is present in most urban air. PAN was generated in a chamber containing open petri dishes of Salmonella TA100 (gas-phase exposure). After subtraction of the background mutation spectrum, the spectrum of PAN-induced mutants selected at 3.1-fold above the background mutant yield was 59% GC-->TA, 29% GC-->AT, 2% GC-->CG, and 10% multiple mutations - primarily GG-->TT tandem-base substitutions. Using computational molecular modeling methods, a mechanism was developed for producing this unusual tandem-base substitution. The mechanism depends on the protonation of PAN near the polyanionic DNA to release NO(2)(+) resulting in intrastrand dimer formation. Insertion of AA opposite the dimerized GG would account for the tandem GG-->TT transversions. Nose-only exposure of Big Blue((R)) mice to PAN at 78ppm (near the MTD) was mutagenic at the lacI gene in the lung (mutant frequency +/-S.E. of 6.16+/-0.58/10(5) for controls versus 8.24+/-0.30/10(5) for PAN, P=0.016). No tandem-base mutations were detected among the 40 lacI mutants sequenced. Dosimetry with 3H-PAN showed that 24h after exposure, 3.9% of the radiolabel was in the nasal tissue, and only 0.3% was in the lung. However, based on the molecular modeling considerations, the labeled portion of the molecule would not have been expected to have been bound covalently to DNA. Our results indicate that PAN is weakly mutagenic in the lungs of mice and in Salmonella and that PAN produces a unique signature mutation (a tandem GG-->TT transversion) in Salmonella that is likely due to a GG intrastrand cross-link. Thus, PAN may pose a mutagenic and possible carcinogenic risk to humans, especially at the high concentrations at which it is present in some urban environments. PMID:11106797

  1. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Heterogeneous Interaction of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate on Liquid Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1996-01-01

    The uptake of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on liquid sulfuric acid surfaces has been investigated using a fast-flow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. PAN was observed to be reversibly adsorbed on sulfuric acid.

  3. Peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, Eric; Grosjean, Daniel; Woodhouse, Luis F.; Yang, Yueh-Jiun

    For 41 days between 25 May 1996 and 27 March 1997, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN) have been measured by electron capture gas chromatography at Santa Rita near Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, where light-duty vehicles used either ethanol or a gasoline-MTBE blend. Daily maximum concentrations ranged from 0.19 to 6.67 ppb for PAN and 0.06 to 0.72 ppb for PPN. Linear regression of maximum PPN vs. maximum PAN yielded a slope of 0.105±0.004 ( R2=0.974). Diurnal variations of ambient PAN often followed those of ozone with respect to time of day but not with respect to amplitude. This was reflected in the large relative standard deviations associated with the study-averaged PAN/ozone concentration ratio, 0.037±0.105 (ppb/ppb, n=789) and the maximum PAN/maximum ozone concentration ratio, 0.028±0.015 (ppb/ppb, range 0.005-0.078, n=41). On several days PAN accounted for large fractions of the total ambient NO x in the late morning and afternoon hours, e.g., PAN/NO x⩽0.58 and PAN/(NO x-NO) ⩽0.76 on 27 March 1997. The amount of PAN lost by thermal decomposition (TPAN) was comparable in magnitude to that present in ambient air. The ratios TPAN/(PAN+TPAN) were up to 0.53, 0.67 and 0.64 during the warm afternoons of 25, 26 and 27 March 1997, respectively. The highest calculated value of TPAN was 5.6 ppb on 27 March 1997. On that day the 24 h-averaged value of TPAN (1.01 ppb) was nearly the same as that of PAN (1.09 ppb). Using computer kinetic modeling (SAPRC 97 chemical mechanism) and sensitivity analysis of VOC incremental reactivity, we ranked VOC present in Porto Alegre ambient air for their importance as precursors to PAN and to PPN. Using as input data the averages of VOC concentrations measured in downtown Porto Alegre during the ca. 1 yr period March 1996-April 1997, we calculated that the most important precursors to PAN and PPN were the SAPRC 97 model species ARO2 (which includes the aromatics xylenes, trimethylbenzenes, ethyltoluenes, etc

  4. An improved procedure for high purity gaseous peroxyacyl nitrate production: Use of heavy lipid solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Fajer, R.; Senum, G. I.

    An improved procedure is described for the production of peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN's) in the gas phase. The method of Nielsen et al. (1982) has been modified to yield PAN's of high purity with no further Chromatographic purification required. Extraction of PAN's from the nitration of the peracids is accomplished by use of a heavy lipid solvent ( n-tridecane). This solvent's low vapor pressure allows the simple separation and preparation of high purity gaseous PAN's (> 98 %) as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Using this method infrared integrated band strengths are reported for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) perdeutero-peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN-D 3) and peroxyproprionyl nitrate (PPN). The method allows facile production of large amounts of gaseous PAN's for smog chamber and laboratory studies, lexicological and health effects research, as well as for calibration of PAN analyses.

  5. Identification of organic nitrates in the NO3 radical initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Perraud, Véronique; Bruns, Emily A; Ezell, Michael J; Johnson, Stanley N; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    The gas-phase reactions of nitrate radicals (NO3) with biogenic organic compounds are a major sink for these organics during night-time. These reactions form secondary organic aerosols, including organic nitrates that can undergo long-range transport, releasing NOx downwind. We report here studies of the reaction of NO3 with alpha-pinene at 1 atm in dry synthetic air (relative humidity approximately 3%) and at 298 K using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) to identify gaseous and particulate products. The emphasis is on the identification of individual organic nitrates in the particle phase that were obtained by passing the product mixture through a denuder to remove gas-phase reactants and products prior to entering the source region of the mass spectrometer. Filter extracts were also analyzed by GC-MS and by APCI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-ToF-MS) with methanol as the proton source. In addition to pinonaldehyde and pinonic acid, five organic nitrates were identified in the particles as well as in the gas phase: 3-oxopinane-2-nitrate, 2-hydroxypinane-3-nitrate, pinonaldehyde-PAN, norpinonaldehyde-PAN, and (3-acetyl-2,2-dimethyl-3-nitrooxycyclobutyl)acetaldehyde. Furthermore, there was an additional first-generation organic nitrate product tentatively identified as a carbonyl hydroxynitrate with a molecular mass of 229. These studies suggest that a variety of organic nitrates would partition between the gas phase and particles in the atmosphere, and serve as a reservoir for NOx.

  6. Identification of Organic Nitrates in the NO3 Radical Initiated Oxidation of α-Pinene by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Perraud, Veronique M.; Bruns, Emily A.; Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2010-07-07

    The gas-phase reactions of nitrate radicals (NO3) with biogenic organic compounds are a major sink for these organics during night-time. These reactions form secondary organic aerosols, including organic nitrates that can undergo long-range transport, releasing NOx downwind. We report here studies of the reaction of NO3 with R-pinene at 1 atm in dry synthetic air(relative humidity ~3%) and at 298K using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) to identify gaseous and particulate products. The emphasis is on the identification of individual organic nitrates in the particle phase that were obtained by passing the product mixture through a denuder to remove gas-phase reactants and products prior to entering the source region of the mass spectrometer. Filter extracts were also analyzed by GCMS and by APCI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-ToFMS) with methanol as the proton source. In addition to pinonaldehyde and pinonic acid, five organic nitrates were identified in the particles as well as in the gas phase: 3-oxopinane- 2-nitrate, 2-hydroxypinane-3-nitrate, pinonaldehyde-PAN, norpinonaldehyde-PAN, and (3-acetyl-2,2-dimethyl-3-nitrooxycyclobutyl) acetaldehyde. Furthermore, there was an additional first generation organic nitrate product tentatively identified as a carbonyl hydroxynitrate with a molecular mass of 229. These studies suggest that a variety of organic nitrates would partition between the gas phase and particles in the atmosphere, and serve as a reservoir for NOx.

  7. Dry deposition of pan to grassland vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Doskey, P.V.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Gao, W.

    1994-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate or PAN (CH{sub 3}C(O)OONO{sub 2}) is formed in the lower troposphere via photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). PAN has a lifetime in the free troposphere of about three months and is removed by photolysis or reaction with OH. Dry deposition will decrease its lifetime, although the few measurements that have been made indicate that this process is slow. Measurements of the uptake of PAN by alfalfa in growth chambers indicated that the dry deposition velocity (downward flux divided by concentration at a specified height) was 0.75 cm s{sup {minus}1}. Garland and Penkett measured a dry deposition velocity of 0.25 cm s{sup {minus}1} for PAN to grass and soil in a return-flow wind tunnel. Shepson et al. (1992) analyzed trends of PAN and O{sub 3} concentrations in the stable nocturnal boundary layer over mixed deciduous/coniferous forests at night, when leaf stomata were closed, and concluded that the deposition velocity for PAN was at least 0.5 cm s{sup {minus}1}. We measured the dry deposition velocity of PAN to a grassland site in the midwestern United States with a modified Bowen ratio technique. Experiments were conducted on selected days during September, October, and November of 1990. An energy balance Bowen ratio station was used to observe the differences in air temperature and water vapor content between heights of 3.0 and 0.92 m and to evaluate the surface energy balance. Air samples collected at the same two heights in Teflon {reg_sign} bags were analyzed for PAN by a gas chromatographic technique. We present an example of the variations of PAN concentrations and gradients observed during the day and compare measurements of the dry deposition velocity to expectations based on the physicochemical properties of PAN.

  8. The Quantum Yield of NO3 from Peroxyacetyl Nitrate Photolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazely, Troy L.; Friedl, Randall R.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1997-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) vapor was photolyzed at 248nm and the NO3 photoproduct was detected by laser induced fluorescence. The excited state flourescence contributions were investigated and a data analysis methodology was established to minimize their effects.

  9. Peroxyacetyl nitrate in eastern Scotland.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, G G; Cape, J N

    2005-01-20

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) concentrations in air were sampled hourly from 1994 to 1998 at a rural site 15 km south-west of Edinburgh, in eastern Scotland. Annual average concentrations were between 0.1 and 0.15 nl l(-1), with episodes up to 3 nl l(-1) in long-range transported polluted air. PAN concentrations were approximately log-normally distributed. The concentrations measured are the result of a balance between photochemical production rates and removal by thermal decomposition and dry deposition. In general, there was a poor correlation between PAN and ozone concentrations at this rural site except during episodes of photochemical pollution, when the PAN/O(3) volume ratio exceeded 0.01. The PAN/NO(x) volume ratio had a median value of 0.015 but ranged up to 0.25. There was a pronounced seasonal maximum in PAN concentrations in late spring, and a strong diurnal cycle only in April-June, with a maximum at 1700 h. Individual episodes, with concentrations up to 3 nl l(-1), could be traced over distances of ca. 1000 km, with rapid changes in concentration as the prevailing winds advected polluted air masses across the site.

  10. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  11. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  12. Ozone export from East Asia: The role of PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Worden, John R.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Zhu, Liye; Fischer, Emily; Walker, Thomas; Jones, Dylan B. A.

    2016-06-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is an important ozone (O3) precursor. The lifetime of PAN is approximately 1 month in the free troposphere, and this allows O3 production to occur in pollution plumes at intercontinental distances from its source. In this study we use the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem global chemical transport model, new satellite measurements of PAN from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and data from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign over North America, to study the role of natural and anthropogenic Asian emissions on free tropospheric (900-400 hPa) PAN distributions and subsequent O3 production. Using the ARCTAS data with GEOS-Chem, we show that while GEOS-Chem is unbiased with respect to the aircraft data, TES version 7 PAN data are biased high for regions with surface temperatures colder than 285 K. However, GEOS-Chem and TES measurements provide a consistent representation (within 15% difference) of PAN abundance over East Asia. Because of the good agreement between model and observations, we use the GEOS-Chem model to evaluate the sources of PAN precursors and the effect of free tropospheric PAN on the export of O3 from Asia to North America. The GEOS-Chem model results show that the largest contributors to free tropospheric PAN over Asia and the northern Pacific are anthropogenic and soil NOx emissions. Biomass burning emissions have important contributions to free tropospheric PAN over northern Pacific (25% in April), while the contribution from lightning over northern Pacific is significant in July (40%). Strong springtime transport in April results in more export of free tropospheric PAN and O3 from East Asian emissions. This free tropospheric PAN contributes about 35% to the abundance of free tropospheric O3 over western North America in spring and 25% in summer.

  13. Acetylproteomic analysis reveals functional implications of lysine acetylation in human spermatozoa (sperm).

    PubMed

    Yu, Heguo; Diao, Hua; Wang, Chunmei; Lin, Yan; Yu, Fudong; Lu, Hui; Xu, Wei; Li, Zheng; Shi, Huijuan; Zhao, Shimin; Zhou, Yuchuan; Zhang, Yonglian

    2015-04-01

    Male infertility is a medical condition that has been on the rise globally. Lysine acetylation of human sperm, an essential posttranslational modification involved in the etiology of sperm abnormality, is not fully understood. Therefore, we first generated a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody to characterize the global lysine acetylation of uncapacitated normal human sperm with a proteomics approach. With high enrichment ratios that were up to 31%, 973 lysine-acetylated sites that matched to 456 human sperm proteins, including 671 novel lysine acetylation sites and 205 novel lysine-acetylated proteins, were identified. These proteins exhibited conserved motifs XXXKYXXX, XXXKFXXX, and XXXKHXXX, were annotated to function in multiple metabolic processes, and were localized predominantly in the mitochondrion and cytoplasmic fractions. Between the uncapacitated and capacitated sperm, different acetylation profiles in regard to functional proteins involved in sperm capacitation, sperm-egg recognition, sperm-egg plasma fusion, and fertilization were observed, indicating that acetylation of functional proteins may be required during sperm capacitation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed association of acetylated proteins with diseases and drugs. Novel acetylation of voltage-dependent anion channel proteins was also found. With clinical sperm samples, we observed differed lysine acetyltransferases and lysine deacetylases expression between normal sperm and abnormal sperm of asthenospermia or necrospermia. Furthermore, with sperm samples impaired by epigallocatechin gallate to mimic asthenospermia, we observed that inhibition of sperm motility was partly through the blockade of voltage-dependent anion channel 2 Lys-74 acetylation combined with reduced ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, we obtained a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody, analyzed the acetylproteome of uncapacitated human sperm, and revealed

  14. Acetylproteomic Analysis Reveals Functional Implications of Lysine Acetylation in Human Spermatozoa (sperm)*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Heguo; Diao, Hua; Wang, Chunmei; Lin, Yan; Yu, Fudong; Lu, Hui; Xu, Wei; Li, Zheng; Shi, Huijuan; Zhao, Shimin; Zhou, Yuchuan; Zhang, Yonglian

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility is a medical condition that has been on the rise globally. Lysine acetylation of human sperm, an essential posttranslational modification involved in the etiology of sperm abnormality, is not fully understood. Therefore, we first generated a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody to characterize the global lysine acetylation of uncapacitated normal human sperm with a proteomics approach. With high enrichment ratios that were up to 31%, 973 lysine-acetylated sites that matched to 456 human sperm proteins, including 671 novel lysine acetylation sites and 205 novel lysine-acetylated proteins, were identified. These proteins exhibited conserved motifs XXXKYXXX, XXXKFXXX, and XXXKHXXX, were annotated to function in multiple metabolic processes, and were localized predominantly in the mitochondrion and cytoplasmic fractions. Between the uncapacitated and capacitated sperm, different acetylation profiles in regard to functional proteins involved in sperm capacitation, sperm-egg recognition, sperm-egg plasma fusion, and fertilization were observed, indicating that acetylation of functional proteins may be required during sperm capacitation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed association of acetylated proteins with diseases and drugs. Novel acetylation of voltage-dependent anion channel proteins was also found. With clinical sperm samples, we observed differed lysine acetyltransferases and lysine deacetylases expression between normal sperm and abnormal sperm of asthenospermia or necrospermia. Furthermore, with sperm samples impaired by epigallocatechin gallate to mimic asthenospermia, we observed that inhibition of sperm motility was partly through the blockade of voltage-dependent anion channel 2 Lys-74 acetylation combined with reduced ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, we obtained a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody, analyzed the acetylproteome of uncapacitated human sperm, and revealed

  15. Loving Peter Pan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkaid, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the story of "Peter Pan." Considers its creation, its role on the stage, and its impact on society. Considers how "Peter Pan" is about the inability to have make-believe and the true stick together: it dramatizes an artistic failure, the failure to make the vision of the play successful. (SG)

  16. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of pans with luminol chemilumnescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.; Bornick, R.; Chen, Yu-Harn; Marley, N.

    1996-12-31

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) are important air pollutants in tropospheric chemistry. PANs are known to be potent phytotoxins at low ppb concentrations and are lachrymators. They can also transport the more reactive nitrogen dioxide long distances, because they are in equilibrium with that NO{sub x} species. Since PANs are trapped peroxyradicals, they are a direct measure of the peroxyradical levels and the of {open_quotes}photochemical age{close_quotes} of an air parcel. The PANs are typically measured in the atmosphere by using electron capture detection methods. These methods suffer from large background signals and detector responses to oxygen and water vapor. This paper describes the combination of a capillary gas chromatographic column with a modified luminol chemiluminescent nitrogen dioxide detector (Scintrex, Luminox) for rapid and sensitive detection of nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxypropionyl nitrate, and peroxybutyryl nitrate. Detection limits for this approach in the low tens of parts per trillion have been observed with total analysis times of less than three minutes. We will discuss the potential application of this method to other compounds, particularly, organonitrates, in a pyrolysis system and/or with ozone addition to the sampling streams.

  17. The PanK2 Genes of Mouse and Human Specify Proteins with DistinctSubcellular Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Lydikis, Athanasios; Stevens,Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Wenner, Brett R.; Bain, James R.; Newgard,Christopher B.; Rock, Charles O.; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2007-05-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is initiated by pantothenatekinase (PanK) and CoA levels are controlled through differentialexpression and feedback regulation of PanK isoforms. PanK2 is amitochondrial protein in humans, but comparative genomics revealed thatacquisition of a mitochondrial targeting signal was limited to primates.Human and mouse PanK2 possessed similar biochemical properties, withinhibition by acetylCoA and activation by palmitoylcarnitine. Mouse PanK2localized in the cytosol, and the expression of PanK2 was higher in humanbrain compared to mouse brain. Differences in expression and subcellularlocalization should be considered in developing a mouse model for humanPanK2 deficiency. (c) 2007 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Summertime PAN on boundary layer over the Northern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, D.; Lee, S.; Lee, G.; Rhee, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of SHIPPO ( Shipborne Pole to Pole Observation), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO2 have been measured at aboard the R/V Araon during the ship track from Inchon, South Korea to Norm, Alaska, USA from July 14th to 30th, 2012. PAN and NO2 were sampled every 2 minute by a fast chromatograph with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. In order to assure their detections in remote background airs, we successfully reduced random noise mainly from PMT using ensemble averaging from the 2 min chromatograms in each one hour time interval. With this post-processing analysis, we were able to lower detection limits to 0.01 ppbv and 0.04 ppbv for PAN and NO2, respectively. The preliminary results indicate that the background values ranged from the below the detection limit to 0.37 ppbv (average of 0.06 ppbv) for PAN and 2.05 ppbv (average of 0.24 ppbv) for NO2. It was confirmed that PAN was significant portions of reactive nitrogens in remote marine boundary airs. Occasional enhancements of PAN and NO2 were mainly attributed to the air masses originated from nearby source regions in the Northestern Asia and influenced by ships exhausts. We were able to observe the shifting of equilibrium between PAN and NO2 according to air temperature changes in very clean air masses.

  19. The pipes of pan.

    PubMed

    Chalif, David J

    2004-12-01

    The pipes of pan is the crowning achievement of Pablo Picasso's neoclassical period of the 1920s. This monumental canvas depicts a mythological Mediterranean scene in which two sculpted classical giants stare out, seemingly across the centuries, toward a distant and lost Arcadia. Picasso was influenced by Greco-Roman art during his travels in Italy, and his neoclassical works typically portray massive, immobile, and pensive figures. Pan and his pipes are taken directly from Greek mythological lore by Picasso and placed directly into 20th century art. He frequently turned to various mythological figures throughout his metamorphosing periods. The Pipes of Pan was also influenced by the painter's infatuation with the beautiful American expatriate Sara Murphy, and the finished masterpiece represents a revision of a previously conceived neoclassical work. The Pipes of Pan now hangs in the Musee Picasso in Paris.

  20. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxypropionyl nitrate, and carbon tetrachloride in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Hongxing

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were measured from September 2010 to August 2011 in Beijing. PAN exhibited low values from mid-autumn to early spring (October to March) with monthly average concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 0.73 ppbV, and increased from early spring to summer (March to August), ranging from 1.37-3.79 ppbV. The monthly variation of PPN was similar to PAN, with low values (below detection limit to 0.18 ppbV) from mid-autumn to early spring, and a monthly maximum in September (1.14 ppbV). The monthly variation of CCl4 was tightly related to the variation of temperature, exhibiting a minimum in winter (69.3 pptV) and a maximum of 180.6 pptV in summer. Due to weak solar intensity and short duration, PAN and O3 showed no distinct diurnal patterns from morning to night during winter, whereas for other seasons, they both exhibited maximal values in the late afternoon (ca. 15:00 to 16:00 local time) and minimal values during early morning and midnight. Good linear correlations between PAN and PPN were found in autumn (R = 0.91), spring (R = 0.94), and summer (R = 0.81), with slopes of 0.130, 0.222, and 0.133, respectively, suggesting that anthropogenic hydrocarbons dominated the photochemical formation of PANs in Beijing. Positive correlation between PAN and O3 in summer with the low slopes (deltaO3/deltaPAN) ranging from 9.92 to 18.0 indicated serious air pollution in Beijing, and strong negative correlation in winter reflected strong O3 consumption by NO titration and less thermal decompositin of PAN.

  1. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxypropionyl nitrate, and carbon tetrachloride in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Hongxing

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were measured from September 2010 to August 2011 in Beijing. PAN exhibited low values from mid-autumn to early spring (October to March) with monthly average concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 0.73 ppbV, and increased from early spring to summer (March to August), ranging from 1.37-3.79 ppbV. The monthly variation of PPN was similar to PAN, with low values (below detection limit to 0.18 ppbV) from mid-autumn to early spring, and a monthly maximum in September (1.14 ppbV). The monthly variation of CCl4 was tightly related to the variation of temperature, exhibiting a minimum in winter (69.3 pptV) and a maximum of 180.6 pptV in summer. Due to weak solar intensity and short duration, PAN and O3 showed no distinct diurnal patterns from morning to night during winter, whereas for other seasons, they both exhibited maximal values in the late afternoon (ca. 15:00 to 16:00 local time) and minimal values during early morning and midnight. Good linear correlations between PAN and PPN were found in autumn (R = 0.91), spring (R = 0.94), and summer (R = 0.81), with slopes of 0.130, 0.222, and 0.133, respectively, suggesting that anthropogenic hydrocarbons dominated the photochemical formation of PANs in Beijing. Positive correlation between PAN and O3 in summer with the low slopes (deltaO3/deltaPAN) ranging from 9.92 to 18.0 indicated serious air pollution in Beijing, and strong negative correlation in winter reflected strong O3 consumption by NO titration and less thermal decompositin of PAN. PMID:24649692

  2. Cold-surface photochemistry of selected organic nitrates.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Daniel; McLaughlin, Ryan P; Clemitshaw, Kevin C; Sodeau, John R

    2014-10-23

    Reflection-absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy has been used to explore the low temperature condensed-phase photochemistry of atmospherically relevant organic nitrates for the first time. Three alkyl nitrates, methyl, isopropyl, and isobutyl nitrate together with a peroxyacyl nitrate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), were examined. For the alkyl nitrates, similar photolysis products were observed whether they were deposited neat to the gold substrate or codeposited with water. In addition to peaks associated with the formation of an aldehyde/ketone and NO, a peak near 2230 cm(-1) was found to emerge in the RAIR spectra upon UV photolysis of the thin films. Together with evidence obtained by thermal programmed desorption (TPD), the peak is attributed to the formation of nitrous oxide, N2O, generated as a product during the photolysis. On the basis of the known gas-phase photochemistry for the alkyl nitrates, an intermediate pathway involving the formation of nitroxyl (HNO) is proposed to lead to the observed N2O photoproduct. For peroxyacetyl nitrate, CO2 was observed as a predominant product upon photolytic decomposition. In addition, RAIR absorptions attributable to the formation of methyl nitrate were also found to appear upon photolysis. By analogy to the known gas-phase and matrix-isolated-phase photochemistry of PAN, the formation of methyl nitrate is shown to likely result from the combination of alkoxy radicals and nitrogen dioxide generated inside the thin films during photolysis.

  3. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Bornick, R. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Marley, N. A.; Environmental Research

    1998-01-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) and nitrogen dioxide are important atmospheric air pollutants in the troposphere. These atmospheric nitrogen species are strongly coupled chemically by a clearly temperature-dependent equilibrium in the troposphere. A chemical method that can measure both nitrogen dioxide and PANs rapidly and with sub-part-per-billion detection is described that is based upon a modified luminol detection system coupled to a capillary gas chromatographic column by using helium as a carrier. The system can readily separate and detect nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxyproprionyl nitrate, and peroxybutyrl nitrate with detection limits in the low tens of parts per trillion with total analysis time of less than 1 min. Calibration of PAN by thermal decomposition to nitrogen dioxide is demonstrated with PAN detection sensitivities approximately 75% of the sensitivities observed for NO2 luminol detection by using helium as a carrier gas. The advantages of this method for simultaneous measurement of nitrogen dioxide and PANs over ozone chemiluminescent detection and electron capture detection are discussed, as well as potential applications of this method for heterogeneous surface chemistry studies of PANs and nitrogen dioxide and for tropospheric measurements.

  4. The Pan Zhichang Incident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuchen, Zhu

    2007-01-01

    This article examines why Pan Zhichang, a well-known professor and Ph.D. candidate supervisor at Nanjing University, has repeatedly been accused of plagiarism. It may not be difficult to check whether he has committed plagiarism, but seeking the deeper social and systemic reasons for a person's repeated "negligence" is indeed a thought-provoking…

  5. Measurement and Chemistry of Atmospheric Organic Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, Martin Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Organic nitrates are important reservoir species for NO_{rm x} (NO + NO_2) in the atmosphere. Typically formed in and around urban areas, the organic nitrates sequester NO_{rm x} and allow it to be transported to rural and remote regions, wherein it may be released into the atmosphere and participate in catalytic cycles leading to the formation of ozone. The research described in this work focusses on two problems related to our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of the organic nitrates, (1) measuring the organic nitrates contributions to total reactive nitrogen (NO_ {rm y}) in the atmosphere, and (2) determining the conditions under which the organic nitrates release NO_{rm x} into the atmosphere and thereby participate in ozone formation. The work performed included development of measurement methods for the organic nitrates, ambient measurements of several organic nitrates made under a variety of conditions, and data interpretation using a combination of bivariate and multivariate analysis. The instrument development that was performed centered around incorporation of capillary column technology in a gas chromatographic method. Use of a capillary column resulted in improved chromatographic resolution and instrument sensitivity. In addition to the work on the chromatographic separation of the organic nitrates, some work was done regarding the sensitivity of the electron capture detector (ECD) as a function of electrical mode of operation. Ambient measurements of several of the organic nitrates were made during three field experiments in conjunction with NOAA's Aeronomy laboratory, including PAN rm CH_3C(O)O_2NO_2), PPN rm (C_2H_5C(O)O_2NO _2), and the C_1-C _5 alkyl nitrates (RONO_2 ). The measurements were made in conjunction with a wide variety of other chemical and physical parameters. Data interpretation was performed using bivariate analysis in order to understand the diurnal variation of the concentrations of the organic nitrates and their

  6. Histone acetylation: truth of consequences?

    PubMed

    Choi, Jennifer K; Howe, Leann J

    2009-02-01

    Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into a nucleoprotein structure known as chromatin, which is comprised of DNA, histones, and nonhistone proteins. Chromatin structure is highly dynamic, and can shift from a transcriptionally inactive state to an active form in response to intra- and extracellular signals. A major factor in chromatin architecture is the covalent modification of histones through the addition of chemical moieties, such as acetyl, methyl, ubiquitin, and phosphate groups. The acetylation of the amino-terminal tails of histones is a process that is highly conserved in eukaryotes, and was one of the earliest histone modifications characterized. Since its identification in 1964, a large body of evidence has accumulated demonstrating that histone acetylation plays an important role in transcription. Despite our ever-growing understanding of the nuclear processes involved in nucleosome acetylation, however, the exact biochemical mechanisms underlying the downstream effects of histone acetylation have yet to be fully elucidated. To date, histone acetylation has been proposed to function in 2 nonmutually exclusive manners: by directly altering chromatin structure, and by acting as a molecular tag for the recruitment of chromatin-modifying complexes. Here, we discuss recent research focusing on these 2 potential roles of histone acetylation and clarify what we actually know about the function of this modification.

  7. Relationship between peroxyacetyl nitrate and nitrogen oxides in the clean troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Salas, L. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Shetter, J. D.; Donahue, N. M.

    1985-01-01

    The first study is presented in which the mixing ratios of peroxyactyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, as well as those of peroxypropionyl nitrate and O3 and relevant meteorological parameters, were measured concurrently at a location that receives clean, continental air. The results show that, in clean conditions, nitrogen oxides present in the form of PAN can be as much or more abundant than the inorganic form. In addition, PAN can be an important source of peroxyacetyl radicals which may be important to oxidation processes in the gas as well as liquid phases.

  8. Modelling of The Atmospheric Chemistry of Organic Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsland, N.

    Organic nitrates are linked to the formation of tropospheric ozone and the cycling and transport of nitrogen-containing species in the atmosphere. Few laboratory stud- ies have been carried out on the reactions of organic nitrates. Photolysis quantum yield studies and UV absorption spectra have been carried out for the simple alkyl nitrates and PAN. Studies of PAN and ethyl nitrate with other atmospheric components (the hydroxyl radical - OH - and the chlorine atom - Cl) have been carried out to mea- sure their rates of reaction. However, the products and mechanisms of these reactions are poorly understood. We present here the results of modelling the reactions of the C1-C8 alkyl nitrates and PAN with the hydroxyl radical. These models are based on information from current literature and from photochemical reactor studies carried out at the Environment Institute, EU Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. These studies give us a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms and products of the atmospheric loss of organic nitrates due to reaction with the hydroxyl radical. Preliminary studies show that the major products are aldehydes, ketones, nitro-oxy aldehydes, nitro-oxy ketones, NOx and nitric acid.

  9. Acetylator phenotype in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E H; Burden, A C; Moorhead, P J

    1977-07-30

    The proportions of slow and fast acetylators in a group of diabetics with symptomatic peripheral neuropathy were compared with those in a group of diabetics who had had the disease for at least 10 years without developing neuropathy. There was a significantly higher proportion of fast acetylators in the group of diabetics without neuropathy than in those with neuropathy or in the normal population. Hence genetic factors separate from the diabetic diathesis may determine the development of neuropathy in any particular diabetic.

  10. Aurora B is regulated by acetylation/deacetylation during mitosis in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fadri-Moskwik, Maria; Weiderhold, Kimberly N.; Deeraksa, Arpaporn; Chuang, Carol; Pan, Jing; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Protein acetylation has been implicated in playing an important role during mitotic progression. Aurora B kinase is known to play a critical role in mitosis. However, whether Aurora B is regulated by acetylation is not known. Using IP with an anti-acetyl lysine antibody, we identified Aurora B as an acetylated protein in PC3 prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of HDAC3 or inhibiting HDAC3 deacetylase activity led to a significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) in Aurora B acetylation as compared to siLuc or vehicle-treated controls. Increased Aurora B acetylation is correlated with a 30% reduction in Aurora B kinase activity in vitro and resulted in significant defects in Aurora B-dependent mitotic processes, including kinetochore-microtubule attachment and chromosome congression. Furthermore, Aurora B transiently interacts with HDAC3 at the kinetochore-microtubule interface of congressing chromosomes during prometaphase. This window of interaction corresponded with a transient but significant reduction (P=0.02) in Aurora B acetylation during early mitosis. Together, these results indicate that Aurora B is more active in its deacetylated state and further suggest a new mechanism by which dynamic acetylation/deacetylation acts as a rheostat to fine-tune Aurora B activity during mitotic progression.—Fadri-Moskwik, M., Weiderhold, K. N., Deeraksa, A., Chuang, C., Pan, J., Lin, S.-H., Yu-Lee, L.-Y. Aurora B is regulated by acetylation/deacetylation during mitosis in prostate cancer cells. PMID:22751009

  11. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. PMID:26389815

  12. Acetylator phenotype in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, E H; Burden, A C; Moorhead, P J

    1977-01-01

    The proportions of slow and fast acetylators in a group of diabetics with symptomatic peripheral neuropathy were compared with those in a group of diabetics who had had the disease for at least 10 years without developing neuropathy. There was a significantly higher proportion of fast acetylators in the group of diabetics without neuropathy than in those with neuropathy or in the normal population. Hence genetic factors separate from the diabetic diathesis may determine the development of neuropathy in any particular diabetic. PMID:871863

  13. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  14. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  15. Mapping sugar beet pectin acetylation pattern.

    PubMed

    Ralet, Marie-Christine; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Bonnin, Estelle; Quéméner, Bernard; Hellìn, Pilar; Thibault, Jean-François

    2005-08-01

    Homogalacturonan-derived partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates were recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis (endo-polygalacturonase+pectin methyl esterase+side-chain degrading enzymes) of sugar beet pectin followed by anion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Around 90% of the GalA and 75% of the acetyl groups present in the initial sugar beet pectin were recovered as homogalacturonan-derived oligogalacturonates, the remaining GalA and acetyl belonging to rhamnogalacturonic regions. Around 50% of the acetyl groups present in sugar beet homogalacturonans were recovered as partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates of degree of polymerisation 5 whose structures were determined by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MSn). 2-O-acetyl- and 3-O-acetyl-GalA were detected in roughly similar amounts but 2,3-di-O-acetylation was absent. Methyl-esterified GalA residues occurred mainly upstream 2-O-acetyl GalA. Oligogalacturonates containing GalA residues that are at once methyl- and acetyl-esterified were recovered in very limited amounts. A tentative mapping of the distribution of acetyl and methyl esters within sugar beet homogalacturonans is proposed. Unsubstituted GalA residues are likely to be present in limited amounts (approximately 10% of total GalA residues), due to the fact that methyl and acetyl groups are assumed to be most often not carried by the same residues.

  16. Protein acetylation in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Jörg

    2010-09-16

    Proteins can be acetylated at the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal amino acid (methionine or the penultimate amino acid after methionine removal) or at the epsilon-amino group of internal lysines. In eukaryotes the majority of proteins are N-terminally acetylated, while this is extremely rare in bacteria. A variety of studies about N-terminal acetylation in archaea have been reported recently, and it was revealed that a considerable fraction of proteins is N-terminally acetylated in haloarchaea and Sulfolobus, while this does not seem to apply for methanogenic archaea. Many eukaryotic proteins are modified by differential internal acetylation, which is important for a variety of processes. Until very recently, only two bacterial proteins were known to be acetylation targets, but now 125 acetylation sites are known for E. coli. Knowledge about internal acetylation in archaea is extremely limited; only two target proteins are known, only one of which--Alba--was used to study differential acetylation. However, indications accumulate that the degree of internal acetylation of archaeal proteins might be underestimated, and differential acetylation has been shown to be essential for the viability of haloarchaea. Focused proteomic approaches are needed to get an overview of the extent of internal protein acetylation in archaea.

  17. Production of NO2 from Photolysis of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazely, Troy L.; Friedl, Randall R.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1965-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) vapor was photolyzed at 248 nm, and the NO2 photoproduct was detected by laser-induced fluorescence. The quantum yield for the production of NO2 from PAN photolysis was determined by comparison to HNO3 photolysis data taken under identical experimental conditions. The average of data collected over a range of total pressures, precursor concentrations, and buffer gases was 0.83 +/- 0.09 for the NO2 quantum yield, where the statistical uncertainty is 2 standard deviations.

  18. Measurement of alkyl nitrates at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia during the 1993 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, James M.; Bertman, Steven B.; Parrish, David D.; Fehsenfeld, Fredrick C.; Jobson, B. Thomas; Niki, Hiromi

    1998-06-01

    Measurements of six alkyl nitrates, methyl-, ethyl-, 1-propyl-, 2-propyl-, 2-butyl, and 3-pentyl nitrates, and two peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides, peroxyacetic nitric anhydride (PAN) and peroxypropionic nitric anhydride (PPN) were made at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia, during the 1993 North Atlantic Regional Experiment campaign. The correlation of alkyl nitrates (RONO2) with carbon monoxide makes it clear that the chemistry at this site is being driven by continental emissions, since RONO2 compounds are known to be by-products of HC-NOx photochemistry. Comparison of the ratios of alkyl nitrates to their parent hydrocarbons to that of 2-butyl nitrate/butane showed significant deviations from trends predicted from rate constants, branching ratios, and loss rates. For ethyl nitrate this deviation is likely due to a combination of many additional pathways to the intermediate peroxy radical from the decomposition of larger alkoxy radicals. The propyl nitrates showed trends that differed from one another; 2-propyl nitrate was a factor of 2 to 3 higher than predicted, while 1-propyl nitrate was a factor of 8 to 10 higher than predicted. The trend of 3-pentyl nitrate/pentane was relatively close (about 50% lower) to the predicted trend. The relationship between PAN and PPN showed unexpectedly high ratios of PPN to PAN in air masses coming from the south and west of the site, implying a slight local source of PPN.

  19. TES observations of the interannual variability of PAN over Northern Eurasia and the relationship to springtime fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liye; Fischer, Emily V.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Worden, John R.; Jiang, Zhe

    2015-09-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry through its impact on remote oxidant and nitrogen budgets. PAN is formed rapidly in boreal fire plumes through the oxidation of short-lived volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide radicals. Here we present new satellite observations of PAN from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) over northern Eurasia for April 2006-2010. We observe large interannual variability in TES PAN observations, and we show that fires are one source of this variability using (1) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Mean Fire Radiative Power observations and (2) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory backward trajectories. We also show that cold springtime temperatures and enhanced vertical mixing in the lower free troposphere over northeastern Eurasia likely played a role in the detection of PAN from TES in April 2006 in this region.

  20. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  1. Detection of peroxyacetyl nitrate at phytotoxic level and its effects on vegetation in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, En-Jang; Huang, Ming-Huei

    Symptoms of toxicity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), namely bronzing and silvering, were initially discovered on lettuce plants in the Taipei area in 1989. The cause and effect relationship was established by the detection of large ambient concentrations of PAN and by reproduction of the symptoms upon exposure to PAN. In the following years, several other plants including spinach, Solanum nigrum, Nicotiana excelsior, and Galinsoga parvifiora were also found with symptoms of a similar nature. Symptoms were artificially reproduced in these plants on exposure to PAN proving that they were also sensitive to PAN. These PAN-type symptoms were prominently different from those caused by ozone or other general pollutants described in the literature. Based on these symptoms, PAN is believed to occur in all three major urban areas of Taiwan, namely Taipei in the north, Taichung in the center, and Kaohsiung in the south. Hydrocarbons emitted from numerous motorcycles are believed to be the principal precursor of this photochemical pollutant. Ambient measurements of PAN in the Taipei area showed that on calm sunny days, PAN typically exceeded 4-12 ppb, and native Sword-leaf lettuce began to show the symptoms the next morning. From July 1992 to April 1993 there were at least 34 d with PAN at significantly phytotoxic concentrations that affected lettuce and other plants. The concentration of PAN was highly correlated with that of ozone according to the regression equation Y(ozone/ppbv) = 16.9X(PAN/ppbv) + 13.5 in warm seasons, and Y(ozone/ppbv) = 3.OX(PAN/ppbv) + 11.1 in cooler seasons, indicating the co-occurrence but distinct ratios of these pollutants.

  2. An Intercomparison of Airborne VOC and PAN Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Flocke, F.; Weinheimer, A.; Fall, R.; Goldan, P.; Hübler, G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2002-12-01

    As part of the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000) an informal airborne intercomparison has been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the-art of fast-response, in-situ methods for analyzing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Instrumentation included a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), the Tropospheric Airborne Chromatograph for Oxy-hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbons (TACOH) and a gas chromatograph for PAN detection using electron capture (GC/ECD). The measurements were made in the Greater Houston area and East Texas in August/September 2000 during 13 flights with the NSF/NCAR ELECTRA aircraft. The intercomparison was conducted mainly in the boundary layer but included some encounters with air masses from the free troposphere. Final results from the intercomparison show that measurements of acetaldehyde, isoprene, the sum\\textsuperscript{*} of acetone and propanal, the sum\\textsuperscript{*} methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (\\textsuperscript{*} PTR-MS does not distinguish between isobaric species) and toluene agree very well. Poor agreement was achieved in the case of methanol and the underlying sensitivity problem in the PTR-MS or TACOH system is under investigation. The results of the PAN intercomparison indicate that the PTR-MS technique suffered from an interference most likely associated with the presence of peracetic acid in photochemically aged air. If this interfering signal was traced by periodically inserting a selective PAN scrubber (thermal decomposition) into the sample air stream and subtracted from the original signal, the corrected PTR-MS PAN data are in very good agreement with the GC/ECD results.

  3. Flow properties of acetylated chickpea protein dispersions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li H; Hung, Tran V

    2010-06-01

    Chickpea protein concentrate was acetylated with acetic anhydride at 5 levels. Acetylated chickpea protein (ACP) dispersions at 3 levels (6%, 45%, and 49%) were chosen for this flow property study. Effects of protein concentration, temperature, concentrations of salt addition and particularly, degree of acetylation on these properties were examined. Compared with native chickpea proteins, the ACP dispersions exhibited a strong shear thinning behavior. Within measured temperature range (15 to 55 degrees C), the apparent viscosities of native chickpea protein dispersions were temperature independent; those of ACP dispersions were thermally affected. The flow index (n), consistency coefficient (m), apparent yield stress, and apparent viscosities of ACP dispersions increased progressively up to 45% acetylation but decreased at 49% acetylation level. Conformational studies by gel filtration suggested that chickpea proteins were associated or polymerized at up to 45% acetylation but the associated subunits gradually dissociated to smaller units at higher levels (49%) of acetylation.

  4. Aircraft measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates using luminol chemiluminescence with fast capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.; Drayton, P.J.

    1997-09-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) are important trace gas species associated with photochemical air pollution. The PANs are in thermal equilibrium with the peroxyacetyl radical and NO{sub 2}. Because PANs are trapped peroxy radicals, they are an important indicator species of the photochemical age of an air parcel, as well as being a means of long-range transporting of NO{sub 2}, leading to the formation of regional ozone and other oxidants. Typically, PANs are measured by using a gas chromatograph with electron-capture detection (ECD). Once automated, this method has been shown to be reliable and quite sensitive, allowing the levels of PANs to be measured at low parts per trillion in the troposphere. Unfortunately, a number of other atmospheric gases also have strong ECD signals or act as inferences and limit the speed in which the analysis can be completed. Currently, the shortest analysis time for PAN is approx. 5 minutes with ECD. The authors recent examined the luminol detection of NO{sub 2} and PANs using gas capillary chromatography for rapid monitoring of these important trace gases. Analysis of the PANs (PAN, PPN, and PBN) and NO{sub 2} in one minute has been demonstrated in laboratory studies by using this approach. Reported here are modifications of this instrument for aircraft operation and preliminary results from test flights taken near Pasco, Washington in August of 1997.

  5. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  6. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

  7. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  8. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  9. Investigating Histone Acetylation Stoichiometry and Turnover Rate.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Baeza, J; Denu, J M

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is a dynamic epigenetic modification that functions in the regulation of DNA-templated reactions, such as transcription. This lysine modification is reversibly controlled by histone (lysine) acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we present methods employing isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry (MS) to comprehensively investigate histone acetylation dynamics. Turnover rates of histone acetylation are determined by measuring the kinetics of labeling from (13)C-labeled precursors of acetyl-CoA, which incorporates (13)C-carbon onto histones via the acetyltransferase reaction. Overall histone acetylation states are assessed from complete protease digestion to single amino acids, which is followed by MS analysis. Determination of site-specific acetylation stoichiometry is achieved by chemically acetylating endogenous histones with isotopic acetic anhydride, followed by trypsin digestion and LC-MS analysis. Combining metabolic labeling with stoichiometric analysis permits determination of both acetylation level and acetylation dynamics. When comparing genetic, diet, or environmental perturbations, these methods permit both a global and site-specific evaluation of how histone acetylation is dynamically regulated.

  10. Investigating Histone Acetylation Stoichiometry and Turnover Rate.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Baeza, J; Denu, J M

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is a dynamic epigenetic modification that functions in the regulation of DNA-templated reactions, such as transcription. This lysine modification is reversibly controlled by histone (lysine) acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we present methods employing isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry (MS) to comprehensively investigate histone acetylation dynamics. Turnover rates of histone acetylation are determined by measuring the kinetics of labeling from (13)C-labeled precursors of acetyl-CoA, which incorporates (13)C-carbon onto histones via the acetyltransferase reaction. Overall histone acetylation states are assessed from complete protease digestion to single amino acids, which is followed by MS analysis. Determination of site-specific acetylation stoichiometry is achieved by chemically acetylating endogenous histones with isotopic acetic anhydride, followed by trypsin digestion and LC-MS analysis. Combining metabolic labeling with stoichiometric analysis permits determination of both acetylation level and acetylation dynamics. When comparing genetic, diet, or environmental perturbations, these methods permit both a global and site-specific evaluation of how histone acetylation is dynamically regulated. PMID:27423860

  11. Analysis of acetylation stoichiometry suggests that SIRT3 repairs nonenzymatic acetylation lesions.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Brian T; Moustafa, Tarek; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2015-11-01

    Acetylation is frequently detected on mitochondrial enzymes, and the sirtuin deacetylase SIRT3 is thought to regulate metabolism by deacetylating mitochondrial proteins. However, the stoichiometry of acetylation has not been studied and is important for understanding whether SIRT3 regulates or suppresses acetylation. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we measured acetylation stoichiometry in mouse liver tissue and found that SIRT3 suppressed acetylation to a very low stoichiometry at its target sites. By examining acetylation changes in the liver, heart, brain, and brown adipose tissue of fasted mice, we found that SIRT3-targeted sites were mostly unaffected by fasting, a dietary manipulation that is thought to regulate metabolism through SIRT3-dependent deacetylation. Globally increased mitochondrial acetylation in fasted liver tissue, higher stoichiometry at mitochondrial acetylation sites, and greater sensitivity of SIRT3-targeted sites to chemical acetylation in vitro and fasting-induced acetylation in vivo, suggest a nonenzymatic mechanism of acetylation. Our data indicate that most mitochondrial acetylation occurs as a low-level nonenzymatic protein lesion and that SIRT3 functions as a protein repair factor that removes acetylation lesions from lysine residues.

  12. Protein acetylation in metabolism - metabolites and cofactors.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Keir J; Zhang, Hongbo; Katsyuba, Elena; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Reversible acetylation was initially described as an epigenetic mechanism regulating DNA accessibility. Since then, this process has emerged as a controller of histone and nonhistone acetylation that integrates key physiological processes such as metabolism, circadian rhythm and cell cycle, along with gene regulation in various organisms. The widespread and reversible nature of acetylation also revitalized interest in the mechanisms that regulate lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and deacetylases (KDACs) in health and disease. Changes in protein or histone acetylation are especially relevant for many common diseases including obesity, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, as well as for some rare diseases such as mitochondrial diseases and lipodystrophies. In this Review, we examine the role of reversible acetylation in metabolic control and how changes in levels of metabolites or cofactors, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide, coenzyme A, acetyl coenzyme A, zinc and butyrate and/or β-hydroxybutyrate, directly alter KAT or KDAC activity to link energy status to adaptive cellular and organismal homeostasis.

  13. 2-Acetyl-pyridinium bromanilate.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lynne H; Boyle, Bryan; Clive, Lesley A; Collins, Anna; Currie, Lynsey D; Gogol, Malgorzata; Hastings, Claire; Jones, Andrew O F; Kennedy, Jennifer L; Kerr, Graham B; Kidd, Alastair; Lawton, Lorreta M; Macintyre, Susan J; Maclean, Niall M; Martin, Alan R G; McGonagle, Kate; Melrose, Samantha; Rew, Gaius A; Robinson, Colin W; Schmidtmann, Marc; Turnbull, Felicity B; Williams, Lewis G; Wiseman, Alan Y; Wocial, Malgorzata H; Wilson, Chick C

    2009-01-01

    In the crystal of the title mol-ecular salt (systematic name: 2-acetyl-pyridinium 2,5-dibromo-4-hydr-oxy-3,6-dioxocyclo-hexa-1,4-dienolate), C(7)H(8)NO(+)·C(6)HBr(2)O(4) (-), centrosymmetric rings consisting of two cations and two anions are formed, with the components linked by alternating O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Short O⋯Br contacts [3.243 (2) and 3.359 (2) Å] may help to consolidate the packing. PMID:21583087

  14. A Method to determine lysine acetylation stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles

    2014-07-21

    A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the lack of stoichiometry information. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of lysine acetylation on proteins globally. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy on hundreds of acetylated peptides from cell lysates and cross-validated the measurements via immunoblotting.

  15. Acetylation of woody lignocellulose: significance and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Koutaniemi, Sanna; Tenkanen, Maija; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides constitute approximately one quarter of usable biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these components are usually substituted by O-acetyl groups, which affect their properties and interactions with other polymers, thus affecting their solubility and extractability. However, details of these interactions are still largely obscure. Moreover, polysaccharide hydrolysis to constituent monosaccharides is hampered by the presence of O-acetyl groups, necessitating either enzymatic (esterase) or chemical de-acetylation, increasing the costs and chemical consumption. Reduction of polysaccharide acetyl content in planta is a way to modify lignocellulose toward improved saccharification. In this review we: (1) summarize literature on lignocellulose acetylation in different tree species, (2) present data and current hypotheses concerning the role of O-acetylation in determining woody lignocellulose properties, (3) describe plant proteins involved in lignocellulose O-acetylation, (4) give examples of microbial enzymes capable to de-acetylate lignocellulose, and (5) discuss prospects for exploiting these enzymes in planta to modify xylan acetylation. PMID:23734153

  16. Acetylation regulates Jun protein turnover in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daoyong; Suganuma, Tamaki; Workman, Jerry L

    2013-11-01

    C-Jun is a major transcription factor belonging to the activating protein 1 (AP-1) family. Phosphorylation has been shown to be critical for c-Jun activation and stability. Here, we report that Jra, the Drosophila Jun protein, is acetylated in vivo. We demonstrate that the acetylation of Jra leads to its rapid degradation in response to osmotic stress. Intriguingly, we also found that Jra phosphorylation antagonized its acetylation, indicating the opposite roles of acetylation and phosphorylation in Jra degradation process under osmotic stress. Our results provide new insights into how c-Jun proteins are precisely regulated by the interplay of different posttranslational modifications.

  17. Durable antibacterial Ag/polyacrylonitrile (Ag/PAN) hybrid nanofibers prepared by atmospheric plasma treatment and electrospinning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durable antibacterial Ag/polyacrylonitrile (Ag/PAN) hybrid nanofibers were prepared by atmospheric plasma treatment and electrospinning. Atmospheric helium plasma treatment was first used to reduce the silver nitrate precursor in pre-electrospinning solutions into metallic silver nanoparticles, foll...

  18. 76 FR 20831 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9143 Filed 4-12-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8651 of April 8, 2011 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Throughout Pan American Day and Pan American...

  19. Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference -- Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Teachers, students, and parents listen as scientists explain what is different about the microgravity envirornment of space and why it is a valuable tool for research. This was part of the outreach session of the Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference on May 2, 2001, at the California Science Center.

  20. Electrically controllable artificial PAN muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehpoor, Karim; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Mojarrad, Mehran

    1996-02-01

    Artificial muscles made with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers are traditionally activated in electrolytic solution by changing the pH of the solution by the addition of acids and/or bases. This usually consumes a considerable amount of weak acids or bases. Furthermore, the synthetic muscle (PAN) itself has to be impregnated with an acid or a base and must have an appropriate enclosure or provision for waste collection after actuation. This work introduces a method by which the PAN muscle may be elongated or contracted in an electric field. We believe this is the first time that this has been achieved with PAN fibers as artificial muscles. In this new development the PAN muscle is first put in close contact with one of the two platinum wires (electrodes) immersed in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Applying an electric voltage between the two wires changes the local acidity of the solution in the regions close to the platinum wires. This is because of the ionization of sodium chloride molecules and the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions at the negative and positive electrode sites, respectively. This ion accumulation, in turn, is accompanied by a sharp increase and decrease of the local acidity in regions close to either of the platinum wires, respectively. An artificial muscle, in close contact with the platinum wire, because of the change in the local acidity will contract or expand depending on the polarity of the electric field. This scheme allows the experimenter to use a fixed flexible container of an electrolytic solution whose local pH can be modulated by an imposed electric field while the produced ions are basically trapped to stay in the neighborhood of a given electrode. This method of artificial muscle activation has several advantages. First, the need to use a large quantity of acidic or alkaline solutions is eliminated. Second, the use of a compact PAN muscular system is facilitated for applications in active musculoskeletal structures. Third, the

  1. The Pan-STARRS Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter Chambers, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    The 4 year Pan-STARRS1 Science Mission has now completed and the data will be publicly release by the time of the IAU Assembly. The full data set, including catalogs (100TB database), images (2PB), and metadata, will be available from the STScI MAST archive. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys include: (1) The 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) The Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints (7 sq deg each) spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey of the ecliptic optimized for the discovery of Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey in the galactic bulge; and (5) a time domain Survey of M31.The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Science results span most fields of astronomy from Near Earth Objects to cosmology.The 2nd mission, the Pan-STARRS NEO Survey, is currently underway on PS1 and it will be supplemented by PS2 as it becomes fully operational. PS2 is currently undergoing commissioning and is expected to begin full time science observations with an functional capability similar to PS1 by summer of 2015. The status of PS2 and commissioning data from PS2 will be presented along with a full description of the Pan-STARRS NEO Survey. The prospects for future (beyond 2017) wide field surveys in the Northern Hemisphere will also be discussed.The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii; the Pan-STARRS Project Office; the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes: the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching; The Johns Hopkins University; Durham University; the University of Edinburgh; Queen's University Belfast; the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated; the National Central University of Taiwan; the Space Telescope Science Institute; the National Aeronautics

  2. Cylodextrin Polymer Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosowski, Bernard; Ruebner, Anja; Statton, Gary; Robitelle, Danielle; Meyers, Curtis

    2000-01-01

    The development of the use of cyclodextrin nitrates as possible components of insensitive, high-energy energetics is outlined over a time period of 12 years. Four different types of cyclodextrin polymers were synthesized, nitrated, and evaluated regarding their potential use for the military and aerospace community. The synthesis of these novel cyclodextrin polymers and different nitration techniques are shown and the potential of these new materials is discussed.

  3. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  4. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, John L.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  5. Gallium nitrate revisited.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2003-04-01

    Gallium nitrate, the nitrate salt of the "near-metal" element gallium, is highly effective in the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. Unlike bisphosphonates, gallium nitrate is effective in both parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated and non-parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated hypercalcemia. Gallium nitrate's effects on bone are clearly different from those of bisphosphonates. Gallium nitrate enhances calcium and phosphate content of bone and has direct, noncytotoxic effects on osteoclasts at markedly lower doses than those used for the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. The drug may have clinical application in a variety of disorders associated with accelerated bone loss, including multiple myeloma. Gallium nitrate was originally evaluated as an antitumor agent. Its antitumor activity occurs at somewhat higher doses than those used in the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. Gallium nitrate has substantial single-agent activity in the treatment of advanced lymphoma, particularly diffuse large cell lymphoma, small lymphocytic lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma. Because of its profile, including a different mechanism of action and minimal myelosuppression, the drug merits further evaluation in the treatment of advanced lymphoma. Gallium nitrate also has activity in advanced bladder cancer and may be useful in patients with metastatic or unresectable disease failing first-line chemotherapy regimens. Gallium nitrate exhibits a range of dose-dependent pharmacologic actions that provide a basis for its therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases and warrants further investigational evaluation as an antiresorptive and antitumor agent. PMID:12776253

  6. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries

    DOE PAGES

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong-Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; et al

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodiummore » butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions.« less

  7. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.828 Acetylated monoglycerides. The food additive acetylated... of catalytic agents that are not food additives or are authorized by regulation, followed by...

  8. SPOTing Acetyl-Lysine Dependent Interactions.

    PubMed

    Picaud, Sarah; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2015-08-17

    Post translational modifications have been recognized as chemical signals that create docking sites for evolutionary conserved effector modules, allowing for signal integration within large networks of interactions. Lysine acetylation in particular has attracted attention as a regulatory modification, affecting chromatin structure and linking to transcriptional activation. Advances in peptide array technologies have facilitated the study of acetyl-lysine-containing linear motifs interacting with the evolutionary conserved bromodomain module, which specifically recognizes and binds to acetylated sequences in histones and other proteins. Here we summarize recent work employing SPOT peptide technology to identify acetyl-lysine dependent interactions and document the protocols adapted in our lab, as well as our efforts to characterize such bromodomain-histone interactions. Our results highlight the versatility of SPOT methods and establish an affordable tool for rapid access to potential protein/modified-peptide interactions involving lysine acetylation.

  9. SPOTing Acetyl-Lysine Dependent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Post translational modifications have been recognized as chemical signals that create docking sites for evolutionary conserved effector modules, allowing for signal integration within large networks of interactions. Lysine acetylation in particular has attracted attention as a regulatory modification, affecting chromatin structure and linking to transcriptional activation. Advances in peptide array technologies have facilitated the study of acetyl-lysine-containing linear motifs interacting with the evolutionary conserved bromodomain module, which specifically recognizes and binds to acetylated sequences in histones and other proteins. Here we summarize recent work employing SPOT peptide technology to identify acetyl-lysine dependent interactions and document the protocols adapted in our lab, as well as our efforts to characterize such bromodomain-histone interactions. Our results highlight the versatility of SPOT methods and establish an affordable tool for rapid access to potential protein/modified-peptide interactions involving lysine acetylation. PMID:27600229

  10. SPOTing Acetyl-Lysine Dependent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Post translational modifications have been recognized as chemical signals that create docking sites for evolutionary conserved effector modules, allowing for signal integration within large networks of interactions. Lysine acetylation in particular has attracted attention as a regulatory modification, affecting chromatin structure and linking to transcriptional activation. Advances in peptide array technologies have facilitated the study of acetyl-lysine-containing linear motifs interacting with the evolutionary conserved bromodomain module, which specifically recognizes and binds to acetylated sequences in histones and other proteins. Here we summarize recent work employing SPOT peptide technology to identify acetyl-lysine dependent interactions and document the protocols adapted in our lab, as well as our efforts to characterize such bromodomain-histone interactions. Our results highlight the versatility of SPOT methods and establish an affordable tool for rapid access to potential protein/modified-peptide interactions involving lysine acetylation.

  11. Electric Hindrance and Precursor Complexes in the Regiochemistry of Some Nitrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Viesca, Francisco; Gomez, Maria Reina Gomez; Berros, Martha

    2011-01-01

    There are still gaps in the theory of supposedly well-known chemical reactions. For example, there is no explanation why there is a notorious preponderance of one of the expected isomers in some electrophilic aromatic substitutions. The preferred ortho orientation of acetyl nitrate has been used widely to obtain ortho nitro compounds; however,…

  12. Aircraft measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrates using luminol chemiluminescence with fast capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.; Steele, H.D.; Drayton, P.J.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Fast capillary gas chromatography with luminol detection has been used to make airborne measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). The analysis system allows for the simultaneous measurement of NO{sub 2} and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) with time resolution of less than 1 min, and improvement of a factor of 4--5 over previously reported methods using electron capture detection. Data presented were taken near Pasco, Washington, in August 1997, during a test flight onboard the US Department of Energy G-1 aircraft. The authors report measurements of NO{sub 2} in the boundary layer in a paper mill plume and a plume from a grass fire, in addition to analyses for free tropospheric NO{sub 2} and PAN. Ratios of PAN/NO{sub 2} were observed to increase with altitude (decreasing temperature) and to reach values of 2--4 above the boundary layer, consistent with the thermal equilibrium of the peroxyacetyl radical and NO{sub 2} and PAN. Estimates for the peroxyacetyl radical in the continental free troposphere, calculated from this equilibrium, were found to be in the range of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 5} molecules per cubic centimeter. These results demonstrate the application of this approach for airborne measurements of NO{sub 2} and PAN in a wide range of field study scenarios.

  13. The Pan-STARRS Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Pan-STARRS Team

    2016-01-01

    The 4 year Pan-STARRS1 Science Mission has now completed and the final data processing and database ingest is underway. We expect to have the public release of the PS1 Survey data at approximately the time of the AAS Meeting. The full data set, including catalogs (150 Terabyte database), images (2 Petabytes), and metadata, will be available from the STScI MASTarchive. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys include: (1) The 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) The Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints (7 sq deg each) spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey of the ecliptic optimized for the discovery of Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey in the galactic bulge; and (5) a time domain Survey of M31. The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Science results span most fields of astronomy from Near Earth Objects to cosmology. The 2nd mission, the Pan-STARRS NEO Survey, is currently underway on PS1 and it will be supplemented by PS2 observations as PS2 becomes fully operational. We will also report on the status of PS2 and the prospects for future wide field surveys in the Northern Hemisphere. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii; the Pan-STARRS Project Office; the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes: the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching; The Johns Hopkins University; Durham University; the University of Edinburgh; Queen's University Belfast; the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated; the National Central University of Taiwan; the Space Telescope Science Institute; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate; the National

  14. Acetylation modulates the STAT signaling code.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Martin; Ginter, Torsten; Brand, Peter; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2012-12-01

    A fascinating question of modern biology is how a limited number of signaling pathways generate biological diversity and crosstalk phenomena in vivo. Well-defined posttranslational modification patterns dictate the functions and interactions of proteins. The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are physiologically important cytokine-induced transcription factors. They are targeted by a multitude of posttranslational modifications that control and modulate signaling responses and gene expression. Beyond phosphorylation of serine and tyrosine residues, lysine acetylation has recently emerged as a critical modification regulating STAT functions. Interestingly, acetylation can determine STAT signaling codes by various molecular mechanisms, including the modulation of other posttranslational modifications. Here, we provide an overview on the acetylation of STATs and how this protein modification shapes cellular cytokine responses. We summarize recent advances in understanding the impact of STAT acetylation on cell growth, apoptosis, innate immunity, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we discuss how STAT acetylation can be targeted by small molecules and we consider the possibility that additional molecules controlling STAT signaling are regulated by acetylation. Our review also summarizes evolutionary aspects and we show similarities between the acetylation-dependent control of STATs and other important molecules. We propose the concept that, similar to the 'histone code', distinct posttranslational modifications and their crosstalk orchestrate the functions and interactions of STAT proteins. PMID:22795479

  15. Study of europium and selected actinides uptake on composite material CMPO-PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameník, J.; Šebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    Modified CMPO-PAN production was used and the resulting composite material was tested for purposes of extraction chromatography. A commercially avaialble extraction agent octyl(phenyl)-N,N’-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were used. The europium uptake kinetics by composite material was studied in two different nitric acid solutions. The dependences of weight distribution coefficients (Dg) of europium, americium, plutonium, uranium, and neptunium on nitric acid concentration (0.01 5 mol L-1) in the presence of sodium nitrate (0.1 mol L-1) were determined. High Dg-values were found in 0.1 5 M nitric acid for all elements tested. Increase in europium and americium Dg-values with decrease in nitric acid concentration (bellow 0.1 mol L-1) was observed. This behaviour in diluted nitric acid solutions differs from the behaviour of the similar materials with another support. CMPO-PAN composite material was compared with commercially available TRU Resin. Dg-values of the tested elements in all solutions used were higher for CMPO-PAN than for TRU Resin. The retention of the studied elements on CMPO-PAN in hydrochloric acid was made as a screening study.

  16. Gas chromatographic method for measuring nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in air without compressed gas cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Maniga, N.I.; Stedman, D.H.; Paur, R.J.

    1988-04-15

    A gas chromatographic technique that measures atmospheric concentrations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO/sub 2/ has been developed that uses luminol-based chemiluminescence for detection. The carrier gas is air that has been scrubbed by passing it over FeSO/sub 4/, which eliminates the need for any compressed gas cylinders. A novel gas sampling system and time enable variable sample volumes of contaminated air to be injected. Ambient PAN and NO/sub 2/ measurements can be made every 40 s with detection limits of 0.12 ppb for PAN and 0.2 ppb for NO/sub 2/. Seven other atmospheric species, including ozone, gave no interference. Linear response was observed for NO/sub 2/ from 0.2 to 170 ppb and for PAN from 1 to 70 ppb.

  17. Akt-dependent metabolic reprogramming regulates tumor cell histone acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Nathaniel W.; Wei, Shuanzeng; Venneti, Sriram; Worth, Andrew J.; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Lim, Hee-Woong; Liu, Shichong; Jackson, Ellen; Aiello, Nicole M.; Haas, Naomi B.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Judkins, Alexander; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Stanger, Ben Z.; Feldman, Michael D.; Blair, Ian A.; Wellen, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone acetylation plays important roles in gene regulation, DNA replication, and the response to DNA damage, and it is frequently deregulated in tumors. We postulated that tumor cell histone acetylation levels are determined in part by changes in acetyl-CoA availability mediated by oncogenic metabolic reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that acetyl-CoA is dynamically regulated by glucose availability in cancer cells and that the ratio of acetyl-CoA: coenzyme A within the nucleus modulates global histone acetylation levels. In vivo, expression of oncogenic Kras or Akt stimulates histone acetylation changes that precede tumor development. Furthermore, we show that Akt's effects on histone acetylation are mediated through the metabolic enzyme ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), and that pAkt(Ser473) levels correlate significantly with histone acetylation marks in human gliomas and prostate tumors. The data implicate acetyl-CoA metabolism as a key determinant of histone acetylation levels in cancer cells. PMID:24998913

  18. Observations of PAN and its confinement in the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone in high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungermann, Joern; Ploeger, Felix; Spang, Reinhold; Riese, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This talk presents a set of observations by the CRyogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) infrared limb sounder on the SPAS platform in low-earth orbit. The spatially highly resolved trace gas measurements of six days in August 1997 allow a close look on the confinement of air masses within the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) anticyclone. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is a secondary pollutant without sources in the stratosphere and acts as a tropospheric tracer. In combination with ozone as a stratospheric tracer, an eddy-shedding event of the ASM could be observed. The measured PAN volume mixing ratios (VMR) correlate well with potential vorticity (PV) derived from ECMWF ERA-Interim model data. Computing the gradient of PAN over PV on isentropes reveals that PAN VMR exhibit the strongest decrease at each isentrope for an increasing value of PV, which may be used to identify the extent of the ASM on that isentrope. CRISTA measurements also provide the temperature of measured air parcels and thus allow to derive the location of the thermal tropopause. We find that the thermal tropopause coincides with the border of the positive PAN anomaly both horizontally and vertically within the ASM anticyclone. In contrast, the shed eddy exhibits enhanced PAN VMRs for 1 to 2 km above the thermal tropopause. The amount of mixing may also be characterised by projecting the derived air parcels into tracer-tracer space using PAN and ozone as tropospheric and stratospheric tracer, respectively. This reveals that the anticyclone contains few mixed parcels in contrast to the region between the anticyclone and the shed eddy. This implies that while the anticyclone confines polluted air masses well, eddy shedding provides a very rapid horizontal transport pathway of Asian pollution into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere with a time scale of only a few days.

  19. Observations of PAN and its confinement in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungermann, Jörn; Ern, Mandfred; Kaufmann, Martin; Müller, Rolf; Spang, Reinhold; Ploeger, Felix; Vogel, Bärbel; Riese, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of trace gases in the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) region on the basis of observations by the CRISTA infrared limb sounder taken in low-earth orbit in August 1997. The spatially highly resolved measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and O3 allow a detailed analysis of an eddy-shedding event of the ASM anticyclone. We identify enhanced PAN volume mixing ratios (VMRs) within the main anticyclone and within the eddy, which are suitable as a tracer for polluted air originating in India and China. Plotting the retrieved PAN VMRs against potential vorticity (PV) and potential temperature reveals that the PV value at which the PAN VMRs exhibit the strongest decrease with respect to PV increases with potential temperature. These PV values might be used to identify the extent of the ASM. Using temperature values also derived from CRISTA measurements, we also computed the location of the thermal tropopause according to the WMO criterion and find that it confines the PAN anomaly vertically within the main ASM anticyclone. In contrast, the shed eddy exhibits enhanced PAN VMRs for 1 to 2 km above the thermal tropopause. Using the relationship between PAN as a tropospheric tracer and O3 as a stratospheric tracer to identify mixed air parcels, we further found the anticyclone to contain few such air parcels, whereas the region between the anticyclone and the eddy as well as the eddy itself contains many mixed air parcels. In combination, this implies that while the anticyclone confines polluted air masses well, eddy shedding provides a very rapid horizontal transport pathway of Asian pollution into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere with a timescale of only a few days.

  20. Skeletal development in Pan paniscus with comparisons to Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Bolter, Debra R; Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2012-04-01

    Fusion of skeletal elements provides markers for timing of growth and is one component of a chimpanzee's physical development. Epiphyseal closure defines bone growth and signals a mature skeleton. Most of what we know about timing of development in chimpanzees derives from dental studies on Pan troglodytes. Much less is known about the sister species, Pan paniscus, with few in captivity and a wild range restricted to central Africa. Here, we report on the timing of skeletal fusion for female captive P. paniscus (n = 5) whose known ages range from 0.83 to age 11.68 years. Observations on the skeletons were made after the individuals were dissected and bones cleaned. Comparisons with 10 female captive P. troglodytes confirm a generally uniform pattern in the sequence of skeletal fusion in the two captive species. We also compared the P. paniscus to a sample of three unknown-aged female wild P. paniscus, and 10 female wild P. troglodytes of known age from the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. The sequence of teeth emergence to bone fusion is generally consistent between the two species, with slight variations in late juvenile and subadult stages. The direct-age comparisons show that skeletal growth in captive P. paniscus is accelerated compared with both captive and wild P. troglodytes populations. The skeletal data combined with dental stages have implications for estimating the life stage of immature skeletal materials of wild P. paniscus and for more broadly comparing the skeletal growth rates among captive and wild chimpanzees (Pan), Homo sapiens, and fossil hominins.

  1. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  2. Acetylator phenotypes in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Penketh, R J A; Gibney, S F A; Nurse, G T; Hopkinson, D A

    1983-01-01

    Acetylator phenotypes have been determined in 139 unrelated subjects from the hitherto untested populations of Papua New Guinea, and their relevance to current antituberculous isoniazid chemotherapy is discussed. PMID:6842533

  3. Histone deacetylase 3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Travis; Seiler, Caroline; Wolny, Marcin; Hughes, Ruth; Watson, Peter; Schwabe, John; Grigg, Ronald; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the Class I subfamily of HDACs, is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Its roles in the nucleus have been well characterized, but its cytoplasmic roles are still not elucidated fully. We found that blocking HDAC3 activity using MI192, a compound specific for HDAC3, modulated tubulin acetylation in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. A brief 1 h treatment of PC3 cells with MI192 significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation and ablated the dynamic behaviour of microtubules in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HDAC3 in PC3 cells, significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation, and overexpression reduced it. However, the active HDAC3-silencing mediator of retinoic and thyroid receptors (SMRT)-deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) complex did not directly deacetylate tubulin in vitro. These data suggest that HDAC3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation.

  4. Levels of histone acetylation in thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Frasca, Francesco; Vella, Veronica; Vigneri, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe

    2011-08-12

    Histone acetylation is a major mechanism to regulate gene transcription. This post-translational modification is modified in cancer cells. In various tumor types the levels of acetylation at several histone residues are associated to clinical aggressiveness. By using immunohistochemistry we show that acetylated levels of lysines at positions 9-14 of H3 histone (H3K9-K14ac) are significantly higher in follicular adenomas (FA), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and undifferentiated carcinomas (UC) than in normal tissues (NT). Similar data have been obtained when acetylated levels of lysine 18 of H3 histone (H3K18ac) were evaluated. In this case, however, no difference was observed between NT and UC. When acetylated levels of lysine 12 of H4 histone (H4K12ac) were evaluated, only FA showed significantly higher levels in comparison with NT. These data indicate that modification histone acetylation is an early event along thyroid tumor progression and that H3K18 acetylation is switched off in the transition between differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. By using rat thyroid cell lines that are stably transfected with doxycyclin-inducible oncogenes, we show that the oncoproteins RET-PTC, RAS and BRAF increase levels of H3K9-K14ac and H3K18ac. In the non-tumorigenic rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, TSH increases levels of H3K18ac. However, this hormone decreases levels of H3K9-K14ac and H4K12ac. In conclusion, our data indicate that neoplastic transformation and hormonal stimulation can modify levels of histone acetylation in thyroid cells. PMID:21763277

  5. Acetyl-L-carnitine increases mitochondrial protein acetylation in the aged rat heart.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Janos; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Lee, Kwangwon; Virmani, Ashraf; Koverech, Aleardo; Cavazza, Claudio; Chance, Mark R; Hoppel, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that in vivo treatment of elderly Fisher 344 rats with acetylcarnitine abolished the age-associated defect in respiratory chain complex III in interfibrillar mitochondria and improved the functional recovery of the ischemic/reperfused heart. Herein, we explored mitochondrial protein acetylation as a possible mechanism for acetylcarnitine's effect. In vivo treatment of elderly rats with acetylcarnitine restored cardiac acetylcarnitine content and increased mitochondrial protein lysine acetylation and increased the number of lysine-acetylated proteins in cardiac subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondria. Enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial β-oxidation, and ATP synthase of the respiratory chain showed the greatest acetylation. Acetylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, complex V, and aspartate aminotransferase was accompanied by decreased catalytic activity. Several proteins were found to be acetylated only after treatment with acetylcarnitine, suggesting that exogenous acetylcarnitine served as the acetyl-donor. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that acetylcarnitine treatment also induced changes in mitochondrial protein amount; a two-fold or greater increase/decrease in abundance was observed for thirty one proteins. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the first time that in the aged rat heart in vivo administration of acetylcarnitine provides acetyl groups for protein acetylation and affects the amount of mitochondrial proteins. PMID:25660059

  6. Acetylation Reader Proteins: Linking Acetylation Signaling to Genome Maintenance and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kyle M.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin-based DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are fundamental for preventing genome and epigenome instability, which are prevalent in cancer. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl groups on lysine residues, a post-translational modification important for the DDR. Acetylation can alter chromatin structure as well as function by providing binding signals for reader proteins containing acetyl-lysine recognition domains, including the bromodomain (BRD). Acetylation dynamics occur upon DNA damage in part to regulate chromatin and BRD protein interactions that mediate key DDR activities. In cancer, DDR and acetylation pathways are often mutated or abnormally expressed. DNA damaging agents and drugs targeting epigenetic regulators, including HATs, HDACs, and BRD proteins, are used or are being developed to treat cancer. Here, we discuss how histone acetylation pathways, with a focus on acetylation reader proteins, promote genome stability and the DDR. We analyze how acetylation signaling impacts the DDR in the context of cancer and its treatments. Understanding the relationship between epigenetic regulators, the DDR, and chromatin is integral for obtaining a mechanistic understanding of genome and epigenome maintenance pathways, information that can be leveraged for targeting acetylation signaling, and/or the DDR to treat diseases, including cancer. PMID:27631103

  7. Acetylation Reader Proteins: Linking Acetylation Signaling to Genome Maintenance and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fade; Chiu, Li-Ya; Miller, Kyle M

    2016-09-01

    Chromatin-based DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are fundamental for preventing genome and epigenome instability, which are prevalent in cancer. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl groups on lysine residues, a post-translational modification important for the DDR. Acetylation can alter chromatin structure as well as function by providing binding signals for reader proteins containing acetyl-lysine recognition domains, including the bromodomain (BRD). Acetylation dynamics occur upon DNA damage in part to regulate chromatin and BRD protein interactions that mediate key DDR activities. In cancer, DDR and acetylation pathways are often mutated or abnormally expressed. DNA damaging agents and drugs targeting epigenetic regulators, including HATs, HDACs, and BRD proteins, are used or are being developed to treat cancer. Here, we discuss how histone acetylation pathways, with a focus on acetylation reader proteins, promote genome stability and the DDR. We analyze how acetylation signaling impacts the DDR in the context of cancer and its treatments. Understanding the relationship between epigenetic regulators, the DDR, and chromatin is integral for obtaining a mechanistic understanding of genome and epigenome maintenance pathways, information that can be leveraged for targeting acetylation signaling, and/or the DDR to treat diseases, including cancer.

  8. Histone acetylation and globin gene switching.

    PubMed Central

    Hebbes, T R; Thorne, A W; Clayton, A L; Crane-Robinson, C

    1992-01-01

    An affinity-purified antibody that recognises the epitope epsilon-acetyl lysine has been used to fractionate chicken erythrocyte mononucleosomes obtained from 5 and 15 day embryos. The antibody bound chromatin was enriched in multiply acetylated forms of the core histones H3, H4 and H2B, but not in ubiquitinated H2A. The DNA of these modified nucleosomes was probed with genomic sequences from the embryonic beta rho gene (active at 5 days) and from the adult beta A gene (active at 15 days). Both genes were found to be highly enriched in the acetylated nucleosomes fractionated from both 5 day and from 15 day erythrocytes. We conclude that globin switching is not linked to a change in acetylation status of the genes and that a 'poised' gene carries histones acetylated to a similar level as a transcriptionally active gene. Core histone acetylation is not therefore a direct consequence of the transcriptional process and might operate at the level of the globin locus as a general enabling step for transcription. Images PMID:1549462

  9. Protein acetylation in metabolism - metabolites and cofactors.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Keir J; Zhang, Hongbo; Katsyuba, Elena; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Reversible acetylation was initially described as an epigenetic mechanism regulating DNA accessibility. Since then, this process has emerged as a controller of histone and nonhistone acetylation that integrates key physiological processes such as metabolism, circadian rhythm and cell cycle, along with gene regulation in various organisms. The widespread and reversible nature of acetylation also revitalized interest in the mechanisms that regulate lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and deacetylases (KDACs) in health and disease. Changes in protein or histone acetylation are especially relevant for many common diseases including obesity, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, as well as for some rare diseases such as mitochondrial diseases and lipodystrophies. In this Review, we examine the role of reversible acetylation in metabolic control and how changes in levels of metabolites or cofactors, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide, coenzyme A, acetyl coenzyme A, zinc and butyrate and/or β-hydroxybutyrate, directly alter KAT or KDAC activity to link energy status to adaptive cellular and organismal homeostasis. PMID:26503676

  10. Alkyl Nitrates and Oxidized Volatile Organic Compounds during NACHTT: Influence on Reactive Chlorine Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarthout, R.; Sive, B. C.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that reactive chlorine species can contribute substantially to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and also influence tropospheric ozone chemistry in areas far from dominant marine sources. The photochemical processing of polluted air masses containing can potentially affect the formation of chlorine radical (Cl) through various processes involving hydrocarbons and NOx (NO + NO2). Organic peroxy radicals can react with nitric oxide (NO) to form alkyl nitrates or to produce nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), including alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Aldehydes can further react with NO2 to form peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN). Alkyl nitrates and PAN can serve as reservoirs for long range transport of NOx and can influence Cl production in remote areas. In order to further elucidate the influence of OVOCs and alkyl nitrates on chlorine activation processes, whole air samples were collected hourly during the Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition and Halogens on a Tall Tower (NACHTT) campaign at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, Colorado from February 18 through March 11, 2011. Profile samples up to 250 m were also collected throughout the campaign. Samples were analyzed for a comprehensive suite of volatile organic compounds, including OVOCs and C1 to C5 alkyl nitrates, using a five channel gas chromatographic analytical system. Alkyl nitrates and OVOCs were abundant throughout the campaign. Total alkyl nitrate mixing ratios ranged from 13 to 227 pptv with 2-butyl nitrate and 2-propyl nitrate accounting for over half of this total. Ethanol was the most abundant OVOC followed by methanol with median mixing ratios of 8.5 ppbv and 5.6 ppbv, respectively. This presentation will focus on the influence the observed alkyl nitrate and OVOC mixing ratios and air mass photochemical processing on Cl cycling.

  11. Determination of intracellular nitrate.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, J M; Lara, C; Guerrero, M G

    1989-01-01

    A sensitive procedure has been developed for the determination of intracellular nitrate. The method includes: (i) preparation of cell lysates in 2 M-H3PO4 after separation of cells from the outer medium by rapid centrifugation through a layer of silicone oil, and (ii) subsequent nitrate analysis by ion-exchange h.p.l.c. with, as mobile phase, a solution containing 50 mM-H3PO4 and 2% (v/v) tetrahydrofuran, adjusted to pH 1.9 with NaOH. The determination of nitrate is subjected to interference by chloride and sulphate when present in the samples at high concentrations. Nitrite also interferes, but it is easily eliminated by treatment of the samples with sulphamic acid. The method has been successfully applied to the study of nitrate transport in the unicellular cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. PMID:2497740

  12. Protein tyrosine nitration

    PubMed Central

    Chaki, Mounira; Leterrier, Marina; Barroso, Juan B

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide metabolism in plant cells has a relative short history. Nitration is a chemical process which consists of introducing a nitro group (-NO2) into a chemical compound. in biological systems, this process has been found in different molecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids that can affect its function. This mini-review offers an overview of this process with special emphasis on protein tyrosine nitration in plants and its involvement in the process of nitrosative stress. PMID:19826215

  13. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with {approximately}3 wt% NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200{degrees}C to 350{degrees}C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia {approx} methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics.

  14. A Hundred Years of Peter Pan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollindale, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The centenary of the first performance of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan was celebrated in December 2004. Taking account of the various events in Britain to mark the occasion--newspaper articles, radio and television programmes, retrospects in the original theatre--this article examines the status and popularity of Peter Pan after a hundred years. The…

  15. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans §...

  16. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans §...

  17. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans §...

  18. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  19. Comparison of PAN and Black Carbon Levels in Mexico City: 1997 and 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2004-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is a secondary oxidant formed by the oxidation of hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. PAN is a good indicator compound for hydrocarbon reactivity that leads to ozone formation. Black carbon (BC) is formed by incomplete combustion processes such as diesel soot formation and is a good indicator of primary carbonaceous aerosols in urban areas. We used a fast-response luminol method to measure PAN and BC during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003/Mexico City Megacity 2003 field study in April 2003. We compare these results with our previous PAN measurements in Mexico City during February 1997, made with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. The decreased PAN levels observed in 2003 are consistent with the application of emissions controls on spark ignition gasoline-fueled vehicles, leading to lower levels of the nitrogen oxides and reactive volatile hydrocarbons needed to form PAN. Black carbon data for Mexico City in 2003, taken with a seven-channel aethalometer, are compared with data from 1997, estimated from thermal analyses as elemental carbon (EC). The comparison indicates little change in the levels of BC/EC over the six-year period. This observation is consistent with the application of minimal controls to diesel engines, the likely major source of BC in the Mexico City megacity complex during this period. The authors wish to thank the researchers at Centro Nacional de Investigación en Calidad Ambiental (CENICA), Mexico City. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Science Program. We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Mario and Luisa Molina for their help in organizing and directing the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003 field study, during which these data were collected.

  20. Structural, Kinetic and Proteomic Characterization of Acetyl Phosphate-Dependent Bacterial Protein Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Alexandria; Sorensen, Dylan; Minasov, George; Lima, Bruno P.; Scholle, Michael; Mrksich, Milan; Anderson, Wayne F.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Schilling, Birgit; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging view of Nε-lysine acetylation in eukaryotes is of a relatively abundant post-translational modification (PTM) that has a major impact on the function, structure, stability and/or location of thousands of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. This PTM is typically considered to arise by the donation of the acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A (acCoA) to the ε-amino group of a lysine residue that is reversibly catalyzed by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we provide genetic, mass spectrometric, biochemical and structural evidence that Nε-lysine acetylation is an equally abundant and important PTM in bacteria. Applying a recently developed, label-free and global mass spectrometric approach to an isogenic set of mutants, we detected acetylation of thousands of lysine residues on hundreds of Escherichia coli proteins that participate in diverse and often essential cellular processes, including translation, transcription and central metabolism. Many of these acetylations were regulated in an acetyl phosphate (acP)-dependent manner, providing compelling evidence for a recently reported mechanism of bacterial Nε-lysine acetylation. These mass spectrometric data, coupled with observations made by crystallography, biochemistry, and additional mass spectrometry showed that this acP-dependent acetylation is both non-enzymatic and specific, with specificity determined by the accessibility, reactivity and three-dimensional microenvironment of the target lysine. Crystallographic evidence shows acP can bind to proteins in active sites and cofactor binding sites, but also potentially anywhere molecules with a phosphate moiety could bind. Finally, we provide evidence that acP-dependent acetylation can impact the function of critical enzymes, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and RNA polymerase. PMID:24756028

  1. Proteomic analysis of acetylation in thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dooil; Lee, Yong-Jik; Kim, Jung-Ae; Choi, Ji Young; Kang, Sunghyun; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2013-08-01

    Recent analysis of prokaryotic N(ε)-lysine-acetylated proteins highlights the posttranslational regulation of a broad spectrum of cellular proteins. However, the exact role of acetylation remains unclear due to a lack of acetylated proteome data in prokaryotes. Here, we present the N(ε)-lysine-acetylated proteome of gram-positive thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus. Affinity enrichment using acetyl-lysine-specific antibodies followed by LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 253 acetylated peptides representing 114 proteins. These acetylated proteins include not only common orthologs from mesophilic Bacillus counterparts, but also unique G. kaustophilus proteins, indicating that lysine acetylation is pronounced in thermophilic bacteria. These data complement current knowledge of the bacterial acetylproteome and provide an expanded platform for better understanding of the function of acetylation in cellular metabolism.

  2. Differences in evaporation between a floating pan and class a pan on land

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, J.R.; Stannard, D.I.; Christenson, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop a method for obtaining floating pan evaporation rates in a small (less than 10,000 m2) wetland, lagoon, or pond. Floating pan and land pan evaporation data were collected from March 1 to August 31, 2005, at a small natural wetland located in the alluvium of the Canadian River near Norman, Oklahoma, at the U.S. Geological Survey Norman Landfill Toxic Substances Hydrology Research Site. Floating pan evaporation rates were compared with evaporation rates from a nearby standard Class A evaporation pan on land. Floating pan evaporation rates were significantly less than land pan evaporation rates for the entire period and on a monthly basis. Results indicated that the use of a floating evaporation pan in a small free-water surface better simulates actual physical conditions on the water surface that control evaporation. Floating pan to land pan ratios were 0.82 for March, 0.87 for April, 0.85 for May, 0.85 for June, 0.79 for July, and 0.69 for August. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

  3. Determination of Reactive Nitrogen Species (NOx, NOy-HNO3, Peroxyacetyl Nitrates, Total Organic Nitrates) During the PROPHET Summer 2008 Intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaghmand, M.; Slade, N. J.; Mielke, L.; Starn, T.; Carroll, M.; Bertman, S. B.; Stevens, P. S.; Shepson, P. B.

    2008-12-01

    Determinations of NOx, NOy-HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrates (PANs) and total organic nitrates (∑RONO2) were made during the summer 2008 intensive of the Program for Research on Oxidants: Photochemistry, Emissions and Transport (PROPHET). The Total Reactive Nitrogen Instrument (TRENI), a high sensitivity instrument, is capable of speciating atmospheric nitrogen species. TRENI, a chemiluminescence analyzer with two inlet systems (photolytic cell and heated gold tube) was employed to quantify NO, NO2 and NOy. Another inlet system comprised of thermal dissociation reactors, was employed to speciate NOy components into NOx, PANs and ∑RONO2. The detection limit of TRENI is 5 ppt for NOx and NOy and 20 ppt for total organic nitrates and PANs. In this study, we examine the extent to which we can explain the ∑RONO2 concentrations with known precursors and/or individual RONO2 measurement data. The observed fraction of NOy attributable to the ∑RONO2 is much higher than from previous individual RONO2 measurements. It seems clear that there is a large component of 'missing NOy' in the ∑RONO2 channel, as observed by others using the thermal dissociation inlet approach. We also examine here the potential sources of the frequently observed morning pulse of NOx, and the potential role of the forest canopy in mediating nitrogen chemistry.

  4. Handedness in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Rebecca M; Nystrom, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Species level right-handedness is often considered to be unique to humans. Handedness is held to be interrelated to our language ability and has been used as a means of tracing the evolution of language. Here we examine handedness in 3 captive groups of bonobos (Pan paniscus) comprising 22 individuals. We found no evidence for species level handedness. Conclusions that can be drawn from these findings are: (1) species level handedness evolved after the divergence of the Pan and Homo lineages; (2) inconsistent preferences may represent precursors to human handedness, and (3) Pan may have language abilities but these cannot be measured using handedness.

  5. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-02-15

    We estimated vulnerability and pollution risk of groundwater at the pan-African scale. We therefore compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at a resolution of 15 km × 15 km and at the scale of 1:60,000,000. The groundwater vulnerability map was constructed by means of the DRASTIC method. The map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central and West Africa, where the watertable is very low. In addition, very low vulnerability is found in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater is situated in very deep aquifers. The groundwater pollution risk map is obtained by overlaying the DRASTIC vulnerability map with land use. The northern, central and western part of the African continent is dominated by high pollution risk classes and this is very strongly related to shallow groundwater systems and the development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter on groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the impact of vadose zone, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the mapped vulnerability and pollution risk. The mapping model was validated using nitrate concentration data of groundwater as a proxy of pollution risk. Pan-African concentration data were inferred from a meta-analysis of literature data. Results shows a good match between nitrate concentration and the groundwater pollution risk classes. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing groundwater resources management programs. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when better pan African monitoring data related to groundwater

  6. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-02-15

    We estimated vulnerability and pollution risk of groundwater at the pan-African scale. We therefore compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at a resolution of 15 km × 15 km and at the scale of 1:60,000,000. The groundwater vulnerability map was constructed by means of the DRASTIC method. The map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central and West Africa, where the watertable is very low. In addition, very low vulnerability is found in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater is situated in very deep aquifers. The groundwater pollution risk map is obtained by overlaying the DRASTIC vulnerability map with land use. The northern, central and western part of the African continent is dominated by high pollution risk classes and this is very strongly related to shallow groundwater systems and the development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter on groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the impact of vadose zone, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the mapped vulnerability and pollution risk. The mapping model was validated using nitrate concentration data of groundwater as a proxy of pollution risk. Pan-African concentration data were inferred from a meta-analysis of literature data. Results shows a good match between nitrate concentration and the groundwater pollution risk classes. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing groundwater resources management programs. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when better pan African monitoring data related to groundwater

  7. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, P.G.; Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1996-09-24

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives are disclosed which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides. 5 figs.

  8. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  9. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  10. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  11. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, Paul G.; Ohlrogge, John B.

    1996-01-01

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives thereof which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides.

  12. Histone deacetylase 3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Travis; Seiler, Caroline; Wolny, Marcin; Hughes, Ruth; Watson, Peter; Schwabe, John; Grigg, Ronald; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the Class I subfamily of HDACs, is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Its roles in the nucleus have been well characterized, but its cytoplasmic roles are still not elucidated fully. We found that blocking HDAC3 activity using MI192, a compound specific for HDAC3, modulated tubulin acetylation in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. A brief 1 h treatment of PC3 cells with MI192 significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation and ablated the dynamic behaviour of microtubules in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HDAC3 in PC3 cells, significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation, and overexpression reduced it. However, the active HDAC3–silencing mediator of retinoic and thyroid receptors (SMRT)–deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) complex did not directly deacetylate tubulin in vitro. These data suggest that HDAC3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation. PMID:26450925

  13. Fast gas chromotography with luminol detection for measurement of nitrogen dioxide and PANs.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Drayton, P. J.

    1999-09-30

    Fast capillary gas chromatography has been coupled to a luminol-based chemiluminescence detection system for the rapid monitoring of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates. A first-generation instrument was described recently (Gaffney et al., 1998). This system is capable of monitoring nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs; to and including the C4 species) with 1-min time resolution. This is an improvement by a factor of five over gas chromatography methods with electron capture detection. In addition, the luminol method is substantially less expensive than laser fluorescent detection or mass spectroscopic methods. Applications in aircraft-based research have been published electronically and will appear shortly in Environmental Science and Technology (Gaffney et al., 1999a). An improved version of the instrument that has been designed and built makes use of a Hammamatsu photon-counting system. Detection limits of this instrumentation are at the low tens of ppt. The range of the instrument can be adjusted by modifying sampling volumes and detection counting times. A review of past work and of recent application of the instrumentation to field measurements of nitrogen dioxide and PANs is presented. The data clearly indicate that the luminol approach can determine the target species with time resolution of less than 1 min. Examples of applications for estimation of peroxyacetyl radical concentrations and nitrate radical formation rates are also presented. This instrumentation can further be used for evaluation of surfaces for loss of nitrogen dioxide and PANs, phenomena of possible importance for sampling interfaces and chamber wall design. Our high-frequency field data clearly indicate that the ''real world'' is not well mixed and that turbulent mixing and plume-edge chemistries might play an important role in urban- and regional-scale interactions. Dynamic flow systems might be required to evaluate such effects in new-generation chamber studies.

  14. Effects of peroxyacetyl nitrate alone and in combination with ozone in healthy young women

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.; Bedi, J.F.; Drechsler-Parks, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    Metabolic and pulmonary functions were investigated in 10 nonsmoking, young adult women who were exposed for 2 h (21/sup 0/C WBGT) to four conditions: filtered air (FA), 0.27 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), 0.48 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/), and 0.48 ppm O/sub 3/ + 0.27 ppm PAN (PAN/O/sub 3/). The subjects alternated 15-min periods of rest and 20-min periods of bicycle ergometer exercise eliciting a V/sub E/ of 25 L. Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, as well as 5 min after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout the exposure, and metabolic functions were measured during the last 2 min of each exercise period. There were no changes in any variable consequent to FA or PAN exposure. During O/sub 3/ and PAN/O/sub 3/ exposures, a decrease in V/sub T/, a concomitant increase in f/sub R/, and no change in V/sub E/ occurred. Both O/sub 3/ and PAN/O/sub 3/ induced significant (p < 0.05) decrements in FVC, FEV/sub 1.0/, FEV/sub 2.0/, FEV/sub 3.0/, FEF25-75 %, IC, ERV, and TLC, but following PAN/O/sub 3/ exposure the decrements were 10 percent greater. The results suggest an interactive effect between PAN and O/sub 3/. A comparison of data from this study and a similar study on men exercising at equivalent V/sub E/ found no difference in the pulmonary responses to the pollutants between men and women.

  15. STEREO Sees Comet Pan-STARRS

    NASA Video Gallery

    In early March 2013, Comet PanSTARRS became visible to the naked eye in the night sky in the Northern Hemisphere, appearing with a similar shape and brightness as a star, albeit with a trailing tai...

  16. Property enhancement of optically transparent bionanofiber composites by acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogi, Masaya; Abe, Kentaro; Handa, Keishin; Nakatsubo, Fumiaki; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2006-12-01

    The authors studied acetylation of bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers to widen the applications of BC nanocomposites in optoelectronic devices. The slight acetylation of BC nanofibers significantly reduces the hygroscopicity of BC nanocomposites, while maintaining their high optical transparency and thermal stability. Furthermore, the degradation in optical transparency at elevated temperature (200°C) was significantly reduced by acetylation treatment. Therefore, the acetylation of bionanofibers has an extraordinary potential as treatment for property enhancement of bionanofiber composites.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. The Pan-STARRS discovery machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2014-11-01

    The Pan-STARRS System has proven to be a remarkable machine for discovery. The PS1 Science Mission has drawn to a close, and the second Pan-STARRS survey, optimized for NEO's has begun. PS2 is in the commissioning stages and will eventually support NEO discovery as well. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented as well as progress in reprocessing of the data taken to date and the plans for the public release of all Pan-STARRS1 data products in the spring of 2015. Science results related to planetary studies and the dust will be presented. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE).

  20. Pan-information Location Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. Y.; Guo, W.; Huang, L.; Hu, T.; Gao, W. X.

    2013-11-01

    A huge amount of information, including geographic, environmental, socio-economic, personal and social network information, has been generated from diverse sources. Most of this information exists separately and is disorderly even if some of it is about the same person, feature, phenomenon or event. Users generally need to collect related information from different sources and then utilize them in applications. An automatic mechanism, therefore, for establishing a connection between potentially-related information will profoundly expand the usefulness of this huge body of information. A connection tie is semantic location describing semantically concepts and attributes of locations as well as relationships between locations, since 80% of information contains some kind of geographic reference but not all of geographic reference has explicit geographic coordinates. Semantic location is an orthogonal form of location representation which can be represented as domain ontology or UML format. Semantic location associates various kinds of information about a same object to provide timely information services according to users' demands, habits, preferences and applications. Based on this idea, a Pan-Information Location Map (PILM) is proposed as a new-style 4D map to associates semantic location-based information dynamically to organize and consolidate the locality and characteristics of corresponding features and events, and delivers on-demand information with a User-Adaptive Smart Display (UASD).

  1. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  2. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  3. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations. PMID:26734001

  4. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations.

  5. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations. PMID:26734001

  6. RPL24: a potential therapeutic target whose depletion or acetylation inhibits polysome assembly and cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Edell, Kathleen A; Kehasse, Amanuel; Scott, Gary K; Yau, Christina; Rothschild, Daniel E; Schilling, Birgit; Gabriel, Bianca S; Yevtushenko, Mariya A; Hanson, Ingrid M; Held, Jason M; Gibson, Bradford W; Benz, Christopher C

    2014-07-15

    Partial loss of large ribosomal subunit protein 24 (RPL24) function is known to protect mice against Akt or Myc-driven cancers, in part via translational inhibition of a subset of cap(eIF4E)-dependently translated mRNAs. The role of RPL24 in human malignancies is unknown. By analyzing a public dataset of matched human breast cancers and normal mammary tissue, we found that breast cancers express significantly more RPL24 than matched normal breast samples. Depletion of RPL24 in breast cancer cells by >70% reduced cell viability by 80% and decreased protein expression of the eIF4E-dependently translated proteins cyclin D1 (75%), survivin (46%) and NBS1 (30%) without altering GAPDH or beta-tubulin levels. RPL24 knockdown also reduced 80S subunit levels relative to 40S and 60S levels. These effects on expression of eIF4E-dependent proteins and ribosome assembly were mimicked by 2-24 h treatment with the pan-HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), which induced acetylation of 15 different polysome-associated proteins including RPL24. Furthermore, HDAC6-selective inhibition or HDAC6 knockdown induced ribosomal protein acetylation. Via mass spectrometry, we found that 60S-associated, but not, polysome-associated, RPL24 undergoes HDACi-induced acetylation on K27. Thus, RPL24 K27 acetylation may play a role in ribosome assembly. These findings point toward a novel acetylation-dependent polysome assembly mechanism regulating tumorigenesis.

  7. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  8. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  9. Dynamic Protein Acetylation in Plant–Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gaoyuan; Walley, Justin W.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen infection triggers complex molecular perturbations within host cells that results in either resistance or susceptibility. Protein acetylation is an emerging biochemical modification that appears to play central roles during host–pathogen interactions. To date, research in this area has focused on two main themes linking protein acetylation to plant immune signaling. Firstly, it has been established that proper gene expression during defense responses requires modulation of histone acetylation within target gene promoter regions. Second, some pathogens can deliver effector molecules that encode acetyltransferases directly within the host cell to modify acetylation of specific host proteins. Collectively these findings suggest that the acetylation level for a range of host proteins may be modulated to alter the outcome of pathogen infection. This review will focus on summarizing our current understanding of the roles of protein acetylation in plant defense and highlight the utility of proteomics approaches to uncover the complete repertoire of acetylation changes triggered by pathogen infection. PMID:27066055

  10. Propylammonium nitrate as a solvent for amphiphile self-assembly into micelles, lyotropic liquid crystals, and microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Atkin, Rob; Bobillier, Sophie M C; Warr, Gregory G

    2010-01-28

    The phase behavior and self-assembled microstructures of a range of oligo(oxyethylene)-n-alkyl ether (C(i)E(j)) surfactants has been investigated in propylammonium nitrate (PAN), a room temperature ionic liquid. Micelles and single-phase microemulsions were all found to form at alkyl chain lengths from dodecyl to octadecyl, and lyotropic liquid crystals formed with hexadecyl chains or longer. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) shows that self-assembly occurs by solvophobic interactions driving the aggregation of the alkyl chains, but several results indicate that these are weaker in PAN than in water or ethylammonium nitrate, due chiefly to the hydrophobicity of PAN. Longer alkyl chains are needed for lyotropic liquid crystals to form, and higher surfactant concentrations are needed to form a single phase microemulsion. Conductivity shows these microemulsions to be weakly structured, and relatively insensitive to oil or surfactant molecular structure, unlike water-based systems. However, SANS contrast variation reveals a nanosegregation of oil from the alkyl tails of surfactants within the microemulsion, and may suggest a cosurfactant-like role for the propylammonium cation. Molecular areas within microemulsions and lamellar phases are larger than corresponding water- or ethylammonium nitrate-based systems due to the large molecular volume of the solvating PANs. PMID:20039680

  11. A mathematical model of pan evaporation under steady state conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of changing climate, global pan evaporation records have shown a spatially-averaged trend of ∼ -2 to ∼ -3 mm a-2 over the past 30-50 years. This global phenomenon has motivated the development of the "PenPan" model (Rotstayn et al., 2006). However, the original PenPan model has yet to receive an independent experimental evaluation. Hence, we constructed an instrumented US Class A pan at Canberra Airport (Australia) and monitored it over a three-year period (2007-2010) to uncover the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. The experimental investigations of pan evaporation enabled theoretical formulation and parameterisation of the aerodynamic function considering the wind, properties of air and (with or without) the bird guard effect. The energy balance investigation allowed for detailed formulation of the short- and long-wave radiation associated with the albedos and the emissivities of the pan water surface and the pan wall. Here, we synthesise and generalise those earlier works to develop a new model called the "PenPan-V2" model for application under steady state conditions (i.e., uses a monthly time step). Two versions (PenPan-V2C and PenPan-V2S) are tested using pan evaporation data available across the Australian continent. Both versions outperformed the original PenPan model with better representation of both the evaporation rate and the underlying physics of a US Class A pan. The results show the improved solar geometry related calculations (e.g., albedo, area) for the pan system led to a clear improvement in representing the seasonal cycle of pan evaporation. For general applications, the PenPan-V2S is simpler and suited for applications including an evaluation of long-term trends in pan evaporation.

  12. Fragrance material review on acetyl cedrene.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of acetyl cedrene when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Acetyl cedrene is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. The generic formula for this group can be represented as (R1)(R2)CO. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for acetyl cedrene were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances.

  13. Fragrance material review on acetyl carene.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of acetyl carene when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Acetyl carene is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for acetyl carene were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013A Toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients. (submitted for publication).) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances.

  14. Antibodies specific to acetylated histones document the existence of deposition- and transcription-related histone acetylation in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have constructed synthetic peptides which are identical to hyperacetylated amino termini of two Tetrahymena core histones (tetra-acetylated H4 and penta-acetylated hv1) and used them to generate polyclonal antibodies specific for acetylated forms (mono-, di-, tri-, etc.) of these histones. Neither of these antisera recognizes histone that is unacetylated. Immunoblotting analyses demonstrate that both transcription-related and deposition-related acetate groups on H4 are recognized by both antisera. In addition, the antiserum raised against penta-acetylated hv1 also recognizes acetylated forms of this variant. Immunofluorescent analyses with both antisera demonstrate that, as expected, histone acetylation is specific to macronuclei (or new macronuclei) at all stages of the life cycle except when micronuclei undergo periods of rapid replication and chromatin assembly. During this time micronuclear staining is also detected. Our results also suggest that transcription-related acetylation begins selectively in new macronuclei immediately after the second postzygotic division. Acetylated histone is not observed in new micronuclei during stages corresponding to anlagen development and, therefore, histone acetylation can be distributed asymmetrically in development. Equally striking is the rapid turnover of acetylated histone in parental macronuclei during the time of their inactivation and elimination from the cell. Taken together, these data lend strong support to the idea that modulation of histone acetylation plays an important role in gene activation and in chromatin assembly. PMID:2654136

  15. Peroxyacetyl nitrate observed in Beijing in August from 2005 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tianyu; Han, Li; Wang, Bin; Yang, Guang; Xu, Zhenqiang; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Jianbo

    2014-10-01

    Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) were made at a Beijing urban site each August from 2005 to 2009. Over this 5-year period, the average PAN concentration for August in each year increased from 3 (2005) to 11.7μg/m(3) (2007); however, it decreased rapidly in 2008 (4.1μg/m(3)). Generally, the variation over the 5 years showed a rise in the first part of the study period, followed by a decline. We considered two categories of local and regional air masses in this study, which revealed that the PAN concentration in Beijing was affected mainly by southeastern air masses. The August PAN variation was influenced predominantly by local air masses in 2005, but by 2009 regional air masses had become more important. This study showed the level and variation of PAN in the month of August in 5 consecutive years for the first time, and proved that control measures are useful in decreasing photochemical pollution; hence, these measures are probably feasible for other megacities too. Furthermore, this method of analyzing regional and local impacts might be useful for other studies as well. PMID:25288544

  16. Glycine lithium nitrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Valenzuela, R.; Hernández-Paredes, J.; Medrano-Pesqueira, T.; Esparza-Ponce, H. E.; Jesús-Castillo, S.; Rodriguez-Mijangos, R.; Terpugov, V. S.; Alvarez-Ramos, M. E.; Duarte-Möller, A.

    Crystals of glycine lithium nitrate with non-linear optical properties have been grown in a solution by slow evaporation at room temperature. The crystal shows a good thermal stability from room temperature to 175 °C where the crystal begins to degrade. This property is desirable for future technological applications. Also, a good performance on the second harmonic generation was found, characterizing the emitted dominant wavelength by a customized indirect procedure using luminance and chromaticity measured data based on the CIE-1931 standard. Additionally, the 532 nm signal was detected by using a variant to the Kurtz and Perry method.

  17. Relationship of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active and total odd nitrogen at northern high latitudes: influence of reservoir species on NOx and O3.

    PubMed

    Singh, H B; Herlth, D; O'Hara, D; Zahnle, K; Bradshaw, J D; Sandholm, S T; Talbot, R; Crutzen, P J; Kanakidou, M

    1992-10-30

    Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), NO, NO2, HNO3, NOy (total odd nitrogen), and O3 were made in the high-latitude troposphere over North America and Greenland (35 degrees to 82 degrees N) during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) (July-August 1988) throughout 0-to 6-km altitudes. These data are analyzed to quantitatively describe the relationships between various odd nitrogen species and assess their significance to global tropospheric chemistry. In the free troposphere, PAN was as much as 25 times more abundant than NOx. PAN to NOx ratio increased with increasing altitude and latitude. PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species in the free troposphere and constituted a major fraction of NOy, PAN to NOy ratios were about 0.1 in the boundary layer and increased to 0.4 in the free troposphere. A 2-D global photochemical model with C1-C3 hydrocarbon chemistry is used to compare model predictions with measured results. A sizable portion (approximately 50%) of the gaseous reactive nitrogen budget is unaccounted for, and unknown organic nitrates and pernitrates are expected to be present. Model calculations (August 1, 70 degrees N) show that a major fraction of the observed NOx (50 to 70% of median) may find its source in the available PAN reservoir. PAN and the unknown reservoir species may have the potential to control virtually the entire NOx availability of the high latitude troposphere. It is predicted that the summer NOx and O3 mixing ratios in the Arctic/sub-Arctic troposphere would be considerably lower in the absence of the ubiquitous PAN reservoir. Conversely, this PAN reservoir may be responsible for the observed temporal increase in tropospheric O3 at high latitudes.

  18. Relationship of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active and total odd nitrogen at northern high latitudes: influence of reservoir species on NOx and O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Zahnle, K.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Crutzen, P. J.; Kanakidou, M.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), NO, NO2, HNO3, NOy (total odd nitrogen), and O3 were made in the high-latitude troposphere over North America and Greenland (35 degrees to 82 degrees N) during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) (July-August 1988) throughout 0-to 6-km altitudes. These data are analyzed to quantitatively describe the relationships between various odd nitrogen species and assess their significance to global tropospheric chemistry. In the free troposphere, PAN was as much as 25 times more abundant than NOx. PAN to NOx ratio increased with increasing altitude and latitude. PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species in the free troposphere and constituted a major fraction of NOy, PAN to NOy ratios were about 0.1 in the boundary layer and increased to 0.4 in the free troposphere. A 2-D global photochemical model with C1-C3 hydrocarbon chemistry is used to compare model predictions with measured results. A sizable portion (approximately 50%) of the gaseous reactive nitrogen budget is unaccounted for, and unknown organic nitrates and pernitrates are expected to be present. Model calculations (August 1, 70 degrees N) show that a major fraction of the observed NOx (50 to 70% of median) may find its source in the available PAN reservoir. PAN and the unknown reservoir species may have the potential to control virtually the entire NOx availability of the high latitude troposphere. It is predicted that the summer NOx and O3 mixing ratios in the Arctic/sub-Arctic troposphere would be considerably lower in the absence of the ubiquitous PAN reservoir. Conversely, this PAN reservoir may be responsible for the observed temporal increase in tropospheric O3 at high latitudes.

  19. O-Acetylation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gille, Sascha; Pauly, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of structurally diverse polymers, many of which are O-acetylated. How plants O-acetylate wall polymers and what its function is remained elusive until recently, when two protein families were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis that are involved in the O-acetylation of wall polysaccharides – the reduced wall acetylation (RWA) and the trichome birefringence-like (TBL) proteins. This review discusses the role of these two protein families in polysaccharide O-acetylation and outlines the differences and similarities of polymer acetylation mechanisms in plants, fungi, bacteria, and mammals. Members of the TBL protein family had been shown to impact pathogen resistance, freezing tolerance, and cellulose biosynthesis. The connection of TBLs to polysaccharide O-acetylation thus gives crucial leads into the biological function of wall polymer O-acetylation. From a biotechnological point understanding the O-acetylation mechanism is important as acetyl-substituents inhibit the enzymatic degradation of wall polymers and released acetate can be a potent inhibitor in microbial fermentations, thus impacting the economic viability of, e.g., lignocellulosic based biofuel production. PMID:22639638

  20. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Pan-STARRS1 is approaching the completion of the PS1 Science Mission. Operations of the PS1 System include the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline , PSPS relational database and reduced science product software servers. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys include: (1) A 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey optimized for Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31. The PS1 3pi Survey has now covered the sky north of dec=-30 with more than 12 visits in five bands: g,r,i,z and y or over ~60 epochs per 0.25 arcsec resolution element on the sky. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented as well as progress in reprocessing of the data taken to date and the plans for the public release of all Pan-STARRS1 data products in the spring of 2015. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE).

  1. Proteomic analysis of nitrate-dependent acetone degradation by Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC.

    PubMed

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J; Boeren, Sjef; Atashgahi, Siavash; Plugge, Caroline M; Schaap, Peter J; Stams, Alfons J M

    2015-06-01

    Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC grows anaerobically on acetone with nitrate as electron acceptor. Comparative proteomics of cultures of A. denitrificans strain BC grown on either acetone or acetate with nitrate was performed to study the enzymes involved in the acetone degradation pathway. In the proposed acetone degradation pathway, an acetone carboxylase converts acetone to acetoacetate, an AMP-dependent synthetase/ligase converts acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA, and an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase cleaves acetoacetyl-CoA to two acetyl-CoA. We also found a putative aldehyde dehydrogenase associated with acetone degradation. This enzyme functioned as a β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of surplus acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate that may be converted to the energy and carbon storage compound, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate. Accordingly, we confirmed the formation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in acetone-grown cells of strain BC. Our findings provide insight in nitrate-dependent acetone degradation that is activated by carboxylation of acetone. This will aid studies of similar pathways found in other microorganisms degrading acetone with nitrate or sulfate as electron acceptor.

  2. Regulation of Nitrate Assimilation and Nitrate Respiration in Aerobacter aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Van 'T Riet, J.; Stouthamer, A. H.; Planta, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    The influence of growth conditions on assimilatory and respiratory nitrate reduction in Aerobacter aerogenes was studied. The level of nitrate reductase activity in cells, growing in minimal medium with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source, was much lower under aerobic than anaerobic conditions. Further, the enzyme of the aerobic cultures was very sensitive to sonic disintegration, as distinct from the enzyme of anaerobic cultures. When a culture of A. aerogenes was shifted from anaerobic growth in minimal medium with nitrate and NH4+ to aerobiosis in the same medium, but without NH4+, the production of nitrite stopped instantaneously and the total activity of nitrate reductase decreased sharply. Moreover, there was a lag in growth of about 3 hr after such a shift. After resumption of growth, the total enzymatic activity increased again slowly and simultaneously became gradually sensitive to sonic disintegration. These findings show that oxygen inactivates the anaerobic nitrate reductase and represses its further formation; only after a de novo synthesis of nitrate reductase with an assimilatory function will growth be resumed. The enzyme in aerobic cultures was not significantly inactivated by air, only by pure oxygen. The formation of the assimilatory enzyme complex was repressed, however, by NH4+, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that the formation of the assimilatory enzyme complex and that of the respiratory enzyme complex are regulated differently. We suggest that both complexes have a different composition, but that the nitrate reductase in both cases is the same protein. PMID:5726295

  3. Preparation, physicochemical characterization and application of acetylated lotus rhizome starches.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suling; Zhang, Ganwei; Ma, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Acetylated lotus rhizome starches were prepared, physicochemically characterized and used as food additives in puddings. The percentage content of the acetyl groups and degree of substitution increased linearly with the amount of acetic anhydride used. The introduction of acetyl groups was confirmed via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The values of the pasting parameters were lower for acetylated starch than for native starch. Acetylation was found to increase the light transmittance (%), the freeze-thaw stability, the swelling power and the solubility of the starch. Sensorial scores for puddings prepared using native and acetylated lotus rhizome starches as food additives indicated that puddings produced from the modified starches with superior properties over those prepared from native starch. PMID:26453845

  4. 2-Acetyl­pyridinium bromanilate

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Lynne H.; Boyle, Bryan; Clive, Lesley A.; Collins, Anna; Currie, Lynsey D.; Gogol, Malgorzata; Hastings, Claire; Jones, Andrew O. F.; Kennedy, Jennifer L.; Kerr, Graham B.; Kidd, Alastair; Lawton, Lorreta M.; Macintyre, Susan J.; MacLean, Niall M.; Martin, Alan R. G.; McGonagle, Kate; Melrose, Samantha; Rew, Gaius A.; Robinson, Colin W.; Schmidtmann, Marc; Turnbull, Felicity B.; Williams, Lewis G.; Wiseman, Alan Y.; Wocial, Malgorzata H.; Wilson, Chick C.

    2009-01-01

    In the crystal of the title mol­ecular salt (systematic name: 2-acetyl­pyridinium 2,5-dibromo-4-hydr­oxy-3,6-dioxocyclo­hexa-1,4-dienolate), C7H8NO+·C6HBr2O4 −, centrosymmetric rings consisting of two cations and two anions are formed, with the components linked by alternating O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Short O⋯Br contacts [3.243 (2) and 3.359 (2) Å] may help to consolidate the packing. PMID:21583087

  5. Survey of the human acetylator polymorphism in spontaneous disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D A

    1984-01-01

    There is ample evidence that the human acetylator phenotypes are associated with drug induced phenomena. It is principally the slow acetylators who exhibit toxic adverse effects because of their relative inability to detoxify the original drug compounds. In rare instances, however, it is the rapid acetylators who are at a disadvantage. In the matter of association of spontaneous disease with either acetylator phenotype, there are two groups of disorders to consider. First, disorders in which carcinogenic amines are known to be an aetiological factor. This is because these amines are substrates for the polymorphic N-acetyltransferase activity and hence there is a possible rational basis for searching for an association. Secondly, other disorders where searches for associations are based more on hunches. In the first group there is a definite statistical association between cancer of the bladder and the slow acetylator phenotype. In prevalence studies the slow phenotype is 39% more associated with bladder cancer than is the rapid phenotype. On the basis of the evidence now available it is not possible to say whether this association is because slow acetylators develop the disease more frequently or whether they survive longer. In the second group the relevant studies show (1) a greatly increased prevalence of slow acetylators in Gilbert's disease; (2) a confirmed association between the rapid acetylator phenotype and diabetes; (3) a possible association between the rapid acetylator phenotype and breast cancer; (4) a possible association between the slow acetylator phenotype and leprosy in Chinese patients; (5) an earlier age of onset of thyrotoxicosis (Graves' disease) in slow acetylators than in rapid acetylators; (6) no evidence of an association between either phenotype and spontaneous systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:6387123

  6. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans....

  7. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans....

  8. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans....

  9. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans....

  10. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans....

  11. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  12. Rotatable prism for pan and tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Compact, inexpensive, motor-driven prisms change field of view of TV camera. Camera and prism rotate about lens axis to produce pan effect. Rotating prism around axis parallel to lens produces tilt. Size of drive unit and required clearance are little more than size of camera.

  13. The PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Kaczar, K; MacKinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-05-01

    The Online and Data Acquisition software groups at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have extended the VAXONLINE data acquisition package to include a VME based data path. The resulting environment, PAN-DA, provides a high throughput for logging, filtering, formatting and selecting events. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  14. THE Pan-STARRS1 PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Shivvers, I. S.; Lykke, K. R.; Doherty, P.; Price, P. A.

    2012-05-10

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey is collecting multi-epoch, multi-color observations of the sky north of declination -30 Degree-Sign to unprecedented depths. These data are being photometrically and astrometrically calibrated and will serve as a reference for many other purposes. In this paper, we present our determination of the Pan-STARRS1 photometric system: g{sub P1}, r{sub P1}, i{sub P1}, z{sub P1}, y{sub P1}, and w{sub P1}. The Pan-STARRS1 photometric system is fundamentally based on the Hubble Space Telescope Calspec spectrophotometric observations, which in turn are fundamentally based on models of white dwarf atmospheres. We define the Pan-STARRS1 magnitude system and describe in detail our measurement of the system passbands, including both the instrumental sensitivity and atmospheric transmission functions. By-products, including transformations to other photometric systems, Galactic extinction, and stellar locus, are also provided. We close with a discussion of remaining systematic errors.

  15. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of acetylated EGCG and antioxidant properties of the acetylated derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) acetylated derivatives were prepared by lipase catalyzed acylation of EGCG with vinyl acetate to improve its lipophilicity and expand its application in lipophilic media. The immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, was found to be the optimum catalyst. The optimiz...

  16. Some History of Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    2003-12-01

    The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare. Originally it was obtained from the dirt floors of stables, sheep pens, pigeon houses, caverns, and even peasants' cottages; any place manure and refuse accumulated in soil under dry conditions. When these sources became inadequate to meet demand it was manufactured on saltpeter plantations, located in dry climates, where piles of dirt, limestone, and manure were allowed to stand for three to five years while soil microbes oxidized the nitrogen to nitrate—an example of early bioengineering. Extensive deposits of sodium nitrate were mined in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile from 1830 until the mid 1920s when the mines were displaced by the Haber Ostwald process.

  17. Sulfur starvation and restoration affect nitrate uptake and assimilation in rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Chandna, Ruby; Pandey, Renu; Abrol, Yash Pal; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Altaf

    2011-04-01

    We analyzed the effect of omission of sulfur (S) from the nutrient solution and then restoration of S-source on the uptake and assimilation of nitrate in rapeseed. Incubation in nutrient solution without S for 1-6 days led to decline in uptake of nitrate, activities, and expression levels of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS). The nitrite reductase (NiR) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities were not considerably affected. There was significant enhancement in nitrate content and decline in sulfate content. Evaluation of amino acid profile under S-starvation conditions showed two- to fourfold enhancement in the contents of arginine, asparagine and O-acetyl-L-serine (OAS), whereas the contents of cysteine and methionine were reduced heavily. When the S-starved plants were subjected to restoration of S for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, activities and expression levels of NR and GS recovered within the fifth and seventh days of restoration, respectively. Exogenous supply of metabolites (arginine, asparagine, cysteine, glutamine, OAS, and methionine) also affected the uptake and assimilation of nitrate, with a maximum for OAS. These results corroborate the tight interconnection of S-nutrition with nitrate assimilation and that OAS plays a major role in this regulation. The study must be helpful in developing a nutrient-management technology for optimization of crop productivity.

  18. Determination of Acetylation of the Gli Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Coni, Sonia; Di Magno, Laura; Canettieri, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The Gli transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) are the final effectors of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and play a key role in development and cancer. The activity of the Gli proteins is finely regulated by covalent modifications, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation. Both Gli1 and Gli2 are acetylated at a conserved lysine, and this modification causes the inhibition of their transcriptional activity. Thus, the acetylation status of these proteins represents a useful marker to monitor Hh activation in pathophysiological conditions. Herein we describe the techniques utilized to detect in vitro and intracellular acetylation of the Gli transcription factors. PMID:26179046

  19. Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

    1982-01-01

    The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed. PMID:6978883

  20. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  1. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-08-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  2. Nitrate Transport System in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Schloemer, Robert H.; Garrett, Reginald H.

    1974-01-01

    Nitrate uptake in Neurospora crassa has been investigated under various conditions of nitrogen nutrition by measuring the rate of disappearance of nitrate from the medium and by determining mycelial nitrate accumulation. The nitrate transport system is induced by either nitrate or nitrite, but is not present in mycelia grown on ammonia or Casamino Acids. The appearance of nitrate uptake activity is prevented by cycloheximide, puromycin, or 6-methyl purine. The induced nitrate transport system displays a Km for nitrate of 0.25 mM. Nitrate uptake is inhibited by metabolic poisons such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, cyanide, and antimycin A. Furthermore, mycelia can concentrate nitrate 50-fold. Ammonia and nitrite are non-competitive inhibitors with respect to nitrate, with Ki values of 0.13 and 0.17 mM, respectively. Ammonia does not repress the formation of the nitrate transport system. In contrast, the nitrate uptake system is repressed by Casamino Acids. All amino acids individually prevent nitrate accumulation, with the exception of methionine, glutamine, and alanine. The influence of nitrate reduction and the nitrate reductase protein on nitrate transport was investigated in wild-type Neurospora lacking a functional nitrate reductase and in nitrate non-utilizing mutants, nit-1, nit-2, and nit-3. These mycelia contain an inducible nitrate transport system which displays the same characteristics as those found in the wild-type mycelia having the functional nitrate reductase. These findings suggest that nitrate transport is not dependent upon nitrate reduction and that these two processes are separate events in the assimilation of nitrate. PMID:4274457

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors decrease NHEJ both by acetylation of repair factors and trapping of PARP1 at DNA double-strand breaks in chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Carine; Nagaria, Pratik K.; Pawar, Nisha; Adewuyi, Adeoluwa; Gojo, Ivana; Meyers, David J.; Cole, Philip A.; Rassool, Feyruz V.

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) induce acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins, and modulate the acetylation of proteins involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Decreased NHEJ activity has been reported with HDACi treatment. However, mechanisms through which these effects are regulated in the context of chromatin are unclear. We show that pan-HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), causes differential acetylation of DNA repair factors Ku70/Ku80 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1), and impairs NHEJ. Repair effects are reversed by treatments with p300/CBP inhibitor C646, with significantly decreased acetylation of PARP1. In keeping with these findings, TSA treatment significantly increases PARP1 binding to DSBs in chromatin. Notably, AML patients treated with HDACi entinostat (MS275) in vivo also show increased formation of poly ADP-ribose (PAR) that co-localizes with DSBs. Further, we demonstrate that PARP1 bound to chromatin increases with duration of TSA exposure, resembling PARP “trapping”. Knockdown of PARP1 inhibits trapping and mitigates HDACi effects on NHEJ. Finally, combination of HDACi with potent PARP inhibitor talazoparib (BMN673) shows a dose-dependent increase in PARP “trapping”, which correlates with increased apoptosis. These results provide a mechanism through which HDACi inhibits deacetylation and increases binding of PARP1 to DSBs, leading to decreased NHEJ and cytotoxicity of leukemia cells. PMID:27064363

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors decrease NHEJ both by acetylation of repair factors and trapping of PARP1 at DNA double-strand breaks in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Robert, Carine; Nagaria, Pratik K; Pawar, Nisha; Adewuyi, Adeoluwa; Gojo, Ivana; Meyers, David J; Cole, Philip A; Rassool, Feyruz V

    2016-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) induce acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins, and modulate the acetylation of proteins involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Decreased NHEJ activity has been reported with HDACi treatment. However, mechanisms through which these effects are regulated in the context of chromatin are unclear. We show that pan-HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), causes differential acetylation of DNA repair factors Ku70/Ku80 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1), and impairs NHEJ. Repair effects are reversed by treatments with p300/CBP inhibitor C646, with significantly decreased acetylation of PARP1. In keeping with these findings, TSA treatment significantly increases PARP1 binding to DSBs in chromatin. Notably, AML patients treated with HDACi entinostat (MS275) in vivo also show increased formation of poly ADP-ribose (PAR) that co-localizes with DSBs. Further, we demonstrate that PARP1 bound to chromatin increases with duration of TSA exposure, resembling PARP "trapping". Knockdown of PARP1 inhibits trapping and mitigates HDACi effects on NHEJ. Finally, combination of HDACi with potent PARP inhibitor talazoparib (BMN673) shows a dose-dependent increase in PARP "trapping", which correlates with increased apoptosis. These results provide a mechanism through which HDACi inhibits deacetylation and increases binding of PARP1 to DSBs, leading to decreased NHEJ and cytotoxicity of leukemia cells.

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibitors decrease NHEJ both by acetylation of repair factors and trapping of PARP1 at DNA double-strand breaks in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Robert, Carine; Nagaria, Pratik K; Pawar, Nisha; Adewuyi, Adeoluwa; Gojo, Ivana; Meyers, David J; Cole, Philip A; Rassool, Feyruz V

    2016-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) induce acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins, and modulate the acetylation of proteins involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Decreased NHEJ activity has been reported with HDACi treatment. However, mechanisms through which these effects are regulated in the context of chromatin are unclear. We show that pan-HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), causes differential acetylation of DNA repair factors Ku70/Ku80 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1), and impairs NHEJ. Repair effects are reversed by treatments with p300/CBP inhibitor C646, with significantly decreased acetylation of PARP1. In keeping with these findings, TSA treatment significantly increases PARP1 binding to DSBs in chromatin. Notably, AML patients treated with HDACi entinostat (MS275) in vivo also show increased formation of poly ADP-ribose (PAR) that co-localizes with DSBs. Further, we demonstrate that PARP1 bound to chromatin increases with duration of TSA exposure, resembling PARP "trapping". Knockdown of PARP1 inhibits trapping and mitigates HDACi effects on NHEJ. Finally, combination of HDACi with potent PARP inhibitor talazoparib (BMN673) shows a dose-dependent increase in PARP "trapping", which correlates with increased apoptosis. These results provide a mechanism through which HDACi inhibits deacetylation and increases binding of PARP1 to DSBs, leading to decreased NHEJ and cytotoxicity of leukemia cells. PMID:27064363

  6. N-acetylaspartate catabolism determines cytosolic acetyl-CoA levels and histone acetylation in brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Prokesch, A.; Pelzmann, H. J.; Pessentheiner, A. R.; Huber, K.; Madreiter-Sokolowski, C. T.; Drougard, A.; Schittmayer, M.; Kolb, D.; Magnes, C.; Trausinger, G.; Graier, W. F.; Birner-Gruenberger, R.; Pospisilik, J. A.; Bogner-Strauss, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation depends on the abundance of nucleo-cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA. Here, we present a novel route for cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA production in brown adipocytes. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is a highly abundant brain metabolite catabolized by aspartoacylase yielding aspartate and acetate. The latter can be further used for acetyl-CoA production. Prior to this work, the presence of NAA has not been described in adipocytes. Here, we show that accumulation of NAA decreases the brown adipocyte phenotype. We increased intracellular NAA concentrations in brown adipocytes via media supplementation or knock-down of aspartoacylase and measured reduced lipolysis, thermogenic gene expression, and oxygen consumption. Combinations of approaches to increase intracellular NAA levels showed additive effects on lipolysis and gene repression, nearly abolishing the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppara. Transcriptome analyses of aspartoacylase knock-down cells indicate deficiencies in acetyl-CoA and lipid metabolism. Concordantly, cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA levels and global histone H3 acetylation were decreased. Further, activating histone marks (H3K27ac and H3K9ac) in promoters/enhancers of brown marker genes showed reduced acetylation status. Taken together, we present a novel route for cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA production in brown adipocytes. Thereby, we mechanistically connect the NAA pathway to the epigenomic regulation of gene expression, modulating the phenotype of brown adipocytes. PMID:27045997

  7. Lysine Acetylation Activates Mitochondrial Aconitase in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Jolyn; Weddle, Alexis; Kinter, Caroline S.; Humphries, Kenneth M.; Mather, Timothy; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    High throughput proteomics studies have identified several thousand acetylation sites on over one thousand proteins. Mitochondrial aconitase, the Krebs cycle enzyme that converts citrate to isocitrate, has been identified in many of these reports. Acetylated mitochondrial aconitase has also been identified as a target for sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) catalyzed deacetylation. However, the functional significance of mitochondrial aconitase acetylation has not been determined. Using in vitro strategies, mass spectrometric analyses, and an in vivo mouse model of obesity, we found a significant acetylation-dependent activation of aconitase. Isolated heart mitochondria subjected to in vitro chemical acetylation with either acetic anhydride or acetyl-CoA resulted in increased aconitase activity that was reversed with SIRT3 treatment. Quantitative mass spectrometry was used to measure acetylation at 21 lysine residues and found significant increases with both in vitro treatments. A high fat diet (60% kcal from fat) was used as an in vivo model and also showed significantly increased mitochondrial aconitase activity without changes in protein level. The high fat diet also produced increased aconitase acetylation at multiple sites as measured by the quantitative mass spectrometry assays. Treatment of isolated mitochondria from these mice with SIRT3 abolished the high fat diet-induced activation of aconitase and reduced acetylation. Finally, kinetic analyses found that the increase in activity was a result of increased maximal velocity and molecular modeling suggests the potential for acetylation at K144 to perturb the tertiary structure of the enzyme. The results of this study reveal a novel activation of mitochondrial aconitase by acetylation. PMID:26061789

  8. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  9. High glucose-induced oxidative stress represses sirtuin deacetylase expression and increases histone acetylation leading to neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingwen; Wu, Yanqing; Yang, Peixin

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant epigenetic modifications are implicated in maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs). Because cellular stress plays a causal role in diabetic embryopathy, we investigated the possible role of the stress-resistant sirtuin (SIRT) family histone deacetylases. Among the seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7), pre-gestational maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro significantly reduced the expression of SIRT 2 and SIRT6 in the embryo or neural stem cells, respectively. The down-regulation of SIRT2 and SIRT6 was reversed by superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) over-expression in the in vivo mouse model of diabetic embryopathy and the SOD mimetic, tempol and cell permeable SOD, PEGSOD in neural stem cell cultures. 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ), a superoxide generating agent, mimicked high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression. The acetylation of histone 3 at lysine residues 56 (H3K56), H3K14, H3K9, and H3K27, putative substrates of SIRT2 and SIRT6, was increased by maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro, and these increases were blocked by SOD1 over-expression or tempol treatment. SIRT2 or SIRT6 over-expression abrogated high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 or SIRT6 expression, and prevented the increase in acetylation of their histone substrates. The potent sirtuin activator (SRT1720) blocked high glucose-increased histone acetylation and NTD formation, whereas the combination of a pharmacological SIRT2 inhibitor and a pan SIRT inhibitor mimicked the effect of high glucose on increased histone acetylation and NTD induction. Thus, diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro suppresses SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression through oxidative stress, and sirtuin down-regulation-induced histone acetylation may be involved in diabetes-induced NTDs. The mechanism underlying pre-gestational diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs) is still elusive. Our study unravels a new epigenetic mechanism in which maternal diabetes-induced oxidative stress represses

  10. 14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. δ15N of nitrate derived from explosive sources in a karst aquifer beneath the Ammunition Burning Ground, Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indiana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGnazio, Frank J.; Krothe, Noel C.; Baedke, Steve J.; Spalding, Roy F.

    1998-05-01

    Military institutions involved in the production and demolition of explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics have the potential to degrade groundwater aquifers through the addition of numerous contaminants including nitrate. A nitrate plume has been identified in a karst aquifer beneath the Ammunition Burning Ground (ABG) at the Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indiana, USA. Wells located in the vicinity of surface impoundments and burn pans used for treatment of explosive materials show the highest concentrations of nitrate ranging from 11.2 to 19.6 mg 1 -1 as NO 3-. Little is known about the isotopic composition of nitrates originating from these processes. Eight wells within the ABG were sampled and analyzed for nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate. An enrichment in the δ15N ( δ15N = +8.9, +12.0, +13.1, and +13.5‰) occurred at four wells located near the primary areas of disposal activities within the ABG. Four wells located near the outer limits of the ABG had δ15N values significantly lower than those observed in the central area of the ABG ( δ15N = +4.0, +4.1, +4.6, and +2.0‰). Soil samples and burn-pan ash samples were collected and analyzed for the nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate. Three soil nitrate samples had low δ15N values of -1.7, -1.8, and +2.2‰. The burn-pan ash sample produced nitrate with a δ15N value of +2.9‰. The observed enrichment in δ15N from samples taken from wells located near the ABG has been postulated to be a result of photodegradation or biochemical modification of RDX and TNT contaminated sludges and volatilization of NH 3 in storage lagoons within the ABG.

  12. Effect of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate on metabolic and pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsler-Parks, D.M. )

    1987-04-01

    The metabolic and pulmonary function responses were investigated in 32 non-smoking men and women (8 men and 8 women 18-26 years of age, and 8 men and 8 women 51-76 years of age) who were exposed for 2 hours to each of 8 conditions: (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), (3) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (6) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 (PAN/NO2), (7) 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (8) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). The subjects alternated 20-min periods of rest (n = 3) and cycle ergometer exercise (n = 3) at a work load predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of approximately 25 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, and 5 min after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout each exposure, and VE was measured during the last 2 min of each exercise period. Exposure to FA, PAN, NO2, and PAN/NO2 had no effect on any measure of pulmonary or metabolic function. Ozone was primarily responsible for the pulmonary function effects observed. There was no significant difference between the responses to O3 exposure and the responses to the three O3 mixtures, indicating no interactions between the pollutants. The results suggest that women may be somewhat more responsive to O3 exposure than men, and that older people (51-76 years of age) may be less responsive to O3 than younger people (18-26 years of age).

  13. Effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine acetylation in male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tahir, I M; Iqbal, T; Saleem, S; Mehboob, H; Akhter, N; Riaz, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine N-acetylation by human N-acetyltrasferase-2 (NAT2) was studied in 19 (n=19) healthy male volunteers in two different phases. In the first phase of the study the volunteers were given an oral dose of sulfamethazine 500 mg alone and blood and urine samples were collected. After the 10-day washout period the same selected volunteers were again administered sulfamethazine 500 mg along with 1000 mg acetaminophen. The acetylation of sulfamethazine by human NAT2 in both phases with and without acetaminophen was determined by HPLC to establish their respective phenotypes. In conclusion obtained statistics of present study revealed that acetaminophen significantly (P<0.0001) decreased sulfamethazine acetylation in plasma of both slow and fast acetylator male volunteers. A highly significant (P<0.0001) decrease in plasma-free and total sulfamethazine concentration was also observed when acetaminophen was co-administered. Urine acetylation status in both phases of the study was found not to be in complete concordance with that of plasma. Acetaminophen significantly (P<0.0001) increased the acetyl, free and total sulfamethazine concentration in urine of both slow and fast acetylators. Urine acetylation analysis has not been found to be a suitable approach for phenotypic studies.

  14. Global analysis of lysine acetylation in strawberry leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Zhao, Yun; Ruan, Songlin; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Jin, Liang; Cao, Lingling; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Huasheng; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification. It plays an important role in regulating diverse cellular processes including chromatin dynamic, metabolic pathways, and transcription in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although studies of lysine acetylome in plants have been reported, the throughput was not high enough, hindering the deep understanding of lysine acetylation in plant physiology and pathology. In this study, taking advantages of anti-acetyllysine-based enrichment and high-sensitive-mass spectrometer, we applied an integrated proteomic approach to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in strawberry. In total, we identified 1392 acetylation sites in 684 proteins, representing the largest dataset of acetylome in plants to date. To reveal the functional impacts of lysine acetylation in strawberry, intensive bioinformatic analysis was performed. The results significantly expanded our current understanding of plant acetylome and demonstrated that lysine acetylation is involved in multiple cellular metabolism and cellular processes. More interestingly, nearly 50% of all acetylated proteins identified in this work were localized in chloroplast and the vital role of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis was also revealed. Taken together, this study not only established the most extensive lysine acetylome in plants to date, but also systematically suggests the significant and unique roles of lysine acetylation in plants. PMID:26442052

  15. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.372 N-Acetyl-L-methionine. The food additive N-acetyl-L... section. The minimum amount of the additive to achieve the desired effect must be used, and the...

  16. A facile and practical synthesis of N-acetyl enamides.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenjun; Capacci, Andrew; Sarvestani, Max; Wei, Xudong; Yee, Nathan K; Senanayake, Chris H

    2009-12-18

    A facile and practical method for the synthesis of N-acetyl alpha-arylenamides has been developed from corresponding ketoximes as the starting materials with ferrous acetate as the reducing reagent. This methodology offers mild reaction conditions, simple purification procedures, and high yields for a variety of N-acetyl enamides. PMID:19921804

  17. Medial temporal N-acetyl aspartate in pediatric major depression

    PubMed Central

    MacMaster, Frank P.; Moore, Gregory J; Russell, Aileen; Mirza, Yousha; Taormina, S. Preeya; Buhagiar, Christian; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The medial temporal cortex (MTC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). Eleven MDD-case control pairs underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. N-acetyl-aspartate was lower in left MTC (27%) in MDD patients versus controls. Lower N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in MDD patients may reflect reduced neuronal viability. PMID:18703320

  18. Medial temporal N-acetyl-aspartate in pediatric major depression.

    PubMed

    MacMaster, Frank P; Moore, Gregory J; Russell, Aileen; Mirza, Yousha; Taormina, S Preeya; Buhagiar, Christian; Rosenberg, David R

    2008-10-30

    The medial temporal cortex (MTC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). Eleven MDD case-control pairs underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. N-acetyl-aspartate was lower in the left MTC (27%) in MDD patients versus controls. Lower N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in MDD patients may reflect reduced neuronal viability. PMID:18703320

  19. Study on Dendrobium officinale O-acetyl-glucomannan (Dendronan®): part II. Fine structures of O-acetylated residues.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaohui; Cui, Steve W; Nie, Shaoping; Phillips, Glyn O; Goff, H Douglas; Wang, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Main objective of this study was to investigate the detailed structural information about O-acetylated sugar residues in Dendronan(®). A water solution (2%, w/w) of Dendronan(®) was treated with endo-β-mannanase to produce oligosaccharides rich in O-acetylated sugar residues. The oligosaccharides were partly recovered by ethanol precipitation (70%, w/w). The recovered sample (designated Hydrolyzed Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharide, HDOP) had a yield of 24.7% based on the dry weight of Dendronan(®) and was highly O-acetylated. A D2O solution of HDOP (6%, w/w) generated strong signals in (1)H, (13)C, 2D (1)H-(1)H COSY, 2D (1)H-(1)H TOCSY, 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY, 2D (1)H-(13)C HMQC, and 2D (1)H-(13)C HMBC NMR spectra. Results of NMR analyses showed that the majority of O-acetylated mannoses were mono-substituted with acetyl groups at O-2 or O-3 position. There were small amounts of mannose residues with di-O-acetyl substitution at both O-2 and O-3 positions. Minor levels of mannoses with 6-O-acetyl, 2,6-di-O-acetyl, and 3,6-di-O-acetyl substitutions were also identified. Much information about sugar residue sequence was extracted from 2D (1)H-(13)C HMBC and 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY spectra. (1)J(C-H) coupling constants of major sugar residues were obtained. Evidences for the existence of branches or O-acetylated glucoses in HDOP were not found. The major structure of Dendronan(®) is shown as follows: [Formula: see text] M: β-D-mannopyranose; G: β-D-glucopyranose; a: O-acetyl group.

  20. Pulmonary function responses of young and older adults to mixtures of O sub 3 , NO sub 2 and PAN

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsler-Parks, D.M.; Bedi, J.F.; Horvath, S.M. )

    1989-05-01

    The pulmonary function of 32 nonsmokers (eight men and eight women, 18-26 years of age; eight men and eight women, 51-76 years of age) was measured before and after two-hour exposures to (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (3) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). Subjects alternated 20-minute periods of rest and exercise (ventilation = 25 L/min). Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured pre-exposure and five-minutes after each exercise period. Forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1.0) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 percent of FVC (FEF25-75%) were calculated from the FVC tests. Data were analyzed by 4-factor analysis of variance (sex, age, time period, exposure). The responses of men and women were similar. FA exposure induced no effects. The young subjects' decrements in FVC, FEV1.0 and FEF25-75% became significant (P less than 0.01) after the second exercise period of the O3, NO2/O3 and PAN/NO2/O3 exposures, while the PAN/O3 decrements were significant (P less than 0.01) after the first exercise period. Although PAN/O3 induced significant decrements earlier than the other conditions including O3, the mean pre- to post-exposure decrements for the four conditions including O3 were similar. In contrast, the older subjects had smaller and fewer significant decrements in pulmonary functions. They had significant mean decrements in FVC following the third exercise period of the NO2/O3 and PAN/NO2/O3 exposures, in FEV1.0 after the third exercise period of the PAN/O3 and NO2/O3 exposures, and in FEF 25-75% beginning after the second exercise period of the NO2/O3 exposure.

  1. Cell biology (Communication arising): Tubulin acetylation and cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Alexander; Ackerman, Brian; Gundersen, Gregg G.

    2003-01-01

    Although the protein tubulin is known to undergo several post-translational modifications that accumulate in stable but not dynamic microtubules inside cells, the function of these modifications is unknown. Hubbert et al. have shown that the enzyme HDAC6 (for histone deacetylase 6) reverses the post-translational acetylation of tubulin, and provide evidence that reducing tubulin acetylation enhances cell motility. They also suggest that decreasing tubulin acetylation reduces microtubule stability. However, we find that microtubule stabilization is not promoted by tubulin acetylation. We conclude that the alteration in cell motility observed by Hubbert et al. in cells overexpressing HDAC6 results not from changes in the formation of stable microtubules, but from alterations in the degree of tubulin acetylation.

  2. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  3. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder Insurance Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Weller, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) obtained a full panorama of the Sagan Memorial Station landing site on Sol 2, before the IMP mast was deployed. The images in this panorama were taken in 4 filters (including stereo) and losslessly compressed to provide a high-quality multispectral survey of the landing site even if the IMP mast did not successfully deploy; this data set was therefore called the Insurance Pan. It was completed late in the afternoon of Sol 2, just before the IMP mast was (successfully) deployed. The data were stored in memory and returned to Earth after it became clear that downlink rates were higher than expected. The Insurance Pan horizontal (azimuth) coverage is nearly complete, with gaps caused by pointing errors and data packet losses. Stereo data were acquired in the blue (445 nm) filter, as well as right-eye green (531 nm), orange (600 nm), and near-infrared (752 nm) data.

  4. BRDF of Salt Pan Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of salt pan regolith samples are presented in this study in an effort to understand the role of spatial and spectral variability of the natural biome. The samples were obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20 deg S, 15.93 deg E, alt. 1100 m). It is shown how the BRDF depends on the measurement geometry - incident and scatter angles and on the sample particle sizes. As a demonstration of the application of the results, airborne BRDF measurements acquires with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the regolith samples were collected are compared with the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory measured and field measured BRDF is reported.

  5. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylation suggests the widespread function is regulated by protein acetylation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zuoming; Zhu, Honglin; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Chengcheng; Liu, Yue; Sheng, Qing; Lv, Zhengbing; Zhang, Wenping; Yu, Wei; Jiang, Caiying; Xie, Longfei; Zhang, Yaozhou; Yao, Juming

    2015-09-01

    Lysine acetylation in proteins is a dynamic and reversible PTM and plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. In this study, using lysine-acetylation (Kac) peptide enrichment coupled with nano HPLC/MS/MS, we initially identified the acetylome in the silkworms. Overall, a total of 342 acetylated proteins with 667 Kac sites were identified in silkworm. Sequence motifs analysis around Kac sites revealed an enrichment of Y, F, and H in the +1 position, and F was also enriched in the +2 and -2 positions, indicating the presences of preferred amino acids around Kac sites in the silkworm. Functional analysis showed the acetylated proteins were primarily involved in some specific biological processes. Furthermore, lots of nutrient-storage proteins, such as apolipophorin, vitellogenin, storage proteins, and 30 K proteins, were highly acetylated, indicating lysine acetylation may represent a common regulatory mechanism of nutrient utilization in the silkworm. Interestingly, Ser2 proteins, the coating proteins of larval silk, were found to contain many Kac sites, suggesting lysine acetylation may be involved in the regulation of larval silk synthesis. This study is the first to identify the acetylome in a lepidoptera insect, and expands greatly the catalog of lysine acetylation substrates and sites in insects.

  6. Vasodilator Therapy: Nitrates and Nicorandil.

    PubMed

    Tarkin, Jason M; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Nitrates have been used to treat symptoms of chronic stable angina for over 135 years. These drugs are known to activate nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophasphate (cGMP) signaling pathways underlying vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation, albeit many questions relating to how nitrates work at the cellular level remain unanswered. Physiologically, the anti-angina effects of nitrates are mostly due to peripheral venous dilatation leading to reduction in preload and therefore left ventricular wall stress, and, to a lesser extent, epicardial coronary artery dilatation and lowering of systemic blood pressure. By counteracting ischemic mechanisms, short-acting nitrates offer rapid relief following an angina attack. Long-acting nitrates, used commonly for angina prophylaxis are recommended second-line, after beta-blockers and calcium channel antagonists. Nicorandil is a balanced vasodilator that acts as both NO donor and arterial K(+) ATP channel opener. Nicorandil might also exhibit cardioprotective properties via mitochondrial ischemic preconditioning. While nitrates and nicorandil are effective pharmacological agents for prevention of angina symptoms, when prescribing these drugs it is important to consider that unwanted and poorly tolerated hemodynamic side-effects such as headache and orthostatic hypotension can often occur owing to systemic vasodilatation. It is also necessary to ensure that a dosing regime is followed that avoids nitrate tolerance, which not only results in loss of drug efficacy, but might also cause endothelial dysfunction and increase long-term cardiovascular risk. Here we provide an update on the pharmacological management of chronic stable angina using nitrates and nicorandil.

  7. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  8. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  9. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  10. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  11. Identification of PAN2 by quantitative proteomics as a leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like kinase acting upstream of PAN1 to polarize cell division in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoguo; Facette, Michelle; Humphries, John A; Shen, Zhouxin; Park, Yeri; Sutimantanapi, Dena; Sylvester, Anne W; Briggs, Steven P; Smith, Laurie G

    2012-11-01

    Mechanisms governing the polarization of plant cell division are poorly understood. Previously, we identified pangloss1 (PAN1) as a leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) that promotes the polarization of subsidiary mother cell (SMC) divisions toward the adjacent guard mother cell (GMC) during stomatal development in maize (Zea mays). Here, we identify pangloss2 (PAN2) as a second LRR-RLK promoting SMC polarization. Quantitative proteomic analysis identified a PAN2 candidate by its depletion from membranes of pan2 single and pan1;pan2 double mutants. Genetic mapping and sequencing of mutant alleles confirmed the identity of this protein as PAN2. Like PAN1, PAN2 has a catalytically inactive kinase domain and accumulates in SMCs at sites of GMC contact before nuclear polarization. The timing of polarized PAN1 and PAN2 localization is very similar, but PAN2 acts upstream because it is required for polarized accumulation of PAN1 but is independent of PAN1 for its own localization. We find no evidence that PAN2 recruits PAN1 to the GMC contact site via a direct or indirect physical interaction, but PAN2 interacts with itself. Together, these results place PAN2 at the top of a cascade of events promoting the polarization of SMC divisions, potentially functioning to perceive or amplify GMC-derived polarizing cues.

  12. Nitrate Utilization by the Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Juan L.; Llama, Maria J.; Cadenas, Eduardo

    1978-01-01

    Nitrate utilization has been characterized in nitrogen-deficient cells of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. In order to separate nitrate uptake from nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase activity was suppressed with tungstate. Neither nitrite nor the presence of amino acids in the external medium or darkness affects nitrate uptake kinetics. Ammonium strongly inhibits carrier-mediated nitrate uptake, without affecting diffusion transfer. A model is proposed for the uptake and assimilation of nitrate in S. costatum and their regulation by ammonium ions. PMID:16660653

  13. A model of the biogeographical journey from Proto-pan to Pan paniscus.

    PubMed

    Myers Thompson, Jo A

    2003-04-01

    Pan paniscus is unique in the group of African apes because of its range south of the Congo River. Examination of the bio-geographical journey of the genus Pan to the species P. paniscus is important when discussing the evolution of African apes. This paper is a review of the paleo-geographic events, the zoogeography, and faunal sorting which influenced P. paniscus divergence from the Proto-pan ancestor within the recent Miocene through Pliocene Epochs, approximately 10-2 MYA. Finally, by elucidating modern day evidence of food plant forms in the southern periphery exploited by P. paniscus in the forest/savanna mosaic habitat, we are able to conclude with those extrinsic events that most influenced the occurrence and distribution of P. paniscus.

  14. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  15. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing

  16. Microbial acetyl conjugation of T-2 toxin and its derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, T; Onomoto, C; Morooka, N

    1980-01-01

    The acetyl conjugation of T-2 toxin and its derivatives, the 12,13-epoxytrichothecene mycotoxins, was studied by using mycelia of trichothecene-producing strains of Fusarium graminearum, F. nivale, Calonectria nivalis, and F. sporotrichoides, T-2 toxin was efficiently converted into acetyl T-2 toxin by all strains except a T-2 toxin-producing strain of F. sporotrichoides, which hydrolyzed the substrate to HT-2-toxin and neosolaniol. HT-2 toxin was conjugated to 3-acetyl HT-2 toxin as an only product by mycelia of F. graminearum and C. nivalis, but was also resistant to conjugation by both F. nivale and F. sporotrichoides. Neosolaniol was also biotransformed selectively into 3-acetyl neosolaniol by F. graminearum. However, 3-acetyl HT-2 toxin was not acetylated by any of the strains under the conditions employed, but was hydrolyzed to HT-2 toxin by F. graminearum and F. nivale. This is the first report on the biological 3 alpha-O-acetyl conjugation of T-2 toxin and its derivatives. PMID:7396487

  17. Chitosan Molecular Structure as a Function of N-Acetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, Eduardo F.; Freitas, Luiz C.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2011-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to characterize the structure and solubility of chitosan nanoparticle-like structures as a function of the deacetylation level (0, 40, 60, and 100%) and the spatial distribution of the N-acetyl groups in the particles. The polysaccharide chains of highly N-deacetylated particles where the N-acetyl groups are uniformly distributed present a high flexibility and preference for the relaxed two-fold helix and five-fold helix motifs. When these groups are confined to a given region of the particle, the chains adopt preferentially a two-fold helix with f and w values close to crystalline chitin. Nanoparticles with up to 40% acetylation are moderately soluble, forming stable aggregates when the N-acetyl groups are unevenly distributed. Systems with 60% or higher N-acetylation levels are insoluble and present similar degrees of swelling regardless the distribution of their N-acetyl groups. Overall particle solvation is highly affected by electrostatic forces resulting from the degree of acetylation. The water mobility and orientation around the polysaccharide chains affects the stability of the intramolecular O3- HO3(n) ... O5(n+ 1) hydrogen bond, which in turn controls particle aggregation.

  18. Effects of Ozone and Peroxyacetyl Nitrate on Polar Lipids and Fatty Acids in Leaves of Morning Glory and Kidney Bean

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Isamu; Toyama, Susumu

    1988-01-01

    To compare the effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on leaf lipids, fatty acids and malondialdehyde (MDA), morning glory (Pharbitis nil Choisy cv Scarlet O'Hara) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Gintebo) plants were exposed to either ozone (0.15 microliter per liter for 8 hours) or PAN (0.10 microliter per liter for up to 8 hours). Ozone increased phospholipids in morning glory and decreased in kidney bean at the initial stage (2-4 hours) of exposure, while it scarcely changed glycolipids, the unsaturated fatty acids, and MDA in both plants. A large reduction of glycolipids occurred 1 day after ozone exposure in both plants. PAN caused marked drops in phospholipids and glycolipids in kidney bean at relatively late stage (6-8 hours) of exposure, while it increased phosphatidic acid and decreased the unsaturated fatty acids, an increase which was accompanied by a large increase in MDA. These results suggest that ozone may not directly oxidize unsaturated fatty acids at the initial stage of exposure, but may alter polar lipid metabolism, particularly phospholipids. On the other hand, PAN may abruptly and considerably degrade phospholipids and glycolipids by peroxidation or hydrolysis at the late stage of exposure. The present study shows that ozone and PAN affect polar lipids in different manners. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16666199

  19. 22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. View looking toward east end of sorghum pan and interior of east end of the boiling house. Walls and final compartment of the sorghum pan are still intact. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  1. 9-O-Acetylation of sialic acids is catalysed by CASD1 via a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Anna-Maria T; Bakkers, Mark J G; Buettner, Falk F R; Hartmann, Maike; Grove, Melanie; Langereis, Martijn A; de Groot, Raoul J; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids, terminal sugars of glycoproteins and glycolipids, play important roles in development, cellular recognition processes and host-pathogen interactions. A common modification of sialic acids is 9-O-acetylation, which has been implicated in sialoglycan recognition, ganglioside biology, and the survival and drug resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Despite many functional implications, the molecular basis of 9-O-acetylation has remained elusive thus far. Following cellular approaches, including selective gene knockout by CRISPR/Cas genome editing, we here show that CASD1--a previously identified human candidate gene--is essential for sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. In vitro assays with the purified N-terminal luminal domain of CASD1 demonstrate transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-coenzyme A to CMP-activated sialic acid and formation of a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate. Our study provides direct evidence that CASD1 is a sialate O-acetyltransferase and serves as key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans. PMID:26169044

  2. Acetylation of Mammalian ADA3 Is Required for Its Functional Roles in Histone Acetylation and Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mohibi, Shakur; Srivastava, Shashank; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2016-10-01

    Alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3) is an essential component of specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. We have previously shown that ADA3 is required for establishing global histone acetylation patterns and for normal cell cycle progression (S. Mohibi et al., J Biol Chem 287:29442-29456, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.378901). Here, we report that these functional roles of ADA3 require its acetylation. We show that ADA3 acetylation, which is dynamically regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, reflects a balance of coordinated actions of its associated HATs, GCN5, PCAF, and p300, and a new partner that we define, the deacetylase SIRT1. We use mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis to identify major sites of ADA3 acetylated by GCN5 and p300. Acetylation-defective mutants are capable of interacting with HATs and other components of HAT complexes but are deficient in their ability to restore ADA3-dependent global or locus-specific histone acetylation marks and cell proliferation in Ada3-deleted murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Given the key importance of ADA3-containing HAT complexes in the regulation of various biological processes, including the cell cycle, our study presents a novel mechanism to regulate the function of these complexes through dynamic ADA3 acetylation. PMID:27402865

  3. Evidence for N----O acetyl migration as the mechanism for O acetylation of peptidoglycan in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, C; Clarke, A J

    1991-01-01

    O-acetylated peptidoglycan was purified from Proteus mirabilis grown in the presence of specifically radiolabelled glucosamine derivatives, and the migration of the radiolabel was monitored. Mild-base hydrolysis of the isolated peptidoglycan (to release ester-linked acetate) from cells grown in the presence of 40 microM [acetyl-3H]N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in the release of [3H]acetate, as detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The inclusion of either acetate, pyruvate, or acetyl phosphate, each at 1 mM final concentration, did not result in a diminution of mild-base-released [3H]acetate levels. No such release of [3H]acetate was observed with peptidoglycan isolated from either Escherichia coli incubated with the same radiolabel or P. mirabilis grown with [1,6-3H]N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or D-[1-14C]glucosamine. These observations support a hypothesis that O acetylation occurs by N----O acetyl transfer within the sacculus. A decrease in [3H]acetate release by mild-base hydrolysis was observed with the peptidoglycan of P. mirabilis cultures incubated in the presence of antagonists of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, penicillin G and D-cycloserine. The absence of free-amino sugars in the peptidoglycan of P. mirabilis but the detection of glucosamine in spent culture broths implies that N----O transacetylation is intimately associated with peptidoglycan turnover. PMID:2066331

  4. Reduction of nitrate in Shewanella

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Yang, Zamin Koo; Barua, Sumitra; Reed, SB; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrikson, JK; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, a napDAGHB gene cluster encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) and accessory proteins and an nrfA gene encoding periplasmic nitrite reductase (NrfA) have been identified. These two systems seem to be atypical because the genome lacks genes encoding cytoplasmic membrane electron transport proteins, NapC for NAP and NrfBCD/NrfH for NRF, respectively. Here, we present evidence that reduction of nitrate to ammonium in S. oneidensis is carried out by these atypical systems in a two-step manner. Transcriptional and mutational analyses suggest that CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane electron transport protein, is likely to be the functional replacement of both NapC and NrfH in S. oneidensis. Surprisingly, a strain devoid of napB encoding the small subunit of nitrate reductase exhibited the maximum cell density sooner than the wild type. Further characterization of this strain showed that nitrite was not detected as a free intermediate in its culture and NapB provides a fitness gain for S. oneidensis to compete for nitrate in the environments. On the basis results from mutational analyses of napA, napB, nrfA and napBnrfA in-frame deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively.

  5. Insights into the Maize Pan-Genome and Pan-Transcriptome[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Candice N.; Foerster, Jillian M.; Johnson, James M.; Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Muttoni, German; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Lindquist, Erika; Pedraza, Mary Ann; Barry, Kerrie; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Buell, C. Robin

    2014-01-01

    Genomes at the species level are dynamic, with genes present in every individual (core) and genes in a subset of individuals (dispensable) that collectively constitute the pan-genome. Using transcriptome sequencing of seedling RNA from 503 maize (Zea mays) inbred lines to characterize the maize pan-genome, we identified 8681 representative transcript assemblies (RTAs) with 16.4% expressed in all lines and 82.7% expressed in subsets of the lines. Interestingly, with linkage disequilibrium mapping, 76.7% of the RTAs with at least one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) could be mapped to a single genetic position, distributed primarily throughout the nonpericentromeric portion of the genome. Stepwise iterative clustering of RTAs suggests, within the context of the genotypes used in this study, that the maize genome is restricted and further sampling of seedling RNA within this germplasm base will result in minimal discovery. Genome-wide association studies based on SNPs and transcript abundance in the pan-genome revealed loci associated with the timing of the juvenile-to-adult vegetative and vegetative-to-reproductive developmental transitions, two traits important for fitness and adaptation. This study revealed the dynamic nature of the maize pan-genome and demonstrated that a substantial portion of variation may lie outside the single reference genome for a species. PMID:24488960

  6. Slow-blue PanSTARRS transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Bruce, Alastair; Lawrence, Andy; Ward, Martin; Collinson, James; Elvis, Martin; Gezari, Suvi; Smartt, Steven; Smith, Ken; Wright, Darryl; Fraser, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of 50 blue, nuclear "transients" in PanSTARRS-1 has revealed different types of extremely variable AGN. The majority show a gradual brightening by ~2 mag from the SDSS observation a decade ago and may represent a new class of AGN microlensed by foreground galaxies. Spectra from the William Herschel Telescope identify these as z~1 AGN with atypical spectroscopic properties. We present an analysis of their photometric and spectroscopic variability in an effort to constrain the detailed structure of the source AGN.

  7. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  8. Acetylation of C/EBPα inhibits its granulopoietic function

    PubMed Central

    Bararia, Deepak; Kwok, Hui Si; Welner, Robert S.; Numata, Akihiko; Sárosi, Menyhárt B.; Yang, Henry; Wee, Sheena; Tschuri, Sebastian; Ray, Debleena; Weigert, Oliver; Levantini, Elena; Ebralidze, Alexander K.; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tenen, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an essential transcription factor for myeloid lineage commitment. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of C/EBPα at lysine residues K298 and K302, mediated at least in part by general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5), impairs C/EBPα DNA-binding ability and modulates C/EBPα transcriptional activity. Acetylated C/EBPα is enriched in human myeloid leukaemia cell lines and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) samples, and downregulated upon granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)- mediated granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells. C/EBPα mutants that mimic acetylation failed to induce granulocytic differentiation in C/EBPα-dependent assays, in both cell lines and in primary hematopoietic cells. Our data uncover GCN5 as a negative regulator of C/EBPα and demonstrate the importance of C/EBPα acetylation in myeloid differentiation. PMID:27005833

  9. Acetylation of banana fibre to improve oil absorbency.

    PubMed

    Teli, M D; Valia, Sanket P

    2013-01-30

    Oil spill leaves detrimental effects on the environment, living organisms and economy. In the present work, an attempt is made to provide an efficient, easily deployable method of cleaning up oil spills and recovering of the oil. The work reports the use of banana fibres which were acetylated for oil spill recovery. The product so formed was characterized by FT-IR, TG, SEM and its degree of acetylation was also evaluated. The extent of acetylation was measured by weight percent gain. The oil sorption capacity of the acetylated fibre was higher than that of the commercial synthetic oil sorbents such as polypropylene fibres as well as un-modified fibre. Therefore, these oil sorption-active materials which are also biodegradable can be used to substitute non-biodegradable synthetic materials in oil spill cleanup. PMID:23218302

  10. Data detailing the platelet acetyl-lysine proteome

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Joseph E.; David, Larry L.; McCarty, Owen J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Here we detail proteomics data that describe the acetyl-lysine proteome of blood platelets (Aslan et al., 2015 [1]). An affinity purification – mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach was used to identify proteins modified by Nε-lysine acetylation in quiescent, washed human platelets. The data provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms of platelet function mediated by protein lysine acetylation. Additionally, as platelets are anucleate and lack histone proteins, they offer a unique and valuable system to study the regulation of cytosolic proteins by lysine acetylation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaino et al., 2014 [2]) via with PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002332. PMID:26904711

  11. Data detailing the platelet acetyl-lysine proteome.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Joseph E; David, Larry L; McCarty, Owen J T

    2015-12-01

    Here we detail proteomics data that describe the acetyl-lysine proteome of blood platelets (Aslan et al., 2015 [1]). An affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach was used to identify proteins modified by Nε-lysine acetylation in quiescent, washed human platelets. The data provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms of platelet function mediated by protein lysine acetylation. Additionally, as platelets are anucleate and lack histone proteins, they offer a unique and valuable system to study the regulation of cytosolic proteins by lysine acetylation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaino et al., 2014 [2]) via with PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002332. PMID:26904711

  12. Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates. PMID:22826120

  13. Nitrate Trends in Minnesota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wall, Dave; Christopherson, Dave; Lorenz, Dave; Martin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term trends (30 to 35 years) of flow-adjusted concentrations of nitrite+nitrate-N (hereinafter referred to as nitrate) in a way that would allow us to discern changing trends. Recognizing that these trends are commonly different from one river to another river and from one part of the state to another, our objective was to examine as many river monitoring sites across the state as possible for which sufficient long term streamflow and concentration data were available.

  14. Regulation of S-Adenosylhomocysteine Hydrolase by Lysine Acetylation*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Kavran, Jennifer M.; Chen, Zan; Karukurichi, Kannan R.; Leahy, Daniel J.; Cole, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) is an NAD+-dependent tetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of S-adenosylhomocysteine to adenosine and homocysteine and is important in cell growth and the regulation of gene expression. Loss of SAHH function can result in global inhibition of cellular methyltransferase enzymes because of high levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine. Prior proteomics studies have identified two SAHH acetylation sites at Lys401 and Lys408 but the impact of these post-translational modifications has not yet been determined. Here we use expressed protein ligation to produce semisynthetic SAHH acetylated at Lys401 and Lys408 and show that modification of either position negatively impacts the catalytic activity of SAHH. X-ray crystal structures of 408-acetylated SAHH and dually acetylated SAHH have been determined and reveal perturbations in the C-terminal hydrogen bonding patterns, a region of the protein important for NAD+ binding. These crystal structures along with mutagenesis data suggest that such hydrogen bond perturbations are responsible for SAHH catalytic inhibition by acetylation. These results suggest how increased acetylation of SAHH may globally influence cellular methylation patterns. PMID:25248746

  15. Acetyl Radical Generation in Cigarette Smoke: Quantification and Simulations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commerial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass filber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acealdehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke. PMID:25253993

  16. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  17. Parahalogenated phenols accelerate the photochemical release of nitrogen oxides from frozen solutions containing nitrate.

    PubMed

    Abida, Otman; Osthoff, Hans D

    2012-06-21

    The photolysis of nitrate anion (NO(3)(-)) contained in surface ice and snow can be a regionally significant source of gas-phase nitrogen oxides and affect the composition of the planetary boundary layer. In this study, the photochemical release of nitrogen oxides from frozen solutions containing NO(3)(-) in the presence of organic compounds was investigated. Gas-phase nitrogen oxides were quantified primarily by NO-O(3) chemiluminescence detection of NO and NO(y) (=NO + NO(2) + HONO + HNO(3) + ∑PAN + ∑AN ...) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy of NO(2) and total alkyl nitrates (∑AN). The photochemical production of gas-phase NO(y) was suppressed by the presence of formate, methanesulfonate, toluene, or phenol. In contrast, para-halogenated phenols (in the order of Cl > Br > F) promoted the conversion of NO(3)(-) to gas-phase NO(y), rationalized by acidification of the ice surface.

  18. Simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in ambient atmosphere by carbon-coated annular diffusion denuder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, F.; Allegrini, I.; Di Filippo, P.; Pasella, D.

    A diffusion denuder for simultaneous collection of ambient nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), based on quantitative collection on an alkaline active carbon surface, has been developed. Nitrogen dioxide yields nitrite anion whereas PAN yields nitrate which are extracted after sampling with water and analysed by ion chromatography. Laboratory and field tests concerning sorption efficiency, effect of humidity and capacity were carried out. The pre-exponential and exponent for the first term of the Gormley-Kennedy equation applied to annular geometry were estimated. It was found that for PAN the agreement between the experimental and calculated values is quite good and compatible with a "perfect sink" behaviour of carbon, whereas, in the case of NO 2, the experimental collection efficiency is lower than theory but still suitable for ambient sampling. Nitrogen oxide and ozone do not interfere in the determination. SO 2, HONO and HNO 3 which could interfere can be removed by using two diffusion denuders placed in line before the carbon denuder: one coated with tetrachloromercurate (TCM), for the removal of SO 2 and HNO 3, and the second, coated with carbonate, for the removal of HONO. The detection limit for 24 h sampling is better than 0.05 and 0.06 ppb for NO 2 and PAN, respectively. The response for NO 2 was compared during a field campaign in Milan with the corresponding integrated response of a chemiluminescence analyser, while data for PAN were compared with the integrated response of a GC-ECD technique. The results obtained are reported and discussed.

  19. Pan-European catalogue of flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajka, Juraj; Mangini, Walter; Viglione, Alberto; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Ceola, Serena

    2016-04-01

    There have been numerous extreme flood events observed in Europe in the past years. One of the way to improve our understanding about causing flood generation mechanisms is to analyse spatial and temporal variability of a large number of flood events. The aim of this study is to present a pan-European catalogue of flood events developed within the SWITCH-ON EU Project. The flood events are identified from daily discharge observations at 1315 stations listed in Global Runoff Data Centre database. The average length of discharge time-series for selected stations is 54 years. For each event, basin boundary and additional hydrological and weather characteristics are extracted. Hydrological characteristics are extracted from the pan-European HYPE model simulations. Precipitation, together with the corresponding proportions of rainfall and snowfall, snowmelt, and evapotranspiration are computed as total amounts between the event start date and event peak date. Soil moisture, soil moisture deficit, and basin accumulated snow water equivalent are computed for the event start date. Weather characteristics are derived from the weather circulation pattern catalogue developed within COST 733 Project. The results are generated in an open data access and tools framework which allows reproduction and extension of results to other regions. More information about the analysis and project are available at: http://www.water-switch-on.eu/lab.html.

  20. Absolute astrometry with Pan-STARRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Valeri; Berghea, Ciprian; Dorland, Bryan; Hennessy, Greg; Zacharias, Norbert; Magnier, Eugene A.; Monet, David; Gaume, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    A small collaboration of USNO and IfA astronomers is working on an improved astrometric solution for the data collected by the Pan-STARRS project. The 3PI survey performed by the PS1 telescope is well suited for a global astrometric solution. The current approach used in the data reduction pipeline is strictly differential. The 2MASS positions were used as reference for field of view (FoV) and detector calibration procedures. The absence of proper motions in 2MASS results in significant sky-correlated errors up to 30 - 50 mas. Our approach is to solve a huge system of linear equations for a carefully selected set of ~1 million grid objects including the astrometric unknowns (positions, proper motions and parallaxes) and FoV calibration parameters. The grid catalog includes ~5000 extragalactic radio sources with VLBI-detected positions accurate to 1 mas or better, which are used as hard constraints to the astrometric unknowns in the global least-squares adjustment. If successful, this will be the first realization of a large optical astrometry catalog directly anchored to the ICRF. Numerical simulations indicated a 10 mas accuracy level for Pan-STARRS astrometry, but experimental solutions on real data have not yet reached this level.

  1. Dietary nitrate and cardiovascular health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahluwalia, A.; Gladwin, M.T.; Harman, Jane L.; Ward, M.H.; Nolan, Bernard T.

    2014-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened this workshop to discuss the results of recent research on the effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite on the cardiovascular system, possible long term effects of these compounds in the diet and drinking water, and future research needs including population-wide effects examined through epidemiological studies.

  2. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  3. 3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. Pan-ebolavirus and Pan-filovirus Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies: Protection against Ebola and Sudan Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Howell, Katie A.; Patel, Sonal J.; Gunn, Bronwyn; Karim, Marcus; Lai, Jonathan R.; Frei, Julia C.; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K.; Zeitlin, Larry; Douglas, Robin; Fusco, Marnie L.; Froude, Jeffrey W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Herbert, Andrew S.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Alter, Galit; Dye, John M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Warfield, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species. IMPORTANCE Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus

  5. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  6. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marietou, Angeliki

    2016-08-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates.

  7. Identification of cellular factors binding to acetylated HIV-1 integrase.

    PubMed

    Allouch, Awatef; Cereseto, Anna

    2011-11-01

    The viral protein integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of the HIV-1 cDNA into the host cellular genome. We have recently demonstrated that IN is acetylated by a cellular histone acetyltransferase, p300, which modifies three lysines located in the C-terminus of the viral factor (Cereseto et al. in EMBO J 24:3070-3081, 2005). This modification enhances IN catalytic activity, as demonstrated by in vitro assays. Consistently, mutations introduced in the targeted lysines greatly decrease the efficiency of HIV-1 integration. Acetylation was proven to regulate protein functions by modulating protein-protein interactions. HIV-1 to efficiently complete its replication steps, including the integration reaction, requires interacting with numerous cellular factors. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether acetylation might modulate the interaction between IN and the cellular factors. To this aim we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening that differs from the screenings so far performed (Rain et al. in Methods 47:291-297, 2009; Studamire and Goff in Retrovirology 5:48, 2008) for using as bait IN constitutively acetylated. From this analysis we have identified thirteen cellular factors involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling, nuclear transport, RNA binding, protein synthesis regulation and microtubule organization. To validate these interactions, binding assays were performed showing that acetylation increases the affinity of IN with specific factors. Nevertheless, few two-hybrid hits bind with the same affinity the acetylated and the unmodified IN. These results further underlie the relevance of IN post-translational modification by acetylation in HIV-1 replication cycle.

  8. Nitrate reductase assay using sodium nitrate for rapid detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Maíra Bidart; Groll, Andrea Von; Fissette, Krista; Palomino, Juan Carlos; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Martin, Anandi

    2012-01-01

    We validated the nitrate reductase assay (NRA) for the detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using sodium nitrate (NaNO3) in replacement of potassium nitrate (KNO3) as nitrate source. NaNO3 is cheaper than KNO3 and has no restriction on use which facilitates the implementation of NRA to detect MDR-TB. PMID:24031916

  9. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  10. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  11. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  12. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  13. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  14. Nitration of Naphthol: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowery, Dwight F.

    1982-01-01

    Products of nitrations, upon distillation or steam distillation, may produce dermatitis in some students. A procedure for nitration of beta-naphthol producing a relatively non-volatile product not purified by steam distillation is described. Nitration of alpha-naphthol by the same procedure yields Martius Yellow dye which dyes wool yellow or…

  15. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification beds are being promoted to reduce nitrate concentrations in agricultural drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution in surface water. In this system, water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transfor...

  16. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    DOEpatents

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-12-23

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

  17. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  18. Post-translational Regulation of Nitrate Reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is the first step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, but can also reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that is thought to mediate a wide array of of developmental and physiological processes...

  19. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of...

  20. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  1. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  2. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  3. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with...

  4. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  5. Clinical evaluation of youth with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS): recommendations from the 2013 PANS Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kiki; Frankovich, Jennifer; Cooperstock, Michael; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Latimer, M Elizabeth; Murphy, Tanya K; Pasternack, Mark; Thienemann, Margo; Williams, Kyle; Walter, Jolan; Swedo, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    On May 23 and 24, 2013, the First PANS Consensus Conference was convened at Stanford University, calling together a geographically diverse group of clinicians and researchers from complementary fields of pediatrics: General and developmental pediatrics, infectious diseases, immunology, rheumatology, neurology, and child psychiatry. Participants were academicians with clinical and research interests in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcus (PANDAS) in youth, and the larger category of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). The goals were to clarify the diagnostic boundaries of PANS, to develop systematic strategies for evaluation of suspected PANS cases, and to set forth the most urgently needed studies in this field. Presented here is a consensus statement proposing recommendations for the diagnostic evaluation of youth presenting with PANS. PMID:25325534

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Recommendations from the 2013 PANS Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Frankovich, Jennifer; Cooperstock, Michael; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Latimer, M. Elizabeth; Murphy, Tanya K.; Pasternack, Mark; Thienemann, Margo; Williams, Kyle; Walter, Jolan; Swedo, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract On May 23 and 24, 2013, the First PANS Consensus Conference was convened at Stanford University, calling together a geographically diverse group of clinicians and researchers from complementary fields of pediatrics: General and developmental pediatrics, infectious diseases, immunology, rheumatology, neurology, and child psychiatry. Participants were academicians with clinical and research interests in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcus (PANDAS) in youth, and the larger category of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). The goals were to clarify the diagnostic boundaries of PANS, to develop systematic strategies for evaluation of suspected PANS cases, and to set forth the most urgently needed studies in this field. Presented here is a consensus statement proposing recommendations for the diagnostic evaluation of youth presenting with PANS. PMID:25325534

  7. Protective effect of salivary nitrate and microbial nitrate reductase activity against caries.

    PubMed

    Doel, J J; Hector, M P; Amirtham, C V; Al-Anzan, L A; Benjamin, N; Allaker, R P

    2004-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that a combination of high salivary nitrate and high nitrate-reducing capacity are protective against dental caries, 209 children attending the Dental Institute, Barts and The London NHS Trust were examined. Salivary nitrate and nitrite levels, counts of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., and caries experience were recorded. Compared with control subjects, a significant reduction in caries experience was found in patients with high salivary nitrate and high nitrate-reducing ability. Production of nitrite from salivary nitrate by commensal nitrate-reducing bacteria may limit the growth of cariogenic bacteria as a result of the production of antimicrobial oxides of nitrogen, including nitric oxide. PMID:15458501

  8. Bipedality in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus): testing hypotheses on the evolution of bipedalism.

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; McGrew, W C

    2002-06-01

    A host of ecological, anatomical, and physiological selective pressures are hypothesized to have played a role in the evolution of hominid bipedalism. A referential model, based on the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), was used to test through experimental manipulation four hypotheses on the evolution of hominid bipedalism. The introduction of food piles (Carry hypothesis) increased locomotor bipedality in both species. Neither the introduction of branches (Display hypothesis) nor the construction of visual barriers (Vigilance hypothesis) altered bipedality in either species. Introduction of raised foraging structures (Forage hypothesis) increased postural bipedality in chimpanzees. These experimental manipulations provided support for carrying of portable objects and foraging on elevated food-items as plausible mechanisms that shaped bipedalism in hominids.

  9. Atmospheric measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate and other organic nitrates at high latitudes - Possible sources and sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; O'Hara, D.; Herlth, D.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Gregory, G. L.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D. R.; Crutzen, P. J.; Kanakidou, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species during the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) are described, their north-south and east-west gradients in the free troposphere are characterized, and the sources and sinks of PAN and NO(y) are assessed. Large concentrations of PAN and NO(y) are present in the Arctic/sub-Arctic troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere during the summer. Mixing ratios of PAN and a variety of other molecules are more abundant in the free troposphere compared to the boundary layer. Coincident PAN and O3 atmospheric structures suggest that phenomena that define PAN also define the corresponding O3 behavior. Model calculations, correlations between NO(y) and anthropogenic tracers, and the compositions of NO(y) itself suggest that the Arctic/sub-Arctic reactive nitrogen measured during ABLE 3A is predominantly of anthropogenic origin with a minor component from the stratosphere.

  10. The Pan-STARRS Moving Object Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, L., Jr.; Kubica, J.; Jedicke, R.

    2007-10-01

    The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) team of the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS telescope is developing software to automatically discover and identify >90% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 300 m, and >80% of other classes of asteroids and comets. MOPS relies on new, efficient, multiple-hypothesis KD-tree and variable-tree search algorithms to search the ˜10^{12} detection pairs that are expected per night. Candidate intra- and inter-night associations of detections are evaluated for consistency with a real solar system object, and orbits are computed. We describe the basic operation of the MOPS pipeline, identify pipeline processing steps that are candidates for multiple-hypothesis spatial searches, describe our implementation of those algorithms, and provide preliminary results for MOPS.

  11. Heterochrony and geometric morphometrics: a comparison of cranial growth in Pan paniscus versus Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Mitteroecker, Philipp; Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L

    2005-01-01

    Heterochrony, the classic framework in which to study ontogeny and phylogeny, in essence relies on a univariate concept of shape. Though principal component (PC) plots of multivariate shape data seem to resemble classical bivariate allometric plots, the language of heterochrony cannot be translated directly into general multivariate methodology. We simulate idealized multivariate ontogenetic trajectories and explore their appearance in PC plots of shape space and size-shape space. Only if the trajectories of two related species lie along exactly the same path in shape space can the classic terminology of heterochrony apply and pure dissociation of size change against shape change be detected. Regional heterochrony--the variation of apparent heterochrony by region--implies a dissociation of local growth fields and cannot be identified in an overall PC analysis. We exemplify a geometric morphometric approach to these issues using adult and subadult crania of 48 Pan paniscus and 47 Pan troglodytes specimens. On each specimen, we digitized 47 landmarks and 144 semilandmarks on facial curves and the external neurocranial surface. We reject the hypothesis of global heterochrony in the cranium of Pan as well as regional heterochrony for the lower face, the upper face, and the neurocranium.

  12. Brief communication: dental development timing in captive Pan paniscus with comparisons to Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Bolter, Debra R; Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2011-08-01

    Dental eruption provides markers of growth and is one component of a chimpanzee's physical development. Dental markers help characterize transitions between life stages, e.g., infant to juvenile. Most of what we know about the timing of development in chimpanzees derives from Pan troglodytes. Much less is known about the sister species, Pan paniscus, with few in captivity and a restricted wild range in central Africa. Here we report on the dental eruption timing for female captive P. paniscus (n = 5) from the Milwaukee and San Diego Zoos whose ages are known and range from birth to age 8.54 years. Some observations were recorded in zoo records on the gingiva during life; others were made at death on the gingiva and on the skeleton. At birth, P. paniscus infants have no teeth emerged. By 0.83 years, all but the deciduous second molars (dm(2) ) (when both upper and lower dentitions are referenced collectively, no super or subscript notation is used) and canines (dc) are emerged. For permanent teeth, results show a sequence polymorphism for an early P4 eruption, not previously described for P. paniscus. Comparisons between P. paniscus and P. troglodytes document absolute timing differences of emergence in upper second incisors (I(2) ), and upper and lower canines (C) and third molars (M3). The genus Pan encompasses variability in growth not previously recognized. These preliminary data suggest that physical growth in captive P. paniscus may be accelerated, a general pattern found in captive P. troglodytes.

  13. Public Release of Pan-STARRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Consortium, panstarrs

    2015-08-01

    Pan-STARRS 1 is a 1.8 meter survey telescope, located on Haleakala, Hawaii, with a 1.4 Gigapixel camera, a 7 square degree field of view, and 5 filters (g,r,i,z,y). The public release of data, which is available to everyone, consists of 4 years of data taken between May 2010 and April 2014. Two of the surveys available in the public release are the 3pi survey and the Medium Deep (MD) survey. The 3pi survey has roughly 60 epochs (12 per filter) covering 3/4 of the sky and everything north of -30 degrees declination. The MD survey consists of 10 fields, observed in a couple of filters each night, usually 8 exposures per filter per field, for about 4000 epochs per MD field. The available data product are accessed through the “Postage Stamp Server” and through the Published Science Products Subsystem (PSPS), both of these are available through the Pan-STARRS Science Interface (PSI). The Postage Stamp Server provides images and catalogs for different stages of processing on single exposures, stack images, difference images, and forced photometry. The PSPS is a SQLServer database that can be queried via script or web interface, with a database for each MD field and a large database for the 3pi survey. This database has relative photometry and astrometry and object associations, making it easy to do searches across the entire sky as well as tools to generate lightcurves of individual objects as a function of time.

  14. Aspirin inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in HCT 116 cells through acetylation: Identification of aspirin-acetylated sites

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Alfonso, Lloyd F.; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, and generates ribose sugars, which are required for nucleic acid synthesis, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is important for neutralization of oxidative stress. The expression of G6PD is elevated in several types of tumor, including colon, breast and lung cancer, and has been implicated in cancer cell growth. Our previous study demonstrated that exposure of HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells to aspirin caused acetylation of G6PD, and this was associated with a decrease in its enzyme activity. In the present study, this observation was expanded to HT-29 colorectal cancer cells, in order to compare aspirin-mediated acetylation of G6PD and its activity between HCT 116 and HT-29 cells. In addition, the present study aimed to determine the acetylation targets of aspirin on recombinant G6PD to provide an insight into the mechanisms of inhibition. The results demonstrated that the extent of G6PD acetylation was significantly higher in HCT 116 cells compared with in HT-29 cells; accordingly, a greater reduction in G6PD enzyme activity was observed in the HCT 116 cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of aspirin-acetylated G6PD (isoform a) revealed that aspirin acetylated a total of 14 lysine residues, which were dispersed throughout the length of the G6PD protein. One of the important amino acid targets of aspirin included lysine 235 (K235, in isoform a) and this corresponds to K205 in isoform b, which has previously been identified as being important for catalysis. Acetylation of G6PD at several sites, including K235 (K205 in isoform b), may mediate inhibition of G6PD activity, which may contribute to the ability of aspirin to exert anticancer effects through decreased synthesis of ribose sugars and NADPH. PMID:27356773

  15. Relationship of histone acetylation to DNA topology and transcription.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, W A; Luchnik, A N

    1991-12-01

    An autonomously replicating plasmid constructed from bovine papiloma virus (BPV) and pBR322 was stably maintained as a nuclear episome in a mouse cell culture. Addition to a cell culture of sodium butyrate (5 mM) induced an increase in plasmid DNA supercoiling of 3-5 turns, an increase in acetylation of cellular histones, and a decrease in plasmid transcription by 2- to 4-fold. After withdrawal of butyrate, DNA supercoiling began to fluctuate in a wave-like manner with an amplitude of up to 3 turns and a period of 3-4 h. These waves gradually faded by 24 h. The transcription of the plasmid and acetylation of cellular histones also oscillated with the same period. The wave-like alterations were not correlated with the cell cycle, for there was no resumption of DNA replication after butyrate withdrawal for at least 24 h. In vitro chemical acetylation of histones with acetyl adenylate also led to an increase in the superhelical density of plasmid DNA. The parallel changes in transcription, histone acetylation, and DNA supercoiling in vivo may indicate a functional innerconnection. Also, the observed in vivo variation in the level of DNA supercoiling directly indicates the possibility of its natural regulation in eukaryotic cells.

  16. Continuous flow nitration in miniaturized devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the state of the art in the field of continuous flow nitration with miniaturized devices. Although nitration has been one of the oldest and most important unit reactions, the advent of miniaturized devices has paved the way for new opportunities to reconsider the conventional approach for exothermic and selectivity sensitive nitration reactions. Four different approaches to flow nitration with microreactors are presented herein and discussed in view of their advantages, limitations and applicability of the information towards scale-up. Selected recent patents that disclose scale-up methodologies for continuous flow nitration are also briefly reviewed. PMID:24605161

  17. Modeling monthly pan evaporations using fuzzy genetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kişi, Özgür; Tombul, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    SummaryThis study investigates the ability of fuzzy genetic (FG) approach in estimation of monthly pan evaporations. Various monthly climatic data, that are, solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed from two stations, Antalya and Mersin, in Mediterranean Region of Turkey, were used as inputs to the FG technique so as to estimate monthly pan evaporations. In the first part of the study, FG models were compared with neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. Comparison of the models revealed that the FG models generally performed better than the ANFIS, ANN and SS models. In the second part of the study, models were compared to each other in two different applications. In the first application the input data of Antalya Station were used as inputs to the models to estimate pan evaporation data of Mersin Station. The pan evaporation data of Mersin Station were estimated using the input data of Antalya and Mersin stations in the second application. Comparison results indicated that the FG models performed better than the ANFIS and ANN models. Comparison of the accuracy of the applied models in estimating total pan evaporations showed that the FG model provided the closest estimate. It was concluded that monthly pan evaporations could be successfully estimated by the FG approach.

  18. Pan1 is an intrinsically disordered protein with homotypic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, B. D.; Toptygin, D.; Wendland, B.

    2013-01-01

    The yeast scaffold protein Pan1 contains two EH domains at its N-terminus, a predicted coiled-coil central region, and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. Pan1 is also predicted to contain regions of intrinsic disorder, characteristic of proteins that have many binding partners. In vitro biochemical data suggest that Pan1 exists as a dimer, and we have identified amino acids 705–848 as critical for this homotypic interaction. Tryptophan fluorescence was used to further characterize Pan1 conformational states. Pan1 contains four endogenous tryptophans, each in a distinct region of the protein: Trp312 and Trp642 are each in an EH domain, Trp957 is in the central region, and Trp1280 is a critical residue in the Arp2/3 activation domain. To examine the local environment of each of these tryptophans, three of the four tryptophans were mutagenized to phenylalanine to create four proteins, each with only one tryptophan residue. When quenched with acrylamide, these single tryptophan mutants appeared to undergo collisional quenching exclusively and were moderately accessible to the acrylamide molecule. Quenching with iodide or cesium, however, revealed different Stern-Volmer constants due to unique electrostatic environments of the tryptophan residues. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy data confirmed structural and disorder predictions of Pan1. Further experimentation to fully develop a model of Pan1 conformational dynamics will assist in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of endocytosis. PMID:23801378

  19. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  20. Deconstructing nitrate isotope dynamics in aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, J.

    2012-12-01

    The natural abundance N and O stable isotope ratios of nitrate provide an invaluable tool to differentiate N sources to the environment, track their dispersal, and monitor their attenuation by biological transformations. The interpretation of patterns in isotope abundances relies on knowledge of the isotope ratios of the source end-members, as well as on constraints on the isotope discrimination imposed on nitrate by respective biological processes. Emergent observations from mono-culture experiments of denitrifying bacteria reveal nitrate fractionation trends that appear at odds with trends ascribed to denitrification in soils and aquifers. This discrepancy raises the possibility that additional biological N transformations may be acting in tandem with denitrification. Here, the N and O isotope enrichments associated with nitrate removal by denitrification in aquifers are posited to bear evidence of coincident biological nitrate production - from nitrification and/or from anammox. Simulations are presented from a simple time-dependent one-box model of a groundwater mass ageing that is subject to net nitrate loss by denitrification with coincident nitrate production by nitrification or anammox. Within boundary conditions characteristic of freshwater aquifers, the apparent slope of the parallel enrichments in nitrate N and O isotopes associated with net N loss to denitrification can vary in proportion to the nitrate added simultaneous by oxidative processes. Pertinent observations from nitrate plumes in suboxic to anoxic aquifers are examined to validate this premise. In this perspective, nitrate isotope distributions suggest that we may be missing important N fluxes inherent to most aquifers.

  1. Nitrate Utilization by the Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Juan L.; Llama, Maria J.; Cadenas, Eduardo

    1978-01-01

    Nitrate uptake has been studied in nitrogen-deficient cells of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. When these cells are incubated in the presence of nitrate, this ion is quickly taken up from the medium, and nitrite is excreted by the cells. Nitrite is excreted following classical saturation kinetics, its rate being independent of nitrate concentration in the incubation medium for nitrate concentration values higher than 3 micromolar. Nitrate uptake shows mixed-transfer kinetics, which can be attributed to the simultaneous contributions of mediated and diffusion transfer. Cycloheximide and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate inhibit the carrier-mediated contribution to nitrate uptake, without affecting the diffusion component. When cells are preincubated with nitrate, the net nitrogen uptake is increased. PMID:16660652

  2. Pollution of drinking water with nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Cabel, B.; Kozicki, R.; Lahl, U.; Podbielshi, A.; Stachel, B.; Struss, S.

    1982-01-01

    The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg/l to 50 mg/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg/l, and for babies 10 mg/l nitrate should not be exceeded. At present, nitrate cannot be removed from raw water at an acceptable cost. The problem of high nitrate content is mainly one of drinking water generation from ground water. Several analyses indicate rising concentrations of nitrate in ground water in different regions of West Germany, especially in the last few years. The following sources of nitrate-contamination of ground water aquifers in West are discussed: natural sources; over-manuring of agricultural areas with natural organic fertilizers; over-manuring of agricultural areas with synthetic fertilizers.

  3. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  4. Photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1993-10-20

    The photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate solutions to tetravalent uranium was investigated as a means of producing uranium dioxide feed for the saltless direct oxide reduction (SDOR) process. At high uranium concentrations, reoxidation of U{sup +4} occurs rapidly. The kinetics of the nitric oxidation of tetravalent uranium depend on the concentrations of hydrogen ion, nitrate ion, nitrous acid, and tetravalent uranium in the same manner as was reported elsewhere for the nitrate oxidation of PU{sup +3}. Reaction rate data were successfully correlated with a mechanism in which nitrogen dioxide is the reactive intermediate. Addition of a nitrous acid scavenger suppresses the reoxidation reaction. An immersion reactor employing a mercury vapor lamp gave reduction times fast enough for routine production usage. Precipitation techniques for conversion of aqueous U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} to hydrous UO{sub 2} were evaluated. Prolonged dewatering times tended to make the process time consuming. Use of 3- to 4-M aqueous NaOH gave the best dewatering times observed. Reoxidation of the UO{sub 2} by water of hydration was encountered, which required the drying process to be carried out under a reducing atmosphere.

  5. Dynamic changes in histone acetylation regulate origins of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Gafken, Philip R.; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    While histone modifications have been implicated in many DNA-dependent processes, their precise role in DNA replication remains largely unknown. Here, we describe a very efficient, single-step method to specifically purify histones located around an origin of replication from S. cerevisiae. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we have obtained a comprehensive view of the histone modifications surrounding the origin of replication throughout the cell cycle. We have discovered that histone H3 and H4 acetylation is dynamically regulated around an origin of replication, at the level of multiply-acetylated histones. Furthermore, we find that this acetylation is required for efficient origin activation during S-phase. PMID:20228802

  6. Synthetic biology for engineering acetyl coenzyme A metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The use of this cell factory for cost-efficient production of novel fuels and chemicals requires high yields and low by-product production. Many industrially interesting chemicals are biosynthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which serves as a central precursor metabolite in yeast. To ensure high yields in production of these chemicals, it is necessary to engineer the central carbon metabolism so that ethanol production is minimized (or eliminated) and acetyl-CoA can be formed from glucose in high yield. Here the perspective of generating yeast platform strains that have such properties is discussed in the context of a major breakthrough with expression of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol. PMID:25370498

  7. An acetylation rheostat for the control of muscle energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Keir; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the role of acetylation has gained ground as an essential modulator of intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Imbalance in energy homeostasis or chronic cellular stress, due to diet, aging or disease, translate into alterations in the acetylation levels of key proteins which governs bioenergetics, cellular substrate use and/or changes in mitochondrial content and function. For example, cellular stress induced by exercise or caloric restriction can alter the coordinated activity of acetyltransferases and deacetylases to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and function in order to adapt to low energetic levels. The natural duality of these enzymes, as metabolic sensors and effector proteins, have helped biologists understand how the body can integrate seemingly distinct signaling pathways to control mitochondrial biogenesis, insulin sensitivity, glucose transport, reactive oxygen species handling, angiogenesis and muscle satellite cell proliferation/differentiation. Our review will summarize the recent developments related to acetylation dependent responses following metabolic stress in skeletal muscle. PMID:23999889

  8. An acetylation rheostat for the control of muscle energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Keir; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the role of acetylation has gained ground as an essential modulator of intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Imbalance in energy homeostasis or chronic cellular stress, due to diet, aging, or disease, translate into alterations in the acetylation levels of key proteins which govern bioenergetics, cellular substrate use, and/or changes in mitochondrial content and function. For example, cellular stress induced by exercise or caloric restriction can alter the coordinated activity of acetyltransferases and deacetylases to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and function in order to adapt to low energetic levels. The natural duality of these enzymes, as metabolic sensors and effector proteins, has helped biologists to understand how the body can integrate seemingly distinct signaling pathways to control mitochondrial biogenesis, insulin sensitivity, glucose transport, reactive oxygen species handling, angiogenesis, and muscle satellite cell proliferation/differentiation. Our review will summarize the recent developments related to acetylation-dependent responses following metabolic stress in skeletal muscle. PMID:23999889

  9. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  10. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  11. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  12. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  13. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  14. Synthesis of polyrotaxanes from acetyl-β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, I. S.; Nikolić, L.; Nikolić, V.; Ilić, D.; Budinski-Simendić, J.

    2011-12-01

    Polyrotaxanes are intermediary products in the synthesis of topological gels. They are created by inclusion complex formation of hydrophobic linear macromolecules with cyclodextrins or their derivatives. Then, pairs of cyclodextrin molecules with covalently linkage were practically forming the nodes of the semi-flexible polymer network. Such gels are called topological gels and they can absorb huge quantities of water due to the net flexibility allowing the poly(ethylene oxide) chains to slide through the cyclodextrin cavities, without being pulled out altogether. For polyrotaxane formation poly(ethylene oxide) was used like linear macromolecules. There are hydroxyl groups at poly(ethylene oxide) chains, whereby the linking of the voluminous molecules should be made. To avoid the reaction of cyclodextrin OH groups with stoppers, they should be protected by, e.g., acetylation. In this work, the acetylation of the OH groups of β-cyclodextrin was performed by acetic acid anhydride with iodine as the catalyst. The acetylation reaction was assessed by the FTIR and HPLC method. By the HPLC analysis was found that the acetylation was completed in 20 minutes. Inserting of poly(ethylene oxide) with 4000 g/mol molecule mass into acetyl-β-cyclodextrin with 2:1 poly(ethylene oxide) monomer unit to acetyl-β-cyclodextrin ratio was also monitored by FTIR, and it was found that the process was completed in 12 h at the temperature of 10°C. If the process is performed at temperatures above 10°C, or for periods longer than 12 hours, the process of uncontrolled hydrolysis of acetate groups was initiated.

  15. Complex N-Acetylation of TriethylenetetramineS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Cerrada-Gimenez, Marc; Weisell, Janne; Hyvönen, Mervi T.; Hee Park, Myung; Alhonen, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Jouko

    2011-01-01

    Triethylenetetramine (TETA) is an efficient copper chelator that has versatile clinical potential. We have recently shown that spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT1), the key polyamine catabolic enzyme, acetylates TETA in vitro. Here, we studied the metabolism of TETA in three different mouse lines: syngenic, SSAT1-overexpressing, and SSAT1-deficient (SSAT1-KO) mice. The mice were sacrificed at 1, 2, or 4 h after TETA injection (300 mg/kg i.p.). We found only N1-acetyltriethylenetetramine (N1AcTETA) and/or TETA in the liver, kidney, and plasma samples. As expected, SSAT1-overexpressing mice acetylated TETA at an accelerated rate compared with syngenic and SSAT1-KO mice. It is noteworthy that SSAT1-KO mice metabolized TETA as syngenic mice did, probably by thialysine acetyltransferase, which had a Km value of 2.5 ± 0.3 mM and a kcat value of 1.3 s−1 for TETA when tested in vitro with the human recombinant enzyme. Thus, the present results suggest that there are at least two N-acetylases potentially metabolizing TETA. However, their physiological significance for TETA acetylation requires further studies. Furthermore, we detected chemical intramolecular N-acetyl migration from the N1 to N3 position of N1AcTETA and N1,N8-diacetyltriethylenetetramine in an acidified high-performance liquid chromatography sample matrix. The complex metabolism of TETA together with the intramolecular N-acetyl migration may explain the huge individual variations in the acetylation rate of TETA reported earlier. PMID:21878558

  16. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulot, F.; Ginoux, P.; Cooke, W. F.; Donner, L. J.; Fan, S.; Lin, M.-Y.; Mao, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model (AM3). Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 %) or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %). Our best estimate for fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm in 2010 is 0.006 (0.005-0.008). In wintertime, nitrate aerosols are simulated to account for over 30 % of the aerosol optical depth over western Europe and North America. Simulated nitrate optical depth increases by less than 30 % (0.0061-0.010) in response to projected changes in anthropogenic emissions from 2010 to 2050 (e.g., -40 % for SO2 and +38 % for ammonia). This increase is primarily driven by greater concentrations of nitrate in the free troposphere, while surface nitrate concentrations decrease in the midlatitudes following lower concentrations of nitric acid. With the projected increase of ammonia emissions, we show that better constraints on the vertical distribution of ammonia (e.g., convective transport and biomass burning injection) and on the sources and sinks of nitric acid (e.g., heterogeneous reaction on dust) are needed to improve estimates of future nitrate optical depth.

  17. Sirtuin and pan-class I/II deacetylase (DAC) inhibition is synergistic in preclinical models and clinical studies of lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Amengual, Jennifer E; Clark-Garvey, Sean; Kalac, Matko; Scotto, Luigi; Marchi, Enrica; Neylon, Ellen; Johannet, Paul; Wei, Ying; Zain, Jasmine; O'Connor, Owen A

    2013-09-19

    Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma has led to paradigm-changing treatment opportunities. One example involves tailoring specific agents based on the cell of origin in aggressive lymphomas. Germinal center (GC)-derived diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is known to be driven by an addiction to Bcl6, whereas the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype is driven by nuclear factor κB. In the GC subtype, there is a critical inverse relationship between Bcl6 and p53, the functional status of which is linked to each transcription factor's degree of acetylation. Deacetylation of Bcl6 is required for its transcriptional repressor effects allowing for the oncogene to drive lymphomagenesis. Conversely, acetylation of p53 is activating when class III deacetylases (DACs), or sirtuins, are inhibited by niacinamide. Treatment of DLBCL cell lines with pan-DAC inhibitors in combination with niacinamide produces synergistic cytotoxicity in GC over ABC subtypes. This correlated with acetylation of both Bcl6 and p53. This combination also produced remissions in a spontaneous aggressive B-cell lymphoma mouse model expressing Bcl6. In a phase 1 proof-of-principle clinical trial, 24% of patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma attained a response to vorinostat and niacinamide, and 57% experienced disease stabilization. We report herein on the preclinical and clinical activity of this targeted strategy in aggressive lymphomas. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00691210.

  18. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. 58.217 Section 58.217....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type...

  19. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. 58.217 Section 58.217....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type...

  20. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. 58.217 Section 58.217....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type...

  1. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. 58.217 Section 58.217....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type...

  2. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. 58.217 Section 58.217....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type...

  3. Effect of nitrate on microbial perchlorate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decade perchlorate has been recognized as an important emerging water contaminant that poses a significant public health threat. Because of its chemical stability, low ionic charge density, and significant water solubility microbial remediation has been identified as the most feasible method for its in situ attenuation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB) capable of the respiratory reduction of perchlorate into innocuous chloride are ubiquitous in soil and sedimentary environments. As part of their metabolism these organisms reduce perchlorate to chlorite which is subsequently dismutated into chloride and molecular oxygen. These initial steps are mediated by the perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase enzymes respectively. Previously we found that the activity of these organisms is dependent on the presence of molybdenum and is inhibited by the presence of oxygen and to different extents nitrate. However, to date, there is little understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of perchlorate reduction by oxygen and nitrate. As a continuation of our studies into the factors that control DPRB activity we investigated these regulatory mechanisms in more detail as a model organism, Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB, transitions from aerobic metabolism through nitrate reduction to perchlorate reduction. In series of growth transition studies where both nitrate and perchlorate were present, preference for nitrate to perchlorate was observed regardless of the nitrate to perchlorate ratio. Even when the organism was pre-grown anaerobically in perchlorate, nitrate was reduced prior to perchlorate. Using non-growth washed cell suspension, perchlorate- grown D. aromatica was capable of reducing both perchlorate and nitrate concomitantly suggesting the preferentially utilization of nitrate was not a result of enzyme functionality. To elucidate the mechanism for preferential utilization of

  4. Acetylated histone H4 is reduced in human gastric adenomas and carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ono, S; Oue, N; Kuniyasu, H; Suzuki, T; Ito, R; Matsusaki, K; Ishikawa, T; Tahara, E; Yasui, W

    2002-09-01

    Acetylation of core histones is closely linked to transcriptional activation of various genes. The acetylation levels of nucleosomal histones can be modified through a balance of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. To elucidate the role of histone acetylation in human gastric carcinogenesis, we studied the status of histone H4 acetylation in gastric carcinoma tissues and corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa. The status of histone acetylation was assessed by examining the expression of acetylated histone H4 through Western blotting and immunohistochemistry using an anti-acetylated histone H4 antibody. The levels of acetylated histone H4 expression were obviously reduced in 72% (13/18) of gastric carcinomas in comparison with non-neoplastic mucosa by Western blotting. In immunohistochemistry, acetylated histone H4 was clearly detected in the nuclei of both non-neoplastic epithelial and stromal cells, whereas the levels of acetylated histone H4 were heterogeneous or reduced in 66% (38/57) of gastric carcinomas and 46% (6/13) of gastric adenomas. Reduced expression of acetylated histone H4 was also observed in some areas of intestinal metaplasia adjacent to carcinomas. Reduction in the expression of acetylated histone H4 was significantly correlated with advanced stage, depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis. These results suggest that low levels of histone acetylation may be closely associated with the development and progression of gastric carcinomas, possibly through alteration of gene expression.

  5. Nitrate deposition and impact on Adirondack streams

    SciTech Connect

    Simonin, H.A.; Kretser, W.A.

    1997-12-31

    Acidic deposition has a great impact on water chemistry and fish populations in the Adirondack region. Although the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have resulted in some reductions of sulfate deposition, nitrate deposition has not yet been well controlled, and continues to impact aquatic resources. As part of the USEPA funded Episodic Response Project four Adirondack headwater streams were intensively monitored over an 18 month period. Atmospheric deposition was also monitored at a centrally located station. The quantity of nitrate being deposited on the study watersheds was calculated based on monthly net deposition data which ranged from 0.6 kg/ha/month to 3.6 kg/ha/month. These data were then compared to the monthly export of nitrate from the watershed in these streams. Nitrate concentrations were highest in the streamwater during the spring snowmelt period prior to the time when forest vegetation actively utilizes nitrate. On an annual basis the amount of nitrate which left the watershed via stream water exceeded the amount which fell as nitrate deposition. These data are important in documenting the impact of nitrate in the acidification of Adirondack streams during the spring, which coincides with brook trout hatching. Control programs for nitrous oxide emissions are presently aimed at reducing ozone levels during the May-September period. These emissions control programs need to be expanded to also reduce nitrate deposition in the sensitive Adirondack region during the winter and spring periods when nitrate deposition has its greatest impact on aquatic resources.

  6. Groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk assessment of porous aquifers to nitrate: Modifying the DRASTIC method using quantitative parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakis, Nerantzis; Voudouris, Konstantinos S.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the DRASTIC method was modified to estimate vulnerability and pollution risk of porous aquifers to nitrate. The qualitative parameters of aquifer type, soil and impact of the vadose zone were replaced with the quantitative parameters of aquifer thickness, nitrogen losses from soil and hydraulic resistance. Nitrogen losses from soil were estimated based on climatic, soil and topographic data using indices produced by the GLEAMS model. Additionally, the class range of each parameter and the final index were modified using nitrate concentration correlation with four grading methods (natural breaks, equal interval, quantile and geometrical intervals). For this reason, seventy-seven (77) groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for nitrate. Land uses were added to estimate the pollution risk to nitrates. The two new methods, DRASTIC-PA and DRASTIC-PAN, were then applied in the porous aquifer of Anthemountas basin together with the initial versions of DRASTIC and the LOSN-PN index. The two modified methods displayed the highest correlations with nitrate concentrations. The two new methods provided higher discretisation of the vulnerability and pollution risk, whereas the high variance of the (ANOVA) F statistic confirmed the increase of the average concentrations of NO3-, increasing from low to high between the vulnerability and pollution risk classes. The importance of the parameters of hydraulic resistance of the vadose zone, aquifer thickness and land use was confirmed by single-parameter sensitivity analysis.

  7. 12. Level 6 gringing pans, pump above dorr thickener. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Level 6 gringing pans, pump above dorr thickener. View to west. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  8. PAN and the NOx budget of the troposphere. [Peroxyacylnitrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.; Augustsson, T. R.; Levine, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation has the objective to examine the interaction of NOx with the nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) photochemistry. Attention is given to the influence of temperature, transport, and hydrocarbon radical reactions on the profiles of peroxyacylnitrates (PANs) and NO2. A lumped NMHC chemical reaction scheme was used in a one-dimensional photochemical model of the global troposphere. Model calculations were performed with various temperature profiles and the corresponding solar zenith angles to examine seasonal variations in the profiles of PAN and NOx. A study of the effects of changing temperature and solar zenith angle on the profiles of PAN and NOx showed that the amount of NO2 tied up in PAN increased as temperature decreased.

  9. 15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. Afro-Americans and Early Pan-Africanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contee, Clarence G.

    1970-01-01

    History of the Pan-African movement, the roles of W.E.B.Du Bois and Marcus Garvey in the movement activities, and the shift to African based leadership of the movement in the 1940's are discussed. (KG)

  11. Pan trapping soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using attractants.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Nicholas S; Zhu, Junwei; Coats, Joel R

    2012-06-01

    Since its introduction into the United States in the past 10 yr, soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been a damaging pest to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. During 2008 and 2009, fields in central and north central Iowa experienced pockets of high soybean aphid populations. Electroantennograms have shown that soybean aphid alatae are capable of detecting host plant volatiles and sex pheromones. Here, we evaluated baited pan traps as a potential soybean aphid attractant. Yellow pan traps were placed in soybean fields after planting along with lures that contained plant volatiles and sex pheromones in 2008 or sex pheromones only in 2009. Pan trap contents were collected weekly, and plant counts also were conducted. Aphids were identified, and soybean aphids were counted to determine whether one chemical lure was more attractive to spring migrants than other lures. In both years, soybean aphids collected in pan traps with lures were not significantly different from the other products tested. PMID:22812127

  12. Nitrates

    MedlinePlus

    ... or interactions with other medicines and vitamin or herbal supplements. This information should not be used as medical ... your doctor about every medicine and vitamin or herbal supplement that you are taking, so he or she ...

  13. Comparing infant and juvenile behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    De Lathouwers, Mieke; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-10-01

    The dichotomy between the two Pan species, the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) has been strongly emphasized until very recently. Given that most studies were primarily based on adult individuals, we shifted the "continuity versus discontinuity" discussion to the infant and juvenile stage. Our aim was to test quantitatively, some conflicting statements made in literature considering species differences between immature bonobos and chimpanzees. On one hand it is suggested that infant bonobos show retardation in motor and social development when compared with chimpanzees. Additionally it is expected that the weaning process is more traumatic to chimpanzee than bonobo infants. But on the other hand the development of behaviors is expected to be very similar in both species. We observed eight mother-infant pairs of each species in several European zoos. Our preliminary research partially confirms that immature chimpanzees seem spatially more independent, spending more time at a larger distance from their mother than immature bonobos. However, the other data do not seem to support the hypothesis that bonobo infants show retardation of motor or social development. The development of solitary play, environmental exploration, social play, non-copulatory mounts and aggressive interactions do not differ between the species. Bonobo infants in general even groom other group members more than chimpanzee infants. We also found that older bonobo infants have more nipple contact than same aged chimpanzees and that the weaning process seems to end later for bonobos than for immature chimpanzee. Additionally, although immature bonobos show in general more signs of distress, our data suggest that the weaning period itself is more traumatic for chimpanzees.

  14. Effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate on polar lipids and fatty acids in leaves of morning glory and kidney bean. [Pharbitis nil; Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Nouchi, Isamu; Toyama, Susumu Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo )

    1988-07-01

    To compare the effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on leaf lipids, fatty acids and malondialdehyde (MDA), morning glory (Pharbitis nil Choisy cv Scarlet O'Hara) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Gintebo) plants were exposed to either ozone (0.15 microliter per liter for 8 hours) or PAN (0.10 microliter per liter for up to 8 hours). Ozone increased phospholipids in morning glory and decreased in kidney bean at the initial stage (2-4 hours) of exposure, while it scarcely changed glycolipids, the unsaturated fatty acids, and MDA in both plants. A large reduction of glycolipids occurred 1 day after ozone exposure in both plants. PAN caused marked drops in phospholipids and glycolipids in kidney bean at relatively late stage (6-8 hours) of exposure, while it increased phosphatidic acid and decreased the unsaturated fatty acids, an increase which was accompanied by a large increase in MDA. These results suggest that ozone may not directly oxidize unsaturated fatty acids at the initial stage of exposure, but may alter polar lipid metabolism, particularly phospholipids. On the other hand, PAN may abruptly and considerably degrade phospholipids and glycolipids by peroxidation or hydrolysis at the late stage of exposure. The present study shows that ozone and PAN affect polar lipids in different manners.

  15. Area-to-point regression kriging for pan-sharpening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qunming; Shi, Wenzhong; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2016-04-01

    Pan-sharpening is a technique to combine the fine spatial resolution panchromatic (PAN) band with the coarse spatial resolution multispectral bands of the same satellite to create a fine spatial resolution multispectral image. In this paper, area-to-point regression kriging (ATPRK) is proposed for pan-sharpening. ATPRK considers the PAN band as the covariate. Moreover, ATPRK is extended with a local approach, called adaptive ATPRK (AATPRK), which fits a regression model using a local, non-stationary scheme such that the regression coefficients change across the image. The two geostatistical approaches, ATPRK and AATPRK, were compared to the 13 state-of-the-art pan-sharpening approaches summarized in Vivone et al. (2015) in experiments on three separate datasets. ATPRK and AATPRK produced more accurate pan-sharpened images than the 13 benchmark algorithms in all three experiments. Unlike the benchmark algorithms, the two geostatistical solutions precisely preserved the spectral properties of the original coarse data. Furthermore, ATPRK can be enhanced by a local scheme in AATRPK, in cases where the residuals from a global regression model are such that their spatial character varies locally.

  16. Evolutionary neural networks for monthly pan evaporation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kişi, Özgür

    2013-08-01

    Estimating pan evaporation is very important for monitoring, survey and management of water resources. This study proposes the application evolutionary neural networks (ENN) for modeling monthly pan evaporations. Solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and pan evaporation data from two stations, Antalya and Mersin, in Mediterranean Region of Turkey are used in the study. In the first part of the study, ENN models are compared with those of the fuzzy genetic (FG), neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANN) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. Comparison results indicate that the ENN models generally perform better than the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models. In the second part of the study, models are compared with each other in estimating Mersin’s pan evaporations using input data of both stations. Results reveal that the ENN models performed better than the FG, ANFIS and ANN models. It was concluded that monthly pan evaporations can be successfully estimated by the ENN method. The performance of the ENN model with full weather data as inputs presents 0.749 and 0.759 mm of mean absolute error for the Antalya and Mersin stations, respectively.

  17. BPGA- an ultra-fast pan-genome analysis pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Narendrakumar M.; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Dutta, Chitra

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in ultra-high-throughput sequencing technology and metagenomics have led to a paradigm shift in microbial genomics from few genome comparisons to large-scale pan-genome studies at different scales of phylogenetic resolution. Pan-genome studies provide a framework for estimating the genomic diversity of the dataset, determining core (conserved), accessory (dispensable) and unique (strain-specific) gene pool of a species, tracing horizontal gene-flux across strains and providing insight into species evolution. The existing pan genome software tools suffer from various limitations like limited datasets, difficult installation/requirements, inadequate functional features etc. Here we present an ultra-fast computational pipeline BPGA (Bacterial Pan Genome Analysis tool) with seven functional modules. In addition to the routine pan genome analyses, BPGA introduces a number of novel features for downstream analyses like core/pan/MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing) phylogeny, exclusive presence/absence of genes in specific strains, subset analysis, atypical G + C content analysis and KEGG & COG mapping of core, accessory and unique genes. Other notable features include minimum running prerequisites, freedom to select the gene clustering method, ultra-fast execution, user friendly command line interface and high-quality graphics outputs. The performance of BPGA has been evaluated using a dataset of complete genome sequences of 28 Streptococcus pyogenes strains. PMID:27071527

  18. A pan-African Flood Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, V.; Bisselink, B.; Pappenberger, F.; Thielen, J.

    2014-05-01

    The African Flood Forecasting System (AFFS) is a probabilistic flood forecast system for medium- to large-scale African river basins, with lead times of up to 15 days. The key components are the hydrological model LISFLOOD, the African GIS database, the meteorological ensemble predictions of the ECMWF and critical hydrological thresholds. In this paper the predictive capability is investigated in a hindcast mode, by reproducing hydrological predictions for the year 2003 where important floods were observed. Results were verified with ground measurements of 36 subcatchments as well as with reports of various flood archives. Results showed that AFFS detected around 70% of the reported flood events correctly. In particular, the system showed good performance in predicting riverine flood events of long duration (>1 week) and large affected areas (>10 000 km2) well in advance, whereas AFFS showed limitations for small-scale and short duration flood events. The case study for "Save flooding" illustrated the good performance of AFFS in forecasting timing and severity of the floods, gave an example of the clear and concise output products, and showed that the system is capable of producing flood warnings even in ungauged river basins. Hence, from a technical perspective, AFFS shows a large potential as an operational pan-African flood forecasting system, although issues related to the practical implication will still need to be investigated.

  19. Pan-STARRS-1 Medium Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System-1 (Pan-STARRS-1, PS1) has been in full science operation since Spring 2010 and concluded the observing program for the PS1 Science Consortium (PS1SC) in early 2014. The Medium Deep Survey (MDS) component of the program regularly visited 10 fields (~7 sq. deg. each) with significant multi-wavelength overlap from previous and concurrent surveys (e.g. SDSS, DEEP2, CDFS, COSMOS, GALEX) for 25% of the total time allocation. The cadence generally includes the g,r,i,z filters for a MDS field every 3 days over the 6-8 month season the field is visible, with the y filter done primarily during bright time. The nightly stacks of eight exposures typically reach depths of r,i~23.5 mag. Development work continued to improve the single exposure processing though to deep stacks during the transient event discovery and other science consortium programs over the course of the survey, the culmination of those improvements being applied in a more uniformly reprocessed dataset used for the public data release. A summary of the MDS public data release products will be presented.For details on PS1 and the Science Collaboration, visit http://ps1sc.org/

  20. Pan-STARRS-1 Medium Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Mark; PS1-IPP Team, PS1 Science Consortium

    2015-01-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System-1 (Pan-STARRS-1, PS1) has been in full operation since Spring 2010 and concluded the PS1 Science Consortium (PS1SC) observational program in early 2014. The Medium Deep Survey (MDS) component of the program, allocated 25% of the time, regularly visited 10 fields (~7 sq. deg. each) with significant multi-wavelength overlap from previous and concurrent surveys (e.g. SDSS, DEEP2, CDFS, COSMOS, GALEX). The cadence generally includes the g,r,i,z filters for a MDS field every 3 days with a nightly stack depth of r,i~23.5 mag and the y filter primarily during bright time over the 6-8 month season the field is visible. While regularly producing data for the transient event discovery and science consortium programs, development work continued to improve the single exposures though production of deep stacks for reprocessing into the final and public release. The data products, to be publicly available after the post-observing proprietary period, will be summarized.For details on PS1 and the Science Collaboration, visit http://ps1sc.org/

  1. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Doane, Cynthia J; Lee, D Rick; Sleeper, Meg M

    2006-12-01

    Although cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the captive chimpanzee population, little is known about the prevalence and etiology of heart disease in this species. We reviewed the physical exam records of 265 common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for electrocardiogram abnormalities. During the 24-mo period reviewed (August 2003 through August 2005), 34 animals were diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias consisting of ventricular arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, mixed arrhythmias, and bradycardia. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was significantly higher in male animals, chimpanzees 20 to 39 y old, and those with structural heart disease. Incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was not significantly higher in animals with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or chronic viral infections. During the retrospective period, 7 animals with cardiac arrhythmias died or were euthanized. Mortality was significantly higher in animals with ventricular arrhythmias compared with those without ventricular arrhythmias. We conclude that in the common chimpanzee, age, male gender, and structural heart disease are risk factors for developing cardiac arrhythmias and that ventricular arrhythmias are risk factors for mortality. PMID:17219782

  2. Genetic Control of Differential Acetylation in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaisaki, Pamela J.; Otto, Georg W.; McGouran, Joanna F.; Toubal, Amine; Argoud, Karène; Waller-Evans, Helen; Finlay, Clare; Caldérari, Sophie; Bihoreau, Marie-Thérèse; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Gauguier, Dominique; Mott, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications such as acetylation have significant regulatory roles in metabolic processes, but their relationship to both variation in gene expression and DNA sequence is unclear. We address this question in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat inbred strain, a model of polygenic type 2 diabetes. Expression of the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuin-3 is down-regulated in GK rats compared to normoglycemic Brown Norway (BN) rats. We show first that a promoter SNP causes down-regulation of Sirtuin-3 expression in GK rats. We then use mass-spectrometry to identify proteome-wide differential lysine acetylation of putative Sirtuin-3 protein targets in livers of GK and BN rats. These include many proteins in pathways connected to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We finally sequence GK and BN liver transcriptomes and find that mRNA expression of these targets does not differ significantly between GK and BN rats, in contrast to other components of the same pathways. We conclude that physiological differences between GK and BN rats are mediated by a combination of differential protein acetylation and gene transcription and that genetic variation can modulate acetylation independently of expression. PMID:24743600

  3. SCANDIUM TRIFLATE CATALYZED ACETYLATION OF STARCH UNDER MILD CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scandium (III) trifluoromethan sulfonate (Sc(OTf)3) was investigated as a catalyst for the acetylation of starch in order to determine the potential for preparing new types of starch esters under mild conditions. At room temperature, dry granular corn starch reacts with acetic anhydride in the pres...

  4. Mass spectrometry-based detection of protein acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Silva, Jeffrey C.; Skinner, Mary E.; Lombard, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Improved sample preparation techniques and increasingly sensitive mass spectrometry (MS) analysis have revolutionized the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). Here, we describe a general approach for immunopurification and MS-based identification of acetylated proteins in biological samples. This approach is useful characterizing changes in the acetylome in response to biological interventions (1). PMID:24014401

  5. Tubulin acetylation: responsible enzymes, biological functions and human diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules have important functions ranging from maintenance of cell morphology to subcellular transport, cellular signaling, cell migration, and formation of cell polarity. At the organismal level, microtubules are crucial for various biological processes, such as viral entry, inflammation, immunity, learning and memory in mammals. Microtubules are subject to various covalent modifications. One such modification is tubulin acetylation, which is associated with stable microtubules and conserved from protists to humans. In the past three decades, this reversible modification has been studied extensively. In mammals, its level is mainly governed by opposing actions of α-tubulin acetyltransferase 1 (ATAT1) and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Knockout studies of the mouse enzymes have yielded new insights into biological functions of tubulin acetylation. Abnormal levels of this modification are linked to neurological disorders, cancer, heart diseases and other pathological conditions, thereby yielding important therapeutic implications. This review summarizes related studies and concludes that tubulin acetylation is important for regulating microtubule architecture and maintaining microtubule integrity. Together with detyrosination, glutamylation and other modifications, tubulin acetylation may form a unique 'language' to regulate microtubule structure and function.

  6. Lysine Acetylation Facilitates Spontaneous DNA Dynamics in the Nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongseong; Lee, Jaehyoun; Lee, Tae-Hee

    2015-12-01

    The nucleosome, comprising a histone protein core wrapped around by DNA, is the fundamental packing unit of DNA in cells. Lysine acetylation at the histone core elevates DNA accessibility in the nucleosome, the mechanism of which remains largely unknown. By employing our recently developed hybrid single molecule approach, here we report how the structural dynamics of DNA in the nucleosome is altered upon acetylation at histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) that is critical for elevated DNA accessibility. Our results indicate that H3K56 acetylation facilitates the structural dynamics of the DNA at the nucleosome termini that spontaneously and repeatedly open and close on a ms time scale. The results support a molecular mechanism of histone acetylation in catalyzing DNA unpacking whose efficiency is ultimately limited by the spontaneous DNA dynamics at the nucleosome temini. This study provides the first and unique experimental evidence revealing a role of protein chemical modification in directly regulating the kinetic stability of the DNA packing unit.

  7. Lysine Ubiquitination and Acetylation of Human Cardiac 20S Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Edward; Choi, Howard JH; Ng, Dominic CM; Meyer, David; Fang, Caiyun; Li, Haomin; Wang, Ding; Zelaya, Ivette M; Yates, John R; Lam, Maggie PY

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Altered proteasome functions are associated with multiple cardiomyopathies. While the proteasome targets poly-ubiquitinated proteins for destruction, it itself is modifiable by ubiquitination. We aim to identify the exact ubiquitination sites on cardiac proteasomes and examine whether they are also subject to acetylations. Experimental design Assembled cardiac 20S proteasome complexes were purified from five human hearts with ischemic cardiomyopathy, then analyzed by high-resolution MS to identify ubiquitination and acetylation sites. We developed a library search strategy that may be used to complement database search in identifying PTM in different samples. Results We identified 63 ubiquitinated lysines from intact human cardiac 20S proteasomes. In parallel, 65 acetylated residues were also discovered, 39 of which shared with ubiquitination sites. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the most comprehensive characterization of cardiac proteasome ubiquitination to-date. There are significant overlaps between the discovered ubiquitination and acetylation sites, permitting potential crosstalk in regulating proteasome functions. The information presented here will aid future therapeutic strategies aimed at regulating the functions of cardiac proteasomes. PMID:24957502

  8. Acetylation mediates Cx43 reduction caused by electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Meraviglia, Viviana; Azzimato, Valerio; Colussi, Claudia; Florio, Maria Cristina; Binda, Anna; Panariti, Alice; Qanud, Khaled; Suffredini, Silvia; Gennaccaro, Laura; Miragoli, Michele; Barbuti, Andrea; Lampe, Paul D.; Gaetano, Carlo; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Recchia, Fabio A.; Pompilio, Giulio; Rivolta, Ilaria; Rossini, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Communication between cardiomyocytes depends upon Gap Junctions (GJ). Previous studies have demonstrated that electrical stimulation induces GJ remodeling and modifies histone acetylases (HAT) and deacetylases (HDAC) activities, although these two results have not been linked. The aim of this work was to establish whether electrical stimulation modulates GJ-mediated cardiac cell-cell communication by acetylation-dependent mechanisms. Field stimulation of HL-1 cardiomyocytes at 0.5 Hz for 24 hours significantly reduced Connexin43 (Cx43) expression and cell-cell communication. HDAC activity was down-regulated whereas HAT activity was not modified resulting in increased acetylation of Cx43. Consistent with a post-translational mechanism, we did not observe a reduction in Cx43 mRNA in electrically stimulated cells, while the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 maintained Cx43 expression. Further, the treatment of paced cells with the HAT inhibitor Anacardic Acid maintained both the levels of Cx43 and cell-cell communication. Finally, we observed increased acetylation of Cx43 in the left ventricles of dogs subjected to chronic tachypacing as a model of abnormal ventricular activation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that altered electrical activity can regulate cardiomyocyte communication by influencing the acetylation status of Cx43. PMID:26264759

  9. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amino acid methionine formed by addition of an acetyl group to the alpha-amino group of methionine. It... amino acid) by weight of the total protein of the finished food, including the amount naturally present... of the additive contained therein. (2) The amounts of additive and each amino acid contained in...

  10. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amino acid methionine formed by addition of an acetyl group to the alpha-amino group of methionine. It... amino acid) by weight of the total protein of the finished food, including the amount naturally present... of the additive contained therein. (2) The amounts of additive and each amino acid contained in...

  11. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amino acid methionine formed by addition of an acetyl group to the alpha-amino group of methionine. It... amino acid) by weight of the total protein of the finished food, including the amount naturally present... of the additive contained therein. (2) The amounts of additive and each amino acid contained in...

  12. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  13. Measurement of isoprene nitrates by GCMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Graham P.; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D.; Bew, Sean P.; Reeves, Claire E.

    2016-09-01

    According to atmospheric chemistry models, isoprene nitrates play an important role in determining the ozone production efficiency of isoprene; however this is very poorly constrained through observations as isoprene nitrates have not been widely measured. Measurements have been severely restricted largely due to a limited ability to measure individual isoprene nitrate isomers. An instrument based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) and the associated calibration methods are described for the speciated measurements of individual isoprene nitrate isomers. Five of the primary isoprene nitrates which formed in the presence of NOx by reaction of isoprene with the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the Master Chemical Mechanism are identified using known isomers on two column phases and are fully separated on the Rtx-200 column. Three primary isoprene nitrates from the reaction of isoprene with the nitrate radical (NO3) are identified after synthesis from the already identified analogous hydroxy nitrate. A Tenax adsorbent-based trapping system allows the analysis of the majority of the known hydroxy and carbonyl primary isoprene nitrates, although not the (1,2)-IN isomer, under field-like levels of humidity and showed no impact from typical ambient concentrations of NOx and ozone.

  14. Groundwater nitrate contamination: factors and indicators.

    PubMed

    Wick, Katharina; Heumesser, Christine; Schmid, Erwin

    2012-11-30

    Identifying significant determinants of groundwater nitrate contamination is critical in order to define sensible agri-environmental indicators that support the design, enforcement, and monitoring of regulatory policies. We use data from approximately 1200 Austrian municipalities to provide a detailed statistical analysis of (1) the factors influencing groundwater nitrate contamination and (2) the predictive capacity of the Gross Nitrogen Balance, one of the most commonly used agri-environmental indicators. We find that the percentage of cropland in a given region correlates positively with nitrate concentration in groundwater. Additionally, environmental characteristics such as temperature and precipitation are important co-factors. Higher average temperatures result in lower nitrate contamination of groundwater, possibly due to increased evapotranspiration. Higher average precipitation dilutes nitrates in the soil, further reducing groundwater nitrate concentration. Finally, we assess whether the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a valid predictor of groundwater nitrate contamination. Our regression analysis reveals that the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a statistically significant predictor for nitrate contamination. We also show that its predictive power can be improved if we account for average regional precipitation. The Gross Nitrogen Balance predicts nitrate contamination in groundwater more precisely in regions with higher average precipitation.

  15. Groundwater nitrate contamination: Factors and indicators

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Katharina; Heumesser, Christine; Schmid, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Identifying significant determinants of groundwater nitrate contamination is critical in order to define sensible agri-environmental indicators that support the design, enforcement, and monitoring of regulatory policies. We use data from approximately 1200 Austrian municipalities to provide a detailed statistical analysis of (1) the factors influencing groundwater nitrate contamination and (2) the predictive capacity of the Gross Nitrogen Balance, one of the most commonly used agri-environmental indicators. We find that the percentage of cropland in a given region correlates positively with nitrate concentration in groundwater. Additionally, environmental characteristics such as temperature and precipitation are important co-factors. Higher average temperatures result in lower nitrate contamination of groundwater, possibly due to increased evapotranspiration. Higher average precipitation dilutes nitrates in the soil, further reducing groundwater nitrate concentration. Finally, we assess whether the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a valid predictor of groundwater nitrate contamination. Our regression analysis reveals that the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a statistically significant predictor for nitrate contamination. We also show that its predictive power can be improved if we account for average regional precipitation. The Gross Nitrogen Balance predicts nitrate contamination in groundwater more precisely in regions with higher average precipitation. PMID:22906701

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sulfadimidin acetylation phenotypes in Egyptian oases.

    PubMed

    Hussein, L; Yamamah, G; Saleh, A

    1992-04-01

    Screening of 1315 males from two Egyptian oases for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G-6PD) found an incidence of 5.9%. The rate of acetylation of sulfadimidin was also studied, and a bimodal distribution was found with 73% rapid acetylators. There is a correlation between high frequency of G-6PD deficiency and high frequency of slow acetylation rate.

  17. Human acetylator polymorphism: estimate of allele frequency in Libya and details of global distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Karim, A K; Elfellah, M S; Evans, D A

    1981-01-01

    Acetylator phenotyping by means of a sulphadimidine tests revealed 65% of Libyan Arabs to be slow acetylators. Hence the frequency of the allele controlling slow acetylation (As) is estimated as q = 0.81 +/- 0.05. This estimate is similar to those previously recorded in European and adjacent Middle Eastern populations. PMID:7328611

  18. The limits of endowment effects in great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Santos, Laurie R; Hood, Bruce M; Call, Josep

    2011-11-01

    The endowment effect describes the bias that people often value things that they possess more than things they do not possess. Thus, they are often reluctant to trade items in their possession for items of equivalent value. Some nonhuman primates appear to share this bias with humans, but it remains an open question whether they show endowment effects to the same extent as humans do. We investigated endowment effects in all four great ape species (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) by varying whether apes were endowed with food items (Experiment 1, N = 22) or tools that were instrumental in retrieving food (Experiment 2, N = 23). We first assessed apes' preferences for items of a pair and their willingness to trade items in their possession. We then endowed apes with one item of a pair and offered them to trade for the other item. Apes showed endowment effects for food, but not for tools. In Experiment 3, we endowed bonobos (N = 4) and orangutans (N = 5) with either one or 12 food items. Endowment effects did not differ between species and were not influenced by the number of endowed food items. Our findings suggest that endowment effects in great apes are restricted to immediate food gratification and remain unaffected by the quantity of food rewards. However, endowment effects do not seem to extend to other, nonconsumable possessions even when they are instrumental in retrieving food. In general, apes do not show endowment effects across a range of different commodities as humans typically do.

  19. Spontaneous triadic engagement in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    MacLean, Evan; Hare, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Humans are believed to have evolved a unique motivation to participate in joint activities that first develops during infancy and supports the development of shared intentionality. We conducted five experiments with bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) (Total n = 119) to assess their motivation to spontaneously participate in joint activities with a conspecific or a human. We found that even the youngest subjects preferred to interact together with a human and a toy rather than engaging in an identical game alone. In addition, we found that subjects could spontaneously interact with a human in a turn-taking game involving passing a ball back and forth and used behaviors to elicit additional interaction when the game was disrupted. However, when paired with a conspecific, subjects preferred to interact with an object individually rather than together. Our results indicate that nonhuman apes are motivated to engage in triadic activities if they occur spontaneously with humans and require a minimum amount of coordination. These findings leave open the question of whether these activities are coordinated through shared intentions.

  20. Volumetric and lateralized differences in selected brain regions of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Lyn, Heidi; Cantalupo, Claudio

    2009-12-01

    The two species of Pan, bonobos and common chimpanzees, have been reported to have different social organization, cognitive and linguistic abilities and motor skill, despite their close biological relationship. Here, we examined whether bonobos and chimpanzee differ in selected brain regions that may map to these different social and cognitive abilities. Eight chimpanzees and eight bonobos matched on age, sex and rearing experiences were magnetic resonance images scanned and volumetric measures were obtained for the whole brain, cerebellum, striatum, motor-hand area, hippocampus, inferior frontal gyrus and planum temporale. Chimpanzees had significantly larger cerebellum and borderline significantly larger hippocampus and putamen, after adjusting for brain size, compared with bonobos. Bonobos showed greater leftward asymmetries in the striatum and motor-hand area compared with chimpanzees. No significant differences in either the volume or lateralization for the so-called language homologs were found between species. The results suggest that the two species of Pan are quite similar neurologically, though some volumetric and lateralized differences may reflect inherent differences in social organization, cognition and motor skills.

  1. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) quantify split solid objects.

    PubMed

    Cacchione, Trix; Hrubesch, Christine; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that gorillas' and orangutans' object representations survive cohesion violations (e.g., a split of a solid object into two halves), but that their processing of quantities may be affected by them. We assessed chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos' (Pan paniscus) reactions to various fission events in the same series of action tasks modelled after infant studies previously run on gorillas and orangutans (Cacchione and Call in Cognition 116:193-203, 2010b). Results showed that all four non-human great ape species managed to quantify split objects but that their performance varied as a function of the non-cohesiveness produced in the splitting event. Spatial ambiguity and shape invariance had the greatest impact on apes' ability to represent and quantify objects. Further, we observed species differences with gorillas performing lower than other species. Finally, we detected a substantial age effect, with ape infants below 6 years of age being outperformed by both juvenile/adolescent and adult apes.

  2. Modeling the joined performance of PanSTARRS1 and PanSTARRS2 telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly (Schunova), Eva; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Weryk, Robert J.

    2016-10-01

    We have performed detailed simulations of the 1st and the 2nd telescope of the Panoramatic Survey Telescope and Rapid response System (PanSTARRS, Morgan et al. 2012, SPIE Conference Series, Vol. 8444; Chambers et al. 2007, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 39, #142.06) in order to assess their combined performance and to optimize survey strategy for discovery and follow-up observations of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs).PanSTARRS1 (PS1) is situated on the summit of Haleakala, Maui (observatory code F51) and has been operated by the University of Hawaii since the spring of 2010. PS1 has a 1.8 m diameter primary mirror with an ~7 deg2 field of view and can survey ~900 deg2/night for moving objects.PS2 is located adjacent to PS1, and is similar, but benefits from many improvements coming from our experience with PS1. PS2 will be operational very soon.We will show how the best and the worst case scenarios of observing conditions (i.e. regarding the weather and the position of the Galactic plane) affect the NEA detection efficiency during a 1-month long survey for several PS1 and PS2 observing and follow-up strategies.

  3. The Acetyl Group Buffering Action of Carnitine Acetyltransferase Offsets Macronutrient-induced Lysine Acetylation of Mitochondrial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael N.; Kjalarsdottir, Lilja; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Brosnan, M. Julia; Rolph, Timothy P.; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation (AcK), a posttranslational modification wherein a two-carbon acetyl group binds covalently to a lysine residue, occurs prominently on mitochondrial proteins and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction. An emergent theory suggests mitochondrial AcK occurs via mass action rather than targeted catalysis. To test this hypothesis we performed mass spectrometry-based acetylproteomic analyses of quadriceps muscles from mice with skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), an enzyme that buffers the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool by converting short-chain acyl-CoAs to their membrane permeant acylcarnitine counterparts. CrAT deficiency increased tissue acetyl-CoA levels and susceptibility to diet-induced AcK of broad-ranging mitochondrial proteins, coincident with diminished whole body glucose control. Sub-compartment acetylproteome analyses of muscles from obese mice and humans showed remarkable overrepresentation of mitochondrial matrix proteins. These findings reveal roles for CrAT and L-carnitine in modulating the muscle acetylproteome and provide strong experimental evidence favoring the nonenzymatic carbon pressure model of mitochondrial AcK. PMID:26748706

  4. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  5. Challenges with nitrate therapy and nitrate tolerance: prevalence, prevention, and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Thadani, Udho

    2014-08-01

    Nitrate therapy has been an effective treatment for ischemic heart disease for over 100 years. The anti-ischemic and exercise-promoting benefits of sublingually administered nitrates are well established. Nitroglycerin is indicated for the relief of an established attack of angina and for prophylactic use, but its effects are short lived. In an effort to increase the duration of beneficial effects, long-acting orally administered and topical applications of nitrates have been developed; however, following their continued or frequent daily use, patients soon develop tolerance to these long-acting nitrate preparations. Once tolerance develops, patients begin losing the protective effects of the long-acting nitrate therapy. By providing a nitrate-free interval, or declining nitrate levels at night, one can overcome or reduce the development of tolerance, but cannot provide 24-h anti-anginal and anti-ischemic protection. In addition, patients may be vulnerable to occurrence of rebound angina and myocardial ischemia during periods of absent nitrate levels at night and early hours of the morning, and worsening of exercise capacity prior to the morning dose of the medication. This has been a concern with nitroglycerin patches but not with oral formulations of isosorbide-5 mononitrates, and has not been adequately studied with isosorbide dinitrate. This paper describes problems associated with nitrate tolerance, reviews mechanisms by which nitrate tolerance and loss of efficacy develop, and presents strategies to avoid nitrate tolerance and maintain efficacy when using long-acting nitrate formulations.

  6. Arabidopsis Nitrate Transporter NRT1.9 Is Important in Phloem Nitrate Transport[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Yun; Tsay, Yi-Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study of the Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate transporter NRT1.9 reveals an important function for a NRT1 family member in phloem nitrate transport. Functional analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that NRT1.9 is a low-affinity nitrate transporter. Green fluorescent protein and β-glucuronidase reporter analyses indicated that NRT1.9 is a plasma membrane transporter expressed in the companion cells of root phloem. In nrt1.9 mutants, nitrate content in root phloem exudates was decreased, and downward nitrate transport was reduced, suggesting that NRT1.9 may facilitate loading of nitrate into the root phloem and enhance downward nitrate transport in roots. Under high nitrate conditions, the nrt1.9 mutant showed enhanced root-to-shoot nitrate transport and plant growth. We conclude that phloem nitrate transport is facilitated by expression of NRT1.9 in root companion cells. In addition, enhanced root-to-shoot xylem transport of nitrate in nrt1.9 mutants points to a negative correlation between xylem and phloem nitrate transport. PMID:21571952

  7. REDUCTION OF NITRATE THROUGH THE USE OF NITRATE REDUCTASE FOR THE SMARTCHEM AUTOANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard method for the determination of nitrate in drinking water, USEPA Method 353.2 “Determination of Nitrate-Nitrite by Automated Colorimetry,” employs cadmium as the reductant for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite. The nitrite is then analyzed colorimetrically by way ...

  8. Removal of Nitrate from Groundwater by Cyanobacteria: Quantitative Assessment of Factors Influencing Nitrate Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiang; Westerhoff, Paul; Vermaas, Wim

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of biologically removing nitrate from groundwater was tested by using cyanobacterial cultures in batch mode under laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated that nitrate-contaminated groundwater, when supplemented with phosphate and some trace elements, can be used as growth medium supporting vigorous growth of several strains of cyanobacteria. As cyanobacteria grew, nitrate was removed from the water. Of three species tested, Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 displayed the highest nitrate uptake rate, but all species showed rapid removal of nitrate from groundwater. The nitrate uptake rate increased proportionally with increasing light intensity up to 100 μmol of photons m−2 s−1, which parallels photosynthetic activity. The nitrate uptake rate was affected by inoculum size (i.e., cell density), fixed-nitrogen level in the cells in the inoculum, and aeration rate, with vigorously aerated, nitrate-sufficient cells in mid-logarithmic phase having the highest long-term nitrate uptake rate. Average nitrate uptake rates up to 0.05 mM NO3− h−1 could be achieved at a culture optical density at 730 nm of 0.5 to 1.0 over a 2-day culture period. This result compares favorably with those reported for nitrate removal by other cyanobacteria and algae, and therefore effective nitrate removal from groundwater using this organism could be anticipated on large-scale operations. PMID:10618214

  9. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, E.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2012-04-01

    PEP725 is a 5 years project with the main object to promote and facilitate phenological research by delivering a pan European phenological database with an open, unrestricted data access for science, research and education. PEP725 is funded by EUMETNET (the network of European meteorological services), ZAMG and the Austrian ministry for science & research bm:w_f. So far 16 European national meteorological services and 7 partners from different nati-onal phenological network operators have joined PEP725. The data access is very easy via web-access from the homepage www.pep725.eu. Ha-ving accepted the PEP725 data policy and registry the data download can be done by different criteria as for instance the selection of a specific plant or all data from one country. At present more than 300 000 new records are available in the PEP725 data-base coming from 31 European countries and from 8150 stations. For some more sta-tions (154) META data (location and data holder) are provided. Links to the network operators and data owners are also on the webpage in case you have more sophisticated questions about the data. Another objective of PEP725 is to bring together network-operators and scientists by organizing workshops. In April 2012 the second of these workshops will take place on the premises of ZAMG. Invited speakers will give presentations spanning the whole study area of phenology starting from observations to modelling. Quality checking is also a big issue. At the moment we study the literature to find ap-propriate methods.

  10. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Elisabeth; Adler, Silke; Ungersböck, Markus; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". The Societas Meteorologicae Palatinae at Mannheim well known for its first European wide meteorological network also established a phenological network which was active from 1781 to 1792. Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies, as one has to address many National Observations Programs (NOP) to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2005 the COST-action 725 was running with the main objective to establish a European reference data set of phenological observations that can be used for climatological purposes, especially climate monitoring, and detection of changes. So far the common database/reference data set of COST725 comprises 7687248 data from 7285 observation sites in 15 countries and International Phenological Gardens (IPG) spanning the timeframe from 1951 to 2000. ZAMG is hosting the database. In January 2010 PEP725 has started and will take over not only the part of maintaining, updating the database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of

  11. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, E.; Adler, S.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2010-09-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies as one has to address many network operators to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2009 the COST-action 725 established a European wide data set of phenological observations. But the deliverables of this COST action was not only the common phenological database and common observation guidelines - COST725 helped to trigger a revival of some old networks and to establish new ones as for instance in Sweden. At the end of 2009 the COST action the database comprised about 8 million data in total from 15 European countries plus the data from the International Phenological Gardens IPG. In January 2010 PEP725 began its work as follow up project with funding from EUMETNET the network of European meteorological services and of ZAMG the Austrian national meteorological service. PEP725 not only will take over the part of maintaining, updating the COST725 database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

  12. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Nitric Acid, Nitrates, and Nitro Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherick, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the potential hazards associated with nitric acid, inorganic and organic nitrate salts, alkyl nitrates, acyl nitrates, aliphatic nitro compounds, aromatic nitro compounds, and nitration reactions. (CW)

  13. Altered acetylation and succinylation profiles in Corynebacterium glutamicum in response to conditions inducing glutamate overproduction.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuta; Nagano-Shoji, Megumi; Kubo, Shosei; Kawamura, Yumi; Yoshida, Ayako; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Nishiyama, Makoto; Yoshida, Minoru; Kosono, Saori

    2016-02-01

    The bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is utilized during industrial fermentation to produce amino acids such as L-glutamate. During L-glutamate fermentation, C. glutamicum changes the flux of central carbon metabolism to favor L-glutamate production, but the molecular mechanisms that explain these flux changes remain largely unknown. Here, we found that the profiles of two major lysine acyl modifications were significantly altered upon glutamate overproduction in C. glutamicum; acetylation decreased, whereas succinylation increased. A label-free semi-quantitative proteomic analysis identified 604 acetylated proteins with 1328 unique acetylation sites and 288 succinylated proteins with 651 unique succinylation sites. Acetylation and succinylation targeted enzymes in central carbon metabolic pathways that are directly related to glutamate production, including the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC), a key enzyme regulating glutamate overproduction. Structural mapping revealed that several critical lysine residues in the ODHC components were susceptible to acetylation and succinylation. Furthermore, induction of glutamate production was associated with changes in the extent of acetylation and succinylation of lysine, suggesting that these modifications may affect the activity of enzymes involved in glutamate production. Deletion of phosphotransacetylase decreased the extent of protein acetylation in nonproducing condition, suggesting that acetyl phosphate-dependent acetylation is active in C. glutamicum. However, no effect was observed on the profiles of acetylation and succinylation in glutamate-producing condition upon disruption of acetyl phosphate metabolism or deacetylase homologs. It was considered likely that the reduced acetylation in glutamate-producing condition may reflect metabolic states where the flux through acid-producing pathways is very low, and substrates for acetylation do not accumulate in the cell. Succinylation would occur more

  14. Expression of mung bean pectin acetyl esterase in potato tubers: effect on acetylation of cell wall polymers and tuber mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Orfila, Caroline; Dal Degan, Florence; Jørgensen, Bodil; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Ray, Peter M; Ulvskov, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A mung bean (Vigna radiata) pectin acetyl esterase (CAA67728) was heterologously expressed in tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum) under the control of the granule-bound starch synthase promoter or the patatin promoter in order to probe the significance of O-acetylation on cell wall and tissue properties. The recombinant tubers showed no apparent macroscopic phenotype. The enzyme was recovered from transgenic tubers using a high ionic strength buffer and the extract was active against a range of pectic substrates. Partial in vivo de-acetylation of cell wall polysaccharides occurred in the transformants, as shown by a 39% decrease in the degree of acetylation (DA) of tuber cell wall material (CWM). Treatment of CWM using a combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin methyl esterase extracted more pectin polymers from the transformed tissue compared to wild type. The largest effect of the pectin acetyl esterase (68% decrease in DA) was seen in the residue from this extraction, suggesting that the enzyme is preferentially active on acetylated pectin that is tightly bound to the cell wall. The effects of acetylation on tuber mechanical properties were investigated by tests of failure under compression and by determination of viscoelastic relaxation spectra. These tests suggested that de-acetylation resulted in a stiffer tuber tissue and a stronger cell wall matrix, as a result of changes to a rapidly relaxing viscoelastic component. These results are discussed in relation to the role of pectin acetylation in primary cell walls and its implications for industrial uses of potato fibres.

  15. Astrocyte Reactivity Following Blast Exposure Involves Aberrant Histone Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Zachary S.; Grinter, Michael B.; VandeVord, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a prevalent injury within military and civilian populations. The injury is characterized by persistent inflammation at the cellular level which manifests as a multitude of cognitive and functional impairments. Epigenetic regulation of transcription offers an important control mechanism for gene expression and cellular function which may underlie chronic inflammation and result in neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that altered histone acetylation patterns may be involved in blast induced inflammation and the chronic activation of glial cells. This study aimed to elucidate changes to histone acetylation occurring following injury and the roles these changes may have within the pathology. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to either a 10 or 17 psi blast overpressure within an Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS). Sham animals underwent the same procedures without blast exposure. Memory impairments were measured using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) test at 2 and 7 days post-injury. Tissues were collected at 7 days for Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Sham animals showed intact memory at each time point. The novel object discrimination decreased significantly between two and 7 days for each injury group (p < 0.05). This is indicative of the onset of memory impairment. Western blot analysis showed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a known marker of activated astrocytes, was elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) following blast exposure for both injury groups. Analysis of histone protein extract showed no changes in the level of any total histone proteins within the PFC. However, acetylation levels of histone H2b, H3, and H4 were decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). Co-localization immunofluorescence was used to further investigate any potential correlation between decreased histone acetylation and astrocyte activation. These experiments showed a similar decrease in H3 acetylation in astrocytes exposed to a 17

  16. Astrocyte Reactivity Following Blast Exposure Involves Aberrant Histone Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zachary S; Grinter, Michael B; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a prevalent injury within military and civilian populations. The injury is characterized by persistent inflammation at the cellular level which manifests as a multitude of cognitive and functional impairments. Epigenetic regulation of transcription offers an important control mechanism for gene expression and cellular function which may underlie chronic inflammation and result in neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that altered histone acetylation patterns may be involved in blast induced inflammation and the chronic activation of glial cells. This study aimed to elucidate changes to histone acetylation occurring following injury and the roles these changes may have within the pathology. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to either a 10 or 17 psi blast overpressure within an Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS). Sham animals underwent the same procedures without blast exposure. Memory impairments were measured using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) test at 2 and 7 days post-injury. Tissues were collected at 7 days for Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Sham animals showed intact memory at each time point. The novel object discrimination decreased significantly between two and 7 days for each injury group (p < 0.05). This is indicative of the onset of memory impairment. Western blot analysis showed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a known marker of activated astrocytes, was elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) following blast exposure for both injury groups. Analysis of histone protein extract showed no changes in the level of any total histone proteins within the PFC. However, acetylation levels of histone H2b, H3, and H4 were decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). Co-localization immunofluorescence was used to further investigate any potential correlation between decreased histone acetylation and astrocyte activation. These experiments showed a similar decrease in H3 acetylation in astrocytes exposed to a 17

  17. Nitrate Reduction Functional Genes and Nitrate Reduction Potentials Persist in Deeper Estuarine Sediments. Why?

    PubMed Central

    Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J.; Dong, Liang F.; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Nedwell, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the sediment column. This

  18. Twin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; Moravek, A.; von der Heyden, L.; Held, A.; Sörgel, M.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light and humidity conditions. Compared with a single cuvette system, the twin-cuvette system is insensitive for disturbing background effects such as wall deposition. In combination with a climate chamber we can perform flux measurements under constant and controllable environmental conditions. With an Automatic Temperature Regulated Air Humidification System (ATRAHS) we are able to regulate the relative humidity inside both cuvettes between 40 to 90 % with a high precision of 0.3 %. Thus, we could demonstrate that for a cuvette system operated with a high flow rate (> 20 L min-1) such a temperature regulated humidification system as ATRAHS is an accurate method for air humidification of the flushing air. Furthermore, the fully automatic progressive fill-up of ATRAHS based on a floating valve improved the performance of the entire measurement system and prevented data gaps. Two reactive gas species, ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), were used to demonstrate the quality and performance of the twin-cuvette system. O3 and PAN exchange with Quercus ilex was investigated over a 14 day measurement period under controlled climate chamber conditions. By using O3 mixing ratios between 32-105 ppb and PAN mixing ratios between 100-350 ppt a linear dependency of the O3 flux as well as the PAN flux in relation to its ambient mixing ratio could be observed. At relative humidity (RH) of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the deposition of O3 to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by the leaf stomata. For PAN an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves. Furthermore, the formation of water films on the leaf surface of plants inside the chamber could be continuously tracked with our custom built leaf wetness sensors. Using this

  19. Twin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shang; Moravek, Alexander; von der Heyden, Lisa; Held, Andreas; Sörgel, Matthias; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace-gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. Compared with a single-cuvette system, the twin-cuvette system is insensitive to disturbing background effects such as wall deposition. In combination with a climate chamber, we can perform flux measurements under constant and controllable environmental conditions. With an Automatic Temperature Regulated Air Humidification System (ATRAHS), we are able to regulate the relative humidity inside both cuvettes between 40 and 90 % with a high precision of 0.3 %. Thus, we could demonstrate that for a cuvette system operated with a high flow rate (> 20 L min-1), a temperature-regulated humidification system such as ATRAHS is an accurate method for air humidification of the flushing air. Furthermore, the fully automatic progressive fill-up of ATRAHS based on a floating valve improved the performance of the entire measurement system and prevented data gaps. Two reactive gas species, ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), were used to demonstrate the quality and performance of the twin-cuvette system. O3 and PAN exchange with Quercus ilex was investigated over a 14 day measurement period under controlled climate chamber conditions. By using O3 mixing ratios between 32 and 105 ppb and PAN mixing ratios between 100 and 350 ppt, a linear dependency of the O3 flux as well as the PAN flux in relation to its ambient mixing ratio could be observed. At relative humidity (RH) of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the deposition of O3 to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by the leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves. Furthermore, the formation of water films on the leaf surface of plants inside the chamber could be continuously tracked with our custom built leaf wetness sensors

  20. From evaporating pans to transpiring plants (John Dalton Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The name of the original inventor of irrigated agriculture is lost to antiquity. Nevertheless, one can perhaps imagine an inquisitive desert inhabitant noting the greener vegetation along a watercourse and putting two and two together. Once water was being supplied and food was being produced it would be natural to ask a further question: how much water can we put on? No doubt much experience was gained down through the ages, but again, one can readily imagine someone inverting a rain gauge, filling it with water and measuring how fast the water evaporated. The inverted rain gauge measures the demand for water by the atmosphere. We call it the evaporative demand. I do not know if this is what actually happened but it sure makes an interesting start to a talk. Evaporation pans are basically inverted rain gauges. The rain gauge and evaporation pan measure the supply and demand respectively and these instruments are the workhorses of agricultural meteorology. Rain gauges are well known. Evaporation pans are lesser known but are in widespread use and are a key part of several national standardized meteorological networks. Many more pans are used for things like scheduling irrigation on farms or estimating evaporation from lakes. Analysis of the long records now available from standardized networks has revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., pan evaporation has increased in some places and decreased in other but when averaged over large numbers of pans there has been a steady decline. These independent reports from, for example, the US, Russia, China, India, Thailand, are replicated in the southern hemisphere in, for example, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. One often hears the statement that because the earth is expected to warm with increasing greenhouse gas emissions then it follows that water will evaporate faster. The pan evaporation observations show that this widely held expectation is wrong. When expectations disagree with observations, it is the

  1. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation FR Federal Register HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations HMT Hazardous... ``Secure Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Program'' on October 29, 2008. See 73 FR 64280. The ANPRM solicited... interacting with state and local governments regarding ammonium nitrate security. ] See 73 FR 64280,...

  2. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate.

  3. Intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brian D.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ziegelmann, Matthew J.; Joyce, Daniel D.; Linder, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hemorrhagic cystitis is a challenging clinical entity with limited evidence available to guide treatment. The use of intravesical silver nitrate has been reported, though supporting literature is sparse. Here, we sought to assess outcomes of patients treated with intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis. Material and methods We identified nine patients with refractory hemorrhagic cystitis treated at our institution with intravesical silver nitrate between 2000–2015. All patients had failed previous continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline and clot evacuation. Treatment success was defined as requiring no additional therapy beyond normal saline irrigation after silver nitrate instillation prior to hospital discharge. Results Median patient age was 80 years (IQR 73, 82). Radiation was the most common etiology for hemorrhagic cystitis 89% (8/9). Two patients underwent high dose (0.1%–0.4%) silver nitrate under anesthesia, while the remaining seven were treated with doses from 0.01% to 0.1% via continuous bladder irrigation for a median of 3 days (range 2–4). All nine patients (100%) had persistent hematuria despite intravesical silver nitrate therapy, requiring additional interventions and red blood cell transfusion during the hospitalization. There were no identified complications related to intravesical silver nitrate instillation. Conclusion Although well tolerated, we found that intravesical silver nitrate was ineffective for bleeding control, suggesting a limited role for this agent in the management of patients with hemorrhagic cystitis.

  4. COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

  5. Intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brian D.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ziegelmann, Matthew J.; Joyce, Daniel D.; Linder, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hemorrhagic cystitis is a challenging clinical entity with limited evidence available to guide treatment. The use of intravesical silver nitrate has been reported, though supporting literature is sparse. Here, we sought to assess outcomes of patients treated with intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis. Material and methods We identified nine patients with refractory hemorrhagic cystitis treated at our institution with intravesical silver nitrate between 2000–2015. All patients had failed previous continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline and clot evacuation. Treatment success was defined as requiring no additional therapy beyond normal saline irrigation after silver nitrate instillation prior to hospital discharge. Results Median patient age was 80 years (IQR 73, 82). Radiation was the most common etiology for hemorrhagic cystitis 89% (8/9). Two patients underwent high dose (0.1%–0.4%) silver nitrate under anesthesia, while the remaining seven were treated with doses from 0.01% to 0.1% via continuous bladder irrigation for a median of 3 days (range 2–4). All nine patients (100%) had persistent hematuria despite intravesical silver nitrate therapy, requiring additional interventions and red blood cell transfusion during the hospitalization. There were no identified complications related to intravesical silver nitrate instillation. Conclusion Although well tolerated, we found that intravesical silver nitrate was ineffective for bleeding control, suggesting a limited role for this agent in the management of patients with hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:27635296

  6. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  7. The contributions of nitrate uptake and efflux to isotope fractionation during algal nitrate assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsh, K. L.; Trull, T. W.; Sigman, D. M.; Thompson, P. A.; Granger, J.

    2014-05-01

    In order to strengthen environmental application of nitrate N and O isotopes, we measured the N and O isotopic fractionation associated with cellular nitrate uptake and efflux in the nitrate-assimilating marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. We isolated nitrate uptake and efflux from nitrate reduction by growing the cells in the presence of tungsten, which substitutes for molybdenum in assimilatory nitrate reductase, yielding an inactive enzyme. After growth on ammonium and then N starvation, cells were exposed to nitrate. Numerical models fit to the evolution of intracellular nitrate concentration and N and O isotopic composition yielded distinct N isotope effects (15ɛ) for nitrate uptake and nitrate efflux (2.0 ± 0.3‰ and 1.2 ± 0.4‰, respectively). The O isotope effects (18ɛ) for nitrate uptake and nitrate efflux were indistinguishable (2.8 ± 0.6‰), yielding a ratio of O to N isotopic fractionation for uptake of 1.4 ± 0.4 and for efflux of 2.3 ± 0.9. The 15ɛ for nitrate uptake can account for at most 40% of the organism-level N isotope effect (15ɛorg) measured in laboratory studies of T. weissflogii and in the open ocean (typically 5‰ or greater). This observation supports previous evidence that most isotope fractionation during nitrate assimilation is due to intracellular nitrate reduction, with nitrate efflux allowing the signal to be communicated to the environment. An O to N fractionation ratio (18ɛorg:15ɛorg) of ˜1 has been measured for nitrate assimilation in algal cultures and linked to the N and O isotope effects of nitrate reductase. Our results suggest that the ratios of O to N fractionation for both nitrate uptake and efflux may be distinct from a ratio of 1, to a degree that could cause the net 18ɛorg:15ɛorg to rise appreciably above 1 when 15ɛorg is low (e.g., yielding a ratio of 1.1 when 15ɛorg is 5‰). However, field and culture studies have consistently measured nearly equivalent fractionation of N and O isotopes in

  8. Monthly pan evaporation modeling using linear genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Aytac; Kisi, Ozgur

    2013-10-01

    This study compares the accuracy of linear genetic programming (LGP), fuzzy genetic (FG), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANN) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in modeling pan evaporations. Monthly climatic data including solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and pan evaporation from Antalya and Mersin stations, in Turkey are used in the study. The study composed of two parts. First part of the study focuses the comparison of LGP models with those of the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. From the comparison results, the LGP models are found to be better than the other models. Comparison of LGP models with the other models in estimating pan evaporations of the Mersin Station by using both stations' inputs is focused in the second part of the study. The results indicate that the LGP models better accuracy than the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models. It is seen that the pan evaporations can be successfully estimated by the LGP method.

  9. The Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, Larry; Jedicke, Robert; Grav, Tommy; Granvik, Mikael; Kubica, Jeremy; Milani, Andrea; Vereš, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard; Chang, Daniel; Pierfederici, Francesco; Kaiser, N.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Price, P. A.; Myers, Jonathan; Kleyna, Jan; Hsieh, Henry; Farnocchia, Davide; Waters, Chris; Sweeney, W. H.; Green, Denver; Bolin, Bryce; Burgett, W. S.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, John L.; Hodapp, K. W.; Chastel, Serge; Chesley, Steve; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Holman, Matthew; Spahr, Tim; Tholen, David; Williams, Gareth V.; Abe, Shinsuke; Armstrong, J. D.; Bressi, Terry H.; Holmes, Robert; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Robert S.; Micheli, Marco; Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.; Scotti, James V.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System (MOPS), a modern software package that produces automatic asteroid discoveries and identifications from catalogs of transient detections from next-generation astronomical survey telescopes. MOPS achieves >99.5% efficiency in producing orbits from a synthetic but realistic population of asteroids whose measurements were simulated for a Pan-STARRS4-class telescope. Additionally, using a nonphysical grid population, we demonstrate that MOPS can detect populations of currently unknown objects such as interstellar asteroids. MOPS has been adapted successfully to the prototype Pan-STARRS1 telescope despite differences in expected false detection rates, fill-factor loss, and relatively sparse observing cadence compared to a hypothetical Pan-STARRS4 telescope and survey. MOPS remains highly efficient at detecting objects but drops to 80% efficiency at producing orbits. This loss is primarily due to configurable MOPS processing limits that are not yet tuned for the Pan-STARRS1 mission. The core MOPS software package is the product of more than 15 person-years of software development and incorporates countless additional years of effort in third-party software to perform lower-level functions such as spatial searching or orbit determination. We describe the high-level design of MOPS and essential subcomponents, the suitability of MOPS for other survey programs, and suggest a road map for future MOPS development.

  10. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement.

    PubMed

    Young, Kurt B

    2010-01-01

    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism. PMID:20648996

  11. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement.

    PubMed

    Young, Kurt B

    2010-01-01

    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism.

  12. PREPARATION OF DIBASIC ALUMINUM NITRATE

    DOEpatents

    Gresky, A.T.; Nurmi, E.O.; Foster, D.L.; Wischow, R.P.; Savolainen, J.E.

    1960-04-01

    A method is given for the preparation and recovery of basic aluminum nltrates having an OH: Al ratio of at least two, comprising two steps. First, metallic aluminum is dissolved in aqueous Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, in the presence of a small quantity of elemental or ionic mercury, to increase its Al: NO/sub 3/ ratio into the range 1 to 1.2. The resulting aqueous solution is then added to an excess of a special organic solvent, typically a mixture of five parts methanol and six parts diethyl ether, whereupon the basic aluminum nitrate, e.g. Al/sub 6/(OH)/sub 13/-(NO/sub 3/)/sub 5/, recoverably precipitates.

  13. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  14. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  15. Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, A.; Viraraghavan, T.

    1997-04-01

    Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that ion exchange and biological denitrification are more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis. Ion exchange is more viable for ground water while biological denitrification is the preferred alternative for surface water. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes.

  16. Use of nitrates in ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Giuseppe, Cocco; Paul, Jerie; Hans-Ulrich, Iselin

    2015-01-01

    Short-acting nitrates are beneficial in acute myocardial ischemia. However, many unresolved questions remain about the use of long-acting nitrates in stable ischemic heart disease. The use of long-acting nitrates is weakened by the development of endothelial dysfunction and tolerance. Also, we currently ignore whether lower doses of transdermal nitroglycerin would be better than those presently used. Multivariate analysis data from large nonrandomized studies suggested that long-acting nitrates increase the incidence of acute coronary syndromes, while data from another multivariate study indicate that they have positive effects. Because of methodological differences and open questions, the two studies cannot be compared. A study in Japanese patients with vasospastic angina has shown that, when compared with calcium antagonists, long-acting nitrates do not improve long-term prognosis and that the risk for cardiac adverse events increases with the combined therapy. We have many unanswered questions.

  17. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  18. Multiple Mass Isotopomer Tracing of Acetyl-CoA Metabolism in Langendorff-perfused Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingling; Deng, Shuang; Ibarra, Rafael A.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Brunengraber, Henri; Zhang, Guo-Fang

    2015-01-01

    We developed an isotopic technique to assess mitochondrial acetyl-CoA turnover (≈citric acid flux) in perfused rat hearts. Hearts are perfused with buffer containing tracer [13C2,2H3]acetate, which forms M5 + M4 + M3 acetyl-CoA. The buffer may also contain one or two labeled substrates, which generate M2 acetyl-CoA (e.g. [13C6]glucose or [1,2-13C2]palmitate) or/and M1 acetyl-CoA (e.g. [1-13C]octanoate). The total acetyl-CoA turnover and the contributions of fuels to acetyl-CoA are calculated from the uptake of the acetate tracer and the mass isotopomer distribution of acetyl-CoA. The method was applied to measurements of acetyl-CoA turnover under different conditions (glucose ± palmitate ± insulin ± dichloroacetate). The data revealed (i) substrate cycling between glycogen and glucose-6-P and between glucose-6-P and triose phosphates, (ii) the release of small excess acetyl groups as acetylcarnitine and ketone bodies, and (iii) the channeling of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA from pyruvate dehydrogenase to carnitine acetyltransferase. Because of this channeling, the labeling of acetylcarnitine and ketone bodies released by the heart are not proxies of the labeling of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:25645937

  19. αTAT1 controls longitudinal spreading of acetylation marks from open microtubules extremities

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Nathalie; Elkhatib, Nadia; Bresteau, Enzo; Piétrement, Olivier; Khaled, Mehdi; Magiera, Maria M.; Janke, Carsten; Le Cam, Eric; Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Montagnac, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation of the lysine 40 of α-tubulin (K40) is a post-translational modification occurring in the lumen of microtubules (MTs) and is controlled by the α-tubulin acetyl-transferase αTAT1. How αTAT1 accesses the lumen and acetylates α-tubulin there has been an open question. Here, we report that acetylation starts at open ends of MTs and progressively spreads longitudinally from there. We observed acetylation marks at the open ends of in vivo MTs re-growing after a Nocodazole block, and acetylated segments growing in length with time. Bias for MTs extremities was even more pronounced when using non-dynamic MTs extracted from HeLa cells. In contrast, K40 acetylation was mostly uniform along the length of MTs reconstituted from purified tubulin in vitro. Quantitative modelling of luminal diffusion of αTAT1 suggested that the uniform acetylation pattern observed in vitro is consistent with defects in the MT lattice providing lateral access to the lumen. Indeed, we observed that in vitro MTs are permeable to macromolecules along their shaft while cellular MTs are not. Our results demonstrate αTAT1 enters the lumen from open extremities and spreads K40 acetylation marks longitudinally along cellular MTs. This mode of tip-directed microtubule acetylation may allow for selective acetylation of subsets of microtubules. PMID:27752143

  20. Stoichiometry of site-specific lysine acetylation in an entire proteome.

    PubMed

    Baeza, Josue; Dowell, James A; Smallegan, Michael J; Fan, Jing; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Khan, Zia; Denu, John M

    2014-08-01

    Acetylation of lysine ϵ-amino groups influences many cellular processes and has been mapped to thousands of sites across many organisms. Stoichiometric information of acetylation is essential to accurately interpret biological significance. Here, we developed and employed a novel method for directly quantifying stoichiometry of site-specific acetylation in the entire proteome of Escherichia coli. By coupling isotopic labeling and a novel pairing algorithm, our approach performs an in silico enrichment of acetyl peptides, circumventing the need for immunoenrichment. We investigated the function of the sole NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, CobB, on both site-specific and global acetylation. We quantified 2206 peptides from 899 proteins and observed a wide distribution of acetyl stoichiometry, ranging from less than 1% up to 98%. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that metabolic enzymes, which either utilize or generate acetyl-CoA, and proteins involved in transcriptional and translational processes displayed the highest degree of acetylation. Loss of CobB led to increased global acetylation at low stoichiometry sites and induced site-specific changes at high stoichiometry sites, and biochemical analysis revealed altered acetyl-CoA metabolism. Thus, this study demonstrates that sirtuin deacetylase deficiency leads to both site-specific and global changes in protein acetylation stoichiometry, affecting central metabolism.

  1. Efficient syntheses of climate relevant isoprene nitrates and (1R,5S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

    PubMed

    Bew, Sean P; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D; Mills, Graham P; Reeves, Claire E

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the chemoselective synthesis of several important, climate relevant isoprene nitrates using silver nitrate to mediate a 'halide for nitrate' substitution. Employing readily available starting materials, reagents and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons chemistry the synthesis of easily separable, synthetically versatile 'key building blocks' (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-chlorobut-2-en-1-ol as well as (E)- and (Z)-1-((2-methyl-4-bromobut-2-enyloxy)methyl)-4-methoxybenzene has been achieved using cheap, 'off the shelf' materials. Exploiting their reactivity we have studied their ability to undergo an 'allylic halide for allylic nitrate' substitution reaction which we demonstrate generates (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrate, and (E)- and (Z)-2-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrates ('isoprene nitrates') in 66-80% overall yields. Using NOESY experiments the elucidation of the carbon-carbon double bond configuration within the purified isoprene nitrates has been established. Further exemplifying our 'halide for nitrate' substitution chemistry we outline the straightforward transformation of (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol bromide into the previously unknown monoterpene nitrate (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate. PMID:27340495

  2. Efficient syntheses of climate relevant isoprene nitrates and (1R,5S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

    PubMed

    Bew, Sean P; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D; Mills, Graham P; Reeves, Claire E

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the chemoselective synthesis of several important, climate relevant isoprene nitrates using silver nitrate to mediate a 'halide for nitrate' substitution. Employing readily available starting materials, reagents and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons chemistry the synthesis of easily separable, synthetically versatile 'key building blocks' (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-chlorobut-2-en-1-ol as well as (E)- and (Z)-1-((2-methyl-4-bromobut-2-enyloxy)methyl)-4-methoxybenzene has been achieved using cheap, 'off the shelf' materials. Exploiting their reactivity we have studied their ability to undergo an 'allylic halide for allylic nitrate' substitution reaction which we demonstrate generates (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrate, and (E)- and (Z)-2-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrates ('isoprene nitrates') in 66-80% overall yields. Using NOESY experiments the elucidation of the carbon-carbon double bond configuration within the purified isoprene nitrates has been established. Further exemplifying our 'halide for nitrate' substitution chemistry we outline the straightforward transformation of (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol bromide into the previously unknown monoterpene nitrate (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

  3. [Effect of acetylation and oxidation on some properties of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) seed starch].

    PubMed

    Rincón, Alicia Mariela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Aragoza, Luis E; Padilla, Fanny

    2007-09-01

    Starch extracted from seeds of Artocarpus altilis (Breadfruit) was chemically modified by acetylation and oxidation, and its functional properties were evaluated and compared with these of native starch. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that moisture content was higher for modified starches. Ash, protein, crude fiber and amylose contents were reduced by the modifications, but did not alter the native starch granules' irregularity, oval shape and smooth surface. Acetylation produced changes in water absorption, swelling power and soluble solids, these values were higher for acetylated starch, while values for native and oxidized starches were similar. Both modifications reduced pasting temperature; oxidation reduced maximum peak viscosity but it was increased by acetylation. Hot paste viscosity was reduced by both modifications, whereas cold paste viscosity was lower in the oxidized starch and higher in the acetylated starch. Breakdown was increased by acetylation and reduced with oxidation. Setback value was reduced after acetylation, indicating it could minimize retrogradation of the starch.

  4. N-Terminal Acetylation Acts as an Avidity Enhancer Within an Interconnected Multiprotein Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Daniel C.; Monda, Julie K.; Bennett, Eric J.; Harper, J. Wade; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2012-10-25

    Although many eukaryotic proteins are amino (N)-terminally acetylated, structural mechanisms by which N-terminal acetylation mediates protein interactions are largely unknown. Here, we found that N-terminal acetylation of the E2 enzyme, Ubc12, dictates distinctive E3-dependent ligation of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 to Cul1. Structural, biochemical, biophysical, and genetic analyses revealed how complete burial of Ubc12's N-acetyl-methionine in a hydrophobic pocket in the E3, Dcn1, promotes cullin neddylation. The results suggest that the N-terminal acetyl both directs Ubc12's interactions with Dcn1 and prevents repulsion of a charged N terminus. Our data provide a link between acetylation and ubiquitin-like protein conjugation and define a mechanism for N-terminal acetylation-dependent recognition.

  5. Histone acetylation dependent energy landscapes in tri-nucleosome revealed by residue-resolved molecular simulations

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Le; Takada, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Histone tail acetylation is a key epigenetic marker that tends to open chromatin folding and activate transcription. Despite intensive studies, precise roles of individual lysine acetylation in chromatin folding have only been poorly understood. Here, we revealed structural dynamics of tri-nucleosomes with several histone tail acetylation states and analyzed histone tail interactions with DNA by performing molecular simulations at an unprecedentedly high resolution. We found versatile acetylation-dependent landscapes of tri-nucleosome. The H4 and H2A tail acetylation reduced the contact between the first and third nucleosomes mediated by the histone tails. The H3 tail acetylation reduced its interaction with neighboring linker DNAs resulting in increase of the distance between consecutive nucleosomes. Notably, two copies of the same histone in a single nucleosome have markedly asymmetric interactions with DNAs, suggesting specific pattern of nucleosome docking albeit high inherent flexibility. Estimated transcription factor accessibility was significantly high for the H4 tail acetylated structures. PMID:27698366

  6. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  7. Nitrate Transport, Sensing, and Responses in Plants.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, José A; Vega, Andrea; Bouguyon, Eléonore; Krouk, Gabriel; Gojon, Alain; Coruzzi, Gloria; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient that affects plant growth and development. N is an important component of chlorophyll, amino acids, nucleic acids, and secondary metabolites. Nitrate is one of the most abundant N sources in the soil. Because nitrate and other N nutrients are often limiting, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to ensure adequate supply of nutrients in a variable environment. Nitrate is absorbed in the root and mobilized to other organs by nitrate transporters. Nitrate sensing activates signaling pathways that impinge upon molecular, metabolic, physiological, and developmental responses locally and at the whole plant level. With the advent of genomics technologies and genetic tools, important advances in our understanding of nitrate and other N nutrient responses have been achieved in the past decade. Furthermore, techniques that take advantage of natural polymorphisms present in divergent individuals from a single species have been essential in uncovering new components. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how nitrate signaling affects biological processes in plants. Moreover, we still lack an integrated view of how all the regulatory factors identified interact or crosstalk to orchestrate the myriad N responses plants typically exhibit. In this review, we provide an updated overview of mechanisms by which nitrate is sensed and transported throughout the plant. We discuss signaling components and how nitrate sensing crosstalks with hormonal pathways for developmental responses locally and globally in the plant. Understanding how nitrate impacts on plant metabolism, physiology, and growth and development in plants is key to improving crops for sustainable agriculture. PMID:27212387

  8. Nitrate Transport, Sensing, and Responses in Plants.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, José A; Vega, Andrea; Bouguyon, Eléonore; Krouk, Gabriel; Gojon, Alain; Coruzzi, Gloria; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient that affects plant growth and development. N is an important component of chlorophyll, amino acids, nucleic acids, and secondary metabolites. Nitrate is one of the most abundant N sources in the soil. Because nitrate and other N nutrients are often limiting, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to ensure adequate supply of nutrients in a variable environment. Nitrate is absorbed in the root and mobilized to other organs by nitrate transporters. Nitrate sensing activates signaling pathways that impinge upon molecular, metabolic, physiological, and developmental responses locally and at the whole plant level. With the advent of genomics technologies and genetic tools, important advances in our understanding of nitrate and other N nutrient responses have been achieved in the past decade. Furthermore, techniques that take advantage of natural polymorphisms present in divergent individuals from a single species have been essential in uncovering new components. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how nitrate signaling affects biological processes in plants. Moreover, we still lack an integrated view of how all the regulatory factors identified interact or crosstalk to orchestrate the myriad N responses plants typically exhibit. In this review, we provide an updated overview of mechanisms by which nitrate is sensed and transported throughout the plant. We discuss signaling components and how nitrate sensing crosstalks with hormonal pathways for developmental responses locally and globally in the plant. Understanding how nitrate impacts on plant metabolism, physiology, and growth and development in plants is key to improving crops for sustainable agriculture.

  9. Portion of Enhanced 360-degree Gallery Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a sub-section of the 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image. The color was digitally balanced according to the color transmittance capability of a high-resolution TV at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and is dependent on that device. In this color enhanced version of the panorama, detail in surface features are brought out via changes to saturation and intensity, holding the original hue constant. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. Another Lander petal is at the right, showing the fully deployed forward ramp.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University

  10. Givinostat inhibition of hepatic stellate cell proliferation and protein acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Gang; Xu, Ling; Wang, Ting; Wei, Jue; Meng, Wen-Ying; Wang, Na; Shi, Min

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor givinostat on proteins related to regulation of hepatic stellate cell proliferation. METHODS: The cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry were used to observe changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle in hepatic stellate cells treated with givinostat. Western blot was used to observe expression changes in p21, p57, CDK4, CDK6, cyclinD1, caspase-3, and caspase-9 in hepatic stellate cells exposed to givinostat. The scratch assay was used to analyze the effect of givinostat on cell migration. Effects of givinostat on the reactive oxygen species profile, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in JS-1 cells were observed by laser confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Givinostat significantly inhibited JS-1 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis, leading to cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phases. Treatment with givinostat downregulated protein expression of CDK4, CDK6, and cyclin D1, whereas expression of p21 and p57 was significantly increased. The givinostat-induced apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells was mainly mediated through p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Givinostat treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species production, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and promoted mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Acetylation of superoxide dismutase (acetyl K68) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (acetyl K310) was upregulated, while there was no change in protein expression. Moreover, the notable beneficial effect of givinostat on liver fibrosis was also confirmed in the mouse models. CONCLUSION: Givinostat has antifibrotic activities via regulating the acetylation of nuclear factor-κB and superoxide dismutase 2, thus inhibiting hepatic stellate cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. PMID:26217084

  11. Mechanism of action of clostridial glycine reductase: Isolation and characterization of a covalent acetyl enzyme intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Arkowitz, R.A.; Abeles, R.H. )

    1991-04-23

    Clostridial glycine reductase consists of proteins A, B, and C and catalyzes the reaction glycine + P{sub i} + 2e{sup {minus}} {yields} acetyl phosphate + NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Evidence was previously obtained that is consistent with the involvement of an acyl enzyme intermediate in this reaction. The authors now demonstrate that protein C catalyzes exchange of ({sup 32}P)P{sub i} into acetyl phosphate, providing additional support for an acetyl enzyme intermediate on protein C. Furthermore, they have isolated acetyl protein C and shown that it is qualitatively, catalytically competent. Acetyl protein C can be obtained through the forward reaction from protein C and Se-(carboxymethyl)selenocysteine-protein A, which is generated by the reaction of glycine with proteins A and B. Acetyl protein C can also be generated through the reverse reaction by the addition of acetyl phosphate to protein C. Both procedures lead to the same acetyl enzyme. The acetyl enzyme reacts with P{sub i} to give acetyl phosphate. When ({sup 14}C)acetyl protein C is denaturated with TCA and redissolved with urea, radioactivity remained associated with the protein. Treatment with KBH{sub 4} removes all the radioactivity associated with protein C, resulting in the formation of ({sup 14}C)ethanol. They conclude that a thiol group on protein C is acetylated. Proteins A and C together catalyze the exchange of tritium atoms from ({sup 3}H)H{sub 2}O into acetyl phosphate. This exchange reaction supports the proposal that an enol of the acetyl enzyme is an intermediate in the reaction sequence.

  12. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  13. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  14. Acetylation modification regulates GRP78 secretion in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongwei; Zhuang, Ming; Zhang, Lichao; Zheng, Xingnan; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-01-01

    High glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression contributes to the acquisition of a wide range of phenotypic cancer hallmarks, and the pleiotropic oncogenic functions of GRP78 may result from its diverse subcellular distribution. Interestingly, GRP78 has been reported to be secreted from solid tumour cells, participating in cell-cell communication in the tumour microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying this secretion remains elusive. Here, we report that GRP78 is secreted from colon cancer cells via exosomes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors blocked GRP78 release by inducing its aggregation in the ER. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibitor treatment suppressed HDAC6 activity and led to increased GRP78 acetylation; acetylated GRP78 then bound to VPS34, a class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase, consequently preventing the sorting of GRP78 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Of note, we found that mimicking GRP78 acetylation by substituting the lysine at residue 633, one of the deacetylated sites of HDAC6, with a glutamine resulted in decreased GRP78 secretion and impaired tumour cell growth in vitro. Our study thus reveals a hitherto-unknown mechanism of GRP78 secretion and may also provide implications for the therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27460191

  15. Carbon isotope fractionation and the acetyl-CoA pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaser, Martin; Conrad, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Homoacetogenic bacteria can catalyze the reductive synthesis of acetate from CO2 via the acetyl-CoA pathway. Besides this unifying property homoacetogenic bacteria constitute a metabolically and phylogenetically diverse bacteriological group. Therefore their environmental role is difficult to address. It has been recognized that in methanogenic environments homoacetogenic bacteria contribute to the degradation of organic matter. The natural abundance of 13C may be used to understand the functional impact of homoacetogenic bacteria in the soil environment. To distinguish the acetyl-CoA pathway from other dominant processes, the isotopic composition of acetate and CO2 can be determined and the fractionation factors of the individual processes may be used to discriminate between the dominant pathways. To characterize the fractionation factor associated with the acetyl-CoA pathway the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity needs to be considered. Therefore the fractionation factor of substrate utilization and product formation of different homoacetogens (Acetobacterium woodii, Sporomusa ovata, Thermoanaerobacter kivui, Morella thermoautotrophica) has been studied under pure culture conditions in two defined minimal medium with H2/CO2 as sole source of carbon and energy. It became obvious that the cultivation conditions have a major impact on the obtained fractionation factors.

  16. Acetylation modification regulates GRP78 secretion in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongwei; Zhuang, Ming; Zhang, Lichao; Zheng, Xingnan; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-01-01

    High glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression contributes to the acquisition of a wide range of phenotypic cancer hallmarks, and the pleiotropic oncogenic functions of GRP78 may result from its diverse subcellular distribution. Interestingly, GRP78 has been reported to be secreted from solid tumour cells, participating in cell-cell communication in the tumour microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying this secretion remains elusive. Here, we report that GRP78 is secreted from colon cancer cells via exosomes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors blocked GRP78 release by inducing its aggregation in the ER. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibitor treatment suppressed HDAC6 activity and led to increased GRP78 acetylation; acetylated GRP78 then bound to VPS34, a class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase, consequently preventing the sorting of GRP78 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Of note, we found that mimicking GRP78 acetylation by substituting the lysine at residue 633, one of the deacetylated sites of HDAC6, with a glutamine resulted in decreased GRP78 secretion and impaired tumour cell growth in vitro. Our study thus reveals a hitherto-unknown mechanism of GRP78 secretion and may also provide implications for the therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27460191

  17. Investigation of acetylated chitosan microspheres as potential chemoembolic agents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Kong, Ming; Cheng, Xiaojie; Li, Jingjing; Li, Jing; Chen, Xiguang

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the potential of chitosan microspheres (CMs) with different acetylation using as a chemoembolic agent. Chitosan microspheres (CMs) were prepared via water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification cross-linking method, and acetylated chitosan microspheres (ACMs) were obtained by acetylation of CMs. Next, we characterized the morphology, size, composition and degrees of deacetylation using scanning electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic laser light scattering (DLS), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). All microspheres had smooth surfaces and good mechanical flexibility, and all could pass through a 5F catheter. The swelling rate (SR) of CMs decreased significantly with the increase of pH (4.0-10.0) but ACMs did not change under the same conditions. Protein absorption assays suggested that albumin was more greatly adsorbed on CMs than on ACMs. Furthermore, CMs caused more blood clots than ACMs. ACMs caused hemolysis less than CMs (<5% of the time). Data indicated that ACMs had more hemocompatibility. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that ACMs initially had less cell attached proliferation but increased with incubation. In contrast, the relative growth rate of mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) on CMs decreased gradually. The results suggested that ACMs could stimulate the growth of MEFs, and CMs were not cytotoxic to MEFs. Thus, ACMs were more biocompatible with greater potential to be used as chemoembolic material.

  18. PAN hollow fiber membranes elicit functional hippocampal neuronal network.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sabrina; Piscioneri, Antonella; Salerno, Simona; Tasselli, Franco; Di Vito, Anna; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello; Drioli, Enrico; De Bartolo, Loredana

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of an advanced in vitro biohybrid culture model system based on the use of hollow fibre membranes (HFMs) and hippocampal neurons in order to promote the formation of a high density neuronal network. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK-WC) membranes were prepared in hollow fibre configuration. The morphological and metabolic behaviour of hippocampal neurons cultured on PAN HF membranes were compared with those cultured on PEEK-WC HF. The differences of cell behaviour between HFMs were evidenced by the morphometric analysis in terms of axon length and also by the investigation of metabolic activity in terms of neurotrophin secretion. These findings suggested that PAN HFMs induced the in vitro reconstruction of very highly functional and complex neuronal networks. Thus, these biomaterials could potentially be used for the in vitro realization of a functional hippocampal tissue analogue for the study of neurobiological functions and/or neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region.

    PubMed

    Kline, Keith L; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  20. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  1. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  2. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  3. The stable isotope ecology of Pan in Uganda and beyond.

    PubMed

    Loudon, James E; Sandberg, Paul A; Wrangham, Richard W; Fahey, Babette; Sponheimer, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotope analysis has long been used to study the dietary ecology of living and fossil primates, and there has been increasing interest in using stable isotopes to study primate habitat use and anthropogenic impacts on non-human primates. Here, we examine the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from seven communities in Uganda across a continuum of habitat structure (closed to more open) and access to anthropogenic resources (no reliance to heavy reliance). In general, the hair δ(13) C, but not δ(15) N, values of these communities vary depending on forest structure and degree of anthropogenic influence. When integrated with previously published hair δ(13) C and δ(15) N values for Pan, it is apparent that modern "savanna" and "forest" Pan form discrete clusters in carbon and nitrogen isotope space, although there are exceptions probably relating to microhabitat specialization. The combined dataset also reveals that Pan δ(13) C values (but not δ(15) N values) are inversely related to rainfall (r(2)  = 0.62). We converted Pan hair δ(13) C values to enamel equivalents and made comparisons to the fossil hominoids Sivapithecus sp., Gigantopithecus blacki, Ardipithecus ramidus, and Australopithecus anamensis. The δ(13) C values of the fossil hominins Ar. ramidus and Au. anamensis do not cluster with the δ(13) C values of modern Pan in "forest" habitats, or with fossil hominoids that are believed to have inhabited forests. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1070-1085, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The stable isotope ecology of Pan in Uganda and beyond.

    PubMed

    Loudon, James E; Sandberg, Paul A; Wrangham, Richard W; Fahey, Babette; Sponheimer, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotope analysis has long been used to study the dietary ecology of living and fossil primates, and there has been increasing interest in using stable isotopes to study primate habitat use and anthropogenic impacts on non-human primates. Here, we examine the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from seven communities in Uganda across a continuum of habitat structure (closed to more open) and access to anthropogenic resources (no reliance to heavy reliance). In general, the hair δ(13) C, but not δ(15) N, values of these communities vary depending on forest structure and degree of anthropogenic influence. When integrated with previously published hair δ(13) C and δ(15) N values for Pan, it is apparent that modern "savanna" and "forest" Pan form discrete clusters in carbon and nitrogen isotope space, although there are exceptions probably relating to microhabitat specialization. The combined dataset also reveals that Pan δ(13) C values (but not δ(15) N values) are inversely related to rainfall (r(2)  = 0.62). We converted Pan hair δ(13) C values to enamel equivalents and made comparisons to the fossil hominoids Sivapithecus sp., Gigantopithecus blacki, Ardipithecus ramidus, and Australopithecus anamensis. The δ(13) C values of the fossil hominins Ar. ramidus and Au. anamensis do not cluster with the δ(13) C values of modern Pan in "forest" habitats, or with fossil hominoids that are believed to have inhabited forests. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1070-1085, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27188271

  5. Evaluation of the tablets' surface flow velocities in pan coaters.

    PubMed

    Dreu, Rok; Toschkoff, Gregor; Funke, Adrian; Altmeyer, Andreas; Knop, Klaus; Khinast, Johannes; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The tablet pan coating process involves various types of transverse tablet bed motions, ranging from rolling to cascading. To preserve satisfactory results in terms of coating quality after scale-up, understanding the dynamics of pan coating process should be achieved. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology of estimating translational surface velocities of the tablets in a pan coater and to assess their dependence on the drum's filling degree, the pan speed, the presence of baffles and the selected tablet properties in a dry bed system and during coating while varying the drum's filling degree and the pan speed. Experiments were conducted on the laboratory scale and on the pilot scale in side-vented pan coaters. Surface movement of biconvex two-layer tablets was assessed before, during and after the process of active coating. In order to determine the tablets' surface flow velocities, a high-speed video of the tablet surface flow was recorded via a borescope inserted into the coating drum and analysed via a cross-correlation algorithm. The obtained tablet velocity data were arranged in a linear fashion as a function of the coating drum's radius and frequency. Velocity data obtained during coating were close to those of dry tablets after coating. The filling degree had little influence on the tablet velocity profile in a coating drum with baffles but clearly affected it in a coating drum without baffles. In most but not all cases, tablets with a lower static angle of repose had tablet velocity profiles with lower slopes than tablets with higher inter-tablet friction. This particular tablet velocity response can be explained by case specific values of tablet bed's dynamic angle of repose.

  6. Crystal structure of tabtoxin resistance protein complexed with acetyl coenzyme A reveals the mechanism for {beta}-lactam acetylation.

    SciTech Connect

    He, H.; Ding, Y.; Bartlam, M.; Sun, F.; Le, Y.; Qin, X.; Tang, H.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Liu, J.; Zhao, N.; Rao, Z.; Biosciences Division; Tsinghua Univ.; Chinese Academy of Science

    2003-01-31

    Tabtoxin resistance protein (TTR) is an enzyme that renders tabtoxin-producing pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, tolerant to their own phytotoxins. Here, we report the crystal structure of TTR complexed with its natural cofactor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to 1.55 {angstrom} resolution. The binary complex forms a characteristic 'V' shape for substrate binding and contains the four motifs conserved in the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily, which also includes the histone acetyltransferases (HATs). A single-step mechanism is proposed to explain the function of three conserved residues, Glu92, Asp130 and Tyr141, in catalyzing the acetyl group transfer to its substrate. We also report that TTR possesses HAT activity and suggest an evolutionary relationship between TTR and other GNAT members.

  7. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed.

    PubMed

    Ghane, Ehsan; Fausey, Norman R; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-15

    Denitrification beds are promoted to reduce nitrate load in agricultural subsurface drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution of surface water. In this system, drainage water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transformed into nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to model a denitrification bed treating drainage water and evaluate its adverse greenhouse gas emissions. Field experiments were conducted at an existing denitrification bed. Evaluations showed very low greenhouse gas emissions (mean N2O emission of 0.12 μg N m(-2) min(-1)) from the denitrification bed surface. Field experiments indicated that nitrate removal rate was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis-Menten constant of 7.2 mg N L(-1). We developed a novel denitrification bed model based on the governing equations for water flow and nitrate removal kinetics. The model evaluation statistics showed satisfactory prediction of bed outflow nitrate concentration during subsurface drainage flow. The model can be used to design denitrification beds with efficient nitrate removal which in turn leads to enhanced drainage water quality. PMID:25638338

  8. Synthesis of Nitrate Reductase in Chlorella

    PubMed Central

    Funkhouser, Edward A.; Shen, Teh-Chien; Ackermann, Renate

    1980-01-01

    Synthesis of nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) in Chlorella vulgaris was studied under inducing conditions, i.e. with cells grown on ammonia and then transferred to nitrate medium. Cycloheximide (but not chloramphenicol) completely inhibited synthesis of the enzyme, but only if it was added at the start (i.e. at the time of nitrate addition) of the induction period. Cycloheximide inhibition became less effective as induction by nitrate proceeded. Enzyme from small quantities of culture (1 to 3 milliliters of packed cells) was purified to homogeneity with the aid of blue dextran-Sepharose chromatography. Incorporation of radioactivity from labeled arginine into nitrate reductase was measured in the presence and absence of cycloheximide. Conditions were found under which the inhibitor completely blocked the incorporation of labeled amino acid, but only slightly decreased the increase in nitrate reductase activity. The results indicate that synthesis of nitrate reductase from amino acids proceeds by way of a protein precursor which is inactive enzymically. PMID:16661310

  9. Leucine-684: A conserved residue of an AMP-acetyl CoA synthetase (AceCS) from Leishmania donovani is involved in substrate recognition, catalysis and acetylation.

    PubMed

    Soumya, Neelagiri; Tandan, Hitendra; Damre, Mangesh V; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T; Singh, Sushma

    2016-04-15

    AMP-acetyl CoA synthetase (AMP-AceCS) is a key enzyme which catalyzes the activation of acetate to acetyl CoA, an important intermediate at the cross roads of various anabolic and catabolic pathways. Multiple sequence alignment of Leishmania donovani AceCS with other organisms revealed the presence of a highly conserved leucine residue at 684 position which is known to be crucial for acetylation by protein acetyl transferases in other organisms. In an attempt to understand the role of leucine residue at 684 position in L. donovani acetyl CoA synthetase (LdAceCS), it was mutated to proline (P) by site directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis of the L684P-LdAceCS mutant revealed approximately two fold increased binding affinity with acetate, whereas fivefold decreased affinity was observed with ATP. There was insignificant change in secondary structure as revealed by CD however, two fold decreased fluorescence intensity was observed at an emission maxima of 340 nm. Interestingly, L684P mutation abolished the acetylation of the mutant enzyme indicating the importance of L684 in acetylation of the enzyme. Changes in biochemical parameters of the mutant protein were validated by homology modeling of the wild type and mutant LdAceCS enzyme using Salmonella enterica AceCS crystal structure as template. Our data provides evidence for the role of leucine 684 residue in substrate recognition, catalysis and acetylation of the AceCS enzyme.

  10. TCGA's Pan-Cancer Efforts and Expansion to Include Whole Genome Sequence - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Carolyn Hutter, Ph.D., Program Director of NHGRI's Division of Genomic Medicine, discusses the expansion of TCGA's Pan-Cancer efforts to include the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PAWG) project.

  11. Microbial Uranium Immobilization Independent of Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Andrew; Smith, April; Balkwill, Dr. David; Fagan, Lisa Anne; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2007-01-01

    At many uranium processing and handling facilities, including sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, high levels of nitrate are present as co-contamination with uranium in groundwater. The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal prior to the reduction of uranium provides a strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that allow for uranium bioreduction and stabilization in the presence of nitrate. Typical in-situ strategies involving the stimulation of metal-reducing bacteria are hindered by low pH environments at this study site and require that the persistent nitrate must first and continuously be removed or transformed prior to uranium being a preferred electron acceptor. This project investigates the possibility of stimulating nitrate-indifferent, pH-tolerant microorganisms to achieve bioreduction of U(VI) despite nitrate persistence. Successful enrichments from U-contaminated sediments demonstrated nearly complete reduction of uranium with very little loss of nitrate from pH 4.9-5.6 using methanol or glycerol as a carbon source. Higher pH enrichments also demonstrated similar U reduction capacity with 5-30% nitrate loss within one week. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified from uranium-reducing enrichments (pH 5.7-6.7) and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses classified the clone sequences into four distinct clusters. Data from sequencing and T-RFLP profiles indicated that the majority of the microorganisms stimulated by these enrichment conditions consisted of low G+C Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Clostridium and Clostridium-like organisms. This research demonstrates that the stimulation of a natural microbial community to immobilize U through bioreduction is possible without the removal of nitrate.

  12. Relationship of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active and total odd nitrogen at northern high latitudes - Influence of reservoir species on NO(x) and O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Zahnle, K.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Crutzen, P. J.; Kanakidou, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The partitioning of relative nitrogen in the Arctic and the sub-Arctic troposphere based on measurements conducted during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) is described. The first set of comprehensive odd nitrogen and O3 measurements from the Arctic/sub-Arctic free troposphere shows that a highly aged air mass that has persisted under very cold conditions is present. A large fraction of the odd nitrogen appears to be present in the form of reservoir species such as PAN. Significant quantities of as yet unknown reactive nitrogen species, such as complex alkyl nitrates and pernitrates, are expected to be present. Together with PAN, these nitrate and pernitrate reservoir species could control the entire NO(x) availability of the high-latitude troposphere and in turn influence the O3 photochemistry of the region. The role of PAN in influencing the O3 reservoir is shown to be important and may be responsible for the increasing O3 temporal trend observed at high latitudes.

  13. Late Cardiac Events after Childhood Cancer: Methodological Aspects of the Pan-European Study PanCareSurFup

    PubMed Central

    Feijen, Elizabeth A. M.; Font-Gonzalez, Anna; van Dalen, Elvira C.; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Reulen, Raoul C.; Winter, David L.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Haupt, Riccardo; Alessi, Daniela; Byrne, Julianne; Bardi, Edit; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Grabow, Desiree; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Jankovic, Momcilo; Levitt, Gill A.; Skinner, Roderick; Zadravec Zaletel, Lorna; Hjorth, Lars; Tissing, Wim J. E.; de Vathaire, Florent; Hawkins, Mike M.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of long-term adverse effects of cancer and its treatment, including cardiac events. The pan-European PanCareSurFup study determined the incidence and risk factors for cardiac events among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of the cardiac cohort and nested case-control study within PanCareSurFup. Methods Eight data providers in Europe participating in PanCareSurFup identified and validated symptomatic cardiac events in their cohorts of childhood cancer survivors. Data on symptomatic heart failure, ischemia, pericarditis, valvular disease and arrhythmia were collected and graded according to the Criteria for Adverse Events. Detailed treatment data, data on potential confounders, lifestyle related risk factors and general health problems were collected. Results The PanCareSurFup cardiac cohort consisted of 59,915 5-year childhood cancer survivors with malignancies diagnosed between 1940 and 2009 and classified according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer 3. Different strategies were used to identify cardiac events such as record linkage to population/ hospital or regional based databases, and patient- and general practitioner-based questionnaires. Conclusion The cardiac study of the European collaborative research project PanCareSurFup will provide the largest cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors with systematically ascertained and validated data on symptomatic cardiac events. The result of this study can provide information to minimize the burden of cardiac events in childhood cancer survivors by tailoring the follow-up of childhood cancer survivors at high risk of cardiac adverse events, transferring this knowledge into evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and providing a platform for future research studies in childhood cancer patients.  PMID:27643694

  14. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Cui; Qu Ruijuan; Liang Jinyan; Yang Xi

    2010-11-24

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  15. Proteome-wide analysis reveals widespread lysine acetylation of major protein complexes in the malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Cobbold, Simon A.; Santos, Joana M.; Ochoa, Alejandro; Perlman, David H.; Llinás, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification in many organisms including the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, yet the full extent of acetylation across the parasite proteome remains unresolved. Moreover, the functional significance of acetylation or how specific acetyl-lysine sites are regulated is largely unknown. Here we report a seven-fold expansion of the known parasite ‘acetylome’, characterizing 2,876 acetylation sites on 1,146 proteins. We observe that lysine acetylation targets a diverse range of protein complexes and is particularly enriched within the Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) DNA-binding protein family. Using quantitative proteomics we determined that artificial perturbation of the acetate/acetyl-CoA balance alters the acetyl-lysine occupancy of several ApiAP2 DNA-binding proteins and related transcriptional proteins. This metabolic signaling could mediate significant downstream transcriptional responses, as we show that acetylation of an ApiAP2 DNA-binding domain ablates its DNA-binding propensity. Lastly, we investigated the acetyl-lysine targets of each class of lysine deacetylase in order to begin to explore how each class of enzyme contributes to regulating the P. falciparum acetylome. PMID:26813983

  16. Cell differentiation along multiple pathways accompanied by changes in histone acetylation status.

    PubMed

    Legartová, Soňa; Kozubek, Stanislav; Franek, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Lochmanová, Gabriela; Martinet, Nadine; Bártová, Eva

    2014-04-01

    Post-translational modification of histones is fundamental to the regulation of basic nuclear processes and subsequent cellular events, including differentiation. In this study, we analyzed acetylated forms of histones H2A, H2B, and H4 during induced differentiation in mouse (mESCs) and human (hESCs) embryonic stem cells and during induced enterocytic differentiation of colon cancer cells in vitro. Endoderm-like differentiation of mESCs induced by retinoic acid and enterocytic differentiation induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate were accompanied by increased mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of histone H2B and a pronounced increase in di- and tri-acetylation of histone H4. In enterocytes, mono-acetylation of histone H2A also increased and tetra-acetylation of histone H4 appeared only after induction of this differentiation pathway. During differentiation of hESCs, we observed increased mono-acetylation and decreased tri-acetylation of H2B. Mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of H4 were reduced, manifested by a significant increase in nonacetylated H4 histones. Levels of acetylated histones increased during induced differentiation in mESCs and during histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-induced enterocytic differentiation, whereas differentiation of human ESCs was associated with reduced acetylation of histones H2B and H4.

  17. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of WRN function causes Werner Syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN’s DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  18. In silico study of subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1) from different Plasmodium species in complex with peptidyl-difluorostatones and characterization of potent pan-SUB1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brogi, Simone; Giovani, Simone; Brindisi, Margherita; Gemma, Sandra; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Blackman, Michael J; Butini, Stefania

    2016-03-01

    Plasmodium falciparum subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1) is a novel target for the development of innovative antimalarials. We recently described the first potent difluorostatone-based inhibitors of the enzyme ((4S)-(N-((N-acetyl-l-lysyl)-l-isoleucyl-l-threonyl-l-alanyl)-2,2-difluoro-3-oxo-4-aminopentanoyl)glycine (1) and (4S)-(N-((N-acetyl-l-isoleucyl)-l-threonyl-l-alanylamino)-2,2-difluoro-3-oxo-4-aminopentanoyl)glycine (2)). As a continuation of our efforts towards the definition of the molecular determinants of enzyme-inhibitor interaction, we herein propose the first comprehensive computational investigation of the SUB1 catalytic core from six different Plasmodium species, using homology modeling and molecular docking approaches. Investigation of the differences in the binding sites as well as the interactions of our inhibitors 1,2 with all SUB1 orthologues, allowed us to highlight the structurally relevant regions of the enzyme that could be targeted for developing pan-SUB1 inhibitors. According to our in silico predictions, compounds 1,2 have been demonstrated to be potent inhibitors of SUB1 from all three major clinically relevant Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. knowlesi). We next derived multiple structure-based pharmacophore models that were combined in an inclusive pan-SUB1 pharmacophore (SUB1-PHA). This latter was validated by applying in silico methods, showing that it may be useful for the future development of potent antimalarial agents. PMID:26826801

  19. Pan-Eurasian experiment (PEEX) establishing a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian atmosphere-ecosystem observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zaytzeva, Nina; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolay; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennady; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions (Kulmala et al. 2011). The main goal of PEEX Research agenda is to contribute to solving the scientific questions that are specifically important for the Pan-Eurasian region in the coming years, in particular the global climate change and its consequences to nature and human society. Pan Eurasian region represents one the Earth most extensive areas of boreal forest (taiga) and the largest natural wetlands, thus being a significant source area of trace gas emissions, biogenic aerosol particles, and source and sink area for the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in a global scale (Guenther et al. 1995, Timkovsky et al. 2010, Tunved et al. 2006, Glagolev et al. 2010). One of the first activities of the PEEX initiative is to establish a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian Observation Networks. Siberian region is currently lacking a coordinated, coherent ground based atmosphere-ecosystem measurement network, which would be crucial component for observing and predicting the effects of climate change in the Northern Pan- Eurasian region The vision of the Pan-Eurasion network will be based on a hierarchical SMEAR-type (Stations Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions) integrated land-atmosphere observation system (Hari et al. 2009). A suite of stations have been selected for the Preliminary Phase of PEEX Observation network. These Preliminary Phase stations includes the SMEAR-type stations in Finland (SMEAR-I-II-II-IV stations), in Estonia (SMEAR-Järviselja) and in China (SMEAR-Nanjing) and selected stations in Russia and ecosystem station network in China. PEEX observation network will fill in the current observational gap in the Siberian region and bring the Siberian observation setup into international context with the with standardized or

  20. Absolute measurements of total peroxy nitrate mixing ratios by thermal dissociation blue diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paul, Dipayan; Osthoff, Hans D

    2010-08-01

    Peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) have long been recognized as important trace gas constituents of the troposphere. Here, we describe a blue diode laser thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer for rapid and absolute measurements of total peroxyacyl nitrate (SigmaPAN) abundances at ambient concentration levels. The PANs are thermally dissociated and detected as NO2, whose mixing ratios are quantified by optical absorption at 405 nm relative to a reference channel kept at ambient temperature. The effective NO2 absorption cross-section at the diode laser emission wavelength was measured to be 6.1 x 10(-19) cm2 molecule(-1), in excellent agreement with a prediction based on a projection of a high-resolution literature absorption spectrum onto the laser line width. The performance, i.e., accuracy and precision of measurement and matrix effects, of the new 405 nm thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer was evaluated and compared to that of a 532 nm thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer using laboratory-generated air samples. The new 405 nm spectrometer was considerably more sensitive and compact than the previously constructed version. The key advantage of laser thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy is that the measurement can be considered absolute and does not need to rely on external calibration.

  1. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  2. Sampling bee communities using pan traps: alternative methods increase sample size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring of the status of bee populations and inventories of bee faunas require systematic sampling. Efficiency and ease of implementation has encouraged the use of pan traps to sample bees. Efforts to find an optimal standardized sampling method for pan traps have focused on pan trap color. Th...

  3. Observations of ClNO2 and PANs in a mid-continental urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furgeson, A.; Mielke, L.; Osthoff, H. D.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides play many important roles in regional air quality, for example, through the catalytic photochemical production of O3 involving NOx (=NO+NO2), which in urban environments is primarily of anthropogenic origin. NOx can be converted to reservoir species, such as peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs), or removed from the atmosphere, mainly by conversion to HNO3, which is removed predominantly through heterogeneous uptake and dry deposition. The main HNO3 production pathways are reaction of NO2 with OH during the day and heterogeneous reactions involving N2O5 at night. It has been known for some time that heterogeneous N2O5 hydrolysis (i.e., N2O5 + H2O → 2HNO3) competes with ClNO2 formation (i.e., N2O5 + Cl- → ClNO2 + NO3-) on chloride containing aerosol, but the latter reaction is believed to be only of significance in marine and coastal environments. Formation of ClNO2 is significant as it reduces the rate of nocturnal NOx removal and activates chlorine by releasing highly reactive Cl atoms following ClNO2 photolysis after sunrise. Recent field measurements by Thornton and coworkers have shown the efficient formation of ClNO2 in mid-continental air at a distance greater than 1,000 km from the nearest coastline. In this presentation, measurements of peroxyacyl nitrates and ClNO2 by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) on the rooftop of a 6-story building in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, are described. The CIMS was operated in negative ion mode and equipped with a heated inlet to dissociate PANs to NO2 and the corresponding PA radicals, which are converted to the respective carboxylate anions using iodide reagent ion. ClNO2 was monitored as the cluster ion (ClNO2)I- at m/z 208 and 210. The CIMS was calibrated for peroxyacyl nitrates using a newly developed photolysis source, which was also used to deliver an internal standard during the measurement intensive. Measurements took place during spring and fall of 2010. During spring, we observed in excess of 200

  4. The Historical Aspects of the Pan American Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Curtis R.

    The purpose of this study was to produce an accurate account of the origin and development of the Pan American Games. A further purpose was to collect, organize, and systematically compile the results of competition for each festival, and to identify some noteworthy incidents in each series of games. The document first explains that the idea of…

  5. 24. Roof detail from liftbed truck, showing pan roof above ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Roof detail from lift-bed truck, showing pan roof above breezeway, with sawn redwood trim, tube-type drains; note missing rain gutter at roof edge, deteriorated condition of slates; view to south, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  6. The nature, distribution and formation of pans in arid zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudie, A. S.; Wells, G. L.

    1995-03-01

    Pans, closed depressions, are a widespread feature of many of the world's drylands. By using literature survey, air photographs, topographic maps, orbital photographs and imagery, combined with field work it is possible to describe the major areas where these features occur. Their distribution is controlled to a great extent by the availability of susceptible surfaces. They also develop in certain particular environmental settings: palaeolacustrine basins, palaeodrainages, interdunes, and on coastal plains. Many of the pans have a distinctive morphology while on their lee sides they may have lunette dunes. Many processes combine to create and maintain pans, and these can be considered in a general model which has certain key elements. The first of these is that the area should not be one where fluvial processes are fully integrated. It should also not be one where aeolian accumulation is such as to infill any irregularities in the land's surface. If these two predisposing conditions are fulfilled then under dryland conditions, if susceptible surfaces are present, there are various circumstances that may lead to hollow development and enlargement. Although in some cases such processes as solution, suffosion and animal activities may play a role, we believe that the predominant reason why pans have the characteristics that they do (including their shapes, lunettes, alignments, etc.) is that they result from the operation of the twin processes of salt weathering and aeolian deflation.

  7. A case of maxillary sarcoma in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, M; Udono, T; Nogami, E; Hirosawa, M; Morimura, N; Saito, A; Seres, M; Teramoto, M; Nagano, K; Mori, Y; Uesaka, H; Nasu, K; Tomonaga, M; Idani, G; Hirata, S; Tsuruyama, T; Matsubayashi, K

    2014-04-01

    Oral malignancy is rare in chimpanzees. A 34-year-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) at Kumamoto Sanctuary, Japan, had developed it. Treatment is technically difficult for chimpanzees while malignant neoplasm is seemingly rising in captive populations. Widespread expert discussion, guidelines for treatment, especially for great apes in terminal stages is urgently needed.

  8. Maya Education and Pan Maya Ideology in the Yucatan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Allan

    1998-01-01

    A University of Yucatan (Mexico) professor who taught a Mayan linguistics course to indigenous teachers in Mayan discusses three issues that are central to understanding how indigenous education interacts with pan-Maya identity: the importance of locally developed Maya literature, the symbols used to define Maya culture, and a conflict over Maya…

  9. Can Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") Discriminate Appearance from Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A milestone in human development is coming to recognize that how something looks is not necessarily how it is. We tested appearance-reality understanding in chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with a task requiring them to choose between a small grape and a big grape. The apparent relative size of the grapes was reversed using magnifying and…

  10. Characterization of low thermal conductivity PAN-based carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzman, Howard A.; Adams, P. M.; Le, T. D.; Hemminger, Carl S.

    1992-01-01

    The microstructure and surface chemistry of eight low thermal conductivity (LTC) PAN-based carbon fibers were determined and compared with PAN-based fibers heat treated to higher temperatures. Based on wide-angle x ray diffraction, the LTC PAN fibers all appear to have a similar turbostratic structure with large 002 d-spacings, small crystallite sizes, and moderate preferred orientation. Limited small-angle x ray scattering (SAXS) results indicate that, with the exception of LTC fibers made by BASF, the LTC fibers do not have well developed pores. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the texture of the two LTC PAN-based fibers studied (Amoco T350/23X and /25X) consists of multiple sets of parallel, wavy, bent layers that interweave with each other forming a complex three dimensional network oriented randomly around the fiber axis. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis finds correlations between heat treated temperatures and the surface composition chemistry of the carbon fiber samples.

  11. New methods of nitrate removal from water.

    PubMed

    Shrimali, M; Singh, K P

    2001-01-01

    Nitrate contamination in groundwater resources originates mainly from the excessive use of fertilisers and uncontrolled land discharges of treated wastewater. This can cause potential health hazards to infants and pregnant women, thus limiting the direct use of the groundwater resources for the human consumption in several parts of the world, including India. The conventional processes used to eliminate nitrate from water are ion exchange, reverse osmosis and electro-dialysis. The utility of these processes has been limited due to their expensive operation and subsequent disposal problem of the generated nitrate waste brine. This paper presents a comprehensive account of the methods/techniques used for the removal of nitrate ion from water during the last 10 years with special reference to the biological denitrification and fate of the metals in decontamination processes.

  12. Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

  13. Effect of oral acetyl L-carnitine arginate on resting and postprandial blood biomarkers in pre-diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Tucker, Patrick S

    2009-01-01

    Background Resting and postprandial oxidative stress is elevated in those with metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Antioxidant supplementation may attenuate the rise in oxidative stress following feeding. Therefore we sought to determine the effects of acetyl L-carnitine arginate (ALCA) on resting and postprandial biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. Methods Twenty-nine pre-diabetic men and women were randomly assigned to either 3 g·day-1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 ± 3 yrs) or placebo (n = 15; 35 ± 3 yrs) in a double-blind design, to consume for eight weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken from subjects both pre and post intervention. After each fasting sample was obtained, subjects consumed a high fat, high carbohydrate meal and additional blood samples were taken at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post meal. Samples were analyzed for a variety of metabolic variables (e.g., glucose, HbA1c, lipid panel, C-reactive protein, nitrate/nitrite, and several markers of oxidative stress). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each variable measured post meal, both pre and post intervention. Results ALCA, but not placebo, resulted in an increase in nitrate/nitrite (25.4 ± 1.9 to 30.1 ± 2.8 μmol·L-1) from pre to post intervention, with post intervention values greater compared to placebo (p = 0.01). No other changes of statistical significance were noted (p > 0.05), although ALCA resulted in slight improvements in glucose (109 ± 5 to 103 ± 5 mg·dL-1), HbA1c (6.6 ± 1.1 to 6.2 ± 1.2%), and HOMA-IR (3.3 ± 1.3 to 2.9 ± 1.2). AUC postprandial data were not statistically different between ALCA and placebo for any variable (p > 0.05). However, nitrate/nitrite demonstrated a moderate effect size (r = 0.35) for increase from pre (139.50 ± 18.35 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1) to post (172.40 ± 21.75 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1) intervention with ALCA, and the magnitude of decrease following feeding was not as pronounced as with placebo. Conclusion

  14. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, David E

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  15. The UK Nitrate Time Bomb (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, R.; Wang, L.; Stuart, M.; Bloomfield, J.; Gooddy, D.; Lewis, M.; McKenzie, A.

    2013-12-01

    The developed world has benefitted enormously from the intensification of agriculture and the increased availability and use of synthetic fertilizers during the last century. However there has also been unintended adverse impact on the natural environment (water and ecosystems) with nitrate the most significant cause of water pollution and ecosystem damage . Many countries have introduced controls on nitrate, e.g. the European Union's Water Framework and Nitrate Directives, but despite this are continuing to see a serious decline in water quality. The purpose of our research is to investigate and quantify the importance of the unsaturated (vadose) zone pathway and groundwater in contributing to the decline. Understanding nutrient behaviour in the sub-surface environment and, in particular, the time lag between action and improvement is critical to effective management and remediation of nutrient pollution. A readily-transferable process-based model has been used to predict temporal loading of nitrate at the water table across the UK. A time-varying nitrate input function has been developed based on nitrate usage since 1925. Depth to the water table has been calculated from groundwater levels based on regional-scale observations in-filled by interpolated river base levels and vertical unsaturated zone velocities estimated from hydrogeological properties and mapping. The model has been validated using the results of more than 300 unsaturated zone nitrate profiles. Results show that for about 60% of the Chalk - the principal aquifer in the UK - peak nitrate input has yet to reach the water table and concentrations will continue to rise over the next 60 years. The implications are hugely significant especially where environmental objectives must be achieved in much shorter timescales. Current environmental and regulatory management strategies rarely take lag times into account and as a result will be poorly informed, leading to inappropriate controls and conflicts

  16. A search for nitrates in Martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Monica M.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-03-01

    Martian atmospheric nitrogen is highly enriched in N-15; nitrates formed by interaction of the atmosphere with the Martian regolith should therefore also be characterized by an elevated delta N-15 value. A search has been made for nitrates in two Martian meteorites, in order to determine the extent of possible regolith-atmosphere interaction. Shock-produced glass from the Elephant Moraine (EET) A79001 shergottite (E1,149) and a water-soluble extract from Nakhla were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and stepped combustion-stable isotope mass spectrometry. FTIR of both meteorites had features at 1375/cm and 1630/cm, consistent with nitrates. On account of their low thermal stability, nitrates break down at temperatures below 600 C; in this temperature range, E1,149 yeilded approximately 1250 ppb nitrogen with delta N-15 -8 +/- 5%. If this nitrogen is from a nitrate, then it cannot be distinquished from terrestial salts by its isotopic composition. The water-soluble extract from Nakhla also released nitrogen at low temperatures, approximately 17 ppb with delta N-15 approximately -11 +/- 4%. Since Nakhla is an observed 'fall', this is unlikely to be a terrestial weathering product. Nitrates apparently occur in E1,149 and Nakhla, but in very low abundance, and their origin is unclear. The isotopic composition of the salts, which is within the range of that proposed for Martian magmatic volatiles, is far removed from that of nitrogen in the present-day Martian atmosphere. If the nitrates are Martian in origin, they did not form in recent times from reactions involving atmospheric gases. Rather, the nitrates could be the result of an earlier episode of atmospheric interaction with the regolith, or with implantation of magmatic volatiles introduced during degassing.

  17. Microbial uranium immobilization independent of nitrate reduction.

    PubMed

    Madden, Andrew S; Smith, April C; Balkwill, David L; Fagan, Lisa A; Phelps, Tommy J

    2007-09-01

    At many uranium processing and handling facilities, including sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex, high levels of nitrate are present as co-contamination with uranium in groundwater. The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal prior to the reduction of uranium provides a strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that allow for uranium bioreduction and stabilization in the presence of nitrate. Typical in situ strategies involving the stimulation of metal-reducing bacteria are hindered by low-pH environments and require that the persistent nitrate must first and continuously be removed or transformed prior to uranium being a preferred electron acceptor. This work investigated the possibility of stimulating nitrate-indifferent, pH-tolerant microorganisms to achieve bioreduction of U(VI) despite nitrate persistence. Enrichments from U-contaminated sediments demonstrated nearly complete reduction of uranium with very little loss of nitrate from pH 5.7-6.2 using methanol or glycerol as a carbon source. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified from uranium-reducing enrichments (pH 5.7-6.2) and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses classified the clone sequences into four distinct clusters. Data from sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles indicated that the majority of the microorganisms stimulated by these enrichment conditions consisted of low G+C Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Clostridium and Clostridium-like organisms. This research demonstrates that the stimulation of a natural microbial community to immobilize U through bioreduction is possible without the removal of nitrate.

  18. Is beetroot juice more effective than sodium nitrate? The effects of equimolar nitrate dosages of nitrate-rich beetroot juice and sodium nitrate on oxygen consumption during exercise.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Bogdanova, Anna; Mettler, Samuel; Perret, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Dietary nitrate has been reported to lower oxygen consumption in moderate- and severe-intensity exercise. To date, it is unproven that sodium nitrate (NaNO3(-); NIT) and nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) have the same effects on oxygen consumption, blood pressure, and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations or not. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different dosages of NIT and BR on oxygen consumption in male athletes. Twelve healthy, well-trained men (median [minimum; maximum]; peak oxygen consumption: 59.4 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) [40.5; 67.0]) performed 7 trials on different days, ingesting different nitrate dosages and placebo (PLC). Dosages were 3, 6, and 12 mmol nitrate as concentrated BR or NIT dissolved in plain water. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured before, 3 h after ingestion, and postexercise. Participants cycled for 5 min at moderate intensity and further 8 min at severe intensity. End-exercise oxygen consumption at moderate intensity was not significantly different between the 7 trials (p = 0.08). At severe-intensity exercise, end-exercise oxygen consumption was ~4% lower in the 6-mmol BR trial compared with the 6-mmol NIT (p = 0.003) trial as well as compared with PLC (p = 0.010). Plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations were significantly increased after the ingestion of BR and NIT with the highest concentrations in the 12-mmol trials. Plasma nitrite concentration between NIT and BR did not significantly differ in the 6-mmol (p = 0.27) and in the 12-mmol (p = 0.75) trials. In conclusion, BR might reduce oxygen consumption to a greater extent compared with NIT. PMID:26988767

  19. Preformed Nitrate in the Glacial North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.; Estes, E. R.; Insua, T. L.; McKinley, C. C.; Murray, R. W.; Pockalny, R. A.; Robinson, R. S.; Sauvage, J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 abundances are highly correlated with global temperature variations over the past 800,000 years. Consequently, understanding the feedbacks between climate and CO2 is important for predictions of future climate. Leading hypotheses to explain this feedback invoke changes in ocean biology, circulation, chemistry, and/or gas exchange rates to trap CO2 in the deep ocean, thereby reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2 in the atmosphere. To test these hypotheses, we use sediment pore water profiles of dissolved nitrate and oxygen to reconstruct paleo-preformed nitrate concentrations at two deep-water sites in the western North Atlantic (23°N 57°W, 5557 m water depth; 30°N 58°W, 5367 m water depth). Preformed nitrate increases down-core to 22.7 μM (25.6 m core depth) at the northern site, and to 28.5 μM (27.8 m core depth) at the southern site. The large preformed nitrate gradient between these sites reveals a paleo-boundary between a southern water source high in preformed nitrate and a northern water source with lower concentrations, similar to today's ocean. However, the boundary between these water masses occurs north of where their modern counterparts meet, indicating that Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) extended farther north during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In addition, the southern source had a higher preformed nitrate concentration than today's AABW (25 μM), contradicting hypotheses that nutrient utilization was more efficient in the Southern Ocean deep-water formation regions during the LGM. Comparison to our previous Pacific data reveals that the average preformed nitrate concentration of the deep ocean was slightly higher during the LGM than today. This result implies that the CO2-climate feedback was not principally due to more efficient nitrate utilization.

  20. Vaccination to conserved influenza antigens in mice using a novel Simian adenovirus vector, PanAd3, derived from the bonobo Pan paniscus.

    PubMed

    Vitelli, Alessandra; Quirion, Mary R; Lo, Chia-Yun; Misplon, Julia A; Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Pierantoni, Angiolo; Ammendola, Virginia; Price, Graeme E; Soboleski, Mark R; Cortese, Riccardo; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2013-01-01

    Among approximately 1000 adenoviruses from chimpanzees and bonobos studied recently, the Pan Adenovirus type 3 (PanAd3, isolated from a bonobo, Pan paniscus) has one of the best profiles for a vaccine vector, combining potent transgene immunogenicity with minimal pre-existing immunity in the human population. In this study, we inserted into a replication defective PanAd3 a transgene expressing a fusion protein of conserved influenza antigens nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 (M1). We then studied antibody and T cell responses as well as protection from challenge infection in a mouse model. A single intranasal administration of PanAd3-NPM1 vaccine induced strong antibody and T cell responses, and protected against high dose lethal influenza virus challenge. Thus PanAd3 is a promising candidate vector for vaccines, including universal influenza vaccines.

  1. Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. II. Short term studies with high nitrate supply

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr) were grown in sand culture with 2 millimolar nitrate for 37 days and then supplied with 15 millimolar nitrate for 7 days. Control plants received 2 millimolar nitrate and 13 millimolar chloride and, after the 7-day treatment period, all plants were supplied with nil nitrate. The temporary treatment with high nitrate inhibited nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activity by 80% whether or not Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids had nitrate reductase (NR) activity. The pattern of nitrite accumulation in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ rhizobia was inversely related to the decrease and recovery of nitrogenase activity. However, nitrite concentration in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ rhizobia appeared to be too low to explain the inhibition of nitrogenase. Nodules on plants treated with 15 millimolar nitrate contained higher concentrations of amino N and, especially, ureide N than control nodules and, after withdrawal of nitrate, reduced N content of treated and control nodules returned to similar levels. The accumulation of N/sub 2/ fixation products in nodules in response to high nitrate treatment was observed with three R. japonicum strains, two NR/sup +/ and one NR/sup -/.

  2. Approximate prediction of melting point of nitramines, nitrate esters, nitrate salts and nitroaliphatics energetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2006-12-01

    A simple new procedure is introduced to predict melting point of selected class of energetic compounds containing nitramines, nitrate esters, nitrate salts and nitroaliphatics energetic compounds. The number of nitrogen and oxygen as well as the number of nitramine group and the contribution of some specific functional groups would be needed in the new method. Energetic compounds should contain at least one of the functional groups including N-NO(2), C-ONO(2) or nonaromatic C-NO(2). Calculated melting point for 33 nitramines, nitrate esters, nitrate salt and nitroaliphatics are compared with experimental data. Predicted melting points have average deviation of 5.4% for these energetic compounds.

  3. The Arabidopsis ATNRT2.7 nitrate transporter controls nitrate content in seeds.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Franck; Orsel, Mathilde; Dorbe, Marie-France; Chardon, Fabien; Truong, Hoai-Nam; Miller, Anthony J; Krapp, Anne; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2007-05-01

    In higher plants, nitrate is taken up by root cells where Arabidopsis thaliana NITRATE TRANSPORTER2.1 (ATNRT2.1) chiefly acts as the high-affinity nitrate uptake system. Nitrate taken up by the roots can then be translocated from the root to the leaves and the seeds. In this work, the function of the ATNRT2.7 gene, one of the seven members of the NRT2 family in Arabidopsis, was investigated. High expression of the gene was detected in reproductive organs and peaked in dry seeds. beta-Glucuronidase or green fluorescent protein reporter gene expression driven by the ATNRT2.7 promoter confirmed this organ specificity. We assessed the capacity of ATNRT2.7 to transport nitrate in Xenopus laevis oocytes or when it is expressed ectopically in mutant plants deficient in nitrate transport. We measured the impact of an ATNRT2.7 mutation and found no difference from the wild type during vegetative development. By contrast, seed nitrate content was affected by overexpression of ATNRT2.7 or a mutation in the gene. Finally, we showed that this nitrate transporter protein was localized to the vacuolar membrane. Our results demonstrate that ATNRT2.7 plays a specific role in nitrate accumulation in the seed.

  4. Organic nitrates and nitrate tolerance--state of the art and future developments.

    PubMed

    Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    The hemodynamic and antiischemic effects of nitroglycerin (GTN) are lost upon chronic administration due to the rapid development of nitrate tolerance. The mechanism of this phenomenon has puzzled several generations of scientists, but recent findings have led to novel hypotheses. The formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the mitochondria and the subsequent inhibition of the nitrate-bioactivating enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) appear to play a central role, at least for GTN, that is, bioactivated by ALDH-2. Importantly, these findings provide the opportunity to reconcile the two "traditional" hypotheses of nitrate tolerance, that is, the one postulating a decreased bioactivation and the concurrent one suggesting a role of oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent animal and human experimental studies suggest that the organic nitrates are not a homogeneous group but demonstrate a broad diversity with regard to induction of vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and other side effects. In the past, attempts to avoid nitrate-induced side effects have focused on administration schedules that would allow a "nitrate-free interval"; in the future, the role of co-therapies with antioxidant compounds and of activation of endogeneous protective pathways such as the heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) will need to be explored. However, the development of new nitrates, for example, tolerance-free aminoalkyl nitrates or combination of nitrate groups with established cardiovascular drugs like ACE inhibitors or AT(1)-receptor blockers (hybrid molecules) may be of great clinical interest.

  5. O-acetylated oligosaccharides from pectins of potato tuber cell walls.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T

    1997-01-01

    Acetylated trigalacturonides and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I)-derived oligosaccharides were isolated from a Driselase digest of potato tuber cell walls by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The oligosaccharides were structurally characterized by fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and glycosyl-linkage composition analysis. One trigalacturonide contained a single acetyl group at O-3 of the reducing galacturonic acid residue. A second trigalacturonide contained two acetyl substituents, which were located on O-3 or O-4 of the nonreducing galacturonic acid residue and O-3 of the reducing galacturonic acid residue. RG-I backbone-derived oligomers had acetyl groups at O-2 of the galacturonic acid residues. Some of these galacturonic acid residues were O-acetylated at both O-2 and O-3 positions. Rhamnosyl residues of RG-I oligomers were not acetylated. PMID:9112775

  6. Transitions in histone acetylation reveal boundaries of three separately regulated neighboring loci

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Michael D.; Simpson, Melanie; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2001-01-01

    We have studied developmentally regulated patterns of histone acetylation at high resolution across ∼54 kb of DNA containing three independently regulated but neighboring genetic loci. These include a folate receptor gene, a 16 kb condensed chromatin region, the chicken β-globin domain and an adjacent olfactory receptor gene. Within these regions the relative levels of acetylation appear to fall into three classes. The condensed chromatin region maintains the lowest acetylation at every developmental stage. Genes that are inactive show similarly low levels, but activation results in a dramatic increase in acetylation. The highest levels of acetylation are seen at regulatory sites upstream of the genes. These patterns imply the action of more than one class of acetylation. Notably, there is a very strong constitutive focus of hyperacetylation at the 5′ insulator element separating the globin locus from the folate receptor region, which suggests that this insulator element may harbor a high concentration of histone acetylases. PMID:11331588

  7. The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard; Weryk, Robert; Schunova, Eva; Carter Chambers, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields of view. The first of these telescopes, Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), is now conducting a dedicated survey for Near-Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2 (PS2) is being commissioned.The PS1+PS2 surveys now extend south to -47.5 degrees declination. The image quality in the deep southern sky from Haleakala is good, and the new southern extension to the survey area has been very productive.PS1 discovered more than half of the larger NEOs and PHAs in 2014, and has become the leading NEO discovery telescope. PS1 delivers excellent astrometry and photometry. PS1 continues to discover a significant number of large (> 1km) NEOs.The Pan-STARRS telescopes are very efficient at detecting cometary activity. PS1 discovered almost half of the new comets in 2014, and discovered 10 comets in 10 nights in November 2014.The discovery rate of NEO candidates by PS1 is now overwhelming the external NEO follow-up resources, particularly for fainter NEOs. It has required that PS1 repeat fields to recover NEO candidates. As PS2 matures, and when G96 has its new camera, the combination of these three telescopes will facilitate a higher NEO discovery rate, and a better census of the NEOs in the sky. This will in turn lead to a better understanding of the size and orbit distribution of NEOs, and the corresponding hazard to Earth. The Pan-STARRS NEO survey is also likely to discover asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid redirect mission.

  8. Stimulating nitrate removal processes of restored wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ballantine, Kate A; Groffman, Peter M; Lehmann, Johannes; Schneider, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    The environmental and health effects caused by nitrate contamination of aquatic systems are a serious problem throughout the world. A strategy proposed to address nitrate pollution is the restoration of wetlands. However, although natural wetlands often remove nitrate via high rates of denitrification, wetlands restored for water quality functions often fall below expectations. This may be in part because key drivers for denitrification, in particular soil carbon, are slow to develop in restored wetlands. We added organic soil amendments that range along a gradient of carbon lability to four newly restored wetlands in western New York to investigate the effect of carbon additions on denitrification and other processes of the nitrogen cycle. Soil carbon increased by 12.67-63.30% with the use of soil amendments (p ≤ 0.0001). Soil nitrate, the carbon to nitrogen ratio, and microbial biomass nitrogen were the most significant predictors of denitrification potential. Denitrification potential, potential net nitrogen nitrification and mineralization, and soil nitrate and ammonium, were highest in topsoil-amended plots, with increases in denitrification potential of 161.27% over control plots. While amendment with topsoil more than doubled several key nitrogen cycling processes, more research is required to determine what type and level of amendment application are most effective for stimulating removal of exogenous nitrate and meeting functional goals within an acceptable time frame. PMID:24915604

  9. Denitrification inhibition by high nitrate wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Veydovec, W.; Silverstein, J.; Cook, N.E. Jr.; Figueroa, L.A.; Hund, R.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    The processing of radioactive metal products at nuclear weapons plants and research labs has produced wastewaters containing high concentrations of nitrate, often greater than 50,000 mg/l N. The adaptation of activated sludge and inhibition of denitrification at high nitrate concentrations was studied using pH controlled bench-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), operated with 50% of the SBR volume recycled (recycle volume = influent volume). Denitrification of 1,350 and 2,700 mg/l NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N was completed after approximately 5 hours and 15 hours, respectively. No denitrification of 5,400 mg/l NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N was observed. These results suggest that there is a progressive inhibition of denitrification as nitrate concentrations increase from 1,350 to 5,400 mg/l NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N. In a subsequent series of experiments at an initial reactor nitrate concentration of 1,350 mg/l N, a significant accumulation of nitrate was observed, resulting once in destabilization with loss of denitrification and once in successful adaptation of the activated sludge. At a nitrate concentration of 1,350 mg/l N, the adaptation of activated sludge appears to be unstable, resulting sometimes in stable denitrification and sometimes in biomass washout.

  10. Stimulating nitrate removal processes of restored wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ballantine, Kate A; Groffman, Peter M; Lehmann, Johannes; Schneider, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    The environmental and health effects caused by nitrate contamination of aquatic systems are a serious problem throughout the world. A strategy proposed to address nitrate pollution is the restoration of wetlands. However, although natural wetlands often remove nitrate via high rates of denitrification, wetlands restored for water quality functions often fall below expectations. This may be in part because key drivers for denitrification, in particular soil carbon, are slow to develop in restored wetlands. We added organic soil amendments that range along a gradient of carbon lability to four newly restored wetlands in western New York to investigate the effect of carbon additions on denitrification and other processes of the nitrogen cycle. Soil carbon increased by 12.67-63.30% with the use of soil amendments (p ≤ 0.0001). Soil nitrate, the carbon to nitrogen ratio, and microbial biomass nitrogen were the most significant predictors of denitrification potential. Denitrification potential, potential net nitrogen nitrification and mineralization, and soil nitrate and ammonium, were highest in topsoil-amended plots, with increases in denitrification potential of 161.27% over control plots. While amendment with topsoil more than doubled several key nitrogen cycling processes, more research is required to determine what type and level of amendment application are most effective for stimulating removal of exogenous nitrate and meeting functional goals within an acceptable time frame.

  11. Protein tyrosine nitration in the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Min; Mateoiu, Claudia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Enrichment of 3-nitrotyrosine containing proteins from cells synchronized in different phases of the cell cycle. {yields} Identification of 76 tyrosine nitrated proteins that change expression during the cell cycle. {yields} Nineteen identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins is associated with cell response to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Tyrosine nitration is relatively low abundant post-translational modification that may affect protein functions. Little is known about the extent of protein tyrosine nitration in cells during progression through the cell cycle. Here we report identification of proteins enriched for tyrosine nitration in cells synchronized in G0/G1, S or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We identified 27 proteins in cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase, 37 proteins in S phase synchronized cells, and 12 proteins related to G2/M phase. Nineteen of the identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, our data indicate which tyrosine nitrated proteins may affect regulation of the cell cycle.

  12. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  13. Epigenetic Readers of Lysine Acetylation Regulate Cocaine-Induced Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Gregory C.; Powell, Samuel K.; Brothers, Shaun P.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic processes that regulate histone acetylation play an essential role in behavioral and molecular responses to cocaine. To date, however, only a small fraction of the mechanisms involved in the addiction-associated acetylome have been investigated. Members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of epigenetic “reader” proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) bind acetylated histones and serve as a scaffold for the recruitment of macromolecular complexes to modify chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activity. The role of BET proteins in cocaine-induced plasticity, however, remains elusive. Here, we used behavioral, pharmacological, and molecular techniques to examine the involvement of BET bromodomains in cocaine reward. Of the BET proteins, BRD4, but not BRD2 or BRD3, was significantly elevated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice and rats following repeated cocaine injections and self-administration. Systemic and intra-accumbal inhibition of BRD4 with the BET inhibitor, JQ1, attenuated the rewarding effects of cocaine in a conditioned place preference procedure but did not affect conditioned place aversion, nor did JQ1 alone induce conditioned aversion or preference. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we found that repeated cocaine injections enhanced the binding of BRD4, but not BRD3, to the promoter region of Bdnf in the NAc, whereas systemic injection of JQ1 attenuated cocaine-induced expression of Bdnf in the NAc. JQ1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of BRD4 in vitro also reduced expression of Bdnf. These findings indicate that disrupting the interaction between BET proteins and their acetylated lysine substrates may provide a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of drug addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Proteins involved in the “readout” of lysine acetylation marks, referred to as BET bromodomain proteins (including BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT), have been shown to be key regulators of chromatin dynamics and disease, and

  14. Kinetic analysis of histone acetylation turnover and Trichostatin A induced hyper- and hypoacetylation in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Waterborg, Jakob H; Kapros, Tamás

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic histone acetylation is a characteristic of chromatin transcription. The first estimates for the rate of acetylation turnover of plants are reported, measured in alfalfa cells by pulse, pulse-chase, and steady-state acetylation labeling. Acetylation turnover half-lives of about 0.5 h were observed by all methods used for histones H3, H4, and H2B. This is consistent with the rate at which changes in gene expression occur in plants. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) induced hyperacetylation at a similar rate. Replacement histone variant H3.2, preferentially localized in highly acetylated chromatin, displayed faster acetyl turnover. Histone H2A with a low level of acetylation was not subject to rapid turnover or hyperacetylation. Patterns of acetate labeling revealed fundamental differences between histone H3 versus histones H4 and H2B. In H3, acetylation of all molecules, limited by lysine methylation, had similar rates, independent of the level of lysine acetylation. Acetylation of histones H4 and H2B was seen in only a fraction of all molecules and involved multiacetylation. Acetylation turnover rates increased from mono- to penta- and hexaacetylated forms, respectively. TSA was an effective inhibitor of alfalfa histone deacetylases in vivo and caused a doubling in steady-state acetylation levels by 4-6 h after addition. However, hyperacetylation was transient due to loss of TSA inhibition. TSA-induced overexpression of cellular deacetylase activity produced hypoacetylation by 18 h treatment with enhanced acetate turnover labeling of alfalfa histones. Thus, application of TSA to change gene expression in vivo in plants may have unexpected consequences. PMID:12123281

  15. Autoimmune regulator is acetylated by transcription coactivator CBP/p300

    SciTech Connect

    Saare, Mario; Rebane, Ana; Rajashekar, Balaji; Vilo, Jaak; Peterson, Paert

    2012-08-15

    The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) is a regulator of transcription in the thymic medulla, where it controls the expression of a large set of peripheral-tissue specific genes. AIRE interacts with the transcriptional coactivator and acetyltransferase CBP and synergistically cooperates with it in transcriptional activation. Here, we aimed to study a possible role of AIRE acetylation in the modulation of its activity. We found that AIRE is acetylated in tissue culture cells and this acetylation is enhanced by overexpression of CBP and the CBP paralog p300. The acetylated lysines were located within nuclear localization signal and SAND domain. AIRE with mutations that mimicked acetylated K243 and K253 in the SAND domain had reduced transactivation activity and accumulated into fewer and larger nuclear bodies, whereas mutations that mimicked the unacetylated lysines were functionally similar to wild-type AIRE. Analogously to CBP, p300 localized to AIRE-containing nuclear bodies, however, the overexpression of p300 did not enhance the transcriptional activation of AIRE-regulated genes. Further studies showed that overexpression of p300 stabilized the AIRE protein. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that AIRE, with mutations mimicking K243/K253 acetylation in SAND, was able to activate gene expression, although the affected genes were different and the activation level was lower from those regulated by wild-type AIRE. Our results suggest that the AIRE acetylation can influence the selection of AIRE activated genes. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE is acetylated by the acetyltransferases p300 and CBP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation occurs between CARD and SAND domains and within the SAND domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases the size of AIRE nuclear dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases AIRE protein stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE acetylation mimic regulates a different set of AIRE

  16. Adsorption Isotherms for Xenon and Krypton using INL HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Veronica J. Rutledge; Jack D. Law

    2014-08-01

    The generation of adsorption isotherms compliments the scale-up of off-gas processes used to control the emission of encapsulated radioactive volatile fission and activation products released during Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) reprocessing activities. A series of experiments were conducted to obtain capacity results for varying Kr and Xe gas concentrations using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN engineered form sorbents. Gas compositions for Kr ranged from 150-40,000 ppmv and 250-5020 ppmv for Xe in a helium balance. The experiments were all performed at 220 K at a flowrate of 50 sccm. Acquired capacities were then respectively fit to the Langmuir equation using the Langmuir linear regression method to obtain the equilibrium parameters Qmax and Keq. Generated experimental adsorption isotherms were then plotted with the Langmuir predicted isotherms to illustrate agreement between the two. The Langmuir parameters were provided for input into the OSPREY model to predict breakthrough of single component adsorption of Kr and Xe on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents at the experimental conditions tested. Kr and Xe capacities resulting from model breakthrough predictions were then compared to experimental capacities for model validation.

  17. Organic Nitrate Therapy, Nitrate Tolerance, and Nitrate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Emphasis on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate, and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), when given acutely, have potent vasodilator effects improving symptoms in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, or arterial hypertension. The mechanisms underlying vasodilation include the release of •NO or a related compound in response to intracellular bioactivation (for GTN, the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH-2]) and activation of the enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Increasing cyclic guanosine-3′,-5′-monophosphate (cGMP) levels lead to an activation of the cGMP-dependent kinase I, thereby causing the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations. The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of organic nitrates are rapidly lost upon long-term (low-dose) administration due to the rapid development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is in most cases linked to increased intracellular oxidative stress. Enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species under nitrate therapy include mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and an uncoupled •NO synthase. Acute high-dose challenges with organic nitrates cause a similar loss of potency (tachyphylaxis), but with distinct pathomechanism. The differences among organic nitrates are highlighted regarding their potency to induce oxidative stress and subsequent tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. We also address pleiotropic effects of organic nitrates, for example, their capacity to stimulate antioxidant pathways like those demonstrated for PETN, all of which may prevent adverse effects in response to long-term therapy. Based on these considerations, we will discuss and present some preclinical data on how the nitrate of the future should be designed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 899–942. PMID:26261901

  18. Organic Nitrate Therapy, Nitrate Tolerance, and Nitrate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Emphasis on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas

    2015-10-10

    Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate, and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), when given acutely, have potent vasodilator effects improving symptoms in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, or arterial hypertension. The mechanisms underlying vasodilation include the release of •NO or a related compound in response to intracellular bioactivation (for GTN, the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH-2]) and activation of the enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Increasing cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophosphate (cGMP) levels lead to an activation of the cGMP-dependent kinase I, thereby causing the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations. The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of organic nitrates are rapidly lost upon long-term (low-dose) administration due to the rapid development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is in most cases linked to increased intracellular oxidative stress. Enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species under nitrate therapy include mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and an uncoupled •NO synthase. Acute high-dose challenges with organic nitrates cause a similar loss of potency (tachyphylaxis), but with distinct pathomechanism. The differences among organic nitrates are highlighted regarding their potency to induce oxidative stress and subsequent tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. We also address pleiotropic effects of organic nitrates, for example, their capacity to stimulate antioxidant pathways like those demonstrated for PETN, all of which may prevent adverse effects in response to long-term therapy. Based on these considerations, we will discuss and present some preclinical data on how the nitrate of the future should be designed.

  19. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  20. Metallurgical and acoustical characterization of a hydroformed, 304 stainless steel, Caribbean-style musical pan

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L.E. Gaytan, S.M.; Lopez, M.I.; Bujanda, D.E.; Martinez, E.Y.; Whitmyre, G.; Price, H.

    2008-03-15

    We report herein the metallurgical and acoustical characterization of hydroformed 304 stainless steel, Caribbean pans. These pans were fully tuned to chromatic tones and compared to a manufactured, low-carbon, Caribbean steel pan standard. Hydroformed platforms had a Vickers microindentation hardness of HV 345, which was reduced by annealing during pan fabrication to HV 270. Skirts welded to the hydroformed head had a microindentation hardness of HV 440. Microstructural characterization by light optical metallography and transmission electron microscopy illustrated microstructures (including grain structures) characteristic of these pan microindentation hardnesses.

  1. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu; Zhang, Kezhong

    2015-12-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH.

  2. Acetylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is mediated by GCN5

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Juhyung; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Chiho; Song, Min-Young; Park, Kang-Sik; Oh, Young J.

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is present as an acetylated form. • CDK5 is acetylated by GCN5. • CDK5’s acetylation site is mapped at Lys33. • Its acetylation may affect CDK5’s kinase activity. - Abstract: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a member of atypical serine/threonine cyclin-dependent kinase family, plays a crucial role in pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Its kinase activity and substrate specificity are regulated by several independent pathways including binding with its activator, phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation. In the present study, we report that acetylation of CDK5 comprises an additional posttranslational modification within the cells. Among many candidates, we confirmed that its acetylation is enhanced by GCN5, a member of the GCN5-related N-acetyl-transferase family of histone acetyltransferase. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and fluorescent localization study indicated that GCN5 physically interacts with CDK5 and they are co-localized at the specific nuclear foci. Furthermore, liquid chromatography in conjunction with a mass spectrometry indicated that CDK5 is acetylated at Lys33 residue of ATP binding domain. Considering this lysine site is conserved among a wide range of species and other related cyclin-dependent kinases, therefore, we speculate that acetylation may alter the kinase activity of CDK5 via affecting efficacy of ATP coordination.

  3. Sirtuin-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of glutamine synthetases reveals an autofeedback loop in nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    You, Di; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Li, Zhi-Hai; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Wen-Bang; Zuo, Peng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2016-06-14

    In cells of all domains of life, reversible lysine acetylation modulates the function of proteins involved in central cellular processes such as metabolism. In this study, we demonstrate that the nitrogen regulator GlnR of the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea directly regulates transcription of the acuA gene (SACE_5148), which encodes a Gcn5-type lysine acetyltransferase. We found that AcuA acetylates two glutamine synthetases (GlnA1 and GlnA4) and that this lysine acetylation inactivated GlnA4 (GSII) but had no significant effect on GlnA1 (GSI-β) activity under the conditions tested. Instead, acetylation of GlnA1 led to a gain-of-function that modulated its interaction with the GlnR regulator and enhanced GlnR-DNA binding. It was observed that this regulatory function of acetylated GSI-β enzymes is highly conserved across actinomycetes. In turn, GlnR controls the catalytic and regulatory activities (intracellular acetylation levels) of glutamine synthetases at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels, indicating an autofeedback loop that regulates nitrogen metabolism in response to environmental change. Thus, this GlnR-mediated acetylation pathway provides a signaling cascade that acts from nutrient sensing to acetylation of proteins to feedback regulation. This work presents significant new insights at the molecular level into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of protein acetylation and nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes. PMID:27247389

  4. Aspirin-mediated acetylation induces structural alteration and aggregation of bovine pancreatic insulin.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Reza; Taheri, Behnaz; Alavi, Parnian; Shahsavani, Mohammad Bagher; Asadi, Zahra; Ghahramani, Maryam; Niazi, Ali; Alavianmehr, Mohammad Mehdi; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The simple aggregation of insulin under various chemical and physical stresses is still an important challenge for both pharmaceutical production and clinical formulation. In the storage form, this protein is subjected to various chemical modifications which alter its physicochemical and aggregation properties. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) which is the most widely used medicine worldwide has been indicated to acetylate a large number of proteins both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, as insulin treated with aspirin at 37°C, a significant level of acetylation was observed by flourescamine and o-phthalaldehyde assay. Also, different spectroscopic techniques, gel electrophoresis, and microscopic assessment were applied to compare the structural variation and aggregation/fibrillation propensity among acetylated and non-acetylated insulin samples. The results of spectroscopic assessments elucidate that acetylation induces insulin unfolding which is accompanied with the exposure of protein hydrophobic patches, a transition from alpha-helix to beta-sheet and increased propensity of the protein for aggregation. The kinetic studies propose that acetylation increases aggregation rate of insulin under both thermal and chemical stresses. Also, gel electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering experiments suggest that acetylation induces insulin oligomerization. Additionally, the results of Thioflavin T fluorescence study, Congo red absorption assessment, and microscopic analysis suggest that acetylation with aspirin enhances the process of insulin fibrillation. Overall, the increased susceptibility of acetylated insulin for aggregation may reflect the fact that this type of modification has significant structural destabilizing effect which finally makes the protein more vulnerable for pathogenic aggregation/fibrillation.

  5. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH. PMID:26438600

  6. Proteome-wide analysis of lysine acetylation in the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Binna; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Delong; Liang, Wenxing; Song, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. Botrytis cinerea is the most thoroughly studied necrotrophic species due to its broad host range and huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. In this study, we determined the lysine acetylome of B. cinerea through the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. Overall, 1582 lysine acetylation sites in 954 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the acetylated proteins are involved in diverse biological functions and show multiple cellular localizations. Several particular amino acids preferred near acetylation sites, including KacY, KacH, Kac***R, KacF, FKac and Kac***K, were identified in this organism. Protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a variety of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. Interestingly, 6 proteins involved in virulence of B. cinerea, including 3 key components of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, were found to be acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays regulatory roles in pathogenesis. These data provides the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of B. cinerea and serves as a rich resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. PMID:27381557

  7. Ionizing radiation induces immediate protein acetylation changes in human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Kempf, Stefan J.; Sriharshan, Arundhathi; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Atkinson, Michael J.; Tapio, Soile

    2015-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a highly regulated post-translational protein modification that is known to regulate several signaling pathways. However, little is known about the radiation-induced changes in the acetylome. In this study, we analyzed the acute post-translational acetylation changes in primary human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells 4 h after a gamma radiation dose of 2 Gy. The acetylated peptides were enriched using anti-acetyl conjugated agarose beads. A total of 54 proteins were found to be altered in their acetylation status, 23 of which were deacetylated and 31 acetylated. Pathway analyses showed three protein categories particularly affected by radiation-induced changes in the acetylation status: the proteins involved in the translation process, the proteins of stress response, and mitochondrial proteins. The activation of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways affecting actin cytoskeleton signaling and cell cycle progression was predicted. The protein expression levels of two nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases, sirtuin 1 and sirtuin 3, were significantly but transiently upregulated 4 but not 24 h after irradiation. The status of the p53 protein, a target of sirtuin 1, was found to be rapidly stabilized by acetylation after radiation exposure. These findings indicate that post-translational modification of proteins by acetylation and deacetylation is essentially affecting the radiation response of the endothelium. PMID:25840449

  8. First Comprehensive Proteome Analyses of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation in Seedling Leaves of Brachypodium distachyon L.

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shoumin; Deng, Xiong; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Gengrui; Cao, Hui; Yuan, Linlin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Protein acetylation and succinylation are the most crucial protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we present the first lysine-acetylation and lysine-succinylation proteome analysis of seedling leaves in Brachypodium distachyon L (Bd). Using high accuracy nano LC-MS/MS combined with affinity purification, we identified a total of 636 lysine-acetylated sites in 353 proteins and 605 lysine-succinylated sites in 262 proteins. These proteins participated in many biology processes, with various molecular functions. In particular, 119 proteins and 115 sites were found to be both acetylated and succinylated, simultaneously. Among the 353 acetylated proteins, 148 had acetylation orthologs in Oryza sativa L., Arabidopsis thaliana, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and Glycine max L. Among the 262 succinylated proteins, 170 of them were found to have homologous proteins in Oryza sativa L., Escherichia coli, Sacchayromyces cerevisiae, or Homo sapiens. Motif-X analysis of the acetylated and succinylated sites identified two new acetylated motifs (K---K and K-I-K) and twelve significantly enriched succinylated motifs for the first time, which could serve as possible binding loci for future studies in plants. Our comprehensive dataset provides a promising starting point for further functional analysis of acetylation and succinylation in Bd and other plant species. PMID:27515067

  9. Metabolism of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in the human neutrophil

    SciTech Connect

    Triggiani, M.; D'Souza, D.M.; Chilton, F.H. )

    1991-04-15

    The biosynthesis of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC) together with that of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-GPC (platelet-activating factor) has been demonstrated in a variety of inflammatory cells and tissues. It has been hypothesized that the relative proportion of these phospholipids produced upon cell activation may be influenced by their rates of catabolism. We studied the catabolism of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC in resting and activated human neutrophils and compared it to that of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-GPC. Neutrophils rapidly catabolize both 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-GPC and 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC; however, the rate of catabolism of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC is approximately 2-fold higher than that of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-GPC. In addition, most of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC is catabolized through a pathway different from that of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-GPC. The main step in the catabolism of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC is the removal of the long chain at the sn-1 position; the long chain residue is subsequently incorporated either into triglycerides or into phosphatidylcholine. The 1-lyso-2-acetyl-GPC formed in this reaction is then further degraded to glycerophosphocholine, choline, or phosphocholine. 1-Acyl-2-acetyl-GPC is also catabolized, to a lesser extent, through deacetylation at the sn-2 position and reacylation with a long chain fatty acid. Stimulation of neutrophils by A23187 results in a higher rate of catabolism of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC by increasing both the removal of the long chain at the sn-1 position and the deacetylation-reacylation at the sn-2 position. In a broken cell preparation, the cytosolic fraction of the neutrophil was shown to contain an enzyme activity which cleaved the sn-1 position of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC and 1-acyl-2-lyso-GPC but not of 1,2-diacyl-GPC.

  10. Nitrate in groundwater in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burow, K. R.; Nolan, B. T.; Rupert, M. G.; Dubrovsky, N. M.

    2009-12-01

    An assessment of nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States (US) indicates that concentrations are highest in shallow, oxic groundwater beneath areas with high nitrogen inputs. During 1991-2003, 5,101 wells were sampled in 51 study areas throughout the US as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment program. Well locations for individual 30-well networks were selected for sampling using a computerized, stratified, random site-selection procedure to minimize spatial bias. These well networks reflect the existing used resource in major aquifers represented by domestic wells (major aquifer studies), and recently recharged groundwater beneath dominant land-surface activities (land-use studies). Nitrate concentrations in groundwater were compared with nationally-available variables such as nonpoint-source nitrogen inputs, soils, water chemistry, and other aquifer and well construction characteristics to predict the conditions most vulnerable to high nitrate concentrations. Nitrate was detected at concentrations above background of 1.0 mg/L (as N) in 50% of the wells sampled. Shallow groundwater beneath agricultural land had the highest median concentration of nitrate (3.1 mg/L). Median nitrate in shallow groundwater beneath urban land (1.4 mg/L) was lower than beneath agricultural land, but was higher than the median in major aquifers (0.56 mg/L). Although most wells sampled in the shallow land-use studies were not used for drinking water, concentrations exceeded the US EPA drinking-water standard (MCL) of 10 mg/L in 20% of wells in the agricultural land-use setting. Concentrations exceeded the MCL in only 3% of wells in the urban land-use setting, and 4% of wells in major aquifers. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify the relative importance of nitrogen inputs, water chemistry, and physical aquifer properties on nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Factors ranked by reduction in sum of squares indicate that

  11. Historical Tracking of Nitrate in Contrasting Vineyard Using Water Isotopes and Nitrate Depth Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenger, M.; Erhardt, M.; Riedel, M.; Weiler, M.

    2015-12-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (EWFD) aims to achieve a good chemical status for the groundwater bodies in Europe by the year 2015. Despite the effort to reduce the nitrate pollution from agriculture within the last two decades, there are still many groundwater aquifers that exceed nitrate concentrations above the EWFD threshold of 50 mg/l. Viticulture is seen as a major contributor of nitrate leaching and sowing of a green cover was shown to have a positive effect on lowering the nitrate loads in the upper 90 cm of the soil. However, the consequences for nitrate leaching into the subsoil were not yet tested. We analyzed the nitrate concentrations and pore water stable isotope composition to a depth of 380 cm in soil profiles under an old vineyard and a young vineyard with either soil tillage or permanent green cover in between the grapevines. The pore water stable isotopes were used to calibrate a soil physical model, which was then used to infer the age of the soil water at different depths. This way, we could relate elevated nitrate concentrations below an old vineyard to tillage processes that took place during the winter two years before the sampling. We further showed that the elevated nitrate concentration in the subsoil of a young vineyard can be related to the soil tillage prior to the planting of the new vineyard. If the soil is kept bare due to tillage, a nitrate concentration of 200 kg NO3--N/ha is found in 290 to 380 cm depth 2.5 years after the installation of the vineyard. The amount of nitrate leaching is considerably reduced due to a seeded green cover between the grapevines that takes up a high share of the mobilized nitrate reducing a potential contamination of the groundwater.

  12. Changes in flavor volatile composition of oolong tea after panning during tea processing.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; Newkirk, Jordan J; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-05-01

    Panning is a processing step used in manufacturing of some varieties of oolong tea. There is limited information available on effects of panning on oolong tea flavors. The goal of this study was to determine effects of panning on flavor volatile compositions of oolong using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). SDE and SPME techniques were applied for extraction of volatiles in panned and unpanned teas. A total of 190 volatiles were identified from SDE and SPME extractions using GC-MS and GC-O. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in aldehyde or terpene contents of unpanned and panned tea. However, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters contents were significantly reduced by panning. Among 12 major volatiles previously used for identification and quality assessment of oolong tea, trans nerolidol, 2- hexenal, benzaldehyde, indole, gernaiol, and benzenacetaldehyde contents were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by panning. Panning increased (P < 0.05) contents of linalool oxide, cis jasmone, and methyl salicylate. The GC-O study also showed an increase of aroma active compounds with sweet descriptions and decrease of aroma active compounds with fruity and smoky descriptions after panning. Panning significantly changes the volatile compositions of the tea and created new aroma active compounds. Results from this study can be used in quality assessment of panned oolong tea. PMID:27247775

  13. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Schmeitzl, Clemens; Warth, Benedikt; Fruhmann, Philipp; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachová, Alexandra; Berthiller, Franz; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON) and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON), and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G) and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S) as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G) is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G). This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives. PMID:26274975

  14. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Schmeitzl, Clemens; Warth, Benedikt; Fruhmann, Philipp; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachová, Alexandra; Berthiller, Franz; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard

    2015-08-12

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON) and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON), and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G) and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S) as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G) is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G). This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives.

  15. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control. PMID:27073141

  16. Protein acetylation sites mediated by Schistosoma mansoni GCN5

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Furtado Madeiro da Costa, Rodrigo; Meirelles Bastosde Oliveira, Francisco; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado

    2008-05-23

    The transcriptional co-activator GCN5, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is part of large multimeric complexes that are required for chromatin remodeling and transcription activation. As in other eukaryotes, the DNA from the parasite Schistosome mansoni is organized into nucleosomes and the genome encodes components of chromatin-remodeling complexes. Using a series of synthetic peptides we determined that Lys-14 of histone H3 was acetylated by the recombinant SmGCN5-HAT domain. SmGCN5 was also able to acetylate schistosome non-histone proteins, such as the nuclear receptors SmRXR1 and SmNR1, and the co-activator SmNCoA-62. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of SmGCN5 protein in the nuclei of vitelline cells. Within the nucleus, SmGCN5 was found to be located in interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs), which are transcriptionally active structures. The data suggest that SmGCN5 is involved in transcription activation.

  17. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control.

  18. Autotrophic acetyl coenzyme A biosynthesis in Methanococcus maripaludis.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, J; Whitman, W B

    1988-01-01

    To detect autotrophic CO2 assimilation in cell extracts of Methanococcus maripaludis, lactate dehydrogenase and NADH were added to convert pyruvate formed from autotrophically synthesized acetyl coenzyme A to lactate. The lactate produced was determined spectrophotometrically. When CO2 fixation was pulled in the direction of lactate synthesis, CO2 reduction to methane was inhibited. Bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a potent inhibitor of methanogenesis, enhanced lactate synthesis, and methyl coenzyme M inhibited it in the absence of BES. Lactate synthesis was dependent on CO2 and H2, but H2 + CO2-independent synthesis was also observed. In cell extracts, the rate of lactate synthesis was about 1.2 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1. When BES was added, the rate of lactate synthesis increased to 2.3 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1. Because acetyl coenzyme A did not stimulate lactate synthesis, pyruvate synthase may have been the limiting activity in these assays. Radiolabel from 14CO2 was incorporated into lactate. The percentages of radiolabel in the C-1, C-2, and C-3 positions of lactate were 73, 33, and 11%, respectively. Both carbon monoxide and formaldehyde stimulated lactate synthesis. 14CH2O was specifically incorporated into the C-3 of lactate, and 14CO was incorporated into the C-1 and C-2 positions. Low concentrations of cyanide also inhibited autotrophic growth, CO dehydrogenase activity, and autotrophic lactate synthesis. These observations are in agreement with the acetogenic pathway of autotrophic CO2 assimilation. PMID:3133359

  19. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Stoner, J.D.; ,

    2007-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWQA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and also shallow carbonate aquifers that provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional nutrient applications. The system of corn, soybean, and hogs produced significantly larger concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems because this system imports the largest amount of N-fertilizer per unit production area. Mean nitrate under dairy, poultry, horticulture, and cattle and grains systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as

  20. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Burkart, M R; Stoner, J D

    2007-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWQA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and also shallow carbonate aquifers that provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional nutrient applications. The system of corn, soybean, and hogs produced significantly larger concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems because this system imports the largest amount of N-fertilizer per unit production area. Mean nitrate under dairy, poultry, horticulture, and cattle and grains systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as