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Sample records for acetyl transferase cat

  1. Characterization and Prediction of Lysine (K)-Acetyl-Transferase Specific Acetylation Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Du, Yipeng; Wang, Likun; Huang, Lei; Li, Wenlin; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Xuegong; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a well-studied post-translational modification on both histone and nonhistone proteins. More than 2000 acetylated proteins and 4000 lysine acetylation sites have been identified by large scale mass spectrometry or traditional experimental methods. Although over 20 lysine (K)-acetyl-transferases (KATs) have been characterized, which KAT is responsible for a given protein or lysine site acetylation is mostly unknown. In this work, we collected KAT-specific acetylation sites manually and analyzed sequence features surrounding the acetylated lysine of substrates from three main KAT families (CBP/p300, GCN5/PCAF, and the MYST family). We found that each of the three KAT families acetylates lysines with different sequence features. Based on these differences, we developed a computer program, Acetylation Set Enrichment Based method to predict which KAT-families are responsible for acetylation of a given protein or lysine site. Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of our method, and experimentally detected four proteins that were predicted to be acetylated by two KAT families when one representative member of the KAT family is over expressed. We conclude that our approach, combined with more traditional experimental methods, may be useful for identifying KAT families responsible for acetylated substrates proteome-wide. PMID:21964354

  2. MOF Acetyl Transferase Regulates Transcription and Respiration in Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aindrila; Seyfferth, Janine; Lucci, Jacopo; Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Böttinger, Lena; Mårtensson, Christoph U; Panhale, Amol; Stehle, Thomas; Kretz, Oliver; Sahyoun, Abdullah H; Avilov, Sergiy; Eimer, Stefan; Hein, Lutz; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Becker, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2016-10-20

    A functional crosstalk between epigenetic regulators and metabolic control could provide a mechanism to adapt cellular responses to environmental cues. We report that the well-known nuclear MYST family acetyl transferase MOF and a subset of its non-specific lethal complex partners reside in mitochondria. MOF regulates oxidative phosphorylation by controlling expression of respiratory genes from both nuclear and mtDNA in aerobically respiring cells. MOF binds mtDNA, and this binding is dependent on KANSL3. The mitochondrial pool of MOF, but not a catalytically deficient mutant, rescues respiratory and mtDNA transcriptional defects triggered by the absence of MOF. Mof conditional knockout has catastrophic consequences for tissues with high-energy consumption, triggering hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure in murine hearts; cardiomyocytes show severe mitochondrial degeneration and deregulation of mitochondrial nutrient metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Thus, MOF is a dual-transcriptional regulator of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes connecting epigenetics and metabolism.

  3. Purification and properties of an O-acetyl-transferase from Escherichia coli that can O-acetylate polysialic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Higa, H.; Varki, A.

    1986-05-01

    Certain strains of bacteria synthesize an outer polysialic acid (K1) capsule. Some strains of K1/sup +/ E.coli are also capable of adding O-acetyl-esters to the exocyclic hydroxyl groups of the sialic acid residues. Both the capsule and the O-acetyl modification have been correlated with differences in antigenicity and pathogenicity. The authors have developed an assay for an O-acetyl-transferase in E.coli that transfers O-(/sup 3/H)acetyl groups from (/sup 3/H)acetyl-Coenzyme A to colominic acid (fragments of the polysialic acid capsule). Using this assay, the enzyme was solubilized, and purified approx. 600-fold using a single affinity chromatography step with Procion Red-A Agarose. The enzyme also binds to Coenzyme A Sepharose, and can be eluted with high salt or Coenzyme A. The partially purified enzyme has a pH optimum of 7.0 - 7.5, is unaffected by divalent cations, is inhibited by high salt concentrations, is inhibited by Coenzyme A (50% inhibition at 100 ..mu..M), and shows an apparent Km for colominic acid of 3.7 mM (sialic acid concentration). This enzyme could be involved in the O-acetyl +/- form variation seen in some strains of K1/sup +/ E.coli.

  4. p300/CBP acetyl transferases interact with and acetylate the nucleotide excision repair factor XPG.

    PubMed

    Tillhon, Micol; Cazzalini, Ornella; Nardo, Tiziana; Necchi, Daniela; Sommatis, Sabrina; Stivala, Lucia A; Scovassi, A Ivana; Prosperi, Ennio

    2012-10-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism through which cells remove bulky DNA lesions. Following DNA damage, the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 (also referred to as lysine acetyltransferase or KAT) is known to associate with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a master regulator of DNA replication and repair processes. This interaction, which results in HAT inhibition, may be dissociated by the cell cycle inhibitor p21(CDKN1A), thereby restoring p300 activity; however, the role of this protein interplay is still unclear. Here, we report that silencing p300 or its homolog CREB-binding protein (CBP) by RNA interference (RNAi) significantly reduces DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts. In addition, we determined whether p300 and CBP may associate with and acetylate specific NER factors such as XPG, the 3'-endonuclease that is involved in the incision/excision step and is known to interact with PCNA. Our results show that p300 and CBP interact with XPG, which has been found to be acetylated in vivo. XPG is acetylated by p300 in vitro, and this reaction is inhibited by PCNA. Knocking down both p300/CBP by RNAi or by chemical inhibition with curcumin greatly reduced XPG acetylation, and a concomitant accumulation of the protein at DNA damage sites was observed. The ability of p21 to bind PCNA was found to regulate the interaction between p300 and XPG, and an abnormal accumulation of XPG at DNA damage sites was also found in p21(-/-) fibroblasts. These results indicate an additional function of p300/CBP in NER through the acetylation of XPG protein in a PCNA-p21 dependent manner.

  5. Riboswitch control of induction of aminoglycoside resistance acetyl and adenyl-transferases.

    PubMed

    He, Weizhi; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jun; Jia, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Wenxia; Jiang, Hengyi; Chen, Dongrong; Murchie, Alastair I H

    2013-08-01

    The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by human pathogens poses a significant threat to public health. The mechanisms that control the proliferation and expression of antibiotic resistance genes are not yet completely understood. The aminoglycosides are a historically important class of antibiotics that were introduced in the 1940s. Aminoglycoside resistance is conferred most commonly through enzymatic modification of the drug or enzymatic modification of the target rRNA through methylation or through the overexpression of efflux pumps. In our recent paper, we reported that expression of the aminoglycoside resistance genes encoding the aminoglycoside acetyl transferase (AAC) and aminoglycoside adenyl transferase (AAD) enzymes was controlled by an aminoglycoside-sensing riboswitch RNA. This riboswitch is embedded in the leader RNA of the aac/aad genes and is associated with the integron cassette system. The leader RNA can sense and bind specific aminoglycosides such that the binding causes a structural transition in the leader RNA, which leads to the induction of aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance. Specific aminoglycosides induce reporter gene expression mediated by the leader RNA. Aminoglycoside RNA binding was measured directly and, aminoglycoside-induced changes in RNA structure monitored by chemical probing. UV cross-linking and mutational analysis identified potential aminoglycoside binding sites on the RNA.

  6. Role of Carnitine Acetyl Transferase in Regulation of Nitric Oxide Signaling in Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Sun, Xutong; Agarwal, Saurabh; Rafikov, Ruslan; Dasarathy, Sridevi; Kumar, Sanjiv; Black, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart defects with increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) result in pulmonary endothelial dysfunction that is dependent, at least in part, on decreases in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Utilizing a lamb model with left-to-right shunting of blood and increased PBF that mimics the human disease, we have recently shown that a disruption in carnitine homeostasis, due to a decreased carnitine acetyl transferase (CrAT) activity, correlates with decreased bioavailable NO. Thus, we undertook this study to test the hypothesis that the CrAT enzyme plays a major role in regulating NO signaling through its effect on mitochondrial function. We utilized the siRNA gene knockdown approach to mimic the effect of decreased CrAT activity in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC). Our data indicate that silencing the CrAT gene disrupted cellular carnitine homeostasis, reduced the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-and resulted in an increase in oxidative stress within the mitochondrion. CrAT gene silencing also disrupted mitochondrial bioenergetics resulting in reduced ATP generation and decreased NO signaling secondary to a reduction in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions. Thus, this study links the disruption of carnitine homeostasis to the loss of NO signaling observed in children with CHD. Preserving carnitine homeostasis may have important clinical implications that warrant further investigation. PMID:23344032

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitor improves the development and acetylation levels of cat-cow interspecies cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Wittayarat, Manita; Sato, Yoko; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Morita, Yasuhiro; Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Otoi, Takeshige

    2013-08-01

    Abnormal epigenetic reprogramming, such as histone acetylation, might cause low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT). This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) on the developmental competence and histone acetylation of iSCNT embryos reconstructed from cat somatic cells and bovine cytoplasm. The iSCNT cat and parthenogenetic bovine embryos were treated with various concentrations of TSA (0, 25, 50, or 100 nM) for 24 h, respectively, following fusion and activation. Treatment with 50 nM TSA produced significantly higher rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation (84.3% and 4.6%, respectively) of iSCNT embryos than the rates of non-TSA-treated iSCNT embryos (63.8% and 0%, respectively). Similarly, the treatment of 50 nM TSA increased the blastocyst formation rate of parthenogenetic bovine embryos. The acetylation levels of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) in the iSCNT embryos with the treatment of 50 nM TSA were similar to those of in vitro-fertilized embryos and significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of non-TSA-treated iSCNT embryos (control), irrespective of the embryonic development stage (two-cell, four-cell, and eight-cell stages). These results indicated that the treatment of 50 nM TSA postfusion was beneficial for development to the blastocyst stage of iSCNT cat embryos and correlated with the increasing levels of acetylation at H3K9.

  8. Comparative analysis of pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-DL-leucine (Tanganil) and its two isomers (N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine) on vestibular compensation: Behavioral investigation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Tighilet, Brahim; Leonard, Jacques; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Lacour, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Head roll tilt, postural imbalance and spontaneous nystagmus are the main static vestibular deficits observed after an acute unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). In the UVL cat model, these deficits are fully compensated over 6 weeks as the result of central vestibular compensation. N-Acetyl-dl-leucine is a drug prescribed in clinical practice for the symptomatic treatment of acute UVL patients. The present study investigated the effects of N-acetyl-dl-leucine on the behavioral recovery after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the cat, and compared the effects of each of its two isomers N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine. Efficacy of these three drug treatments has been evaluated with respect to a placebo group (UVN+saline water) on the global sensorimotor activity (observation grids), the posture control (support surface measurement), the locomotor balance (maximum performance at the rotating beam test), and the spontaneous vestibular nystagmus (recorded in the light). Whatever the parameters tested, the behavioral recovery was strongly and significantly accelerated under pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-dl-leucine and N-acetyl-L-leucine. In contrast, the N-acetyl-D-leucine isomer had no effect at all on the behavioral recovery, and animals of this group showed the same recovery profile as those receiving a placebo. It is concluded that the N-acetyl-L-leucine isomer is the active part of the racemate component since it induces a significant acceleration of the vestibular compensation process similar (and even better) to that observed under treatment with the racemate component only.

  9. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of a 10-deacetylbaccatin III-10-O-acetyl transferase cDNA from Taxus x media.

    PubMed

    Guo, Binhui; Kai, Guoyin; Gong, Yifu; Jin, Hongbin; Wang, Yechun; Miao, Zhiqi; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2007-06-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding 10-deacetylbaccatin III-10-O-acetyl transferase (designated as TmDBAT), which catalyzes the acetylation of the C-10 hydroxyl group of the advanced metabolite 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB) to yield baccatin III, the immediate diterpenoid precursor of Taxol, was isolated from Taxus x media. Heterologous expression of TmDBAT in E. coli demonstrated that TmDBAT was a functional gene. Tissue expression pattern analysis revealed that TmDBAT expressed strongly in leaves, weak in stems and no expression could be detected in fruits, implying that TmDBAT was tissue-specific. Expression profiling analysis of TmDBAT under different elicitor treatments including silver nitrate, ammonium ceric sulphate and methyl jasmonate indicated that TmDBAT was an elicitor-responsive gene. Southern blot analysis suggested that TmDBAT belonged to a small multigene family.

  10. Arylamine N-acetyl Transferase (NAT) in the blue secretion of Telescopium telescopium: xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme as a biomarker for detection of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gorain, Bapi; Chakraborty, Sumon; Pal, Murari Mohan; Sarkar, Ratul; Samanta, Samir Kumar; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2014-01-01

    Telescopium telescopium, a marine mollusc collected from Sundarban mangrove, belongs to the largest mollusca phylum in the world and exudes a blue secretion when stimulated mechanically. The blue secretion was found to metabolize (preferentially) para-amino benzoic acid, a substrate for N-acetyl transferase (NAT), thereby indicating acetyl transferase like activity of the secretion. Attempts were also made to characterise bioactive fraction of the blue secretion and to further use this as a biomarker for monitoring of marine pollution. NAT like enzyme from marine mollusc is a potential candidate for detoxification of different harmful chemicals. A partially purified extract of blue secretion was obtained by fractional precipitation with (NH4)2SO4. From different fractions obtained by precipitation, the 0-30% fraction (30S) displayed NAT like activity (using para amino benzoic acid as a substrate with para nitrophenyl phosphate or acetyl coenzyme A as acetyl group donors). Maximum NAT like enzyme activity was attained at 25°C and at a pH of 6. The enzyme activity was found to be inhibited by 5 mM phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride. The divalent metal ions reduced NAT like activity of 30S. Moreover, Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) (at concentration of 1 mM) completely inhibited NAT activity. The thermal stability and bench-top stability studies were performed and it was found that the enzyme was stable at room temperature for more than 24 hours. Results from the present study further indicate that heavy metal content in blue secretion gradually decreased from pre-monsoon to post-monsoon season, which also corresponded to the change in NAT like activity. Therefore, this article stresses the importance of biomarker research for monitoring pollution.

  11. Crystal Structure of TDP-Fucosamine Acetyl Transferase (WECD) from Escherichia Coli, an Enzyme Required for Enterobacterial Common Antigen Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hung,M.; Rangarajan, E.; Munger, C.; Nadeau, G.; Sulea, T.; Matte, A.

    2006-01-01

    Enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) is a polysaccharide found on the outer membrane of virtually all gram-negative enteric bacteria and consists of three sugars, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid, and 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, organized into trisaccharide repeating units having the sequence {yields}(3)-{alpha}-D-Fuc4NAc-(1{yields}4)-{beta}-D-ManNAcA-(1{yields}4)-{alpha}-D-GlcNAc-(1{yields}). While the precise function of ECA is unknown, it has been linked to the resistance of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 to organic acids and the resistance of Salmonella enterica to bile salts. The final step in the synthesis of 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, the acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acetylation of the 4-amino group, is carried out by TDP-fucosamine acetyltransferase (WecD). We have determined the crystal structure of WecD in apo form at a 1.95-Angstroms resolution and bound to acetyl-CoA at a 1.66-Angstroms resolution. WecD is a dimeric enzyme, with each monomer adopting the GNAT N-acetyltransferase fold, common to a number of enzymes involved in acetylation of histones, aminoglycoside antibiotics, serotonin, and sugars. The crystal structure of WecD, however, represents the first structure of a GNAT family member that acts on nucleotide sugars. Based on this cocrystal structure, we have used flexible docking to generate a WecD-bound model of the acetyl-CoA-TDP-fucosamine tetrahedral intermediate, representing the structure during acetyl transfer. Our structural data show that WecD does not possess a residue that directly functions as a catalytic base, although Tyr208 is well positioned to function as a general acid by protonating the thiolate anion of coenzyme A.

  12. ATP Synthesis-coupled and -uncoupled Acetate Production from Acetyl-CoA by Mitochondrial Acetate:Succinate CoA-transferase and Acetyl-CoA Thioesterase in Trypanosoma*

    PubMed Central

    Millerioux, Yoann; Morand, Pauline; Biran, Marc; Mazet, Muriel; Moreau, Patrick; Wargnies, Marion; Ebikeme, Charles; Deramchia, Kamel; Gales, Lara; Portais, Jean-Charles; Boshart, Michael; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Bringaud, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Insect stage trypanosomes use an “acetate shuttle” to transfer mitochondrial acetyl-CoA to the cytosol for the essential fatty acid biosynthesis. The mitochondrial acetate sources are acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (ASCT) and an unknown enzymatic activity. We have identified a gene encoding acetyl-CoA thioesterase (ACH) activity, which is shown to be the second acetate source. First, RNAi-mediated repression of ASCT in the ACH null background abolishes acetate production from glucose, as opposed to both single ASCT and ACH mutants. Second, incorporation of radiolabeled glucose into fatty acids is also abolished in this ACH/ASCT double mutant. ASCT is involved in ATP production, whereas ACH is not, because the ASCT null mutant is ∼1000 times more sensitive to oligomycin, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial F0/F1-ATP synthase, than wild-type cells or the ACH null mutant. This was confirmed by RNAi repression of the F0/F1-ATP synthase F1β subunit, which is lethal when performed in the ASCT null background but not in the wild-type cells or the ACH null background. We concluded that acetate is produced from both ASCT and ACH; however, only ASCT is responsible, together with the F0/F1-ATP synthase, for ATP production in the mitochondrion. PMID:22474284

  13. N-acetyl-cysteine prevents age-related hearing loss and the progressive loss of inner hair cells in γ-glutamyl transferase 1 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Chen, Guang-Di; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Muthaiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan; Tian, Cong; Sheppard, Adam; Salvi, Richard; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors combined with oxidative stress are major determinants of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), one of the most prevalent disorders of the elderly. Dwarf grey mice, Ggt1dwg/dwg, are homozygous for a loss of function mutation of the γ-glutamyl transferase 1 gene, which encodes an important antioxidant enzyme critical for the resynthesis of glutathione (GSH). Since GSH reduces oxidative damage, we hypothesized that Ggt1dwg/dwg mice would be susceptible to ARHL. Surprisingly, otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonic potentials, which reflect cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) function, were largely unaffected in mutant mice, whereas auditory brainstem responses and the compound action potential were grossly abnormal. These functional deficits were associated with an unusual and selective loss of inner hair cells (IHC), but retention of OHC and auditory nerve fibers. Remarkably, hearing deficits and IHC loss were completely prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which induces de novo synthesis of GSH; however, hearing deficits and IHC loss reappeared when treatment was discontinued. Ggt1dwg/dwgmice represent an important new model for investigating ARHL, therapeutic interventions, and understanding the perceptual and electrophysiological consequences of sensory deprivation caused by the loss of sensory input exclusively from IHC. PMID:26977590

  14. N-acetyl-cysteine prevents age-related hearing loss and the progressive loss of inner hair cells in γ-glutamyl transferase 1 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Chen, Guang-Di; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Muthaiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan; Tian, Cong; Sheppard, Adam; Salvi, Richard; Johnson, Kenneth R

    2016-04-01

    Genetic factors combined with oxidative stress are major determinants of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), one of the most prevalent disorders of the elderly. Dwarf grey mice, Ggt1dwg/dwg, are homozygous for a loss of function mutation of the g-glutamyl transferase 1 gene, which encodes an important antioxidant enzyme critical for the resynthesis of glutathione (GSH). Since GSH reduces oxidative damage, we hypothesized that Ggt1dwg/dwg mice would be susceptible to ARHL. Surprisingly, otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonic potentials, which reflect cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) function, were largely unaffected in mutant mice, whereas auditory brainstem responses and the compound action potential were grossly abnormal. These functional deficits were associated with an unusual and selective loss of inner hair cells (IHC), but retention of OHC and auditory nerve fibers. Remarkably, hearing deficits and IHC loss were completely prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which induces de novo synthesis of GSH; however, hearing deficits and IHC loss reappeared when treatment was discontinued. Ggt1dwg/dwg mice represent an important new model for investigating ARHL, therapeutic interventions, and understanding the perceptual and electrophysiological consequences of sensory deprivation caused by the loss of sensory input exclusively from IHC.

  15. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cats Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... hand washing whenever you play or work with cats Wash your hands with soap and running water ...

  16. Histone acetyl transferase 1 is essential for mammalian development, genome stability, and the processing of newly synthesized histones H3 and H4.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Ge, Zhongqi; Sirbu, Bianca; Doughty, Cheryl; Agudelo Garcia, Paula A; Schlederer, Michaela; Annunziato, Anthony T; Cortez, David; Kenner, Lukas; Parthun, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Histone acetyltransferase 1 is an evolutionarily conserved type B histone acetyltransferase that is thought to be responsible for the diacetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 on lysines 5 and 12 during chromatin assembly. To understand the function of this enzyme in a complex organism, we have constructed a conditional mouse knockout model of Hat1. Murine Hat1 is essential for viability, as homozygous deletion of Hat1 results in neonatal lethality. The lungs of embryos and pups genetically deficient in Hat1 were much less mature upon histological evaluation. The neonatal lethality is due to severe defects in lung development that result in less aeration and respiratory distress. Many of the Hat1(-/-) neonates also display significant craniofacial defects with abnormalities in the bones of the skull and jaw. Hat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are defective in cell proliferation and are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. In addition, the Hat1(-/-) MEFs display a marked increase in genome instability. Analysis of histone dynamics at sites of replication-coupled chromatin assembly demonstrates that Hat1 is not only responsible for the acetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 but is also required to maintain the acetylation of histone H3 on lysines 9, 18, and 27 during replication-coupled chromatin assembly.

  17. Biochemical effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content on teleostean fishes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-09-01

    Effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 at a dose of 17.20mg/l on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content were measured in different tissues of two Indian air-breathing teleosts, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) during an exposure period of 30 days under laboratory condition. AChE activity was significantly increased in all the investigated tissues of both fish species and maximum elevation was observed in brain of H. fossilis, while spinal cord of A. testudineus showed minimum increment. Fishes showed significant increase LPO levels in all the tissues; highest was observed in gill of A. testudineus but lowest LPO level was observed in muscle of H. fossilis. CAT was also enhanced in both the fishes, while GST activity in liver diminished substantially and minimum was observed in liver of A. testudineus. Total protein content showed decreased value in all the tissues, maximum reduction was observed in liver and minimum in brain of A. testudineus and H. fossilis respectively. The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused serious alterations in the enzyme activities resulting into severe deterioration of fish health; so, AChE, LPO, CAT and GST can be used as suitable indicators of herbicidal toxicity.

  18. Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P.; Edwards, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The 55 Arabidopsis glutathione transferases (GSTs) are, with one microsomal exception, a monophyletic group of soluble enzymes that can be divided into phi, tau, theta, zeta, lambda, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and TCHQD classes. The populous phi and tau classes are often highly stress inducible and regularly crop up in proteomic and transcriptomic studies. Despite much study on their xenobiotic-detoxifying activities their natural roles are unclear, although roles in defence-related secondary metabolism are likely. The smaller DHAR and lambda classes are likely glutathione-dependent reductases, the zeta class functions in tyrosine catabolism and the theta class has a putative role in detoxifying oxidised lipids. This review describes the evidence for the functional roles of GSTs and the potential for these enzymes to perform diverse functions that in many cases are not “glutathione transferase” activities. As well as biochemical data, expression data from proteomic and transcriptomic studies are included, along with subcellular localisation experiments and the results of functional genomic studies. PMID:22303257

  19. Aerobic production of isoamyl acetate by overexpression of the yeast alcohol acetyl-transferases AFT1 and AFT2 in Escherichia coli and using low-cost fermentation ingredients.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Vadlani, P V; Harrison, M L; Bennett, G N; San, K-Y

    2008-06-01

    Isoamyl acetate, produced via fermentation, is a natural flavor chemical with applications in the food industry. Two alcohol acetyltransferases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATF1 and ATF2) can catalyze the esterification of isoamyl alcohol with acetyl coenzyme A. The respective genes were cloned and expressed in an appropriate ack-pta(-) strain of Escherichia coli. The engineered strains produce isoamyl acetate when isoamyl alcohol is added to the culture medium. Aerobic shake flask experiments examined isoamyl acetate production over various growth times, temperatures, and initial optical densities. The strain carrying the pBAD-ATF1 plasmid exhibited a high molar ester yield from glucose (1.13) after 48 h of aerobic growth at 25 degrees C. Low-cost media components, such as fusel oil, sorghum glucose and corn steep liquor, were found to give a high yield of isoamyl acetate. High-cell-density gave an increased isoamyl acetate yield of 0.18 g/g of glucose consumed.

  20. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  1. Enzymatic Glycosylation by Transferases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blixt, Ola; Razi, Nahid

    Glycosyltransferases are important biological catalysts in cellular systems generating complex cell surface glycans involved in adhesion and signaling processes. Recent advances in glycoscience have increased the demands to access significant amount of glycans representing the glycome. Glycosyltransferases are now playing a key role for in vitro synthesis of oligosaccharides and the bacterial genome are increasingly utilized for cloning and over expression of active transferases in glycosylation reactions. This chapter highlights the recent progress towards preparative synthesis of oligosaccharides representing terminal sequences of glycoproteins and glycolipids using recombinant transferases. Transferases are also being explored in the context of solid-phase synthesis, immobilized on resins and over expression in vivo by engineered bacteria.

  2. Inhibition of Different Histone Acetyltransferases (HATs) Uncovers Transcription-Dependent and -Independent Acetylation-Mediated Mechanisms in Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merschbaecher, Katja; Hatko, Lucyna; Folz, Jennifer; Mueller, Uli

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation of histones changes the efficiency of the transcription processes and thus contributes to the formation of long-term memory (LTM). In our comparative study, we used two inhibitors to characterize the contribution of different histone acetyl transferases (HATs) to appetitive associative learning in the honeybee. For one we applied…

  3. Protein kinase C coordinates histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Darieva, Zoulfia; Webber, Aaron; Warwood, Stacey; Sharrocks, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The re-assembly of chromatin following DNA replication is a critical event in the maintenance of genome integrity. Histone H3 acetylation at K56 and phosphorylation at T45 are two important chromatin modifications that accompany chromatin assembly. Here we have identified the protein kinase Pkc1 as a key regulator that coordinates the deposition of these modifications in S. cerevisiae under conditions of replicative stress. Pkc1 phosphorylates the histone acetyl transferase Rtt109 and promotes its ability to acetylate H3K56. Our data also reveal novel cross-talk between two different histone modifications as Pkc1 also enhances H3T45 phosphorylation and this modification is required for H3K56 acetylation. Our data therefore uncover an important role for Pkc1 in coordinating the deposition of two different histone modifications that are important for chromatin assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09886.001 PMID:26468616

  4. Comparative specificities of Calreticulin Transacetylase to O-acetyl, N-acetyl and S-acetyl derivative of 4-methylcoumarins and their inhibitory effect on AFB1-induced genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajit; Ponnan, Prija; Raj, Hanumantharao G; Parmar, Virinder S; Saso, Luciano

    2013-02-01

    We have earlier conclusively established the Calreticulin Transacetylase (CRTAase) catalyzed modifications of functional proteins such as cytochrome-P450-linked mixed function oxidases (Cyt-P450-linked MFOs), NADPH cytochrome c reductase, and glutathione S-transferase by acetoxy derivatives of polyphenols. In this study, we have investigated the comparative specificities of CRTAase to N-acetyl derivative, 7-acetamido-4-methylcoumarin (7-N-AMC), O-acetyl derivative, 7-acetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (7-AMC), S-acetyl derivative, 7-thioacetyl-4-methycoumarin (7-S-AMC) and their parent compounds in the modulation of catalytic activities of aforesaid proteins. Special attention concentrated on the comparative inhibitory effect of aforesaid acetyl moiety on Cyt-P450-linked MFOs such as 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-induced genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. The results clearly indicated that N-acetyl and O-acetyl derivatives were better substrates for CRTAase while the S-acetyl was found to be a poorer substrate. Our study involving atomic charge, charge density and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) calculations indicated the pivotal role of electronegativity and charge distribution values of O, N and S atoms of the acetyl group at C-7 position of the 4-methylcoumarins in CRTAase activity. These facts reinforce our hypothesis that the CRTAase catalyzed modifications of the catalytic activities of aforesaid proteins by acetyl derivative of 4-methylcoumarins is probably due to acetylation of these proteins.

  5. Histone Acetylation Inhibitors Promote Axon Growth in Adult DRG neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shen; Nazif, Kutaiba; Smith, Alexander; Baas, Peter W; Smith, George M

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic mechanisms that guide damaged axons to regenerate following spinal cord injury remain poorly understood. Manipulation of posttranslational modifications of key proteins in mature neurons could re-invigorate growth machinery after injury. One such modification is acetylation, a reversible process controlled by two enzyme families acting in opposition, the Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) and the Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs). While acetylated histones in the nucleus is associated with upregulation of growth promoting genes, de-acetylated tubulin in the axoplasm is associated with more labile microtubules, conducive to axon growth. In this study we investigated the effects of HAT inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors on cultured adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. We found that inhibition of HATs, using Anacardic Acid or CPTH2, improved axon outgrowth, while inhibition of HDACs using TSA or Tubacin, inhibited axon growth. Furthermore, Anacardic Acid increased the number of axons able to cross an inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) border. Histone acetylation, but not tubulin acetylation levels, was affected by HAT inhibitors, whereas tubulin acetylation levels were increased in the presence of HDAC inhibitor Tubacin. Although microtubule stabilizing drug taxol did not have an effect on the lengths of DRG axons, nocodazole decreased axon lengths. While the mechanistic basis will require future studies, our data show that inhibitors of HAT can augment axon growth in adult DRG neurons, with the potential of aiding axon growth over inhibitory substrates produced by the glial scar. PMID:25702820

  6. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  7. αTAT1 controls longitudinal spreading of acetylation marks from open microtubules extremities

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Nathalie; Elkhatib, Nadia; Bresteau, Enzo; Piétrement, Olivier; Khaled, Mehdi; Magiera, Maria M.; Janke, Carsten; Le Cam, Eric; Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Montagnac, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation of the lysine 40 of α-tubulin (K40) is a post-translational modification occurring in the lumen of microtubules (MTs) and is controlled by the α-tubulin acetyl-transferase αTAT1. How αTAT1 accesses the lumen and acetylates α-tubulin there has been an open question. Here, we report that acetylation starts at open ends of MTs and progressively spreads longitudinally from there. We observed acetylation marks at the open ends of in vivo MTs re-growing after a Nocodazole block, and acetylated segments growing in length with time. Bias for MTs extremities was even more pronounced when using non-dynamic MTs extracted from HeLa cells. In contrast, K40 acetylation was mostly uniform along the length of MTs reconstituted from purified tubulin in vitro. Quantitative modelling of luminal diffusion of αTAT1 suggested that the uniform acetylation pattern observed in vitro is consistent with defects in the MT lattice providing lateral access to the lumen. Indeed, we observed that in vitro MTs are permeable to macromolecules along their shaft while cellular MTs are not. Our results demonstrate αTAT1 enters the lumen from open extremities and spreads K40 acetylation marks longitudinally along cellular MTs. This mode of tip-directed microtubule acetylation may allow for selective acetylation of subsets of microtubules. PMID:27752143

  8. Plant glutathione transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Lapthorn, Adrian; Edwards, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are encoded by a large and diverse gene family in plants, which can be divided on the basis of sequence identity into the phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The theta and zeta GSTs have counterparts in animals but the other classes are plant-specific and form the focus of this article. The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 48 GST genes, with the tau and phi classes being the most numerous. The GST proteins have evolved by gene duplication to perform a range of functional roles using the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) as a cosubstrate or coenzyme. GSTs are predominantly expressed in the cytosol, where their GSH-dependent catalytic functions include the conjugation and resulting detoxification of herbicides, the reduction of organic hydroperoxides formed during oxidative stress and the isomerization of maleylacetoacetate to fumarylacetoacetate, a key step in the catabolism of tyrosine. GSTs also have non-catalytic roles, binding flavonoid natural products in the cytosol prior to their deposition in the vacuole. Recent studies have also implicated GSTs as components of ultraviolet-inducible cell signaling pathways and as potential regulators of apoptosis. Although sequence diversification has produced GSTs with multiple functions, the structure of these proteins has been highly conserved. The GSTs thus represent an excellent example of how protein families can diversify to fulfill multiple functions while conserving form and structure. PMID:11897031

  9. Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-08

    ACCESSION NO.D,. 03261102F 2312 A~5 11. TITLE (include Securqt Classification) 0 Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase 12. PERSONAL...I’:- AFOSR.Tlt. 8 7 - 0 9 8,2 0IL * pi AFOSR- 85 -0377 PROGRESS REPORT Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase 5." Period of...Pharmacology and the Cardiovascular Research Institute September 8, 1987 .’, 5.’- "’S ". -f, AFOSR - 85 -0377 PROGRESS REPORT Molecular Cloning of

  10. THE EXCHANGE REACTION OF ACETYL FLUORIDE AND ACETYL HEXAFLUOROARSENATE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    From the temperature dependence of the exchange rate of the methyl protons between acetyl fluoride and acetyl hexafluoroarsenate an Arrhenius...the reaction was found to be one-half order in acetyl hexafluoroarsenate and zero order in acetyl fluoride. (Author)

  11. Astronomy CATS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Prather, Edward E.; Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education's (CAE's) NSF-funded Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program is a grassroots multi-institutional effort to increase the capacity for astronomy education research and improve science literacy in the United States.Our primary target population is the 500,000 college students who each year enroll in an introductory general education (a breadth requirement for non-science majors) Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science (EASS) course (Fraknoi 2001, AGI 2006).An equally important population for our efforts is the individuals who are, or will be, teaching these students. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the goals of CAE and CATS, the varied personnel that make up the CATS collective, the diverse projects we've undertaken, and the many challenges we have had to work through to make CATS a success.

  12. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  13. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  14. Glutathione transferases and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Anna Paola; Fiorile, Maria Carmela; Primavera, Alessandra; Lo Bello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    There is substantial agreement that the unbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species may affect the onset and/or the course of a number of common diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Many studies suggest a crucial role for oxidative stress in the first phase of aging, or in the pathogenesis of various diseases including neurological ones. Particularly, the role exerted by glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes (Glutathione Transferases) in the nervous system appears more relevant, this latter tissue being much more vulnerable to toxins and oxidative stress than other tissues such as liver, kidney or muscle. The present review addresses the question by focusing on the results obtained by specimens from patients or by in vitro studies using cells or animal models related to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. In general, there is an association between glutathione depletion and Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. In addition, a significant decrease of glutathione transferase activity in selected areas of brain and in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid was found. For some glutathione transferase genes there is also a correlation between polymorphisms and onset/outcome of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, there is a general agreement about the protective effect exerted by glutathione and glutathione transferases but no clear answer about the mechanisms underlying this crucial role in the insurgence of neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Histone acetylation in neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Contestabile, Antonio; Sintoni, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modification of histones is a primary mechanism through which epigenetic regulation of DNA transcription does occur. Among these modifications, regulation of histone acetylation state is an important tool to influence gene expression. Epigenetic regulation of neurodevelopment contributes to the structural and functional shaping of the brain during neurogenesis and continues to impact on neural plasticity lifelong. Alterations of these mechanisms during neurodevelopment may result in later occurrence of neuropsychatric disorders. The present paper reviews and discusses available data on histone modifications, in particular histone acetylation, in neurogenesis considering results obtained in culture systems of neural progenitors as well as in in vivo studies. Possible teratogenic effects of altered histone acetylation state during development are also considered. The use during pregnancy of drugs such as valproic acid, which acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, may result during postnatal development in autistic-like symptoms. The effect of gestational administration of the drug has been, therefore, tested on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in animals showing behavioral impairment as a consequence of the drug administration at a specific stage of pregnancy. These experimental results show that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is not quantitatively altered by gestational valproic acid administration. Future steps and goals of research on the role and mechanisms of histone acetylation in neurodevelopment are briefly discussed.

  16. Final report on the safety assessment of acetyl triethyl citrate, acetyl tributyl citrate, acetyl trihexyl citrate, and acetyl trioctyl citrate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur

    2002-01-01

    Acetyl Triethyl Citrate, Acetyl Tributyl Citrate, Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate, and Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate all function as plasticizers in cosmetics. Additionally, the Trihexyl and Trioctyl forms are described as skin-conditioning agents-emollients, although there are currently no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate or Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate. Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate are used in nail products at concentrations up to 7%. Recognizing that there are no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl or Trioctyl Citrate, if they were to be used in the future, their concentration of use is expected to be no higher than that reported for Acetyl Triethyl and Tributyl Citrate. These ingredients were sufficiently similar in structure that safety test data on one were considered applicable to all. Approximately 99% of orally administered Acetyl Tributyl Citrate is excreted-intermediate metabolites include acetyl citrate, monobutyl citrate, acetyl monobutyl citrate, dibutyl citrate, and acetyl dibutyl citrate. In acute, short-term, subchronic, and chronic feeding studies, these ingredients were relatively nontoxic. Differences from controls were either not statistically significant or not related to any organ toxicity. Ocular exposures produced moderate reactions that cleared by 48 hours after instillation. Dermal application was not toxic in rabbits. In a guinea pig maximization test, Acetyl Triethyl Citrate was a sensitizer whereas Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was not. Limited clinical testing of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was negative for both skin irritation and sensitization. These clinical data were considered more relevant than the guinea pig maximization data, suggesting to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel that none of these ingredients would be a sensitizer. Physiologic effects noted with intravenous delivery of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate or Acetyl Tributyl Citrate include dose-related decreases in blood pressure and

  17. Purification and properties of 4-hydroxybutyrate coenzyme A transferase from Clostridium aminobutyricum.

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, U; Buckel, W

    1991-01-01

    A new coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase from the anaerobe Clostridium aminobutyricum catalyzing the formation of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA from 4-hydroxybutyrate and acetyl-CoA is described. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by standard techniques, including fast protein liquid chromatography under aerobic conditions. Its molecular mass was determined to be 110 kDa, and that of the only subunit was determined to be 54 kDa, indicating a homodimeric structure. Besides acetate and acetyl-CoA, the following substrates were detected (in order of decreasing kcat/Km): 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, butyryl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, vinyl-acetyl-CoA (3-butenoyl-CoA), and 5-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA. In an indirect assay the corresponding acids were also found to be substrates; however, DL-lactate, DL-2-hydroxybutyrate, DL-3-hydroxybutyrate, crotonate, and various dicarboxylates were not. PMID:1768145

  18. ASEB: a web server for KAT-specific acetylation site prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Likun; Du, Yipeng; Lu, Ming; Li, Tingting

    2012-07-01

    Protein lysine acetylation plays an important role in the normal functioning of cells, including gene expression regulation, protein stability and metabolism regulation. Although large amounts of lysine acetylation sites have been identified via large-scale mass spectrometry or traditional experimental methods, the lysine (K)-acetyl-transferase (KAT) responsible for the acetylation of a given protein or lysine site remains largely unknown due to the experimental limitations of KAT substrate identification. Hence, the in silico prediction of KAT-specific acetylation sites may provide direction for further experiments. In our previous study, we developed the acetylation set enrichment based (ASEB) computer program to predict which KAT-families are responsible for the acetylation of a given protein or lysine site. In this article, we provide KAT-specific acetylation site prediction as a web service. This web server not only provides the online tool and R package for the method in our previous study, but several useful services are also included, such as the integration of protein-protein interaction information to enhance prediction accuracy. This web server can be freely accessed at http://cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/huac.

  19. Nucleosome acetylation sequencing to study the establishment of chromatin acetylation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chitvan; Blacketer, Melissa J; Shogren-Knaak, Michael A

    2014-07-15

    The establishment of posttranslational chromatin modifications is a major mechanism for regulating how genomic DNA is utilized. However, current in vitro chromatin assays do not monitor histone modifications at individual nucleosomes. Here we describe a strategy, nucleosome acetylation sequencing, that allows us to read the amount of modification at each nucleosome. In this approach, a bead-bound trinucleosome substrate is enzymatically acetylated with radiolabeled acetyl CoA by the SAGA complex from Saccharomyces cerevisae. The product is digested by restriction enzymes that cut at unique sites between the nucleosomes and then counted to quantify the extent of acetylation at each nucleosomal site. We find that we can sensitively, specifically, and reproducibly follow enzyme-mediated nucleosome acetylation. Applying this strategy, when acetylation proceeds extensively, its distribution across nucleosomes is relatively uniform. However, when substrates are used that contain nucleosomes mutated at the major sites of SAGA-mediated acetylation, or that are studied under initial rate conditions, changes in the acetylation distribution can be observed. Nucleosome acetylation sequencing should be applicable to analyzing a wide range of modifications. Additionally, because our trinucleosomes synthesis strategy is highly modular and efficient, it can be used to generate nucleosomal systems in which nucleosome composition differs across the array.

  20. Cat scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... t scratch and bite. Don't allow a cat to lick your skin, eyes, mouth, or open wounds or scratches. Use flea control measures to lower the risk your cat develops the disease. Don't touch feral cats. ...

  1. Histone acetylation in insect chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Allfrey, V G; Pogo, B G; Littau, V C; Gershey, E L; Mirsky, A E

    1968-01-19

    Acetylation of histones takes place along the salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus thummi when RNA synthesis is active. It can be observed but not measured quantitatively by autoradiography of chromosome squashes. The "fixatives" commonly used in preparing squashes of insect chromosomes preferentially extract the highly acetylated "arginine-rich" histone fractions; the use of such fixatives may explain the reported absence of histone acetylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

  2. STAT5 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Kosan, Christian; Ginter, Torsten; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2013-01-01

    The cytokine-inducible transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A and 5B (STAT5A and STAT5B) are important for the proper development of multicellular eukaryotes. Disturbed signaling cascades evoking uncontrolled expression of STAT5 target genes are associated with cancer and immunological failure. Here, we summarize how STAT5 acetylation is integrated into posttranslational modification networks within cells. Moreover, we focus on how inhibitors of deacetylases and tyrosine kinases can correct leukemogenic signaling nodes involving STAT5. Such small molecules can be exploited in the fight against neoplastic diseases and immunological disorders. PMID:24416653

  3. Hibiscus cannabinus feruloyl-coa:monolignol transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-11-15

    The invention relates to isolated nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes. The isolated nucleic acids and/or the enzymes enable incorporation of monolignol ferulates into the lignin of plants, where such monolignol ferulates include, for example, p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and/or sinapyl ferulate. The invention also includes methods and plants that include nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme and/or feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes.

  4. Feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase

    DOEpatents

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-09-13

    The invention relates to nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and the feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme that enables incorporation of monolignol ferulates, for example, including p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and sinapyl ferulate, into the lignin of plants.

  5. Feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase

    DOEpatents

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and the feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme that enables incorporation of monolignol ferulates, for example, including p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and sinapyl ferulate, into the lignin of plants.

  6. [Nourseothricin (streptothricin) inactivated by plasmid pIE 636-encoded acetyltransferase: detection of N-acetyl-beta-lysine in the inactivated product].

    PubMed

    Seltmann, G

    1985-12-01

    Nourseothricin (streptothricin) can be inactivated by an acetyl transferase synthesized by E. coli strains containing plasmid pIE 636. Nourseothricin inactivated in the presence of 14C-acetyl-coenzyme A was purified and submitted to partial acidic hydrolysis. By electrophoresis of the hydrolysate a 14C-containing substance moving only slowly towards the cathode could be isolated. This substance after complete hydrolysis yields only unlabelled beta-lysine.

  7. 21 CFR 862.1535 - Ornithine carbamyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carbamyl transferase (OCT) in serum. Ornithine carbamyl transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as infectious hepatitis, acute cholecystitis (inflammation...

  8. Histone acetylation in heterochromatin assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Workman, Jerry L.

    2010-01-01

    Histone acetylation is generally considered a mark involved in activating gene expression by making chromatin structures less compact. In the April 1, 2010, issue of Genes & Development, Xhemalce and Kouzarides (pp. 647–652) demonstrate that the acetylation of histone H3 at Lys 4 (H3K4) plays a role in the formation of repressive heterochromatin in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. H3K4 acetylation mediates a switch of chromodomain proteins associated with methylated H3K9 during heterochromatin assembly. PMID:20395362

  9. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Brian T; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek; Schölz, Christian; Wagner, Sebastian A; Magnes, Christoph; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation accumulated in growth-arrested cells in a manner that depended on acetyl-CoA generation in distinct subcellular compartments. Mitochondrial acetylation levels correlated with acetyl-CoA concentration in vivo and acetyl-CoA acetylated lysine residues nonenzymatically in vitro. We developed a method to estimate acetylation stoichiometry and found that the vast majority of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylation had a very low stoichiometry. However, mitochondrial acetylation occurred at a significantly higher basal level than cytoplasmic acetylation, consistent with the distinct acetylation dynamics and higher acetyl-CoA concentration in mitochondria. High stoichiometry acetylation occurred mostly on histones, proteins present in histone acetyltransferase and deacetylase complexes, and on transcription factors. These data show that a majority of acetylation occurs at very low levels in exponentially growing yeast and is uniformly affected by exposure to acetyl-CoA.

  10. Urinary mutagenicity and N-acetylation phenotype in textile industry workers exposed to arylamines

    SciTech Connect

    Sinues, B.; Perez, J.; Bernal, M.L.; Saenz, M.A.; Lanuza, J.; Bartolome, M. )

    1992-09-15

    Primary aromatic amines have been identified epidemiologically as human carcinogens. It has been suggested that the target organ affected by aromatic amines is dependent on the rate of metabolic activation. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low acetyl transferase activity and bladder cancer risk. On this basis, our working hypothesis was that the slow acetylators could follow in a higher extent the metabolic pathway independent of N-acetylation, leading to the excretion of conjugates of electrophyles with glucuronic acid. The instability of these glucuronides could be responsible for the association between arylamine-induced bladder cancer and slow acetylator phenotype. A total of 153 individuals were included in this study: 70 exposed to arylamines (working in textile industry) and 83 nonexposed. The following parameters were determined in urine: mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation, S9; mutagenic index in the presence of S9; and the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase. All individuals were phenotyped according to their capacity of N-acetylation by using isoniazid as drug test. The results show that the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase is statistically higher in exposed subjects when compared with nonexposed individuals (P less than 0.001), this parameter being statistically higher among exposed subjects who were slow acetylators than among rapid metabolizers, independent of the fact that they were smokers or nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between groups for the mutagenicity in urine not incubated with beta-glucuronidase.

  11. Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Antioxidant Status, Lipid Peroxidation, and Oxidative Damage of Arsenic in Rat.

    PubMed

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Razavi-Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Omidi, Ameneh; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Sabzevari, Samin; Kazemi, Ali Reza; Sabzevari, Omid

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental contaminant present around the world in both organic and inorganic forms. Oxidative stress is postulated as the main mechanism for As-induced toxicity. This study was planned to examine the protective effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on As-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of control (saline), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 20 mg/kg), ALC (300 mg/kg), and NaAsO2 plus ALC. Animals were dosed orally for 28 successive days. Blood and tissue samples including kidney, brain, liver, heart, and lung were collected on the 28th day and evaluated for oxidative damage and histological changes. NaAsO2 exposure caused a significant lipid peroxidation as evidenced by elevation in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The activity of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as sulfhydryl group content (SH group) was significantly suppressed in various organs following NaAsO2 treatment (P < 0.05). Furthermore, NaAsO2 administration increased serum values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and bilirubin. Our findings revealed that co-administration of ALC and NaAsO2 significantly suppressed the oxidative damage induced by NaAsO2. Tissue histological studies have confirmed the biochemical findings and provided evidence for the beneficial role of ALC. The results concluded that ALC attenuated NaAsO2-induced toxicity, and this protective effect may result from the ability of ALC in maintaining oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  12. Functional Dissection of the Bipartite Active Site of the Class I Coenzyme A (CoA)-Transferase Succinyl-CoA:Acetate CoA-Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. In this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. The ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA. PMID:27242998

  13. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jesse; Mullins, Elwood; Kappock, T.

    2016-05-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates less than 3 Å apart. In this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analogue dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analogue of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. The ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.

  14. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    DOE PAGES

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-05-23

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. Here in this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes andmore » orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. Finally, the ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.« less

  15. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-05-23

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. Here in this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. Finally, the ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.

  16. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  17. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  18. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... have diabetes or those who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cat-scratch disease is also called cat-scratch fever. ... You can also get the bacteria in your eyes if you pet a cat that has the bacteria on its fur and ...

  19. CATS Featured Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

      CATS Featured Articles       A Slice of Cirrus: Image of ... just hours before by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. Nighttime View of Raung Volcanic Plume : Natural Hazards  - The CATS instrument slices through darkness to reveal the vertical structure of a ...

  20. Properties of Succinyl-Coenzyme A:d-Citramalate Coenzyme A Transferase and Its Role in the Autotrophic 3-Hydroxypropionate Cycle of Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Silke; Alber, Birgit E.; Fuchs, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus uses the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation. This cycle starts with acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and produces glyoxylate. Glyoxylate is an unconventional cell carbon precursor that needs special enzymes for assimilation. Glyoxylate is combined with propionyl-CoA to β-methylmalyl-CoA, which is converted to citramalate. Cell extracts catalyzed the succinyl-CoA-dependent conversion of citramalate to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, the central cell carbon precursor. This reaction is due to the combined action of enzymes that were upregulated during autotrophic growth, a coenzyme A transferase with the use of succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor and a lyase cleaving citramalyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate. Genomic analysis identified a gene coding for a putative coenzyme A transferase. The gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to code for succinyl-CoA:d-citramalate coenzyme A transferase. This enzyme, which catalyzes the reaction d-citramalate + succinyl-CoA → d-citramalyl-CoA + succinate, was purified and studied. It belongs to class III of the coenzyme A transferase enzyme family, with an aspartate residue in the active site. The homodimeric enzyme composed of 44-kDa subunits was specific for succinyl-CoA as a CoA donor but also accepted d-malate and itaconate instead of d-citramalate. The CoA transferase gene is part of a cluster of genes which are cotranscribed, including the gene for d-citramalyl-CoA lyase. It is proposed that the CoA transferase and the lyase catalyze the last two steps in the glyoxylate assimilation route. PMID:16952935

  1. Three CoA Transferases Involved in the Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsunari; Yoshida, Yasuo; Nagano, Keiji; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Jun; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2016-01-01

    Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, which produces butyrate and acetyl-CoA from butyryl-CoA and acetate, is responsible for the final step of butyrate production in bacteria. This study demonstrates that in the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis this reaction is not catalyzed by PGN_1171, previously annotated as butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, but by three distinct CoA transferases, PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and spectrophotometric analyses were performed using crude enzyme extracts from deletion mutant strains and purified recombinant proteins. The experiments revealed that, in the presence of acetate, PGN_0725 preferentially utilized butyryl-CoA rather than propionyl-CoA. By contrast, this preference was reversed in PGN_1888. The only butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase activity was observed in PGN_1341. Double reciprocal plots revealed that all the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes follow a ternary-complex mechanism, in contrast to previously characterized CoA transferases. GC-MS analysis to determine the concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in culture supernatants of P. gingivalis wild type and mutant strains revealed that PGN_0725 and PGN_1888 play a major role in the production of butyrate and propionate, respectively. Interestingly, a triple deletion mutant lacking PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888 produced low levels of SCFAs, suggesting that the microorganism contains CoA transferase(s) in addition to these three enzymes. Growth rates of the mutant strains were mostly slower than that of the wild type, indicating that many carbon compounds produced in the SCFA synthesis appear to be important for the biological activity of this microorganism. PMID:27486457

  2. Sirt1 physically interacts with Tip60 and negatively regulates Tip60-mediated acetylation of H2AX

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagata, Kazutsune; Kitabayashi, Issay

    2009-12-25

    Sirt1 appear to be NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that deacetylates histones and several non-histone proteins. In this study, we identified Sirt1 as a physical interaction partner of Tip60, which is a mammalian MYST-type histone acetyl-transferase that specifically acetylates histones H2A and H4. Although Tip60 also acetylates DNA damage-specific histone H2A variant H2AX in response to DNA damage, which is a process required for appropriate DNA damage response, overexpression of Sirt1 represses Tip60-mediated acetylation of H2AX. Furthermore, Sirt1 depletion by RNAi causes excessive acetylation of H2AX, and enhances accumulation of {gamma}-ray irradiation-induced MDC1, BRCA1, and Rad51 foci in nuclei. These findings suggest that Sirt1 functions as negative regulator of Tip60-mediated acetylation of H2AX. Moreover, Sirt1 deacetylates an acetylated Tip60 in response to DNA damage and stimulates proteasome-dependent Tip60 degradation in vivo, suggesting that Sirt1 negatively regulates the protein level of Tip60 in vivo. Sirt1 may thus repress excessive activation of the DNA damage response and Rad51-homologous recombination repair by suppressing the function of Tip60.

  3. Oxygen-dependent acetylation and dimerization of the corepressor CtBP2 in neural stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Karaca, Esra; Lewicki, Jakub; Hermanson, Ola

    2015-03-01

    The transcriptional corepressor CtBP2 is essential for proper development of the nervous system. The factor exerts its repression by interacting in complexes with chromatin-modifying factors such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1/2 and the histone demethylase LSD1/KDM1. Notably, the histone acetyl transferase p300 acetylates CtBP2 and this is an important regulatory event of the activity and subcellular localization of the protein. We recently demonstrated an essential role for CtBPs as sensors of microenvironmental oxygen levels influencing the differentiation potential of neural stem cells (NSCs), but it is not known whether oxygen levels influence the acetylation levels of CtBP factors. Here we show by using proximity ligation assay (PLA) that CtBP2 acetylation levels increased significantly in undifferentiated, proliferating NSCs under hypoxic conditions. CtBP2 interacted with the class III HDAC Sirt1 but this interaction was unaltered in hypoxic conditions, and treatment with the Sirt1 inhibitor Ex527 did not result in any significant change in total CtBP2 acetylation levels. Instead, we revealed a significant decrease in PLA signal representing CtBP2 dimerization in NSCs under hypoxic conditions, negatively correlating with the acetylation levels. Our results suggest that microenvironmental oxygen levels influence the dimerization and acetylation levels, and thereby the activity, of CtBP2 in proliferating NSCs.

  4. Cat scratch encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Silver, B E; Bean, C S

    1991-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually benign, self-limited and without sequelae. Margileth has established four clinical criteria, three of which must be satisfied to make the diagnosis: 1) a history of animal exposure, usually kitten, with primary skin or ocular lesions; 2) regional chronic adenopathy without other apparent cause; 3) a positive cat scratch disease antigen skin test; and 4) lymph node biopsy demonstrating noncaseating granulomas and germinal center hyperplasia. Central nervous system involvement in cat scratch disease has been previously reported, although it is extremely uncommon. In a several-month period, we encountered two cases of cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy. The intents of this paper are twofold: 1) to briefly review the current literature on cat scratch disease, 2) to demonstrate that cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy presents acutely with seizures, posturing and coma and resolves rapidly with supportive care.

  5. N-ACETYL GROUPS IN VITELLENIN,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The presence of acetyl groups in vitellenin was confirmed by hydrazinolysis according to the DNP method of Phillips. After hydrazinolysis of 10-30...hydrazinolysis at room temperature for 1 hour, vitellenin contains N- acetyl , but no Oacetyl, groups. (Author)

  6. Acetylated α-Tubulin Regulated by N-Acetyl-Seryl-Aspartyl-Lysyl-Proline(Ac-SDKP) Exerts the Anti-fibrotic Effect in Rat Lung Fibrosis Induced by Silica

    PubMed Central

    Xiaojun, Wang; Yan, Liu; Hong, Xu; Xianghong, Zhang; Shifeng, Li; Dingjie, Xu; Xuemin, Gao; Lijuan, Zhang; Bonan, Zhang; Zhongqiu, Wei; Ruimin, Wang; Brann, Darrell; Fang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is the most serious occupational disease in China. The objective of this study was to screen various proteins related to mechanisms of the pathogenesis of silicosis underlying the anti-fibrotic effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) using proteomic profile analysis. We also aimed to explore a potential mechanism of acetylated α-tubulin (α-Ac-Tub) regulation by Ac-SDKP. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) were used to assess the different protein expression profiles between control and silicosis rats treated with or without Ac-SDKP. Twenty-nine proteins were identified to be potentially involved in the progression of silicosis and the anti-fibrotic effect of Ac-SDKP. Our current study finds that 1) the lost expression of Ac-Tub-α may be a new mechanism in rat silicosis; 2) treatment of silicotic rats with N-acetyl-Seryl-Aspartyl-Lysyl-Proline (Ac-SDKP) inhibits myofibroblast differentiation and collagen deposition accompanied by stabilizing the expression of α-Ac-Tub in vivo and in vitro, which is related with deacetylase family member 6 (HDAC6) and α-tubulin acetyl transferase (α-TAT1). Our data suggest that α-Ac-Tub regulation by Ac-SDKP may potentially be a new anti-fibrosis mechanism. PMID:27577858

  7. Roles for glutathione transferases in antioxidant recycling

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Steel, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Uniquely among the plant glutathione transferases, two classes possess a catalytic cysteine capable of performing glutathione-dependent reductions. These are the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) and the lambda-class glutathione transferases (GSTLs). Using immobilized GSTLs probed with crude plant extracts we have identified flavonols as high affinity ligands and subsequently demonstrated a novel glutathione-dependent role for these enzymes in recycling oxidized quercetin. By comparing the activities of DHARs and GSTLs we now propose a unified catalytic mechanism that suggests oxidized anthocyanidins and tocopherols may be alternative polyphenolic substrates of GSTLs. PMID:21778824

  8. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    OF COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY Paragraph 1.1 ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND MARKET OF CAT Paragraph 1.2 EQUIPMENT Chapter 2 OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLE OF A CT...DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY 1.1 Origin, development and marketing of the CAT The origin of the CAT goes back to 1961 when...count on wide commercial possibilities, in the international market . In particular, EMI entered, very forcefully, the American market , always

  9. Bacterial protein acetylation: new discoveries unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alan J

    2016-05-01

    Nε-acetylation is emerging as an abundant post-translational modification of bacterial proteins. Two mechanisms have been identified: one is enzymatic, dependent on an acetyltransferase and acetyl-coenzyme A; the other is non-enzymatic and depends on the reactivity of acetyl phosphate. Some, but not most, of those acetylations are reversed by deacetylases. This review will briefly describe the current status of the field and raise questions that need answering.

  10. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  11. Protein acetylation in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Jörg

    2010-09-16

    Proteins can be acetylated at the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal amino acid (methionine or the penultimate amino acid after methionine removal) or at the epsilon-amino group of internal lysines. In eukaryotes the majority of proteins are N-terminally acetylated, while this is extremely rare in bacteria. A variety of studies about N-terminal acetylation in archaea have been reported recently, and it was revealed that a considerable fraction of proteins is N-terminally acetylated in haloarchaea and Sulfolobus, while this does not seem to apply for methanogenic archaea. Many eukaryotic proteins are modified by differential internal acetylation, which is important for a variety of processes. Until very recently, only two bacterial proteins were known to be acetylation targets, but now 125 acetylation sites are known for E. coli. Knowledge about internal acetylation in archaea is extremely limited; only two target proteins are known, only one of which--Alba--was used to study differential acetylation. However, indications accumulate that the degree of internal acetylation of archaeal proteins might be underestimated, and differential acetylation has been shown to be essential for the viability of haloarchaea. Focused proteomic approaches are needed to get an overview of the extent of internal protein acetylation in archaea.

  12. Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: Improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-l- carnitine and/or R-α-lipoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiankang; Killilea, David W.; Ames, Bruce N.

    2002-01-01

    We test whether the dysfunction with age of carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT), a key mitochondrial enzyme for fuel utilization, is due to decreased binding affinity for substrate and whether this substrate, fed to old rats, restores CAT activity. The kinetics of CAT were analyzed by using the brains of young and old rats and of old rats supplemented for 7 weeks with the CAT substrate acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) and/or the mitochondrial antioxidant precursor R-α-lipoic acid (LA). Old rats, compared with young rats, showed a decrease in CAT activity and in CAT-binding affinity for both substrates, ALCAR and CoA. Feeding ALCAR or ALCAR plus LA to old rats significantly restored CAT-binding affinity for ALCAR and CoA, and CAT activity. To explore the underlying mechanism, lipid peroxidation and total iron and copper levels were assayed; all increased in old rats. Feeding old rats LA or LA plus ALCAR inhibited lipid peroxidation but did not decrease iron and copper levels. Ex vivo oxidation of young-rat brain with Fe(II) caused loss of CAT activity and binding affinity. In vitro oxidation of purified CAT with Fe(II) inactivated the enzyme but did not alter binding affinity. However, in vitro treatment of CAT with the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde or 4-hydroxy-nonenal caused a decrease in CAT-binding affinity and activity, thus mimicking age-related change. Preincubation of CAT with ALCAR or CoA prevented malondialdehyde-induced dysfunction. Thus, feeding old rats high levels of key mitochondrial metabolites can ameliorate oxidative damage, enzyme activity, substrate-binding affinity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:11854488

  13. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Haluska, P; Dy, G K; Adjei, A A

    2002-09-01

    Protein farnesylation catalysed by the enzyme farnesyl protein transferase involves the addition of a 15-carbon farnesyl group to conserved amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus of certain proteins. Protein substrates of farnesyl transferase include several G-proteins, which are critical intermediates of cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation such as Ras, Rho, PxF and lamins A and B. Activated Ras proteins trigger a cascade of phosphorylation events through sequential activation of the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, which is critical for cell survival, and the Raf/Mek/Erk kinase pathway that has been implicated in cell proliferation. Ras mutations which encode for constitutively activated proteins are found in 30% of human cancers. Because farnesylation of Ras is required for its transforming and proliferative activity, the farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors were designed as anticancer agents to abrogate Ras function. However, current evidence suggests that the anticancer activity of the farnesyl transferase inhibitors may not be simply due to Ras inhibition. This review will discuss available clinical data on three of these agents that are currently undergoing clinical trials.

  14. Properties of Succinyl-Coenzyme A:l-Malate Coenzyme A Transferase and Its Role in the Autotrophic 3-Hydroxypropionate Cycle of Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Silke; Steindorf, Astrid; Alber, Birgit E.; Fuchs, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The 3-hydroxypropionate cycle has been proposed to operate as the autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway in the phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. In this pathway, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and two bicarbonate molecules are converted to malate. Acetyl-CoA is regenerated from malyl-CoA by l-malyl-CoA lyase. The enzyme forming malyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA:l-malate coenzyme A transferase, was purified. Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of its two subunits, the corresponding genes were identified on a gene cluster which also contains the gene for l-malyl-CoA lyase, the subsequent enzyme in the pathway. Both enzymes were severalfold up-regulated under autotrophic conditions, which is in line with their proposed function in CO2 fixation. The two CoA transferase genes were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and studied. Succinyl-CoA:l-malate CoA transferase forms a large (αβ)n complex consisting of 46- and 44-kDa subunits and catalyzes the reversible reaction succinyl-CoA + l-malate → succinate + l-malyl-CoA. It is specific for succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor but accepts l-citramalate instead of l-malate as the CoA acceptor; the corresponding d-stereoisomers are not accepted. The enzyme is a member of the class III of the CoA transferase family. The demonstration of the missing CoA transferase closes the last gap in the proposed 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. PMID:16547052

  15. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  16. State of cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  17. Cloning, expression and properties of porcine trachea UDP-galnac: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, Sreedhara; Swain, Ja Baris; McNear, Adrian; Mendicino, Joseph

    2004-11-01

    A UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase which catalyses the transfer of GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc to serine and threonine residues in mucin polypeptide chains was purified to homogeneity from swine trachea epithelium (Mendicino J, Sangadala S: Mol Cell Biochem 185: 135-145, 1998). Peptides obtained by proteolysis of the purified enzyme were isolated, sequenced and used to prepare degenerate oligonucleotide primers. Amplified segments of a gene encoding GalNAc transferase were synthesised using the primers and a swine trachea epithelial cDNA library. Selected cDNA fragments were then used to screen the cDNA library, and a clone containing an open reading frame encoding 559 amino acids was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence contains type II transmembrane region, three potential N-glycosylation sites as well as all of the isolated peptide sequences. The nucleotide sequence and predicted primary protein structure of the transferase were very similar to those of type T-1 GalNAc transferases. The isolated clone was transiently expressed in COS 7 cells and the recombinant enzyme, which contained an N-terminal hexa-histidine tag, was purified to homogeneity and its enzymatic properties were examined. The Vmax of the recombinant enzyme, 2.08 micromol/(min mg), was nearly the same as the native enzyme, 2.12 micromol/(min mg), when assayed with partially deglycosylated mucins as glycosyl acceptors. Both enzymes showed much higher activities when assayed with peptides prepared by limited acid hydrolysis of incompletely deglycosylated Cowper's gland, swine, and human respiratory mucins and tryptic peptides isolated from deglycosylated mucin polypeptide chains. However, as noted earlier (Mendicino J, Sangadala S: Mol Cell Biochem 185: 135-145, 1998), these enzymes showed very little activity with completely deglycosylated mucin polypeptide chains. When completely deglycosylated polypeptide chains were partially glycosylated by incubation with microsome

  18. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  19. Giardia infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda

    2010-08-01

    The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.

  20. Purification and characterization of the Oligosaccharyl transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, T.M.

    1990-11-01

    Oligosaccharyl transferase was characterized to be a glycoprotein with at least one saccharide unit that had a D-manno or D- glucopyranose configuration with unmodified hydroxy groups at C-3, C-4 and C-6, using a Concanavalin A affinity column. This afforded a 100 fold increase in the transferase purity in the solubilized microsomal sample and also removed over 90% of the microsomal proteins (the cytosolic ones being removed before solubilization). The detergent, N,N-Dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) was used for solubilization and it yielded a system compatible with the assay and the purification steps. An efficient method for detergent extraction without dilution of sample or protein precipitation was also developed.

  1. Rubber transferase in guayule plants. [Parthenium argentatum

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfield, C.L.; Foster, M.A.; Benedict, C.R.

    1986-04-01

    Rubber transferase catalyzes the transfer of cis-1,4-polyprenyl-PP to isopentenyl-PP (IPP) with the elimination of PP/sub i/. Rubber transferase activity in guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) stems was localized in the lipid fraction of the homogenate following centrifugation in buffer and 0.4M Mannitol. Washed rubber particles were obtained by the chromatography of the lipid fraction on Ultrogel columns with an exclusion limit of 750,000 daltons by the procedure of B.G. Audley (private communication). The rubber particles catalyzed the incorporation of /sup 14/C-IPP into cis-polyisoprene. The radioactive cis-polyisoprene was identified by ozonolysis and chromatography of the resulting /sup 14/C-levulinic acid. The synthesis of cis-polyisoprene in the rubber particles required Mg/sup 2 +/ and IPP and was stimulated 2-fold with the addition of DMAPP. Rubber synthesis in guayule plants growing in the Permian Basin of West Texas does not occur during summer months but is induced by the cold night temperatures of the fall and winter. From August to December individual plants (which were transplanted in May) accumulated from 66mg to 11,800mg or rubber. During this period there was a 4-fold increase in rubber transferase activity in stem homogenates induced by the low temperatures.

  2. Analysis of acetylation stoichiometry suggests that SIRT3 repairs nonenzymatic acetylation lesions.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Brian T; Moustafa, Tarek; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2015-11-03

    Acetylation is frequently detected on mitochondrial enzymes, and the sirtuin deacetylase SIRT3 is thought to regulate metabolism by deacetylating mitochondrial proteins. However, the stoichiometry of acetylation has not been studied and is important for understanding whether SIRT3 regulates or suppresses acetylation. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we measured acetylation stoichiometry in mouse liver tissue and found that SIRT3 suppressed acetylation to a very low stoichiometry at its target sites. By examining acetylation changes in the liver, heart, brain, and brown adipose tissue of fasted mice, we found that SIRT3-targeted sites were mostly unaffected by fasting, a dietary manipulation that is thought to regulate metabolism through SIRT3-dependent deacetylation. Globally increased mitochondrial acetylation in fasted liver tissue, higher stoichiometry at mitochondrial acetylation sites, and greater sensitivity of SIRT3-targeted sites to chemical acetylation in vitro and fasting-induced acetylation in vivo, suggest a nonenzymatic mechanism of acetylation. Our data indicate that most mitochondrial acetylation occurs as a low-level nonenzymatic protein lesion and that SIRT3 functions as a protein repair factor that removes acetylation lesions from lysine residues.

  3. Spectroscopic investigations on the effect of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots on catalase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haoyu; Yang, Bingjun; Cui, Erqian; Liu, Rutao

    2014-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are recognized as some of the most promising semiconductor nanocrystals in biomedical applications. However, the potential toxicity of QDs has aroused wide public concern. Catalase (CAT) is a common enzyme in animal and plant tissues. For the potential application of QDs in vivo, it is important to investigate the interaction of QDs with CAT. In this work, the effect of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots with fluorescence emission peak at 612 nm (QDs-612) on CAT was investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. Binding of QDs-612 to CAT caused static quenching of the fluorescence, the change of the secondary structure of CAT and the alteration of the microenvironment of tryptophan residues. The association constants K were determined to be K288K = 7.98 × 105 L mol-1 and K298K = 7.21 × 105 L mol-1. The interaction between QDs-612 and CAT was spontaneous with 1:1 stoichiometry approximately. The CAT activity was also inhibited for the bound QDs-612. This work provides direct evidence about enzyme toxicity of QDs-612 to CAT in vitro and establishes a new strategy to investigate the interaction between enzyme and QDs at a molecular level, which is helpful for clarifying the bioactivities of QDs in vivo.

  4. Cat tongue Velcro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  5. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  6. A Method to determine lysine acetylation stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles

    2014-07-21

    A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the lack of stoichiometry information. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of lysine acetylation on proteins globally. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy on hundreds of acetylated peptides from cell lysates and cross-validated the measurements via immunoblotting.

  7. Acetylation of prostaglandin synthase by aspirin.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, G J; Stanford, N; Majerus, P W

    1975-01-01

    When microsomes of sheep or bovine seminal vesicles are incubated with [acetyl-3H]aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid), 200 Ci/mol, we observe acetylation of a single protein, as measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein has a molecular weight of 85,000 and corresponds to a similar acetylated protein found in the particulate fraction of aspirin-treated human platelets. The aspirin-mediated acetylation reaction proceeds with the same time course and at the same concentration as does the inhibition of prostaglandin synthase (cyclo-oxygenase) (EC 1.14.99.1; 8,11,14-eicosatrienoate, hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase) by the drug. At 100 muM aspirin, 50% inhibition of prostaglandin synthase and 50% of maximal acetylation are observed after 15 min at 37 degrees. Furthermore, the substrate for cyclo-oxygenase, arachidonic acid, inhibits protein acetylation by aspirin at concentrations (50% inhibition at 10-30 muM) which correlate with the Michaelis constant of arachidonic acid as a substrate for cyclooxygenase. Arachidonic acid analogues and indomethacin inhibit the acetylation reaction in proportion to their effectiveness as cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. The results suggest that aspirin acts as an active-site acetylating agent for the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase. This action of aspirin may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet action. PMID:810797

  8. Acetylation of woody lignocellulose: significance and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Koutaniemi, Sanna; Tenkanen, Maija; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides constitute approximately one quarter of usable biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these components are usually substituted by O-acetyl groups, which affect their properties and interactions with other polymers, thus affecting their solubility and extractability. However, details of these interactions are still largely obscure. Moreover, polysaccharide hydrolysis to constituent monosaccharides is hampered by the presence of O-acetyl groups, necessitating either enzymatic (esterase) or chemical de-acetylation, increasing the costs and chemical consumption. Reduction of polysaccharide acetyl content in planta is a way to modify lignocellulose toward improved saccharification. In this review we: (1) summarize literature on lignocellulose acetylation in different tree species, (2) present data and current hypotheses concerning the role of O-acetylation in determining woody lignocellulose properties, (3) describe plant proteins involved in lignocellulose O-acetylation, (4) give examples of microbial enzymes capable to de-acetylate lignocellulose, and (5) discuss prospects for exploiting these enzymes in planta to modify xylan acetylation. PMID:23734153

  9. Identification and suppression of the p-coumaroyl CoA:hydroxycinnamyl alcohol transferase in Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Marita, Jane M; Hatfield, Ronald D; Rancour, David M; Frost, Kenneth E

    2014-06-01

    Grasses, such as Zea mays L. (maize), contain relatively high levels of p-coumarates (pCA) within their cell walls. Incorporation of pCA into cell walls is believed to be due to a hydroxycinnamyl transferase that couples pCA to monolignols. To understand the role of pCA in maize development, the p-coumaroyl CoA:hydroxycinnamyl alcohol transferase (pCAT) was isolated and purified from maize stems. Purified pCAT was subjected to partial trypsin digestion, and peptides were sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. TBLASTN analysis of the acquired peptide sequences identified a single full-length maize cDNA clone encoding all the peptide sequences obtained from the purified enzyme. The cDNA clone was obtained and used to generate an RNAi construct for suppressing pCAT expression in maize. Here we describe the effects of suppression of pCAT in maize. Primary screening of transgenic maize seedling leaves using a new rapid analytical platform was used to identify plants with decreased amounts of pCA. Using this screening method, mature leaves from fully developed plants were analyzed, confirming reduced pCA levels throughout plant development. Complete analysis of isolated cell walls from mature transgenic stems and leaves revealed that lignin levels did not change, but pCA levels decreased and the lignin composition was altered. Transgenic plants with the lowest levels of pCA had decreased levels of syringyl units in the lignin. Thus, altering the levels of pCAT expression in maize leads to altered lignin composition, but does not appear to alter the total amount of lignin present in the cell walls.

  10. Identification and suppression of the p-coumaroyl CoA:hydroxycinnamyl alcohol transferase in Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Marita, Jane M; Hatfield, Ronald D; Rancour, David M; Frost, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Grasses, such as Zea mays L. (maize), contain relatively high levels of p-coumarates (pCA) within their cell walls. Incorporation of pCA into cell walls is believed to be due to a hydroxycinnamyl transferase that couples pCA to monolignols. To understand the role of pCA in maize development, the p-coumaroyl CoA:hydroxycinnamyl alcohol transferase (pCAT) was isolated and purified from maize stems. Purified pCAT was subjected to partial trypsin digestion, and peptides were sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. TBLASTN analysis of the acquired peptide sequences identified a single full-length maize cDNA clone encoding all the peptide sequences obtained from the purified enzyme. The cDNA clone was obtained and used to generate an RNAi construct for suppressing pCAT expression in maize. Here we describe the effects of suppression of pCAT in maize. Primary screening of transgenic maize seedling leaves using a new rapid analytical platform was used to identify plants with decreased amounts of pCA. Using this screening method, mature leaves from fully developed plants were analyzed, confirming reduced pCA levels throughout plant development. Complete analysis of isolated cell walls from mature transgenic stems and leaves revealed that lignin levels did not change, but pCA levels decreased and the lignin composition was altered. Transgenic plants with the lowest levels of pCA had decreased levels of syringyl units in the lignin. Thus, altering the levels of pCAT expression in maize leads to altered lignin composition, but does not appear to alter the total amount of lignin present in the cell walls. PMID:24654730

  11. A survey of feline leukaemia virus infection of domestic cats from selected areas in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchaamba, Francis; Mutiringindi, Takudzwa H; Tivapasi, Musavenga T; Dhliwayo, Solomon; Matope, Gift

    2014-11-14

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) p27 antigen and to determine risk factors and the haematological changes associated with infection in domestic cats in Zimbabwe. Sera were collected for detection of the p27 antigen, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, whilst whole blood was collected for haematology. FeLV p27 antigen was detected using a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Data on risk factors were analysed using a logistic regression model. Of the 100 cats tested, 41% (95% CI: 31.19% - 50.81%) (41/100) were positive for the FeLV p27 antigen. Sex and health status of cats were not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with infection. Intact cats (OR = 9.73), those living in multicat housing (OR = 5.23) and cats that had access to outdoor life (OR = 35.5) were found to have higher odds of infection compared with neutered cats, those living in single-cat housing, and without access to outdoor life, respectively. Biochemistry and haematology revealed no specific changes. The results showed that FeLV infection was high in sampled cats, providing evidence of active infection. Thus, it would be prudent to introduce specific control measures for FeLV infection in Zimbabwe.

  12. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries

    DOE PAGES

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; ...

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodiummore » butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions.« less

  13. Lysine acetylation and cancer: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Gil, Jeovanis; Ramírez-Torres, Alberto; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio

    2017-01-06

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible modification controlled by two groups of enzymes: lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs). Acetylated lysine residues are recognized by bromodomains, a family of evolutionarily conserved domains. The use of high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics, in combination with the enrichment of acetylated peptides through immunoprecipitation with anti-acetyl-lysine antibodies, has expanded the number of acetylated proteins from histones and a few nuclear proteins to more than 2000 human proteins. Because acetylation targets almost all cellular processes, this modification has been associated with cancer. Several KATs, KDACs and bromodomain-containing proteins have been linked to cancer development. Many small molecules targeting some of these proteins have been or are being tested as potential cancer therapies. The stoichiometry of lysine acetylation has not been explored in cancer, representing a promising field in which to increase our knowledge of how this modification is affected in cancer. In this review, we will focus on the strategies that can be used to go deeper in the characterization of the protein lysine acetylation emphasizing in cancer research.

  14. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems.

  15. Hearing disorders in cats.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2017-03-01

    Practical relevance: Auditory function is a sense that is central to life for cats - being important in situational awareness of potential predators, pursuit of prey, and for communication with conspecifics, humans and other species. Deafness in cats is most frequently the result of a genetic disorder, strongly associated with white fur and blue eyes, but may also result from acquired causes such as advancing age, ototoxic drugs, infection, environmental noise and physical trauma. Deafness can be sensorineural, where there is loss of cochlear hair cells, or conductive, where sound is muffled on its way to the inner ear. Clinical challenges: Establishing whether a cat is deaf can be difficult as behavioral testing of hearing is subjective and does not reliably detect unilateral deafness. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing is an objective measure but is limited in its availability. Currently, sensorineural deafness is irreversible because no treatments are available to restore lost hair cells. Conductive hearing loss can usually be treated, although full hearing recovery following otitis media may take weeks as the body clears the middle ear of debris. Evidence base: The author draws on the published literature and his extensive research on clinical aspects and molecular genetics of deafness, principally in companion animals, to review types and forms of deafness in cats. He also discusses current diagnostic approaches and provides brief advice for managing cats with hearing loss.

  16. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  17. Metabolic control of methylation and acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaoyang; Wellen, Kathryn E.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    Methylation and acetylation of DNA and histone proteins are the chemical basis for epigenetics. From bacteria to humans, methylation and acetylation are sensitive to cellular metabolic status. Modification rates depend on the availability of one-carbon and two-carbon substrates (S-adenosylmethionine, acetyl-CoA, and in bacteria also acetyl-phosphate). In addition, they are sensitive to demodification enzyme cofactors (α-ketoglutarate, NAD+) and structural analog metabolites that function as epigenetic enzyme inhibitors (e.g., S-adenosylhomocysteine, 2-hydroxyglutarate). Methylation and acetylation likely initially evolved to tailor protein activities in microbes to their metabolic milieu. While the extracellular environment of mammals is more tightly controlled, the combined impact of nutrient abundance and metabolic enzyme expression impacts epigenetics in mammals sufficiently to drive important biological outcomes such as stem cell fate and cancer. PMID:26629854

  18. SPOTing Acetyl-Lysine Dependent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Post translational modifications have been recognized as chemical signals that create docking sites for evolutionary conserved effector modules, allowing for signal integration within large networks of interactions. Lysine acetylation in particular has attracted attention as a regulatory modification, affecting chromatin structure and linking to transcriptional activation. Advances in peptide array technologies have facilitated the study of acetyl-lysine-containing linear motifs interacting with the evolutionary conserved bromodomain module, which specifically recognizes and binds to acetylated sequences in histones and other proteins. Here we summarize recent work employing SPOT peptide technology to identify acetyl-lysine dependent interactions and document the protocols adapted in our lab, as well as our efforts to characterize such bromodomain-histone interactions. Our results highlight the versatility of SPOT methods and establish an affordable tool for rapid access to potential protein/modified-peptide interactions involving lysine acetylation. PMID:27600229

  19. Metabolic control of methylation and acetylation.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaoyang; Wellen, Kathryn E; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    Methylation and acetylation of DNA and histone proteins are the chemical basis for epigenetics. From bacteria to humans, methylation and acetylation are sensitive to cellular metabolic status. Modification rates depend on the availability of one-carbon and two-carbon substrates (S-adenosylmethionine, acetyl-CoA, and in bacteria also acetyl-phosphate). In addition, they are sensitive to demodification enzyme cofactors (α-ketoglutarate, NAD(+)) and structural analog metabolites that function as epigenetic enzyme inhibitors (e.g., S-adenosylhomocysteine, 2-hydroxyglutarate). Methylation and acetylation likely initially evolved to tailor protein activities in microbes to their metabolic milieu. While the extracellular environment of mammals is more tightly controlled, the combined impact of nutrient abundance and metabolic enzyme expression impacts epigenetics in mammals sufficiently to drive important biological outcomes such as stem cell fate and cancer.

  20. Presumptive sialadenosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Boydell, P; Pike, R; Crossley, D

    2000-12-01

    A cat was presented with signs associated with enlargement of the mandibular salivary glands. Histological findings were normal, consistent with a diagnosis of sialadenosis, and the cat responded to symptomatic treatment with oral phenobarbitone.

  1. Acetylation modulates the STAT signaling code.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Martin; Ginter, Torsten; Brand, Peter; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2012-12-01

    A fascinating question of modern biology is how a limited number of signaling pathways generate biological diversity and crosstalk phenomena in vivo. Well-defined posttranslational modification patterns dictate the functions and interactions of proteins. The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are physiologically important cytokine-induced transcription factors. They are targeted by a multitude of posttranslational modifications that control and modulate signaling responses and gene expression. Beyond phosphorylation of serine and tyrosine residues, lysine acetylation has recently emerged as a critical modification regulating STAT functions. Interestingly, acetylation can determine STAT signaling codes by various molecular mechanisms, including the modulation of other posttranslational modifications. Here, we provide an overview on the acetylation of STATs and how this protein modification shapes cellular cytokine responses. We summarize recent advances in understanding the impact of STAT acetylation on cell growth, apoptosis, innate immunity, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we discuss how STAT acetylation can be targeted by small molecules and we consider the possibility that additional molecules controlling STAT signaling are regulated by acetylation. Our review also summarizes evolutionary aspects and we show similarities between the acetylation-dependent control of STATs and other important molecules. We propose the concept that, similar to the 'histone code', distinct posttranslational modifications and their crosstalk orchestrate the functions and interactions of STAT proteins.

  2. Acetylation of rice straw for thermoplastic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Huang, Kai; Jiang, Xue; Huang, Dan; Yang, Yiqi

    2013-07-01

    An inexpensive and biodegradable thermoplastic was developed through acetylation of rice straw (RS) with acetic anhydride. Acetylation conditions were optimized. The structure and properties of acetylated RS were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that acetylation of RS has successfully taken place, and comparing with raw RS, the degree of crystallinity decreased and the decomposition rate was slow. The acetylated RS has got thermoplasticity when weight ratio of RS and acetic anhydride was 1:3, using sulphuric acid (9% to RS) as catalyst in glacial acetic acid 35°C for 12h, and the dosage of solvent was 9 times RS, in which weight percent gain (WPG) of the modified RS powder was 35.5% and its percent acetyl content was 36.1%. The acetylated RS could be formed into transparent thin films with different amount of plasticizer diethyl phthalate (DEP) using tape casting technology.

  3. Nonhistone protein acetylation as cancer therapy targets

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brahma N; Zhang, Guanghua; Hwa, Yi L; Li, Jinping; Dowdy, Sean C; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Acetylation and deacetylation are counteracting, post-translational modifications that affect a large number of histone and nonhistone proteins. The significance of histone acetylation in the modification of chromatin structure and dynamics, and thereby gene transcription regulation, has been well recognized. A steadily growing number of nonhistone proteins have been identified as acetylation targets and reversible lysine acetylation in these proteins plays an important role(s) in the regulation of mRNA stability, protein localization and degradation, and protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions. The recruitment of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) to the transcriptional machinery is a key element in the dynamic regulation of genes controlling cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Many nonhistone proteins targeted by acetylation are the products of oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes and are directly involved in tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastasis. Aberrant activity of HDACs has been documented in several types of cancers and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been employed for therapeutic purposes. Here we review the published literature in this field and provide updated information on the regulation and function of nonhistone protein acetylation. While concentrating on the molecular mechanism and pathways involved in the addition and removal of the acetyl moiety, therapeutic modalities of HDACi are also discussed. PMID:20553216

  4. Acetyl-phosphate is a critical determinant of lysine acetylation in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Brian T; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Wagner, Sebastian A; Schölz, Christian; Gummesson, Bertil; Beli, Petra; Nyström, Thomas; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2013-07-25

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification in bacteria; however, little is known about its origin and regulation. Using the model bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), we found that most acetylation occurred at a low level and accumulated in growth-arrested cells in a manner that depended on the formation of acetyl-phosphate (AcP) through glycolysis. Mutant cells unable to produce AcP had significantly reduced acetylation levels, while mutant cells unable to convert AcP to acetate had significantly elevated acetylation levels. We showed that AcP can chemically acetylate lysine residues in vitro and that AcP levels are correlated with acetylation levels in vivo, suggesting that AcP may acetylate proteins nonenzymatically in cells. These results uncover a critical role for AcP in bacterial acetylation and indicate that most acetylation in E. coli occurs at a low level and is dynamically affected by metabolism and cell proliferation in a global, uniform manner.

  5. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A What's in ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  6. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  7. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  8. Identification of lysine-acetylated mitochondrial proteins and their acetylation sites.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Markus; König, Ann-Christine; Finkemeier, Iris

    2015-01-01

    The (ε)N-acetylation of lysine side chains is a highly conserved posttranslational modification of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins. Lysine acetylation not only occurs on histones in the nucleus but also on many mitochondrial proteins in plants and animals. As the transfer of the acetyl group to lysine eliminates its positive charge, lysine acetylation can affect the biological function of proteins. This chapter describes two methods for the identification of lysine-acetylated proteins in plant mitochondria using an anti-acetyllysine antibody. We describe the Western blot analysis of a two-dimensional blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an anti-acetyllysine antibody as well as the immuno-enrichment of lysine-acetylated peptides followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry data acquisition and analysis.

  9. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats.

    PubMed

    Caney, S M; Holt, P E; Day, M J; Rudorf, H; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1998-03-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis.

  10. Qualitative Differences in the N-Acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferases Produced by Human A1 and A2 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Schachter, H.; Michaels, M. A.; Tilley, Christine A.; Crookston, Marie C.; Crookston, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    This study describes the kinetic properties of N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase in serum from subjects with blood groups A1 and A2. When the A1 and A2 enzymes were compared, with lacto-N-fucopentaose I and 2′-fucosyllactose as acceptors, the enzymes differed in their cation requirements, pH optima, and Km values. The two acceptors competed for the same transferase. Mixing experiments showed that the lower activity of the A2 enzyme could not be attributed to a modifier or inhibitor in serum. It was concluded that the A1 and A2 enzymes differ qualitatively. PMID:4509655

  11. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  12. Acetylation Reader Proteins: Linking Acetylation Signaling to Genome Maintenance and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fade; Chiu, Li-Ya; Miller, Kyle M

    2016-09-01

    Chromatin-based DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are fundamental for preventing genome and epigenome instability, which are prevalent in cancer. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl groups on lysine residues, a post-translational modification important for the DDR. Acetylation can alter chromatin structure as well as function by providing binding signals for reader proteins containing acetyl-lysine recognition domains, including the bromodomain (BRD). Acetylation dynamics occur upon DNA damage in part to regulate chromatin and BRD protein interactions that mediate key DDR activities. In cancer, DDR and acetylation pathways are often mutated or abnormally expressed. DNA damaging agents and drugs targeting epigenetic regulators, including HATs, HDACs, and BRD proteins, are used or are being developed to treat cancer. Here, we discuss how histone acetylation pathways, with a focus on acetylation reader proteins, promote genome stability and the DDR. We analyze how acetylation signaling impacts the DDR in the context of cancer and its treatments. Understanding the relationship between epigenetic regulators, the DDR, and chromatin is integral for obtaining a mechanistic understanding of genome and epigenome maintenance pathways, information that can be leveraged for targeting acetylation signaling, and/or the DDR to treat diseases, including cancer.

  13. Acetylation Reader Proteins: Linking Acetylation Signaling to Genome Maintenance and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kyle M.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin-based DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are fundamental for preventing genome and epigenome instability, which are prevalent in cancer. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl groups on lysine residues, a post-translational modification important for the DDR. Acetylation can alter chromatin structure as well as function by providing binding signals for reader proteins containing acetyl-lysine recognition domains, including the bromodomain (BRD). Acetylation dynamics occur upon DNA damage in part to regulate chromatin and BRD protein interactions that mediate key DDR activities. In cancer, DDR and acetylation pathways are often mutated or abnormally expressed. DNA damaging agents and drugs targeting epigenetic regulators, including HATs, HDACs, and BRD proteins, are used or are being developed to treat cancer. Here, we discuss how histone acetylation pathways, with a focus on acetylation reader proteins, promote genome stability and the DDR. We analyze how acetylation signaling impacts the DDR in the context of cancer and its treatments. Understanding the relationship between epigenetic regulators, the DDR, and chromatin is integral for obtaining a mechanistic understanding of genome and epigenome maintenance pathways, information that can be leveraged for targeting acetylation signaling, and/or the DDR to treat diseases, including cancer. PMID:27631103

  14. p53 Acetylation: Regulation and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sara M.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of p53 are critical in modulating its tumor suppressive functions. Ubiquitylation, for example, plays a major role in dictating p53 stability, subcellular localization and transcriptional vs. non-transcriptional activities. Less is known about p53 acetylation. It has been shown to govern p53 transcriptional activity, selection of growth inhibitory vs. apoptotic gene targets, and biological outcomes in response to diverse cellular insults. Yet recent in vivo evidence from mouse models questions the importance of p53 acetylation (at least at certain sites) as well as canonical p53 functions (cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis) to tumor suppression. This review discusses the cumulative findings regarding p53 acetylation, with a focus on the acetyltransferases that modify p53 and the mechanisms regulating their activity. We also evaluate what is known regarding the influence of other post-translational modifications of p53 on its acetylation, and conclude with the current outlook on how p53 acetylation affects tumor suppression. Due to redundancies in p53 control and growing understanding that individual modifications largely fine-tune p53 activity rather than switch it on or off, many questions still remain about the physiological importance of p53 acetylation to its role in preventing cancer. PMID:25545885

  15. Biological activity of acetylated phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Apostolakis, Constantinos; Pliakis, Emmanuel; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi

    2007-01-10

    In recent years an effort has been made to isolate and identify biologically active compounds that are included in the Mediterranean diet. The existence of naturally occurring acetylated phenolics, as well as studies with synthetic ones, provide evidence that acetyl groups could be correlated with their biological activity. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is implicated in atherosclerosis, whereas its inhibitors seem to play a protective role against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the biological activity of resveratrol and tyrosol and their acetylated derivatives as inhibitors of PAF-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Acetylation of resveratrol and tyrosol was performed, and separation was achieved by HPLC. Acetylated derivatives were identified by negative mass spectrometry. The data showed that tyrosol and its monoacetylated derivatives act as PAF inhibitors, whereas diacetylated derivatives induce platelet aggregation. Resveratrol and its mono- and triacetylated derivatives exert similar inhibitory activity, whereas the diacetylated ones are more potent inhibitors. In conclusion, acetylated phenolics exert the same or even higher antithrombotic activity compared to the biological activity of the initial one.

  16. Restoration of DNA-Binding and Growth-Suppressive Activity of Mutant Forms of p53 Via a PCAF-Mediated Acetylation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ, RICARDO E.; KNIGHTS, CHAD D.; SAHU, GEETARAM; CATANIA, JASON; KOLUKULA, VAMSI K.; STOLER, DANIEL; GRAESSMANN, ADOLF; OGRYZKO, VASILY; PISHVAIAN, MICHAEL; ALBANESE, CHRISTOPHER; AVANTAGGIATI, MARIA LAURA

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-derived mutant forms of p53 compromise its DNA binding, transcriptional, and growth regulatory activity in a manner that is dependent upon the cell-type and the type of mutation. Given the high frequency of p53 mutations in human tumors, reactivation of the p53 pathway has been widely proposed as beneficial for cancer therapy. In support of this possibility p53 mutants possess a certain degree of conformational flexibility that allows for re-induction of function by a number of structurally different artificial compounds or by short peptides. This raises the question of whether physiological pathways for p53 mutant reactivation also exist and can be exploited therapeutically. The activity of wild-type p53 is modulated by various acetyl-transferases and deacetylases, but whether acetylation influences signaling by p53 mutant is still unknown. Here, we show that the PCAF acetyl-transferase is down-regulated in tumors harboring p53 mutants, where its re-expression leads to p53 acetylation and to cell death. Furthermore, acetylation restores the DNA-binding ability of p53 mutants in vitro and expression of PCAF, or treatment with deacetylase inhibitors, promotes their binding to p53-regulated promoters and transcriptional activity in vivo. These data suggest that PCAF-mediated acetylation rescues activity of at least a set of p53 mutations. Therefore, we propose that dis-regulation of PCAF activity is a pre-requisite for p53 mutant loss of function and for the oncogenic potential acquired by neoplastic cells expressing these proteins. Our findings offer a new rationale for therapeutic targeting of PCAF activity in tumors harboring oncogenic versions of p53. PMID:20589832

  17. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Protein Acetylation in Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, Josue; Smallegan, Michael J.; Denu, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Reversible protein acetylation is a major regulatory mechanism for controlling protein function. Through genetic manipulations, dietary perturbations, and new proteomic technologies, the diverse functions of protein acetylation are coming into focus. Protein acetylation in mitochondria has taken center stage, revealing that 63% of mitochondrially localized proteins contain lysine acetylation sites. Here we summarize the field, and discuss salient topics that cover spurious versus targeted acetylation, the role of SIRT3 deacetylation, nonenzymatic acetylation, and molecular models for regulatory acetylations that display high and low stoichiometry. PMID:26822488

  18. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population.

  19. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  20. Relationship between oxidative stress, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Belini Junior, Edis; Torres, Lidiane de Souza; Ricci Júnior, Octávio; Lobo, Clarisse de Castro; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia Regina; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2011-06-15

    This study evaluated the oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity markers in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients with and without treatment with hydroxyurea. We assessed GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms in patients and a control group. The study groups were composed of 48 subjects without hemoglobinopathies and 28 SCA patients, 13 treated with HU [SCA (+HU)], and 15 SCA patients not treated with HU [SCA (-HU)]. We observed a significant difference for GSTP1 polymorphisms in SCA patients with the V/V genotype that showed higher glutathione (GSH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) (p=0.0445 and p=0.0360), respectively, compared with the I/I genotype. HU use was associated with a 35.2% decrease in the lipid peroxidation levels of the SCA (+HU) group (p<0.0001). Moreover, the SCA (+HU) group showed higher TEAC as compared to the control group (p=0.002). We did not find any significant difference in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity between the groups (p=0.76), but the catalase (CAT) activity was about 17% and 30% decreased in the SCA (+HU) and SCA (-HU) groups, respectively (p<0.00001). Whereas the plasma GSH levels were ~2 times higher in the SCA patients than the control group (p=0.0005). HU use has contributed to higher CAT activity and TEAC, and lower lipid peroxidation in patients under treatment. These findings may explain the influence of HU in ameliorating oxidative stress on SCA subjects.

  1. DNA fragmentation and sperm head morphometry in cat epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Lange Consiglio, Anna; Faustini, Massimo; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-10-15

    Sperm DNA fragmentation is an important parameter to assess sperm quality and can be a putative fertility predictor. Because the sperm head consists almost entirely of DNA, subtle differences in sperm head morphometry might be related to DNA status. Several techniques are available to analyze sperm DNA fragmentation, but they are labor-intensive and require expensive instrumentations. Recently, a kit (Sperm-Halomax) based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test and developed for spermatozoa of different species, but not for cat spermatozoa, became commercially available. The first aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of Sperm-Halomax assay, specifically developed for canine semen, for the evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal cat spermatozoa. For this purpose, DNA fragmentation indexes (DFIs) obtained with Sperm-Halomax and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether a correlation between DNA status, sperm head morphology, and morphometry assessed by computer-assisted semen analysis exists in cat epididymal spermatozoa. No differences were observed in DFIs obtained with Sperm-Halomax and TUNEL. This result indicates that Sperm-Halomax assay provides a reliable evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal feline spermatozoa. The DFI seems to be independent from all the measured variables of sperm head morphology and morphometry. Thus, the evaluation of the DNA status of spermatozoa could effectively contribute to the completion of the standard analysis of fresh or frozen semen used in assisted reproductive technologies.

  2. The Genetic Architecture of Murine Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Houseal, M. Trevor; Mulligan, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes play a protective role against oxidative stress and may influence disease risk and drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, massive multiscalar trait profiling across a large population of mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA2/J (D2)—the BXD family—was combined with linkage and bioinformatic analyses to characterize mechanisms controlling GST expression and to identify downstream consequences of this variation. Similar to humans, mice show a wide range in expression of GST family members. Variation in the expression of Gsta4, Gstt2, Gstz1, Gsto1, and Mgst3 is modulated by local expression QTLs (eQTLs) in several tissues. Higher expression of Gsto1 in brain and liver of BXD strains is strongly associated (P < 0.01) with inheritance of the B6 parental allele whereas higher expression of Gsta4 and Mgst3 in brain and liver, and Gstt2 and Gstz1 in brain is strongly associated with inheritance of the D2 parental allele. Allele-specific assays confirmed that expression of Gsto1, Gsta4, and Mgst3 are modulated by sequence variants within or near each gene locus. We exploited this endogenous variation to identify coexpression networks and downstream targets in mouse and human. Through a combined systems genetics approach, we provide new insight into the biological role of naturally occurring variants in GST genes. PMID:26829228

  3. Acetyl-L-carnitine in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Malaguarnera, Michele

    2013-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis. The clinical diagnosis is based on two concurrent types of symptoms: impaired mental status and impaired neuromotor function. Impaired mental status is characterized by deterioration in mental status with psychomotor dysfunction, impaired memory, and increased reaction time, sensory abnormalities, poor concentration, disorientation and coma. Impaired neuromotor function include hyperreflexia, rigidity, myoclonus and asterixis. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy has not been clearly defined. The general consensus is that elevated levels of ammonia and an inflammatory response work in synergy to cause astrocyte to swell and fluid to accumulate in the brain which is thought to explain the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy. Acetyl-L-carnitine, the short-chain ester of carnitine is endogenously produced within mitochondria and peroxisomes and is involved in the transport of acetyl-moieties across the membranes of these organelles. Acetyl-L-carnitine administration has shown the recovery of neuropsychological activities related to attention/concentration, visual scanning and tracking, psychomotor speed and mental flexibility, language short-term memory, attention, and computing ability. In fact, Acetyl-L-carnitine induces ureagenesis leading to decreased blood and brain ammonia levels. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment decreases the severity of mental and physical fatigue, depression cognitive impairment and improves health-related quality of life. The aim of this review was to provide an explanation on the possible toxic effects of ammonia in HE and evaluate the potential clinical benefits of ALC.

  4. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-01-22

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats.

  5. Raccoonpox in a Canadian cat.

    PubMed

    Yager, Julie A; Hutchison, Lisa; Barrett, John W

    2006-12-01

    Poxvirus infections affecting the skin of cats are extremely rare in North America, in contrast to Europe where cowpox virus is well recognized as an accidental pathogen in cats that hunt small rodents. The virus or viruses responsible for the anecdotal cases in North America have never been characterized. This paper reports a case of raccoonpox infection in a Canadian cat. Biopsy of the initial ulcerative lesion on the forepaw revealed ballooning degeneration of surface and follicular keratinoctyes. Infected cells contained large eosinophilic type A inclusions. Electron microscopic examination revealed virions of an orthopoxvirus, subsequently identified as raccoonpox by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing. The cat made a full recovery.

  6. External hydrocephalus in two cats.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Curtis W; Coates, Joan R; Ducoté, Julie M; Stefanacci, Joseph D; Walker, Michael A; Marino, Dominic J

    2003-01-01

    External hydrocephalus describes an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the cerebral hemispheres and the overlying arachnoid membrane, rather than within the lateral ventricles. Two young cats with encephalopathic signs were diagnosed with external hydrocephalus, one via magnetic resonance imaging and one via computed tomography. Both cats had abnormally large, broad heads, with no evidence of open fontanelles. A surgical shunt was placed in each cat to divert the accumulated CSF within the cranial cavity to the peritoneal space. Both cats improved dramatically soon after surgical shunting was performed, and they continue to do well clinically, approximately 42 months and 8 months postoperatively, respectively.

  7. Gamma-glutamyl transferase and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme located on the external surface of cellular membranes. GGT contributes in maintaining the physiological concentrations of cytoplasmic glutathione and cellular defense against oxidative stress via cleavage of extracellular glutathione and increased availability of amino acids for its intracellular synthesis. Increased GGT activity is a marker of antioxidant inadequacy and increased oxidative stress. Ample evidence suggests that elevated GGT activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, arterial hypertension, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause and CVD-related mortality. The evidence is weaker for an association between elevated GGT activity and acute ischemic events and myocardial infarction. The risk for CVD or CVD-related mortality mediated by GGT may be explained by the close correlation of GGT with conventional CVD risk factors and various comorbidities, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol consumption, oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. The finding of GGT activity in atherosclerotic plaques and correlation of intra-plaque GGT activity with histological indexes of plaque instability may suggest a participation of GGT in the pathophysiology of CVD, particularly atherosclerosis. However, whether GGT has a direct role in the pathophysiology of CVD or it is an epiphenomenon of coexisting CVD risk factors or comorbidities remains unknown and Hill’s criteria of causality relationship between GGT and CVD are not fulfilled. The exploration whether GGT provides prognostic information on top of the information provided by known cardiovascular risk factors regarding the CVD or CVD-related outcome and exploration of molecular mechanisms of GGT involvement in the pathophysiology of CVD and eventual use of interventions to reduce circulating GGT activity remain a duty of

  8. Preliminary toxicological study of ferric acetyl acetonate

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    The calculated acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ (lethal does for 50% of the animals occuring with 30 days after compound administration) values for ferric acetyl acetonate were 584 mg/kg in mice and 995 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, this compound would be considered slightly toxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be irritating. The eye irritation study disclosed the compound to be a severe irritant causing permanent damage to the cornea (inflammation and scarring resulting in blindness). The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show ferric acetyl acetonate to be deleterious in this regard.

  9. Systemic cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Min; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chi, Hsin; Wang, Nieu-Lu; Chen, Be-Fong

    2006-08-01

    Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD) is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitish-tan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  10. Hypertensive retinopathy in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Van Boxtel, Sherry A.

    2003-01-01

    A 12-year-old cat presented for sudden blindness was diagnosed with hypertensive retinopathy on the basis of ophthalmologic and ultrasonic examination. Renal failure due to a large intranephric cyst obstructing the right ureter and renal artery was the suggested cause of the systemic hypertension. The cat died 8 hours after unilateral nephrectomy. PMID:12650046

  11. Oral masses in two cats.

    PubMed

    Bock, P; Hach, V; Baumgärtner, W

    2011-07-01

    Incisional biopsies from the oral cavity of 2 adult cats were submitted for histological investigation. Cat No. 1 showed a solitary well-circumscribed neoplasm in the left mandible. Cat No. 2 demonstrated a diffusely infiltrating neoplasm in the left maxilla. Both tumors consisted of medium-size epithelial cells embedded in a fibrovascular stroma. The mitotic index was 0 to 1 mitosis per high-power field. The epithelial cells showed an irregular arrangement forming nests or streams in cat No. 1, whereas a palisading growth was noted in cat No. 2. Both tumors, especially that of cat No. 1, showed multifocal accumulations of amyloid as confirmed by Congo red staining and a distinct green birefringence under polarized light, which lacked cytokeratin immunoreactivity as well as and AL and AA amyloid immunoreactivity. In addition, the amyloid in cat No. 2 was positive for the odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein, formerly termed APin. In sum, both cats suffered from an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor, but their tumors varied with respect to morphology and type of amyloid produced.

  12. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  13. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  14. `Up-regulation of histone acetylation induced by social defeat mediates the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Montagud-Romero, S; Montesinos, J; Pascual, M; Aguilar, M A; Roger-Sanchez, C; Guerri, C; Miñarro, J; Rodríguez-Arias, M

    2016-10-03

    Social defeat (SD) induces a long-lasting increase in the rewarding effects of psychostimulants measured using the self-administration and conditioned place procedures (CPP). However, little is known about the epigenetic changes induced by social stress and about their role in the increased response to the rewarding effects of psychostimulants. Considering that histone acetylation regulates transcriptional activity and contributes to drug-induced behavioral changes, we addressed the hypothesis that SD induces transcriptional changes by histone modifications associated with the acquisition of place conditioning. After a fourth defeat, H3(K9) acetylation was decreased in the hippocampus, while there was an increase of HAT and a decrease of HDAC levels in the cortex. Three weeks after the last defeat, mice displayed an increase in histone H4(K12) acetylation and an upregulation of histone acetyl transferase (HAT) activity in the hippocampus. In addition, H3(K4)me3, which is closely associated with transcriptional initiation, was also augmented in the hippocampus three weeks after the last defeat. Inhibition of HAT by curcumin (100mg/kg) before each SD blocked the increase in the conditioned reinforcing effects of 1mg/kg of cocaine, while inhibition of HDAC by valproic acid (500mg/kg) before social stress potentiated cocaine-induced CPP. Preference was reinstated when animals received a priming dose of 0.5mg/kg of cocaine, an effect that was absent in untreated defeated mice. These results suggest that the experience of SD induces chromatin remodeling, alters histone acetylation and methylation, and modifies the effects of cocaine on place conditioning. They also point to epigenetic mechanisms as potential avenues leading to new treatments for the long-term effects of social stress on drug addiction.

  15. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, P.G.; Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1996-09-24

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives are disclosed which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides. 5 figs.

  16. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  17. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  18. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  19. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  20. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, Paul G.; Ohlrogge, John B.

    1996-01-01

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives thereof which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides.

  1. Acetyl-L-carnitine ameliorates caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Hossam M M; Hemeida, Ramadan A M; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Abdel-Wahab, Mohammed H; Badary, Osama A; Hamada, Farid M A

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, we have addressed the possible protective role of acetyl-L-carnitine in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in male Swiss albino rats. Acute pancreatitis paradigm was developed by challenging animals with a supramaximal dose of caerulein (20 microg/kg, SC) four times at hourly intervals. Caerulein induced acute pancreatitis that was well-characterized morphologically and biochemically. Severe oedema with marked increased relative pancreatic weight, marked atrophy of acini with increased interacinar spaces, vacuolization, and extensive leucocytic infiltration were diagnostic fingerprints of the pancreatitis phenotype. A biochemical test battery that confirmed the model comprised increased plasma amylase and lipase activities, calcium levels as well as increased pancreatic enzymatic myeloperoxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities, beside increased pancreatic contents of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde and reduced pancreatic glutathione level. Prior administration of acetyl-L-carnitine (200 mg/kg, IP) for seven consecutive days ahead of caerulein challenge alleviated all the histological and biochemical manifestations of acute pancreatitis. These results suggest a possible protective role of the carnitine ester in such a murine acute pancreatitis model probably via regulation of the oxidant/antioxidant balance, beside modulation of the myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide systems, which are involved in the inflammatory cascade that most often associate the disease.

  2. Changes in hepatic lipogenic and oxidative enzymes and glucose homeostasis induced by an acetyl-L-carnitine and nicotinamide treatment in dyslipidaemic insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria R; Camberos, Maria del C; Selenscig, Dante; Martucci, Lucía C; Chicco, Adriana; Lombardo, Yolanda B; Cresto, Juan C

    2013-03-01

    Normal rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) develop dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. The present study examined whether administration of the mitochondrial nutrients nicotinamide and acetyl-L-carnitine reversed or improved these metabolic abnormalities. Male Wistar rats were fed an SRD for 90 days. Half the rats then received daily injections of nicotinamide (25 mg/kg, i.p.) and acetyl-L-carnitine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for a further 90 days. The remaining rats in the SRD-fed group and those in a normal chow-fed control group were injected with an equal volume of saline solution for the same period. The following parameters were determined in all groups: (i) liver activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine-palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1); (ii) hepatic and skeletal muscle triacylglycerol content, plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid (FFA) and triacylglycerol levels and pancreatic insulin content; and (iii) glucose tolerance. Administration of nicotinamide and acetyl-L-carnitine to the SRD-fed rats reduced dyslipidaemia, liver steatosis, muscle triacylglycerol content and hepatic FAS and ACC activities and increased CPT-1 activity. In addition nicotinamide and acetyl-L-carnitine improved the glucose disappearance rate (K(g)), normalized plasma glucose levels and moderately increased insulinaemia without altering pancreatic insulin content. Finally, nicotinamide and acetyl-l-carnitine administration reduced bodyweight gain and visceral adiposity. The results of the present study suggest that altering key hepatic lipogenic and fatty acid oxidative enzymatic activity could improve dyslipidaemia, liver steatosis and visceral adiposity. Indeed, administration of nicotinamide and acetyl-l-carnitine improved glucose intolerance and normalized plasma glucose levels.

  3. Identification and quantification of N alpha-acetylated Y. pestis fusion protein F1-V expressed in Escherichia coli using LCMS E.

    PubMed

    Bariola, Pauline A; Russell, Brett A; Monahan, Steven J; Stroop, Steven D

    2007-05-31

    N-terminal acetylation in E coli is a rare event catalyzed by three known N-acetyl-transferases (NATs), each having a specific ribosomal protein substrate. Multiple, gram-scale lots of recombinant F1-V, a fusion protein constructed from Y. Pestis antigens, were expressed and purified from a single stably transformed E. coli cell bank. A variant form of F1-V with mass increased by 42-43 Da was detected in all purified lots by electrospray orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS). Peptide mapping LCMS localized the increased mass to an N-terminal Lys-C peptide, residues 1-24, and defined it as +42.0308+/-0.0231 Da using a LockSpray exact mass feature and a leucine enkaphalin mass standard. Sequencing of the variant 1-24 peptide by LCMS and high-energy collision induced dissociation (LCMS(E)) further localized the modification to the amino terminal tri-peptide ADL and identified the modification as N(alpha)-acetylation. The average content of N(alpha)-acetylated F1-V in five lots was 24.7+/-2.6% indicating that a stable acetylation activity for F1-V was established in the E. coli expression system. Alignment of the F1-V N-terminal sequence with those of other known N(alpha)-acetylated ectopic proteins expressed in E. coli reveals a substrate motif analogous to the eukaryote NatA' acetylation pathway and distinct from endogenous E. coli NAT substrates.

  4. How cats lap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Roman; Reis, Pedro; Jung, Sunghwan; Aristoff, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    We studied the lapping of the domestic cat (Felis catus) by combining high-speed photography with a laboratory model of lapping. We found that Felis catus laps by a subtle mechanism based on water adhesion to the dorsal side of the tongue and the creation of a liquid column, exploiting inertia to defeat gravity and pull liquid into the mouth. The competition between inertia and gravity controls the pinch-off time of the column, determining the optimal lapping frequency, f. Felis catus was found to operate near the optimum and theoretical analysis yielded a scaling, f ˜M-1/6, of lapping frequency with animal mass, M. This prediction was verified by measuring lapping frequency across felids, from ocelots to lions, suggesting that the lapping mechanism is conserved among felines.

  5. The Fusarium oxysporum gnt2, encoding a putative N-acetylglucosamine transferase, is involved in cell wall architecture and virulence.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Loida; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Prieto, Alicia; Khraiwesh, Husam; Roncero, M Isabel G

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to decipher the molecular dialogue and cross talk between Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersci and its host during infection and to understand the molecular bases that govern fungal pathogenicity, we analysed genes presumably encoding N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases, involved in glycosylation of glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans or small molecule acceptors in other microorganisms. In silico analysis revealed the existence of seven putative N-glycosyl transferase encoding genes (named gnt) in F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici genome. gnt2 deletion mutants showed a dramatic reduction in virulence on both plant and animal hosts. Δgnt2 mutants had αalterations in cell wall properties related to terminal αor β-linked N-acetyl glucosamine. Mutant conidia and germlings also showed differences in structure and physicochemical surface properties. Conidial and hyphal aggregation differed between the mutant and wild type strains, in a pH independent manner. Transmission electron micrographs of germlings showed strong cell-to-cell adherence and the presence of an extracellular chemical matrix. Δgnt2 cell walls presented a significant reduction in N-linked oligosaccharides, suggesting the involvement of Gnt2 in N-glycosylation of cell wall proteins. Gnt2 was localized in Golgi-like sub-cellular compartments as determined by fluorescence microscopy of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein after treatment with the antibiotic brefeldin A or by staining with fluorescent sphingolipid BODIPY-TR ceramide. Furthermore, density gradient ultracentrifugation allowed co-localization of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein and Vps10p in subcellular fractions enriched in Golgi specific enzymatic activities. Our results suggest that N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases are key components for cell wall structure and influence interactions of F. oxysporum with both plant and animal hosts during pathogenicity.

  6. Phospho-N-Acetyl-Muramyl-Pentapeptide Translocase from Escherichia coli: Catalytic Role of Conserved Aspartic Acid Residues

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Adrian J.; Brandish, Philip E.; Gilbey, Andrea M.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.

    2004-01-01

    Phospho-N-acetyl-muramyl-pentapeptide translocase (translocase 1) catalyzes the first of a sequence of lipid-linked steps that ultimately assemble the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall. This essential enzyme is the target of several natural product antibiotics and has recently been the focus of antimicrobial drug discovery programs. The catalytic mechanism of translocase 1 is believed to proceed via a covalent intermediate formed between phospho-N-acetyl-muramyl-pentapeptide and a nucleophilic amino acid residue. Amino acid sequence alignments of the translocase 1 family and members of the related transmembrane phosphosugar transferase superfamily revealed only three conserved residues that possess nucleophilic side chains: the aspartic acid residues D115, D116, and D267. Here we report the expression and partial purification of Escherichia coli translocase 1 as a C-terminal hexahistidine (C-His6) fusion protein. Three enzymes with the site-directed mutations D115N, D116N, and D267N were constructed, expressed, and purified as C-His6 fusions. Enzymatic analysis established that all three mutations eliminated translocase 1 activity, and this finding verified the essential role of these residues. By analogy with the structural environment of the double aspartate motif found in prenyl transferases, we propose a model whereby D115 and D116 chelate a magnesium ion that coordinates with the pyrophosphate bridge of the UDP-N-acetyl-muramyl-pentapeptide substrate and in which D267 therefore fulfills the role of the translocase 1 active-site nucleophile. PMID:14996806

  7. Functional analysis of N-linking oligosaccharyl transferase enzymes encoded by deep-sea vent proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Dominic C.; Jervis, Adrian J.; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Yates, Laura E.; Cuccui, Jon; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ε-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ε-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a δ-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ε- and δ-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB . The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesised by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes. PMID:26610891

  8. Functional analysis of N-linking oligosaccharyl transferase enzymes encoded by deep-sea vent proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Mills, Dominic C; Jervis, Adrian J; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Yates, Laura E; Cuccui, Jon; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ε-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ε-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a δ-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ε- and δ-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed that they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB. The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally, a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesized by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. Crx activates opsin transcription by recruiting HAT-containing co-activators and promoting histone acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Guang-Hua; Chen, Shiming

    2008-01-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor Crx is required for expression of many photoreceptor genes in the mammalian retina. The mechanism by which Crx activates transcription remains to be determined. Using protein–protein interaction assays, Crx was found to interact with three co-activator proteins (complexes): STAGA, Cbp and p300, all of which possess histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) activity. To determine the role of Crx–HAT interactions in target gene chromatin modification and transcriptional activation, quantitative RT–PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed on Crx target genes, rod and cone opsins, in developing mouse retina. Although cone opsins are transcribed earlier than rhodopsin during development, the transcription of each gene is preceded by the same sequence of events in their promoter and enhancer regions: (i) binding of Crx, followed by (ii) binding of HATs, (iii) the acetylation of histone H3, then (iv) binding of other photoreceptor transcription factors (Nrl and Nr2e3) and RNA polymerase II. In Crx knockout mice (Crx−/−), the association of HATs and AcH3 with target promoter/enhancer regions was significantly decreased, which correlates with aberrant opsin transcription and photoreceptor dysfunction in these mice. Similar changes to the opsin chromatin were seen in Y79 retinoblastoma cells, where opsin genes are barely transcribed. These defects in Y79 cells can be reversed by expressing a recombinant Crx or applying histone deacetylase inhibitors. Altogether, these results suggest that one mechanism for Crx-mediated transcriptional activation is to recruit HATs to photoreceptor gene chromatin for histone acetylation, thereby inducing and maintaining appropriate chromatin configurations for transcription. PMID:17656371

  12. Pemphigus foliaceus in a cat.

    PubMed

    Kofod, H

    1993-01-16

    The author's cat started to develop the signs of pemphigus foliaceus one month after he returned home after six months absence. The initial signs included dry coughing and difficulty with purring and swallowing, followed by typical changes of the skin. The cat was treated by a combination of chrysotherapy and systemic glucocorticoid injections, and remained free of clinical signs for one and a half years. The cat then relapsed and showed the initial signs except that coughing was not observed. It was treated as before but after a second relapse and the same treatment it slowly developed a general weakness and was euthanased.

  13. [Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats].

    PubMed

    van Doorn, D C K; de Bruin, M J; Jorritsma, R A; Ploeger, H W; Schoormans, A

    2009-09-01

    Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for, Tritrichomonas foetus among cats in the Netherlands. A total of 154 faecal samples were collected from three groups of cats: cats with diarrhoea (n=53), cattery cats (n=47), and healthy pet cats (n=54). Faecal samples were examined with a T. foetus specific real-time PCR. All PCR-positive samples were run on gel electrophoresis for definitive diagnosis. The prevalence of T. foetus was 2% among cats with diarrhoea and 4% among cattery cats; T. foetus was not prevalent among pet cats (none of the samples tested positive). Questionnaires had been distributed to cat and cattery owners to determine risk factors for T. foetus, but the low prevalence precluded statistical analysis of the questionnaire results.

  14. Dynamic Protein Acetylation in Plant–Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gaoyuan; Walley, Justin W.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen infection triggers complex molecular perturbations within host cells that results in either resistance or susceptibility. Protein acetylation is an emerging biochemical modification that appears to play central roles during host–pathogen interactions. To date, research in this area has focused on two main themes linking protein acetylation to plant immune signaling. Firstly, it has been established that proper gene expression during defense responses requires modulation of histone acetylation within target gene promoter regions. Second, some pathogens can deliver effector molecules that encode acetyltransferases directly within the host cell to modify acetylation of specific host proteins. Collectively these findings suggest that the acetylation level for a range of host proteins may be modulated to alter the outcome of pathogen infection. This review will focus on summarizing our current understanding of the roles of protein acetylation in plant defense and highlight the utility of proteomics approaches to uncover the complete repertoire of acetylation changes triggered by pathogen infection. PMID:27066055

  15. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  16. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  17. Cat eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361

  18. Cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-05-19

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome.

  19. Acetylation of prostaglandin synthetase by aspirin. Purification and properties of the acetylated protein from sheep vesicular gland.

    PubMed

    Roth, G J; Stanford, N; Jacobs, J W; Majerus, P W

    1977-09-20

    We previously presented evidence that aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) inhibits prostaglandin synthetase by acetylating and active site of the enzyme. In the current work, we have labeled the enzyme from an aceton-pentane powder of sheep vesicular gland using [acetyl-3H]aspirin and purified the [3H]acetyl-protein to near homogeneity. The final preparation contains protein of a single molecular weight (85 000) and an amino-terminal sequence of Asp-Ala-Gly-Arg-Ala. The [3H]acetyl-protein contained 0.5 mol of acetyl residues per mol of protein based on amino acid composition but only a single sequence was found.

  20. The neurobiology of acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Traina, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    A large body of evidence points to the positive effects of dietary supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC). Its use has shown health benefits in neuroinflammation, which is a common denominator in a host of neurodegenerative diseases. ALC is the principal acetyl ester of L-Carnitine (LC), and it plays an essential role in intermediary metabolism, acting as a donor of acetyl groups and facilitating the transfer of fatty acids from cytosol to mitochondria during beta-oxidation. Dietary supplementation of ALC exerts neuroprotective, neurotrophic, antidepressive and analgesic effects in painful neuropathies. ALC also has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. Moreover, ALC exhibits positive effects on mitochondrial metabolism, and shows promise in the treatment of aging and neurodegenerative pathologies by slowing the progression of mental deterioration. In addition, ALC plays neuromodulatory effects on both synaptic morphology and synaptic transmission. These effects are likely due to affects of ALC through modulation of gene expression on several targets in the central nervous system. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on effects of ALC in the nervous system.

  1. Application of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) diffusion assay to transgenic plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Peach, C; Velten, J

    1992-02-01

    Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity was quantified in crude extracts from tobacco callus tissues using a modification of a previously reported diffusion assay. We describe here the alterations necessary in applying this rapid and simple assay procedure to plant materials. Due to the high concentration of nonspecific oxidases present in most plant tissues, some type of protective agent is required to maintain enzyme activity. We have tested beta-mercaptoethanol, cysteine, dithiothreitol, ascorbic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as protective agents within the initial extraction buffer. We also investigated the effect of heat (60 degrees C, 10 min) and 5 mM EDTA on CAT activity. The highest CAT activity was obtained using 5 mM cysteine plus 5 mM EDTA in 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.8) as the initial extraction buffer followed by a heat treatment. Using this buffer, CAT activity was stable on ice for more than two hours. In our hands, total acetyl-coenzyme A concentration within the assay mixture was found to be saturating at 250 microM and the Km determined to be 100 microM. Assays performed using the same crude plant extract indicate that 1) duplicate assays show less than 1.5% variation in activities and 2) CAT activity increases linearly with respect to volume of extract used.

  2. Antibodies specific to acetylated histones document the existence of deposition- and transcription-related histone acetylation in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have constructed synthetic peptides which are identical to hyperacetylated amino termini of two Tetrahymena core histones (tetra-acetylated H4 and penta-acetylated hv1) and used them to generate polyclonal antibodies specific for acetylated forms (mono-, di-, tri-, etc.) of these histones. Neither of these antisera recognizes histone that is unacetylated. Immunoblotting analyses demonstrate that both transcription-related and deposition-related acetate groups on H4 are recognized by both antisera. In addition, the antiserum raised against penta-acetylated hv1 also recognizes acetylated forms of this variant. Immunofluorescent analyses with both antisera demonstrate that, as expected, histone acetylation is specific to macronuclei (or new macronuclei) at all stages of the life cycle except when micronuclei undergo periods of rapid replication and chromatin assembly. During this time micronuclear staining is also detected. Our results also suggest that transcription-related acetylation begins selectively in new macronuclei immediately after the second postzygotic division. Acetylated histone is not observed in new micronuclei during stages corresponding to anlagen development and, therefore, histone acetylation can be distributed asymmetrically in development. Equally striking is the rapid turnover of acetylated histone in parental macronuclei during the time of their inactivation and elimination from the cell. Taken together, these data lend strong support to the idea that modulation of histone acetylation plays an important role in gene activation and in chromatin assembly. PMID:2654136

  3. Poly-acetylated chromatin signatures are preferred epitopes for site-specific histone H4 acetyl antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rothbart, Scott B; Lin, Shu; Britton, Laura-Mae; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Keogh, Michael-C; Garcia, Benjamin A; Strahl, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies specific for histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been central to our understanding of chromatin biology. Here, we describe an unexpected and novel property of histone H4 site-specific acetyl antibodies in that they prefer poly-acetylated histone substrates. By all current criteria, these antibodies have passed specificity standards. However, we find these site-specific histone antibodies preferentially recognize chromatin signatures containing two or more adjacent acetylated lysines. Significantly, we find that the poly-acetylated epitopes these antibodies prefer are evolutionarily conserved and are present at levels that compete for these antibodies over the intended individual acetylation sites. This alarming property of acetyl-specific antibodies has far-reaching implications for data interpretation and may present a challenge for the future study of acetylated histone and non-histone proteins.

  4. [Transferring the Suaeda salsa glutathione S-transferase and catalase genes enhances low temperature stress resistance in transgenic rice seedlings].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng-Yun; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Zhao, Yan-Xiu; Zhang, Hui

    2006-04-01

    The GST (glutathione S-transferase) and GST+CAT1 (catalase 1) of Suaeda salsa were introduced into a low temperature-sensitive rice cultivar (Oryza sativa cv. Zhonghua No.11) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, and the transformed calli and plantlets were screened on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with hygromycin 25 microg/mL and cefotaxime 300 microg/mL. The putative primary transformants (T(0) generation) were acclimatized at 26 degrees C /22 degrees C in a greenhouse for 7 d, and then transplanted to the field, where they grew up to maturity under outdoor conditions. 25 and 14 independent transgenic lines of T(1) generation carrying the GST and GST+CAT1 genes, respectively, were identified by PCR amplification. Transgene expression was monitored by RNA-blot hybridization using total RNA samples from leaf tissues. To investigate whether expressing the Suaeda salsa GST and GST+CAT1 in transgenic rice increased low temperature stress tolerance, the T(4) 14-day-old transgenic and non-transgenic rice seedlings were transferred to a low temperature (day 7 degrees C/night 4 degrees C) growth chamber for 3-6 d. The experimental data showed that expressing the Suaeda salsa GST and GST+CAT1 enhanced low temperature stress resistance in transgenic rice seedlings. When treated with low temperature, both GST and CAT activity increased in the transformants with the time of temperature treatment. These transgenic rice plant seedlings exhibited a higher level of photosynthetic capacity than those of the non-transgenic control seedlings under low temperature treatment. Whereas, there were lower H(2)O(2) and MDA (malondialdehyde) content, and relative electrolyte leakage through the plasma membrane was also lower in transgenic rice seedlings than in the parent line under low temperature condition. The results also indicated that GST+CAT1 co-expression conferred greater level of low

  5. Survival of a feline isolate of Tritrichomonas foetus in water, cat urine, cat food and cat litter.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Ripley, Allyson; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Blagburn, Byron L; Grant, David C; Lindsay, David S

    2012-04-30

    Feline intestinal trichomoniasis caused by Tritrichomonas foetus is associated with large bowel diarrhea in cats from many parts of the world. It has long been recognized as an economically important sexually transmitted disease that causes early abortion in cattle. Isolates of T. foetus from cattle are infectious for the large intestine of cats and isolates of T. foetus from cats are infectious for the reproductive system of cattle. The parasite is maintained by fecal-oral transmission in cats. The present study was conducted to examine the survival of a feline isolate of T. foetus, AUTf-12, under various conditions that are relevant to fecal-oral transmission in cats. Trophozoites were grown in TYM medium and then exposed to water, cat urine, dry cat food, canned cat food, clumping cat litter, or filter paper for various lengths of time and then re-cultured in TYM medium. Trophozoites survived exposure to distilled or tap water for 30 but not 60 min, while they survived for at least 180 min in urine. Trophozoites survived for 30 min on dry cat food but survived for 120-180 min in canned cat food. No survival of trophozoites was observed on cat litter but trophozoites survived for 15 min when placed on filter paper. Our results indicate that T. foetus can survive and be potentially infectious in water, urine, dry cat food and canned cat food.

  6. Biosynthesis and turnover of O-acetyl and N-acetyl groups in the gangliosides of human melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Manzi, A.E.; Sjoberg, E.R.; Diaz, S.; Varki, A.

    1990-08-05

    We and others previously described the melanoma-associated oncofetal glycosphingolipid antigen 9-O-acetyl-GD3, a disialoganglioside O-acetylated at the 9-position of the outer sialic acid residue. We have now developed methods to examine the biosynthesis and turnover of disialogangliosides in cultured melanoma cells and in Golgi-enriched vesicles from these cells. O-Acetylation was selectively expressed on di- and trisialogangliosides, but not on monosialogangliosides, nor on glycoprotein-bound sialic acids. Double-labeling of cells with (3H)acetate and (14C)glucosamine introduced easily detectable labels into each of the components of the ganglioside molecules. Pulse-chase studies of such doubly labeled molecules indicated that the O-acetyl groups turn over faster than the parent molecule. When Golgi-enriched vesicles from these cells were incubated with (acetyl-3H)acetyl-coenzyme A, the major labeled products were disialogangliosides. (Acetyl-3H)O-acetyl groups were found at both the 7- and the 9-positions, indicating that both 7-O-acetyl GD3 and 9-O-acetyl GD3 were synthesized by the action of O-acetyltransferase(s) on endogenous GD3. Analysis of the metabolically labeled molecules confirmed the existence of both 7- and 9-O-acetylated GD3 in the intact cells. Surprisingly, the major 3H-labeled product of the in vitro labeling reaction was not O-acetyl-GD3, but GD3, with the label exclusively in the sialic acid residues. Fragmentation of the labeled sialic acids by enzymatic and chemical methods showed that the 3H-label was exclusively in (3H)N-acetyl groups. Analyses of the double-labeled sialic acids from intact cells also showed that the 3H-label from (3H)acetate was exclusively in the form of (3H)N-acetyl groups, whereas the 14C-label was at the 4-position.

  7. Late onset ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency in males.

    PubMed Central

    Drogari, E; Leonard, J V

    1988-01-01

    Six boys with ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency presenting in infancy or later childhood are described. There was wide variation in both the time of presentation and the symptoms, which may initially suggest a neurological, behavioural, or gastroenterological problem. Two patients died, as did two male siblings who were probably affected, but with early recognition of the hyperammonaemia the outlook is good. PMID:3202644

  8. Histamine N-methyl transferase: inhibition by drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Pacifici, G M; Donatelli, P; Giuliani, L

    1992-01-01

    1. Histamine N-methyl transferase activity was measured in samples of human liver, brain, kidney, lung and intestinal mucosa. The mean (+/- s.d.) rate (nmol min-1 mg-1 protein) of histamine N-methylation was 1.78 +/- 0.59 (liver, n = 60), 1.15 +/- 0.38 (renal cortex, n = 8), 0.79 +/- 0.14 (renal medulla, n = 8), 0.35 +/- 0.08 (lung, n = 20), 0.47 +/- 0.18 (human intestine, n = 30) and 0.29 +/- 0.14 (brain, n = 13). 2. Inhibition of histamine N-methyl transferase by 15 drugs was investigated in human liver. The IC50 for the various drugs ranged over three orders of magnitude; chloroquine was the most potent inhibitor. 3. The average IC50 values for chloroquine were 12.6, 22.0, 19.0, 21.6 microM in liver, renal cortex, brain and colon, respectively. These values are lower than the Michaelis-Menten constant for histamine N-methyltransferase in liver (43.8 microM) and kidney (45.5 microM). Chloroquine carried a mixed non-competitive inhibition of hepatic histamine N-methyl transferase. Some side-effects of chloroquine may be explained by inhibition of histamine N-methyl transferase. PMID:1457266

  9. Rational design of an organometallic glutathione transferase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, W.H.; Parker, L.J.; De Luca, A.; Juillerat-Jeanneret, L.; Morton, C.J.; LoBello, M.; Parker, M.W.; Dyson, P.J.

    2010-08-17

    A hybrid organic-inorganic (organometallic) inhibitor was designed to target glutathione transferases. The metal center is used to direct protein binding, while the organic moiety acts as the active-site inhibitor. The mechanism of inhibition was studied using a range of biophysical and biochemical methods.

  10. Homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) cDNA’s in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This reaction ...

  11. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GLUTATHIONE s-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE. M K Ross1 and R A Pegram2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL/ORD, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  12. Histone H3K56 Acetylation, Rad52, and Non-DNA Repair Factors Control Double-Strand Break Repair Choice with the Sister Chromatid

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Rodney; Aguilera, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are harmful lesions that arise mainly during replication. The choice of the sister chromatid as the preferential repair template is critical for genome integrity, but the mechanisms that guarantee this choice are unknown. Here we identify new genes with a specific role in assuring the sister chromatid as the preferred repair template. Physical analyses of sister chromatid recombination (SCR) in 28 selected mutants that increase Rad52 foci and inter-homolog recombination uncovered 8 new genes required for SCR. These include the SUMO/Ub-SUMO protease Wss1, the stress-response proteins Bud27 and Pdr10, the ADA histone acetyl-transferase complex proteins Ahc1 and Ada2, as well as the Hst3 and Hst4 histone deacetylase and the Rtt109 histone acetyl-transferase genes, whose target is histone H3 Lysine 56 (H3K56). Importantly, we use mutations in H3K56 residue to A, R, and Q to reveal that H3K56 acetylation/deacetylation is critical to promote SCR as the major repair mechanism for replication-born DSBs. The same phenotype is observed for a particular class of rad52 alleles, represented by rad52-C180A, with a DSB repair defect but a spontaneous hyper-recombination phenotype. We propose that specific Rad52 residues, as well as the histone H3 acetylation/deacetylation state of chromatin and other specific factors, play an important role in identifying the sister as the choice template for the repair of replication-born DSBs. Our work demonstrates the existence of specific functions to guarantee SCR as the main repair event for replication-born DSBs that can occur by two pathways, one Rad51-dependent and the other Pol32-dependent. A dysfunction can lead to genome instability as manifested by high levels of homolog recombination and DSB accumulation. PMID:23357952

  13. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  14. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  15. A Dual Pathogenic Mechanism Links Tau Acetylation to Sporadic Tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Tseng, Jui-Heng; Wander, Connor M.; Madden, Victoria; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Cohen, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    Tau acetylation has recently emerged as a dominant post-translational modification (PTM) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Mass spectrometry studies indicate that tau acetylation sites cluster within the microtubule (MT)-binding region (MTBR), suggesting acetylation could regulate both normal and pathological tau functions. Here, we combined biochemical and cell-based approaches to uncover a dual pathogenic mechanism mediated by tau acetylation. We show that acetylation specifically at residues K280/K281 impairs tau-mediated MT stabilization, and enhances the formation of fibrillar tau aggregates, highlighting both loss and gain of tau function. Full-length acetylation-mimic tau showed increased propensity to undergo seed-dependent aggregation, revealing a potential role for tau acetylation in the propagation of tau pathology. We also demonstrate that methylene blue, a reported tau aggregation inhibitor, modulates tau acetylation, a novel mechanism of action for this class of compounds. Our study identifies a potential “two-hit” mechanism in which tau acetylation disengages tau from MTs and also promotes tau aggregation. Thus, therapeutic approaches to limit tau K280/K281 acetylation could simultaneously restore MT stability and ameliorate tau pathology in AD and related tauopathies. PMID:28287136

  16. SWI/SNF Displaces SAGA-Acetylated Nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Chandy, Mark; Gutiérrez, José L.; Prochasson, Philippe; Workman, Jerry L.

    2006-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a well-characterized chromatin remodeling complex that remodels chromatin by sliding nucleosomes in cis and/or displacing nucleosomes in trans. The latter mechanism has the potential to remove promoter nucleosomes, allowing access to transcription factors and RNA polymerase. In vivo, histone acetylation often precedes apparent nucleosome loss; therefore, we sought to determine whether nucleosomes containing acetylated histones could be displaced by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. We found that SAGA-acetylated histones were lost from an immobilized nucleosome array when treated with the SWI/SNF complex. When the nucleosome array was acetylated by SAGA in the presence of bound transcription activators, it generated a peak of acetylation surrounding the activator binding sites. Subsequent SWI/SNF treatment suppressed this acetylation peak. Immunoblots indicated that SWI/SNF preferentially displaced acetylated histones from the array relative to total histones. Moreover, the Swi2/Snf2 bromodomain, an acetyl-lysine binding domain, played a role in the displacement of acetylated histones. These data indicate that targeted histone acetylation by the SAGA complex predisposes promoter nucleosomes for displacement by the SWI/SNF complex. PMID:17030999

  17. Importance of acetylator phenotype in the identity of Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Zaid, R B; Nargis, M; Neelotpol, S; Sayeed, M A; Banu, A; Shurovi, S; Hassan, K N; Salimullah, M; Ali, L; Azad Khan, A K

    2007-06-01

    The Marma, Tripura, and Chakma are tribal populations of South Asian countries such as Bangladesh. The populations are thought to be immigrants who started moving from their original home in the Far East toward the west and south. We randomly selected 80 Marma, 53 Tripura, and 43 Chakma to determine acetylation capacity and acetylator phenotype. The mean acetylation capacities were 63% in the Marma, 65% in the Tripura, and 70% in the Chakma. The acetylator phenotype was bimodally distributed as fast and slow acetylator. The frequencies of fast acetylator were 83% in the Marma, 89% in the Tripura, and 88% in the Chakma. According to acetylation capacity, the tribes are different from the founder nontribal populations of Bangladesh. They identify themselves as having a separate single population origin. The frequency of fast acetylator predicted served as the acetylator status of the Far East Asian population. The segregation of populations by acetylator phenotype on geographic longitude might be appropriate for geonational identification of Asian populations.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a) Identification. A galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system is a device intended to measure the...

  19. Global Analysis of Lysine Acetylation Suggests the Involvement of Protein Acetylation in Diverse Biological Processes in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xiaoxian; Tan, Feng; Mujahid, Hana; Zhang, Jian; Nanduri, Bindu; Peng, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible, dynamic protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Recent advances in high-throughput proteomics have greatly contributed to the success of global analysis of lysine acetylation. A large number of proteins of diverse biological functions have been shown to be acetylated in several reports in human cells, E.coli, and dicot plants. However, the extent of lysine acetylation in non-histone proteins remains largely unknown in monocots, particularly in the cereal crops. Here we report the mass spectrometric examination of lysine acetylation in rice (Oryza sativa). We identified 60 lysine acetylated sites on 44 proteins of diverse biological functions. Immunoblot studies further validated the presence of a large number of acetylated non-histone proteins. Examination of the amino acid composition revealed substantial amino acid bias around the acetylation sites and the amino acid preference is conserved among different organisms. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that lysine acetylation occurs in diverse cytoplasmic, chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins in addition to the histone modifications. Our results suggest that lysine acetylation might constitute a regulatory mechanism for many proteins, including both histones and non-histone proteins of diverse biological functions. PMID:24586658

  20. Coordination of a transcriptional switch by HMGI(Y) acetylation.

    PubMed

    Munshi, N; Agalioti, T; Lomvardas, S; Merika, M; Chen, G; Thanos, D

    2001-08-10

    Dynamic control of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene expression requires the regulated assembly and disassembly of the enhanceosome, a higher-order nucleoprotein complex formed in response to virus infection. The enhanceosome activates transcription by recruiting the histone acetyltransferase proteins CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300/CBP-associated factors (PCAF)/GCN5, which, in addition to modifying histones, acetylate HMGI(Y), the architectural component required for enhanceosome assembly. We show that the accurate execution of the IFN-beta transcriptional switch depends on the ordered acetylation of the high-mobility group I protein HMGI(Y) by PCAF/GCN5 and CBP, which acetylate HMGI(Y) at distinct lysine residues on endogenous promoters. Whereas acetylation of HMGI(Y) by CBP at lysine-65 destabilizes the enhanceosome, acetylation of HMGI(Y) by PCAF/GCN5 at lysine-71 potentiates transcription by stabilizing the enhanceosome and preventing acetylation by CBP.

  1. Four cats with fungal rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Beth L; Broussard, John; Stefanacci, Joseph D

    2005-02-01

    Fungal rhinitis is uncommon in the cat and cases of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis have been rarely reported. Signs of fungal rhinitis include epistaxis, sneezing, mucopurulent nasal discharge and exophthalmos. Brachycephalic feline breeds seem to be at increased risk for development of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis. Computed tomography (CT) imaging and rhinoscopy are useful in assessing the extent of the disease and in obtaining diagnostic samples. Fungal culture may lead to false negative or positive results and must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests. Serological testing was not useful in two cats tested. The cats in this study were treated with oral itraconazole therapy. When itraconazole therapy was discontinued prematurely, clinical signs recurred. Hepatotoxicosis is a possible sequel to itraconazole therapy.

  2. Survey of the human acetylator polymorphism in spontaneous disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D A

    1984-01-01

    There is ample evidence that the human acetylator phenotypes are associated with drug induced phenomena. It is principally the slow acetylators who exhibit toxic adverse effects because of their relative inability to detoxify the original drug compounds. In rare instances, however, it is the rapid acetylators who are at a disadvantage. In the matter of association of spontaneous disease with either acetylator phenotype, there are two groups of disorders to consider. First, disorders in which carcinogenic amines are known to be an aetiological factor. This is because these amines are substrates for the polymorphic N-acetyltransferase activity and hence there is a possible rational basis for searching for an association. Secondly, other disorders where searches for associations are based more on hunches. In the first group there is a definite statistical association between cancer of the bladder and the slow acetylator phenotype. In prevalence studies the slow phenotype is 39% more associated with bladder cancer than is the rapid phenotype. On the basis of the evidence now available it is not possible to say whether this association is because slow acetylators develop the disease more frequently or whether they survive longer. In the second group the relevant studies show (1) a greatly increased prevalence of slow acetylators in Gilbert's disease; (2) a confirmed association between the rapid acetylator phenotype and diabetes; (3) a possible association between the rapid acetylator phenotype and breast cancer; (4) a possible association between the slow acetylator phenotype and leprosy in Chinese patients; (5) an earlier age of onset of thyrotoxicosis (Graves' disease) in slow acetylators than in rapid acetylators; (6) no evidence of an association between either phenotype and spontaneous systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:6387123

  3. Grooming and control of fleas in cats.

    PubMed

    Eckstein; Hart

    2000-05-10

    Oral grooming is common in cats, as in rodent and bovid species where grooming has been shown to be effective in removing lice and ticks. In Experiment 1, we examined the effectiveness of oral grooming in removing fleas which are the main ectoparasite of cats. Elizabethan collars (E-collars) which prevented grooming were fitted on nine cats in a flea-infested household and 3 weeks later, flea numbers on these cats were compared with nine control cats in the same household. Flea numbers dropped in the control cats reflecting an apparent drop in adult fleas in the environment, but in the E-collar cats, flea numbers did not drop, and were about twice as numerous as in control cats. The significantly greater number of fleas on the E-collar cats was attributed to their inability to groom off fleas. In Experiment 2, videotaping of nine different cats from the flea-infested household revealed that these cats groomed at about twice the rate of 10 similarly videotaped control cats from a flea-free colony. These results reveal that flea exposure can increase grooming rate in cats and that grooming is effective in removing fleas.

  4. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of acetylated EGCG and antioxidant properties of the acetylated derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) acetylated derivatives were prepared by lipase catalyzed acylation of EGCG with vinyl acetate to improve its lipophilicity and expand its application in lipophilic media. The immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, was found to be the optimum catalyst. The optimiz...

  5. Tubulin acetylation protects long-lived microtubules against mechanical ageing.

    PubMed

    Portran, Didier; Schaedel, Laura; Xu, Zhenjie; Théry, Manuel; Nachury, Maxence V

    2017-04-01

    Long-lived microtubules endow the eukaryotic cell with long-range transport abilities. While long-lived microtubules are acetylated on Lys40 of α-tubulin (αK40), acetylation takes place after stabilization and does not protect against depolymerization. Instead, αK40 acetylation has been proposed to mechanically stabilize microtubules. Yet how modification of αK40, a residue exposed to the microtubule lumen and inaccessible to microtubule-associated proteins and motors, could affect microtubule mechanics remains an open question. Here we develop FRET-based assays that report on the lateral interactions between protofilaments and find that αK40 acetylation directly weakens inter-protofilament interactions. Congruently, αK40 acetylation affects two processes largely governed by inter-protofilament interactions, reducing the nucleation frequency and accelerating the shrinkage rate. Most relevant to the biological function of acetylation, microfluidics manipulations demonstrate that αK40 acetylation enhances flexibility and confers resilience against repeated mechanical stresses. Thus, unlike deacetylated microtubules that accumulate damage when subjected to repeated stresses, long-lived microtubules are protected from mechanical ageing through their acquisition of αK40 acetylation. In contrast to other tubulin post-translational modifications that act through microtubule-associated proteins, motors and severing enzymes, intraluminal acetylation directly tunes the compliance and resilience of microtubules.

  6. Interindividual and intraindividual variability in acetylation: characterization with caffeine.

    PubMed

    Hardy, B G; Lemieux, C; Walker, S E; Bartle, W R

    1988-08-01

    The degree of interindividual and intraindividual variability in acetylator activity was investigated with caffeine used as a probe of enzyme activity. Acetylator phenotype and relative N-acetyltransferase activity were estimated in 46 subjects by measuring the urinary ratio of two metabolites, AFMU/1-MX, after a single 300 mg oral dose of caffeine on five separate occasions. Thirty homozygous slow (rr) and 15 heterozygous rapid (Rr) acetylators were identified. The degree of interindividual variability in acetylator activity was observed to be a mean of 32% (range 27% to 36%) and 20% (range 11% to 29%) in the rr and Rr groups, respectively. The mean intraindividual variation on repetitive measurement was 19% (range 6% to 49%) in the rr and 14% (range 7% to 24%) in the Rr acetylator group. Four subjects had apparent changes in acetylator activity with time such that they were unable to be assigned to any one acetylator group. Two of these four subjects exhibited apparent homozygous rapid acetylator activity intermittently during the 5-week trial. This variability may explain, in part, some of the high degree of patient variability observed in the toxicity, efficacy, and drug-related disease associated with acetylated drugs and environmental toxins.

  7. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production.

  8. N-ACETYL-β-GLUCOSAMINIDASE ACTIVITY IN SERUM DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Walker, P. G.; Woollen, Mary E.; Pugh, Doreen

    1960-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the estimation of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase in serum has been devised. Sera from normal adult males and females showed similar levels of activity. The activity in serum rose progressively during pregnancy and fell rapidly after parturition to normal levels. This change resembled closely that which occurs in serum β-glucuronidase. Placenta showed a moderate and chorion a high level of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase. High N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activity was demonstrated histochemically in decidual cells. The functions of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and β-glucuronidase and factors influencing their activity are discussed. Images PMID:13782743

  9. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  10. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Lehman, R.M.; Shiels, W.E.; Blaney, S.M.

    1985-08-01

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis.

  11. Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in three cats.

    PubMed

    Tomsa, Kamil; Glaus, Tony M; Zimmer, Cindy; Greene, Craig E

    2003-05-15

    Localized infection of the nasal or paranasal cavities caused by Aspergillus spp or Penicillium spp was diagnosed in 3 cats. Clinical signs included chronic mucopurulent nasal discharge, epistaxis, and mandibular lymphadenopathy. Rhinoscopic and diagnostic imaging findings were compatible with severe inflammation of the nasal mucosa and destruction of the turbinates. Fungal plaques were observed rhinoscopically in 2 cats, and histologic examination of biopsy specimens revealed fungal colonies with surrounding inflammatory infiltrates in all 3. Results of fungal culture were negative for all 3 cats. Results of serum immunoelectrophoresis for antibodies against Aspergillus spp were positive in 2 cats. Treatment with itraconazole was effective in controlling clinical signs in 1 cat, but hepatotoxicosis developed. A single intranasal infusion of clotrimazole subsequently led to long-term resolution of clinical signs in this cat. Localized aspergillosis-penicilliosis is clinically indistinguishable from other pathologic conditions of the nasal and paranasal cavities in cats and should be considered when examining cats with chronic nasal discharge.

  12. Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats. PMID:10203525

  13. Overexpression of GalNAc-transferase GalNAc-T3 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Taniuchi, Keisuke; Cerny, Ronald L.; Tanouchi, Aki; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi; Saibara, Toshiji; Hollingsworth, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    O-linked glycans of secreted and membrane bound proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer by modulating immune responses, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. A critical aspect of O-glycosylation, the position at which proteins are glycosylated with N-acetyl-galactosamine on serine and threonine residues, is regulated by the substrate specificity of UDP-GalNAc: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferases (GalNAc-Ts). Thus, GalNAc-Ts regulate the first committed step in O-glycosylated protein biosynthesis, determine sites of O-glycosylation on proteins, and are important for understanding normal and carcinoma-associated O-glycosylation. We have found that one of these enzymes, GalNAc-T3, is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues, and suppression of GalNAc-T3 significantly attenuates growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, suppression of GalNAc-T3 induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. Our results indicate that GalNAc-T3 is likely to be involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Modification of cellular glycosylation occurs in nearly all types of cancer as a result of alterations in the expression levels of glycosyltransferases. We report guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing activity polypeptide 1 (GNAT1) as a possible substrate protein of GalNAc-T3. GalNAc-T3 is associated with O-glycosylation of GNAT1, and affects the subcellular distribution of GNAT1. Knocking down endogenous GNAT1 significantly suppresses the growth/survival of PDAC cells. Our results imply that GalNAc-T3 contributes to the function of O-glycosylated proteins and thereby affects the growth and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, substrate proteins of GalNAc-T3 should serve as important therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancers. PMID:21625220

  14. Overexpression of GalNAc-transferase GalNAc-T3 promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, K; Cerny, R L; Tanouchi, A; Kohno, K; Kotani, N; Honke, K; Saibara, T; Hollingsworth, M A

    2011-12-08

    O-linked glycans of secreted and membrane-bound proteins have an important role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer by modulating immune responses, inflammation and tumorigenesis. A critical aspect of O-glycosylation, the position at which proteins are glycosylated with N-acetyl-galactosamine on serine and threonine residues, is regulated by the substrate specificity of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferases (GalNAc-Ts). Thus, GalNAc-Ts regulate the first committed step in O-glycosylated protein biosynthesis, determine sites of O-glycosylation on proteins and are important for understanding normal and carcinoma-associated O-glycosylation. We have found that one of these enzymes, GalNAc-T3, is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues and suppression of GalNAc-T3 significantly attenuates the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, suppression of GalNAc-T3 induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. Our results indicate that GalNAc-T3 is likely involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Modification of cellular glycosylation occurs in nearly all types of cancer as a result of alterations in the expression levels of glycosyltransferases. We report guanine the nucleotide-binding protein, α-transducing activity polypeptide-1 (GNAT1) as a possible substrate protein of GalNAc-T3. GalNAc-T3 is associated with O-glycosylation of GNAT1 and affects the subcellular distribution of GNAT1. Knocking down endogenous GNAT1 significantly suppresses the growth/survival of PDAC cells. Our results imply that GalNAc-T3 contributes to the function of O-glycosylated proteins and thereby affects the growth and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, substrate proteins of GalNAc-T3 should serve as important therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancers.

  15. Interaction of antimicrobial peptide with mycolyl transferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Devjani I; Gohil, Tejas P

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that about 40% of the Indian population are infected with tuberculosis (TB) and that ∼3,000,000 people die as a result of TB annually. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2011, the World Health Organization declared India as having the highest TB burden worldwide. An important criteria for pathogenicity is the presence of mycolic acid linked to the protective outer membrane of bacteria. Mycolyl transferase catalyzes the transfer of mycolic acid and promotes cell wall synthesis. This is also considered as a novel target for drug-mediated intervention strategies. Here, we have attempted to understand the interaction between the antimicrobial peptide (AMP), dermcidin, and mycolyl transferase in M. tuberculosis using a computational approach. The present study was undertaken in order to elucidate the capability of AMPs to treat this bacteria, which is less sensitive to available antibiotics, and to design a novel method for new therapies.

  16. [Lameness of the hindlimbs of the cat].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V

    1989-08-01

    About six to seven per cent of cats presented at the clinic show neurological signs. The largest group consists of traumatized cats. A complete neurological examination is essential for localizing the lesion and establishing a prognosis. Differential diagnosis for paraparesis/paraplegia of pelvic limbs in cats are discussed. Cats are demonstrated which had spinal cord trauma, disc protrusion, aortic thromboembolism and lumbosacral stenosis and the importance of the evaluation of x-rays, cerebrospinal fluid examination and myelography is stressed.

  17. [Glutathione S-transferase of alpha class from pike liver].

    PubMed

    Borvinskaia, E V; Smirnov, L P; Nemova, N N

    2013-01-01

    In this study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was isolated from the liver of pike Esox lucius, which was homogenous according to SDS-PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. It is a homodimer with subunits mass 25235.36 Da (according to HPLC-MS/MS) and pI about 6.4. Substrate specificity, thermostability, some kinetic characteristics and optimum pH were determined. The enzyme was identified as Alpha class GST.

  18. Cryosurgery of eosinophilic ulcers in cats.

    PubMed

    Willemse, A; Lubberink, A A

    1978-10-15

    The use of cryosurgery in treatment of eosinophilic granuloma in cats is described. Satisfactory results were obtained in 14 of 19 cats and 4 of the 5 cats which did not respond favorably, had multiple lesions. The simplicity of the technique and the rapidity of healing make cryosurgery a useful alternative to previous methods of treatment.

  19. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  20. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  1. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  2. CATS Data and Information Page

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-10

    ... of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS).   CATS will provide vertical profiles at three ... (day-to-night) changes in cloud and aerosol effects from space by observing the same spot on Earth at different times each day. ...

  3. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs. PMID:16048015

  4. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  5. [Poxvirus infection in a cat].

    PubMed

    Ballauf, B; Linckh, S; Lechner, J

    1989-01-01

    For the first time, a poxvirus infection was diagnosed as an etiologic agent of dermal disease in a living domestic cat in Germany. A literature survey, the clinical symptoms of the infection and the diagnostic procedures are described. Poxvirus infections should be considered as a differential diagnosis in feline dermatologic problems.

  6. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  7. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you…

  8. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kristin

    2005-06-01

    A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs.

  9. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  10. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  11. Cross species fertilization and development investigated by cat sperm injection into mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Nan; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Sun, Shao-Chen; Jin, Yong-Xun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2011-07-01

    The use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in model animals is a powerful approach for the study of species-specific fertilization processes and multiploidy embryogenesis. In this study, we examined the fertilization process in mouse oocytes following injection of a single mouse or cat sperm, two mouse spermatozoa or mouse and cat spermatozoa. These treatments did not affect histone H3K9 acetylation or methylation, although the pattern of DNA methylation differed following the injection of cat sperm. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that sperm chromatin was normally incorporated with female mouse chromatin following any of the four injection scenarios. Furthermore, metaphase was successfully entered to reach a normal two-cell stage, and cell division could even persist to produce blastocyst stage embryos. In addition, both mouse and cat Pou5l and Nanog mRNA were expressed in the hybrid embryos. These results suggest that, although epigenetic modification of DNA is affected by the sperm injection treatment, fertilization and cleavage occur in a non-species-specific manner. In addition, despite abnormal division of the chromosomes, intra- and inter-species ICSI produced embryos that could develop into blastocysts.

  12. An Alternative Strategy for Pan-acetyl-lysine Antibody Generation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Yee; Sim, Choon Kiat; Zhang, Qiongyi; Tang, Hui; Brunmeir, Reinhard; Pan, Hong; Karnani, Neerja; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Kangling; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in cell signaling. In acetylome studies, a high-quality pan-acetyl-lysine antibody is key to successful enrichment of acetylated peptides for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. Here we show an alternative method to generate polyclonal pan-acetyl-lysine antibodies using a synthesized random library of acetylated peptides as the antigen. Our antibodies are tested to be specific for acetyl-lysine peptides/proteins via ELISA and dot blot. When pooled, five of our antibodies show broad reactivity to acetyl-lysine peptides, complementing a commercial antibody in terms of peptide coverage. The consensus sequence of peptides bound by our antibody cocktail differs slightly from that of the commercial antibody. Lastly, our antibodies are tested in a proof-of-concept to analyze the acetylome of HEK293 cells. In total we identified 1557 acetylated peptides from 416 proteins. We thus demonstrated that our antibodies are well-qualified for acetylome studies and can complement existing commercial antibodies.

  13. Global analysis of lysine acetylation in strawberry leaves

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Zhao, Yun; Ruan, Songlin; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Jin, Liang; Cao, Lingling; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Huasheng; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification. It plays an important role in regulating diverse cellular processes including chromatin dynamic, metabolic pathways, and transcription in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although studies of lysine acetylome in plants have been reported, the throughput was not high enough, hindering the deep understanding of lysine acetylation in plant physiology and pathology. In this study, taking advantages of anti-acetyllysine-based enrichment and high-sensitive-mass spectrometer, we applied an integrated proteomic approach to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in strawberry. In total, we identified 1392 acetylation sites in 684 proteins, representing the largest dataset of acetylome in plants to date. To reveal the functional impacts of lysine acetylation in strawberry, intensive bioinformatic analysis was performed. The results significantly expanded our current understanding of plant acetylome and demonstrated that lysine acetylation is involved in multiple cellular metabolism and cellular processes. More interestingly, nearly 50% of all acetylated proteins identified in this work were localized in chloroplast and the vital role of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis was also revealed. Taken together, this study not only established the most extensive lysine acetylome in plants to date, but also systematically suggests the significant and unique roles of lysine acetylation in plants. PMID:26442052

  14. Effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine acetylation in male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tahir, I M; Iqbal, T; Saleem, S; Mehboob, H; Akhter, N; Riaz, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine N-acetylation by human N-acetyltrasferase-2 (NAT2) was studied in 19 (n=19) healthy male volunteers in two different phases. In the first phase of the study the volunteers were given an oral dose of sulfamethazine 500 mg alone and blood and urine samples were collected. After the 10-day washout period the same selected volunteers were again administered sulfamethazine 500 mg along with 1000 mg acetaminophen. The acetylation of sulfamethazine by human NAT2 in both phases with and without acetaminophen was determined by HPLC to establish their respective phenotypes. In conclusion obtained statistics of present study revealed that acetaminophen significantly (P<0.0001) decreased sulfamethazine acetylation in plasma of both slow and fast acetylator male volunteers. A highly significant (P<0.0001) decrease in plasma-free and total sulfamethazine concentration was also observed when acetaminophen was co-administered. Urine acetylation status in both phases of the study was found not to be in complete concordance with that of plasma. Acetaminophen significantly (P<0.0001) increased the acetyl, free and total sulfamethazine concentration in urine of both slow and fast acetylators. Urine acetylation analysis has not been found to be a suitable approach for phenotypic studies.

  15. Histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation breaks the genome's silence

    PubMed Central

    Shia, Wei-Jong; Pattenden, Samantha G; Workman, Jerry L

    2006-01-01

    Acetylation at histone H4 lysine 16 is involved in many cellular processes in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans. A recent biochemical study pinpoints this particular acetylation mark as a switch for changing chromatin from a repressive to a transcriptionally active state. PMID:16689998

  16. Idiopathic generalised tremor syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Mauler, Daniela A; Van Soens, Iris; Bhatti, Sofie F; Cornelis, Ine; Martlé, Valentine A; Van Ham, Luc M

    2014-04-01

    Two male neutered domestic shorthair cats were evaluated for generalised tremors. On neurological examination both cats showed whole-body tremors, worsening with stress. A mainly cerebellar disorder was suspected. Blood examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrophysiological examination of both cats and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in one cat were normal. Idiopathic generalised tremor syndrome (IGTS) was suspected owing to the exclusion of underlying causes and the clinical similarities with the syndrome in dogs. Treatment as recommended for dogs was initiated and resulted in improvement. This report describes the first cases of IGTS in cats.

  17. [Transferase activity of horse blood serum cholinesterase at hydrolysis of 1-methyl-8-acetoxychinolium iodide in the presence of aliphatic alcohols].

    PubMed

    Basova, N E; Kormilitsyn, B N; Perchenok, A Yu; Rozengart, E V; Saakov, V S; Suvorov, A A

    2014-01-01

    To check whether the horse blood serum butyrylcholinesterase expresses transferase activity at the complex ester hydrolysis in the presense of several low-molecular aliphatic alcohols, a study was performed with aid of the chromogenic substrate 1-methyl-8-acetoxychinolium whose phenolic hydrolysis product absorbs intensively at 445 nm, whereas the initial ester in this specter area practically does not absorb. This allowed measuring simultaneously the products of accumulation of both products of enzymatic hydrolysis: of acetic acid by the potentiometric, while of phenol--by the photometric method. Rates of formation of both products of enzymatic hydrolysis are practically equal in experiments with all studied alcohols. This indicates that horse blood serum butyrylcholinesterase under these experimental conditions does not catalize transfer of acetyl residue to the studied aliphatic alcohols, i. e. does not have transefase activity.

  18. Antemortem stress regulates protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhenyu; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2016-07-01

    Although exhaustive research has established that preslaughter stress is a major factor contributing to pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat, questions remain regarding the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis. In this study, the influence of preslaughter stress on protein acetylation in relationship to glycolysis was studied. The data show that antemortem swimming significantly enhanced glycolysis and the total acetylated proteins in postmortem longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of mice. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors eliminated stress induced increase in glycolysis. Inversely, antemortem injection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and nicotinamide (NAM), further increased protein acetylation early postmortem and the glycolysis. These data provide new insight into the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis by showing that protein acetylation regulates glycolysis, which may participate in the regulation of preslaughter stress on glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

  19. Acetylated triterpene saponins from the Thai medicinal plant, Sapindus emarginatus.

    PubMed

    Kanchanapoom, T; Kasai, R; Yamasaki, K

    2001-09-01

    From the pericarps of Sapindus emarginatus (Sapindaceae), three new acetylated triterpene saponins were isolated together with hederagenin and five known triterpene saponins, as well as one known sweet acyclic sesquiterpene glycoside, mukurozioside IIb. The structures of new compounds were elucidated as hederagenin 3-O-(2-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, 23-O-acetyl-hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside by chemical and spectroscopic data.

  20. Acetylated histone H3 increases nucleosome dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Marek; Manohar, Mridula; Ottesen, Jennifer; Poirier, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Chromatin's basic unit structure is the nucleosome, i.e. genomic DNA wrapped around a particular class of proteins -- histones -- which due to their physical hindrance, block vital biological processes, such as DNA repair, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. Histone post-translational modifications, which are known to exist in vivo, are hypothesized to regulate these biological processes by directly altering DNA-histone interactions and thus nucleosome structure and stability. Using magnetic tweezers technique we studied the acetylation of histone H3 in the dyad region, i.e. at K115 and K122, on reconstituted arrays of nucleosomes under constant external force. Based on the measured increase in the probability of dissociation of modified nucleosomes, we infer that this double modification could facilitate histone chaperone mediated nucleosome disassembly in vivo.

  1. Lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease in six cats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennipher E; Dhupa, Sarit

    2008-01-01

    Medical records of six cats diagnosed with lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease were reviewed. Clinical signs included reluctance to jump, low tail carriage, elimination outside the litter box, reluctance to ambulate, pelvic-limb paresis, urinary incontinence, and constipation. All cats had lumbosacral hyperpathia on palpation. Computed tomography in four cats revealed evidence of extradural spinal cord compression at the seventh lumbar (L(7)) to first sacral (S(1)) vertebral interspace. Compression was confirmed via myelography in three of these four cats, with confirmation in the fourth cat at the time of decompressive laminectomy. Each of the six cats underwent dorsal decompressive laminectomy at the L(7) to S(1) interspace. Postoperative clinical follow-up lasted 3 to 35 months, with most cats having excellent outcomes.

  2. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylation suggests the widespread function is regulated by protein acetylation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zuoming; Zhu, Honglin; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Chengcheng; Liu, Yue; Sheng, Qing; Lv, Zhengbing; Zhang, Wenping; Yu, Wei; Jiang, Caiying; Xie, Longfei; Zhang, Yaozhou; Yao, Juming

    2015-09-01

    Lysine acetylation in proteins is a dynamic and reversible PTM and plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. In this study, using lysine-acetylation (Kac) peptide enrichment coupled with nano HPLC/MS/MS, we initially identified the acetylome in the silkworms. Overall, a total of 342 acetylated proteins with 667 Kac sites were identified in silkworm. Sequence motifs analysis around Kac sites revealed an enrichment of Y, F, and H in the +1 position, and F was also enriched in the +2 and -2 positions, indicating the presences of preferred amino acids around Kac sites in the silkworm. Functional analysis showed the acetylated proteins were primarily involved in some specific biological processes. Furthermore, lots of nutrient-storage proteins, such as apolipophorin, vitellogenin, storage proteins, and 30 K proteins, were highly acetylated, indicating lysine acetylation may represent a common regulatory mechanism of nutrient utilization in the silkworm. Interestingly, Ser2 proteins, the coating proteins of larval silk, were found to contain many Kac sites, suggesting lysine acetylation may be involved in the regulation of larval silk synthesis. This study is the first to identify the acetylome in a lepidoptera insect, and expands greatly the catalog of lysine acetylation substrates and sites in insects.

  3. Isolation of Tritrichomonas foetus from cats sampled at a cat clinic, cat shows and a humane society in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Hosein, Ansarah; Kruth, Stephen A; Pearl, David L; Richardson, Danielle; Maggs, Jocelyn C; Peach, Hillary A; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2013-08-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that has been associated with chronic diarrhea in cats. This study aimed to determine (i) the prevalence of T foetus shedding in cats from three different populations in southern Ontario, and (ii) associations between the presence of T foetus and potential cat management, health and demographic risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 140 cats from a cat clinic in Guelph, 46 cats from a humane society in Guelph and 55 cats from two cat shows. Risk factor information was assessed through a questionnaire. The InPouch TF (feline) culture method was used to determine the presence of T foetus in all samples. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted on all samples positive by the InPouch TF, as well as 132 negative samples. The assays were interpreted in series and the prevalence of T foetus shedding and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated at 0.7% (95% CI: 0.0-3.9%; n = 140) from the cat clinic, 0% (95% CI: 0.0-7.7%; n = 46) from the humane society and 23.6% (95% CI: 13.2-37.0%; n = 55) from the cat shows. 'Attendance at cat shows' was the only variable significant in both the univariable and multivariable analyses (P <0.05). No significant association was found between the presence of T foetus and diarrhea at the time of sampling or having a history of diarrhea in the past 6 months. The prevalence of T foetus was highly variable among populations of cats in southern Ontario, with shedding being most common in show cats.

  4. [Platelet count in the cat].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Hoffmann, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of collecting blood samples is primarily responsible for the appearance of platelet-agglomeration in cats. Blood obtained by the conventional way ("one syringe technology", drips of blood) caused in 52% of the cases an activation of the large and therefore active thrombocytes however. Rejection of the first 2-5 ml blood for the platelet count ("two syringe technology") reduced the rate of platelet-agglomeration significantly. No big differences in platelet-agglomeration were found with regard to the place used for collecting blood (V. cephalica antebrachii/V. jugularis). Platelet-agglutination was observed with Li-Heparin, K-EDTA, Na-Citrat or ACD anticoagulated blood samples. Citrat (Na-Citrat, ACD) seemed to have a stabilizing effect on feline thrombocytes as has been described for human thrombocytes. The platelet count in cats should be performed within 30 minutes.

  5. Myeloproliferative disease in a cat

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, R.W.; Weller, R.E.; Feldman, B.F.

    1984-10-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders, a complex of cytologic abnormalities arising in the bone marrow, are among domestic animals most frequently recognized in cats but are relatively uncommon. A 4-year-old female Siamese, with splenomegaly and weight loss, was listless, anorectic, pale and dehydrated. A hemogram showed severe, macrocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis and reticulocytosis, with abnormally high numbers of nucleated RBC and undifferentiated blast cells. Bone marrow smears contained predominantly undifferentiated blast cells, RBC precursors and myeloblasts. The fluorescent antibody test for FeLV was positive. The cat died 66 days later despite a blood transfusion and chemotherapy. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, with hepatic and splenic invasion. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  6. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats.

  7. Replacement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae acetyl-CoA synthetases by alternative pathways for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Barbara U; van Rossum, Harmen M; Benjamin, Kirsten R; Wu, Liang; Daran, Jean-Marc G; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-01-01

    Cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A is a precursor for many biotechnologically relevant compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this yeast, cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis and growth strictly depend on expression of either the Acs1 or Acs2 isoenzyme of acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). Since hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate in the ACS reaction constrains maximum yields of acetyl-CoA-derived products, this study explores replacement of ACS by two ATP-independent pathways for acetyl-CoA synthesis. After evaluating expression of different bacterial genes encoding acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (A-ALD) and pyruvate-formate lyase (PFL), acs1Δ acs2Δ S. cerevisiae strains were constructed in which A-ALD or PFL successfully replaced ACS. In A-ALD-dependent strains, aerobic growth rates of up to 0.27 h(-1) were observed, while anaerobic growth rates of PFL-dependent S. cerevisiae (0.20 h(-1)) were stoichiometrically coupled to formate production. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures, intracellular metabolite analysis did not reveal major differences between A-ALD-dependent and reference strains. However, biomass yields on glucose of A-ALD- and PFL-dependent strains were lower than those of the reference strain. Transcriptome analysis suggested that reduced biomass yields were caused by acetaldehyde and formate in A-ALD- and PFL-dependent strains, respectively. Transcript profiles also indicated that a previously proposed role of Acs2 in histone acetylation is probably linked to cytosolic acetyl-CoA levels rather than to direct involvement of Acs2 in histone acetylation. While demonstrating that yeast ACS can be fully replaced, this study demonstrates that further modifications are needed to achieve optimal in vivo performance of the alternative reactions for supply of cytosolic acetyl-CoA as a product precursor.

  8. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat.

  9. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, Émilie; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24 h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48 h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24 h and 48 h respectively. At 1 h post-contact, five fleas were found on the receiver cats, with three cats having one flea and one cat, two fleas. The number of fleas recovered on receiver cats increased towards the end of the study. At 24 h, 20% of the fleas were found on the receiver cats, and at 48 h, 23%. In a second experiment, the six flea-free cats were put in contact with the six donor cats which were each infested by 100 fleas 48 h before. Fewer fleas were found on the receiver cats (n = 15), representing 3.8% of all fleas recovered (n = 403). All the observed fleas had fed. The fleas collected on receiving cats comprised 10 males and 5 females, and 4 of the 5 females were engorged and contained eggs. The fleas collected on donor cats comprised 153 males and 235 females, they were all fed and all females contained eggs. This experiment demonstrated that gravid female fleas have a tendency to become permanently but not exclusively parasitic. Nevertheless, a few can change their cat host in as little as 1 h, which may play a role in the rapid introduction of a new flea population into a cat environment. PMID:24309021

  10. Pharmacokinetics of amantadine in cats.

    PubMed

    Siao, K T; Pypendop, B H; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in cats, after both i.v. and oral administration. Six healthy adult domestic shorthair female cats were used. Amantadine HCl (5 mg/kg, equivalent to 4 mg/kg amantadine base) was administered either intravenously or orally in a crossover randomized design. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to amantadine administration, and at various times up to 1440 min following intravenous, or up to 2880 min following oral administration. Plasma amantadine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and plasma amantadine concentration-time data were fitted to compartmental models. A two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment best described the disposition of amantadine administered intravenously in cats, and a one-compartment model best described the disposition of oral amantadine in cats. After i.v. administration, the apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment and apparent volume of distribution at steady-state [mean ± SEM (range)], and the clearance and terminal half-life [harmonic mean ± jackknife pseudo-SD (range)] were 1.5 ± 0.3 (0.7-2.5) L/kg, 4.3 ± 0.2 (3.7-5.0) L/kg, 8.2 ± 2.1 (5.9-11.4) mL·min/kg, and 348 ± 49 (307-465) min, respectively. Systemic availability [mean ± SEM (range)] and terminal half-life after oral administration [harmonic mean ± jackknife pseudo-SD (range)] were 130 ± 11 (86-160)% and 324 ± 41 (277-381) min, respectively.

  11. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-11-01

    A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of ototoxicity in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows one to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy.

  12. Cat Scratch Disease: Expanded Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Hassan A.; Plesec, Thomas P.; Sabella, Camille; Udayasankar, Unni K.; Singh, Arun D.

    2016-01-01

    Background To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. Methods Case report. Results A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7.5 × 3.8 mm lesion with a possible 6.3 mm of retrolaminar extension into the substance of the optic nerve. Brain MRI did not show evidence of optic nerve involvement but revealed a 6-mm nodule of the pineal gland suggestive of a pineoblastoma. Enucleation was performed and histopathology revealed a suppurative granulomatous inflammation suggestive of Bartonella infection. Upon further questioning, the patient had recent exposure to kittens with areas of cat scratches along both of his arms. He was subsequently referred to and treated with a 2-week course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and rifampin by the pediatric infectious disease specialist. Repeat brain MRI showed interval total resolution of enlarged pineal gland. Conclusion: Optic nerve granulomas are a rare presentation of cat scratch disease and could potentially masquerade as retinoblastoma. PMID:27843905

  13. Chitosan Molecular Structure as a Function of N-Acetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, Eduardo F.; Freitas, Luiz C.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2011-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to characterize the structure and solubility of chitosan nanoparticle-like structures as a function of the deacetylation level (0, 40, 60, and 100%) and the spatial distribution of the N-acetyl groups in the particles. The polysaccharide chains of highly N-deacetylated particles where the N-acetyl groups are uniformly distributed present a high flexibility and preference for the relaxed two-fold helix and five-fold helix motifs. When these groups are confined to a given region of the particle, the chains adopt preferentially a two-fold helix with f and w values close to crystalline chitin. Nanoparticles with up to 40% acetylation are moderately soluble, forming stable aggregates when the N-acetyl groups are unevenly distributed. Systems with 60% or higher N-acetylation levels are insoluble and present similar degrees of swelling regardless the distribution of their N-acetyl groups. Overall particle solvation is highly affected by electrostatic forces resulting from the degree of acetylation. The water mobility and orientation around the polysaccharide chains affects the stability of the intramolecular O3- HO3(n) ... O5(n+ 1) hydrogen bond, which in turn controls particle aggregation.

  14. Regulation of Autophagy and Mitophagy by Nutrient Availability and Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Bradley R.; Scott, Iain; Traba, Javier; Han, Kim; Sack, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Normal cellular function is dependent on a number of highly regulated homeostatic mechanisms, which act in concert to maintain conditions suitable for life. During periods of nutritional deficit, cells initiate a number of recycling programs which break down complex intracellular structures, thus allowing them to utilize the energy stored within. These recycling systems, broadly named “autophagy”, enable the cell to maintain the flow of nutritional substrates until they can be replenished from external sources. Recent research has shown that a number of regulatory components of the autophagy program are controlled by lysine acetylation. Lysine acetylation is a reversible post-translational modification that can alter the activity of enzymes in a number of cellular compartments. Strikingly, the main substrate for this modification is a product of cellular energy metabolism: acetyl-CoA. This suggests a direct and intricate link between fuel metabolites and the systems which regulate nutritional homeostasis. In this review, we examine how acetylation regulates the systems that control cellular autophagy, and how global protein acetylation status may act as a trigger for recycling of cellular components in a nutrient-dependent fashion. In particular, we focus on how acetylation may control the degradation and turnover of mitochondria, the major source of fuel-derived acetyl-CoA. PMID:24525425

  15. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    PubMed

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (< 2.5 mg/dL) subsequent to enteral alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  16. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  17. Serine/threonine acetylation of TGFβ-activated kinase (TAK1) by Yersinia pestis YopJ inhibits innate immune signaling

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Nicholas; Conlon, Joseph; Sweet, Charles; Rus, Florentina; Wilson, Lindsay; Pereira, Andrea; Rosadini, Charles V.; Goutagny, Nadege; Weber, Alexander N. R.; Lane, William S.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Maniatis, Stephanie; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Stuart, Lynda; Silverman, Neal

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacteria Yersinia pestis, causative agent of plague, is extremely virulent. One mechanism contributing to Y. pestis virulence is the presence of a type-three secretion system, which injects effector proteins, Yops, directly into immune cells of the infected host. One of these Yop proteins, YopJ, is proapoptotic and inhibits mammalian NF-κB and MAP-kinase signal transduction pathways. Although the molecular mechanism remained elusive for some time, recent work has shown that YopJ acts as a serine/threonine acetyl-transferase targeting MAP2 kinases. Using Drosophila as a model system, we find that YopJ inhibits one innate immune NF-κB signaling pathway (IMD) but not the other (Toll). In fact, we show YopJ mediated serine/threonine acetylation and inhibition of dTAK1, the critical MAP3 kinase in the IMD pathway. Acetylation of critical serine/threonine residues in the activation loop of Drosophila TAK1 blocks phosphorylation of the protein and subsequent kinase activation. In addition, studies in mammalian cells show similar modification and inhibition of hTAK1. These data present evidence that TAK1 is a target for YopJ-mediated inhibition. PMID:22802624

  18. Histone Acetylation Facilitates Rapid and Robust Memory CD8 T Cell Response through Differential Expression of Effector Molecules (Eomesodermin and Its Targets: Perforin and Granzyme B)1

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Yasuto; Fann, Monchou; Wersto, Robert; Weng, Nan-ping

    2008-01-01

    To understand the mechanism regulating the effector function of memory CD8 T cells, we examined expression and chromatin state of a key transcription factor (eomesodermin, EOMES) and two of its targets: perforin (PRF1) and granzyme B (GZMB). Accessible chromatin associated histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9Ac) was found significantly higher at the proximal promoter and the first exon region of all three genes in memory CD8 T cells than in naive CD8 T cells. Correspondingly, EOMES and PRF1 were constitutively higher expressed in memory CD8 T cells than in naive CD8 T cells at resting and activated states. In contrast, higher expression of GZMB was induced in memory CD8 T cells than in naive CD8 T cells only after activation. Regardless of their constitutive or inducible expression, decreased H3K9Ac levels after treatment with a histone acetyl-transferase inhibitor (Curcumin) led to decreased expression of all three genes in activated memory CD8 T cells. These findings suggest that H3K9Ac associated accessible chromatin state serves as a corner stone for the differentially high expression of these effector genes in memory CD8 T cells. Thus, epigenetic changes mediated via histone acetylation may provide a chromatin “memory” for the rapid and robust transcriptional response of memory CD8 T cells. PMID:18523274

  19. Triglyceride response following an oral fat tolerance test in Burmese cats, other pedigree cats and domestic crossbred cats.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Elissa K; Hardman, Chloë; Govendir, Merran; Baral, Randolph M; Sullivan, David R; Snow, David; Malik, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Primary lipid disorders causing fasting triglyceridaemia have been documented infrequently in Burmese cats. Due to the known increased risk of diabetes mellitus and sporadic reports of lipid aqueous in this breed, the aim of this study was to determine whether healthy Burmese cats displayed a more pronounced pre- or post-prandial triglyceridaemia compared to other cats. Serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were determined at baseline and variably at 2, 4 and 6h after ingestion of a high-fat meal (ie, an oral fat tolerance test) in a representative sample of Burmese and non-Burmese cats. The median 4 and 6h serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in Burmese cats (4h - 2.8mmol/l; 6h - 8.2mmol/l) than in other pedigree and domestic crossbred cats (4h - 1.5mmol/l; 6h - 1.0mmol/l). The non-Burmese group had post-prandial TG concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 3.9mmol/l. Seven Burmese cats had post-prandial TG concentrations between 6.6 and 19.0mmol/l, five had concentrations between 4.2 and 4.7mmol/l, while the remaining 15 had post-prandial concentrations between 0.5 and 2.8mmol/l. None of these Burmese cats had fasting triglyceridaemia. Most Burmese cats with a 4 h TG > 6.0 mmol/l had elevated fasting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. This study demonstrates that a proportion of Burmese cats in Australia have delayed TG clearance compared to other cats. The potential repercussions of this observation with reference to lipid aqueous, pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus in Burmese cats are discussed.

  20. Erasers of Histone Acetylation: The Histone Deacetylase Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Edward; Yoshida, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl functional groups from the lysine residues of both histone and nonhistone proteins. In humans, there are 18 HDAC enzymes that use either zinc- or NAD+-dependent mechanisms to deacetylate acetyl lysine substrates. Although removal of histone acetyl epigenetic modification by HDACs regulates chromatin structure and transcription, deacetylation of nonhistones controls diverse cellular processes. HDAC inhibitors are already known potential anticancer agents and show promise for the treatment of many diseases. PMID:24691964

  1. Acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers with vinyl acetate under moderate conditions.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Nihat Sami; Tingaut, Philippe; Ozmen, Nilgül; Henry, Nathan; Harper, David; Dadmun, Mark; Sèbe, Gilles

    2009-10-08

    A novel and straightforward method for the surface acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers by transesterification of vinyl acetate is proposed. The reaction of vinyl acetate with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanowhiskers obtained from cotton linters was examined with potassium carbonate as catalyst. Results indicate that during the first stage of the reaction, only the surface of the nanowhiskers was modified, while their dimensions and crystallinity remained unchanged. With increasing reaction time, diffusion mechanisms controlled the rate, leading to nanowhiskers with higher levels of acetylation, smaller dimensions, and lower crystallinity. In THF, a solvent of low polarity, the suspensions from modified nanowhiskers showed improved stability with increased acetylation.

  2. Structural Basis of Eco1-Mediated Cohesin Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Chao, William C. H.; Wade, Benjamin O.; Bouchoux, Céline; Jones, Andrew W.; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Federico, Stefania; O’Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Uhlmann, Frank; Singleton, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Sister-chromatid cohesion is established by Eco1-mediated acetylation on two conserved tandem lysines in the cohesin Smc3 subunit. However, the molecular basis of Eco1 substrate recognition and acetylation in cohesion is not fully understood. Here, we discover and rationalize the substrate specificity of Eco1 using mass spectrometry coupled with in-vitro acetylation assays and crystallography. Our structures of the X. laevis Eco2 (xEco2) bound to its primary and secondary Smc3 substrates demonstrate the plasticity of the substrate-binding site, which confers substrate specificity by concerted conformational changes of the central β hairpin and the C-terminal extension. PMID:28290497

  3. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase in erythrocytes (red blood cells... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  4. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase in erythrocytes (red blood cells... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  5. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  7. 9-O-Acetylation of sialic acids is catalysed by CASD1 via a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Anna-Maria T.; Bakkers, Mark J. G.; Buettner, Falk F. R.; Hartmann, Maike; Grove, Melanie; Langereis, Martijn A.; de Groot, Raoul J.; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids, terminal sugars of glycoproteins and glycolipids, play important roles in development, cellular recognition processes and host–pathogen interactions. A common modification of sialic acids is 9-O-acetylation, which has been implicated in sialoglycan recognition, ganglioside biology, and the survival and drug resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Despite many functional implications, the molecular basis of 9-O-acetylation has remained elusive thus far. Following cellular approaches, including selective gene knockout by CRISPR/Cas genome editing, we here show that CASD1—a previously identified human candidate gene—is essential for sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. In vitro assays with the purified N-terminal luminal domain of CASD1 demonstrate transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-coenzyme A to CMP-activated sialic acid and formation of a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate. Our study provides direct evidence that CASD1 is a sialate O-acetyltransferase and serves as key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans. PMID:26169044

  8. Acetylation of Mammalian ADA3 Is Required for Its Functional Roles in Histone Acetylation and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mohibi, Shakur; Srivastava, Shashank; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Band, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3) is an essential component of specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. We have previously shown that ADA3 is required for establishing global histone acetylation patterns and for normal cell cycle progression (S. Mohibi et al., J Biol Chem 287:29442–29456, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.378901). Here, we report that these functional roles of ADA3 require its acetylation. We show that ADA3 acetylation, which is dynamically regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, reflects a balance of coordinated actions of its associated HATs, GCN5, PCAF, and p300, and a new partner that we define, the deacetylase SIRT1. We use mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis to identify major sites of ADA3 acetylated by GCN5 and p300. Acetylation-defective mutants are capable of interacting with HATs and other components of HAT complexes but are deficient in their ability to restore ADA3-dependent global or locus-specific histone acetylation marks and cell proliferation in Ada3-deleted murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Given the key importance of ADA3-containing HAT complexes in the regulation of various biological processes, including the cell cycle, our study presents a novel mechanism to regulate the function of these complexes through dynamic ADA3 acetylation. PMID:27402865

  9. Acetylation of Mammalian ADA3 Is Required for Its Functional Roles in Histone Acetylation and Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mohibi, Shakur; Srivastava, Shashank; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2016-10-01

    Alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3) is an essential component of specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. We have previously shown that ADA3 is required for establishing global histone acetylation patterns and for normal cell cycle progression (S. Mohibi et al., J Biol Chem 287:29442-29456, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.378901). Here, we report that these functional roles of ADA3 require its acetylation. We show that ADA3 acetylation, which is dynamically regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, reflects a balance of coordinated actions of its associated HATs, GCN5, PCAF, and p300, and a new partner that we define, the deacetylase SIRT1. We use mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis to identify major sites of ADA3 acetylated by GCN5 and p300. Acetylation-defective mutants are capable of interacting with HATs and other components of HAT complexes but are deficient in their ability to restore ADA3-dependent global or locus-specific histone acetylation marks and cell proliferation in Ada3-deleted murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Given the key importance of ADA3-containing HAT complexes in the regulation of various biological processes, including the cell cycle, our study presents a novel mechanism to regulate the function of these complexes through dynamic ADA3 acetylation.

  10. A review of feral cat control.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution.

  11. Nucleotidyl transferase assisted DNA labeling with different click chemistries.

    PubMed

    Winz, Marie-Luise; Linder, Eva Christina; André, Timon; Becker, Juliane; Jäschke, Andres

    2015-09-30

    Here, we present a simple, modular and efficient strategy that allows the 3'-terminal labeling of DNA, regardless of whether it has been chemically or enzymatically synthesized or isolated from natural sources. We first incorporate a range of modified nucleotides at the 3'-terminus, using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. In the second step, we convert the incorporated nucleotides, using either of four highly efficient click chemistry-type reactions, namely copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, Staudinger ligation or Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand. Moreover, we create internal modifications, making use of either ligation or primer extension, after the nucleotidyl transferase step, prior to the click reaction. We further study the influence of linker variants on the reactivity of azides in different click reactions. We find that different click reactions exhibit distinct substrate preferences, a fact that is often overlooked, but should be considered when labeling oligonucleotides or other biomolecules with click chemistry. Finally, our findings allowed us to extend our previously published RNA labeling strategy to the use of a different copper-free click chemistry, namely the Staudinger ligation.

  12. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Vibanco-Pérez, N; Jiménez, L; Merchant, M T; Landa, A

    1999-06-01

    A Taenia solium glutathione-S-transferase fraction (SGSTF) was isolated from a metacestode crude extract by affinity chromatography on reduced glutathione (GSH)-sepharose. The purified fraction displayed a specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 2.8 micromol/min/mg and glutathione peroxidase selenium-independent activity of 0.22 micromol/min/mg. Enzymatic characterization of the fraction suggested that the activity was closer to the mammalian mu-class GSTs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and enzyme activity analysis showed that the fraction was composed of a major band of Mr = 26 kd and that the active enzyme was dimeric. Immunohistochemical studies using specific antibodies against the major 26-kd band of the SGSTF indicated that GST protein was present in the tegument, parenchyma, protonephridial, and tegumentary cytons of the T. solium metacestode. Antibodies generated against the SGSTF tested in western blot showed cross-reactivity against GSTs purified from Taenia saginata, T. taeniaeformis, and T. crassiceps, but did not react with GSTs from Schistosoma mansoni, or mice, rabbit, and pig liver tissue. Furthermore, immunization of mice with SGSTF reduced the metacestode burden up to 74.2%. Our findings argue in favor of GST having an important role in the survival of T. solium in its hosts.

  13. Characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Nutricati, Eliana; Miceli, Antonio; Blando, Federica; De Bellis, Luigi

    2006-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family, divided on the basis of sequence identity into phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The phi and tau classes are present only in plants. GSTs appear to be ubiquitous in plants and are involved in herbicide detoxification and stress response, but little is known about the precise role of GSTs in normal plant physiology and during biotic and abiotic stress response. Two cDNAs representing the two plant classes tau and phi, AtGSTF9 and AtGSTU26, were expressed in vitro and the corresponding proteins were analysed. Both GSTs were able to catalyse a glutathione conjugation to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), but they were inactive as transferases towards p-nitrobenzylchloride (pNBC). AtGSTF9 showed activity towards benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and an activity as glutathione peroxidase with cumene hydroperoxide (CumHPO). AtGSTU26 was not active as glutathione peroxidase and towards BITC. RT-PCR analysis was used to evaluate the expression of the two genes in response to treatment with herbicides and safeners, chemicals, low and high temperature. Our results reveal that AtGSTU26 is induced by the chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor and the safener benoxacor, and after exposure to low temperatures. In contrast, AtGSTF9 seems not to be influenced by the treatments employed.

  14. Nucleotidyl transferase assisted DNA labeling with different click chemistries

    PubMed Central

    Winz, Marie-Luise; Linder, Eva Christina; André, Timon; Becker, Juliane; Jäschke, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a simple, modular and efficient strategy that allows the 3′-terminal labeling of DNA, regardless of whether it has been chemically or enzymatically synthesized or isolated from natural sources. We first incorporate a range of modified nucleotides at the 3′-terminus, using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. In the second step, we convert the incorporated nucleotides, using either of four highly efficient click chemistry-type reactions, namely copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, Staudinger ligation or Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand. Moreover, we create internal modifications, making use of either ligation or primer extension, after the nucleotidyl transferase step, prior to the click reaction. We further study the influence of linker variants on the reactivity of azides in different click reactions. We find that different click reactions exhibit distinct substrate preferences, a fact that is often overlooked, but should be considered when labeling oligonucleotides or other biomolecules with click chemistry. Finally, our findings allowed us to extend our previously published RNA labeling strategy to the use of a different copper-free click chemistry, namely the Staudinger ligation. PMID:26013812

  15. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  16. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-21

    dogs and a cat . Vet Pathol 1987;24:192-194. 4. Migaki G, Casey HW, Bayles WB. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a dog . J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987;191(8):997...IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic

  17. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease.

  18. Pulmonary transcription of CAT-2 and CAT-2B but not CAT-1 and CAT-2A were upregulated in hemorrhagic shock rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jen; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Yang, Chen-Hsien; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Stevens, Bruce R; Skimming, Jeffrey W; Pan, Wynn H T

    2004-11-01

    Hemorrhagic shock stimulates nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis through upregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. Trans-membrane l-arginine transportation mediated by the isozymes of cationic amino acid transporters (e.g. CAT-1, CAT-2, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B) is one crucial regulatory mechanism that regulates iNOS activity. We sought to assess the effects of hemorrhage and resuscitation on the expression of these regulatory enzymes in hemorrhage-stimulated rat lungs. Twenty-four rats were randomized to a sham-instrumented group, a sustained shock group, a shock with blood resuscitation group, or a shock with normal saline resuscitation group. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood to maintain MAP between 40 and 45mmHg for 60min. Resuscitation by infusing blood/saline mixtures (blood resuscitation group) or saline alone (saline resuscitation group) was then performed. At the end of the experiment (300min after hemorrhage began), rats were sacrificed and enzymes expression as well as pulmonary NO biosynthesis and lung injuries were assayed. Our data revealed that hemorrhage-induced pulmonary iNOS, CAT-2, and CAT-2B transcription which was associated with pulmonary NO overproduction and subsequent lung injury. Resuscitation significantly attenuated the hemorrhage-induced enzyme upregulation, pulmonary NO overproduction, and lung injury. Blood/saline mixtures were superior to saline as a resuscitation solution in treating hemorrhage-induced pulmonary NO overproduction and lung injury. Hemorrhage and/or resuscitation, however, did not affect the expression of pulmonary CAT-1 and CAT-2A. It is, therefore, concluded that the expression of pulmonary iNOS, CAT-2, and CAT-2B is inducible and that of CAT-1 and CAT-2A is constitutive in hemorrhagic shock rat lungs.

  19. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact.

  20. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  1. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  2. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  3. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  4. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  5. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  6. Data detailing the platelet acetyl-lysine proteome.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Joseph E; David, Larry L; McCarty, Owen J T

    2015-12-01

    Here we detail proteomics data that describe the acetyl-lysine proteome of blood platelets (Aslan et al., 2015 [1]). An affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach was used to identify proteins modified by Nε-lysine acetylation in quiescent, washed human platelets. The data provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms of platelet function mediated by protein lysine acetylation. Additionally, as platelets are anucleate and lack histone proteins, they offer a unique and valuable system to study the regulation of cytosolic proteins by lysine acetylation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaino et al., 2014 [2]) via with PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002332.

  7. Acetylation of C/EBPα inhibits its granulopoietic function

    PubMed Central

    Bararia, Deepak; Kwok, Hui Si; Welner, Robert S.; Numata, Akihiko; Sárosi, Menyhárt B.; Yang, Henry; Wee, Sheena; Tschuri, Sebastian; Ray, Debleena; Weigert, Oliver; Levantini, Elena; Ebralidze, Alexander K.; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tenen, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an essential transcription factor for myeloid lineage commitment. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of C/EBPα at lysine residues K298 and K302, mediated at least in part by general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5), impairs C/EBPα DNA-binding ability and modulates C/EBPα transcriptional activity. Acetylated C/EBPα is enriched in human myeloid leukaemia cell lines and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) samples, and downregulated upon granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)- mediated granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells. C/EBPα mutants that mimic acetylation failed to induce granulocytic differentiation in C/EBPα-dependent assays, in both cell lines and in primary hematopoietic cells. Our data uncover GCN5 as a negative regulator of C/EBPα and demonstrate the importance of C/EBPα acetylation in myeloid differentiation. PMID:27005833

  8. [Asthma caused by allergy to cat fur].

    PubMed

    May, K L; Hofman, T

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity to cats fur alergen, Fel. d. 1 is presented as the second most important cause, after allergy to mites, of perennial atopic asthma. The authors collected the data from literature concerning the concentrations of Fel. d. 1 in homes and public places. Further the structure and production of Fel d. 1 also its cross reactivity and the methods of it's elimination from the environment are described and discussed. Authors own observations of 20 cases of cats fur asthma and atopic dermatitis support the opinion that only half of the patients suspect cats as the cause of their illness and cats fur sensitivity is always accompanied by inhalant or food allergy.

  9. Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Jens; Luis Fuentes, Virginia; Wess, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats, and it can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Cats are often screened for HCM because of the presence of a heart murmur, but screening for breeding purposes has also become common. These cats are usually purebred cats of breeding age, and generally do not present with severe disease or with any clinical signs. This type of screening is particularly challenging because mild disease may be difficult to differentiate from a normal phenotype, and the margin for error is small, with potentially major consequences for the breeder. This article reviews HCM screening methods, with particular emphasis on echocardiography.

  10. Host genetic variations in glutathione-S-transferases, superoxide dismutases and catalase genes influence susceptibility to malaria infection in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rayzel C; Hasan, Marriyah; Gupta, Himanshu; Geetha, K; Rai, Padmalatha S; Hande, Manjunath H; D'Souza, Sydney C; Adhikari, Prabha; Brand, Angela; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2015-06-01

    Antioxidant enzymes can contribute to disease susceptibility or determine response to therapy in individuals with malaria. Genetic variations due to polymorphisms in host genes encoding antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases-theta, mu, pi (GSTT, GSTM, GSTP), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT), may therefore, influence inter-individual response to malaria pathology and propensity of infection caused by Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Therefore, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing, we investigated the association of deletions of GSTT1 and GSTM1, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GSTP1 (rs1695), SOD1 (rs2234694), SOD2 (rs4880, rs1141718), SOD3 (rs2536512) and CAT (rs1001179) in individuals infected with Pf (n = 100) and Pv (n = 100) against healthy controls (n = 150). Our data suggest a significant role for GSTM1 deletions in complicated Pv (p = 0.0007) malaria with ODDs ratio 3.8 [with 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.9-7.4]. The results also indicated that polymorphisms present in GSTP1, SOD1 and CAT genes may be associated with malaria susceptibility (p < 0.05), whereas SOD3 polymorphism may play a role in malarial resistance (p < 0.05). In addition, we observed significant SNP-SNP interactions with synergistic genetic effects in SOD2, SOD3 and CAT genes for Pv and in SOD2 and SOD3 genes for Pf. In conclusion, our results provide convincing evidence for a relationship between polymorphisms in host antioxidant enzymes and susceptibility to malaria infection.

  11. Olig1 Acetylation and Nuclear Export Mediate Oligodendrocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jinxiang; Bercury, Kathryn K.; Jin, Weilin

    2015-01-01

    The oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig1 is critical for both oligodendrocyte development and remyelination in mice. Nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein occurs during brain development and in multiple sclerosis, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we report that Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation drive its active translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in both mouse and rat oligodendrocytes. We identified three functional nuclear export sequences (NES) localized in the basic helix-loop-helix domain and one specific acetylation site at Lys 150 (human Olig1) in NES1. Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation are regulated by the acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein and the histone deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC10. Acetylation of Olig1 decreased its chromatin association, increased its interaction with inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and facilitated its retention in the cytoplasm of mature oligodendrocytes. These studies establish that acetylation of Olig1 regulates its chromatin dissociation and subsequent translocation to the cytoplasm and is required for its function in oligodendrocyte maturation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein has been observed during mouse and human brain development and in multiple sclerosis in several studies, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we provide insight into the mechanism by which acetylation of Olig1 regulates its unique nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling during oligodendrocyte development and how the acetylation status of Olig1 modulates its distinct function in the nucleus versus the cytoplasm. The current study provides a unique example of a lineage-specific transcription factor that is actively translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm as the cell differentiates. Importantly, we demonstrate that this process is tightly controlled by acetylation at a single

  12. A colorimetric assay for the determination of acetyl xylan esterase or cephalosporin C acetyl esterase activities using 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, cephalosporin C, or acetylated xylan as substrate.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Montoro-García, Silvia; Lozada-Ramírez, José Daniel; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alvaro; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2007-10-15

    A bromothymol blue-based colorimetric assay has been devised to screen for acetyl xylan esterase or cephalosporin C (CPC) deacetylase activities using 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), CPC, or acetylated xylan as substrate. These enzymes are not screened with their natural substrates because of the tedious procedures available previously. Acetyl xylan esterase from Bacillus pumilus CECT 5072 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), and characterized using this assay. Similar K(M) values for 7-ACA and CPC were obtained when compared with those described using HPLC methods. The assay is easy to perform and can be carried out in robotic high-throughput colorimetric devices normally used in directed evolution experiments. The assay allowed us to detect improvements in activity at a minimum of twofold with a very low coefficient of variance in 96-well plates. This method is significantly faster and more convenient to use than are known HPLC and pH-stat procedures.

  13. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  14. Regulation of S-Adenosylhomocysteine Hydrolase by Lysine Acetylation*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Kavran, Jennifer M.; Chen, Zan; Karukurichi, Kannan R.; Leahy, Daniel J.; Cole, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) is an NAD+-dependent tetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of S-adenosylhomocysteine to adenosine and homocysteine and is important in cell growth and the regulation of gene expression. Loss of SAHH function can result in global inhibition of cellular methyltransferase enzymes because of high levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine. Prior proteomics studies have identified two SAHH acetylation sites at Lys401 and Lys408 but the impact of these post-translational modifications has not yet been determined. Here we use expressed protein ligation to produce semisynthetic SAHH acetylated at Lys401 and Lys408 and show that modification of either position negatively impacts the catalytic activity of SAHH. X-ray crystal structures of 408-acetylated SAHH and dually acetylated SAHH have been determined and reveal perturbations in the C-terminal hydrogen bonding patterns, a region of the protein important for NAD+ binding. These crystal structures along with mutagenesis data suggest that such hydrogen bond perturbations are responsible for SAHH catalytic inhibition by acetylation. These results suggest how increased acetylation of SAHH may globally influence cellular methylation patterns. PMID:25248746

  15. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  16. Kinetic studies on enzymatic acetylation of chloramphenicol in Streptococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Y; Nitahara, Y; Miyamura, S

    1979-01-01

    The kinetics of chloramphenicol (CP) acetylation by CP acetyltransferase from Streptococcus faecalis was studied. CP was shown to be acetylated enzymatically to its 3-O-acetyl derivative (3-AcCP) in the presence of acetyl coenzyme A, after which 3-AcCP was converted nonenzymatically to its 1-O-acetyl isomer, 1-O-acetyl CP (1-AcCP). At equilibrium, the 1-AcCP and 3-AcCP were present in a 1:4 ratio. Subsequently the diacetylated product, 1,3-O-O-diacetyl CP [1,3-(Ac)2CP], was enzymatically produced from 1-AcCP by the same enzyme. Theoretical calculation of rate constants (k1, k2, k3) for each successive reaction is as follows: (Formula: see text). This calculation gave k1 = 0.4 min-1, k2 = 0.002 min-1, and k3 = 0.016 min-1. Experimental results agreed closely with these calculated values. Images PMID:119483

  17. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  18. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom.

  19. Maintenance of Glucose Homeostasis through Acetylation of the Metabolic Transcriptional Coactivator PGC1-alpha

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    highlight that PGC-1α chemical acetylation is directly controlled by two enzymes: GCN5 and SIRT1 ; this strengths the possibility to use small...acetylated through GCN5 acetyltransferase activity, however under low nutrient conditions Sirt1 deacetylase will keep PGC-1α de-acetylated in an active form...acetylated by GCN5, we decided to use R13 because it did not respond to low glucose levels or Sirt1 activators. We think that the additional acetylation

  20. Glutathione S-transferase class {pi} polymorphism in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Aivaliotis, M.J.; Cantu, T.; Gilligan, R.

    1995-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) comprises a family of isozymes with broad substrate specificities. One or more GST isozymes are present in most animal tissues and function in several detoxification pathways through the conjugation of reduced glutathione with various electrophiles, thereby reducing their potential toxicity. Four soluble GST isozymes encoded by genes on different chromosomes have been identified in humans. The acidic class pi GST, GSTP (previously designated GST-3), is widely distributed in adult tissues and appears to be the only GST isozyme present in leukocytes and placenta. Previously reported electrophoretic analyses of erythrocyte and leukocyte extracts revealed single bands of activity, which differed slightly in mobility between the two cell types, or under other conditions, a two-banded pattern. To our knowledge, no genetically determined polymorphisms have previously been reported in GSTP from any species. We now report a polymorphism of GSTP in baboon leukocytes, and present family data that verifies autosomal codominant inheritance. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Part 2. Transferases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Robert N.; Tewari, Yadu B.

    1994-07-01

    Equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for reactions catalyzed by the transferase class of enzymes have been compiled. For each reaction the following information is given: the reference for the data; the reaction studied; the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number; the method of measurement; the conditions of measurement [temperature, pH, ionic strength, and the buffer(s) and cofactor(s) used]; the data and an evaluation of it; and, sometimes, commentary on the data and on any corrections which have been applied to it or any calculations for which the data have been used. The data from 285 references have been examined and evaluated. Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers are given for the substances involved in these various reactions. There is a cross reference between the substances and the Enzyme Commission numbers of the enzymes used to catalyze the reactions in which the substances participate.

  2. Chronic progressive polyarthritis in a female cat.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, Eiji; Yamada, Kazutaka; Oohashi, Mirai; Ueda, Junji

    2010-04-01

    Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis is a rare immune-mediated disease that has only previously been reported in male cats. A one-year-old female cat was presented with anorexia, lassitude and lameness. The tarsal, carpal and elbow joints revealed swelling, pain, stiffness, crepitus and regional lymphadenopathy, and fever was present. The cat was clinically diagnosed with chronic progressive polyarthritis based on the fever, swelling of joints, imaging of erosive proliferative periosteal polyarthritis, positivity for antinuclear antibody, synovial fluid analyses and urinalyses. Both feline leukemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody were positive. Using hair root DNA, polymerase chain reaction amplification targeting the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome gene amplified the fragment of DNA from a normal male cat, but not amplified from a normal female cat or the present cat. Accordingly, the present cat was classified as genetically female. Cyclosporine treatment was started, and the general condition and movement quickly improved and continued for 8 months post-diagnosis. This is the first report of chronic progressive polyarthritis in a female cat.

  3. Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    ... observing platform. CATS provides in-space demonstration of technologies for future satellite missions while demonstrating build-to-cost ... (CPL) on the ER-2 on Feb 10, 17, 20 and 21. For more information, please see the CATS homepage  or the attached  presentation ...

  4. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  5. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  6. Dirofilaria immitis in cats: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C Thomas

    2008-07-01

    Imaging and laboratory studies can help with the diagnosis of heartworm disease in cats, but no test is definitive. Furthermore, even when the diagnosis can be reliably established, therapy directed at the heartworms does little to help the cat. Rather, management is directed at alleviating clinical signs, with an emphasis on prevention for all.

  7. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  8. Bradyarrhythmia in an anaesthetised, elderly, hypertensive cat.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, Kim; Zaki, Sanaa; Maddern, Kieren; Lingard, Amy; Barrs, Vanessa; Malik, Richard

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old neutered male domestic shorthaired cat was presented to the University Veterinary Centre Sydney for evaluation and treatment of dental disease. This cat developed an unusual bradyarrhythmia under anaesthesia. The possible causes and treatment of the dysrythmia are discussed.

  9. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture. PMID:12001504

  10. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the cat.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-08-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a syndrome caused by an insufficient amount of pancreatic digestive enzymes in the small intestine. Clinical signs most commonly reported in cats with EPI are weight loss, loose and voluminous stools, steatorrhea, polyphagia, and in some cases a greasy soiling of the hair coat in the perianal region. Serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity concentration is the diagnostic test of choice for the diagnosis of affected cats. Treatment of cats with EPI consists of enzyme supplementation with either a powdered pancreatic extract or raw pancreas. Most cats with EPI also have severely decreased serum cobalamin concentrations and may require lifelong parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Most cats respond well to therapy and can have a normal life expectancy and quality of life.

  11. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  12. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.

  13. Protective effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against disulfiram-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in V79 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grosicka-Maciag, Emilia; Kurpios-Piec, Dagmara; Grzela, Tomasz; Czeczot, Hanna; Skrzycki, Michal; Szumilo, Maria; Rahden-Staron, Iwonna

    2010-11-01

    This work investigated the effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on disulfiram (DSF) induced oxidative stress in Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79). An increase in oxidative stress induced by DSF was observed up to a 200 {mu}M concentration. It was evidenced by a statistically significant increase of both GSH{sub t} and GSSG levels, as well as elevated protein carbonyl (PC) content. There was no increase in lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS). DSF increased CAT activity, but did not change SOD1 and SOD2 activities. Analysis of GSH related enzymes showed that DSF significantly increased GR activity, did not change Se-dependent GPx, but statistically significantly decreased non-Se-dependent GPx activity. DSF showed also pro-apoptotic activity. NAC alone did not produce any significant changes, besides an increase of GSH{sub t} level, in any of the variables measured. However, pre-treatment of cells with NAC ameliorated DSF-induced changes. NAC pre-treatment restored the viability of DSF-treated cells evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT test, GSSG level, and protein carbonyl content to the control values as well as it reduced pro-apoptotic activity of DSF. The increase of CAT and GR activity was not reversed. Activity of both GPx was significantly increased compared to their values after DSF treatment. In conclusion, oxidative properties are at least partially attributable to the cellular effects of disulfiram and mechanisms induced by NAC pre-treatment may lower or even abolish the observed effects. These observations illustrate the importance of the initial cellular redox state in terms of cell response to disulfiram exposure. -- Research Highlights: {yields}This report explores biological properties of disulfiram under a condition of modulated intra-cellular GSH level. It shows a protective role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine in V79 cells exposed to disulfiram (in GSH metabolism as well as in changes of antioxidant enzyme activity).

  14. Modification of oil palm wood using acetylation and impregnation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagiyo, Lambang; Rosamah, Enih; Hesim

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is chemical modification by process of acetylation and impregnation of oil palm wood to improve the dimensional stability. Acetylation process aimed at substituting the hydroxyl groups in a timber with an acetyl group. By increasing the acetyl groups in wood is expected to reduce the ability of wood to absorb water vapor which lead to the dimensions of the wood becomes more stable. Studies conducted on oil palm wood (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by acetylation and impregnation method. The results showed that acetylated and impregnated wood oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq) were changed in their physical properties. Impregnation with coal ashfly provide the greatest response to changes in weight (in wet conditions) and after conditioning (dry) with the average percentage of weight gain of 198.16% and 66.41% respectively. Changes in volume indicates an increase of volume in the wet condition (imbibition) with the coal ashfly treatment gave highest value of 23.04 %, whereas after conditioning (dry) the highest value obtained in the treatment of gum rosin:ethanol with a volume increase of 13:44%. The highest changes of the density with the coal ashfly impregnation in wet condition (imbibition) in value of 142.32% and after conditioning (dry) of 57.87%. The result of reduction in water absorption (RWA) test showed that in the palm oil wood samples most stable by using of gum rosin : ethanol of 0.97%, whereas the increase in oil palm wood dimensional stability (ASE) is the best of 59.42% after acetylation with Acetic Anhydride: Xylene.

  15. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  16. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  17. Renal morphology in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Benali, S; Coppola, L; Guscetti, F; Ackermann, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Aresu, L

    2014-11-01

    In humans, diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important cause of renal damage, with glomerular lesions being predominant. In cats, although diabetes is a common endocrinopathy, it is yet unknown whether it leads to renal damage. The aim of the study was to compare renal histologic features and parameters of renal function in diabetic cats against a control population matched for age, gender, breed, and body weight. Thirty-two diabetic and 20 control cats were included. Kidney sections from paraffin-embedded kidney samples were stained and examined with optical microscopy to identify glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions and to assess their frequency and severity. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations were also compared. Glomerular lesions were observed in 29 cats overall, with mesangial matrix increase being more common (19 cats). Tubulointerstitial lesions were observed in 42 cats, including lymphocytic infiltration (29), fibrosis (22), or tubular necrosis (21). Vascular lesions were observed in 5 cases. The frequency and severity of histologic lesions did not differ between diabetic and control cats; however, among diabetics, those that survived longer after diagnosis had more glomerular and vascular lesions. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations were similar between groups; in diabetic cats median creatinine was 109 μmol/l (range, 51-1200) and urea was 12 mmol/l (range, 4-63), and in controls creatinine was 126 μmol/l (range, 50-875) and urea 11 mmol/l (range, 3-80). The results suggest that DM in cats does not lead to microscopically detectable kidney lesions or clinically relevant renal dysfunction. The authors hypothesize that the short life expectancy of diabetic cats may be the main reason for the difference from human diabetics.

  18. Feline Epitheliotropic Mastocytic Conjunctivitis in 15 Cats.

    PubMed

    Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.

  19. Shock following a cat scratch.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Umpei; Kunita, Mutsumi; Mohri, Masahiro

    2013-01-11

    A 49-year-old man with fever, pain in both legs, purpuras and cyanosis was admitted to hospital. He was a heavy drinker, but did not have diabetes or other immunosuppressive disease. On admission, he was in shock, with haematological findings suggestive of disseminated intravascular coagulation, and liver and kidney failure. The presence of a scratch wound on his face caused by a cat, and linear, Gram-negative rods phagocytosed by polynuclear leucocytes on peripheral blood smear suggested Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection. On day 1, antibiotics (ampicillin/sulbactam) and catecholamines were initiated. The patient required haemodialysis three times per week for 3 weeks. His toes became necrotic but improved and amputation was not necessary. On day 52, he was discharged from hospital with only mild sensory impairment of the legs.

  20. CAT — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The CAT gene product, catalase, occurs in the peroxisome of almost all respiring organismÃÆ'¢â‚¬â„¢s cells. Catalase is a heme enzyme that converts the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, diminishing the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide on the cell. Catalase promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia cells, melanoma cells, mastocytoma cells and normal and transformed fibroblast cells. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with decreases in catalase activity but, to date, acatalasemia is the only disease known to be caused by this gene.

  1. Interspecies transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) in the wild.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Y; Goto, Y; Yoneda, K; Endo, Y; Mizuno, T; Hamachi, M; Maruyama, H; Kinoshita, H; Koga, S; Komori, M; Fushuku, S; Ushinohama, K; Akuzawa, M; Watari, T; Hasegawa, A; Tsujimoto, H

    1999-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild.

  2. Identification and clarification of the role of key active site residues in bacterial glutathione S-transferase zeta/maleylpyruvate isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ti; Li, De-Feng; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Application of site-directed mutagenesis to probe the active site residues of glutathione-dependent maleylpyruvate isomerase. {yields} Two conserved residues, Arg8 and Arg176, in zeta class glutathione S-transferases are critical for maleylpyruvate orientation and enolization. {yields} Arg109, found exclusively in NagL, participates in k{sub cat} regulation. {yields} The T11A mutant exhibited a significantly decreased K{sub m} value for glutathione with little impact on maleylpyruvate kinetics. {yields} The Thr11 residue appears to have significance in the evolution of glutathione S-transferase classes. -- Abstract: The maleylpyruvate isomerase NagL from Ralstonia sp. strain U2, which has been structurally characterized previously, catalyzes the isomerization of maleylpyruvate to fumarylpyruvate. It belongs to the class zeta glutathione S-transferases (GSTZs), part of the cytosolic GST family (cGSTs). In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was conducted to probe the functions of 13 putative active site residues. Steady-state kinetic information for mutants in the reduced glutathione (GSH) binding site, suggested that (a) Gln64 and Asp102 interact directly with the glutamyl moiety of glutathione, (b) Gln49 and Gln64 are involved in a potential electron-sharing network that influences the ionization of the GSH thiol. The information also suggests that (c) His38, Asn108 and Arg109 interact with the GSH glycine moiety, (d) His104 has a role in the ionization of the GSH sulfur and the stabilization of the maleyl terminal carboxyl group in the reaction intermediate and (e) Arg110 influences the electron distribution in the active site and therefore the ionization of the GSH thiolate. Kinetic data for mutants altered in the substrate-binding site imply that (a) Arg8 and Arg176 are critical for maleylpyruvate orientation and enolization, and (b) Arg109 (exclusive to NagL) participates in k{sub cat} regulation. Surprisingly, the T11A mutant had a

  3. Degradation of aromatics and chloroaromatics by Pseudomonas sp. strain B13: purification and characterization of 3-oxoadipate:succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) transferase and 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase.

    PubMed

    Kaschabek, Stefan R; Kuhn, Bernd; Müller, Dagmar; Schmidt, Eberhard; Reineke, Walter

    2002-01-01

    The degradation of 3-oxoadipate in Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 was investigated and was shown to proceed through 3-oxoadipyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to give acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA. 3-Oxoadipate:succinyl-CoA transferase of strain B13 was purified by heat treatment and chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, Mono-Q, and Superose 6 gels. Estimation of the native molecular mass gave a value of 115,000 +/- 5,000 Da with a Superose 12 column. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions resulted in two distinct bands of equal intensities. The subunit A and B values were 32,900 and 27,000 Da. Therefore it can be assumed that the enzyme is a heterotetramer of the type A2B2 with a molecular mass of 120,000 Da. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of both subunits are as follows: subunit A, AELLTLREAVERFVNDGTVALEGFTHLIPT; subunit B, SAYSTNEMMTVAAARRLKNGAVVFV. The pH optimum was 8.4. Km values were 0.4 and 0.2 mM for 3-oxoadipate and succinyl-CoA, respectively. Reversibility of the reaction with succinate was shown. The transferase of strain B13 failed to convert 2-chloro- and 2-methyl-3-oxoadipate. Some activity was observed with 4-methyl-3-oxoadipate. Even 2-oxoadipate and 3-oxoglutarate were shown to function as poor substrates of the transferase. 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase was purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, blue 3GA, and reactive brown-agarose. Estimation of the native molecular mass gave 162,000 +/- 5,000 Da with a Superose 6 column. The molecular mass of the subunit of the denatured protein, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was 42 kDa. On the basis of these results, 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase should be a tetramer of the type A4. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase was determined to be SREVYI-DAVRTPIGRFG. The pH optimum was 7.8. Km values were 0.15 and 0.01 mM for 3-oxoadipyl-CoA and CoA, respectively. Sequence analysis of the thiolase terminus revealed high percentages of identity

  4. Targeting O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, Julien; Fougeray, Sophie; Bahri, Meriem; Cochonneau, Denis; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Paris, François; Heczey, Andras; Birklé, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Target selection is a key feature in cancer immunotherapy, a promising field in cancer research. In this respect, gangliosides, a broad family of structurally related glycolipids, were suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy based on their higher abundance in tumors when compared with the matched normal tissues. GD2 is the first ganglioside proven to be an effective target antigen for cancer immunotherapy with the regulatory approval of dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 therapeutic antibody. Although the therapeutic efficacy of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies is well documented, neuropathic pain may limit its application. O-Acetyl-GD2, the O-acetylated-derivative of GD2, has recently received attention as novel antigen to target GD2-positive cancers. The present paper examines the role of O-acetyl-GD2 in tumor biology as well as the available preclinical data of anti-O-acetyl-GD2 monoclonal antibodies. A discussion on the relevance of O-acetyl-GD2 in chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy development is also included.

  5. Targeting O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fleurence, Julien; Fougeray, Sophie; Bahri, Meriem; Cochonneau, Denis; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Paris, François; Heczey, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Target selection is a key feature in cancer immunotherapy, a promising field in cancer research. In this respect, gangliosides, a broad family of structurally related glycolipids, were suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy based on their higher abundance in tumors when compared with the matched normal tissues. GD2 is the first ganglioside proven to be an effective target antigen for cancer immunotherapy with the regulatory approval of dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 therapeutic antibody. Although the therapeutic efficacy of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies is well documented, neuropathic pain may limit its application. O-Acetyl-GD2, the O-acetylated-derivative of GD2, has recently received attention as novel antigen to target GD2-positive cancers. The present paper examines the role of O-acetyl-GD2 in tumor biology as well as the available preclinical data of anti-O-acetyl-GD2 monoclonal antibodies. A discussion on the relevance of O-acetyl-GD2 in chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy development is also included. PMID:28154831

  6. N-Acetylation of Glucosamine-6-Phosphate in Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    PubMed Central

    DeMoss, R. D.; Moser, K.

    1969-01-01

    A partially purified enzyme (120-fold) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides catalyzed the reversible N-acetylation of d-glucosamine-6-phosphate. Coenzyme A was not required and inhibited the reaction rate. Neither d-glucosamine nor N-acetyl-d-glucosamine served as a substrate for the reversible reaction. The enzyme preparation retained 50% of its original activity after 5 min at 100 C. The Km for acetate was 7.7 × 10−2m in the presence of 2 × 10−2md-glucosamine-6-phosphate. The Km for d-glucosamine-6-phosphate was 5.0 × 10−3m in the presence of 0.64 m acetate. The product of the reaction was characterized by comparison with N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-6-phosphate prepared by enzymatic phosphorylation of N-acetyl-d-glusamine. The characterization tests were: chromatographic migration, acid hydrolysis, enzymatic dephosphorylation, sodium borohydride reduction, and periodate oxidation. The equilibrium constant for the reaction was about 7.5 m for the expression K = (d-glucosamine-6-phosphate)(acetate)/N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-6-phosphate. The standard free energy of the reaction was approximately 1,200 cal per mole. PMID:5781575

  7. Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. I. Partial purification and characterization of the enzyme from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The first enzyme-catalyzed reaction leading from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the myo-inositol esters of IAA is the synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose (UDPG) and IAA. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme, UDPG-indol-3-ylacetyl glucosyl transferase (IAA-glucose-synthase). This work reports methods for the assay of the enzyme and for the extraction and partial purification of the enzyme from kernels of Zea mays sweet corn. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 46,500 an isoelectric point of 5.5, and its pH optimum lies between 7.3 and 7.6. The enzyme is stable to storage at zero degrees but loses activity during column chromatographic procedures which can be restored only fractionally by addition of column eluates. The data suggest either multiple unknown cofactors or conformational changes leading to activity loss.

  8. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. PMID:27774506

  9. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats.

  10. The Chediak-Higashi syndrome of cats.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J W; Davis, W C; Prieur, D J

    1977-05-01

    Initial clinical, genetic, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies have characterized the Chediak-Higashi syndrome in cats. Three cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome were found in a single line of 27 Persian cats, and three additional affected cats were produced from two prospective breedings of the original line. The disorder was characterized genetically as an autosomal recessive condition. All cats in the line with the combination of yellow eye color and "blue smoke" hair color exhibited the disorder. Four of the five cats examined had bilateral nuclear cataracts as early in life as 3 months of age. No increased susceptibility to infectious disease was observed. A bleeding tendency was noted. Abnormally large eosinophilic, sudanophilic, peroxidase-containing granules were observed in the neutrophils of the granulocytic series of blood and bone marrow by electron and light microscopy. Granules of eosinophils and basophils were also enlarged. Light microscopic studies of hair and skin revealed enlarged melanin granules. These manifestations were similar to those in man, mink, cattle, mice, and the killer whale with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Cats are the sixth species in which this genetic disease has been reported.

  11. Urate excretion by the cat kidney.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Jung, D K; Jung, J S; Lee, S H

    1992-08-01

    1. The renal handling of urate by the cat kidney was investigated during continuous infusion of urate. 2. Fractional urate excretion (FE(UA)) in cats was 0.57 +/- 0.04, indicating net reabsorption of urate. In contrast, FE(UA) in rabbits was 1.76 +/- 0.08, reflecting net secretion of urate. 3. Fractional PAH excretion (FE(PAH)) was 3.94 +/- 0.26 in cats and 4.12 +/- 0.76 in rabbits, showing net secretion in both species. 4. FE(UA) in cats was dependent on urine flow, but was independent of plasma urate concentration. 5. The urate excretion in cats was enhanced by probenecid, but was insensitive to PAH and PZA. 6. The PAH excretion in cats was reduced by probenecid, but was unaltered by urate and PZA. 7. These results indicate that urate is handled in the cat kidney by a unique transport system which is distinct from that for organic anions.

  12. Hookworms of feral cats in Florida.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tara Creel; Foster, Garry W; Forrester, Donald J

    2003-07-10

    Thirty feral cats (Felis catus) from Alachua county (northern Florida) and 30 from Palm Beach county (southern Florida) were examined for hookworms. Two species, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Ancylostoma braziliense, were identified. Forty-five cats (75%) were infected with A. tubaeforme, with a mean intensity of 48 hookworms per cat. Twenty cats (33%) were infected with A. braziliense, with a mean intensity of 28 worms per cat. The prevalence of A. tubaeforme was greater than that of A. braziliense in Alachua (P=0.002) and Palm Beach (P=0.004) counties. The intensity of A. tubaeforme infections was higher in Palm Beach county than Alachua county (P=0.013). The intensities of A. tubaeforme and A. braziliense were positively correlated (increased together) in Palm Beach county (P=0.011). These hookworms have also been identified in bobcats (Felis rufus), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Florida. The prevalence of A. tubaeforme was significantly greater in feral cats than those reported in bobcats (P<0.001). The prevalence of A. braziliense was significantly greater in feral cats than in those reported in gray foxes (P=0.008). The hookworm that infects Florida panthers and bobcats, A. pluridentatum, was not found.

  13. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation.

  14. Synthetic Biology for Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The use of this cell factory for cost-efficient production of novel fuels and chemicals requires high yields and low by-product production. Many industrially interesting chemicals are biosynthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which serves as a central precursor metabolite in yeast. To ensure high yields in production of these chemicals, it is necessary to engineer the central carbon metabolism so that ethanol production is minimized (or eliminated) and acetyl-CoA can be formed from glucose in high yield. Here the perspective of generating yeast platform strains that have such properties is discussed in the context of a major breakthrough with expression of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol. PMID:25370498

  15. H4K44 Acetylation Facilitates Chromatin Accessibility during Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jialei; Donahue, Greg; Dorsey, Jean; Govin, Jérôme; Yuan, Zuofei; Garcia, Benjamin A; Shah, Parisha P; Berger, Shelley L

    2015-12-01

    Meiotic recombination hotspots are associated with histone post-translational modifications and open chromatin. However, it remains unclear how histone modifications and chromatin structure regulate meiotic recombination. Here, we identify acetylation of histone H4 at Lys44 (H4K44ac) occurring on the nucleosomal lateral surface. We show that H4K44 is acetylated at pre-meiosis and meiosis and displays genome-wide enrichment at recombination hotspots in meiosis. Acetylation at H4K44 is required for normal meiotic recombination, normal levels of double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiosis, and optimal sporulation. Non-modifiable H4K44R results in increased nucleosomal occupancy around DSB hotspots. Our results indicate that H4K44ac functions to facilitate chromatin accessibility favorable for normal DSB formation and meiotic recombination.

  16. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Globally Enhance H3/H4 Tail Acetylation Without Affecting H3 Lysine 56 Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Drogaris, Paul; Villeneuve, Valérie; Pomiès, Christelle; Lee, Eun-Hye; Bourdeau, Véronique; Bonneil, Éric; Ferbeyre, Gerardo; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) represent a promising avenue for cancer therapy. We applied mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the impact of clinically relevant HDACi on global levels of histone acetylation. Intact histone profiling revealed that the HDACi SAHA and MS-275 globally increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation in both normal diploid fibroblasts and transformed human cells. Histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) recently elicited much interest and controversy due to its potential as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for a broad diversity of cancers. Using quantitative MS, we demonstrate that H3K56ac is much less abundant than previously reported in human cells. Unexpectedly, in contrast to H3/H4 N-terminal tail acetylation, H3K56ac did not increase in response to inhibitors of each class of HDACs. In addition, we demonstrate that antibodies raised against H3K56ac peptides cross-react against H3 N-terminal tail acetylation sites that carry sequence similarity to residues flanking H3K56. PMID:22355734

  17. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.

  18. Cytogenetic investigation of cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walknowska, J; Peakman, D; Weleber, R G

    1977-10-01

    Using multiple chromosomal banding techniques, we studied a child with typical cat-eye syndrome and ocular retraction syndrome. Although the mother was was chromosomally normal, other maternal relatives showed features of the cat-eye syndrome, suggesting the basic abnormality is heritable. The abnormal chromosome in our case was most likely the product of reciprocal translocation where short arm plus centromeric chromatin from two separate acrocentric chromosomes fused together. The chromosomes involved were probably No. 22 and either Nos. 13 or 14. The basic underlying defect in cat-eye syndrome may be a heritable fragile site or some other predisposition leading to complex chromosomal interchange.

  19. Aspergillus species cystitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Paitaki, C G; Rallis, T S; Tontis, D

    2001-03-01

    A Persian male cat with a history of lower urinary tract disease was presented because of polydipsia, polyuria, constipation and nasal discharge. Ten weeks before admission, the cat had been treated for lower urinary tract disease by catheterisation and flushing of the bladder. The animal was thin, dehydrated, anaemic and azotaemic. Urine culture revealed Aspergillus species cystitis. Antibodies against Aspergillus nidulans were identified in serum. Fluconazole was administered orally (7.5 mg/kg, q 12 h) for 10 consecutive weeks. The azotaemia was resolved, the kidney concentrating ability was recovered and the cat has remained healthy without similar problems.

  20. Toxicology of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated and modified forms.

    PubMed

    Payros, Delphine; Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Pierron, Alix; Loiseau, Nicolas; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2016-12-01

    Mycotoxins are the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in human and animal diet. Among them, deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by Fusarium, is one of the most prevalent and thus represents an important health risk. Recent detection methods revealed new mycotoxins and new molecules derivated from the "native" mycotoxins. The main derivates of DON are the acetylated forms produced by the fungi (3- and 15-acetyl-DON), the biologically "modified" forms produced by the plant (deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucopyranoside), or after bacteria transformation (de-epoxy DON, 3-epi-DON and 3-keto-DON) as well as the chemically "modified" forms (norDON A-C and DON-sulfonates). High proportions of acetylated and modified forms of DON co-occur with DON, increasing the exposure and the health risk. DON and its acetylated and modified forms are rapidly absorbed following ingestion. At the molecular level, DON binds to the ribosome, induces a ribotoxic stress leading to the activation of MAP kinases, cellular cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. The toxic effects of DON include emesis and anorexia, alteration of intestinal and immune functions, reduced absorption of the nutrients as well as increased susceptibility to infection and chronic diseases. In contrast to DON, very little information exists concerning the acetylated and modified forms; some can be converted back to DON, their ability to bind to the ribosome and to induce cellular effects varies according to the toxin. Except for the acetylated forms, their toxicity and impact on human and animal health are poorly documented.

  1. Identification of dual Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 inhibitors by pharmacophore based virtual screening and molecular docking approach.

    PubMed

    Bhadauriya, Anuseema; Dhoke, Gaurao V; Gangwal, Rahul P; Damre, Mangesh V; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2013-02-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a crucial metabolic enzyme that plays a vital role in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes and fatty acid metabolism. To identify dual inhibitors of Acetyl-CoA carboxylase1 and Acetyl-CoA carboxylase2, a pharmacophore modelling approach has been employed. The best HypoGen pharmacophore model for ACC2 inhibitors (Hypo1_ACC2) consists of one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrophobic aliphatic and one hydrophobic aromatic feature, whereas the best pharmacophore (Hypo1_ACC1) for ACC1 consists of one additional hydrogen-bond donor (HBD) features. The best pharmacophore hypotheses were validated by various methods such as test set, decoy set and Cat-Scramble methodology. The validated pharmacophore models were used to screen several small-molecule databases, including Specs, NCI, ChemDiv and Natural product databases to identify the potential dual ACC inhibitors. The virtual hits were then subjected to several filters such as estimated [Formula: see text] value, quantitative estimation of drug-likeness and molecular docking analysis. Finally, three novel compounds with diverse scaffolds were selected as potential starting points for the design of novel dual ACC inhibitors.

  2. Earliest "Domestic" Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat 'domestic' relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat's 'domestic' status, however, appears to have been short-lived--its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris.

  3. MATERNAL SMOKING DURING PREGNANCY, GENETIC VARIATION OF ACETYL-N-TRANSFERASES NAT1 AND NAT2, AND RISK FOR OROFACIAL CLEFTS. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  5. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  6. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  7. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  8. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  9. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred.

  10. Crystal structure of E. coli lipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guotao; Zhao, Yan; Kang, Xusheng; Li, Zhijie; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xianping; Sun, Fei; Sankaran, Krishnan; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2016-01-05

    Lipoprotein biogenesis is essential for bacterial survival. Phosphatidylglycerol:prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyses the first reaction of the three-step post-translational lipid modification. Deletion of the lgt gene is lethal to most Gram-negative bacteria. Here we present the crystal structures of Escherichia coli Lgt in complex with phosphatidylglycerol and the inhibitor palmitic acid at 1.9 and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal the presence of two binding sites and support the previously reported structure-function relationships of Lgt. Complementation results of lgt-knockout cells with different mutant Lgt variants revealed critical residues, including Arg143 and Arg239, that are essential for diacylglyceryl transfer. Using a GFP-based in vitro assay, we correlated the activities of Lgt with structural observations. Together, the structural and biochemical data support a mechanism whereby substrate and product, lipid-modified lipobox-containing peptide, enter and leave the enzyme laterally relative to the lipid bilayer.

  11. Inactivation of Anopheles gambiae Glutathione Transferase ε2 by Epiphyllocoumarin

    PubMed Central

    Marimo, Patience; Hayeshi, Rose; Mukanganyama, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are part of a major family of detoxifying enzymes that can catalyze the reductive dehydrochlorination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The delta and epsilon classes of insect GSTs have been implicated in conferring resistance to this insecticide. In this study, the inactivation of Anopheles gambiae GSTε2 by epiphyllocoumarin (Tral 1) was investigated. Recombinant AgGSTε2 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells containing a pET3a-AGSTε2 plasmid and purified by affinity chromatography. Tral 1 was shown to inactivate GSTε2 both in a time-dependent manner and in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-life of GSTε2 in the presence of 25 μM ethacrynic acid (ETA) was 22 minutes and with Tral 1 was 30 minutes, indicating that Tral 1 was not as efficient as ETA as an inactivator. The inactivation parameters kinact and KI were found to be 0.020 ± 0.001 min−1 and 7.5 ± 2.1 μM, respectively, after 90 minutes of incubation. Inactivation of GSTε2 by Tral 1 implies that Tral 1 covalently binds to this enzyme in vitro and would be expected to exhibit time-dependent effects on the enzyme in vivo. Tral 1, therefore, would produce irreversible effects when used together with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria control programmes where resistance is mediated by GSTs. PMID:26925266

  12. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Céspedes, Walkiria; Xamena, Noel; Surrallés, Jordi; Creus, Amadeu; Galofré, Pere; Marcos, Ricardo

    2003-02-10

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are enzymes involved in the metabolism of many carcinogens and mutagens, also acting as important free-radical scavengers. The existence of different genetic polymorphisms in human populations has proven to be a susceptibility factor for different tumours. Nevertheless, as far as we know, for thyroid cancer no study has been conducted until now linking its incidence to genetic susceptibility biomarkers. The present investigation has been conducted to detect the possible association between polymorphism at the GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes and thyroid cancer incidence. Thus, 134 thyroid cancer patients and 116 controls, all from the urban district of Barcelona (Spain), have been included in this study. The results indicate that, according to the calculated odds ratio, the frequencies of the different genotypes found in the group of cancer patients do not significantly differ from those values obtained in the controls. This is true for the overall data as well as for the tumour characterization as follicular and papillar types. In addition, none of the possible combinations of mutant genotypes were shown to be risk factors. Finally, when the sex of the patients, the age of tumour onset, and life-style habits were also taken into account, no influence was observed related to the different genotypes. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study clearly suggest that those susceptibility factors related to the different GST polymorphic enzymes are not a predisposing factor in thyroid cancer disease.

  13. Acute monocytic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, N; Kano, R; Hirai, A; Yamazaki, J; Inoue, C; Hisasue, M; Moore, P F; Hasegawa, A

    2005-09-17

    A three-year-old cat with lymphadenopathy, non-regenerative anaemia and marked leucocytosis (171.3 x 10(9) white blood cells/l) was diagnosed with monocytic leukaemia and treated with a combination of anticancer drugs. A number of mature and immature monocyte-like cells were detected in the peripheral blood and bone marrow; they proved to be monocytic cells by cytochemical examination and an analysis of their cell surface phenotype, indicating that the cat suffered from acute myeloid leukaemia, subclassified as monocytic leukaemia (M5). Treatment with cytarabine, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone greatly reduced the number of blast cells in the cat's peripheral blood and bone marrow. The cat was in partial remission for 67 days and survived for 95 days after it was first examined.

  14. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in two cats.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A M; Battersby, I A; Faena, M; Fews, D; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L

    2005-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease characterised by infiltration of the myocardium by adipose and fibrous tissue. The disease is an important cause of sudden death in humans, but has rarely been described in animals. This report describes ARVC in two cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. One cat had also experienced previous episodes of syncope. Standard six-lead and 24-hour (Holter) electrocardiogram recording revealed complete atrioventricular block and multiform ventricular ectopics in both cats, with the addition of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bigeminy and R-on-T phenomenon in one of them. On echocardiography, the right ventricle and atrium were massively dilated and hypokinetic. The survival times of the cats were three days and 16 days following diagnosis. Histopathology in one case revealed fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricular free wall.

  15. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in three cats

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Case 1 involved a 4-month-old intact male Somali cat in which peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPS) was recognized after a cardiac murmur remained following patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Case 2, which involved a 1-year-old neutered male Norwegian Forest cat, and Case 3, which involved a 6-month-old intact female American Curl cat, were referred, because of cardiac murmurs. Grades III to IV/VI systolic heart murmurs were auscultated at the left heart base in all 3 cats. All cases showed bilateral pulmonary artery stenosis, although there were no associated clinical signs. In Cases 1 and 2, the pressure gradient through the stenosis decreased after treatment with atenolol. PMID:25650057

  16. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  17. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  18. Second order Horner's syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    De Risio, Luisa; Fraser McConnell, James

    2009-08-01

    This case report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 3.5-year-old, male neutered, domestic shorthair cat with second order Horner's syndrome as the only clinical abnormality. The neuroanatomical pathway of the sympathetic innervation to the eye, differential diagnoses for Horner's syndrome in cats, and the interpretation of pharmacological testing are reviewed. The unusual MRI findings and the value of fat-suppressed MRI sequences are discussed.

  19. [Spectacles for dogs and cats (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stades, F C

    1978-08-01

    Indications for using spectacles in dogs and cats are reviewed. These indications are classified into the following categories: (1) correction of visual acuity, (2) protection against external irritants such as ultraviolet rays and wind, (3) prevention of self-mutilation and (4) psychological reasons. The only justifiable indications for the use of spectacles or sun-glasses in dogs or cats consist in the treatment or prevention of some ophthalmic disorders.

  20. [Splenic abscess and cat-scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Valdesoiro Navarrete, L; Pineda Solas, V; Martín Martín, C; Sanfeliu Sala, I; Cabezas Maspoch, R M; Sánchez Oespina, M

    2001-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease is caused by a Gram-negative bacillus known as Bartonella henselae. This disease is usually benign and causes regional adenitis that does not require treatment. However, some patients develop more serious atypical forms of the disease including prolonged systemic illness with hepatic and splenic abscesses.A 14-year-old girl was admitted to hospital with a 12-day history of persistent high fever and abdominal pain. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed splenic abscesses. These findings, together with an antecedent of cat exposure, led to the suspicion of cat-scratch disease, which was confirmed by serology. The girl was treated with intramuscular ceftriaxone and clinical evolution was favorable. Splenic cat-scratch disease is infrequent. Cat-scratch disease sometimes presents as fever of unknown origin and consequently this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prolonged fever. Although evolution is usually favorable, antibiotic therapy is recommended in systemic manifestations of cat-scratch disease.

  1. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency with an atypical presentation and ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, M P; Poulton, K; Hawkins, C; Murphy, R P

    1987-01-01

    A case of carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency presenting in a 72 year old woman with the clinical picture of ophthalmoplegia plus other muscle weakness is reported. Histological and ultrastructural examination showed the features of a mitochondrial myopathy. Images PMID:3655814

  2. Isolation of a mutant Arabidopsis plant that lacks N-aetyl glucosaminyl transferase I and is unable to synthesize Golgi-modified complex N-linked glycans

    SciTech Connect

    Schaewen, A. von; O'Neill, J.; Chrispeels, M.J. ); Sturm, A. )

    1993-08-01

    The complex asparagine-linked glycans of plant glycoproteins, characterized by the presence of [beta]1[yields]2 xylose and [alpha]1[yields]3 fucose residues, are derived from typical mannose[sub 9](N-acetylglucosamine)[sub 2] (Man[sub 9]GlcNAc[sub 2]) N-linked glycans through the activity of a series of glycosidases and glycosyl transferases in the Golgi apparatus. By screening leaf extracts with an antiserum against complex glycans, we isolated a mutant of Arbidopsis thaliana that is blocked in the conversion of high-manne to complex glycans. In callus tissues derived from the mutant plants, all glycans bind to concanavalin A. These glycans can be released by treatment with endoglycosidase H, and the majority has the same size as Man[sub 5]GlcNAc[sub 1] glycans. In the presence of deoxymannojirimycin, an inhibitor of mannosidase I, the mutant cells synthesize Man[sub 9]GlcNAc[sub 2] and Man[sub 8]GlcNAc[sub 2] glycans, suggesting that the biochemical lesion in the mutant is not in the biosynthesis of high-mannose glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum but in their modification in the Golgi. Direct enzyme assays of cell extracts show that the mutant cells lack N-acetyl glucosaminyl transferase I, the first enzyme in the pathway of complex glycan biosynthesis. The mutant plants are able to complete their development normally under several environmental conditions, suggesting that complex glycans are not essential for normal developmental processes. By crossing the complex-glycan-deficient strain of A. thaliana with a transgenic strain that expresses the glycoprotein phytohemagglutinin, a unique strain was obtained that synthesizes phytohemagglutinin with two high-mannose glycans, instead of one high-mannose and one complex glycan. 42 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Constitutive expression of catABC genes in the aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus species AN-22: production, purification, characterization and gene analysis of CatA, CatB and CatC.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Eitaro; Sakai, Masashi; Hayashi, Katsuaki; Murakami, Shuichiro; Takenaka, Shinji; Aoki, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    The aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus sp. AN-22 was found to constitutively synthesize CatB (cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase) and CatC (muconolactone isomerase) in its cells growing on non-aromatic substrates, in addition to the previously reported CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase). The bacterium maintained the specific activity of the three enzymes at an almost equal level during cultivation on succinate. CatB and CatC were purified to homogeneity and characterized. CatB was a monomer with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. The enzyme was activated by Mn2+, Co2+ and Mg2+. Native CatC was a homo-octamer with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. The enzyme was stable between pH 7.0 and 10.5 and was resistant to heating up to 90 degrees C. Genes coding for CatA, CatB and CatC were cloned and named catA, catB and catC respectively. The catABC genes were transcribed as one operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of CatA, CatB and CatC showed high identities with those from other Gram-positive micro-organisms. A regulator gene such as catR encoding a regulatory protein was not observed around the cat gene cluster of Rhodococcus sp. AN-22, but a possible relic of catR was found in the upstream region of catA. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and primer extension analyses showed that the transcriptional start site of the cat gene cluster was located 891 bp upstream of the catA initiation codon in the AN-22 strain growing on both aniline and succinate. Based on these data, we concluded that the bacterium constitutively transcribed the catABC genes and translated its mRNA into CatA, CatB and CatC.

  4. Effect of single-cat versus multi-cat home history on perceived behavioral stress in domestic cats (Felis silvestrus catus) in an animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Broadley, Heidi M; McCobb, Emily C; Slater, Margaret R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of living with other cats in a prior home on stress levels of cats recently surrendered to an animal shelter. A total of 63 cats was evaluated using a Cat-Stress-Score and an approach test. Cats were categorized in terms of previous home history with or without other cats. No significant difference was found in stress scores between cats from single-cat households and those from multiple-cat households, although single cats that had been in the shelter less than 4 days demonstrated higher stress levels. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of approach results. Results of this study suggest that, in traditional individual cage settings, cats that are not accustomed to living with other cats may experience more stress in the initial few days of attempting to adjust to shelter existence. Through the use of such assessments, shelter personnel may develop an increased awareness to the needs of these cats and attempt to provide measures to improve their well-being within the shelter environment.

  5. Causal role of histone acetylations in enhancer function

    PubMed Central

    Pradeepa, Madapura M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enhancers control development and cellular function by spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. Co-occurrence of acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) and mono methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1) has been widely used for identification of active enhancers. However, increasing evidence suggests that using this combination of marks alone for enhancer identification gives an incomplete picture of the active enhancer repertoire. We have shown that the H3 globular domain acetylations, H3K64ac and H3K122ac, and an H4 tail acetylation, H4K16ac, are enriched at active enhancers together with H3K27ac, and also at a large number of enhancers without detectable H3K27ac. We propose that acetylations at these lysine residues of histones H3 and H4 might function by directly affecting chromatin structure, nucleosome–nucleosome interactions, nucleosome stability, and transcription factor accessibility. PMID:27792455

  6. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amino acid methionine formed by addition of an acetyl group to the alpha-amino group of methionine. It... amino acid) by weight of the total protein of the finished food, including the amount naturally present... of the additive contained therein. (2) The amounts of additive and each amino acid contained in...

  7. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amino acid methionine formed by addition of an acetyl group to the alpha-amino group of methionine. It... amino acid) by weight of the total protein of the finished food, including the amount naturally present... of the additive contained therein. (2) The amounts of additive and each amino acid contained in...

  8. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Acetyl-L-methionine (Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 65-82-7) is the derivative of the amino acid... provide a total of 3.1 percent L- and DL-methionine (expressed as the free amino acid) by weight of the... contained therein. (2) The amounts of additive and each amino acid contained in any mixture. (3)...

  9. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amino acid methionine formed by addition of an acetyl group to the alpha-amino group of methionine. It... amino acid) by weight of the total protein of the finished food, including the amount naturally present... of the additive contained therein. (2) The amounts of additive and each amino acid contained in...

  10. Mechanism for the Inhibition of the Carboxyl-transferase

    SciTech Connect

    L Yu; Y Kim; L Tong

    2011-12-31

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) are crucial metabolic enzymes and have been targeted for drug development against obesity, diabetes, and other diseases. The carboxyltransferase (CT) domain of this enzyme is the site of action for three different classes of herbicides, as represented by haloxyfop, tepraloxydim, and pinoxaden. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that haloxyfop and tepraloxydim bind in the CT active site at the interface of its dimer. However, the two compounds probe distinct regions of the dimer interface, sharing primarily only two common anchoring points of interaction with the enzyme. We report here the crystal structure of the CT domain of yeast ACC in complex with pinoxaden at 2.8-{angstrom} resolution. Despite their chemical diversity, pinoxaden has a similar binding mode as tepraloxydim and requires a small conformational change in the dimer interface for binding. Crystal structures of the CT domain in complex with all three classes of herbicides confirm the importance of the two anchoring points for herbicide binding. The structures also provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of the herbicide resistance mutations and cross resistance among the herbicides, as well as for the design and development of new inhibitors against plant and human ACCs.

  11. Protein-based peptide-bond formation by aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazunori; Toh, Yukimatsu; Suto, Kyoko; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Oka, Natsuhisa; Wada, Takeshi; Tomita, Kozo

    2007-10-18

    Eubacterial leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase (LF-transferase) catalyses peptide-bond formation by using Leu-tRNA(Leu) (or Phe-tRNA(Phe)) and an amino-terminal Arg (or Lys) of a protein, as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively. However, the catalytic mechanism of peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase remained obscure. Here we determine the structures of complexes of LF-transferase and phenylalanyl adenosine, with and without a short peptide bearing an N-terminal Arg. Combining the two separate structures into one structure as well as mutation studies reveal the mechanism for peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase. The electron relay from Asp 186 to Gln 188 helps Gln 188 to attract a proton from the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal Arg of the acceptor peptide. This generates the attacking nucleophile for the carbonyl carbon of the aminoacyl bond of the aminoacyl-tRNA, thus facilitating peptide-bond formation. The protein-based mechanism for peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase is similar to the reverse reaction of the acylation step observed in the peptide hydrolysis reaction by serine proteases.

  12. The determination of tRNALeu recognition nucleotides for Escherichia coli L/F transferase

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Angela Wai Shan; Leung, Charles Chung Yun; Fahlman, Richard Peter

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase catalyzes the tRNA-dependent post-translational addition of amino acids onto the N-terminus of a protein polypeptide substrate. Based on biochemical and structural studies, the current tRNA recognition model by L/F transferase involves the identity of the 3′ aminoacyl adenosine and the sequence-independent docking of the D-stem of an aminoacyl-tRNA to the positively charged cluster on L/F transferase. However, this model does not explain the isoacceptor preference observed 40 yr ago. Using in vitro-transcribed tRNA and quantitative MALDI-ToF MS enzyme activity assays, we have confirmed that, indeed, there is a strong preference for the most abundant leucyl-tRNA, tRNALeu (anticodon 5′-CAG-3′) isoacceptor for L/F transferase activity. We further investigate the molecular mechanism for this preference using hybrid tRNA constructs. We identified two independent sequence elements in the acceptor stem of tRNALeu (CAG)—a G3:C70 base pair and a set of 4 nt (C72, A4:U69, C68)—that are important for the optimal binding and catalysis by L/F transferase. This maps a more specific, sequence-dependent tRNA recognition model of L/F transferase than previously proposed. PMID:24935875

  13. Nucleosome competition reveals processive acetylation by the SAGA HAT module

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Alison E.; Cieniewicz, Anne M.; Taverna, Sean D.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) coactivator complex hyperacetylates histone tails in vivo in a manner that depends upon histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), a histone mark enriched at promoters of actively transcribed genes. SAGA contains a separable subcomplex known as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) module that contains the HAT, Gcn5, bound to Sgf29, Ada2, and Ada3. Sgf29 contains a tandem Tudor domain that recognizes H3K4me3-containing peptides and is required for histone hyperacetylation in vivo. However, the mechanism by which H3K4me3 recognition leads to lysine hyperacetylation is unknown, as in vitro studies show no effect of the H3K4me3 modification on histone peptide acetylation by Gcn5. To determine how H3K4me3 binding by Sgf29 leads to histone hyperacetylation by Gcn5, we used differential fluorescent labeling of histones to monitor acetylation of individual subpopulations of methylated and unmodified nucleosomes in a mixture. We find that the SAGA HAT module preferentially acetylates H3K4me3 nucleosomes in a mixture containing excess unmodified nucleosomes and that this effect requires the Tudor domain of Sgf29. The H3K4me3 mark promotes processive, multisite acetylation of histone H3 by Gcn5 that can account for the different acetylation patterns established by SAGA at promoters versus coding regions. Our results establish a model for Sgf29 function at gene promoters and define a mechanism governing crosstalk between histone modifications. PMID:26401015

  14. THE TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYST FROM CAT FECES

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, J. P.; Miller, Nancy L.; Frenkel, J. K.

    1970-01-01

    Coccidian oocysts resembling those of Isospora bigemina were excreted by cats fed Toxoplasma. In order to identify these oocysts with Toxoplasma infectivity a number of critical comparisons were made. The appearance of oocysts and Toxoplasma infectivity was simultaneous in the feces of 23 of 24 adult cats, 3–5 days after feeding of Toxoplasma cysts; in the feces of 4 out of 9 cats, 7–10 days after feeding of trophozoites; and in 8 out of 17 cats, 20–24 days after feeding of cat feces containing oocysts. Oocysts and infectivity were present in similar numbers, and they disappeared simultaneously from the feces of cats. Oocysts and infectivity were also observed simultaneously in the feces of 9 kittens, 1–2 days old, fed Toxoplasma cysts. Oocysts could not be separated from infectivity by filtration, by continuous particle electrophoresis, or by density gradient centrifugation. Excystation of oocysts was followed by an increase in titer of Toxoplasma infectivity. Unsporulated oocysts in fresh cat feces were noninfectious to mice, but oocyst sporulation was associated quantitatively with the development of infectivity at different temperatures and conditions of oxygenation. Maximum oocyst sporulation at 48 hr correlated with the development of maximum Toxoplasma infectivity. 1 and 2% sulfuric acid, and 2.5% potassium dichromate were found to be the best preservatives for sporulation of oocysts and for the development of Toxoplasma infectivity. Low sporulation rates in 0.1% formalin, 20% ethanol, and in water were associated with low infectivity in these reagents. Neither Toxoplasma infectivity nor oocysts developed in 0.3% formalin, 1% ammonium hydroxide, or 1% iodine in 20% ethanol. Oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites were stained specifically with Toxoplasma antibody in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Typical coccidian stages, schizonts, and male and female gametocytes were found in the epithelium of the small intestine of kittens fed Toxoplasma

  15. The Toxoplasma gondii oocyst from cat feces.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Miller, N L; Frenkel, J K

    1970-10-01

    Coccidian oocysts resembling those of Isospora bigemina were excreted by cats fed Toxoplasma. In order to identify these oocysts with Toxoplasma infectivity a number of critical comparisons were made. The appearance of oocysts and Toxoplasma infectivity was simultaneous in the feces of 23 of 24 adult cats, 3-5 days after feeding of Toxoplasma cysts; in the feces of 4 out of 9 cats, 7-10 days after feeding of trophozoites; and in 8 out of 17 cats, 20-24 days after feeding of cat feces containing oocysts. Oocysts and infectivity were present in similar numbers, and they disappeared simultaneously from the feces of cats. Oocysts and infectivity were also observed simultaneously in the feces of 9 kittens, 1-2 days old, fed Toxoplasma cysts. Oocysts could not be separated from infectivity by filtration, by continuous particle electrophoresis, or by density gradient centrifugation. Excystation of oocysts was followed by an increase in titer of Toxoplasma infectivity. Unsporulated oocysts in fresh cat feces were noninfectious to mice, but oocyst sporulation was associated quantitatively with the development of infectivity at different temperatures and conditions of oxygenation. Maximum oocyst sporulation at 48 hr correlated with the development of maximum Toxoplasma infectivity. 1 and 2% sulfuric acid, and 2.5% potassium dichromate were found to be the best preservatives for sporulation of oocysts and for the development of Toxoplasma infectivity. Low sporulation rates in 0.1% formalin, 20% ethanol, and in water were associated with low infectivity in these reagents. Neither Toxoplasma infectivity nor oocysts developed in 0.3% formalin, 1% ammonium hydroxide, or 1% iodine in 20% ethanol. Oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites were stained specifically with Toxoplasma antibody in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Typical coccidian stages, schizonts, and male and female gametocytes were found in the epithelium of the small intestine of kittens fed Toxoplasma cysts. The

  16. Molecular characterization of a glutathione transferase from Pinus tabulaeformis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-Yin; Lu, Hai; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2005-05-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) play important roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. To date, studies on GSTs in higher plants have focused largely on agricultural plants. In contrast, there is virtually no information on the molecular characteristics of GSTs in gymnosperms. The present study reports for the first time the cloning, expression and characteristics of a GST gene (PtGSTU1) from a pine, Pinus tabulaeformis, which is widely distributed from northern to central China covering cold temperate and drought regions. The PtGSTU1 gene encodes a protein of 228 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 26.37 kDa. Reverse transcription PCR revealed that PtGSTU1 was expressed in different tissues, both above and below ground, of P. tabulaeformis. The over-expressed recombinant PtGSTU1 showed high activity towards the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl). Kinetic analysis with respect to CDNB as substrate revealed a Km of 0.47 mM and Vmax of 169.1 micromol/min per mg of protein. The recombinant PtGSTU1 retained more than 60% of its maximum enzymatic activity from 15 degrees C to 45 degrees C with a broad optimum Tm range of 25 degrees C - 35 degrees C. The enzyme had a maximum activity at approximately pH 8.5 - 9.0. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Ser13 in the N-terminal domain is a critical catalytic residue, responsible for stabilisation of the thiolate anion of enzyme-bound glutathione. Based on comparative analyses of its amino acid sequence, phylogeny and predicted three-dimensional structure, the PtGSTU1 should be classified as a tau class GST.

  17. Phosphonocarboxylates Inhibit the Second Geranylgeranyl Addition by Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase*

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Rudi A.; Tavaré, Richard; Figueiredo, Ana C.; Błażewska, Katarzyna M.; Kashemirov, Boris A.; McKenna, Charles E.; Ebetino, Frank H.; Taylor, Adam; Rogers, Michael J.; Coxon, Fraser P.; Seabra, Miguel C.

    2009-01-01

    Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT) catalyzes the post-translational geranylgeranyl (GG) modification of (usually) two C-terminal cysteines in Rab GTPases. Here we studied the mechanism of the Rab geranylgeranylation reaction by bisphosphonate analogs in which one phosphonate group is replaced by a carboxylate (phosphonocarboxylate, PC). The phosphonocarboxylates used were 3-PEHPC, which was previously reported, and 2-hydroxy-3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-2-phosphonopropionic acid ((+)-3-IPEHPC), a >25-fold more potent related compound as measured by both IC50 and Ki.(+)-3-IPEHPC behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor with respect to GG pyrophosphate (GGPP) and an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to Rab substrates. We propose that phosphonocarboxylates prevent only the second GG transfer onto Rabs based on the following evidence. First, geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins ending with a single cysteine motif such as CAAX, is not affected by the inhibitors, either in vitro or in vivo. Second, the addition of an -AAX sequence onto Rab-CC proteins protects the substrate from inhibition by the inhibitors. Third, we demonstrate directly that in the presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC, Rab-CC and Rab-CXC proteins are modified by only a single GG addition. The presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC resulted in a preference for the Rab N-terminal cysteine to be modified first, suggesting an order of cysteine geranylgeranylation in RGGT catalysis. Our results further suggest that the inhibitor binds to a site distinct from the GGPP-binding site on RGGT. We suggest that phosphonocarboxylate inhibitors bind to a GG-cysteine binding site adjacent to the active site, which is necessary to align the mono-GG-Rab for the second GG addition. These inhibitors may represent a novel therapeutic approach in Rab-mediated diseases. PMID:19074143

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sulfadimidin acetylation phenotypes in Egyptian oases.

    PubMed

    Hussein, L; Yamamah, G; Saleh, A

    1992-04-01

    Screening of 1315 males from two Egyptian oases for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G-6PD) found an incidence of 5.9%. The rate of acetylation of sulfadimidin was also studied, and a bimodal distribution was found with 73% rapid acetylators. There is a correlation between high frequency of G-6PD deficiency and high frequency of slow acetylation rate.

  19. Acetylation of lysine 40 in alpha-tubulin is not essential in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    In Tetrahymena, at least 17 distinct microtubule structures are assembled from a single primary sequence type of alpha- and beta- tubulin heterodimer, precluding distinctions among microtubular systems based on tubulin primary sequence isotypes. Tetrahymena tubulins also are modified by several types of posttranslational reactions including acetylation of alpha-tubulin at lysine 40, a modification found in most eukaryotes. In Tetrahymena, axonemal alpha-tubulin and numerous other microtubules are acetylated. We completely replaced the single type of alpha-tubulin gene in the macronucleus with a version encoding arginine instead of lysine 40 and therefore cannot be acetylated at this position. No acetylated tubulin was detectable in these transformants using a monoclonal antibody specific for acetylated lysine 40. Surprisingly, mutants lacking detectable acetylated tubulin are indistinguishable from wild-type cells. Thus, acetylation of alpha- tubulin at lysine 40 is non-essential in Tetrahymena. In addition, isoelectric focusing gel analysis of axonemal tubulin from cells unable to acetylate alpha-tubulin leads us to conclude that: (a) most or all ciliary alpha-tubulin is acetylated, (b) other lysines cannot be acetylated to compensate for loss of acetylation at lysine 40, and (c) acetylated alpha-tubulin molecules in wild-type cells contain one or more additional charge-altering modifications. PMID:7775576

  20. The Acetyl Group Buffering Action of Carnitine Acetyltransferase Offsets Macronutrient-induced Lysine Acetylation of Mitochondrial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael N.; Kjalarsdottir, Lilja; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Brosnan, M. Julia; Rolph, Timothy P.; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation (AcK), a posttranslational modification wherein a two-carbon acetyl group binds covalently to a lysine residue, occurs prominently on mitochondrial proteins and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction. An emergent theory suggests mitochondrial AcK occurs via mass action rather than targeted catalysis. To test this hypothesis we performed mass spectrometry-based acetylproteomic analyses of quadriceps muscles from mice with skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), an enzyme that buffers the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool by converting short-chain acyl-CoAs to their membrane permeant acylcarnitine counterparts. CrAT deficiency increased tissue acetyl-CoA levels and susceptibility to diet-induced AcK of broad-ranging mitochondrial proteins, coincident with diminished whole body glucose control. Sub-compartment acetylproteome analyses of muscles from obese mice and humans showed remarkable overrepresentation of mitochondrial matrix proteins. These findings reveal roles for CrAT and L-carnitine in modulating the muscle acetylproteome and provide strong experimental evidence favoring the nonenzymatic carbon pressure model of mitochondrial AcK. PMID:26748706

  1. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  2. Risk factors for feline infectious peritonitis in Australian cats.

    PubMed

    Worthing, Kate A; Wigney, Denise I; Dhand, Navneet K; Fawcett, Anne; McDonagh, Phillip; Malik, Richard; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patient signalment (age, breed, sex and neuter status) is associated with naturally-occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats in Australia. A retrospective comparison of the signalment between cats with confirmed FIP and the general cat population was designed. The patient signalment of 382 FIP confirmed cases were compared with the Companion Animal Register of NSW and the general cat population of Sydney. Younger cats were significantly over-represented among FIP cases. Domestic crossbred, Persian and Himalayan cats were significantly under-represented in the FIP cohort, while several breeds were over-represented, including British Shorthair, Devon Rex and Abyssinian. A significantly higher proportion of male cats had FIP compared with female cats. This study provides further evidence that FIP is a disease primarily of young cats and that significant breed and sex predilections exist in Australia. This opens further avenues to investigate the role of genetic factors in FIP.

  3. Contractile properties of extraocular muscle in Siamese cat.

    PubMed

    Lennerstrand, G

    1979-01-01

    Siamese cats are albinos with poor visual resolution and severely impaired binocular vision. Eey muscle phyiology was studied in Siamese cats as a part of a more extensive project on eye muscle properties in cats with deficient binocular vision. Isometric contractions of the inferior oblique muscle were recorded in response to single and repetitive muscle nerve stimulation. Speed of contraction, measured as twitch contraction time, fusion frequency and rate of tetanic tension rise, was lower in Siamese than in normal cats. Eye muscles of Siamese cats fatiqued more easily to continuous activation than normal cat eye mucle. These functional changes have also been found in cats with binocular defects from monocular lid suture, but were much more marked in Siamese cats. It is suggested that the eye muscle changes represent muscular adaptations to genetically caused impairments of binocular vision and visual resolution in Siamese cats.

  4. Effects of Dietary Pb and Cd and Their Combination on Glutathion-S-Transferase and Catalase Enzyme Activities in Digestive Gland and Foot of the Green Garden Snail, Cantareus apertus (Born, 1778).

    PubMed

    Mleiki, Anwar; Marigómez, Ionan; El Menif, Najoua Trigui

    2015-06-01

    The present study was focused on the assessment of glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in the digestive gland and foot of the land snail, Cantareus apertus (Born, 1778), exposed to different nominal dietary concentrations of Pb (25 and 2500 mg Pb/Kg), Cd (5 and 100 mg Cd/Kg) and their combination (25 mg Pb + 5 mg Cd/Kg and 2500 mg Pb + 100 mg Cd/Kg) for 7 and 60 days. GST activity was significantly increased after 7 and 60 days exposure to the highest concentration of Pb, Cd and their combination. The levels of CAT activity were different in the two studied organs but in both cases it resulted increased after 7 and 60 days of exposure, which varied significantly between metals and dietary concentrations. Therefore, it can be concluded that GST and CAT enzymes in digestive gland and foot of C. apertus are responsive to Cd, Pb and their combination, whereby they are suitable to be included in a battery of biomarkers for ecosystem health assessment in metal polluted soils using this species as sentinel.

  5. Altered acetylation and succinylation profiles in Corynebacterium glutamicum in response to conditions inducing glutamate overproduction.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuta; Nagano-Shoji, Megumi; Kubo, Shosei; Kawamura, Yumi; Yoshida, Ayako; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Nishiyama, Makoto; Yoshida, Minoru; Kosono, Saori

    2016-02-01

    The bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is utilized during industrial fermentation to produce amino acids such as L-glutamate. During L-glutamate fermentation, C. glutamicum changes the flux of central carbon metabolism to favor L-glutamate production, but the molecular mechanisms that explain these flux changes remain largely unknown. Here, we found that the profiles of two major lysine acyl modifications were significantly altered upon glutamate overproduction in C. glutamicum; acetylation decreased, whereas succinylation increased. A label-free semi-quantitative proteomic analysis identified 604 acetylated proteins with 1328 unique acetylation sites and 288 succinylated proteins with 651 unique succinylation sites. Acetylation and succinylation targeted enzymes in central carbon metabolic pathways that are directly related to glutamate production, including the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC), a key enzyme regulating glutamate overproduction. Structural mapping revealed that several critical lysine residues in the ODHC components were susceptible to acetylation and succinylation. Furthermore, induction of glutamate production was associated with changes in the extent of acetylation and succinylation of lysine, suggesting that these modifications may affect the activity of enzymes involved in glutamate production. Deletion of phosphotransacetylase decreased the extent of protein acetylation in nonproducing condition, suggesting that acetyl phosphate-dependent acetylation is active in C. glutamicum. However, no effect was observed on the profiles of acetylation and succinylation in glutamate-producing condition upon disruption of acetyl phosphate metabolism or deacetylase homologs. It was considered likely that the reduced acetylation in glutamate-producing condition may reflect metabolic states where the flux through acid-producing pathways is very low, and substrates for acetylation do not accumulate in the cell. Succinylation would occur more

  6. Ultrasonographic measurements of adrenal glands in cats with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Peremans, Kathelijne; Daminet, Sylvie; Saunders, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Feline hyperthyroidism is potentially associated with exaggerated responsiveness of the adrenal gland cortex. The adrenal glands of 23 hyperthyroid cats were examined ultrasonographically and compared to the adrenal glands of 30 control cats. Ten hyperthyroid cats had received antithyroid drugs until 2 weeks before sonography, the other 13 were untreated. There was no difference in adrenal gland shape between healthy and hyperthyroid cats: bean-shaped, well-defined, hypoechoic structures surrounded by a hyperechoic halo in 43/60 (71.6%) healthy cats and 34/46 (73.9%) hyperthyroid cats; more ovoid in 13/60 (21.6%) healthy cats and 9/46 (19.6%) hyperthyroid cats while more elongated in 4/60 (6.7%) healthy cats, 3/46 (6.5%) hyperthyroid cats. Hyperechoic foci were present in 9/23 (39.1%) hyperthyroid cats and 2/30 (6.7%) healthy cats. The adrenal glands were significantly larger in hyperthyroid cats, although there was overlap in size range. The mean difference between hyperthyroid cats and healthy cats was 1.6 and 1.7 mm in left and right adrenal gland length, 0.8 and 0.9 mm in left and right cranial adrenal gland height, and 0.4 and 0.9 mm in left and right caudal adrenal gland height. There was no significant difference between the adrenal gland measurements in treated and untreated hyperthyroid cats. The adrenomegaly was most likely associated with the hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex documented in hyperthyroid cats. Hyperthyroidism should be an alternative to hyperadrenocorticism, hyperaldosteronism, and acromegaly in cats with bilateral moderate adrenomegaly.

  7. Familial cardiomyopathy in Norwegian Forest cats.

    PubMed

    März, Imke; Wilkie, Lois J; Harrington, Norelene; Payne, Jessie R; Muzzi, Ruthnea A L; Häggström, Jens; Smith, Ken; Luis Fuentes, Virginia

    2015-08-01

    Norwegian Forest cats (NFCs) are often listed as a breed predisposed to cardiomyopathy, but the characteristics of cardiomyopathy in this breed have not been described. The aim of this preliminary study was to report the features of NFC cardiomyopathy based on prospective echocardiographic screening of affected family groups; necropsy findings; and open-source breed screening databases. Prospective examination of 53 NFCs revealed no murmur or left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction in any screened cat, though mild LV hypertrophy (defined as diastolic LV wall thickness ≥5.5mm) was present in 13/53 cats (25%). Gross pathology results and histopathological sections were analysed in eight NFCs, six of which had died of a cardiac cause. Myocyte hypertrophy, myofibre disarray and interstitial fibrosis typical of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were present in 7/8 cats, but endomyocardial fibrosis suggestive of restrictive cardiomyopathy was also present in the same cats. Pedigree data analysis from 871 NFCs was supportive of a familial cardiomyopathy in this breed.

  8. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.

  9. Astrocyte Reactivity Following Blast Exposure Involves Aberrant Histone Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zachary S; Grinter, Michael B; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a prevalent injury within military and civilian populations. The injury is characterized by persistent inflammation at the cellular level which manifests as a multitude of cognitive and functional impairments. Epigenetic regulation of transcription offers an important control mechanism for gene expression and cellular function which may underlie chronic inflammation and result in neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that altered histone acetylation patterns may be involved in blast induced inflammation and the chronic activation of glial cells. This study aimed to elucidate changes to histone acetylation occurring following injury and the roles these changes may have within the pathology. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to either a 10 or 17 psi blast overpressure within an Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS). Sham animals underwent the same procedures without blast exposure. Memory impairments were measured using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) test at 2 and 7 days post-injury. Tissues were collected at 7 days for Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Sham animals showed intact memory at each time point. The novel object discrimination decreased significantly between two and 7 days for each injury group (p < 0.05). This is indicative of the onset of memory impairment. Western blot analysis showed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a known marker of activated astrocytes, was elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) following blast exposure for both injury groups. Analysis of histone protein extract showed no changes in the level of any total histone proteins within the PFC. However, acetylation levels of histone H2b, H3, and H4 were decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). Co-localization immunofluorescence was used to further investigate any potential correlation between decreased histone acetylation and astrocyte activation. These experiments showed a similar decrease in H3 acetylation in astrocytes exposed to a 17

  10. Astrocyte Reactivity Following Blast Exposure Involves Aberrant Histone Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Zachary S.; Grinter, Michael B.; VandeVord, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a prevalent injury within military and civilian populations. The injury is characterized by persistent inflammation at the cellular level which manifests as a multitude of cognitive and functional impairments. Epigenetic regulation of transcription offers an important control mechanism for gene expression and cellular function which may underlie chronic inflammation and result in neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that altered histone acetylation patterns may be involved in blast induced inflammation and the chronic activation of glial cells. This study aimed to elucidate changes to histone acetylation occurring following injury and the roles these changes may have within the pathology. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to either a 10 or 17 psi blast overpressure within an Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS). Sham animals underwent the same procedures without blast exposure. Memory impairments were measured using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) test at 2 and 7 days post-injury. Tissues were collected at 7 days for Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Sham animals showed intact memory at each time point. The novel object discrimination decreased significantly between two and 7 days for each injury group (p < 0.05). This is indicative of the onset of memory impairment. Western blot analysis showed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a known marker of activated astrocytes, was elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) following blast exposure for both injury groups. Analysis of histone protein extract showed no changes in the level of any total histone proteins within the PFC. However, acetylation levels of histone H2b, H3, and H4 were decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). Co-localization immunofluorescence was used to further investigate any potential correlation between decreased histone acetylation and astrocyte activation. These experiments showed a similar decrease in H3 acetylation in astrocytes exposed to a 17

  11. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferase Isozymes in Sorghum by Herbicide Antidotes 1

    PubMed Central

    Dean, John V.; Gronwald, John W.; Eberlein, Charlotte V.

    1990-01-01

    Certain chemicals referred to as herbicide antidotes protect sorghum from injury by chloroacetanilide herbicides such as metolachlor. The effect of herbicide antidotes on the glutathione S-transferase isozyme complement of etiolated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) shoots was examined. Elution profiles of glutathione S-transferase isozymes from untreated and antidote-treated seedlings were generated by fast protein liquid chromatography utilizing an anion exchange (Mono Q) column. In untreated seedlings, there were two glutathione S-transferase isozymes, a major isozyme which exhibited activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and a minor isozyme which exhibited activity toward metolachlor. Treating sorghum seedlings with various antidotes (flurazole, oxabetrinil, CGA-133205, naphthalic anhydride, dichlormid) resulted in the appearance of four to five additional glutathione S-transferase isozymes (de-pending on the particular antidote) which exhibited activity toward metolachlor as a substrate and little or no activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Treating etiolated sorghum shoots with metolachlor was also found to induce at least four isozymes which exhibited activity toward the herbicide. An increase in glutathione S-transferase activity, measured with metolachlor as substrate, was detected within 4 h after treatment with 30 micromolar oxabetrinil, but 36 hours were required for maximum expression of activity. Addition of either the transcription inhibitor cordycepin or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited the appearance of glutathione S-transferase activity measured with metolachlor as substrate. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that antidotes confer protection against metolachlor injury in sorghum by inducing the de novo synthesis of glutathione S-transferase isozymes which catalyze the detoxification of the herbicide. PMID:16667299

  12. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging.

  13. Multiple Mass Isotopomer Tracing of Acetyl-CoA Metabolism in Langendorff-perfused Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingling; Deng, Shuang; Ibarra, Rafael A.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Brunengraber, Henri; Zhang, Guo-Fang

    2015-01-01

    We developed an isotopic technique to assess mitochondrial acetyl-CoA turnover (≈citric acid flux) in perfused rat hearts. Hearts are perfused with buffer containing tracer [13C2,2H3]acetate, which forms M5 + M4 + M3 acetyl-CoA. The buffer may also contain one or two labeled substrates, which generate M2 acetyl-CoA (e.g. [13C6]glucose or [1,2-13C2]palmitate) or/and M1 acetyl-CoA (e.g. [1-13C]octanoate). The total acetyl-CoA turnover and the contributions of fuels to acetyl-CoA are calculated from the uptake of the acetate tracer and the mass isotopomer distribution of acetyl-CoA. The method was applied to measurements of acetyl-CoA turnover under different conditions (glucose ± palmitate ± insulin ± dichloroacetate). The data revealed (i) substrate cycling between glycogen and glucose-6-P and between glucose-6-P and triose phosphates, (ii) the release of small excess acetyl groups as acetylcarnitine and ketone bodies, and (iii) the channeling of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA from pyruvate dehydrogenase to carnitine acetyltransferase. Because of this channeling, the labeling of acetylcarnitine and ketone bodies released by the heart are not proxies of the labeling of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:25645937

  14. Chaperone-mediated acetylation of histones by Rtt109 identified by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Abshiru, Nebiyu; Ippersiel, Kevin; Tang, Yong; Yuan, Hua; Marmorstein, Ronen; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2013-04-09

    Rtt109 is a fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that associates with either Vps75 or Asf1 to acetylate histone H3. Recent biochemical and structural studies suggest that site-specific acetylation of H3 by Rtt109 is dictated by the binding chaperone where Rtt109-Asf1 acetylates K56, while Rtt109-Vps75 acetylates K9 and K27. To gain further insights into the roles of Vps75 and Asf1 in directing site-specific acetylation of H3, we used quantitative proteomics to profile the global and site-specific changes in H3 and H4 during in vitro acetylation assays with Rtt109 and its chaperones. Our analyses showed that Rtt109-Vps75 preferentially acetylates H3 K9 and K23, the former residue being the major acetylation site. At high enzyme-to-substrate ratio, Rtt109 also acetylated K14, K18, K27 and to a lower extent K56 of histone H3. Importantly, this study revealed that in contrast to Rtt109-Vps75, Rtt109-Asf1 displayed a far greater site-specificity, with K56 being the primary site of acetylation. For the first time, we also report the acetylation of histone H4 K12 by Rtt109-Vps75, whereas Rtt109-Asf1 showed no detectable activity toward H4. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From protein structures to clinical applications.

  15. Chaperone-mediated acetylation of histones by Rtt109 identified by quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Abshiru, Nebiyu; Ippersiel, Kevin; Tang, Yong; Yuan, Hua; Marmorstein, Ronen; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Rtt109 is a fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that associates with either Vps75 or Asf1 to acetylate histone H3. Recent biochemical and structural studies suggest that site-specific acetylation of H3 by Rtt109 is dictated by the binding chaperone where Rtt109-Asf1 acetylates K56, while Rtt109-Vps75 acetylates K9 and K27. To gain further insights into the roles of Vps75 and Asf1 in directing site-specific acetylation of H3, we used quantitative proteomics to profile the global and site-specific changes in H3 and H4 during in vitro acetylation assays with Rtt109 and its chaperones. Our analyses showed that Rtt109-Vps75 preferentially acetylates H3 K9 and K23, the former residue being the major acetylation site. At high enzyme to substrate ratio, Rtt109 also acetylated K14, K18, K27 and to a lower extent K56 of histone H3. Importantly, this study revealed that in contrast to Rtt109-Vps75, Rtt109-Asf1 displayed a far greater site-specificity, with K56 being the primary site of acetylation. For the first time, we also report the acetylation of histone H4 K12 by Rtt109-Vps75, whereas Rtt109-Asf1 showed no detectable activity toward H4. PMID:23036725

  16. Stoichiometry of site-specific lysine acetylation in an entire proteome.

    PubMed

    Baeza, Josue; Dowell, James A; Smallegan, Michael J; Fan, Jing; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Khan, Zia; Denu, John M

    2014-08-01

    Acetylation of lysine ϵ-amino groups influences many cellular processes and has been mapped to thousands of sites across many organisms. Stoichiometric information of acetylation is essential to accurately interpret biological significance. Here, we developed and employed a novel method for directly quantifying stoichiometry of site-specific acetylation in the entire proteome of Escherichia coli. By coupling isotopic labeling and a novel pairing algorithm, our approach performs an in silico enrichment of acetyl peptides, circumventing the need for immunoenrichment. We investigated the function of the sole NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, CobB, on both site-specific and global acetylation. We quantified 2206 peptides from 899 proteins and observed a wide distribution of acetyl stoichiometry, ranging from less than 1% up to 98%. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that metabolic enzymes, which either utilize or generate acetyl-CoA, and proteins involved in transcriptional and translational processes displayed the highest degree of acetylation. Loss of CobB led to increased global acetylation at low stoichiometry sites and induced site-specific changes at high stoichiometry sites, and biochemical analysis revealed altered acetyl-CoA metabolism. Thus, this study demonstrates that sirtuin deacetylase deficiency leads to both site-specific and global changes in protein acetylation stoichiometry, affecting central metabolism.

  17. Incorporation of a single His residue by rational design enables thiol-ester hydrolysis by human glutathione transferase A1-1.

    PubMed

    Hederos, Sofia; Broo, Kerstin S; Jakobsson, Emma; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Mannervik, Bengt; Baltzer, Lars

    2004-09-07

    A strategy for rational enzyme design is reported and illustrated by the engineering of a protein catalyst for thiol-ester hydrolysis. Five mutants of human glutathione (GSH; gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly) transferase A1-1 were designed in the search for a catalyst and to provide a set of proteins from which the reaction mechanism could be elucidated. The single mutant A216H catalyzed the hydrolysis of the S-benzoyl ester of GSH under turnover conditions with a k(cat)/K(M) of 156 M(-1) x min(-1), and a catalytic proficiency of >10(7) M(-1) when compared with the first-order rate constant of the uncatalyzed reaction. The wild-type enzyme did not hydrolyze the substrate, and thus, the introduction of a single histidine residue transformed the wild-type enzyme into a turnover system for thiol-ester hydrolysis. By kinetic analysis of single, double, and triple mutants, as well as from studies of reaction products, it was established that the enzyme A216H catalyzes the hydrolysis of the thiol-ester substrate by a mechanism that includes an acyl intermediate at the side chain of Y9. Kinetic measurements and the crystal structure of the A216H GSH complex provided compelling evidence that H216 acts as a general-base catalyst. The introduction of a single His residue into human GSH transferase A1-1 created an unprecedented enzymatic function, suggesting a strategy that may be of broad applicability in the design of new enzymes. The protein catalyst has the hallmarks of a native enzyme and is expected to catalyze various hydrolytic, as well as transesterification, reactions.

  18. Taste rejection of nonnutritive sweeteners in cats.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M; Jacobs, H L; Nichols, T L; Hoff, L A; Ryckman, J J

    1975-10-01

    Cats reject saccharin and cyclamate and are indifferent to dulcin, although they, like other mammals, prefer sucrose. The rejection threshold for saccharin found in this experiments, .0001 M, is about 2 log steps lower than a previously reported rejection threshold for sodium saccharin. Water produces a taste in cats adapted to their own saliva. The high sodium saccharin threshold may have resulted because the taste of the sodium saccharin was masked by the taste of the water solvent; however, saccharin may also be somewhat more aversive to the cat than sodium saccharin. Saccharin may produce an aversive taste because it stimulates receptor sites sensitive to substances bitter to man as well as those sensitive to sugars. In addition, saccharin may not be an effective stimulus for all sugar-sensitive sites.

  19. Treatment of cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Conrad, D A

    2001-02-01

    Cat-scratch disease is an infection caused by Bartonella henselae, a fastidious gram-negative bacillus acquired from exposure to an infected kitten or cat. The most common manifestation of human disease is lymphadenitis. Atypical forms of infection include Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, stellate neuroretinitis, persistent fever without localizing signs, hepatosplenic infection, encephalopathy, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis. Immunocompromised individuals with B. hensalae infection may develop bacillary angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis, and relapsing bacteremia with fever syndrome. The bacillus is susceptible to several antibacterial agents in vitro, including penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, and rifampin. Greatest clinical efficacy has been observed following treatment with rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin, and azithromycin. In one placebo-controlled study, azithromycin therapy was associated with more rapid diminution in size of infected lymph nodes. The majority of cases of cat-scratch disease occurring in normal hosts do not require anti-infective therapy for resolution of infection.

  20. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  1. X monosomy in a virilized female cat.

    PubMed

    Szczerbal, I; Nizanski, W; Dzimira, S; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Ochota, M; Switonski, M

    2015-04-01

    An infertile Siamese female cat was subjected for clinical, histological, cytogenetic and molecular studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (vulva, vagina, rudimentary penis and scrotum-like structure) and masculine behaviour. An elevated oestrogen activity and a detectable level of testosterone were found. The cat underwent laparotomy. The gonads and the uterus were removed and subjected for histological studies, which showed ovaries with corpora lutea and a some primordial follicles. Chromosome studies of lymphocyte and fibroblast cultures, with the use of Giemsa staining, G-banding and whole X chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed pure X monosomy. Molecular analysis showed the absence of the SRY gene. Our study revealed for the first time that X monosomy in cats may be associated with virilization, in spite of the lack of the SRY gene.

  2. Genetics of pigmentation in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Kaelin, Christopher B; Barsh, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in companion animals has long been of interest to the breeding and scientific communities. Simple traits, like black versus brown or yellow versus black, have helped to explain principles of transmission genetics and continue to serve as models for studying gene action and interaction. We present a molecular genetic review of pigmentary variation in dogs and cats using a nomenclature and logical framework established by early leaders in the field. For most loci in which molecular variants have been identified (nine in dogs and seven in cats), homologous mutations exist in laboratory mice and/or humans. Exceptions include the K locus in dogs and the Tabby locus in cats, which give rise to alternating stripes or marks of different color, and which illustrate the continued potential of coat color genetics to provide insight into areas that transcend pigment cell biology.

  3. Malformations and the Manx Syndrome in Cats

    PubMed Central

    DeForest, M. E.; Basrur, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    Breeding experiments were conducted on cats with congenital taillessness, to test the dissemination pattern of taillessness in their offspring. Clinical evaluation, radiographic analysis of the vertebral column and histological studies of the digestive tract and central nervous tissue were conducted to determine the association of malformations of these systems in cats born with different degrees of taillessness noted in the rumpy and stumpy cats. The mode of transmission of the tailless (Manx) condition assumed to be through an autosomal dominant factor (M) was confirmed by this investigation. It is hypothesized that the problems associated with the tailless condition such as spina bifida, urinary and faecal incontinence and locomotor disturbances of the pelvic limbs may all be related to a disturbance affecting the development of the central nervous system in the early embryonic life. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:393376

  4. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; Trepte, Chip; Vaughan, Mark; Colarco, Peter; da Silva, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  5. Histone acetylation dependent energy landscapes in tri-nucleosome revealed by residue-resolved molecular simulations

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Le; Takada, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Histone tail acetylation is a key epigenetic marker that tends to open chromatin folding and activate transcription. Despite intensive studies, precise roles of individual lysine acetylation in chromatin folding have only been poorly understood. Here, we revealed structural dynamics of tri-nucleosomes with several histone tail acetylation states and analyzed histone tail interactions with DNA by performing molecular simulations at an unprecedentedly high resolution. We found versatile acetylation-dependent landscapes of tri-nucleosome. The H4 and H2A tail acetylation reduced the contact between the first and third nucleosomes mediated by the histone tails. The H3 tail acetylation reduced its interaction with neighboring linker DNAs resulting in increase of the distance between consecutive nucleosomes. Notably, two copies of the same histone in a single nucleosome have markedly asymmetric interactions with DNAs, suggesting specific pattern of nucleosome docking albeit high inherent flexibility. Estimated transcription factor accessibility was significantly high for the H4 tail acetylated structures. PMID:27698366

  6. Metabolic actions of some sympathomimetic amines and their acetyl derivatives in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Marvola, M

    1977-01-01

    To study how acetylation affects the activity of sympathomimetic amines the effects of tyramine, amphetamine, ephedrine, phenylephrine, orciprenaline and salbutamol and of their O- and N-acetyl derivatives on blood glucose and free fatty acid concentrations were studied in the rabbit. Hyperglycemia was induced by all parent compounds except amphetamine which tended to have a weak hypoglycaemic action. Hyperlipaemia in the doses used was induced by ephedrine and orciprenaline but not by the other parent compounds. Usually acetylation decreased the metabolic effects of the compounds but O-acetylation of tyramine and salbutamol caused hyperlipaemia and O-acetylation of ephedrine increased its fatty acid-mobilizing action, perhaps as a consequence of increased lipid solubility of the compounds. The ultimate effects of the O-acetyl derivatives were probably at least partly due to deacetylation at their sites of action. However O-acetylation of sympathomimetics could perhaps be used to induce drug latentiation.

  7. N-Terminal Acetylation Acts as an Avidity Enhancer Within an Interconnected Multiprotein Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Daniel C.; Monda, Julie K.; Bennett, Eric J.; Harper, J. Wade; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2012-10-25

    Although many eukaryotic proteins are amino (N)-terminally acetylated, structural mechanisms by which N-terminal acetylation mediates protein interactions are largely unknown. Here, we found that N-terminal acetylation of the E2 enzyme, Ubc12, dictates distinctive E3-dependent ligation of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 to Cul1. Structural, biochemical, biophysical, and genetic analyses revealed how complete burial of Ubc12's N-acetyl-methionine in a hydrophobic pocket in the E3, Dcn1, promotes cullin neddylation. The results suggest that the N-terminal acetyl both directs Ubc12's interactions with Dcn1 and prevents repulsion of a charged N terminus. Our data provide a link between acetylation and ubiquitin-like protein conjugation and define a mechanism for N-terminal acetylation-dependent recognition.

  8. Infrared and 13C MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of acetylation of cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebajo, Moses O.; Frost, Ray L.

    2004-01-01

    The acetylation of commercial cotton samples with acetic anhydride without solvents in the presence of about 5% 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) catalyst was followed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. This preliminary investigation was conducted in an effort to develop hydrophobic, biodegradable, cellulosic materials for subsequent application in oil spill cleanup. The FTIR results provide clear evidence for successful acetylation though the NMR results indicate that the level of acetylation is low. Nevertheless, the overall results indicate that cotton fibres are potential candidates suitable for further development via acetylation into hydrophobic sorbent materials for subsequent oil spill cleanup application. The results also indicate that de-acetylation, the reverse of the equilibrium acetylation reaction, occurred when the acetylation reaction was prolonged beyond 3 h.

  9. [Effect of acetylation and oxidation on some properties of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) seed starch].

    PubMed

    Rincón, Alicia Mariela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Aragoza, Luis E; Padilla, Fanny

    2007-09-01

    Starch extracted from seeds of Artocarpus altilis (Breadfruit) was chemically modified by acetylation and oxidation, and its functional properties were evaluated and compared with these of native starch. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that moisture content was higher for modified starches. Ash, protein, crude fiber and amylose contents were reduced by the modifications, but did not alter the native starch granules' irregularity, oval shape and smooth surface. Acetylation produced changes in water absorption, swelling power and soluble solids, these values were higher for acetylated starch, while values for native and oxidized starches were similar. Both modifications reduced pasting temperature; oxidation reduced maximum peak viscosity but it was increased by acetylation. Hot paste viscosity was reduced by both modifications, whereas cold paste viscosity was lower in the oxidized starch and higher in the acetylated starch. Breakdown was increased by acetylation and reduced with oxidation. Setback value was reduced after acetylation, indicating it could minimize retrogradation of the starch.

  10. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves aged brain function.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Iwamoto, Machiko; Kon, Kazuo; Waki, Hatsue; Ando, Susumu; Tanaka, Yasukazu

    2010-07-01

    The effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), an acetyl derivative of L-carnitine, on memory and learning capacity and on brain synaptic functions of aged rats were examined. Male Fischer 344 rats were given ALCAR (100 mg/kg bodyweight) per os for 3 months and were subjected to the Hebb-Williams tasks and AKON-1 task to assess their learning capacity. Cholinergic activities were determined with synaptosomes isolated from brain cortices of the rats. Choline parameters, the high-affinity choline uptake, acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and depolarization-evoked ACh release were all enhanced in the ALCAR group. An increment of depolarization-induced calcium ion influx into synaptosomes was also evident in rats given ALCAR. Electrophysiological studies using hippocampus slices indicated that the excitatory postsynaptic potential slope and population spike size were both increased in ALCAR-treated rats. These results indicate that ALCAR increases synaptic neurotransmission in the brain and consequently improves learning capacity in aging rats.

  11. Structures of aminoacylase 3 in complex with acetylated substrates

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Jennifer M.; Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Sawaya, Michael R.; Magilnick, Nathaniel; Abuladze, Natalia; Kurtz, Ira; Abramson, Jeff; Pushkin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most widespread environmental contaminants, which is metabolized to N-acetyl-S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-l-cysteine (NA-DCVC) before being excreted in the urine. Alternatively, NA-DCVC can be deacetylated by aminoacylase 3 (AA3), an enzyme that is highly expressed in the kidney, liver, and brain. NA-DCVC deacetylation initiates the transformation into toxic products that ultimately causes acute renal failure. AA3 inhibition is therefore a target of interest to prevent TCE induced nephrotoxicity. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant mouse AA3 (mAA3) in the presence of its acetate byproduct and two substrates: Nα-acetyl-l-tyrosine and NA-DCVC. These structures, in conjunction with biochemical data, indicated that AA3 mediates substrate specificity through van der Waals interactions providing a dynamic interaction interface, which facilitates a diverse range of substrates. PMID:20921362

  12. Structures of aminoacylase 3 in complex with acetylated substrates.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jennifer M; Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Sawaya, Michael R; Magilnick, Nathaniel; Abuladze, Natalia; Kurtz, Ira; Abramson, Jeff; Pushkin, Alexander

    2010-10-19

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most widespread environmental contaminants, which is metabolized to N-acetyl-S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) before being excreted in the urine. Alternatively, NA-DCVC can be deacetylated by aminoacylase 3 (AA3), an enzyme that is highly expressed in the kidney, liver, and brain. NA-DCVC deacetylation initiates the transformation into toxic products that ultimately causes acute renal failure. AA3 inhibition is therefore a target of interest to prevent TCE induced nephrotoxicity. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant mouse AA3 (mAA3) in the presence of its acetate byproduct and two substrates: N(α)-acetyl-L-tyrosine and NA-DCVC. These structures, in conjunction with biochemical data, indicated that AA3 mediates substrate specificity through van der Waals interactions providing a dynamic interaction interface, which facilitates a diverse range of substrates.

  13. Acetylated tubulin is essential for touch sensation in mice.

    PubMed

    Morley, Shane J; Qi, Yanmei; Iovino, Loredana; Andolfi, Laura; Guo, Da; Kalebic, Nereo; Castaldi, Laura; Tischer, Christian; Portulano, Carla; Bolasco, Giulia; Shirlekar, Kalyanee; Fusco, Claudia M; Asaro, Antonino; Fermani, Federica; Sundukova, Mayya; Matti, Ulf; Reymond, Luc; De Ninno, Adele; Businaro, Luca; Johnsson, Kai; Lazzarino, Marco; Ries, Jonas; Schwab, Yannick; Hu, Jing; Heppenstall, Paul A

    2016-12-13

    At its most fundamental level, touch sensation requires the translation of mechanical energy into mechanosensitive ion channel opening, thereby generating electro-chemical signals. Our understanding of this process, especially how the cytoskeleton influences it, remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the α-tubulin acetyltransferase Atat1 in sensory neurons display profound deficits in their ability to detect mechanical stimuli. We show that all cutaneous afferent subtypes, including nociceptors have strongly reduced mechanosensitivity upon Atat1 deletion, and that consequently, mice are largely insensitive to mechanical touch and pain. We establish that this broad loss of mechanosensitivity is dependent upon the acetyltransferase activity of Atat1, which when absent leads to a decrease in cellular elasticity. By mimicking α-tubulin acetylation genetically, we show both cellular rigidity and mechanosensitivity can be restored in Atat1 deficient sensory neurons. Hence, our results indicate that by influencing cellular stiffness, α-tubulin acetylation sets the force required for touch.

  14. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishida, T; Washizu, T; Toriyabe, K; Motoyoshi, S; Tomoda, I; Pedersen, N C

    1989-01-15

    A seroepidemiologic survey for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection was conducted in Japan. Between June and December 1987, individual sera (n = 3,323) were submitted by veterinary practitioners from many parts of the country. Specimens were from 1,739 cats with clinical signs suggestive of FIV infection and from 1,584 healthy-appearing cats seen by the same practitioners. The overall FIV infection rate among cats in Japan was 960/3,323 cats (28.9%). The infection rate was more than 3 times higher in the clinically ill cats, compared with that in the healthy cats of the same cohort (43.9 vs 12.4%). Male cats were 1.5 times as likely to be infected as were females. Almost all FIV-infected cats were domestic cats (as opposed to purebred cats). Complete clinical history was available for 700 of 960 FIV-infected cats. Of these 700 FIV-infected cats, 626 (89.4%) were clinically ill, and the remainder did not have clinical signs of disease. The mean age at the time of FIV diagnosis for the 700 cats was 5.2 years, with younger mean age for males (4.9 years) than for females (5.8 years). Most of the infected cats (94.7%) were either allowed to run outdoors or had lived outdoors before being brought into homes. The mortality for FIV-infected cats during the 6 months after diagnosis was 14.7%, and the mean age at the time of death was 5.7 years. Concurrent FeLV infection was seen in 12.4% of the FIV-infected cats, but this was not much different from the historical incidence of FeLV infection in similar groups of cats not infected with FIV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    PubMed

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-03-07

    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions.

  16. Lateral bias and temperament in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris).

    PubMed

    McDowell, Louise J; Wells, Deborah L; Hepper, Peter G; Dempster, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Research points to a relationship between lateralization and emotional functioning in humans and many species of animal. The present study explored the association between paw preferences and emotional functioning, specifically temperament, in a species thus far overlooked in this area, the domestic cat. Thirty left-pawed, 30 right-pawed, and 30 ambilateral pet cats were recruited following an assessment of their paw preferences using a food-reaching challenge. The animals' temperament was subsequently assessed using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). Cats' owners also completed a purpose-designed cat temperament (CAT) scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between lateral bias and FTP and CAT scale scores. Ambilateral cats had lower positive (FTP+) scores, and were perceived as less affectionate, obedient, friendly, and more aggressive, than left or right-pawed animals. Left and right pawed cats differed significantly on 1 trait on the CAT scale, namely playfulness. The strength of the cats' paw preferences was related to the animals' FTP and CAT scores. Cats with a greater strength of paw preference had higher FTP+ scores than those with a weaker strength of paw preference. Animals with stronger paw preferences were perceived as more confident, affectionate, active, and friendly than those with weaker paw preferences. Results suggest that motor laterality in the cat is strongly related to temperament and that the presence or absence of lateralization has greater implications for the expression of emotion in this species than the direction of the lateralized bias. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  18. The p53-SET Interplays Reveal A New Mode of Acetylation-dependent Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lasso, Gorka; Jiang, Le; Leng, Wenchuan; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Qin, Jun; Honig, Barry; Gu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Summary Although lysine acetylation is now recognized as a general protein modification for both histones and non-histone proteins1-3, the mechanisms of acetylation mediated actions are not completely understood. Acetylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of p53 was the first example for non-histone protein acetylation4. Yet the precise role of the CTD acetylation remains elusive. Lysine acetylation often creates binding sites for bromodomain-containing “reader” proteins5,6; surprisingly, in a proteomic screen, we identified SET as a major cellular factor whose binding with p53 is totally dependent on the CTD acetylation status. SET profoundly inhibits p53 transcriptional activity in unstressed cells but SET-mediated repression is completely abolished by stress-induced p53 CTD acetylation. Moreover, loss of the interaction with SET activates p53, resulting in tumor regression in mouse xenograft models. Notably, the acidic domain of SET acts as a “reader” for unacetylated CTD of p53 and this mechanism of acetylation-dependent regulation is widespread in nature. For example, p53 acetylation also modulates its interactions with similar acidic domains found in other p53 regulators including VPRBP, DAXX and PELP1 (refs. 7-9), and computational analysis of the proteome identified numerous proteins with the potential to serve as the acidic domain readers and lysine-rich ligands. Unlike bromodomain readers, which preferentially bind the acetylated forms of their cognate ligands, the acidic domain readers specifically recognize the unacetylated forms of their ligands. Finally, the acetylation-dependent regulation of p53 was further validated in vivo by using a knockin mouse model expressing an acetylation-mimicking form of p53. These results reveal that the acidic domain-containing factors act as a new class of acetylation-dependent regulators by targeting p53 and potentially, beyond. PMID:27626385

  19. Acetyl-coenzyme A deacylase activity in liver is not an artifact. Subcellular distribution and substrate specificity of acetyl-coenzyme A deacylase activities in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Grigat, Klaus-P.; Koppe, Klaus; Seufert, Claus-D.; Söling, Hans-D

    1979-01-01

    Whole liver and isolated liver mitochondria are able to release free acetate, especially under conditions of increased fatty acid oxidation. In the present paper it is shown that rat liver contains acetyl-CoA deacylase (EC 3.1.2.1) activity (0.72μmol/min per g wet wt. of liver at 30°C and 0.5mm-acetyl-CoA). At 0.5mm-acetyl-CoA 73% of total enzyme activity was found in the mitochondria, 8% in the lysosomal fraction and 19% in the postmicrosomal supernatant. Mitochondrial subfractionation shows that mitochondrial acetyl-CoA deacylase activity is restricted to the matrix space. Mitochondrial acetyl-CoA deacylase showed almost no activity with either butyryl- or hexanoyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity from purified rat liver lysosomes exhibited a very low affinity for acetyl-CoA (apparent Km>15mm compared with an apparent Km value of 0.5mm for the mitochondrial enzyme) and reacted at about the same rate with acetyl-, n-butyryl- and hexanoyl-CoA. We could not confirm the findings of Costa & Snoswell [(1975) Biochem. J. 152, 167–172] according to which mitochondrial acetyl-CoA deacylase was considered to be an artifact resulting from the combined actions of acetyl-CoA–l-carnitine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.7) and acetylcarnitine hydrolase. The results are in line with the concept that free acetate released by the liver under physiological conditions stems from the intramitochondrial deacylation of acetyl-CoA. PMID:34392

  20. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  1. Tomatidine, a tomato sapogenol, ameliorates hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inhibiting acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyl-transferase (ACAT).

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Kiyota, Naoko; Tsurushima, Keiichiro; Yoshitomi, Makiko; Horlad, Hasita; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro; Nagai, Ryoji

    2012-03-14

    It was previously revealed that esculeoside A, a new glycoalkaloid, and esculeogenin A, a new aglycon of esculeoside A, contained in ripe tomato ameliorate atherosclerosis in apoE-deficent mice. This study examined whether tomatidine, the aglycone of tomatine, which is a major tomato glycoalkaloid, also shows similar inhibitory effects on cholesterol ester (CE) accumulation in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and atherogenesis in apoE-deficient mice. Tomatidine significantly inhibited the CE accumulation induced by acetylated LDL in HMDM in a dose-dependent manner. Tomatidine also inhibited CE formation in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyl-transferase (ACAT)-1 or ACAT-2, suggesting that tomatidine suppresses both ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 activities. Furthermore, the oral administration of tomatidine to apoE-deficient mice significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and areas of atherosclerotic lesions. The study provides the first evidence that tomatidine significantly suppresses the activity of ACAT and leads to reduction of atherogenesis.

  2. Glyceryl trinitrate metabolism in the quail embryo by the glutathione S-transferases leads to a perturbation in redox status and embryotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bardai, Ghalib K; Hales, Barbara F; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2013-07-01

    Exposure of stage 9 quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) embryos to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) induces malformations that were associated in previous studies with an increase in protein nitration. Increased nitration suggests metabolism of GTN by the embryo. The goals of this study were to characterize the enzymes and co-factors required for GTN metabolism by quail embryos, and to determine the effects of in ovo treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione (GSH), on GTN embryotoxicity. GTN treatment of quail embryos resulted in an increase in nitrite, a decrease in total GSH, and an increase in the ratio of NADP(+)/NADPH, indicating that redox balance may be compromised in exposed embryos. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) purified from the whole embryo (K(m) 0.84 mM; V(max) 36 μM/min) and the embryonic eye (K(m) 0.20 mM; V(max) 30 μM/min) had GTN-metabolizing activity (1436 and 34 nmol/min/mg, respectively); the addition of ethacrynic acid, an inhibitor of GST activity, decreased GTN metabolism. Peptide sequencing of the GST isozymes indicated that alpha- or mu-type GSTs in the embryo and embryonic eye had GTN metabolizing activity. NAC co-treatment partially protected against the effects of GTN exposure. Thus, GTN denitration by quail embryo GSTs may represent a key initial step in the developmental toxicity of GTN.

  3. Sézary syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Wood, Casey; Almes, Kelli; Bagladi-Swanson, Mary; Debey, Brad; Andrews, Gordon; Nietfeld, Jerome; Wilkerson, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    Sézary syndrome is an uncommon leukemic variant of cutaneous lymphoma in cats. This cat had recurrent dermatitis with erythematous, pruritic plaques. Multiple skin imprints and biopsy samples were obtained over a 6-month period, and histopathological findings were consistent initially with eosinophilic miliary dermatitis and later with erythema multiforme. One week before death, Sézary cells were identified in the peripheral blood that expressed cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and CD8 antigens. Massive infiltration of CD3+ lymphocytes was noted in the skin and multiple internal tissues by histopathological examination. This case demonstrates the difficulty in diagnosing cutaneous lymphoma early in the disease course.

  4. Cerebral vascular hamartoma in a geriatric cat

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Vaquero, Paula; Moore, Sarah A; Wolk, Kendra E; Oglesbee, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old castrated male domestic medium hair cat was presented with neurological signs consistent with a right thalamocortical lesion. Computed tomography (CT) images revealed a heterogeneously, hyperattenuating, poorly contrast enhancing intra-axial mass within the right lateral ventricle. The histological diagnosis at post-mortem examination was vascular hamartoma with hemorrhage and necrosis. This is the first report of a vascular hamartoma affecting the thalamocortex in a geriatric cat. Also, this is the first time that CT images of a feline cerebral vascular hamartoma have been reported. PMID:21277244

  5. Plasma Cell Pododermatitis in a Cat

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, R.; Bernard, J.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma cell pododermatitis, an uncommon disease of unknown etiology, is described in a six year old male domestic short-haired cat. The cat was referred with a history of lameness associated with swelling, softness and ulceration of the foot pads. The history suggested a seasonal occurrence of the condition. The dermis and subcutis of the foot pads were infiltrated by inflammatory cells which were mainly plasma cells. The large number of plasma cells present in the lesions suggests an immunological basis for the condition. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422486

  6. Amputation for histiocytic sarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Takahiro; Hata, Takashi; Nezu, Yoko; Michishita, Masaki; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Mizutani, Hisashi; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2012-02-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with a skin lesion of the left tarsus. The lesion was biopsied and, based on the microscopic appearance and immunohistochemical characteristics, histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed. Amputation was performed with improved demeanor seen postoperatively. However, between 44 and 60 days following the surgery, relapse of skin lesions appeared in multiple locations, including at the previous amputation site, and euthanasia was elected. This is the first report of a histiocytic sarcoma treated with amputation in a cat.

  7. [A case of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takuya; Suzuki, Takashi; Shinoda, Masataka; Takashi, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Suzuki, Takahisa; Miyake, Nobuyuki; Kamiya, Tohru

    2006-09-01

    A 43-year-old man was admitted with idiopathic fever. Abdominal ultrasonogram demonstrated multiple hypoechoic lesions in the spleen. Abdominal CT scan showed multiple hypodense lesions in the liver and spleen. The patient had a cat in his house, and the presence of a very high serous antibody titer for Bartonella henselae led to the diagnosis of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease. It is important to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic fever when multiple lesions are detected in the liver and spleen.

  8. Septic lens implantation syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dalesandro, Nicole; Stiles, Jean; Miller, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    A 13-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented initially for a change in the appearance of the left eye. On initial examination, a small penetrating wound was suspected as the cause for a corneal scar, an anterior cortical incipient cataract and mild iritis. The cat was not re-presented until 1 year later at which time ocular pain was marked. Severe anterior uveitis and glaucoma were diagnosed and the eye enucleated. Histopathology documented intralenticular coccoid bacteria and septic lens implantation syndrome.

  9. Regulation of Histone Acetylation by Autophagy in Parkinson Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Goonho; Tan, Jieqiong; Garcia, Guillermina; Kang, Yunyi; Salvesen, Guy; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common age-dependent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Accumulated evidence indicates both environmental and genetic factors play important roles in PD pathogenesis, but the potential interaction between environment and genetics in PD etiology remains largely elusive. Here, we report that PD-related neurotoxins induce both expression and acetylation of multiple sites of histones in cultured human cells and mouse midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Consistently, levels of histone acetylation are markedly higher in midbrain DA neurons of PD patients compared to those of their matched control individuals. Further analysis reveals that multiple histone deacetylases (HDACs) are concurrently decreased in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-treated cells and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mouse brains, as well as midbrain tissues of human PD patients. Finally, inhibition of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) protects, whereas inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 potentiates, MPP+-induced cell death. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy suppresses MPP+-induced HDACs degradation. The study reveals that PD environmental factors induce HDACs degradation and histone acetylation increase in DA neurons via autophagy and identifies an epigenetic mechanism in PD pathogenesis. PMID:26699403

  10. Acetylation modification regulates GRP78 secretion in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongwei; Zhuang, Ming; Zhang, Lichao; Zheng, Xingnan; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-01-01

    High glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression contributes to the acquisition of a wide range of phenotypic cancer hallmarks, and the pleiotropic oncogenic functions of GRP78 may result from its diverse subcellular distribution. Interestingly, GRP78 has been reported to be secreted from solid tumour cells, participating in cell-cell communication in the tumour microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying this secretion remains elusive. Here, we report that GRP78 is secreted from colon cancer cells via exosomes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors blocked GRP78 release by inducing its aggregation in the ER. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibitor treatment suppressed HDAC6 activity and led to increased GRP78 acetylation; acetylated GRP78 then bound to VPS34, a class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase, consequently preventing the sorting of GRP78 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Of note, we found that mimicking GRP78 acetylation by substituting the lysine at residue 633, one of the deacetylated sites of HDAC6, with a glutamine resulted in decreased GRP78 secretion and impaired tumour cell growth in vitro. Our study thus reveals a hitherto-unknown mechanism of GRP78 secretion and may also provide implications for the therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27460191

  11. Selected properties of acetylated adipate of retrograded starch.

    PubMed

    Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Kapelko, M

    2014-01-01

    Native potato starch (NS) and retrograded starch (R - obtained via freezing and defrosting of a starch paste) were used to prepare starch acetates: NS-A and R-A, and then acetylated distarch adipates: NS-ADA and R-ADA. The chemically-modified preparations produced from retrograded starch (R-A; R-ADA) were characterized by a higher degree of esterification compared to the modified preparations produced under the same conditions from native potato starch (NS-A; NS-ADA). Starch resistance to amylolysis was observed to increase (to 30-40 g/100 g) as a result of starch retrogradation and acetylation. Starch cross-linking had a significant impact on the increased viscosity of the paste in the entire course of pasting characteristics and on the increased values of rheological coefficients determined from the equations describing flow curves. The produced preparation of acetylated retrograded starch cross-linked with adipic acid (R-ADA) may be deemed an RS3/4 preparation to be used as a food thickening agent.

  12. Regulation of Histone Acetylation by Autophagy in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Goonho; Tan, Jieqiong; Garcia, Guillermina; Kang, Yunyi; Salvesen, Guy; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2016-02-12

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common age-dependent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Accumulated evidence indicates both environmental and genetic factors play important roles in PD pathogenesis, but the potential interaction between environment and genetics in PD etiology remains largely elusive. Here, we report that PD-related neurotoxins induce both expression and acetylation of multiple sites of histones in cultured human cells and mouse midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Consistently, levels of histone acetylation are markedly higher in midbrain DA neurons of PD patients compared to those of their matched control individuals. Further analysis reveals that multiple histone deacetylases (HDACs) are concurrently decreased in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-treated cells and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mouse brains, as well as midbrain tissues of human PD patients. Finally, inhibition of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) protects, whereas inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 potentiates, MPP(+)-induced cell death. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy suppresses MPP(+)-induced HDACs degradation. The study reveals that PD environmental factors induce HDACs degradation and histone acetylation increase in DA neurons via autophagy and identifies an epigenetic mechanism in PD pathogenesis.

  13. Carbon isotope fractionation and the acetyl-CoA pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaser, Martin; Conrad, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Homoacetogenic bacteria can catalyze the reductive synthesis of acetate from CO2 via the acetyl-CoA pathway. Besides this unifying property homoacetogenic bacteria constitute a metabolically and phylogenetically diverse bacteriological group. Therefore their environmental role is difficult to address. It has been recognized that in methanogenic environments homoacetogenic bacteria contribute to the degradation of organic matter. The natural abundance of 13C may be used to understand the functional impact of homoacetogenic bacteria in the soil environment. To distinguish the acetyl-CoA pathway from other dominant processes, the isotopic composition of acetate and CO2 can be determined and the fractionation factors of the individual processes may be used to discriminate between the dominant pathways. To characterize the fractionation factor associated with the acetyl-CoA pathway the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity needs to be considered. Therefore the fractionation factor of substrate utilization and product formation of different homoacetogens (Acetobacterium woodii, Sporomusa ovata, Thermoanaerobacter kivui, Morella thermoautotrophica) has been studied under pure culture conditions in two defined minimal medium with H2/CO2 as sole source of carbon and energy. It became obvious that the cultivation conditions have a major impact on the obtained fractionation factors.

  14. Getting a Knack for NAC: N-Acetyl-Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    N-acetyl-cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl cysteine, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine are all designations for the same compound, which is abbreviated as NAC. NAC is a precursor to the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately plays two key metabolic roles. Through its metabolic contribution to glutathione production, cysteine participates in the general antioxidant activities of the body. Through its role as a modulator of the glutamatergic system, cysteine influences the reward-reinforcement pathway. Because of these functions, NAC may exert a therapeutic effect on psychiatric disorders allegedly related to oxidative stress (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) as well as psychiatric syndromes characterized by impulsive/compulsive symptoms (e.g., trichotillomania, pathological nail biting, gambling, substance misuse). While the dosages, pharmacological strategies (monotherapy versus augmentation), and long-term risks are not fully evident, NAC appears to be a promising, relatively low-risk intervention. If so, NAC might be an ideal treatment strategy for a variety of psychiatric conditions in both psychiatric and primary care settings.

  15. Primary bacterial septic peritonitis in cats: 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Ruthrauff, Cassandra M; Smith, Julie; Glerum, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the signalment, clinical signs, laboratory results, culture results, and response to treatment for primary septic peritonitis in cats. This is a retrospective study of 12 client-owned animals. Medical records were reviewed for clinical findings, laboratory results, microbial culture results, radiographic findings, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. The overall mortality rate for this group of cats was 31%, consistent with previous reports of septic peritonitis in cats. All cats that were both bradycardic and hypothermic on presentation did not survive. Other clinicopathological findings were consistent with previously reported cases of septic peritonitis in cats. Results suggest that clinicopathological findings and outcomes in cats with primary septic peritonitis are similar to those in cats with septic peritonitis from a determined cause. A specific mechanism of inoculation has yet to be determined, but an oral source of bacteria is suggested for cats with primary bacterial septic peritonitis.

  16. Bird Flu Strain May Have Jumped from Cat to Human

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162717.html Bird Flu Strain May Have Jumped From Cat to ... would be the first known transmission of this bird flu strain from cat to human, officials said. ...

  17. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida.

    PubMed

    Luria, Brian J; Levy, Julie K; Lappin, Michael R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Legendre, Alfred M; Hernandez, Jorge A; Gorman, Shawn P; Lee, Irene T

    2004-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in Northern Florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. Blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or PCR assays. Male cats were at higher risk for FIV, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and M. haemominutum. Infection with either FeLV or FIV was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, M. haemofelis, or M. haemominutum. Bartonella henselae had the highest prevalence and was the only organism that did not have any associated risk for coinfection with other organisms. Feral cats in this study had similar or lower prevalence rates of infections than those published for pet cats in the United States. Thus, feral cats assessed in this study appear to be of no greater risk to human beings or other cats than pet cats.

  18. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  19. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  20. Crystal structure of tabtoxin resistance protein complexed with acetyl coenzyme A reveals the mechanism for {beta}-lactam acetylation.

    SciTech Connect

    He, H.; Ding, Y.; Bartlam, M.; Sun, F.; Le, Y.; Qin, X.; Tang, H.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Liu, J.; Zhao, N.; Rao, Z.; Biosciences Division; Tsinghua Univ.; Chinese Academy of Science

    2003-01-31

    Tabtoxin resistance protein (TTR) is an enzyme that renders tabtoxin-producing pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, tolerant to their own phytotoxins. Here, we report the crystal structure of TTR complexed with its natural cofactor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to 1.55 {angstrom} resolution. The binary complex forms a characteristic 'V' shape for substrate binding and contains the four motifs conserved in the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily, which also includes the histone acetyltransferases (HATs). A single-step mechanism is proposed to explain the function of three conserved residues, Glu92, Asp130 and Tyr141, in catalyzing the acetyl group transfer to its substrate. We also report that TTR possesses HAT activity and suggest an evolutionary relationship between TTR and other GNAT members.

  1. The evolution of the knowledge of cat and dog coccidia.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    2009-10-01

    Before the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii as a coccidium of the cat in 1970, cat and dog coccidia were classified in the genus Isospora and considered of little clinical or zoonotic significance. Since 1970, several new (Hammondia sp., Neospora sp.) and previously described species, including Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, and Cryptosporidium have been found as coccidians of cats and dogs with clinical and zoonotic significance. In the present paper I review salient features of the evolution of cat and dog coccidia.

  2. Effect of neutering on two groups of feral cats.

    PubMed

    Neville, P F; Remfry, J

    1984-05-05

    Two colonies of urban feral cats were subjected to a programme of population control by trapping, neutering and returning to site. The behaviour of individual cats and the stability of the groups was studied before and after the programme, which was then assessed in terms of its humaneness and effectiveness as a means of control. The method was satisfactory on both counts and may be recommended for controlling feral cat colonies where the welfare of the cats can be assured after their return.

  3. Presumptive acute lung injury following multiple surgeries in a cat.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Masaaki; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Rieko; Sasaki, Jun; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Uzuka, Yuji; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Nezu, Yoshinori

    2013-04-01

    A 12-year-old, 3.5-kg spayed female domestic shorthair cat had a tracheal mass identified as malignant B-cell lymphoma. The cat had tracheal resection and subsequently developed laryngeal paralysis. Due to multiple episodes of respiratory distress the cat subsequently had tracheal surgeries. Finally, the cat had a sudden onset of severe respiratory distress and collapsed. Computed tomography imaging and arterial blood gas analysis supported a diagnosis of acute lung injury.

  4. Separation of glutathione transferase subunits from Proteus vulgaris by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Giaming; Chien, Yi-Chih; Chien, Cheng-I

    2003-10-01

    Cytosolic glutathione transferases of Proteus vulgaris were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four different subunits were identified, and each subunit contained a different molecular mass, ranging from 26.2 kDa to 28.5 kDa; a different pI value, ranging from 8.2 to 9.4; and a different amount of protein fraction, ranging from 10% to 56%. All four subunits existed as basic proteins (pI > 7.0). From these results, we concluded that multiple forms of glutathione transferase enzymes existed in Proteus vulgaris, and four different glutathione transferase subunits were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  6. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Urban Domestic Cats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Miranda, Júlia Bahia; Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Silva de Oliveira, Jaqueline; Pinheiro, Mariana Siqueira; Gonçalves, Stefanne Aparecida; Pimenta dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2017-01-01

    We investigated possible vaccinia virus (VACV) in urban house cats in Brazil. Serum samples from 6 cats were positive for VACV by PCR, indicating likely VACV circulation among house cats in urban areas of Brazil. This finding highlights the importance of epidemiologic surveillance to avoid outbreaks among urban human populations. PMID:28098542

  7. Do Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) Improve Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottell, Philip; Harwood, Elaine

    1998-01-01

    In a study of effectiveness of classroom assessment techniques (CATs) on student learning, two college accounting teachers each taught two classes, one using CATs and one not using them. Course results did not suggest greater learning in CATs classes, better student participation, or more positive attitudes. Further research is recommended on the…

  8. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maureen A; Laverty, Peter H; Soiderer, Emily E

    2005-03-01

    Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes.

  9. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes. PMID:15884646

  10. Hepatozoon species infection in domestic cats: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Baneth, G; Aroch, I; Tal, N; Harrus, S

    1998-10-01

    Hepatozoon sp. is a protozoan parasite of peripheral blood neutrophils in cats. Feline hepatozoonosis has been reported infrequently and little is known about the pathogenesis of this infection. In order to further clarify clinicopathological characteristics of hepatozoonosis in domestic cats, a retrospecitve study of hepatozoonosis in cats admitted during 1989-1995 to the Hebrew University School of Veterinary Medicine was conducted. The study population comprised all the cats whose medical records included a complete blood count with a microscopical examination of a blood smear during this 7-year period (n=1229). Hepatozoon gametocytes were identified in seven cats (0.57%) ranging from 1 to 6 years of age. Infected cats were mostly males (6/7) of mixed breed (5/7) with a variety of complaints and clinical signs. The clinicopathological findings included increased activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (5/6) and creatine kinase (CK) (5/6). The elevated enzymes detected in cats with hepatozoonosis are suggestive of muscular damage. Sixty-seven percent (4/6) of the cats with hepatozoonosis which were tested for a retroviral disease were found infected either in FIV or FELV. In addition, 2/7 cats were co-infected with Hemobartonella felis. In conclusion, parasitemia with Hepatozoon sp. is a rare finding in cats from Israel. The over-representation of cats with a retroviral disease among the cats with hepatozoonosis indicates a possible association between immunosupression and the development of Hepatozoon infection.

  11. When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

  12. Computed tomographic findings of fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Ketaki; Reichle, Jean K; Fischetti, Anthony J; Goggin, Justin M

    2009-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings of fungal rhinitis/sinusitis in cats were characterized. The CT images of 10 cats ranging in age from 7 to 13 years were examined. The mean age was 10.8 years and all were neutered males. Nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed in five cats, cryptococcosis in three cats, hyalohyphomycosis in one cat, and trichosporonosis in one cat. Bilateral disease was present in eight cats, seven had abnormal soft tissue attenuation in two-thirds of the nasal cavity, and six had turbinate lysis. Seven cats had also lysis of the hard palate, nasal septum, or frontal bone. One cat had lysis of the cribriform plate. Five of the nine cats whose lymph nodes were imaged had lymph node enlargement. There was contrast medium enhancement in the nasal cavity in all cats, with either a primarily peripheral rim or heterogeneous pattern. There appears to be an overlap of clinical signs, age, and CT features of cats with nasal neoplasia and those with fungal rhinitis/ sinusitis.

  13. Eosinophilia in a cat with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Cornelia; Forzán, María; Drew, Anne; Vernau, William

    2011-09-01

    A 4-year-old castrated male domestic shorthaired cat with a history of vomiting and anorexia was diagnosed with leukemia with marked hepatic and splenic infiltration and concurrent eosinophilia with marked tissue infiltration. Despite thorough immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the cell lineage of the leukemia was not identified.

  14. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    PubMed

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  15. [Parasitism by Amblyomma triste in domestic cat].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; da Silva, Marcos K; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma triste is an ixodidae, ectoparasite of several mammals' species, with occurrence reported in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. The aim of this work was to register the parasitism by A. triste in domestic cat (Felis catus) in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

  16. Dermatophilus congolensis in a feral cat.

    PubMed

    Barger, Anne M; Weedon, G Robert; Maddox, Carol W; Galloway, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    A young adult feral cat presented to the Champaign County Humane Society with a subcutaneous mass near the stifle. The mass was aspirated. Chains of paired cocci organisms were identified, consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis. The identity of these organisms was confirmed by culture and polymerase chain reaction.

  17. Inflammatory oral cavity diseases of the cat.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C

    1992-11-01

    There is a great deal of frustration among veterinarians about the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity of the cat. This frustration is due to both the high frequency of feline oral inflammatory lesions and our poor understanding of their causes. This poor understanding can be blamed on several things: (1) a rapidly emerging, but still relatively poor, understanding of feline diseases in general and nutrition in particular; (2) a tendency to lump rather than separate specific oral inflammations; (3) a tendency not to use a thorough and systematic approach to diagnosing oral cavity disease; and (4) the reluctance of veterinarians to apply what is already known about human oral cavity diseases to cats. When problems 2 through 4 are adequately addressed, it becomes apparent that we really know more about oral cavity disease in the cat than we thought we knew and that great progress has been made. The task ahead is to define, in precise medical terms, those remaining disease entities of the oral cavity that pose the greatest health risk to cats, to apply what has been already been discovered from human disease counterparts, and to study them systematically.

  18. Kipling's Cat: Learning from the New Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Richard

    1996-01-01

    International schools can benefit from new students' fresh vision. Some students exhibit "culture shock" on arrival, while others, like Kipling's cat, act as though "all places are alike to them." This article examines the newcomer's adjustment process by proposing a model of personal identity development and poses questions to test the theory…

  19. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Schober, K E; Kent, A M; Aeffner, F

    2014-03-01

    A 10-year-old male castrated Domestic Shorthair cat was evaluated for an asymptomatic tachyarrhythmia noted two weeks prior. Electrocardiography revealed a normal sinus rhythm with atrial premature complexes and paroxysms of supraventricular tachycardia with a heart rate between 300 and 400 min-1. Echocardiography was unremarkable, and concentrations of circulating cardiac troponin I, T4, and blood taurine were within reference ranges. The cat was treated with sotalol (2.1 mg/kg q12h, PO) but the arrhythmia was insufficiently controlled as determined during several re-examinations within a two-year time period. Twenty four months after initial presentation atrial fibrillation with fast ventricular response rate (200 to 300 min-1) was diagnosed, along with severe eccentric chamber remodeling and systolic dysfunction. The cat developed congestive heart failure and cardiogenic shock and was euthanized nearly 27 months after the first exam. Gross and histopathologic findings ruled out commonly seen types of primary myocardial disease in cats. The persistent nature of the tachyarrhythmia, the progressive structural and functional cardiac changes, and comparative gross and histopathologic post-mortem findings are consistent with the diagnosis of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

  20. Making a Cat's Eye in a Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovsek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Three plain mirrors, perpendicular to each other, reflect a beam of light back into the direction it came from. An activity is suggested where pupils can employ this feature of perpendicular mirrors and make their own corner cube retroreflector--a kind of cat's eye. (Contains 7 figures and 1 footnote.)

  1. CAT-ASVAB Technical Bulletin Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Bodzin , 1986) was used. It consisted of an IBM PC-Compatible computer, the Datacopy 700 Optical Scanner, the Word Image Processing System (WIPS...delivery vehicle for CAT-ASVAB. Chapter 5 - Hardware Selection, Software Development, and Acceptance Testing 5-35 References Bodzin , L.J. (1986

  2. [Ocular leishmaniasis in a cat: case report].

    PubMed

    Verneuil, M

    2013-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease common to humans as well as wild and domestic animals. When it affects pets, it primarily involves dogs, which constitute a parasitic reservoir. This disease is observed in Africa, Asia, and America and around the entire Mediterranean coast. We report an ocular form of leishmaniasis in a cat from the Var region.

  3. Look What the Cat Brought In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erslev, Carole

    1984-01-01

    The small, uneaten, slate-gray, pointed-nose animal that is distasteful to the cat because of foul-tasting scent glands is the shrew. Describes the short-tailed shrew's physical characteristics, lifespan, habitat, eating habits, and senses. (ERB)

  4. Eosinophilia in a cat with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gilroy, Cornelia; Forzán, María; Drew, Anne; Vernau, William

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old castrated male domestic shorthaired cat with a history of vomiting and anorexia was diagnosed with leukemia with marked hepatic and splenic infiltration and concurrent eosinophilia with marked tissue infiltration. Despite thorough immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the cell lineage of the leukemia was not identified. PMID:22379202

  5. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A.; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; Takahashi, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains. PMID:11329473

  6. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  7. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  8. Inspecting Hollow Parts With a CAT Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhr, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    Technique well known in medicine, used on manufactured objects. As it passes through a part, beam of X-rays or other radiation attenuated and scattered. Computer records variations in beam as part rotated and constructs cross section for display on video monitor. Computeraided tomography (CAT) measures wall thickness and detecting flaws in hollow turbine blades or other curved parts.

  9. N-Acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in feral Carcinus maenas exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; Ergen, Şeyda Fikirdeşici; Rodrigues, Aurélie Pinto; Oliva-Teles, M Teresa; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Guimarães, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium is a priority hazardous substance, persistent in the aquatic environment, with the capacity to interfere with crustacean moulting. Moulting is a vital process dictating crustacean growth, reproduction and metamorphosis. However, for many organisms, moult disruption is difficult to evaluate in the short term, what limits its inclusion in monitoring programmes. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) is an enzyme acting in the final steps of the endocrine-regulated moulting cascade, allowing for the cast off of the old exoskeleton, with potential interest as a biomarker of moult disruption. This study investigated responses to waterborne cadmium of NAGase activity of Carcinus maenas originating from estuaries with different histories of anthropogenic contamination: a low impacted and a moderately polluted one. Crabs from both sites were individually exposed for seven days to cadmium concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 2000 μg/L. At the end of the assays, NAGase activity was assessed in the epidermis and digestive gland. Detoxification, antioxidant, energy production, and oxidative stress biomarkers implicated in cadmium metabolism and tolerance were also assessed to better understand differential NAGase responses: activity of glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) glutathione reductase (GR), levels of total glutathiones (TG), lipid peroxidation (LPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). Animals from the moderately polluted estuary had lower NAGase activity both in the epidermis and digestive gland than in the low impacted site. NAGase activity in the epidermis and digestive gland of C. maenas from both estuaries was sensitive to cadmium exposure suggesting its usefulness for inclusion in monitoring programmes. However, in the digestive gland NAGase inhibition was found in crabs from the less impacted site but not in those from the moderately contaminated one. Altered glutathione levels were

  10. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of WRN function causes Werner Syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN’s DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  11. Cell differentiation along multiple pathways accompanied by changes in histone acetylation status.

    PubMed

    Legartová, Soňa; Kozubek, Stanislav; Franek, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Lochmanová, Gabriela; Martinet, Nadine; Bártová, Eva

    2014-04-01

    Post-translational modification of histones is fundamental to the regulation of basic nuclear processes and subsequent cellular events, including differentiation. In this study, we analyzed acetylated forms of histones H2A, H2B, and H4 during induced differentiation in mouse (mESCs) and human (hESCs) embryonic stem cells and during induced enterocytic differentiation of colon cancer cells in vitro. Endoderm-like differentiation of mESCs induced by retinoic acid and enterocytic differentiation induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate were accompanied by increased mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of histone H2B and a pronounced increase in di- and tri-acetylation of histone H4. In enterocytes, mono-acetylation of histone H2A also increased and tetra-acetylation of histone H4 appeared only after induction of this differentiation pathway. During differentiation of hESCs, we observed increased mono-acetylation and decreased tri-acetylation of H2B. Mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of H4 were reduced, manifested by a significant increase in nonacetylated H4 histones. Levels of acetylated histones increased during induced differentiation in mESCs and during histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-induced enterocytic differentiation, whereas differentiation of human ESCs was associated with reduced acetylation of histones H2B and H4.

  12. Acetylation mimic of lysine 280 exacerbates human Tau neurotoxicity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Marianna Karina; Burnouf, Sylvie; Dols, Jacqueline; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction and accumulation of the microtubule-associated human Tau (hTau) protein into intraneuronal aggregates is observed in many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Reversible lysine acetylation has recently emerged as a post-translational modification that may play an important role in the modulation of hTau pathology. Acetylated hTau species have been observed within hTau aggregates in human AD brains and multi-acetylation of hTau in vitro regulates its propensity to aggregate. However, whether lysine acetylation at position 280 (K280) modulates hTau-induced toxicity in vivo is unknown. We generated new Drosophila transgenic models of hTau pathology to evaluate the contribution of K280 acetylation to hTau toxicity, by analysing the respective toxicity of pseudo-acetylated (K280Q) and pseudo-de-acetylated (K280R) mutant forms of hTau. We observed that mis-expression of pseudo-acetylated K280Q-hTau in the adult fly nervous system potently exacerbated fly locomotion defects and photoreceptor neurodegeneration. In addition, modulation of K280 influenced total hTau levels and phosphorylation without changing hTau solubility. Altogether, our results indicate that pseudo-acetylation of the single K280 residue is sufficient to exacerbate hTau neurotoxicity in vivo, suggesting that acetylated K280-hTau species contribute to the pathological events leading to neurodegeneration in AD. PMID:26940749

  13. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate cis-1,4-Polyisoprenyl Transferase from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray).

    PubMed

    Madhavan, S; Benedict, C R

    1984-08-01

    Electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule Parthenium argentatum Gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. The terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the enzymic incorporation of [(14)C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate into the polymer and the recovery of [(14)C]levulinic acid following ozonolysis. The rubber transferase activity in the crude extracts of guayule leaves was 5.8 nanomoles isopentenyl pyrophosphate incorporated per milligram protein per hour. This is the first description of the rubber transferase from a nonlaticiferous plant.The specific activity (in units of nanomoles IPP converted per milligram protein per hour) of the partially purified enzyme following chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose columns was 41.7 units and contained 0.29 units of IPP isomerase activity and 0.08 units of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity. The rubber transferase requires reduced glutathione and Mg(2+) for maximal activity. There was no incorporation of IPP into cis-1,4-polyisoprene in the absence of rubber particles as primer, and Langmuir isotherm plots showed that the specific activity of the enzyme was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme on the surface of the rubber particles. For a given rubber particle distribution, enzyme activity was proportional to time, IPP concentration, and rubber concentration. The addition of 0.4 millimolar dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to the rubber transferase reaction resulted in a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of IPP into rubber. A comparison was made of the relative activities of rubber transferase in different species of Parthenium, Ficus, and Euphorbia.

  14. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate cis-1,4-Polyisoprenyl Transferase from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) 1

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, S.; Benedict, Chauncey R.

    1984-01-01

    Electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule Parthenium argentatum Gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. The terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the enzymic incorporation of [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate into the polymer and the recovery of [14C]levulinic acid following ozonolysis. The rubber transferase activity in the crude extracts of guayule leaves was 5.8 nanomoles isopentenyl pyrophosphate incorporated per milligram protein per hour. This is the first description of the rubber transferase from a nonlaticiferous plant. The specific activity (in units of nanomoles IPP converted per milligram protein per hour) of the partially purified enzyme following chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose columns was 41.7 units and contained 0.29 units of IPP isomerase activity and 0.08 units of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity. The rubber transferase requires reduced glutathione and Mg2+ for maximal activity. There was no incorporation of IPP into cis-1,4-polyisoprene in the absence of rubber particles as primer, and Langmuir isotherm plots showed that the specific activity of the enzyme was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme on the surface of the rubber particles. For a given rubber particle distribution, enzyme activity was proportional to time, IPP concentration, and rubber concentration. The addition of 0.4 millimolar dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to the rubber transferase reaction resulted in a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of IPP into rubber. A comparison was made of the relative activities of rubber transferase in different species of Parthenium, Ficus, and Euphorbia. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

  15. The Making of a Sweet Modification: Structure and Function of O-GlcNAc Transferase*

    PubMed Central

    Janetzko, John; Walker, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAc transferase is an essential mammalian enzyme responsible for transferring a single GlcNAc moiety from UDP-GlcNAc to specific serine/threonine residues of hundreds of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. This modification is dynamic and has been implicated in numerous signaling pathways. An unexpected second function for O-GlcNAc transferase as a protease involved in cleaving the epigenetic regulator HCF-1 has also been reported. Recent structural and biochemical studies that provide insight into the mechanism of glycosylation and HCF-1 cleavage will be described, with outstanding questions highlighted. PMID:25336649

  16. Mapping of amino acid substitutions conferring herbicide resistance in wheat glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Sridhar; Mannervik, Bengt; Silverman, Joshua A; Wright, Kathy; Regitsky, Drew; Hegazy, Usama; Purcell, Thomas J; Welch, Mark; Minshull, Jeremy; Gustafsson, Claes

    2015-03-20

    We have used design of experiments (DOE) and systematic variance to efficiently explore glutathione transferase substrate specificities caused by amino acid substitutions. Amino acid substitutions selected using phylogenetic analysis were synthetically combined using a DOE design to create an information-rich set of gene variants, termed infologs. We used machine learning to identify and quantify protein sequence-function relationships against 14 different substrates. The resulting models were quantitative and predictive, serving as a guide for engineering of glutathione transferase activity toward a diverse set of herbicides. Predictive quantitative models like those presented here have broad applicability for bioengineering.

  17. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and gluthatione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Hiragi, Cássia; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Rocha, Dulce Maria Sucena; de Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana; Hatagima, Ana; de Nazaré Klautau-Guimarães, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) reduce the oxidation rates in the organism. Gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs) play a vital role in phase 2 of biotransformation of many substances. Variation in the expression of these enzymes suggests individual differences for the degree of antioxidant protection and geographical differences in the distribution of these variants. We described the distribution frequency of CAT (21A/T), SOD2 (Ala9Val), GPX1 (Pro198Leu), GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups: Kayabi Amerindians (n = 60), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 72), and an urban mixed population from Federal District (n = 162). Frequencies of the variants observed in Kalunga (18% to 58%) and Federal District (33% to 63%) were similar to those observed in Euro and Afro-descendants, while in Kayabi (3% to 68%), depending on the marker, frequencies were similar to the ones found in different ethnic groups. Except for SOD2 in all population groups studied here, and for GPX1 in Kalunga, the genotypic distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. These data can clarify the contribution of different ethnicities in the formation of mixed populations, such as that of Brazil. Moreover, outcomes will be valuable resources for future functional studies and for genetic studies in specific populations. If these studies are designed to comprehensively explore the role of these genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of human diseases they may help to prevent inconsistent genotype-phenotype associations in pharmacogenetic studies.

  18. Xenobiotic-inducible expression of murine glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene is controlled by an electrophile-responsive element

    SciTech Connect

    Friling, R.S.; Bensimon, A.; Tichauer, Y.; Daniel, V. )

    1990-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) Ya subunit gene expression is induced in mammalian tissues by two types of chemical agents: (i) planar aromatic compounds (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and (ii) electrophiles (e.g., trans-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one and dimethyl fumarate) or compounds easily oxidized to electrophiles (e.g., tert-butylhydroquinone). To study the mechanism of this induction, the authors have introduced deletions in the 5{prime} flanking region of a mouse GST Ya subunit gene, fused it to the coding sequence for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity, and transfected the Ya-CAT genes for expression into hepatoma cells. They show that a single cis-regulatory element, between nucleotides {minus}754 and {minus}713 from the start of transcription, is responsible for the induction by both planar aromatic and electrophilic compounds. Using murine hepatoma cell mutants defective in either the Ah-encoded aryl hydrocarbon receptor (BP{sup r}c1 mutant) or in cytochrome P{sub 1}-450 gene (c1 mutant), they show that induction by planar aromatic but not by electrophilic inducers requires a functional Ah receptor and cytochrome P{sub 1}-450 activity. From this it is concluded that Ya gene activation by planar aromatic compounds involves metabolism of these inducers by the phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P{sub 1}-450 system into electrophilic compounds. Therefore, the regulatory sequence of the Ya gene should be considered an electrophile-responsive element (EpRE) activated exclusively by inducers containing an electrophilic center.

  19. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role.

  20. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  1. Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Bethards, L.A.; Scandalios, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using (/sup 32/P)-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed.

  2. In silico analysis of protein Lys-N𝜀-acetylation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Rao, R. Shyama Prasad; Thelen, Jay J.; Miernyk, Ján A.

    2014-01-01

    Among post-translational modifications, there are some conceptual similarities between Lys-N𝜀-acetylation and Ser/Thr/Tyr O-phosphorylation. Herein we present a bioinformatics-based overview of reversible protein Lys-acetylation, including some comparisons with reversible protein phosphorylation. The study of Lys-acetylation of plant proteins has lagged behind studies of mammalian and microbial cells; 1000s of acetylation sites have been identified in mammalian proteins compared with only hundreds of sites in plant proteins. While most previous emphasis was focused on post-translational modifications of histones, more recent studies have addressed metabolic regulation. Being directly coupled with cellular CoA/acetyl-CoA and NAD/NADH, reversible Lys-N𝜀-acetylation has the potential to control, or contribute to control, of primary metabolism, signaling, and growth and development. PMID:25136347

  3. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  4. Tachyzoite-induced life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    2002-08-01

    The tachyzoite-induced cycle of Toxoplasma gondii was studied in 46 cats. Tachyzoites of the M-7741 or Me-49 strain of T. gondii were administered orally to cats by pouring into the mouth or by stomach tube, or by intraintestinal inoculation. Ten weaned cats that had been inoculated with tachyzoites directly in the intestine were killed 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 25 days later, and their tissues were studied histologically and bioassayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrable in the blood of 8 cats and in other tissues of all these 10. Four out of five 1- to 8-day-old cats fed tachyzoites by stomach tube became infected with T. gondii, and 1 became ill because of toxoplasmosis. All 19 weaned cats fed tachyzoites (poured into the mouth) became infected, and 6 died of acute toxoplasmosis 9-15 days after being fed T. gondii. Six out of 12 weaned cats fed tachyzoites by stomach tube became infected but were asymptomatic. Overall, 12 out of 26 cats observed for 19 days or more shed oocysts with a prepatent period (pp) of 19 days or more, with the sole exception of 1 cat that shed oocysts with a pp of 5 days. Enteroepithelial stages of T. gondii were not found in any cat before oocysts were shed. Cats shed up to 360 million oocysts in a day, and oocysts were shed for 4-6 days.

  5. Generation of cloned transgenic cats expressing red fluorescence protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xi Jun; Lee, Hyo Sang; Yu, Xian Feng; Choi, Eugene; Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun; Lee, Young S; Cho, Su Jin; Jin, Guang Zhen; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Nam Hyung; Kong, Il Keun

    2008-03-01

    A method for engineering and producing genetically modified cats is important for generating biomedical models of human diseases. Here we describe the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce cloned transgenic cats that systemically express red fluorescent protein. Immature oocytes were collected from superovulating cat ovaries. Donor fibroblasts were obtained from an ear skin biopsy of a white male Turkish Angora cat, cultured for one to two passages, and subjected to transduction with a retrovirus vector designed to transfer and express the red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene. A total of 176 RFP cloned embryos were transferred into 11 surrogate mothers (mean = 16 +/- 7.5 per recipient). Three surrogate mothers were successfully impregnated (27.3%) and delivered two liveborn and one stillborn kitten at 65 to 66 days of gestation. Analysis of nine feline-specific microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned cats were genetically identical to the donor cat. Presence of the RFP gene in the transgenic cat genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Whole-body red fluorescence was detected 60 days after birth in the liveborn transgenic (TG) cat but not in the surrogate mother cat. Red fluorescence was detected in tissue samples, including hair, muscle, brain, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, bronchus, lung, stomach, intestine, tongue, and even excrement of the stillborn TG cat. These results suggest that this nuclear transfer procedure using genetically modified somatic cells could be useful for the efficient production of transgenic cats.

  6. Post-anesthetic cortical blindness in cats: twenty cases.

    PubMed

    Stiles, J; Weil, A B; Packer, R A; Lantz, G C

    2012-08-01

    The medical records of 20 cats with post-anesthetic cortical blindness were reviewed. Information collected included signalment and health status, reason for anesthesia, anesthetic protocols and adverse events, post-anesthetic visual and neurological abnormalities, clinical outcome, and risk factors. The vascular anatomy of the cat brain was reviewed by cadaver dissections. Thirteen cats were anaesthetised for dentistry, four for endoscopy, two for neutering procedures and one for urethral obstruction. A mouth gag was used in 16/20 cats. Three cats had had cardiac arrest, whereas in the remaining 17 cases, no specific cause of blindness was identified. Seventeen cats (85%) had neurological deficits in addition to blindness. Fourteen of 20 cats (70%) had documented recovery of vision, whereas four (20%) remained blind. Two cats (10%) were lost to follow up while still blind. Ten of 17 cats (59%) with neurological deficits had full recovery from neurological disease, two (12%) had mild persistent deficits and one (6%) was euthanased as it failed to recover. Four cats (23%) without documented resolution of neurological signs were lost to follow up. Mouth gags were identified as a potential risk factor for cerebral ischemia and blindness in cats.

  7. Opinions from the Front Lines of Cat Colony Management Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, M. Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  8. Serological survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in cats in Japan

    PubMed Central

    TSUKADA, Ryusuke; OSAKA, Yuki; TAKANO, Tomomi; SASAKI, Mizuki; INOSE, Mitsuhiro; IKADAI, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using E. cuniculi PTP2 recombinant protein from serum samples that had been collected from a total of 295 cats in Japan. Of these samples, 6.1% (18/295) had antibodies against E. cuniculi, which included 6.3% (6/96) of the male cats and 6.0% (12/199) of the female cats. The incidence was slightly higher in feral cats (8.3%, 11/132) compared to domesticated cats (4.3%, 7/163). This suggests the possibility that the cats of our country have become a reservoir of E. cuniculi. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence of E. cuniculi infection in cats in Japan. PMID:27320966

  9. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hohnen, Rosemary; Tuft, Katherine; McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Radford, Ian J.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account. PMID:27655024

  10. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity.

    PubMed

    Hohnen, Rosemary; Tuft, Katherine; McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Radford, Ian J; Johnson, Christopher N

    The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account.

  11. Acetyl phosphate-sensitive regulation of flagellar biogenesis and capsular biosynthesis depends on the Rcs phosphorelay.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Christine E; Shibata, Satoshi; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Reimann, Sylvia A; Wolfe, Alan J

    2006-08-01

    As part of our attempt to map the impact of acetyl phosphate (acetyl approximately P) on the entire network of two-component signal transduction pathways in Escherichia coli, we asked whether the influence of acetyl approximately P on capsular biosynthesis and flagellar biogenesis depends on the Rcs phosphorelay. To do so, we performed a series of epistasis experiments: mutations in the components of the pathway that controls acetyl approximately P levels were combined with mutations in components of the Rcs phosphorelay. Cells that did not synthesize acetyl approximately P produced no capsule under normally permissive conditions, while those that accumulated acetyl approximately P synthesized capsule under conditions previously considered to be non-permissive. Acetyl approximately P-dependent capsular biosynthesis required both RcsB and RcsA, while the lack of RcsC restored capsular biosynthesis to acetyl approximately P-deficient cells. Similarly, acetyl approximately P-sensitive repression of flagellar biogenesis was suppressed by the loss of RcsB (but not of RcsA), while it was enhanced by the lack of RcsC. Taken together, these results show that both acetyl approximately P-sensitive activation of capsular biosynthesis and acetyl approximately P-sensitive repression of flagellar biogenesis require the Rcs phosphorelay. Moreover, they provide strong genetic support for the hypothesis that RcsC can function as either a kinase or a phosphatase dependent on environmental conditions. Finally, we learned that RcsB and RcsC inversely regulated the timing of flagellar biogenesis: rcsB mutants elaborated flagella prematurely, while rcsC mutants delayed their display of flagella. Temporal control of flagella biogenesis implicates the Rcs phosphorelay (and, by extension, acetyl approximately P) in the transition of motile, planktonic individuals into sessile biofilm communities.

  12. Smad Acetylation: A New Level of Regulation in TGF-Beta Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0357 TITLE: Smad Acetylation : A New Level of...TYPE Annual Summary 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 JUL 2004 - 30 JUN 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Smad Acetylation : A New...proposal suggests a series of experiments designed to study the acetylation of Smad proteins. We have determined that Smad2 can be efficiently

  13. Autoimmune regulator is acetylated by transcription coactivator CBP/p300

    SciTech Connect

    Saare, Mario; Rebane, Ana; Rajashekar, Balaji; Vilo, Jaak; Peterson, Paert

    2012-08-15

    The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) is a regulator of transcription in the thymic medulla, where it controls the expression of a large set of peripheral-tissue specific genes. AIRE interacts with the transcriptional coactivator and acetyltransferase CBP and synergistically cooperates with it in transcriptional activation. Here, we aimed to study a possible role of AIRE acetylation in the modulation of its activity. We found that AIRE is acetylated in tissue culture cells and this acetylation is enhanced by overexpression of CBP and the CBP paralog p300. The acetylated lysines were located within nuclear localization signal and SAND domain. AIRE with mutations that mimicked acetylated K243 and K253 in the SAND domain had reduced transactivation activity and accumulated into fewer and larger nuclear bodies, whereas mutations that mimicked the unacetylated lysines were functionally similar to wild-type AIRE. Analogously to CBP, p300 localized to AIRE-containing nuclear bodies, however, the overexpression of p300 did not enhance the transcriptional activation of AIRE-regulated genes. Further studies showed that overexpression of p300 stabilized the AIRE protein. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that AIRE, with mutations mimicking K243/K253 acetylation in SAND, was able to activate gene expression, although the affected genes were different and the activation level was lower from those regulated by wild-type AIRE. Our results suggest that the AIRE acetylation can influence the selection of AIRE activated genes. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE is acetylated by the acetyltransferases p300 and CBP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation occurs between CARD and SAND domains and within the SAND domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases the size of AIRE nuclear dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases AIRE protein stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE acetylation mimic regulates a different set of AIRE

  14. Epigenetic Readers of Lysine Acetylation Regulate Cocaine-Induced Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Gregory C.; Powell, Samuel K.; Brothers, Shaun P.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic processes that regulate histone acetylation play an essential role in behavioral and molecular responses to cocaine. To date, however, only a small fraction of the mechanisms involved in the addiction-associated acetylome have been investigated. Members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of epigenetic “reader” proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) bind acetylated histones and serve as a scaffold for the recruitment of macromolecular complexes to modify chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activity. The role of BET proteins in cocaine-induced plasticity, however, remains elusive. Here, we used behavioral, pharmacological, and molecular techniques to examine the involvement of BET bromodomains in cocaine reward. Of the BET proteins, BRD4, but not BRD2 or BRD3, was significantly elevated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice and rats following repeated cocaine injections and self-administration. Systemic and intra-accumbal inhibition of BRD4 with the BET inhibitor, JQ1, attenuated the rewarding effects of cocaine in a conditioned place preference procedure but did not affect conditioned place aversion, nor did JQ1 alone induce conditioned aversion or preference. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we found that repeated cocaine injections enhanced the binding of BRD4, but not BRD3, to the promoter region of Bdnf in the NAc, whereas systemic injection of JQ1 attenuated cocaine-induced expression of Bdnf in the NAc. JQ1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of BRD4 in vitro also reduced expression of Bdnf. These findings indicate that disrupting the interaction between BET proteins and their acetylated lysine substrates may provide a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of drug addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Proteins involved in the “readout” of lysine acetylation marks, referred to as BET bromodomain proteins (including BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT), have been shown to be key regulators of chromatin dynamics and disease, and

  15. Piperazine oxadiazole inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, Matthew P; Siegmund, Aaron; Allen, John G; Shu, Hong; Fotsch, Christopher; Bartberger, Michael D; Kim, Ki-Won; Komorowski, Renee; Graham, Melissa; Busby, James; Wang, Minghan; Meyer, James; Xu, Yang; Salyers, Kevin; Fielden, Mark; Véniant, Murielle M; Gu, Wei

    2013-12-27

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a target of interest for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Starting from a biphenyloxadiazole screening hit, a series of piperazine oxadiazole ACC inhibitors was developed. Initial pharmacokinetic liabilities of the piperazine oxadiazoles were overcome by blocking predicted sites of metabolism, resulting in compounds with suitable properties for further in vivo studies. Compound 26 was shown to inhibit malonyl-CoA production in an in vivo pharmacodynamic assay and was advanced to a long-term efficacy study. Prolonged dosing with compound 26 resulted in impaired glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL6 mice, an unexpected finding.

  16. Artificial insemination in domestic cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshihiko

    2006-07-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) in cats represents an important technique for increasing the contribution of genetically valuable individuals in specific populations, whether they be highly pedigreed purebred cats, medically important laboratory cats or endangered non-domestic cats. Semen is collected using electrical stimulation, with an artificial vagina or from intact or excised cauda epididymis. Sperm samples can be used for AI immediately after collection, after temporary storage above 0 degrees C or after cryopreservation. There have been three and five reports on intravaginal and intrauterine insemination, respectively, and one report on tubal insemination with fresh semen. In studies using fresh semen, it was reported that conception rates of 50% or higher were obtained by intravaginal insemination with 10-50x10(6) spermatozoa, while, in another report, the conception rate was 78% after AI with 80x10(6) spermatozoa. After intrauterine insemination, conception rates following deposition of 6.2x10(6) and 8x10(6) spermatozoa were reported to be 50 and 80%, respectively. With tubal insemination, the conception rate was 43% when 4x10(6) spermatozoa were used, showing that the number of spermatozoa required to obtain a satisfactory conception rate was similar to that of cats inseminated directly into the uterus. When frozen semen was used for intravaginal insemination the conception rate was rather low, but intrauterine insemination with 50x10(6) frozen/thawed spermatozoa resulted in a conception rate of 57%. Furthermore, in one report, conception was obtained by intrauterine insemination of frozen epididymal spermatozoa. Overall, there have been few reports on artificial insemination in cats. The results obtained to date show considerable variation, both within and among laboratories depending upon the type and number of spermatozoa used and the site of sperm deposition. Undoubtedly, future studies will identify the major factors required to consistently obtain

  17. Aspirin acetylates wild type and mutant p53 in colon cancer cells: identification of aspirin acetylated sites on recombinant p53.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-05-01

    Aspirin's ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines is considered to be an important mechanism for its anti-cancer effects. We previously demonstrated that aspirin acetylated the tumor suppressor protein p53 at lysine 382 in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Here, we extended these observations to human colon cancer cells, HCT 116 harboring wild type p53, and HT-29 containing mutant p53. We demonstrate that aspirin induced acetylation of p53 in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Aspirin-acetylated p53 was localized to the nucleus. In both cell lines, aspirin induced p21(CIP1). Aspirin also acetylated recombinant p53 (rp53) in vitro suggesting that it occurs through a non-enzymatic chemical reaction. Mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting identified 10 acetylated lysines on rp53, and molecular modeling showed that all lysines targeted by aspirin are surface exposed. Five of these lysines are localized to the DNA-binding domain, four to the nuclear localization signal domain, and one to the C-terminal regulatory domain. Our results suggest that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may involve acetylation and activation of wild type and mutant p53 and induction of target gene expression. This is the first report attempting to characterize p53 acetylation sites targeted by aspirin.

  18. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  19. Observation and Modeling of Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenger, M.; Mayoraz, L.; Stauch, V.; Sharman, B.; Polymeris, J.

    2012-04-01

    CAT represents a very relevant phenomenon for aviation safety. It can lead to passenger injuries, causes an increase in fuel consumption and, under severe intensity, can involve structural damages to the aircraft. The physical processes causing CAT remain at present not fully understood. Moreover, because of its small scale, CAT cannot be represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In this study, the physical processes related to CAT and its representation in NWP models is further investigated. First, 134 CAT events over Europe are extracted from a flight monitoring data base (FDM), run by the SWISS airline and containing over 100'000 flights. The location, time, and meteorological parameters along the turbulent spots are analysed. Furthermore, the 7-km NWP model run by the Swiss National Weather Service (Meteoswiss) is used to calculate model-based CAT indices, e.g. Richardson number, Ellrod & Knapp turbulence index and a complex/combined CAT index developed at NCAR. The CAT indices simulated with COSMO-7 is then compared to the observed CAT spots, hence allowing to assess the model's performance, and potential use in a CAT warning system. In a second step, the meteorological conditions associated with CAT are investigated. To this aim, CAT events are defined as coherent structures in space and in time, i.e. their dimension and life cycle is studied, in connection with jet streams and upper-level fronts. Finally, in a third step the predictability of CAT is assessed, by comparing CAT index predictions based on different lead times of the NWP model COSMO-7

  20. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats.

  1. Sirtuin-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of glutamine synthetases reveals an autofeedback loop in nitrogen metabolism

    PubMed Central

    You, Di; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Li, Zhi-Hai; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Wen-Bang; Zuo, Peng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2016-01-01

    In cells of all domains of life, reversible lysine acetylation modulates the function of proteins involved in central cellular processes such as metabolism. In this study, we demonstrate that the nitrogen regulator GlnR of the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea directly regulates transcription of the acuA gene (SACE_5148), which encodes a Gcn5-type lysine acetyltransferase. We found that AcuA acetylates two glutamine synthetases (GlnA1 and GlnA4) and that this lysine acetylation inactivated GlnA4 (GSII) but had no significant effect on GlnA1 (GSI-β) activity under the conditions tested. Instead, acetylation of GlnA1 led to a gain-of-function that modulated its interaction with the GlnR regulator and enhanced GlnR–DNA binding. It was observed that this regulatory function of acetylated GSI-β enzymes is highly conserved across actinomycetes. In turn, GlnR controls the catalytic and regulatory activities (intracellular acetylation levels) of glutamine synthetases at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels, indicating an autofeedback loop that regulates nitrogen metabolism in response to environmental change. Thus, this GlnR-mediated acetylation pathway provides a signaling cascade that acts from nutrient sensing to acetylation of proteins to feedback regulation. This work presents significant new insights at the molecular level into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of protein acetylation and nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes. PMID:27247389

  2. Preparation of radioactive acetyl-l-carnitine by an enzymatic exchange reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Emaus, R.; Bieber, L.L.

    1982-01-15

    A rapid method for the preparation of (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is described. The method involves exchange of (1-/sup 14/C)acetic acid into a pool of unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine using the enzymes acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. After isotopic equilibrium is attained, radioactive acetylcarnitine is separated from the other reaction components by chromatography on Dowex 1 (C1/sup -/) anion exchange resin. One of the procedures used to verify the product (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine can be used to synthesize (3S)-(5-/sup 14/C)citric acid.

  3. Inhibition of N-acetylneuraminate lyase by N-acetyl-4-oxo-D-neuraminic acid.

    PubMed

    Gross, H J; Brossmer, R

    1988-05-09

    We show that the 4-oxo analogue of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid strongly inhibits N-acetylneuraminate lyase (NeuAc aldolase, EC 4.1.3.3) from Clostridum perfringens (Ki = 0.025 mM) and Escherichia coli (Ki = 0.15 mM). In each case the inhibition was competitive. N-Acetyl-D-neuraminic acid; N-Acetylneuraminate lyase; N-Acetyl-D-neuraminic acid analog; 5-Acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-beta-D-manno-non-2,4-diulosonic acid; 2-Deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetyl-4-oxo-neuraminic acid; Competitive inhibitor.

  4. First Comprehensive Proteome Analyses of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation in Seedling Leaves of Brachypodium distachyon L.

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shoumin; Deng, Xiong; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Gengrui; Cao, Hui; Yuan, Linlin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Protein acetylation and succinylation are the most crucial protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we present the first lysine-acetylation and lysine-succinylation proteome analysis of seedling leaves in Brachypodium distachyon L (Bd). Using high accuracy nano LC-MS/MS combined with affinity purification, we identified a total of 636 lysine-acetylated sites in 353 proteins and 605 lysine-succinylated sites in 262 proteins. These proteins participated in many biology processes, with various molecular functions. In particular, 119 proteins and 115 sites were found to be both acetylated and succinylated, simultaneously. Among the 353 acetylated proteins, 148 had acetylation orthologs in Oryza sativa L., Arabidopsis thaliana, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and Glycine max L. Among the 262 succinylated proteins, 170 of them were found to have homologous proteins in Oryza sativa L., Escherichia coli, Sacchayromyces cerevisiae, or Homo sapiens. Motif-X analysis of the acetylated and succinylated sites identified two new acetylated motifs (K---K and K-I-K) and twelve significantly enriched succinylated motifs for the first time, which could serve as possible binding loci for future studies in plants. Our comprehensive dataset provides a promising starting point for further functional analysis of acetylation and succinylation in Bd and other plant species. PMID:27515067

  5. Proteome-wide analysis of lysine acetylation in the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Binna; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Delong; Liang, Wenxing; Song, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. Botrytis cinerea is the most thoroughly studied necrotrophic species due to its broad host range and huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. In this study, we determined the lysine acetylome of B. cinerea through the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. Overall, 1582 lysine acetylation sites in 954 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the acetylated proteins are involved in diverse biological functions and show multiple cellular localizations. Several particular amino acids preferred near acetylation sites, including KacY, KacH, Kac***R, KacF, FKac and Kac***K, were identified in this organism. Protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a variety of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. Interestingly, 6 proteins involved in virulence of B. cinerea, including 3 key components of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, were found to be acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays regulatory roles in pathogenesis. These data provides the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of B. cinerea and serves as a rich resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. PMID:27381557

  6. Peptidoglycan O Acetylation and Autolysin Profile of Enterococcus faecalis in the Viable but Nonculturable State

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, John M.; Strating, Hendrik; Weadge, Joel T.; Clarke, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The O acetylation of peptidoglycan occurs specifically at the C-6 hydroxyl group of muramoyl residues. Using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography-based organic acid analysis and carbohydrate analysis by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography, we determined that strains of Entercoccus durans, E. faecalis, E. faecium, and E. hirae produce O-acetylated peptidoglycan. The levels of O acetylation ranged from 19% to 72% relative to the muramic acid content, and they were found to vary with the growth phase of the culture. Increases of 10 to 40% in O acetylation were observed with cultures entering the stationary phase. Cells of E. faecalis in the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state had the highest levels of peptidoglycan O acetylation. The presence of this modification to peptidoglycan was shown to inhibit the action of hen egg white lysozyme in a concentration-dependent manner. Zymography using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels containing either O-acetylated or chemically de-O-acetylated peptidoglycan was used to monitor the production of specific autolysins in E. faecalis. Differences in the expression of specific autolysins were observed with the age of the culture, and VBNC E. faecalis produced the highest levels of these enzymes. This technique also permitted classification of the enterococcal autolysins into enzymes that preferentially hydrolyze either O-acetylated or non-O-acetylated peptidoglycan and enzymes that show no apparent preference for either substrate type. PMID:16428393

  7. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH. PMID:26438600

  8. Conserved Lysine Acetylation within the Microtubule-Binding Domain Regulates MAP2/Tau Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Andrew W.; Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Friedmann, Dave; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Marmorstein, Ronen; Lee, Virginia M. Y.; Cohen, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has emerged as a dominant post-translational modification (PTM) regulating tau proteins in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Mass spectrometry studies indicate that tau acetylation sites cluster within the microtubule-binding region (MTBR), a region that is highly conserved among tau, MAP2, and MAP4 family members, implying that acetylation could represent a conserved regulatory mechanism for MAPs beyond tau. Here, we combined mass spectrometry, biochemical assays, and cell-based approaches to demonstrate that the tau family members MAP2 and MAP4 are also subject to reversible acetylation. We identify a cluster of lysines in the MAP2 and MAP4 MTBR that undergo CBP-catalyzed acetylation, many of which are conserved in tau. Similar to tau, MAP2 acetylation can occur in a cysteine-dependent auto-regulatory manner in the presence of acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, tubulin reduced MAP2 acetylation, suggesting tubulin binding dictates MAP acetylation status. Taken together, these results uncover a striking conservation of MAP2/Tau family post-translational modifications that could expand our understanding of the dynamic mechanisms regulating microtubules. PMID:28002468

  9. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu; Zhang, Kezhong

    2015-12-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH.

  10. Functional Interplay between CBP and PCAF in Acetylation and Regulation of Transcription Factor KLF13 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chao-Zhong; Keller, Kimberly; Chen, Yangchao; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2010-01-01

    The transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300 and PCAF participate in transcriptional activation by many factors. We have shown that both CBP/p300 and PCAF stimulate the transcriptional activation by KLF13, a member of the KLF/Sp1 family, either individually or cooperatively. Here we further investigated how CBP and PCAF acetylation regulate KLF13 activity, and how these two co-activators functionally interplay in the regulation of KLF13 activity. We found that CBP and PCAF acetylated KLF13 at specific lysine residues in the zinc finger domain of KLF13. The acetylation by CBP, however, resulted in disruption of KLF13 DNA binding. Although the acetyltransferase activity of CBP is not required for stimulating the DNA binding activity of all of the transcription factors that we have examined, the disruption of factor DNA binding by CBP acetylation is factor-specific. We further showed that PCAF and CBP act synergistically and antagonistically to regulate KLF13 DNA binding depending on the status of acetylation. PCAF blocked CBP acetylation and disruption of KLF13 DNA binding. Conversely, acetylation of KLF13 by CBP prevented PCAF stimulation of KLF13 DNA binding. PCAF blocked CBP disruption of KLF13 DNA binding by preventing CBP acetylation of KLF13. These results demonstrate that acetylation by CBP has distinct effects on transcription factor DNA binding, and that CBP and PCAF regulate each other functionally in their regulation of transcription factor DNA binding. PMID:12758070

  11. The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly of microtubules

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A tight association between Chlamydomonas alpha-tubulin acetyltransferase (TAT) and flagellar axonemes, and the cytoplasmic localization of both tubulin deacetylase (TDA) and an inhibitor of tubulin acetylation have been demonstrated by the use of calf brain tubulin as substrate for these enzymes. A major axonemal TAT of 130 kD has been solubilized by high salt treatment, purified, and characterized. Using the Chlamydomonas TAT with brain tubulin as substrate, we have studied the effects of acetylation on the assembly and disassembly of microtubules in vitro. We also determined the relative rates of acetylation of tubulin dimers and polymers. The acetylation does not significantly affect the temperature-dependent polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin in vitro. Furthermore, polymerization of tubulin is not a prerequisite for the acetylation, although the polymer is a better substrate for TAT than the dimer. The acetylation is sensitive to calcium ions which completely inhibit the acetylation of both dimers and polymers of tubulin. Acetylation of the dimer is not inhibited by colchicine; the effect of colchicine on acetylation of the polymer can be explained by its depolymerizing effect on the polymer. PMID:3733880

  12. Insight into the carboxyl transferase domain mechanism of pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli†

    PubMed Central

    Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Maurice, Martin St.; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Wallace, John C.; Attwood, Paul V.; Cleland, W. Wallace

    2009-01-01

    The effects of mutations in the active site of the carboxyl transferase domain of R. etli pyruvate carboxylase have been determined for the forward reaction to form oxaloacetate, the reverse reaction to form MgATP, the oxamate-induced decarboxylation of oxaloacetate, the phosphorylation of MgADP by carbamoyl phosphate and the bicarbonate-dependent ATPase reaction. Additional studies with these mutants examined the effect of pyruvate and oxamate on the reactions of the biotin carboxylase domain. From these mutagenic studies, putative roles for catalytically relevant active site residues were assigned and a more accurate description of the mechanism of the carboxyl transferase domain is presented. The T882A mutant showed no catalytic activity for reactions involving the carboxyl transferase domain, but surprisingly showed a 7- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, as compared to the wild-type enzyme, for the ADP phosphorylation and bicarbonate-dependent ATPase reactions, respectively. Furthermore, the partial inhibition of the T882A catalyzed BC domain reactions by oxamate and pyruvate further supports the critical role of Thr882 in the proton transfer between biotin and pyruvate in the carboxyl transferase domain. The catalytic mechanism appears to involve the decarboxylation of carboxybiotin and proton removal from Thr882 by the resulting biotin enolate with either a concerted or subsequent transfer of a proton from pyruvate to Thr882. The resulting enolpyruvate then reacts with CO2 to form oxaloacetate and complete the reaction. PMID:19341298

  13. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1-DEPENDENT METABOLISM OF THE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a prevalent drinking water disinfection by-product, was previously shown to be mutagenic in Salmonella expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) theta 1-1 (GST T1-1). In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to study the...

  14. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  15. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  16. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  17. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  18. Plasmodium spp. membrane glutathione S-transferases: detoxification units and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Lisewski, Andreas M.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane glutathione S-transferases from the class of membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG) form a superfamily of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and hydrophobic electrophiles. Evolutionarily unrelated to the cytosolic glutathione S-transferases, they are found across bacterial and eukaryotic domains, for example in mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria in which significant levels of glutathione are maintained. Species of genus Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoa that are commonly known as malaria parasites, do actively support glutathione homeostasis and maintain its metabolism throughout their complex parasitic life cycle. In humans and in other mammals, the asexual intraerythrocytic stage of malaria, when the parasite feeds on hemoglobin, grows and eventually asexually replicates inside infected red blood cells (RBCs), is directly associated with host disease symptoms and during this critical stage GSH protects the host RBC and the parasite against oxidative stress from parasite-induced hemoglobin catabolism. In line with these observations, several GSH-dependent Plasmodium enzymes have been characterized including glutathione reductases, thioredoxins, glyoxalases, glutaredoxins and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs); furthermore, GSH itself have been found to associate spontaneously and to degrade free heme and its hydroxide, hematin, which are the main cytotoxic byproducts of hemoglobin catabolism. However, despite the apparent importance of glutathione metabolism for the parasite, no membrane associated glutathione S-transferases of genus Plasmodium have been previously described. We recently reported the first examples of MAPEG members among Plasmodium spp. PMID:28357217

  19. The TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 S-acyl transferase regulates plant cell growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Kemp, Alison C; Grierson, Claire S

    2005-09-01

    TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 (TIP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana affects cell growth throughout the plant and has a particularly strong effect on root hair growth. We have identified TIP1 by map-based cloning and complementation of the mutant phenotype. TIP1 encodes an ankyrin repeat protein with a DHHC Cys-rich domain that is expressed in roots, leaves, inflorescence stems, and floral tissue. Two homologues of TIP1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human (Homo sapiens) have been shown to have S-acyl transferase (also known as palmitoyl transferase) activity. S-acylation is a reversible hydrophobic protein modification that offers swift, flexible control of protein hydrophobicity and affects protein association with membranes, signal transduction, and vesicle trafficking within cells. We show that TIP1 binds the acyl group palmitate, that it can rescue the morphological, temperature sensitivity, and yeast casein kinase2 localization defects of the yeast S-acyl transferase mutant akr1Delta, and that inhibition of acylation in wild-type Arabidopsis roots reproduces the Tip1- mutant phenotype. Our results demonstrate that S-acylation is essential for normal plant cell growth and identify a plant S-acyl transferase, an essential research tool if we are to understand how this important, reversible lipid modification operates in plant cells.

  20. DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1

    EPA Science Inventory


    DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1. R A Pegram1 and M K Ross2. 2Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 1Pharmacokinetics Branch, NHEERL, ORD, United States Environmental Protection Ag...