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Sample records for acetyl-coa carboxylase activity

  1. Active site of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.; Stringer, C.D.; Milanez, S.; Lee, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Previous affinity labeling studies and comparative sequence analyses have identified two different lysines at the active site of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and have suggested their essentiality to function. The essential lysines occupy positions 166 and 329 in the Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme and positions 175 and 334 in the spinach enzyme. Based on the pH-dependencies of inactivations of the two enzymes by trinitrobenzene sulfonate, Lys-166 (R. rubrum enzyme) exhibits a pK/sub a/ of 7.9 and Lys-334 (spinach enzyme) exhibits a pK/sub a/ of 9.0. These low pK/sub a/ values as well as the enhanced nucleophilicities of the lysyl residues argue that both are important to catalysis rather than to substrate binding. Lys-166 may correspond to the essential base that initiates catalysis and that displays a pK/sub a/ of 7.5 in the pH-curve for V/sub max//K/sub m/. Cross-linking experiments with 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonate stilbene demonstrate that the two active-site lysines are within 12 A. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Expression of bovine vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity in baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, D A; Rehemtulla, A; Kaufman, R J; Walsh, C T; Furie, B; Furie, B C

    1993-09-15

    A vitamin K-dependent carboxylase has recently been purified from bovine liver microsomes and candidate cDNA clones have been isolated. Definitive identification of the carboxylase remains circumstantial since expression of candidate carboxylase cDNAs in mammalian cells is confounded by the presence of endogenous carboxylase activity. To overcome this problem, a recombinant strain of baculovirus (Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus, AcMNPV) encoding a putative carboxylase (vbCbx/AcMNPV) was used to infect Sf9 insect cells, which we demonstrate have no endogenous carboxylase activity. Infection with vbCbx/AcMNPV conferred vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity to Sf9 insect cells. Carboxylase activity was demonstrated to peak 2-3 days after infection with vbCbx/AcMNPV. Metabolic radiolabeling with L-[35S]methionine revealed that the 90-kDa recombinant protein is the major protein synthesized at the time of peak activity after infection. An anti-peptide antibody directed against residues 86-99 reacted with bovine liver carboxylase on Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitated recombinant carboxylase from infected Sf9 microsomal protein preparations. Since Sf9 insect cells lack endogenous vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity, expression of carboxylase activity in Sf9 insect cells with recombinant baculovirus demonstrates that the protein encoded by this cDNA is a vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. PMID:8378308

  3. The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase requires interacting domains of adjacent, identical subunits. Most active-site residues are located within the loop regions of an eight-stranded {beta}/{alpha}-barrel which constitutes the larger C-terminal domain; additional key residues are located within a segment of the smaller N-terminal domain which partially covers the mouth of the barrel. Site-directed mutagenesis of the gene encoding the enzyme from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been used to delineate functions of active-site residues. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Activation and inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli†

    PubMed Central

    Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Menefee, Ann L.; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Wallace, John C.; Attwood, Paul V.; Maurice, Martin St.; Cleland, W. Wallace

    2011-01-01

    While crystallographic structures of the R. etli pyruvate carboxylase (PC) holoenzyme revealed the location and probable positioning of the essential activator, Mg2+, and non-essential activator, acetyl-CoA, an understanding of how they affect catalysis remains unclear. The current steady-state kinetic investigation indicates that both acetyl-CoA and Mg2+ assist in coupling the MgATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin in the biotin carboxylase (BC) domain with pyruvate carboxylation in the carboxyl transferase (CT) domain. Initial velocity plots of free Mg2+ vs. pyruvate were nonlinear at low concentrations of Mg2+ and a nearly complete loss of coupling between the BC and CT domain reactions was observed in the absence of acetyl-CoA. Increasing concentrations of free Mg2+ also resulted in a decrease in the Ka for acetyl-CoA. Acetyl phosphate was determined to be a suitable phosphoryl donor for the catalytic phosphorylation of MgADP, while phosphonoacetate inhibited both the phosphorylation of MgADP by carbamoyl phosphate (Ki = 0.026 mM) and pyruvate carboxylation (Ki = 2.5 mM). In conjunction with crystal structures of T882A R. etli PC mutant cocrystallized with phosphonoacetate and MgADP, computational docking studies suggest that phosphonoacetate could coordinate to one of two Mg2+ metal centers in the BC domain active site. Based on the pH profiles, inhibition studies and initial velocity patterns, possible mechanisms for the activation, regulation and coordination of catalysis between the two spatially distinct active sites in pyruvate carboxylase from R. etli by acetyl-CoA and Mg2+ are described. PMID:21958066

  5. Activation and regulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase in the absence of small subunits.

    PubMed

    Whitman, W B; Martin, M N; Tabita, F R

    1979-10-25

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from Rhodospirillum rubrum requires CO2 and Mg2+ for activation of both CO2, both the carboxylase and oxygenase activities are stimulated by 6-phoshpo-D-gluconate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, 2-phosphoglycolate, 3-phosphoglycerate, NADPH, and fructose 6-phosphate. The carboxylase activity is not activated by ribose 5-phosphate. The substrate, ribulose bisphosphate, neither activates nor inhibits the CO2 and Mg2+ activation of this enzyme. Activation by CO2 and Mg2+ is rapid and results in increased susceptibility to active-site-directed protein modification reagents. Because the R. rubrum carboxylase-oxygenase is a dimer of large subunits and contains no small subunits, these results suggest that the effector binding sites of the higher plant enzyme may also be found on the large subunit.

  6. Photosynthesis and Activation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase in Wheat Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Perchorowicz, John T.; Jensen, Richard G.

    1983-01-01

    Photosynthetic carbon assimilation in plants is regulated by activity of the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase. Although the carboxylase requires CO2 to activate the enzyme, changes in CO2 between 100 and 1,400 microliters per liter did not cause changes in activation of the leaf carboxylase in light. With these CO2 levels and 21% O2 or 1% or less O2, the levels of ribulose bisphosphate were high and not limiting for CO2 fixation. With high leaf ribulose bisphosphate, the Kact(CO2) of the carboxylase must be lower than in dark, where RuBP is quite low in leaves. When leaves were illuminated in the absence of CO2 and O2, activation of the carboxylase dropped to zero while RuBP levels approached the binding site concentration of the carboxylase, probably by forming the inactive enzyme-RuBP complex. The mechanism for changing activation of the RuBP carboxylase in the light involves not only Mg2+ and pH changes in the chloroplast stroma, but also the effects of binding RuBP to the enzyme. In light when RuBP is greater than the binding site concentration of the carboxylase, Mg2+ and pH most likely determine the ratio of inactive enzyme-RuBP to active enzyme-CO2-Mg2+-RuBP forms. Higher irradiances favor more optimal Mg2+ and pH, with greater activation of the carboxylase and increased photosynthesis. PMID:16662935

  7. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase synthesis in euglena: increased enzyme activity after transferring regreening cells to darkness.

    PubMed

    Lord, J M; Merrett, M J

    1975-05-01

    The transfer of dark-grown cultures of Euglena gracilis Klebs strain Z regreening in the light back into darkness resulted in a dramatic increase in ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity. On a culture volume basis activity increased 4-fold over a 24-hour dark period, although on a protein basis activity declined because of rapid cell division. Mixed assays with light- and dark-growing cell extracts provided no evidence for the removal of an inhibitor of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase upon transferring regreening cells back to darkness. Although ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity increased over a 24-hour dark period, there was no concomitant increase in the potential of the cells for photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation.Higher light intensities than the optimum for ribulose diphosphate carboxylase synthesis during regreening resulted in a greater relative rate of synthesis on transfer to darkness so that the maximum activity of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase reached in the dark was constant, regardless of light intensity during regreening. A tentative hypothesis to explain these results is that the synthesis of the large and small subunits of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase occur at different stages of cell development, light being necessary for the synthesis of the large subunit and also for regulating the synthesis of the small subunit.

  8. Chemical and physical characterization of the activation of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, M.I.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Hartman, F.C.

    1983-01-01

    Molecular structure of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase isolated from Rhodospirillium was compared with the enzyme isolated from Alcaligens eutrophus. Peptides derived from the active center of the bacterial enzyme were highly homologous with those isolated from spinach. Molecular shapes of the carboxylases were estimated using neutron scattering data. These studies suggested that the enzyme as isolated from R. rubrum is a solid prolate ellipsoid or cylinder, while the spinach enzyme resembles a hollow sphere. 1 drawing.

  9. Chemical and Physical Characterization of the Activation of Ribulosebiphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Donnelly, M. I.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Hartman, F. C.

    1983-08-01

    Molecular structure of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase isolated from Rhodospirillium was compared with the enzyme isolated from Alcaligens eutrophus. Peptides derived from the active center of the bacterial enzyme were highly homologous with those isolated from spinach. Molecular shapes of the carboxylases were estimated using neutron scattering data. These studies suggested that the enzyme as isolated from R. rubrum is a solid prolate ellipsoid or cylinder, while the spinach enzyme resembles a hollow sphere.

  10. Biotin uptake into human peripheral blood mononuclear cells increases early in the cell cycle, increasing carboxylase activities.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J Steven; Mock, Donald M; Griffin, Jacob B; Zempleni, Janos

    2002-07-01

    Cells respond to proliferation with increased accumulation of biotin, suggesting that proliferation enhances biotin demand. Here we determined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) increase biotin uptake at specific phases of the cell cycle, and whether biotin is utilized to increase biotinylation of carboxylases. Biotin uptake was quantified in human PBMC that were arrested chemically at specific phases of the cell cycle, i.e., biotin uptake increased in the G1 phase of the cycle [658 +/- 574 amol biotin/(10(6) cells x 30 min)] and remained increased during phases S, G2, and M compared with quiescent controls [200 +/- 62 amol biotin/(10(6) cells x 30 min)]. The abundance of the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT, which transports biotin) was similar at all phases of the cell cycle, suggesting that transporters other than SMVT or splicing variants of SMVT may account for the increased biotin uptake observed in proliferating cells. Activities of biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase were up to two times greater in proliferating PBMC compared with controls. The abundance of mRNA encoding 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase paralleled carboxylase activities, suggesting that PBMC respond to proliferation with increased expression of genes encoding carboxylases. Similarly, expression of the gene encoding holocarboxylase synthetase (which catalyzes binding of biotin to carboxylases) increased in response to proliferation, suggesting that cellular capacity to biotinylate carboxylases was increased. In summary, these findings suggest that PBMC respond to proliferation with increased biotin uptake early in the cell cycle, and that biotin is utilized to increase activities of two of the four biotin-requiring carboxylases.

  11. Is Dimerization Required for the Catalytic Activity of Bacterial Biotin Carboxylase?

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,Y.; Chou, C.; Chang, G.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism. The biotin carboxylase (BC) subunit of Escherichia coli ACC is believed to be active only as a dimer, although the crystal structure shows that the active site of each monomer is 25 Angstroms from the dimer interface. We report here biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterizations of BC carrying single-site mutations in the dimer interface. Our studies demonstrate that two of the mutants, R19E and E23R, are monomeric in solution but have only a 3-fold loss in catalytic activity. The crystal structures of the E23R and F363A mutants show that they can still form the correct dimer at high concentrations. Our data suggest that dimerization is not an absolute requirement for the catalytic activity of the E. coli BC subunit, and we propose a new model for the molecular mechanism of action for BC in multisubunit and multidomain ACCs.

  12. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-activated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Pseudomonas MA: potential regulation between carbon assimilation and energy production.

    PubMed Central

    Newaz, S S; Hersh, L B

    1975-01-01

    Comparison of enzyme activities in crude extracts of methylamine-grown Pseudomonas MA (ATCC 23319) to those in succinate-grown cells indicates the involvement of an acetyl coenzyme A-independent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in one-carbon metabolism. The purified phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is activated specifically by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (KA = 0.2 mM). The regulatory properties of this enzyme suggests that phosphoenolpyruvate serves as a focal point for both carbon assimilation and energy metabolism. PMID:171253

  13. Heavy metal impurities impair the spectrophotometric assay of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Walbot, V

    1977-01-01

    An inverse relationship between the concentration of ribose 5-phosphate and apparent ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity was observed. The Lilley-Walker assay spectrophotometric assay, in which the 3-phosphoglyceric acid-dependent oxidation of reduced pyridine nucleotide is measured, is shown to be highly sensitive to inhibition by heavy metals. Analysis of the purity of reagents showed that ribose 5-phosphate is often contaminated with lead in sufficient quantity to impair the assay. This noncompetitive inhibition by ribose 5-phosphate is independent of the competitive inhibition of this substrate as an ATP sink as described by Slabas and Walker. A method for checking reagent purity and removing heavy metal contaminants is described.

  14. gamma-Glutamyl carboxylase activity in experimental tumor tissues: a biochemical basis for vitamin K dependence of cancer procoagulant.

    PubMed

    Roncaglioni, M C; Dalessandro, A P; Casali, B; Vermeer, C; Donati, M B

    1986-01-01

    Rabbit V2 carcinoma tissues have been described to possess a procoagulant activity with specific characteristics; this material has been purified and identified as a cysteine proteinase able to directly activate coagulation factor X. We have shown here that the procoagulant activity of V2 carcinoma extracts is depressed in warfarin-treated animals, thus suggesting that cancer procoagulant could represent a new vitamin K-dependent protein. The biochemical basis for this effect is offered by the identification of gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in the microsomal fraction of tumor tissues. The V2 carcinoma has a carboxylase activity which is increased in warfarin-treated animals. An endogenous substrate of tumor carboxylase, the nature of which has not been identified, has been found 5-fold increased in warfarin-treated animals. The presence of gamma-glutamyl carboxylase was also described in several murine tumors including both carcinomas and fibrosarcomas. It is worth mentioning that all the tumors tested produce a procoagulant with the peculiar characteristics of that described in V2 carcinoma. It is conceivable that cancer procoagulant could represent at least one of the substrates for gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in these experimental tumor tissues.

  15. Dark/Light Modulation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Plants from Different Photosynthetic Categories 1

    PubMed Central

    Vu, J. Cu V.; Allen, Leon H.; Bowes, George

    1984-01-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO3− and Mg2+ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C3); P. maximum (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C3/C4); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C3); P. miliaceum (C4 NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C4 NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C3/C4); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C3 species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO2 and Mg2+ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. PMID:16663937

  16. Dark/Light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories.

    PubMed

    Vu, J C; Allen, L H; Bowes, G

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO(3) (-) and Mg(2+) concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C(3)); P. maximum (C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C(3)/C(4)); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C(3)); P. miliaceum (C(4) NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C(4) NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C(3)/C(4)); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C(3) species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO(2) and Mg(2+) activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light.

  17. Active site histidine in spinach ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase modified by diethyl pyrocarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Y.; McFadden, B.A.; el-Gul, T.

    1985-07-16

    (TH) Diethyl pyrocarbonate was synthesized from (TH) ethanol prepared by the reduction of acetaldehyde by NaB3H4. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) from spinach was inactivated with this reagent at pH 7.0 the presence of 20 mM MgS , and tryptic peptides that contained modified histidine residues were isolated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Labeling of the enzyme was conducted in the presence and absence of the competitive inhibitor sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate. The amount of one peptide that was heavily labeled in the absence of this compound was reduced 10-fold in its presence. The labeled residue was histidine-298. This result, in combination with earlier experiments, suggests that His-298 in spinach RuBisCO is located in the active site domain and is essential to enzyme activity. This region of the primary structure is strongly conserved in seven other ribulosebisphosphate carboxylases from divergent sources.

  18. Maize leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase : oligomeric state and activity in the presence of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Podestá, F E; Andreo, C S

    1989-06-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) leaf phosphoenopyruvate (PEP) carboxylase activity at subsaturating levels of PEP was increased by the inclusion of glycerol (20%, v/v) in the assay medium. The extent of activation was dependent on H(+) concentration, being more marked at pH 7 (with activities 100% higher than in aqueous medium) than at pH 8 (20% activation). The determination of the substrate concentration necessary to achieve half-maximal enzyme activity (S(0.5)) (PEP) and maximal velocity (V) between pH 6.9 and 8.2 showed a uniform decrease in S(0.5) in the presence of glycerol over the entire pH range tested, and only a slight decrease in V at pH values near 8. Including NaCl (100 millimolar) in the glycerol containing assay medium resulted in additional activation, mainly due to an increase in V over the entire range of pH. Glucose-6-phosphate (5 millimolar) activated both the native and the glycerol-treated enzyme almost to the same extent, at pH 7 and 1 millimolar PEP. Inhibition by 5 millimolar malate at pH 7 and subsaturating PEP was considerably lower in the presence of glycerol than in an aqueous medium (8% against 25%, respectively). Size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography in aqueous buffer revealed the existence of an equilibrium between the tetrameric and dimeric enzyme forms, which is displaced to the tetramer as the pH was increased from 7 to 8. In the presence of glycerol, only the 400 kilodalton tetrameric form was observed at pH 7 or 8. However, dissociation into dimers by NaCl could not be prevented by the polyol. We conclude that the control of the aggregation state by the metabolic status of the cell could be one regulatory mechanism of PEP carboxylase.

  19. Insulin stimulates the dephosphorylation and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Witters, L.A.; Watts, T.D.; Daniels, D.L.; Evans, J.L. )

    1988-08-01

    The mechanism underlying the ability of insulin to acutely activate acetyl-CoA carboxylase has been examined in Fao Reuber hepatoma cells. Insulin promotes the rapid activation of AcCoACase, as measured in cell lysates, and this stimulation persists to the same degree after isolation of AcCoACase by avidin-Sepharose chromatography. The insulin-stimulated enzyme, as compared with control enzyme, exhibits an increase in both citrate-independent and -dependent activity and a decrease in the K{sub a} for citrate. Direct examination of the phosphorylation state of isolated {sup 32}P-labeled AcCoACase after insulin exposure reveals a marked decrease in total enzyme phosphorylation coincident with activation. The dephosphorylation due to insulin appears to be restricted to the phosphorylation sites previously shown to regulate AcCoACase activity. All of these effects of insulin are mimicked by a low molecular weight autocrine factor, tentatively identified as an oligosaccharide, present in conditioned medium of hepatoma cells. These data suggest that insulin may activate AcCoACase by inhibiting the activity of protein kinase(s) or stimulating the activity of protein phosphatase(s) that control the phosphorylation state of the enzyme.

  20. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag 1

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Shyamala; Smith, Roberta H.; Finer, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. `Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663273

  1. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, S; Smith, R H; Finer, J J

    1983-11-01

    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. ;Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. PMID:16663273

  2. The urea carboxylase and allophanate hydrolase activities of urea amidolyase are functionally independent.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Boese, Cody J; St Maurice, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Urea amidolyase (UAL) is a multifunctional biotin-dependent enzyme that contributes to both bacterial and fungal pathogenicity by catalyzing the ATP-dependent cleavage of urea into ammonia and CO2 . UAL is comprised of two enzymatic components: urea carboxylase (UC) and allophanate hydrolase (AH). These enzyme activities are encoded on separate but proximally related genes in prokaryotes while, in most fungi, they are encoded by a single gene that produces a fusion enzyme on a single polypeptide chain. It is unclear whether the UC and AH activities are connected through substrate channeling or other forms of direct communication. Here, we use multiple biochemical approaches to demonstrate that there is no substrate channeling or interdomain/intersubunit communication between UC and AH. Neither stable nor transient interactions can be detected between prokaryotic UC and AH and the catalytic efficiencies of UC and AH are independent of one another. Furthermore, an artificial fusion of UC and AH does not significantly alter the AH enzyme activity or catalytic efficiency. These results support the surprising functional independence of AH from UC in both the prokaryotic and fungal UAL enzymes and serve as an important reminder that the evolution of multifunctional enzymes through gene fusion events does not always correlate with enhanced catalytic function.

  3. Improvement of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity of Phaeodactylum tricornutum PEPCase 1 through protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwang Suk; Jeon, Hancheol; Seo, Seungbeom; Lee, Yew; Jin, EonSeon

    2014-06-10

    In order to mitigate CO2 accumulation and decrease the rate of global warming and climate change, we previously presented a strategy for the development of an efficient CO2 capture and utilization system. The system employs two recombinant enzymes, carbonic anhydrase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, which were originated from microalgae. Although utilization of this integrated system would require a large quantity of high quality PEPCase protein, such quantities could be produced by increasing the solubility of the Phaeodactylum tricornutum PEPCase 1 (PtPEPCase 1) protein in the Escherichia coli heterologous expression system. We first expressed the putative mitochondria targeting peptide- and chloroplast transit peptide-truncated proteins of PtPEPCase 1, mPtPEPCase 1 and cPtPEPCase 1, respectively, in E. coli. After affinity chromatography, the amount of purified PEPCase protein from 500mL of E. coli culture was greatest for cPtPEPCase 1 (1.99mg), followed by mPtPEPCase 1 (0.82mg) and PtPEPCase 1 (0.61mg). Furthermore, the enzymatic activity of mPtPEPCase 1 and cPtPEPCase 1 showed approximately 1.6-fold (32.19 units/mg) and 3-fold (59.48 units/mg) increases, respectively. Therefore, cPtPEPCase 1 purified using the E. coli heterogeneous expression system could be a strong candidate for a platform technology to capture CO2 and produce value-added four-carbon platform chemicals.

  4. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity and a Calvin cycle gene cluster in Sulfobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Paul E; MacLean, Martin R; Norris, Paul R

    2007-07-01

    The Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle has been extensively studied in proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and plants, but hardly at all in Gram-positive bacteria. Some characteristics of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and a cluster of potential CBB cycle genes in a Gram-positive bacterium are described in this study with two species of Sulfobacillus (Gram-positive, facultatively autotrophic, mineral sulfide-oxidizing acidophiles). In contrast to the Gram-negative, iron-oxidizing acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans grew poorly autotrophically unless the CO(2) concentration was enhanced over that in air. However, the RuBisCO of each organism showed similar affinities for CO(2) and for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, and similar apparent derepression of activity under CO(2) limitation. The red-type, form I RuBisCO of Sulfobacillus acidophilus was confirmed as closely related to that of the anoxygenic phototroph Oscillochloris trichoides. Eight genes potentially involved in the CBB cycle in S. acidophilus were clustered in the order cbbA, cbbP, cbbE, cbbL, cbbS, cbbX, cbbG and cbbT.

  5. Soraphen A, an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase activity, interferes with fatty acid elongation

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Olson, L. Karl

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC1 & ACC2) generates malonyl CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). Malonyl CoA is also a substrate for microsomal fatty acid elongation, an important pathway for saturated (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis. Despite the interest in ACC as a target for obesity and cancer therapy, little attention has been given to the role ACC plays in long chain fatty acid synthesis. This report examines the effect of pharmacological inhibition of ACC on DNL & palmitate (16:0) and linoleate (18:2,n-6) metabolism in HepG2 and LnCap cells. The ACC inhibitor, soraphen A, lowers cellular malonyl CoA, attenuates DNL and the formation of fatty acid elongation products derived from exogenous fatty acids, i.e., 16:0 & 18:2,n-6; IC50 ~ 5 nM. Elevated expression of fatty acid elongases (Elovl5, Elovl6) or desaturases (FADS1, FADS2) failed to override the soraphen A effect on SFA, MUFA or PUFA synthesis. Inhibition of fatty acid elongation leads to the accumulation of 16- and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids derived from 16:0 and 18:2,n-6, respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC activity will not only attenuate DNL and induce FAO, but will also attenuate the synthesis of very long chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21184748

  6. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of the carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Berkner, Kathleen L.; Pudota, B. Nirmala

    1998-01-01

    Vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins require modification by the VKD-γ-glutamyl carboxylase, an enzyme that converts clusters of glus to glas in a reaction that requires vitamin K hydroquinone, for their activity. We have discovered that the carboxylase also carboxylates itself in a reaction dependent on vitamin K. When pure human recombinant carboxylase was incubated in vitro with 14CO2 and then analyzed after SDS/PAGE, a radiolabeled band corresponding to the size of the carboxylase was observed. Subsequent gla analysis of in vitro-modified carboxylase by base hydrolysis and HPLC showed that all of the radioactivity could be attributed to gla residues. Quantitation of gla, asp, and glu residues indicated 3 mol gla/mol carboxylase. Radiolabeled gla was acid-labile, confirming its identity, and was not observed if vitamin K was not included in the in vitro reaction. Carboxylase carboxylation also was detected in baculovirus(carboxylase)-infected insect cells but not in mock-infected insect cells, which do not express endogenous VKD proteins or carboxylase. Finally, we showed that the carboxylase was carboxylated in vivo. Carboxylase was purified from recombinant carboxylase BHK cells cultured in the presence or absence of vitamin K and analyzed for gla residues. Carboxylation of the carboxylase only was observed with carboxylase isolated from BHK cells cultured in vitamin K, and 3 mol gla/mol carboxylase were detected. Analyses of carboxylase and factor IX carboxylation in vitro suggest a possible role for carboxylase carboxylation in factor IX turnover, and in vivo studies suggest a potential role in carboxylase stability. The discovery of carboxylase carboxylation has broad implications for the mechanism of VKD protein carboxylation and Warfarin-based anti-coagulant therapies that need to be considered both retrospectively and in the future. PMID:9435215

  7. Activity ratios of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase accurately reflect carbamylation ratios. [Phaseolus vulgaris, Spinacla oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, N.D.; Sharkey, T.D. )

    1989-03-01

    Activity ratios and carbamylation ratios of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) were determined for leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Spinacia oleracea exposed to a variety of partial pressures of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and photon flux densities (PFD). It was found that activity ratios accurately predicted carbamylation ratios except in extracts from leaves held in low PFD. In particular, it was confirmed that the loss of FuBPCase activity in low partial pressure of O{sub 2} and high PFD results from reduced carbamylation. Activity ratios of RuBPCase were lower than carbamylation ratios for Phaseolus leaves sampled in low PFD, presumably because of the presence of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate. Spinacia leaves sampled in darkness also exhibited lower activity ratios than carbamylation ratios indicating that this species may also have an RuBPCase inhibitor even though carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate has not been detected in this species in the past.

  8. Isolated spinach ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase and method of inactivating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphatase carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase activity

    DOEpatents

    Houtz, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The gene sequence for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (LS) .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase (protein methylase III or Rubisco LSMT) from a plant which has a des(methyl) lysyl residue in the LS is disclosed. In addition, the full-length cDNA clones for Rubisco LSMT are disclosed. Transgenic plants and methods of producing same which have the Rubisco LSMT gene inserted into the DNA are also provided. Further, methods of inactivating the enzymatic activity of Rubisco LSMT are also disclosed.

  9. Comparative modeling and molecular dynamics suggest high carboxylase activity of the Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 RbcL protein.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira; de Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina; da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, João Lídio; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco catalyzes the first step reaction in the carbon fixation pathway, bonding atmospheric CO2/O2 to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; it is therefore considered one of the most important enzymes in the biosphere. Genetic modifications to increase the carboxylase activity of rubisco are a subject of great interest to agronomy and biotechnology, since this could increase the productivity of biomass in plants, algae and cyanobacteria and give better yields in crops and biofuel production. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize in silico the catalytic domain of the rubisco large subunit (rbcL gene) of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14, and identify target sites to improve enzyme affinity for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. A three-dimensional model was built using MODELLER 9.14, molecular dynamics was used to generate a 100 ns trajectory by AMBER12, and the binding free energy was calculated using MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA and SIE methods with alanine scanning. The model obtained showed characteristics of form-I rubisco, with 15 beta sheets and 19 alpha helices, and maintained the highly conserved catalytic site encompassing residues Lys175, Lys177, Lys201, Asp203, and Glu204. The binding free energy of the enzyme-substrate complexation of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 showed values around -10 kcal mol(-1) using the SIE method. The most important residues for the interaction with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were Arg295 followed by Lys334. The generated model was successfully validated, remaining stable during the whole simulation, and demonstrated characteristics of enzymes with high carboxylase activity. The binding analysis revealed candidates for directed mutagenesis sites to improve rubisco's affinity.

  10. Activation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) by rubisco activase : effects of some sugar phosphates.

    PubMed

    Lilley, R M; Portis, A R

    1990-09-01

    The activation of purified ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) has been studied in the presence of sugar phosphates, and the effect of rubisco activase on this process determined. During an 11-minute time course at pH 7.7 and 11 micromolar CO(2), the activation of rubisco was strongly inhibited by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (4 millimolar), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (1 millimolar) and ribose 5-phosphate (5 millimolar), but this inhibition was overcome by the addition of rubisco activase and activation then proceeded to a greater extent than spontaneous activation of rubisco. Glycerate 3-phosphate (20 millomolar) slowed the initial rate but not the extent of activation and rubisco activase had no effect on this. The activation of rubisco was shown to be affected by phosphoenolpyruvate (3 millimolar) but not by creatine phosphate (3 millimolar) or ATP (3 millimolar), and the creatine-phosphate/creatine phosphokinase system was used to generate the high ATP/ADP quotients required for rubisco activase to function. ATP was shown to be required for the rubisco activase-dependent rubisco activation in the presence of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (1 millimolar). It is concluded that rubisco activase has a mixed specificity for some sugar phosphate-bound forms of rubisco, but has low or no activity with others. Some possible bases for these differences among sugar phosphates are discussed but remain to be established.

  11. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Kinase in Tobacco Leaves Is Activated by Light in a Similar but Not Identical Way as in Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Li, B.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chollet, R.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously reported the partial purification of a Ca2+- independent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) protein-serine/threonine kinase (PEPC-PK) from illuminated leaves of N-sufficient tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants (Y.-H. Wang, R. Chollet [1993] FEBS Lett 328: 215-218). We now report that this C3 PEPC-kinase is reversibly light activated in vivo in a time-dependent manner. As the kinase becomes light activated, the activity and L-malate sensitivity of its target protein increases and decreases, respectively. The light activation of tobacco PEPC-PK is prevented by pretreatment of detached leaves with various photosynthesis and cytosolic protein-synthesis inhibitors. Similarly, specific inhibitors of glutamine synthetase block the light activation of tobacco leaf PEPC-kinase under both photorespiratory and nonphotorespiratory conditions. This striking effect is partially and specifically reversed by exogenous glutamine, whereas it has no apparent effect on the light activation of the maize (Zea mays L.) leaf kinase. Using an in situ "activity-gel" phosphorylation assay, we have identified two major Ca2+-independent PEPC-kinase catalytic polypeptides in illuminated tobacco leaves that have the same molecular masses (approximately 30 and 37 kD) as found in illuminated maize leaves. Collectively, these results indicate that the phosphorylation of PEPC in N-sufficient leaves of tobacco (C3) and maize (C4) is regulated through similar but not identical light-signal transduction pathways. PMID:12226305

  12. Evolution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity and lipid content during seed maturation of two spring rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Sebei, Khaled; Ouerghi, Zeineb; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2006-09-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc: EC 4.1.1.31) activity was monitored during seed maturation of two varieties (Hybridol and Pactol) of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), widely cultivated in Tunisia. In the Hybridol variety, PEPc activity did not exceed 5 micromol h(-1) per gram of fresh weight (FW) during the first stages of maturation. It then highly increased to reach more than 30 micromol h(-1) g(-1)/FW. On the contrary, in the Pactol variety, the evolution of PEPc activity showed a classical curve, i.e. an increase during the most active phase of lipid accumulation in maturating seeds, followed by a rapid decrease until the end of seed maturation. In both varieties, the seed oil was characterised by a high content of oleic acid (C(18:1)), linoleic (C(18:2)) and linolenic acids (C(18:3)). Saturated fatty acids were also present, although decreasing with maturation course. The analysis of the triacylglycerols (TAG) showed that trioleoylglycerol (OOO) and dioleoyllinoleoylglycerol (OOL) were the major species (ca. 35% and ca. 25% of the total respectively). The evolution pattern of fatty acids and TAG contents was similar to that of PEPc activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that PEPc may be involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthesis during seed maturation of both rapeseed varieties.

  13. AMPK activation represses the human gene promoter of the cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Role of nuclear respiratory factor-1

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Tasneem; Opie, Lionel H.; Essop, M. Faadiel

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} AMPK inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene promoter activity. {yields} Nuclear respiratory factor-1 inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta promoter activity. {yields} AMPK regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta at transcriptional level. -- Abstract: The cardiac-enriched isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC{beta}) produces malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. AMPK inhibits ACC{beta} activity, lowering malonyl-CoA levels and promoting mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation. Previously, AMPK increased promoter binding of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a pivotal transcriptional modulator controlling gene expression of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore hypothesized that NRF-1 inhibits myocardial ACC{beta} promoter activity via AMPK activation. A human ACC{beta} promoter-luciferase construct was transiently transfected into neonatal cardiomyocytes {+-} a NRF-1 expression construct. NRF-1 overexpression decreased ACC{beta} gene promoter activity by 71 {+-} 4.6% (p < 0.001 vs. control). Transfections with 5'-end serial promoter deletions revealed that NRF-1-mediated repression of ACC{beta} was abolished with a pPII{beta}-18/+65-Luc deletion construct. AMPK activation dose-dependently reduced ACC{beta} promoter activity, while NRF-1 addition did not further decrease it. We also investigated NRF-1 inhibition in the presence of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1), a known transactivator of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter. Here NRF-1 blunted USF1-dependent induction of ACC{beta} promoter activity by 58 {+-} 7.5% (p < 0.001 vs. control), reversed with a dominant negative NRF-1 construct. NRF-1 also suppressed endogenous USF1 transcriptional activity by 55 {+-} 6.2% (p < 0.001 vs. control). This study demonstrates that NRF-1 is a novel transcriptional inhibitor of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter in the mammalian heart. Our data extends AMPK regulation of ACC{beta} to the transcriptional level.

  14. [Activity of NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in wheat leaves under water stress].

    PubMed

    Cherniad'ev, I I; Monakhova, O F

    2006-01-01

    The activities of NADP: glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), an enzyme complex comprising of phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) and glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPK; EC 4.1.1.31) in seedlings and leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants of the cultivars Mironovskaya 808 and Lutescens 758 have been compared under conditions of normal water supply, water deficiency, and subsequent rehydration. GAPDH activity, which determines the carbohydrate route of photosynthetic metabolism at the initial stages, is decreased by water stress to a greater extent than that of PEPK, on the activity of which non-carbohydrate metabolic pathways depend. Pretreatment of seedlings and mature plants with natural (6-benzylaminopurine) and synthetic (tidiazuron, kartolin-2, and kartolin-4) cytokinins attenuates the loss of enzyme activities during drought and facilitates their recovery within the period of rehydration; both effects are underlain by augmentation of reparation processes. The relative intensification of non-carbohydrate pathways of photosynthetic metabolism, observed under conditions of water deficiency, is accompanied by an increase in the osmotic pressure of cell sap. Possible mechanisms of this protector effect of cytokinin preparations are discussed. PMID:16878554

  15. Pyruvate Carboxylase Activates the RIG-I-like Receptor-Mediated Antiviral Immune Response by Targeting the MAVS signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongying; Zhou, Yaqin; Zhu, Shengli; Feng, Jian; Chen, Xueyuan; Liu, Shi; Peng, Nanfang; Yang, Xiaodan; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    When retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 protein (RIG-I)-like receptors sense viral dsRNA in the cytosol, RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are recruited to the mitochondria to interact with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and initiate antiviral immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that the biotin-containing enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) plays an essential role in the virus-triggered activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling mediated by MAVS. PC contributes to the enhanced production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and PC knockdown inhibits the virus-triggered innate immune response. In addition, PC shows extensive antiviral activity against RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV), human enterovirus 71 (EV71), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Furthermore, PC mediates antiviral action by targeting the MAVS signalosome and induces IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines by promoting phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor-α (IκBα) and the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation, which leads to activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1). Our findings suggest that PC is an important player in host antiviral signaling. PMID:26906558

  16. Variability in Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Small Subunits and Carboxylation Activity in Fern Gametophytes Grown under Different Light Spectra 1

    PubMed Central

    Eilenberg, Haviva; Beer, Sven; Gepstein, Shimon; Geva, Nurit; Tadmor, Orly; Zilberstein, Aviah

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit (SSU) populations were observed in Pteris vittata gametophytes grown under different illumination conditions. Exposure of the fern gametophytes to continuous red light (R) resulted in Rubisco SSUs that were not recognized by polyclonal antibodies raised against SSUs from spinach. Unlike the R-induced SSUs, blue light (B) induced SSUs were well recognized. This difference in SSU composition also reflected in Rubisco activity. In vitro, B-induced Rubisco exhibits a significantly higher carboxylation activity as compared to the R-induced Rubisco. Approximately a two- to threefold increase in the Vmax value of the B-induced carboxylase as compared to the R-induced one was measured. It thus seems very likely that certain domains in the SSU molecule affect enzyme activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667969

  17. Decline of activity and quantity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and net photosynthesis in ozone-treated potato foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Dann, M.S.; Pell, E.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The effect of ozone (O{sub 3}) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity and quantity and net photosynthesis in greenhouse-grown Solanum tuberosum L. cv Norland foliage was studied in relation to oxidant-induced premature senescence. Plants, 26 days old, were exposed to 0.06 to 0.08 microliters per liter O{sub 3} from 1,000 to 1,600 hours for 4 days in a controlled environment chamber. On day 5, plants were exposed to a 6-hour simulated inversion in which O{sub 3} peaked at 0.12 microliters per liter. Net photosynthesis declined in response to O{sub 3} but recovered to near control levels 3 days after the exposure ended. Rubisco activity and quantity in control potato foliage increased and then decreased during the 12-day interval of the study. In some experiments foliage studied was physiologically mature and Rubisco activity had peaked when O{sub 3} exposure commenced. In those cases, O{sub 3} accelerated the decline in Rubisco activity. When less mature foliage was treated with O{sub 3}, the leaves never achieved the maximal level of Rubisco activity observed in control foliage and also exhibited more rapid decline in initial and total activity. Percent activation of Rubisco (initial/total activity) was not affected significantly by treatment. Quantity of Rubisco decreased in concert with activity. The reduction in the quantity of Rubisco, an important foliage storage protein, could contribute to premature senescence associated with toxicity of this air pollutant.

  18. (Function of active-site residues of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, Stockholm, Sweden, and visit to Uppsala, Sweden, August 6--12, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.

    1989-08-22

    The traveler participated in the 8th International Congress on Photosynthesis by presenting a paper entitled ''Function of Active-Site Residues of Ribulosebisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase'' and by chairing a discussion session on the same enzyme. Presentation concerning biological CO/sub 2/ fixation, chemical modifications of proteins, 3D structure of proteins, and site-directed mutagenesis were relevant to ongoing investigations of the Protein Engineering Program at ORNL's Biology Division.

  19. Regulation of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Alocasia macrorrhiza in Response to Step Changes in Irradiance 1

    PubMed Central

    Seemann, Jeffrey R.; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Pearcy, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase (Rubisco) activity and pool sizes of RuBP and P-glycerate were examined in the tropical understory species Alocasia macrorrhiza following step changes in photon flux density (PFD). Previous gas exchange analysis of this species following a step increase in PFD from 10 to 500 micromoles quanta per square meter per second suggested that the increase in photosynthetic rate was limited by the rate of increase of Rubisco activity for the first 5 to 10 minutes. We demonstrate here that the increase in photosynthetic rate was correlated with an increase in both the activation state of Rubisco and the total kcat (fully activated specific activity) of the enzyme. Evidence presented here suggests that a change in the pool size of the naturally occurring tight binding inhibitor of Rubisco activity, 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate, was responsible for the PFD-dependent change in the total kcat of the enzyme. RuBP pool size transiently increased after the increase in PFD, indicating that photosynthesis was limited by the capacity for carboxylation. After 5 to 10 minutes, RuBP pool size was again similar to the pool size at low PFD, presumably because of the increased activity of Rubisco. Following a step decrease in PFD from 500 to 10 micromoles quanta per square meter per second, Rubisco activity declined but at a much slower rate than it had increased in response to a step increase in PFD. This slower rate of activity decline than increase was apparently due to the slower rate of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate synthesis than degradation and, to a lesser degree, to slower deactivation than activation. RuBP pool size initially declined following the decrease in PFD, indicating that RuBP regeneration was limiting photosynthesis. As Rubisco activity decreased, RuBP slowly increased to its original level at high PFD. The slow rate of activity loss by Rubisco in this species suggests a biochemical basis for the

  20. Investigation of the Roles of Allosteric Domain Arginine, Aspartate, and Glutamate Residues of Rhizobium etli Pyruvate Carboxylase in Relation to Its Activation by Acetyl CoA.

    PubMed

    Sirithanakorn, Chaiyos; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Attwood, Paul V

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of allosteric activation of pyruvate carboxylase by acetyl CoA is not fully understood. Here we have examined the roles of residues near the acetyl CoA binding site in the allosteric activation of Rhizobium etli pyruvate carboxylase using site-directed mutagenesis. Arg429 was found to be especially important for acetyl CoA binding as substitution with serine resulted in a 100-fold increase in the Ka of acetyl CoA activation and a large decrease in the cooperativity of this activation. Asp420 and Arg424, which do not make direct contact with bound acetyl CoA, were nonetheless found to affect acetyl CoA binding when mutated, probably through changed interactions with another acetyl CoA binding residue, Arg427. Thermodynamic activation parameters for the pyruvate carboxylation reaction were determined from modified Arrhenius plots and showed that acetyl CoA acts to decrease the activation free energy of the reaction by both increasing the activation entropy and decreasing the activation enthalpy. Most importantly, mutations of Asp420, Arg424, and Arg429 enhanced the activity of the enzyme in the absence of acetyl CoA. A main focus of this work was the detailed investigation of how this increase in activity occurred in the R424S mutant. This mutation decreased the activation enthalpy of the pyruvate carboxylation reaction by an amount consistent with removal of a single hydrogen bond. It is postulated that Arg424 forms a hydrogen bonding interaction with another residue that stabilizes the asymmetrical conformation of the R. etli pyruvate carboxylase tetramer, constraining its interconversion to the symmetrical conformer that is required for catalysis. PMID:27379711

  1. Cryptic exon activation by disruption of exon splice enhancer: novel mechanism causing 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Martin; Suormala, Terttu; Fowler, Brian; Valle, David; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2009-10-16

    3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. MCC is a heteromeric mitochondrial enzyme composed of biotin-containing alpha (MCCA) and smaller beta (MCCB) subunits encoded by MCCA and MCCB, respectively. We report studies of the c.1054G-->A mutation in exon 11 of MCCB detected in the homozygous state in a patient with MCC deficiency. Sequence analysis of MCCB cDNA revealed two overlapping transcripts, one containing the normal 73 bp of exon 11 including the missense mutation c.1054G-->A (p.G352R), the other with exon 11 replaced by a 64-bp sequence from intron 10 (cryptic exon 10a) that maintains the reading frame and is flanked by acceptable splice consensus sites. In expression studies, we show that both transcripts lack detectable MCC activity. Western blot analysis showed slightly reduced levels of MCCB using the transcript containing the missense mutation, whereas no MCCB was detected with the transcript containing the cryptic exon 10a. Analysis of the region harboring the mutation revealed that the c.1054G-->A mutation is located in an exon splice enhancer sequence. Using MCCB minigene constructs to transfect MCCB-deficient fibroblasts, we demonstrate that the reduction in utilization of exon 11 associated with the c.1054G-->A mutation is due to alteration of this exon splice enhancer. Further, we show that optimization of the weak splice donor site of exon 11 corrects the splicing defect. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a point mutation disrupting an exon splice enhancer that causes exon skipping along with utilization of a cryptic exon.

  2. Characterization of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase from Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus neapolitanus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. J.; Johnson, M. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1968-01-01

    Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase activity in chemosynthetic autotrophs Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus neapolitanus, noting sedimentation and gel filtration characteristics

  3. Accumulation fatty acids of in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, Luis A.; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  4. Deeper understanding of carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, James H

    2016-04-14

    In this issue of Blood, Tie et al report the development of a cleverly engineered, cell-based system for studying mutations in γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), the enzyme responsible for converting glutamate residues in certain proteins to γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla). They use this cell-based assay system to help explain the clinical manifestations of some otherwise puzzling GGCX gene mutations in humans that cause phenotypes ranging from severe bleeding to Keutel syndrome. PMID:27081093

  5. Control of light saturated photosynthesis: Concentration and activity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. Final report, September 1, 1993--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Geider, R.J. |

    1997-05-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is one of the most abundant enzymes on the planet and is responsible for catalysing the net fixation of CO{sub 2} into organic matter. It is central, therefore, to primary productivity in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Rubisco is a large enzyme with low substrate affinity and low catalytic efficiency and is considered to limit the rate of light-saturated photosynthesis. This report summarizes research into the molecular basis of the regulation of phytoplankton photosynthesis. It describes experimental and theoretical studies of the role of Rubisco in regulating the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton. It also describes the integration of a mechanistically based phytoplankton growth model into a description of primary productivity in the sea. This work was conducted as part of the Ocean Margins Program.

  6. Structure and function of biotin-dependent carboxylases.

    PubMed

    Tong, Liang

    2013-03-01

    Biotin-dependent carboxylases include acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), geranyl-CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and urea carboxylase (UC). They contain biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT), and biotin-carboxyl carrier protein components. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have important functions in fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, polyketide biosynthesis, urea utilization, and other cellular processes. ACCs are also attractive targets for drug discovery against type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, microbial infections, and other diseases, and the plastid ACC of grasses is the target of action of three classes of commercial herbicides. Deficiencies in the activities of PCC, MCC, or PC are linked to serious diseases in humans. Our understanding of these enzymes has been greatly enhanced over the past few years by the crystal structures of the holoenzymes of PCC, MCC, PC, and UC. The structures reveal unanticipated features in the architectures of the holoenzymes, including the presence of previously unrecognized domains, and provide a molecular basis for understanding their catalytic mechanism as well as the large collection of disease-causing mutations in PCC, MCC, and PC. This review will summarize the recent advances in our knowledge on the structure and function of these important metabolic enzymes.

  7. High activity and stability of codon-optimized phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Photobacterium profundum SS9 at low temperatures and its application for in vitro production of oxaloacetate.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyun; Hong, Soohye; Pack, Seung Pil; Lee, Jinwon

    2014-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) of Photobacterium profundum SS9 can be expressed and purified using the Escherichia coli expression system. In this study, a codon-optimized PEPC gene (OPPP) was used to increase expression levels. We confirmed OPPP expression and purified it from extracts of recombinant E. coli SGJS117 harboring the OPPP gene. The purified OPPP showed a specific activity value of 80.3 U/mg protein. The OPPP was stable under low temperature (5-30 °C) and weakly basic conditions (pH 8.5-10). The enzymatic ability of OPPP was investigated for in vitro production of oxaloacetate using phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and bicarbonate. Only samples containing the OPPP, PEP, and bicarbonate resulted in oxaloacetate production. OPPP production system using E. coli could be a platform technology to produce high yields of heterogeneous gene and provide the PEPC enzyme, which has high enzyme activity.

  8. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. IV. Regulation by phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Ryan, F J; Tolbert, N E

    1975-06-10

    The stimulation or inhibition of ribulose diphosphate oxygenase by a variety of compounds is compared with the reported effects on these compounds on the ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity. A possible transition state analog of ribulose diphosphate, 2-carboxyribitol 1, 5-diphosphate, at a molar ratio of inhibitor to enzyme of 10 to 1, irreversibly inactivates the oxygenase and carboxylase activities. This is consistent with the hypothesis that there may be a single active site for both the carboxylase and oxygenase activities. Several compounds of the reductive pentose photosynthetic carbon cycle act as effectors of the ribulose diphosphate oxygenase in a manner complementary to their reported effect upon the carboxylase. Ribose 5-phosphate inhibits the oxygenase with an apparent Ki of 1.8 mM, but it is reported to activate the carboxylase; fructose 6-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate act similarly but are less effective than ribose 5-phosphate. Fructose 1. 6-diphosphate stimulates the oxygenase at low magnesium ion concentrations. The stimulatory effect of 6-phosphogluconate on the oxygenase is associated with a 3-fold reduction of the Km (Mg2+). ATP inhibits the oxygenase but has been reported to stimulate the carboxylase; pyrophosphate acts in an opposite manner. From these results it appears that the ratio of carboxylase to oxygenase activity may be a variable factor with predictable subsequent alteration in the ratio between photosynthetic CO2 fixation and photorespiration.

  9. Temperature responses of the Rubisco maximum carboxylase activity across domains of life: phylogenetic signals, trade-offs, and importance for carbon gain.

    PubMed

    Galmés, J; Kapralov, M V; Copolovici, L O; Hermida-Carrera, C; Niinemets, Ü

    2015-02-01

    Temperature response of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalytic properties directly determines the CO2 assimilation capacity of photosynthetic organisms as well as their survival in environments with different thermal conditions. Despite unquestionable importance of Rubisco, the comprehensive analysis summarizing temperature responses of Rubisco traits across lineages of carbon-fixing organisms is lacking. Here, we present a review of the temperature responses of Rubisco carboxylase specific activity (c(cat)(c)) within and across domains of life. In particular, we consider the variability of temperature responses, and their ecological, physiological, and evolutionary controls. We observed over two-fold differences in the energy of activation (ΔH(a)) among different groups of photosynthetic organisms, and found significant differences between C3 plants from cool habitats, C3 plants from warm habitats and C4 plants. According to phylogenetically independent contrast analysis, ΔH(a) was not related to the species optimum growth temperature (T growth), but was positively correlated with Rubisco specificity factor (S(c/o)) across all organisms. However, when only land plants were analyzed, ΔH(a) was positively correlated with both T(growth) and S(c/o), indicating different trends for these traits in plants versus unicellular aquatic organisms, such as algae and bacteria. The optimum temperature (T(opt)) for k(cat)(c) correlated with S(c/o) for land plants and for all organisms pooled, but the effect of T growth on T(opt) was driven by species phylogeny. The overall phylogenetic signal was significant for all analyzed parameters, stressing the importance of considering the evolutionary framework and accounting for shared ancestry when deciphering relationships between Rubisco kinetic parameters. We argue that these findings have important implications for improving global photosynthesis models.

  10. Decline of Activity and Quantity of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase and Net Photosynthesis in Ozone-Treated Potato Foliage 1

    PubMed Central

    Dann, Michael S.; Pell, Eva J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of ozone (O3) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity and quantity and net photosynthesis in greenhouse-grown Solanum tuberosum L. cv `Norland' foliage was studied in relation to oxidant-induced premature senescence. Plants, 26 days old, were exposed to 0.06 to 0.08 microliters per liter O3 from 1000 to 1600 hours for 4 days in a controlled environment chamber. On day 5, plants were exposed to a 6-hour simulated inversion in which O3 peaked at 0.12 microliters per liter. Net photosynthesis declined in response to O3 but recovered to near control levels 3 days after the exposure ended. Rubisco activity and quantity in control potato foliage increased and then decreased during the 12-day interval of the study. In some experiments foliage studied was physiologically mature and Rubisco activity had peaked when O3 exposure commenced. In those cases, O3 accelerated the decline in Rubisco activity. When less mature foliage was treated with O3, the leaves never achieved the maximal level of Rubisco activity observed in control foliage and also exhibited more rapid decline in initial and total activity. Percent activation of Rubisco (initial/total activity) was not affected significantly by treatment. Quantity of Rubisco decreased in concert with activity. The decrease in activities is most likely due to a decrease in available protein rather than a decrease in the percentage of Rubisco activated in vivo. The reduction in the quantity of Rubisco, an important foliar storage protein, could contribute to premature senescence associated with toxicity of this air pollutant. PMID:16667037

  11. Evidence for effects on the in vivo activity of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase during development of Mn toxicity in tobacco. [Nicotiana tabacum L. cv KY14

    SciTech Connect

    Houtz, R.L.; Nable, R.O.; Cheniae, G.M. )

    1988-04-01

    The progressive decrease in net photosynthesis accompanying development of Mn toxicity in young leaves of burley tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv KY 14) is a result of effects on in vivo activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco, EC 4.1.1.39). This conclusion is supported by: (a) decrease in rates of CO{sub 2} depletion during measurements of CO{sub 2} compensation, (b) increase in leaf RuBP concentrations, (c) progressive decreases in rate-constants of RuBP loss (light to dark transition analyses) with progressive increases of leaf Mn concentrations, and (d) restoration of diminished rates of net photosynthesis to control rates by elevated CO{sub 2} (5%). Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} (1100 microliters per liter) during culture of Mn-treated plants decreased elevated RuBP concentrations to control levels and alleviated foliar symptoms of Mn toxicity. These effects of Mn toxicity on in vivo activity of rubisco were not expressed by in vitro kinetic analyses of rubisco prepared under conditions to sequester Mn or to adsorb polyphenols or their oxidation products. Similarly, the in vitro activity of fructose bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) was unaffected by Mn toxicity.

  12. Drought-inhibited ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is mediated through increased release of ethylene and changes in the ratio of polyamines in pakchoi.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xingxue; Zhou, Guolin; Yang, Wengang; Wang, Aihua; Hu, Zhenhua; Lin, Chufa; Chen, Xin

    2014-09-15

    To study the mechanisms of drought inhibiting photosynthesis and the role of PAs and ethylene, the photosynthetic rate (Pn), the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), photorespiratory rate (Pr), the amount of chlorophyll (chl), antioxidant enzyme activity, ethylene levels, RuBPC (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) activity and endogenous polyamine levels of pakchoi were examined, and an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis and spermidine (Spd) were used to induce the change of endogenous polyamine levels. The results show that drought induced a decrease in Pn and RuBPC activity, an increase in the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), but no change in the actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII), and chlorophyll content. In addition, drought caused an increase in the free putrescine (fPut), the ethylene levels, a decrease in the Spd and spermine (Spm) levels, and the PAs/fPut ratio in the leaves. The exogenous application of Spd and amino oxiacetic acid (AOAA, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis) markedly reversed these drought-induced effects on polyamine, ethylene, Pn, the PAs/fPut ratio and RuBPCase activity in leaves. Methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), an inhibitor of SAMDC resulting in the inability of activated cells to synthesize Spd and Spm, exacerbates the negative effects induced by drought. These results suggest that the decrease in Pn is at least partially attributed to the decrease of RuBPC activity under drought stress and that drought inhibits RuBPC activity by decreasing the ratio of PAs/fPut and increasing the release of ethylene.

  13. Drought-inhibited ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is mediated through increased release of ethylene and changes in the ratio of polyamines in pakchoi.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xingxue; Zhou, Guolin; Yang, Wengang; Wang, Aihua; Hu, Zhenhua; Lin, Chufa; Chen, Xin

    2014-09-15

    To study the mechanisms of drought inhibiting photosynthesis and the role of PAs and ethylene, the photosynthetic rate (Pn), the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), photorespiratory rate (Pr), the amount of chlorophyll (chl), antioxidant enzyme activity, ethylene levels, RuBPC (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) activity and endogenous polyamine levels of pakchoi were examined, and an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis and spermidine (Spd) were used to induce the change of endogenous polyamine levels. The results show that drought induced a decrease in Pn and RuBPC activity, an increase in the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), but no change in the actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII), and chlorophyll content. In addition, drought caused an increase in the free putrescine (fPut), the ethylene levels, a decrease in the Spd and spermine (Spm) levels, and the PAs/fPut ratio in the leaves. The exogenous application of Spd and amino oxiacetic acid (AOAA, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis) markedly reversed these drought-induced effects on polyamine, ethylene, Pn, the PAs/fPut ratio and RuBPCase activity in leaves. Methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), an inhibitor of SAMDC resulting in the inability of activated cells to synthesize Spd and Spm, exacerbates the negative effects induced by drought. These results suggest that the decrease in Pn is at least partially attributed to the decrease of RuBPC activity under drought stress and that drought inhibits RuBPC activity by decreasing the ratio of PAs/fPut and increasing the release of ethylene. PMID:25046760

  14. Plant biotin-containing carboxylases.

    PubMed

    Nikolau, Basil J; Ohlrogge, John B; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2003-06-15

    Biotin-containing proteins are found in all forms of life, and they catalyze carboxylation, decarboxylation, or transcarboxylation reactions that are central to metabolism. In plants, five biotin-containing proteins have been characterized. Of these, four are catalysts, namely the two structurally distinct acetyl-CoA carboxylases (heteromeric and homomeric), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase and geranoyl-CoA carboxylase. In addition, plants contain a noncatalytic biotin protein that accumulates in seeds and is thought to play a role in storing biotin. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases generate two pools of malonyl-CoA, one in plastids that is the precursor for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and the other in the cytosol that is the precursor for fatty acid elongation and a large number of secondary metabolites. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes a reaction in the mitochondrial pathway for leucine catabolism. The exact metabolic function of geranoyl-CoA carboxylase is as yet unknown, but it may be involved in isoprenoid metabolism. This minireview summarizes the recent developments in our understanding of the structure, regulation, and metabolic functions of these proteins in plants.

  15. Differential Involvement of the Circadian Clock in the Expression of Genes Required for Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Synthesis, Assembly, and Activation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, M. L.; McClung, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the circadian clock in the regulation of expression of genes required for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) synthesis, assembly, and activation. Circadian oscillations in RCA (the gene encoding Rubisco activase) and RBCS (the gene encoding Rubisco small subunit) mRNA accumulation, with peak abundance occurring soon after dawn, occur in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in a light-dark (LD) photoperiod. These oscillations persist in plants that have been transferred from LD to either continuous darkness (DD) or continuous light (LL). In contrast, CPN60[alpha] (the gene encoding [alpha]-chaperonin) and CPN60[beta] (the gene encoding [beta]-chaperonin) mRNA abundance oscillates in a diurnal, but not in a circadian, fashion. Although rapid damping of the circadian oscillation in RCA mRNA abundance is observed in Arabidopsis that have been grown in LD and then transferred to DD for 2 d, the circadian oscillations in RCA and RBCS mRNA abundance persist for at least five continuous cycles in LL, demonstrating the robustness of the circadian oscillator. PMID:12231961

  16. Discrimination in the dark. Resolving the interplay between metabolic and physical constraints to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity during the crassulacean acid metabolism cycle.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Howard; Cousins, Asaph B; Badger, Murray R; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2007-02-01

    A model defining carbon isotope discrimination (delta13C) for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants was experimentally validated using Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and instantaneous CO2 discrimination (for 13C and 18O) were made from late photoperiod (phase IV of CAM), throughout the dark period (phase I), and into the light (phase II). Measurements of CO2 response curves throughout the dark period revealed changing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) capacity. These systematic changes in PEPC capacity were tracked by net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, and online delta13C signal; all declined at the start of the dark period, then increased to a maximum 2 h before dawn. Measurements of delta13C were higher than predicted from the ratio of intercellular to external CO2 (p(i)/p(a)) and fractionation associated with CO2 hydration and PEPC carboxylations alone, such that the dark period mesophyll conductance, g(i), was 0.044 mol m(-2) s(-1) bar(-1). A higher estimate of g(i) (0.085 mol m(-2) s(-1) bar(-1)) was needed to account for the modeled and measured delta18O discrimination throughout the dark period. The differences in estimates of g(i) from the two isotope measurements, and an offset of -5.5 per thousand between the 18O content of source and transpired water, suggest spatial variations in either CO2 diffusion path length and/or carbonic anhydrase activity, either within individual cells or across a succulent leaf. Our measurements support the model predictions to show that internal CO2 diffusion limitations within CAM leaves increase delta13C discrimination during nighttime CO2 fixation while reducing delta13C during phase IV. When evaluating the phylogenetic distribution of CAM, carbon isotope composition will reflect these diffusive limitations as well as relative contributions from C3 and C4 biochemistry.

  17. Catalytic roles of flexible regions at the active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.; Harpel, M.R.; Chen, Yuh-Ru; Larson, E.M.; Larimer, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical and mutagenesis studies of Rubisco have identified Lys329 and Glu48 as active-site residues that are located in distinct, interacting domains from adjacent subunits. Crystallographic analyses have shown that Lys329 is the apical residue in a 12-residue flexible loop (loop 6) of the {Beta},{alpha}-barrel domain of the active site and that Glu48 resides at the end of helix B of the N-terminal domain of the active site. When phosphorylated ligands are bound by the enzyme, loop 6 adopts a closed conformation and, in concert with repositioning of helix B, thereby occludes the active site from the external environment. In this closed conformation, the {gamma}-carboxylate of Glu48 and the {epsilon}-amino group of Lys329 engage in intersubunit electrostatic interaction. By use of appropriate site-directed mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum Rubisco, we are addressing several issues: the catalytic roles of Lys329 and Glu48, the functional significance of the intersubunit salt bridge comprised of these two residues, and the roles of loop 6 and helix B in stabilizing labile reaction intermediates. Characterization of novel products derived from misprocessing of D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) by the mutant proteins have illuminated the structure of the key intermediate in the normal oxygenase pathway.

  18. Regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) activase: product inhibition, cooperativity, and magnesium activation.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Suratna; Henderson, J Nathan; Liles, Kevin; Hilton, Matthew T; Wachter, Rebekka M

    2015-10-01

    In many photosynthetic organisms, tight-binding Rubisco inhibitors are released by the motor protein Rubisco activase (Rca). In higher plants, Rca plays a pivotal role in regulating CO2 fixation. Here, the ATPase activity of 0.005 mm tobacco Rca was monitored under steady-state conditions, and global curve fitting was utilized to extract kinetic constants. The kcat was best fit by 22.3 ± 4.9 min(-1), the Km for ATP by 0.104 ± 0.024 mm, and the Ki for ADP by 0.037 ± 0.007 mm. Without ADP, the Hill coefficient for ATP hydrolysis was extracted to be 1.0 ± 0.1, indicating noncooperative behavior of homo-oligomeric Rca assemblies. However, the addition of ADP was shown to introduce positive cooperativity between two or more subunits (Hill coefficient 1.9 ± 0.2), allowing for regulation via the prevailing ATP/ADP ratio. ADP-mediated activation was not observed, although larger amounts led to competitive product inhibition of hydrolytic activity. The catalytic efficiency increased 8.4-fold upon cooperative binding of a second magnesium ion (Hill coefficient 2.5 ± 0.5), suggesting at least three conformational states (ATP-bound, ADP-bound, and empty) within assemblies containing an average of about six subunits. The addition of excess Rubisco (24:1, L8S8/Rca6) and crowding agents did not modify catalytic rates. However, high magnesium provided for thermal Rca stabilization. We propose that magnesium mediates the formation of closed hexameric toroids capable of high turnover rates and amenable to allosteric regulation. We suggest that in vivo, the Rca hydrolytic activity is tuned by fluctuating [Mg(2+)] in response to changes in available light.

  19. Regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) activase: product inhibition, cooperativity, and magnesium activation.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Suratna; Henderson, J Nathan; Liles, Kevin; Hilton, Matthew T; Wachter, Rebekka M

    2015-10-01

    In many photosynthetic organisms, tight-binding Rubisco inhibitors are released by the motor protein Rubisco activase (Rca). In higher plants, Rca plays a pivotal role in regulating CO2 fixation. Here, the ATPase activity of 0.005 mm tobacco Rca was monitored under steady-state conditions, and global curve fitting was utilized to extract kinetic constants. The kcat was best fit by 22.3 ± 4.9 min(-1), the Km for ATP by 0.104 ± 0.024 mm, and the Ki for ADP by 0.037 ± 0.007 mm. Without ADP, the Hill coefficient for ATP hydrolysis was extracted to be 1.0 ± 0.1, indicating noncooperative behavior of homo-oligomeric Rca assemblies. However, the addition of ADP was shown to introduce positive cooperativity between two or more subunits (Hill coefficient 1.9 ± 0.2), allowing for regulation via the prevailing ATP/ADP ratio. ADP-mediated activation was not observed, although larger amounts led to competitive product inhibition of hydrolytic activity. The catalytic efficiency increased 8.4-fold upon cooperative binding of a second magnesium ion (Hill coefficient 2.5 ± 0.5), suggesting at least three conformational states (ATP-bound, ADP-bound, and empty) within assemblies containing an average of about six subunits. The addition of excess Rubisco (24:1, L8S8/Rca6) and crowding agents did not modify catalytic rates. However, high magnesium provided for thermal Rca stabilization. We propose that magnesium mediates the formation of closed hexameric toroids capable of high turnover rates and amenable to allosteric regulation. We suggest that in vivo, the Rca hydrolytic activity is tuned by fluctuating [Mg(2+)] in response to changes in available light. PMID:26283786

  20. 2-(4-bromoacetamido)anilino-2-deoxypentitol 1,5-bisphosphate, a new affinity label for ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum: determination of reaction parameters and characterization of an active site peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, C.S.; Hartman, F.C.

    1984-03-10

    Reductive amination of ribulose-P/sub 2/ with p-phenylenediamine in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride yielded an epimeric mixture which was resolved by chromatography. Subsequent bromoacetylation of the isolated amino bisphosphates gave reagents A and B (ribo and arabino epimers of 2-(4-bromoacetamido)anilino-2-deoxypentitol 1.5-bisphosphate) which were competitive inhibitors of the carboxylase with K/sub i/ values of 705 and 104 ..mu..M, respectively. Reagent A exhibited no time-dependent effects on the carboxylase in either the deactivated or activated state. Incubation of the enzyme with reagent B in the presence of the essential activators CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/, however, resulted in an irreversible, time-dependent loss of activity, with a K/sub inact/ of 125 ..mu..M and a minimal half-time of 7.3 min. Covalent incorporation of (/sup 14/C)reagent B was directly proportional to the loss of activity, with total inactivation correlating with an incorporation of 1.1 mol of reagent/mol of subunit. Inclusion of the competitive inhibitor 2-carboxyribitol 1,5-bisphosphate protected against inactivation with a concomitant reduction in incorporation. Neither reagent affected the activity of spinach carboxylase. Fractionation of (/sup 14/C)reagent B-modified enzyme on DEAE-cellulose, subsequent to carboxymethylation and tryptic digestion, revealed two major radioactive peaks of approximately equal area. Digestion of each peak with alkaline phosphatase and rechromatography on DEAE-cellulose resulted in pure peptides I and II. The peptides were identical except in the site of labeling: peptide I contained a modified cysteinyl residue while peptide II contained a modified histidyl residue. 60 references, 7 figures, tables.

  1. Roles of the redox-active disulfide and histidine residues forming a catalytic dyad in reactions catalyzed by 2-ketopropyl coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Melissa A; Wampler, David A; Pandey, Arti S; Peters, John W; Ensign, Scott A

    2011-09-01

    NADPH:2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase (2-KPCC), an atypical member of the disulfide oxidoreductase (DSOR) family of enzymes, catalyzes the reductive cleavage and carboxylation of 2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M [2-(2-ketopropylthio)ethanesulfonate; 2-KPC] to form acetoacetate and coenzyme M (CoM) in the bacterial pathway of propylene metabolism. Structural studies of 2-KPCC from Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 have revealed a distinctive active-site architecture that includes a putative catalytic triad consisting of two histidine residues that are hydrogen bonded to an ordered water molecule proposed to stabilize enolacetone formed from dithiol-mediated 2-KPC thioether bond cleavage. Site-directed mutants of 2-KPCC were constructed to test the tenets of the mechanism proposed from studies of the native enzyme. Mutagenesis of the interchange thiol of 2-KPCC (C82A) abolished all redox-dependent reactions of 2-KPCC (2-KPC carboxylation or protonation). The air-oxidized C82A mutant, as well as wild-type 2-KPCC, exhibited the characteristic charge transfer absorbance seen in site-directed variants of other DSOR enzymes but with a pK(a) value for C87 (8.8) four units higher (i.e., four orders of magnitude less acidic) than that for the flavin thiol of canonical DSOR enzymes. The same higher pK(a) value was observed in native 2-KPCC when the interchange thiol was alkylated by the CoM analog 2-bromoethanesulfonate. Mutagenesis of the flavin thiol (C87A) also resulted in an inactive enzyme for steady-state redox-dependent reactions, but this variant catalyzed a single-turnover reaction producing a 0.8:1 ratio of product to enzyme. Mutagenesis of the histidine proximal to the ordered water (H137A) led to nearly complete loss of redox-dependent 2-KPCC reactions, while mutagenesis of the distal histidine (H84A) reduced these activities by 58 to 76%. A redox-independent reaction of 2-KPCC (acetoacetate decarboxylation) was not decreased for any of the

  2. Characterization of a Bifunctional Archaeal Acyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Chuakrut, Songkran; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A carboxylase (acyl-CoA carboxylase) was purified from Acidianus brierleyi. The purified enzyme showed a unique subunit structure (three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 62, 59, and 20 kDa) and a molecular mass of approximately 540 kDa, indicating an α4β4γ4 subunit structure. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 60 to 70°C, and the optimum pH was around 6.4 to 6.9. Interestingly, the purified enzyme also had propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity. The apparent Km for acetyl-CoA was 0.17 ± 0.03 mM, with a Vmax of 43.3 ± 2.8 U mg−1, and the Km for propionyl-CoA was 0.10 ± 0.008 mM, with a Vmax of 40.8 ± 1.0 U mg−1. This result showed that A. brierleyi acyl-CoA carboxylase is a bifunctional enzyme in the modified 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. Both enzymatic activities were inhibited by malonyl-CoA, methymalonyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, or CoA but not by palmitoyl-CoA. The gene encoding acyl-CoA carboxylase was cloned and characterized. Homology searches of the deduced amino acid sequences of the 62-, 59-, and 20-kDa subunits indicated the presence of functional domains for carboxyltransferase, biotin carboxylase, and biotin carboxyl carrier protein, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment of acetyl-CoA carboxylases revealed that archaeal acyl-CoA carboxylases are closer to those of Bacteria than to those of Eucarya. The substrate-binding motifs of the enzymes are highly conserved among the three domains. The ATP-binding residues were found in the biotin carboxylase subunit, whereas the conserved biotin-binding site was located on the biotin carboxyl carrier protein. The acyl-CoA-binding site and the carboxybiotin-binding site were found in the carboxyltransferase subunit. PMID:12533469

  3. Photocontrol of Sorghum Leaf Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Martine; Crétin, Claude; Keryer, Eliane; Vidal, Jean; Gadal, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the light effect on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from the C4 plant sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers., var Tamaran) leaves was investigated. Following exposure to light a new isozyme of PEPC, specific for the green leaf and responsible for primary CO2 fixation in photosynthesis, was established. Northern blot experiments revealed the presence of PEPC mRNA showing a molecular weight of 3.4 kilobases. During the greening process, concomitant to enzyme activity, PEPC protein and PEPC messenger RNA amounts increased considerably. This photoresponse was shown to be under phytochrome control. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665664

  4. Localization of pyruvate carboxylase in organic acid-producing Aspergillus strains.

    PubMed

    Bercovitz, A; Peleg, Y; Battat, E; Rokem, J S; Goldberg, I

    1990-06-01

    The localization of pyruvate carboxylase (cytosolic or mitochondrial) was studied in nine different Aspergillus species (14 strains). In some species (A. aculeatus, A. flavus, A. foetidus, A. nidulans, A. ochraceus, and A. sojae), the pyruvate carboxylase activity could be detected only in the cytosolic fraction of the cells. Pyruvate carboxylase has been found only in the mitochondrial fraction of two strains of Aspergillus wentii. In Aspergillus oryzae and in five strains of Aspergillus niger, pyruvate carboxylase activity was detected both in the mitochondrial fraction and in the cytosol. There was no quantitative or qualitative correlation between the activities of pyruvate carboxylase in the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions of the cells and the ability of the various Aspergillus strains to accumulate different organic acids.

  5. Isolated spinach ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxgenase large subunit .epsilon. n-methyltransferase and method of inactivating ribulose-1,5-bishosphatase .epsilon. n-methyltransferase activity

    DOEpatents

    Houtz, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    The gene sequence for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (LS) .sup..epsilon. N-methyltansferase (protein methylase III or Rubisco LSMT) from a plant which has a des(methyl) lysyl residue in the LS is disclosed. In addition, the full-length cDNA clones for Rubisco LSMT are disclosed. Transgenic plants and methods of producing same which have the Rubisco LSMT gene inserted into the DNA are also provided. Further, methods of inactivating the enzymatic activity of Rubisco LSMT are also disclosed.

  6. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta): Evidence for the predominant operation of the c3 cycle and the contribution of {beta}-carboxylases to the active anaplerotic reaction.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Iwane; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2009-02-01

    The coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) is a representative and unique marine phytoplankton species that fixes inorganic carbon by photosynthesis and calci-fication. We examined the initial process of photosynthetic carbon assimilation by analyses of metabolites, enzymes and genes. When the cells were incubated with a radioactive substrate (2.3 mM NaH(14)CO(3)) for 10 s under illumination, 70% of the (14)C was incorporated into the 80% methanol-soluble fraction. Eighty-five and 15% of (14)C in the soluble fraction was incorporated into phosphate esters (P-esters), including the C(3) cycle intermediates and a C(4) compound, aspartate, respectively. A pulse-chase experiment showed that (14)C in P-esters was mainly transferred into lipids, while [(14)C]aspartate, [(14)C]alanine and [(14)C]glutamate levels remained almost constant. These results indicate that the C(3) cycle functions as the initial pathway of carbon assimilation and that beta-carboxylation contributes to the production of amino acids in subsequent metabolism. Transcriptional analysis of beta-carboxylases such as pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) revealed that PYC and PEPC transcripts were greatly increased under illumination, whereas the PEPCK transcript decreased remarkably. PEPC activity was higher in light-grown cells than in dark-adapted cells. PYC activity was detected in isolated chloroplasts of light-grown cells. According to analysis of their deduced N-terminal sequence, PYC and PEPC are predicted to be located in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, respectively. These results suggest that E. huxleyi possesses unique carbon assimila-tion mechanisms in which beta-carboxylation by both PYC and PEPC plays important roles in different organelles.

  7. Identification of the N-linked glycosylation sites of vitamin K-dependent carboxylase and the effect of glycosylation on carboxylase function†

    PubMed Central

    Tie, Jian-Ke; Zheng, Mei-Yan; Pope, R. Marshall; Straight, David L.; Stafford, Darrel W.

    2014-01-01

    The vitamin K-dependent carboxylase is an integral membrane protein which is required for the post-translational modification of a variety of vitamin K-dependent proteins. Previous studies have suggested carboxylase is a glycoprotein with N-linked glycosylation sites. In the present study, we identified the N-glycosylation sites of carboxylase by mass spectrometric peptide mapping analyses combined with site-directed mutagenesis. Our mass spectrometric results show that the N-linked glycosylation in carboxylase occurs at positions N459, N550, N605, and N627. Eliminating these glycosylation sites by changing asparagine to glutamine caused the mutant carboxylase to migrate faster in SDS-PAGE gel analyses, adding further evidence that these sites are glycosylated. In addition, the mutation studies identified N525, a site not recoverable by mass spectroscopy analysis, as a glycosylation site. Furthermore, the potential glycosylation site at N570 is glycosylated only if all the five natural glycosylation sites are simultaneously mutated. Removal of the oligosaccharides by glycosidase from wild-type carboxylase or by eliminating the functional glycosylation sites by site-directed mutagenesis did not affect either the carboxylation or epoxidation activity when the small pentapeptide FLEEL was used as substrate, suggesting that N-linked glycosylation is not required for the enzymatic function of carboxylase. In contrast, when site N570 and the five natural glycosylation sites were mutated simultaneously, the resulting carboxylase protein was degraded. Our results suggest that N-linked glycosylation is not essential for carboxylase enzymatic activity but it is important for protein folding and stability. PMID:17144668

  8. Isolation and sequencing of an active-site peptide from Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase after affinity labeling with 2-((Bromoacetyl)amino)pentitol 1,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Fraij, B.; Hartman, F.C.

    1983-01-01

    2-((Bromoacetyl)amino)pentitol 1,5-bisphosphate was reported to be a highly selective affinity label for ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum. The enzyme has now been inactivated with a /sup 14/C-labeled reagent in order to identify the target residue at the sequence level. Subsequent to inactivation, the enzyme was carboxymethylated with iodoacetate and then digested with trypsin. The only radioactive peptide in the digest was obtained at a high degree of purity by successive chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, SP-Sephadex, and Sephadex G-25. On the basis of amino acid analysis of the purified peptide, the derivatized residue was a methionyl sulfonium salt. Automated Edman degradation confirmed the purity of the labeled peptide and established its sequence as Leu-Gln-Gly-Ala-Ser-Gly-Ile-His-Thr-Gly-Thr-Met-Gly-Phe-Gly-Lys-Met-Glu-Gly-Glu-Ser-Ser-Asp-Arg. Cleavage of this peptide with cyanogen bromide showed that the reagent moiety was covalently attached to the second methionyl residue. Sequence homology with the carboxylase/oxygenase from spinach indicates that the lysyl residue immediately preceding the alkylated methionine corresponds to Lys-334, a residue previously implicated at the active site. 31 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Characterizing the importance of the biotin carboxylase domain dimer for S. aureus pyruvate carboxylase catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linda P. C.; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Choi, Philip H.; Tong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Biotin carboxylase (BC) is a conserved component among biotin-dependent carboxylases and catalyzes the MgATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin, using bicarbonate as the CO2 donor. Studies with E. coli BC have suggested long-range communication between the two active sites of a dimer, although its mechanism is not well understood. In addition, mutations in the dimer interface can produce stable monomers that are still catalytically active. A homologous dimer for the BC domain is observed in the structure of tetrameric pyruvate carboxylase (PC) holoenzyme. We have introduced site-specific mutations in the BC domain dimer interface of S. aureus PC (SaPC), equivalent to those used for E. coli BC, and also made chimeras replacing the SaPC BC domain with the E. coli BC subunit (EcBC chimera) or the yeast ACC BC domain (ScBC chimera). We assessed the catalytic activities of these mutants and characterized their oligomerization states by gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments. The K442E mutant and the ScBC chimera disrupted the BC dimer and were catalytically inactive, while the F403A mutant and the EcBC chimera were still tetrameric and retained catalytic activity. The R54E mutant was also tetrameric but was catalytically inactive. Crystal structures of the R54E, F403A and K442E mutants showed that they were tetrameric in the crystal, with conformational changes near the mutation site as well as in the tetramer organization. We have also produced the isolated BC domain of SaPC. In contrast to E. coli BC, the SaPC BC domain is monomeric in solution and catalytically inactive. PMID:23286247

  10. Development of ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase in castor bean cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Dockerty, A; Lord, J M; Merrett, M J

    1977-06-01

    Light was not essential for the development of ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase protein or catalytic activity in the photosynthetic cotyledons of germinating castor beans (Ricinus communis). Cotyledons developing in the dark showed higher activity than those in the light. Returning cotyledons developing in the light to darkness resulted in a significant increase in ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase activity compared to cotyledons in continuous light.

  11. Changes of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content, ribulose bisphosphate concentration, and photosynthetic activity during adaptation of high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells to low-CO/sub 2/ conditions in Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, A.; Canvin, D.T.

    1986-02-01

    Changes of some photosynthetic properties of high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells of Chlorella pyrenoidosa during adaptation to low-CO/sub 2/ conditions have been investigated. The K/sub m/ value of photosynthesis of the high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells for dissolved inorganic carbon was 3.3 millimolar and decreased to 25 to 30 micromolar within 4 hours after transferring to air. In the presence of saturating CO/sub 2/ concentrations the photosynthetic activity of the high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells was 1.5 times as high as that of the low-CO/sub 2/ grown cells. There was a significant rise of the photosynthetic activity during adaptation of the high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells to air, followed by a steady decrease. The activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in both the high and low-CO/sub 2/ grown cells was close to the photosynthetic activity of the cells. The concentration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) was higher in the low-CO/sub 2/ adapting and low-CO/sub 2/ grown celsl than in the high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells regardless of the photosynthetic rate. This seems to be due to an increased RuBP regeneration activity during adaptation followed by maintenance of the new higher concentration. The RuBP level always exceeded the concentration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase RuBP binding sites in both the high- and low-CO/sub 2/ grown cells at any dissolved inorganic carbon concentration.

  12. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase in developing rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, F. J.; Hanson, R. W.

    1967-01-01

    1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase were measured in foetal, newborn and adult rat liver extracts by a radiochemical assay involving the fixation of [14C]bicarbonate. 2. Pyruvate-carboxylase activity in both foetal and adult liver occurs mainly in mitochondrial and nuclear fractions, with about 10% of the activity in the cytoplasm. 3. Similar studies of the intracellular distribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase show that more than 90% of the activity is in the cytoplasm. However, in the 17-day foetal liver about 90% of the activity is in mitochondria and nuclei. 4. Pyruvate-carboxylase activity in both particulate and soluble fractions is very low in the 17-day foetal liver and increases to near adult levels before birth. 5. Phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase activity in the soluble cell fraction increases 25-fold in the first 2 days after birth. This same enzyme in the mitochondria has considerable activity in the foetal and adult liver and is lower in the newborn. 6. Kinetic and other studies on the properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase have shown no differences between the soluble and mitochondrial enzymes. 7. It is suggested that the appearance of the soluble phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase at birth initiates the rapid increase in overall gluconeogenesis at this stage. PMID:6049928

  13. The Association of d-Ribulose- 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase with Phosphoribulokinase.

    PubMed

    Sainis, J K; Merriam, K; Harris, G C

    1989-01-01

    When Ribulose- 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was purified from spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea) using precipitation with polyethylene glycol and MgCl(2) followed by DEAE cellulose chromatography, 75% of phosphoribulokinase and 7% of phosphoriboisomerase activities copurified with ribulose- 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. This enzyme preparation showed ribose-5-phosphate and ribulose-5-phosphate dependent carboxylase and oxygenase activities which were nearly equivalent to its corresponding ribulose- 1,5-bisphosphate dependent activity. The ribose-5-phosphate and ribulose-5-phosphate dependent reaction rates were stable and linear for much longer time periods than the ribulose- 1,5-bisphosphate dependent rates. When sucrose gradients were used to purify ribulose- 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from crude stromal extracts, phosphoribulokinase was found to cosediment with ribulose- 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Under these conditions most of the phosphoriboisomerase activity remained with the slower sedimenting proteins. Ammonium sulfate precipitation resulted in separation of the ribulose- 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase peak from phosphoribulokinase peak. Crude extracts of peas Pisum sativum and spinach contained 0.725 to 0.730 milligram of phosphoribulokinase per milligram of chlorophyll, respectively, based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate carboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... carboxylase deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes lactic acid and other potentially toxic compounds to accumulate in ... features include developmental delay and a buildup of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis). Increased acidity in ...

  15. Pleiotropic Effect of AccD5 and AccE5 Depletion in Acyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase Activity and in Lipid Biosynthesis in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bazet Lyonnet, Bernardo; Diacovich, Lautaro; Cabruja, Matías; Bardou, Fabienne; Quémard, Annaïk; Gago, Gabriela; Gramajo, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacteria contain a large variety of fatty acids which are used for the biosynthesis of several complex cell wall lipids that have been implicated in the ability of the organism to resist host defenses. The building blocks for the biosynthesis of all these lipids are provided by a fairly complex set of acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) whose subunit composition and roles within these organisms have not yet been clearly established. Previous biochemical and structural studies provided strong evidences that ACCase 5 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is formed by the AccA3, AccD5 and AccE5 subunits and that this enzyme complex carboxylates acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA with a clear substrate preference for the latest. In this work we used a genetic approach to unambiguously demonstrate that the products of both accD5 and accE5 genes are essential for the viability of Mycobacterium smegmatis. By obtaining a conditional mutant on the accD5-accE5 operon, we also demonstrated that the main physiological role of this enzyme complex was to provide the substrates for fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, enzymatic and biochemical analysis of the conditional mutant provided strong evidences supporting the notion that AccD5 and/or AccE5 have an additional role in the carboxylation of long chain acyl-CoA prior to mycolic acid condensation. These studies represent a significant step towards a better understanding of the roles of ACCases in mycobacteria and confirm ACCase 5 as an interesting target for the development of new antimycobacterial drugs. PMID:24950047

  16. Structural Analysis of Substrate, Reaction Intermediate, and Product Binding in Haemophilus influenzae Biotin Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Neau, David B.; Bonnot, Ross; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three proteins: biotin carboxylase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. The reaction mechanism involves two half-reactions with biotin carboxylase catalyzing the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin-BCCP in the first reaction. In the second reaction, carboxyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin-BCCP to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. In this report, high-resolution crystal structures of biotin carboxylase from Haemophilus influenzae were determined with bicarbonate, the ATP analogue AMPPCP; the carboxyphosphate intermediate analogues, phosphonoacetamide and phosphonoformate; the products ADP and phosphate; and the carboxybiotin analogue N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester. The structures have a common theme in that bicarbonate, phosphate, and the methyl ester of the carboxyl group of N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester all bound in the same pocket in the active site of biotin carboxylase and as such utilize the same set of amino acids for binding. This finding suggests a catalytic mechanism for biotin carboxylase in which the binding pocket that binds tetrahedral phosphate also accommodates and stabilizes a tetrahedral dianionic transition state resulting from direct transfer of CO2 from the carboxyphosphate intermediate to biotin. PMID:26020841

  17. Structure, function and regulation of pyruvate carboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Jitrapakdee, S; Wallace, J C

    1999-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC; EC 6.4.1.1), a member of the biotin-dependent enzyme family, catalyses the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate. PC has been found in a wide variety of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In mammals, PC plays a crucial role in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter substances, and in glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. The reaction catalysed by PC and the physical properties of the enzyme have been studied extensively. Although no high-resolution three-dimensional structure has yet been determined by X-ray crystallography, structural studies of PC have been conducted by electron microscopy, by limited proteolysis, and by cloning and sequencing of genes and cDNA encoding the enzyme. Most well characterized forms of active PC consist of four identical subunits arranged in a tetrahedron-like structure. Each subunit contains three functional domains: the biotin carboxylation domain, the transcarboxylation domain and the biotin carboxyl carrier domain. Different physiological conditions, including diabetes, hyperthyroidism, genetic obesity and postnatal development, increase the level of PC expression through transcriptional and translational mechanisms, whereas insulin inhibits PC expression. Glucocorticoids, glucagon and catecholamines cause an increase in PC activity or in the rate of pyruvate carboxylation in the short term. Molecular defects of PC in humans have recently been associated with four point mutations within the structural region of the PC gene, namely Val145-->Ala, Arg451-->Cys, Ala610-->Thr and Met743-->Thr. PMID:10229653

  18. Solar ultraviolet radiation affects the activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and the composition of photosynthetic and xanthophyll cycle pigments in the intertidal green alga Ulva lactuca L.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Kai; Kräbs, Gudrun; Wiencke, Christian; Hanelt, Dieter

    2002-07-01

    The effect of solar UV radiation on the physiology of the intertidal green macroalga Ulva lactuca L. was investigated. A natural Ulva community at the shore of Helgoland was covered with screening foils, excluding UV-B or UV-B + UV-A from the solar spectrum. In the sampled material, changes in the activity and concentration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), and the concentration of photosynthetic and xanthophyll cycle pigments were determined. Exclusion of UV radiation from the natural solar spectrum resulted in an elevated overall activity of Rubisco, related to an increase in its cellular concentration. Among the photosynthetic pigments, lutein concentration was substantially elevated under UV exclusion. In addition, marked UV effects on the xanthophyll cycle were found: exclusion of solar UV radiation (and particularly UV-B) resulted in an increased ratio of zeaxanthin concentration to the total xanthophyll content, indicating adverse effects of UV-B on the efficiency of photoprotection under high irradiances of photosynthetically active radiation. The results confirm a marked impact of present UV-B levels on macroalgal physiology under field conditions.

  19. Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxylase in Parasitic Plants: Further Characterization in Various Species and Localization at the Level of Cells and Tissues in Lathraea clandestina L.

    PubMed

    Renaudin, S; Thalouarn, P; Rey, L; Vidal, J; Larher, F

    1984-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP carboxylase, EC 4.1.1.31) activity was demonstrated in a range of holo and hemiparasitic phanerogams. Lathraea clandestina was used as a model for a more detailed study. Enzyme activity levels were determined in the various plant parts. Great changes in enzyme capacity were observed in the shoots according to the time of measurement during a 24 hr cycle. PEP carboxylase characterized at the cellular level by using an indirect immunofluorescence method was found to be mainly located in the cytosol. The possible functions of PEP carboxylase in parasitic plants are discussed.

  20. Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxylase in Parasitic Plants: Further Characterization in Various Species and Localization at the Level of Cells and Tissues in Lathraea clandestina L.

    PubMed

    Renaudin, S; Thalouarn, P; Rey, L; Vidal, J; Larher, F

    1984-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP carboxylase, EC 4.1.1.31) activity was demonstrated in a range of holo and hemiparasitic phanerogams. Lathraea clandestina was used as a model for a more detailed study. Enzyme activity levels were determined in the various plant parts. Great changes in enzyme capacity were observed in the shoots according to the time of measurement during a 24 hr cycle. PEP carboxylase characterized at the cellular level by using an indirect immunofluorescence method was found to be mainly located in the cytosol. The possible functions of PEP carboxylase in parasitic plants are discussed. PMID:23195386

  1. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, P.G.; Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1996-09-24

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives are disclosed which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides. 5 figs.

  2. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, Paul G.; Ohlrogge, John B.

    1996-01-01

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives thereof which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides.

  3. Impact of ozone on the activity and quantity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in potato foliage and its relation to premature senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Dann, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Plants, 26 days old, were exposed to O{sub 3} for five days in a controlled environment chamber. Initial and total activities and quantity of enzyme declined in both O{sub 3}-treated and control plants. Ozone accelerated the decline and produced a significantly greater decrease in activity and quantity by the fifth day of O{sub 3} exposure. Percent activation of the enzyme did not change. Enzyme activity and quantity of O{sub 3}-treated plants remained below control levels throughout a seven-day post-exposure observation period. Ozone may accelerate the decline in rubisco by increasing enzyme acceptability to proteases. To test this hypothesis, rubisco was purified from Norland potato foliage and the enzyme exposed to O{sub 3} or oxygen (O{sub 2}) in vitro. Following oxidant treatment, the extract was treated with exogenous protease. Oxidant treatment reduced the quantity of rubisco an average of 15%. Addition of protease further reduced the quantity by another 30% after O{sub 3} but no O{sub 2} treatment.

  4. Effect of Nd{sup 3+} ion on carboxylation activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chao; Hong Fashui . E-mail: Hongfsh_cn@sina.com; Wu Kang; Ma, Hong-bing; Zhang Xueguang; Hong Chengjiao; Wu Cheng; Gao Fengqing; Yang Fan; Zheng Lei; Wang Xuefeng; Liu Tao; Xie Yaning; Xu Jianhua; Li Zhongrui

    2006-03-31

    Neodymium (Nd), as a member of rare earth elements, proved to enhance the photosynthesis rate and organic substance accumulation of spinach through the increase in carboxylation activity of Rubisco. Although the oxygenase activity of spinach Rubisco was slightly changed with the Nd{sup 3+} treatment, the specific factor of Rubisco was greatly increased. It was partially due to the promotion of Rubisco activase (R-A) activity but mainly to the formation of Rubisco-Rubisco activase super-complex, a heavier molecular mass protein (about 1200 kD) comprising both Rubisco and Rubisco activase. This super-complex was found during the extraction procedure of Rubisco by the gel electrophoresis and Western-blot studies. The formation of Rubisco-R-A super-complex suggested that the secondary structure of the protein purified from the Nd{sup 3+}-treated spinach was different from that of the control. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure study of the 'Rubisco' purified from the Nd{sup 3+}-treated spinach revealed that Nd was bound with four oxygen atoms and two sulfur atoms of amino acid residues at the Nd-O and Nd-S bond lengths of 2.46 and 2.89 A, respectively.

  5. Rapid activation by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase/acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase and akt/protein kinase B signaling pathways: relation to changes in fuel metabolism and myosin heavy-chain protein content in rat gastrocnemius muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Pieter; Senese, Rosalba; Cioffi, Federica; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; Silvestri, Elena; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2008-12-01

    T3 stimulates metabolic rate in many tissues and induces changes in fuel use. The pathways by which T3 induces metabolic/structural changes related to altered fuel use in skeletal muscle have not been fully clarified. Gastrocnemius muscle (isolated at different time points after a single injection of T3 into hypothyroid rats), displayed rapid inductions of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation (threonine 172; within 6 h) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation (serine 79; within 12 h). As a consequence, increases occurred in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity. Concomitantly, T3 stimulated signaling toward increased glycolysis through a rapid increase in Akt/protein kinase B (serine 473) phosphorylation (within 6 h) and a directly related increase in the activity of phosphofructokinase. The kinase specificity of the above effects was verified by treatment with inhibitors of AMPK and Akt activity (compound C and wortmannin, respectively). In contrast, glucose transporter 4 translocation to the membrane (activated by T3 within 6 h) was maintained when either AMPK or Akt activity was inhibited. The metabolic changes were accompanied by a decline in myosin heavy-chain Ib protein [causing a shift toward the fast-twitch (glycolytic) phenotype]. The increases in AMPK and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation were transient events, both levels declining from 12 h after the T3 injection, but Akt phosphorylation remained elevated until at least 48h after the injection. These data show that in skeletal muscle, T3 stimulates both fatty acid and glucose metabolism through rapid activations of the associated signaling pathways involving AMPK and Akt/protein kinase B.

  6. Metabolic analysis of Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of the carboxylating enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Gokarn, R.R.; Eiteman, M.A.; Altman, E.

    2000-05-01

    Fermentation patterns of Escherichia coli with and without the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) enzymes were compared under anaerobic conditions with glucose as a carbon source. Time profiles of glucose and fermentation product concentrations were determined and used to calculate metabolic fluxes through central carbon pathways during exponential cell growth. The presence of the Rhizobium etli pyc gene in E. coli (JCL1242/pTrc99A-pyc) restored the succinate producing ability of E. coli ppc null mutants (JCL1242), with PYC competing favorably with both pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase. Succinate formation was slightly greater by JCL1242/pTrc99a-pyc than by cells which overproduced PPC(JCL1242/pPC201, ppc{sup +}), even though PPC activity in cell extracts of JCL1242/pPC201 (ppc{sup +}) was 40-fold greater than PYC activity in extracts of JCL1242/pTrc99a-pyc. Flux calculations indicate that during anaerobic metabolism the pyc{sup +} strain had a 34% greater specific glucose consumption rate, a 37% greater specific rate of ATP formation, and a 6% greater specific growth rate compared to the ppc{sup +} strain. In light of the important position of pyruvate at the juncture of NADH-generating pathways and NADH-dissimilating branches, the results show that when PPC or PYC is expressed, the metabolic network adapts by altering the flux to lactate and the molar ratio of ethanol to acetate formation.

  7. Carboxylase Levels and Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cazzulo, J. J.; Claisse, L. M.; Stoppani, A. O. M.

    1968-01-01

    Levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), phosphopyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) were compared in wild-type bakers' yeast (I), a cytoplasmic-respiratory mutant (II), a biotin-deficient wild-type yeast (III), and a biotin-deficient respiratory mutant (IV). PC activities were greatly reduced in III and IV, whereas PEPC was reduced in II and IV. Malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) could not be detected in any of the yeasts. With yeast I growing on glucose as the sole carbon source, PEPC decreased to negligible levels during the logarithmic phase of growth (glucose repression effect), whereas PC increased. Both enzymes reverted to their original levels during the stationary phase, when glucose in the medium was exhausted. In agreement with the leading role of PC for CO2 assimilation, the rates of 14CO2 fixation in yeasts I and II were approximately equal and were much higher than that in yeast IV. With I and II, most of the 14C was distributed similarly in oxalacetate derivatives; with yeast IV, most of 14C appeared in a compound apparently unrelated to CO2 fixation via C4-dicarboxylic acids. PMID:5732499

  8. Purification and characterization of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase from somatic embryos of Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Wurtele, E S; Wang, X; Nikolau, B J

    1993-08-15

    3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, a biotin enzyme, was purified from embryos of Daucus carota. Polyethylene glycol precipitation and monomeric avidin affinity chromatography were used to purify all biotin enzymes from cell-free extracts of embryos. The resulting 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase preparation had a specific activity of 745 nmol/min.mg protein, representing a 3725-fold purification of the enzyme and a 135% recovery of activity. Fractionation of the purified biotin-containing proteins by anionic exchange chromatography using Q-Sepharose partially resolved the 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase from the other biotin enzymes. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase has a biotin-containing subunit with a molecular mass of about 78,000 Da and a non-biotin-containing subunit of about 65,000 Da. The native enzyme is 987,000 Da. The optimum pH for activity is between 8.0 and 8.4. The apparent Km values for the substrates 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, sodium bicarbonate, and ATP are 42 +/- 2 microM, 4.0 +/- 0.9 mM, and 21 +/- 2 microM, respectively. The enzyme is inhibited by acetoacetyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA.

  9. Crystal Structure of the alpha6beta6 Holoenzyme of propionyl-coenzyme A Carboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.; Sadre-Bazzaz, K; Shen, Y; Deng, B; Zhou, Z; Tong, L

    2010-01-01

    Propionyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (PCC), a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme, is essential for the catabolism of the amino acids Thr, Val, Ile and Met, cholesterol and fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms. Deficiencies in PCC activity in humans are linked to the disease propionic acidaemia, an autosomal recessive disorder that can be fatal in infants. The holoenzyme of PCC is an {alpha}{sub 6}{beta}{sub 6} dodecamer, with a molecular mass of 750 kDa. The {alpha}-subunit contains the biotin carboxylase (BC) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domains, whereas the {beta}-subunit supplies the carboxyltransferase (CT) activity. Here we report the crystal structure at 3.2-{angstrom} resolution of a bacterial PCC {alpha}{sub 6}{beta}{sub 6} holoenzyme as well as cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction at 15-{angstrom} resolution demonstrating a similar structure for human PCC. The structure defines the overall architecture of PCC and reveals unexpectedly that the {alpha}-subunits are arranged as monomers in the holoenzyme, decorating a central {beta}{sub 6} hexamer. A hitherto unrecognized domain in the {alpha}-subunit, formed by residues between the BC and BCCP domains, is crucial for interactions with the {beta}-subunit. We have named it the BT domain. The structure reveals for the first time the relative positions of the BC and CT active sites in the holoenzyme. They are separated by approximately 55 {angstrom}, indicating that the entire BCCP domain must translocate during catalysis. The BCCP domain is located in the active site of the {beta}-subunit in the current structure, providing insight for its involvement in the CT reaction. The structural information establishes a molecular basis for understanding the large collection of disease-causing mutations in PCC and is relevant for the holoenzymes of other biotin-dependent carboxylases, including 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) and eukaryotic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC).

  10. Mitochondrial SIRT4-type proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals interact with pyruvate carboxylase and other acetylated biotin-dependent carboxylases.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Martina; Karaca, Samir; Wenzel, Dirk; Ho, Linh; Tishkoff, Daniel; Lombard, David B; Verdin, Eric; Urlaub, Henning; Jedrusik-Bode, Monika; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    The biological and enzymatic function of SIRT4 is largely uncharacterized. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans SIR-2.2 and SIR-2.3 orthologs of SIRT4 are ubiquitously expressed, also localize to mitochondria and function during oxidative stress. Further, we identified conserved interaction with mitochondrial biotin-dependent carboxylases (PC, PCC, MCCC), key enzymes in anaplerosis and ketone body formation. The carboxylases were found acetylated on multiple lysine residues and detailed analysis of mPC suggested that one of these residues, K748ac, might regulate enzymatic activity. Nevertheless, no changes in mPC acetylation levels and enzymatic activity could be detected upon overexpression or loss of functional SIRT4.

  11. Mitochondrial SIRT4-type proteins in C. elegans and mammals interact with pyruvate carboxylase and other acetylated biotin-dependent carboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Martina; Karaca, Samir; Wenzel, Dirk; Ho, Linh; Tishkoff, Daniel; Lombard, David B.; Verdin, Eric; Urlaub, Henning; Jedrusik-Bode, Monika; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The biological and enzymatic function of SIRT4 is largely uncharacterized. We show that the C. elegans SIR-2.2 and SIR-2.3 orthologs of SIRT4 are ubiquitously expressed, also localize to mitochondria and function during oxidative stress. Further, we identified conserved interaction with mitochondrial biotin-dependent carboxylases (PC, PCC, MCCC), key enzymes in anaplerosis and ketone body formation. The carboxylases were found acetylated on multiple lysine residues and detailed analysis of mPC suggested that one of these residues, K748ac, might regulate enzymatic activity. Nevertheless, no changes in mPC acetylation levels and enzymatic activity could be detected upon overexpression or loss of functional SIRT4. PMID:23438705

  12. Presence of two subunit types in ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from Thiobacillus intermedius.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, L H; Chollet, R

    1980-01-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.39) has been purified to homogeneity from glutamate-CO2-thiosulfate-grown Thiobacillus intermedius by pelleting the protein from the 93,000 X g supernatant fluid followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation and sedimentation into a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. The molecular weight of the native protein approximated that of the higher plant enzyme (550,000) based on its relative electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide disc gels compared with that of standards of known molecular weight, including crystalline tobacco ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis in 12% polyacrylamide disc gels and Sephadex G-100 chromatography in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate indicated that the purified Thiobacillus protein, like the tobacco enzyme, consisted of two types of nonidentical subunits. The molecular weights of the large and small subunits were estimated to be about 55,000 and 13,000, respectively, by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The carboxylase activity of the protein purified from spinach leaves and T. intermedius responded similarly to the effectors reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate. Contrary to a previous report (K. Purohit, B. A. McFadden, and A. L. Cohen, J. Bacteriol. 127:505-515, 1976), these results indicate that ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase purified from Thiobacillus intermedius closely resembles the higher plant enzyme with respect to quaternary structure, molecular weight, and regulatory properties. Images PMID:7364715

  13. Plants contain multiple biotin enzymes: discovery of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Wurtele, E S; Nikolau, B J

    1990-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is the sole biotin enzyme previously reported in plants. Western analysis with 125I-streptavidin of proteins extracted from carrot somatic embryos visualized six biotin-containing polypeptides, the relative molecular masses of which are 210,000, 140,000, 73,000, 50,000, 39,000, and 34,000. This multiplicity of the biotin-containing polypeptides can be partly explained by the discovery of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and pyruvate carboxylase in extracts of somatic carrot embryos, biotin enzymes previously unknown in the plant kingdom. These biotin enzymes seem to be widely distributed in the plant kingdom.

  14. Light Induction of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in Etiolated Maize Leaf Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Shinobu; Matsunaga, Kazumi; Sugiyama, Tatsuo

    1981-01-01

    An antibody for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was used to isolate and to quantitate the enzyme from greening maize (cv. KOU 6) leaves. The increase in enzyme activity during greening was due to de novo synthesis, which was paralleled by increases in enzyme protein and incorporation of leucine. The light-induced activity was due to one specific isoenzyme. The action spectrum for enzyme synthesis had red and blue peaks. Images PMID:16661613

  15. DNA-directed in vitro synthesis and assembly of the form II D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Chory, J; Muller, E D; Kaplan, S

    1985-01-01

    A biochemical analysis of the in vitro assembly of the form II ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides after transcription and translation from cloned DNA is presented. The predominant enzymatically active oligomeric forms of the in vitro-synthesized and -assembled ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase are tetramers and hexamers. Assembly of the monomeric subunits to form active enzyme appears to be dependent on the presence of a minimum number of subunits in the cell extract. Assembly of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase also was observed when the protein-synthesizing extracts were prepared from cells which were partially derepressed for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase expression. Images PMID:3918003

  16. Structure and function of a single-chain, multi-domain long-chain acyl-CoA carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Timothy H.; Hsiao, Yu-Shan; Jo, Jeanyoung; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Dietrich, Lars E.P.; Walz, Thomas; Tong, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Biotin-dependent carboxylases are widely distributed in nature and have important functions in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, cholesterol and other compounds 1–6. Defective mutations in several of these enzymes have been linked to serious metabolic diseases in humans, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a target for drug discovery against diabetes, cancer and other diseases 7–9. We report here the identification and biochemical, structural and functional characterizations of a novel single-chain (120 kD), multi-domain biotin-dependent carboxylase in bacteria. It has preference for long-chain acyl-CoA substrates, although it is also active toward short- and medium-chain acyl-CoAs, and we have named it long-chain acyl-CoA carboxylase (LCC). The holoenzyme is a homo-hexamer with molecular weight of 720 kD. The 3.0 Å crystal structure of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis LCC (MapLCC) holoenzyme revealed an architecture that is strikingly different compared to those of related biotin-dependent carboxylases 10,11. In addition, the domains of each monomer have no direct contacts with each other. They are instead extensively swapped in the holoenzyme, such that one cycle of catalysis involves the participation of four monomers. Functional studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the enzyme is involved in the utilization of selected carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:25383525

  17. Molecular evolution of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase in fungi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Urea amidolyase breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide in a two-step process, while another enzyme, urease, does this in a one step-process. Urea amidolyase has been found only in some fungal species among eukaryotes. It contains two major domains: the amidase and urea carboxylase domains. A shorter form of urea amidolyase is known as urea carboxylase and has no amidase domain. Eukaryotic urea carboxylase has been found only in several fungal species and green algae. In order to elucidate the evolutionary origin of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase, we studied the distribution of urea amidolyase, urea carboxylase, as well as other proteins including urease, across kingdoms. Results Among the 64 fungal species we examined, only those in two Ascomycota classes (Sordariomycetes and Saccharomycetes) had the urea amidolyase sequences. Urea carboxylase was found in many but not all of the species in the phylum Basidiomycota and in the subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota). It was completely absent from the class Saccharomycetes (phylum Ascomycota; subphylum Saccharomycotina). Four Sordariomycetes species we examined had both the urea carboxylase and the urea amidolyase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two enzymes appeared to have gone through independent evolution since their bacterial origin. The amidase domain and the urea carboxylase domain sequences from fungal urea amidolyases clustered strongly together with the amidase and urea carboxylase sequences, respectively, from a small number of beta- and gammaproteobacteria. On the other hand, fungal urea carboxylase proteins clustered together with another copy of urea carboxylases distributed broadly among bacteria. The urease proteins were found in all the fungal species examined except for those of the subphylum Saccharomycotina. Conclusions We conclude that the urea amidolyase genes currently found only in fungi are the results of a horizontal gene transfer event from

  18. GroE heat shock protein is required for in vivo assembly of recombinant Anabaena ribulose bisphosphate (Ru-P sub 2 ) carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Larimer, F.W.; Soper, T.S. )

    1991-03-11

    As a prerequisite for site-directed mutagenesis of a L{sub 8}S{sub 8} form of Ru-P{sub 2} carboxylase, the rbc operon from Anabaena 7120 was placed under control of the tac promoter (tac-rbcLrbcS, bla, ori(pMB1), from pFL260) in E. coli MV1190 (recA). Substantial amounts of insoluble large subunit were produced, but not active enzyme, suggesting that the carboxylase was not being correctly assembled in vivo. Coexpression of rbcLrbcS and the operon encoding the GroESL (HSP10, HSP60) complex from a compatible plasmid (tac-groESgroEL, cat, ori(p15A), from pFL261) resulted in high levels of active, soluble enzyme. Supplementation of rich medium with potassium ions, required for GroE complex function in vitro enhanced recovery of active enzyme. Under optimal expression conditions, active Ru-P{sub 2} carboxylase comprised 7-10% of soluble protein. The recombinant carboxylase, purified to homogeneity, was similar to the enzyme purified from the authentic cyanobacterium. Chaperonins are required for assembly of many complex proteins. The stringent requirement of Anabaena carboxylase for elevated levels of E. coli GroE chaperonin for proper assembly suggests that the GroE complex differs from the Anabaena chaperonin complex that is normally involved in the assembly of this L{sub 8}S{sub 8} carboxylase.

  19. Localization and properties of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase from castor bean endosperm.

    PubMed

    Osmond, C B; Akazawa, T; Beevers, H

    1975-02-01

    A substantial portion of the ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase activity in the endosperm of germinating castor beans (Ricinus communis var. Hale) is recovered in the proplastid fraction. The partially purified enzyme shows homology with the enzyme from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves, as evidenced by its reaction against antibodies to the native spinach enzyme and to its catalytic subunit. The enzyme from the endosperm of castor beans has a molecular weight of about 500,000 and, with the exception of a higher affinity for ribulose 1,5-diphosphate, has similar kinetic properties to the spinach enzyme. The castor bean carboxylase is inhibited by oxygen and also displays ribulose 1,5-diphosphate oxygenase activity with an optimum at pH 7.5.

  20. Expression of PEP carboxylase from Escherichia coli complements the phenotypic effects of pyruvate carboxylase mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flores, C L; Gancedo, C

    1997-08-01

    We investigated the effects of the expression of the Escherichia coli ppc gene encoding PEP carboxylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants devoid of pyruvate carboxylase. Functional expression of the ppc gene restored the ability of the yeast mutants to grow in glucose-ammonium medium. Growth yield in this medium was the same in the transformed yeast than in the wild type although the growth rate of the transformed yeast was slower. Growth in pyruvate was slowed down in the transformed strain, likely due to a futile cycle produced by the simultaneous action of PEP carboxykinase and PEP carboxylase.

  1. Computational redesign of bacterial biotin carboxylase inhibitors using structure-based virtual screening of combinatorial libraries.

    PubMed

    Brylinski, Michal; Waldrop, Grover L

    2014-01-01

    As the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria steadily increases, there is an urgent need for new antibacterial agents. Because fatty acid synthesis is only used for membrane biogenesis in bacteria, the enzymes in this pathway are attractive targets for antibacterial agent development. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the committed and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three distinct protein components: biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase. Fragment-based screening revealed that amino-oxazole inhibits biotin carboxylase activity and also exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram-negative organisms. In this report, we redesigned previously identified lead inhibitors to expand the spectrum of bacteria sensitive to the amino-oxazole derivatives by including Gram-positive species. Using 9,411 small organic building blocks, we constructed a diverse combinatorial library of 1.2×10⁸ amino-oxazole derivatives. A subset of 9×10⁶ of these compounds were subjected to structure-based virtual screening against seven biotin carboxylase isoforms using similarity-based docking by eSimDock. Potentially broad-spectrum antibiotic candidates were selected based on the consensus ranking by several scoring functions including non-linear statistical models implemented in eSimDock and traditional molecular mechanics force fields. The analysis of binding poses of the top-ranked compounds docked to biotin carboxylase isoforms suggests that: (1) binding of the amino-oxazole anchor is stabilized by a network of hydrogen bonds to residues 201, 202 and 204; (2) halogenated aromatic moieties attached to the amino-oxazole scaffold enhance interactions with a hydrophobic pocket formed by residues 157, 169, 171 and 203; and (3) larger substituents reach deeper into the binding pocket to form additional hydrogen bonds with the side chains of residues 209 and 233. These structural insights into drug

  2. Computational redesign of bacterial biotin carboxylase inhibitors using structure-based virtual screening of combinatorial libraries.

    PubMed

    Brylinski, Michal; Waldrop, Grover L

    2014-04-02

    As the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria steadily increases, there is an urgent need for new antibacterial agents. Because fatty acid synthesis is only used for membrane biogenesis in bacteria, the enzymes in this pathway are attractive targets for antibacterial agent development. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the committed and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three distinct protein components: biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase. Fragment-based screening revealed that amino-oxazole inhibits biotin carboxylase activity and also exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram-negative organisms. In this report, we redesigned previously identified lead inhibitors to expand the spectrum of bacteria sensitive to the amino-oxazole derivatives by including Gram-positive species. Using 9,411 small organic building blocks, we constructed a diverse combinatorial library of 1.2×10⁸ amino-oxazole derivatives. A subset of 9×10⁶ of these compounds were subjected to structure-based virtual screening against seven biotin carboxylase isoforms using similarity-based docking by eSimDock. Potentially broad-spectrum antibiotic candidates were selected based on the consensus ranking by several scoring functions including non-linear statistical models implemented in eSimDock and traditional molecular mechanics force fields. The analysis of binding poses of the top-ranked compounds docked to biotin carboxylase isoforms suggests that: (1) binding of the amino-oxazole anchor is stabilized by a network of hydrogen bonds to residues 201, 202 and 204; (2) halogenated aromatic moieties attached to the amino-oxazole scaffold enhance interactions with a hydrophobic pocket formed by residues 157, 169, 171 and 203; and (3) larger substituents reach deeper into the binding pocket to form additional hydrogen bonds with the side chains of residues 209 and 233. These structural insights into drug

  3. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase in Prochloron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhow, M. A.; Mcfadden, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase, enzymes in the reductive pentose-phosphate cycle, were measured in cell-free extracts of Prochloran didemni. The partial purification and characterization of RuBP carboxylase were described. Prochloron RuBP carboxylase, when purified by isopycnic centrifugation in reoriented linear 0.2 to 0.8 M sucrose gradients, sedimented to a position which corresponded to that of the 520,000-dalton spinach enzyme. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the Prochloron enzyme was composed of large and small subunits (MW = 57,500 and 18,800). Though results established that the enzymes RuBP carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase were present in levels comparable to other CO2-fixing microorganisms, it was suggested that other enzymes in the Calvin cycle limit growth or that additional enzymic insufficiencies exist.

  4. (4-Piperidinyl)-piperazine: a new platform for acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chonan, Tomomichi; Oi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Miyoko; Wakasugi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ohoka-Sugita, Ayumi; Io, Fusayo; Koretsune, Hiroko; Hiratate, Akira

    2009-12-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs), the rate limiting enzymes in de novo lipid synthesis, play important roles in modulating energy metabolism. The inhibition of ACC has demonstrated promising therapeutic potential for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in transgenic mice and preclinical animal models. We describe herein the synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of disubstituted (4-piperidinyl)-piperazine derivatives as a new platform for ACC1/2 non-selective inhibitors.

  5. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: phenotypic variability in a family.

    PubMed

    Eminoglu, F Tuba; Ozcelik, Aysima A; Okur, Ilyas; Tumer, Leyla; Biberoglu, Gursel; Demir, Ercan; Hasanoglu, Alev; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2009-04-01

    A family with 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency with different clinical features is described. A 15-month-old boy, who was the index patient, was admitted to the hospital with atonic seizure. His brother had delayed language development and their uncle had been followed with diagnosis of epilepsy for the last 5 years. Urinary organic acid analysis displayed elevated 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine, analysis of acylcarnitines showed elevated 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine and decreased free carnitine levels in both the patients and their uncle. Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase activity in cultured fibroblasts displayed a low residual activity of 2.2% of the median control value while propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity was normal in the index patient. Mutation analysis revealed a large homozygous deletion of 2264 bp (c.873+4524_6787de12264) in the MCCA gene, which has not been described to date. Adult-onset afebrile seizures have not been reported in the literature. Our cases are an example of this wide phenotypic variability within a single family.

  6. Crystal Structures of Human and Staphylococcus aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase and Molecular Insights into the Carboxyltransfer Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang,S.; Tong, L.

    2008-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the biotin-dependent production of oxaloacetate and has important roles in gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, insulin secretion and other cellular processes. PC contains the biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin-carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domains. We report here the crystal structures at 2.8-Angstroms resolution of full-length PC from Staphylococcus aureus and the C-terminal region (missing only the BC domain) of human PC. A conserved tetrameric association is observed for both enzymes, and our structural and mutagenesis studies reveal a previously uncharacterized domain, the PC tetramerization (PT) domain, which is important for oligomerization. A BCCP domain is located in the active site of the CT domain, providing the first molecular insights into how biotin participates in the carboxyltransfer reaction. There are dramatic differences in domain positions in the monomer and the organization of the tetramer between these enzymes and the PC from Rhizobium etli.

  7. Regulation and structure of the heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Salie, Matthew J; Thelen, Jay J

    2016-09-01

    The enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) catalyzes the committed step of the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS) pathway by converting acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. Two forms of ACCase exist in nature, a homomeric and heteromic form. The heteromeric form of this enzyme requires four different subunits for activity: biotin carboxylase; biotin carboxyl carrier protein; and α- and β-carboxyltransferases. Heteromeric ACCases (htACCase) can be found in prokaryotes and the plastids of most plants. The plant htACCase is regulated by diverse mechanisms reflected by the biochemical and genetic complexity of this multienzyme complex and the plastid stroma where it resides. In this review we summarize the regulation of the plant htACCase and also describe the structural characteristics of this complex from both prokaryotes and plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27091637

  8. Crystal structure of the 500 kD yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase holoenzyme dimer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jia; Tong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) has crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism and is an attractive target for drug discovery against diabetes, cancer and other diseases1–6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACC (ScACC) is crucial for the production of very-long-chain fatty acids and the maintenance of the nuclear envelope7,8. ACC contains biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT) activities, and its biotin is linked covalently to the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP). Most eukaryotic ACCs are 250 kD, multi-domain enzymes and function as homo-dimers and higher oligomers. They contain a unique, 80 kD central region that shares no homology with other proteins. While the structures of the BC, CT and BCCP domains and other biotin-dependent carboxylase holoenzymes are known1,9–14, currently there is no structural information on the ACC holoenzyme. Here we report the crystal structure of the full-length, 500 kD holoenzyme dimer of ScACC. The structure is strikingly different from those of the other biotin-dependent carboxylases. The central region contains five domains and is important for positioning the BC and CT domains for catalysis. The structure unexpectedly reveals a dimer of the BC domain and extensive conformational differences compared to the structure of BC domain alone, which is a monomer. These structural changes explain why the BC domain alone is catalytically inactive and define the molecular mechanism for the inhibition of eukaryotic ACC by the natural product soraphen A15,16 and by phosphorylation of a Ser residue just prior to the BC domain core in mammalian ACC. The BC and CT active sites are separated by 80 Å, and the entire BCCP domain must translocate during catalysis. PMID:26458104

  9. Acclimation of two tomato species to high atmospheric CO sub 2 : II. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Yelle, S.; Beeson, R.C. Jr.; Trudel, M.J.; Gosselin, A. )

    1989-08-01

    Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Vedettos and Lycopersicon chmielewskii Rick, LA 1028, were exposed to two CO{sub 2} concentrations for 10 weeks. The elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations increased the initial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity of both species for the first 5 weeks of treatment but the difference did not persist during the last 5 weeks. The activity of Mg{sup 2+}-CO{sub 2}-activated Rubisco was higher in 900 microliters per liter for the first 2 weeks but declined sharply thereafter. After 10 weeks, leaves grown at 330 microliters per liter CO{sub 2} had about twice the Rubisco activity compared with those grown at 900 microliters per liter CO{sub 2}. The two species showed the same trend to Rubisco declines under high CO{sub 2} concentrations. The percent activation of Rubisco was always higher under high CO{sub 2}. The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) activity measured in tomato leaves averaged 7.9% of the total Rubisco. PEPCase showed a similar trend with time as the initial Rubisco but with no significant difference between nonenriched and CO{sub 2}-enriched plants. Long-term exposure of tomato plants to high CO{sub 2} was previously shown to induce a decline of photosynthetic efficiency. Based on the current study and on previous results, we propose that the decline of activated Rubisco is the main cause of the acclimation of tomato plants to high CO{sub 2} concentrations.

  10. Synthesis and turnover of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and of its subunits during the cell cycle of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Iwanij, V; Chua, N H; Siekevitz, P

    1975-03-01

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (Ru-1,5-P2) carboxylase (EC 4.1 1.39) is made up ot two nonidentical subunits, one synthesized in the chloroplast and the other outside. Both of these subunits of the assembled enzyme are synthesized in a stepwise manner during the synchronous cell cycle of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The activity of this enzyme increases in the light and this increase is due to de novo protein synthesis as shown by the measurement of the amount of protein and by the pulse incorporation of radioactive arginine in the 18S enzyme peak in linear sucrose density gradients. During the dark phase of the cell cycle, there is little change in the enzymatic activity as well as in the amount of this enzyme. Pulse-labeling studies using radioactive arginine indicated that there is a slow but detectable rate of synthesis of the carboxylase and of its subunits in the dark. Ru-1,5-P2 carboxylase, prelabeled with radioactive arginine throughout the entire light period, shows a similarly slow rate of degradation in the following dark period. This slow turnover of the enzyme in the dark accounts for the steady levels of carboxylase protein and of enzymatic activity during this period. A wide variety of inhibitors of protein synthesis by 70S and 80S ribosomes abolished the incorporation of [3H]arginine into total Ru-1,5-P2 carboxylase during short-term incubation. These results suggest a tight-coordinated control of the biosynthesis of the small and large subunits of the enzyme. This stringent control is further substantiated by the finding that both subunits are synthesized in sychrony with each other, that the ratio of radioactivity of the small to the large subunit remains constant throughout the entire light-dark cycle, and that the rates of synthesis and of degradation of both subunits are similar to that of the assembled enzyme.

  11. Carboxylases in Natural and Synthetic Microbial Pathways▿†

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Tobias J.

    2011-01-01

    Carboxylases are among the most important enzymes in the biosphere, because they catalyze a key reaction in the global carbon cycle: the fixation of inorganic carbon (CO2). This minireview discusses the physiological roles of carboxylases in different microbial pathways that range from autotrophy, carbon assimilation, and anaplerosis to biosynthetic and redox-balancing functions. In addition, the current and possible future uses of carboxylation reactions in synthetic biology are discussed. Such uses include the possible transformation of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into value-added compounds and the production of novel antibiotics. PMID:22003013

  12. Induction of fatty acid synthetase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase by isolated rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Porter, J W; Swenson, T L

    1983-01-01

    Current studies on the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids by isolated rat liver cells are largely concerned with the regulation of the activity of previously existing acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, and with the regulation of the quantity of these enzymes. These studies have required the development of methods for obtaining high yields of viable hepatocytes that respond to hormonal treatment. Such methods have been developed over the past 10-15 years through the efforts of several laboratories. These studies have also required the development of a method to determine whether a change in the activity of an enzyme is due to a modification of preexisting enzyme or to a change in quantity of that enzyme. The most satisfactory method to use for such studies is immunotitration of enzyme activity. In recent years studies on the regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase have largely centered upon the effect of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation on the activity of this enzyme and whether glucagon inhibits the activity of this enzyme through this process. Much data from a number of laboratories have suggested that glucagon regulates the activity of this enzyme through phosphorylation-dephosphorylation. However, several of these studies involved the use of crude systems in which competing enzymes and substrates that can significantly interfere with acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity measurements were still present. Hence, a confirmation of these studies needs to be carried out under conditions in which the effects of competing enzymes and substrates are eliminated. Studies on changes in quantity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase have shown that these enzymes are induced by the fasting and refeeding of animals. They have also shown that insulin stimulates (10- to 30-fold) the induction of these enzymes. This induction appears to be due to a change in the quantity of translatable mRNA which may, in turn, be due to a change in the rate of

  13. Reversible dissociation and conformational stability of dimeric ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Erijman, L; Lorimer, G H; Weber, G

    1993-05-18

    Dimer-monomer dissociation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum was investigated using hydrostatic pressure in the range 1-2 kbar to promote dissociation. Intrinsic fluorescence emission and polarization, along with the polarization of the fluorescence of single-labeled AEDANS conjugates, were used to follow the dissociation. Full reversibility after dissociation was observed to depend on the presence of small ligands: glycerol, Mg2+, and NaHCO3, the last two being required to activate the enzyme. The free energy of association at 15 degrees C, -12.9 kcal mol-1, was made up of a positive change in enthalpy on association of 6.0 kcal mol-1 and an entropic contribution (T delta S) of 18.9 kcal mol-1; thus the monomer association is entropy driven. No dissociation of the quaternary complex formed by the dimer, 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1,5-diphosphate (CADP), Mg2+, and NaHCO3 was observed at pressures up to 2.0 kbar; the magnitude of stabilization by the inhibitor binding was estimated as 2.3 kcal mol-1. Pressurization in the presence of bis-ANS results in a time-dependent increase in fluorophore emission, indicating changes in monomer conformation with exposure of hydrophobic surfaces upon dissociation. Reactivity against the fluorescent probe 1,5-I-AEDANS was also used as a conformational probe: HPLC of a trypsin digest of rubisco labeled at atmospheric pressure revealed a single fluorescent peptide, whereas more extensive labeling was observed when the reaction was carried out at 2.0 kbar, indicative of exposure of internal cysteines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8388254

  14. Novel Bacterial Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Inhibitors with Antibiotic Efficacy In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, C.; Pohlmann, J.; Nell, P. G.; Endermann, R.; Schuhmacher, J.; Newton, B.; Otteneder, M.; Lampe, T.; Häbich, D.; Ziegelbauer, K.

    2006-01-01

    The pseudopeptide pyrrolidinedione antibiotics, such as moiramide B, have recently been discovered to target the multisubunit acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylases of bacteria. In this paper, we describe synthetic variations of each moiety of the modularly composed pyrrolidinediones, providing insight into structure-activity relationships of biochemical target activity, in vitro potency, and in vivo efficacy. The novel derivatives showed highly improved activities against gram-positive bacteria compared to those of previously reported variants. The compounds exhibited a MIC90 value of 0.1 μg/ml against a broad spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. No cross-resistance to antibiotics currently used in clinical practice was observed. Resistance mutations induced by pyrrolidinediones are exclusively located in the carboxyltransferase subunits of the bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase, indicating the identical mechanisms of action of all derivatives tested. Improvement of the physicochemical profile was achieved by salt formation, leading to aqueous solubilities of up to 5 g/liter. For the first time, the in vitro activity of this compound class was compared with its in vivo efficacy, demonstrating a path from compounds weakly active in vivo to agents with significant efficacy. In a murine model of S. aureus sepsis, the 100% effective dose of the best compound reported was 25 mg/kg of body weight, only fourfold higher than that of the comparator molecule linezolid. The obvious improvements achieved by chemical derivatization reflect the potential of this novel antibiotic compound class for future therapy. PMID:16870762

  15. Structural evidence for substrate-induced synergism and half-sites reactivity in biotin carboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalkin, Igor; Miller, J. Richard; Evdokimov, Artem; Lightle, Sandra; Yan, Chunhong; Stover, Charles Ken; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2008-10-24

    Bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a multifunctional biotin-dependent enzyme that consists of three separate proteins: biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase (CT). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a potentially attractive target for novel antibiotics because it catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In the first half-reaction, BC catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of BCCP. In the second half-reaction, the carboxyl group is transferred from carboxybiotinylated BCCP to acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA. A series of structures of BC from several bacteria crystallized in the presence of various ATP analogs is described that addresses three major questions concerning the catalytic mechanism. The structure of BC bound to AMPPNP and the two catalytically essential magnesium ions resolves inconsistencies between the kinetics of active-site BC mutants and previously reported BC structures. Another structure of AMPPNP bound to BC shows the polyphosphate chain folded back on itself, and not in the correct (i.e., extended) conformation for catalysis. This provides the first structural evidence for the hypothesis of substrate-induced synergism, which posits that ATP binds nonproductively to BC in the absence of biotin. The BC homodimer has been proposed to exhibit half-sites reactivity where the active sites alternate or 'flip-flop' their catalytic cycles. A crystal structure of BC showed the ATP analog AMPPCF{sub 2}P bound to one subunit while the other subunit was unliganded. The liganded subunit was in the closed or catalytic conformation while the unliganded subunit was in the open conformation. This provides the first structural evidence for half-sites reactivity in BC.

  16. Structure and substrate selectivity of the 750-kDa α6β6 holoenzyme of geranyl-CoA carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Ashley R.; Huang, Christine S.; Zhang, Xing; Zhou, Z. Hong; Tong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Geranyl-CoA carboxylase (GCC) is essential for the growth of Pseudomonas organisms with geranic acid as the sole carbon source. GCC has the same domain organization and shares strong sequence conservation with the related biotin-dependent carboxylases 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). Here we report the crystal structure of the 750-kDa α6β6 holoenzyme of GCC, which is similar to MCC but strikingly different from PCC. The structures provide evidence in support of two distinct lineages of biotin-dependent acyl-CoA carboxylases, one carboxylating the α carbon of a saturated organic acid and the other carboxylating the γ carbon of an α-β unsaturated acid. Structural differences in the active site region of GCC and MCC explain their distinct substrate preferences. Especially, a glycine residue in GCC is replaced by phenylalanine in MCC, which blocks access by the larger geranyl-CoA substrate. Mutation of this residue in the two enzymes can change their substrate preferences. PMID:26593090

  17. Structure and substrate selectivity of the 750-kDa α6β6 holoenzyme of geranyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Ashley R; Huang, Christine S; Zhang, Xing; Zhou, Z Hong; Tong, Liang

    2015-11-23

    Geranyl-CoA carboxylase (GCC) is essential for the growth of Pseudomonas organisms with geranic acid as the sole carbon source. GCC has the same domain organization and shares strong sequence conservation with the related biotin-dependent carboxylases 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). Here we report the crystal structure of the 750-kDa α6β6 holoenzyme of GCC, which is similar to MCC but strikingly different from PCC. The structures provide evidence in support of two distinct lineages of biotin-dependent acyl-CoA carboxylases, one carboxylating the α carbon of a saturated organic acid and the other carboxylating the γ carbon of an α-β unsaturated acid. Structural differences in the active site region of GCC and MCC explain their distinct substrate preferences. Especially, a glycine residue in GCC is replaced by phenylalanine in MCC, which blocks access by the larger geranyl-CoA substrate. Mutation of this residue in the two enzymes can change their substrate preferences.

  18. Inactivation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum and spinach with the new affinity label 2-bromo-1,5-dihydroxy-3-pentanone 1,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, M.I.; Hartman, F.C.

    1981-11-16

    In an attempt to identify the active-site base believed to initiate catalysis by ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase, we have synthesized 2-bromo-1, 5-dihydroxy-3-pentanone 1,5-bisphosphate, a reactive analogue of a postulated intermediate of carboxylation. Although highly unstable, this compound can be shown to inactivate the carboxylases from both Rhodospirillum rubrum and spinach rapidly and irreversibly. Inactivation follows pseudo first-order kinetics, shows rate saturation and is greatly reduced by saturating amounts of the competitive inhibitor, 2-carboxyribitol 1,5-bisphosphate. The incorporation of reagent, quantified by reducing the modified carboxylases with (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/, shows that inactivation results from the modification of approximately one residue per catalytic subunit of the Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme and less than one residue per protomeric unit of the spinach enzyme.

  19. Biotin deficiency in the cat and the effect on hepatic propionyl CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Carey, C J; Morris, J G

    1977-02-01

    Biotin deficiency was produced in growing kittens by feeding a diet containing dried, raw egg white. After receiving either an 18.5% egg white diet for 25 weeks, or a 32% egg white diet for 12 weeks, they exhibited dermal lesions characterized by alopecia, scaly dermatitis and achromotrichia, which increased in severity with the deficiency. Females developed accumulations of dried salivary, nasal and lacrymal secretions in the facial region although a male did not. There was a loss of body weight in all cats as the deficiency progressed. Hepatic propionyl CoA carboxylase activities were measured on biopsy samples of liver during biotin deficiency and after biotin supplementation. In the deficient state, activities were 4% and 24% of that following biotin supplementation. Propionyl carboxylase activity in the liver of the cat was comparable to that reported in the rat and chick in the deficient and normal states. Subcutaneous injection of 0.25 mg biotin every other day while continuing to receive the egg white diet caused remission of clinical signs, a body weight gain and increased food intake.

  20. A Symmetrical Tetramer for S. aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase in Complex with Coenzyme A

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Xiang, S; Lasso, G; Gil, D; Valle, M; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a conserved metabolic enzyme with important cellular functions. We report crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopy (EM) studies of Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC) in complex with acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator, and mutagenesis, biochemical, and structural studies of the biotin binding site of its carboxyltransferase (CT) domain. The disease-causing A610T mutation abolishes catalytic activity by blocking biotin binding to the CT active site, and Thr908 might play a catalytic role in the CT reaction. The crystal structure of SaPC in complex with CoA reveals a symmetrical tetramer, with one CoA molecule bound to each monomer, and cryo-EM studies confirm the symmetrical nature of the tetramer. These observations are in sharp contrast to the highly asymmetrical tetramer of Rhizobium etli PC in complex with ethyl-CoA. Our structural information suggests that acetyl-CoA promotes a conformation for the dimer of the biotin carboxylase domain of PC that might be catalytically more competent.

  1. A single mutation in MCCC1 or MCCC2 as a potential cause of positive screening for 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Morscher, Raphael J; Grünert, Sarah Catharina; Bürer, Céline; Burda, Patricie; Suormala, Terttu; Fowler, Brian; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2012-04-01

    Isolated 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (MCC deficiency) is an organic aciduria presenting with a highly variable phenotype and has been part of newborn screening programs in various countries, in particular in the US. Here we present enzymatic and genetic characterisation of 22 individuals with increased 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine and/or 3-methylcrotonylglycine suggesting MCC deficiency, but only partially reduced 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Among these, 21 carried a single mutant allele in either MCCC1 (n=20) or MCCC2 (n=1). Our results suggest that heterozygosity for such a single deleterious mutation may lead to misdiagnosis of MCC deficiency.

  2. 3-Hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine in 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    van Hove, J L; Rutledge, S L; Nada, M A; Kahler, S G; Millington, D S

    1995-01-01

    A new acylcarnitine was observed in the plasma and urine of a patient with isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency. Analysis by tandem mass spectrometry of the methyl ester and butyl ester and their fragment ion spectra identified it as a 3-hydroxy-C5-acylcarnitine. Fibroblasts from a second patient were incubated with deuterium-labelled leucine. Incorporation of label in the new acylcarnitine identified its origin from leucine, and thus confirmed the structure as 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine. The presence of elevated amounts of this metabolite, plus a small amount of 3-methylcrotonylcarnitine in plasma, was diagnostic for isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency. Other conditions in which a hydroxy-C5-acylcarnitine was present were readily differentiated by the abnormal elevation of other acylcarnitines.

  3. Properties of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase immobilized on porous glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapira, J.; Hanson, C. L.; Lyding, J. M.; Reilly, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase from spinach has been bound to arylamine porous glass with a diazo linkage and to alklamine porous glass with glutaraldehyde. Stability at elevated temperatures and responses to changes of pH and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate, Mg(2+), and dithiothreitol concentrations were not significantly different from the soluble enzyme, though stability at 4 C was somewhat improved.

  4. Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency--insights from liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, William L; Khanna, Ajai; Barshop, Bruce A; Naviaux, Robert K; Precht, Andrew F; Lavine, Joel E; Hart, Marquis A; Hainline, Bryan E; Wappner, Rebecca S; Nichols, Sharon; Haas, Richard H

    2002-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, complex form, presents in early infancy with lethal metabolic acidosis, resulting from ketoacidosis and lactic acidemia. Renal tubular acidosis, hyperammonemia, and citrullinemia complete the picture. In an infant with this disease, large amounts of glucose ameliorated the ketoacidosis, but worsened the lactic acidosis. Orthotopic hepatic transplantation completely reversed the ketoacidosis and the renal tubular abnormality and ameliorated the lactic acidemia. Concentrations of glutamine in cerebrospinal fluid were low and did not improve with liver transplantation.

  5. Expression, purification, characterization of human 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCC).

    PubMed

    Chu, Ching-Hsuen; Cheng, Dong

    2007-06-01

    The current study reports the use of baculovirus system to express functionally active human recombinant 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCC), a heteromultimeric complex that is composed of alpha and beta subunits which are encoded by distinct genes. Using immuno-affinity purification, an efficient protocol has been developed to purify the active MCCC which appears to reside in a approximately 500-800kDa complex in Superpose-6 gel-filtration chromatography. Consistent with the native enzyme, in the recombinant human MCCC, the stoichiometry of alpha and beta subunits are at a one:one ratio. The k(cat) value of the recombinant enzyme is determined to be approximately 4.0s(-1). It also possesses K(m) values (ATP: 45+/-11microM; 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA: 74+/-7microM) similar to those reported for the native enzyme. The recombinant human MCCC described here may provide a counter-screen enzyme source for testing cross reactivity for inhibitors against acetyl-CoA carboxylases which are designed to treat obesity, type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

  6. Species Variation in the Predawn Inhibition of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Servaites, Jerome C.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Gutteridge, Steven; Keys, Alfred J.

    1986-01-01

    The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was measured in extracts of leaves collected before dawn (predawn activity, pa) and at midday (midday activity, ma). Twenty-three of the 37 species examined showed a pa/ma ratio (≤0.75, while only Capsicum frutescens, Cucumis sativa, Glycine max, Nicotiana tabacum, Vigna unguiculata, and 3 Solanum species showed a pa/ma ratio ≤0.5. Phaseolus vulgaris consistently showed a pa/ma ratio of ≤0.1. Activities and pa/ma ratios of the same species grown in the United States and the United Kingdom were very similar. Gel filtration of extracts before assay had no effect on the observed activities and the pa/ma ratios. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that in a number of species the enzyme is partially inhibited following the night period by the presence of a tight-binding inhibitor. PMID:16665155

  7. Residues in the acetyl CoA binding site of pyruvate carboxylase involved in allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Choosangtong, Kamonman; Sirithanakorn, Chaiyos; Adina-Zada, Abdul; Wallace, John C; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Attwood, Paul V

    2015-07-22

    We have examined the roles of Asp1018, Glu1027, Arg469 and Asp471 in the allosteric domain of Rhizobium etli pyruvate carboxylase. Arg469 and Asp471 interact directly with the allosteric activator acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) and the R469S and R469K mutants showed increased enzymic activity in the presence and absence of acetyl CoA, whilst the D471A mutant exhibited no acetyl CoA-activation. E1027A, E1027R and D1018A mutants had increased activity in the absence of acetyl CoA, but not in its presence. These results suggest that most of these residues impose restrictions on the structure and/or dynamics of the enzyme to affect activity. PMID:26149215

  8. Effects of heterologous expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase on organic acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius has a potential as a cell factory for production of various organic acids. In this study, the organic acid profile of A. carbonarius was investigated under different cultivation conditions. Moreover, two heterologous genes, pepck and ppc, which encode phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in Actinobacillus succinogenes and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Escherichia coli, were inserted individually and in combination in A. carbonarius to enhance the carbon flux toward the reductive TCA branch. Results of transcription analysis and measurement of enzyme activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the corresponding single and double transformants demonstrated that the two heterologous genes were successfully expressed in A. carbonarius. The production of citric acid increased in all the transformants in both glucose- and xylose-based media at pH higher than 3 but did not increase in the pH non-buffered cultivation compared with the wild type.

  9. Isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis biotin carboxylase gene and its promoter.

    PubMed

    Bao, X; Shorrosh, B S; Ohlrogge, J B

    1997-11-01

    In the plastids of most plants, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase; EC 6.4.1.2) is a multisubunit complex consisting of biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin-carboxyl carrier protien (BCCP), and carboxytransferase (alpha-CT, beta-CT) subunits. To better understand the regulation of this enzyme, we have isolated and sequenced a BC genomic clone from Arabidopsis and partially characterized its promoter. Fifteen introns were identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature BC protein is highly conserved between Arabidopsis and tobacco (92.6% identity). BC expression was evaluated using northern blots and BC/GUS fusion constructs in transgenic Arabidopsis. GUS activity in the BC/GUS transgenics as well as transcript level of the native gene were both found to be higher in silique and flower than in root and leaf. Analysis of tobacco suspension cells transformed with truncated BC promoter/GUS gene fusions indicated the region from -140 to +147 contained necessary promoter elements which supported basal gene expression. A positive regulatory region was found to be located between -2100 and -140, whereas a negative element was possibly located in the first intron. In addition, several conserved regulatory elements were identified in the BC promoter. Surprisingly, although BC is a low-abundance protein, the expression of BC/GUS fusion constructs was similar to 35S/GUS constructs.

  10. Discovery of Antibacterial Biotin Carboxylase Inhibitors by Virtual Screening and Fragment-Based Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalkin, Igor; Miller, J. Richard; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Thanabal, Venkataraman; Erdman, Paul; Cox, Philip B.; Prasad, J.V.N. Vara; Lightle, Sandra; Huband, Michael D.; Stover, C. Kendall; Pfizer

    2009-07-24

    As part of our effort to inhibit bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis through the recently validated target biotin carboxylase, we employed a unique combination of two emergent lead discovery strategies. We used both de novo fragment-based drug discovery and virtual screening, which employs 3D shape and electrostatic property similarity searching. We screened a collection of unbiased low-molecular-weight molecules and identified a structurally diverse collection of weak-binding but ligand-efficient fragments as potential building blocks for biotin carboxylase ATP-competitive inhibitors. Through iterative cycles of structure-based drug design relying on successive fragment costructures, we improved the potency of the initial hits by up to 3000-fold while maintaining their ligand-efficiency and desirable physicochemical properties. In one example, hit-expansion efforts resulted in a series of amino-oxazoles with antibacterial activity. These results successfully demonstrate that virtual screening approaches can substantially augment fragment-based screening approaches to identify novel antibacterial agents.

  11. Kinetic characterization of mutations found in propionic acidemia and methylcrotonylglycinuria: evidence for cooperativity in biotin carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Valerie; Waldrop, Grover L

    2004-04-16

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the committed step in fatty acid synthesis in all plants, animals, and bacteria. The Escherichia coli form is a multifunctional enzyme consisting of three separate proteins: biotin carboxylase, carboxyltransferase, and the biotin carboxyl carrier protein. The biotin carboxylase component, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin using bicarbonate as the carboxylate source, has a homologous functionally identical subunit in the mammalian biotin-dependent enzymes propionyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. In humans, mutations in either of these enzymes result in the metabolic deficiency propionic acidemia or methylcrotonylglycinuria. The lack of a system for structure-function studies of these two biotin-dependent carboxylases has prevented a detailed analysis of the disease-causing mutations. However, structural data are available for E. coli biotin carboxylase as is a system for its overexpression and purification. Thus, we have constructed three site-directed mutants of biotin carboxylase that are homologous to three missense mutations found in propionic acidemia or methylcrotonylglycinuria patients. The mutants M169K, R338Q, and R338S of E. coli biotin carboxylase were selected for study to mimic the disease-causing mutations M204K and R374Q of propionyl-CoA carboxylase and R385S of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. These three mutants were subjected to a rigorous kinetic analysis to determine the function of the residues in the catalytic mechanism of biotin carboxylase as well as to establish a molecular basis for the two diseases. The results of the kinetic studies have revealed the first evidence for negative cooperativity with respect to bicarbonate and suggest that Arg-338 serves to orient the carboxyphosphate intermediate for optimal carboxylation of biotin.

  12. A Patient With Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency and Nemaline Rods on Muscle Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Unal, Ozlem; Orhan, Diclehan; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Tokatli, Aysegul; Dursun, Ali; Ozturk-Hismi, Burcu; Coskun, Turgay; Wibrand, Flemming; Kalkanoglu-Sivri, H Serap

    2013-11-01

    Nemaline rods are the pathologic hallmark of nemaline myopathy, but they have also been described as a secondary phenomenon in a variety of other disorders. Nemaline rods have not been reported in pyruvate carboxylase deficiency before. Here we present a patient with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency and nemaline rods detected on muscle biopsy. The nemaline rods may be due to cellular energy shortage and altered energy metabolism in pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, similar to that in the previously reported patients. The mechanism of nemaline rod formation may be associated with the role of pyruvate carboxylase in cellular energy pathways. PMID:22965558

  13. Structural and Biochemical Studies on the Regulation of Biotin Carboxylase by Substrate Inhibition and Dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chi-Yuan; Tong, Liang

    2012-06-19

    Biotin carboxylase (BC) activity is shared among biotin-dependent carboxylases and catalyzes the Mg-ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin using bicarbonate as the CO{sub 2} donor. BC has been studied extensively over the years by structural, kinetic, and mutagenesis analyses. Here we report three new crystal structures of Escherichia coli BC at up to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution, complexed with different ligands. Two structures are wild-type BC in complex with two ADP molecules and two Ca{sup 2+} ions or two ADP molecules and one Mg{sup 2+} ion. One ADP molecule is in the position normally taken by the ATP substrate, whereas the other ADP molecule occupies the binding sites of bicarbonate and biotin. One Ca{sup 2+} ion and the Mg{sup 2+} ion are associated with the ADP molecule in the active site, and the other Ca{sup 2+} ion is coordinated by Glu-87, Glu-288, and Asn-290. Our kinetic studies confirm that ATP shows substrate inhibition and that this inhibition is competitive against bicarbonate. The third structure is on the R16E mutant in complex with bicarbonate and Mg-ADP. Arg-16 is located near the dimer interface. The R16E mutant has only a 2-fold loss in catalytic activity compared with the wild-type enzyme. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the mutation significantly destabilized the dimer, although the presence of substrates can induce dimer formation. The binding modes of bicarbonate and Mg-ADP are essentially the same as those to the wild-type enzyme. However, the mutation greatly disrupted the dimer interface and caused a large re-organization of the dimer. The structures of these new complexes have implications for the catalysis by BC.

  14. Structural and Biochemical Studies on the Regulation of Biotin Carboxylase by Substrate Inhibition and Dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    C Chou; L Tong

    2011-12-31

    Biotin carboxylase (BC) activity is shared among biotin-dependent carboxylases and catalyzes the Mg-ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin using bicarbonate as the CO{sub 2} donor. BC has been studied extensively over the years by structural, kinetic, and mutagenesis analyses. Here we report three new crystal structures of Escherichia coli BC at up to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution, complexed with different ligands. Two structures are wild-type BC in complex with two ADP molecules and two Ca{sup 2+} ions or two ADP molecules and one Mg{sup 2+} ion. One ADP molecule is in the position normally taken by the ATP substrate, whereas the other ADP molecule occupies the binding sites of bicarbonate and biotin. One Ca{sup 2+} ion and the Mg{sup 2+} ion are associated with the ADP molecule in the active site, and the other Ca{sup 2+} ion is coordinated by Glu-87, Glu-288, and Asn-290. Our kinetic studies confirm that ATP shows substrate inhibition and that this inhibition is competitive against bicarbonate. The third structure is on the R16E mutant in complex with bicarbonate and Mg-ADP. Arg-16 is located near the dimer interface. The R16E mutant has only a 2-fold loss in catalytic activity compared with the wild-type enzyme. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the mutation significantly destabilized the dimer, although the presence of substrates can induce dimer formation. The binding modes of bicarbonate and Mg-ADP are essentially the same as those to the wild-type enzyme. However, the mutation greatly disrupted the dimer interface and caused a large re-organization of the dimer. The structures of these new complexes have implications for the catalysis by BC.

  15. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control. PMID:27073141

  16. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control.

  17. A distinct holoenzyme organization for two-subunit pyruvate carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Philip H.; Jo, Jeanyoung; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Min-Han; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Tong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) has important roles in metabolism and is crucial for virulence for some pathogenic bacteria. PC contains biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) components. It is a single-chain enzyme in eukaryotes and most bacteria, and functions as a 500 kD homo-tetramer. In contrast, PC is a two-subunit enzyme in a collection of Gram-negative bacteria, with the α subunit containing the BC and the β subunit the CT and BCCP domains, and it is believed that the holoenzyme has α4β4 stoichiometry. We report here the crystal structures of a two-subunit PC from Methylobacillus flagellatus. Surprisingly, our structures reveal an α2β4 stoichiometry, and the overall architecture of the holoenzyme is strikingly different from that of the homo-tetrameric PCs. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies confirm the stoichiometry and other structural observations. Our functional studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa show that its two-subunit PC is important for colony morphogenesis. PMID:27708276

  18. Investigations of the structure of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase from Achromobacter.

    PubMed

    Schiele, U; Niedermeier, R; Stürzer, M; Lynen, F

    1975-12-01

    It was shown by gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecylsulphate solution that 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase from Achromobacter IVS is composed of two different subunits with molecular weights of about 78000 and 96000, respectively. The biotin is bound to the heavier subunit. It was previously found that 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase contains four biotin molecules per complex. A complex composed of four of each subunit would thus have a molecular weight of about 700000. This is compatible with the molecular weight of 760000 determined earlier by analytical ultracentrifugation. Both subunits were isolated preparatively. As the subunits, unlike the complex, are very sensitive to oxygen, special precautions had to be taken during isolation. The biotin-containing subunit was isolated by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose in 5 M urea. It no longer catalyzed the overall reaction, yet could still carboxylate free biotin. The biotin-free subunit was separated after dissociation of the enzyme by three-days' dialysis at pH 9.8 under nitrogen. On chromatography over a Sepharose-bound avidin column, the biotin-subunit was fixed and the biotin-free subunit was eluted unretarded. The latter subunit showed no enzymic activity. After the addition of the biotin-containing subunit, overall activity was regenerated. The speed of reassociation is very much enhanced by 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA. It was shown by reassociation experiments under different conditions that probably an initial complex, AxBy is formed, possessing a binding site for 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA. Upon the binding of this substrate the conformation may be changed to a form favourable for reconstitution. Finally, the structures of biotin enzymes from different sources are compared. In the course of evolution there is a tendency toward integration of the different constituent proteins into only one polypeptide chain.

  19. Inhibition of E. coli P-enolpyruvate carboxylase by P-enol-3-bromopyruvate

    SciTech Connect

    Asem, K.; Smith, T.E.

    1986-05-01

    The generality of the mechanism based inhibition of P-enolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCase) by P-enol-3-bromopyruvate (BrPEP) was tested by measuring its effects on the allosterically regulated enzyme from E. coli. In the presence of 1mM Mn/sup 2 +/, BrPEP appears to be a competitive inhibitor (K/sub i/ = 0.0087mM) of PEPCase. Incubation of 0.005mM PEPCase with 0.5mM (or 1.0mM)BrPEP along with H/sup 14/CO/sub 3//sup -/ and Mn/sup 2 +/, yielded, upon reduction with NaBH/sub 4/, a protein containing radioactivity in an amount approximately proportional to that expected from the loss of catalytic activity. At both a 25- and a 50-fold excess (0.5mM and 1.0mM, respectively) of BrPEP to PEPCase subunits, first order loss of activity occurred with k values of 5.24 x 10/sup -3/ min/sup -1/ and 1.03 x 10/sup -2/ min/sup -1/, respectively. At the lower concentration of BrPEP the inactivation process appeared to be reversible after 40 min with no further inhibition occurring even up to two hours of incubation. At the higher concentration of BrPEP, the rate of inhibition slowed dramatically after 50 min and appeared insignificant over the next hour. These data suggest that BrPEP irreversibly inactivates the E. coli PEP carboxylase, but that there may be considerable dissociation of the product, Br-oxaloacetate, before irreversible binding occurs, and that the reduced rate of inactivation may be due to depletion of BrPEP.

  20. Design and synthesis of disubstituted (4-piperidinyl)-piperazine derivatives as potent acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chonan, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Miyoko; Oi, Takahiro; Wakasugi, Daisuke; Ohoka-Sugita, Ayumi; Io, Fusayo; Koretsune, Hiroko; Hiratate, Akira

    2010-07-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs), the rate limiting enzymes in de novo lipid synthesis, play important roles in modulating energy metabolism. The inhibition of ACC has demonstrated promising therapeutic potential for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in transgenic mice and preclinical animal models. We describe herein the structure-based design and synthesis of a novel series of disubstituted (4-piperidinyl)-piperazine derivatives as ACC inhibitors. Our structure-based approach led to the discovery of the indole derivatives 13i and 13j, which exhibited potent in vitro ACC inhibitory activity.

  1. Infantile mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome associated with methylmalonic aciduria and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiencies in two unrelated patients: a new phenotype of mtDNA depletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yano, S; Li, L; Le, T P; Moseley, K; Guedalia, A; Lee, J; Gonzalez, I; Boles, R G

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion refers to a quantitative defect in mtDNA and is heterogeneous with regard to causal genotypes and the associated clinical phenotypes. We report two unrelated infants with mtDNA depletion. A diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria was initially raised in both on the basis of high urine methylmalonic acid and related organic acids and elevated propionylcarnitine and methylmalonylcarnitine. Carboxylase assay with skin fibroblasts revealed low propionyl-CoA and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase and normal pyruvate carboxylase activities. Quantitative Southern blot analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA with muscle tissues revealed the patients' mtDNA to be depleted to 24% and 39% of normal controls. Our two patients showed multiple mitochondrial dysfunction including respiratory chain defects and deficiencies in the two nuclear DNA encoded carboxylases resulting in abnormal urine organic acids. To our knowledge, there is no obvious connection between the defective pathways other than their mitochondrial locations. These two cases may represent a new entity of mitochondrial disease that might be due to a defective common mechanism, such as assembly, maintenance and transport, affecting various mitochondrial enzymes and functions. Mitochondrial depletion should be considered in infants with atypical organic aciduria that may resemblemethylmalonicaciduria, propionicacidaemia, or 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

  2. The Three-Dimensional Structure of the Biotin Carboxylase-Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein Complex of E. coli Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Kobe, Matthew J.; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Neau, David B.; Price, Amanda E.; Champion, Tyler S.; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase is a biotin-dependent, multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. The Escherichia coli enzyme is composed of a homodimeric biotin carboxylase (BC), biotinylated biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and an α2β2 heterotetrameric carboxyltransferase. This enzyme complex catalyzes two half-reactions to form malonylcoenzyme A. BC and BCCP participate in the first half-reaction, whereas carboxyltransferase and BCCP are involved in the second. Three-dimensional structures have been reported for the individual subunits; however, the structural basis for how BCCP reacts with the carboxylase or transferase is unknown. Therefore, we report here the crystal structure of E. coli BCCP complexed with BC to a resolution of 2.49 Å. The protein-protein complex shows a unique quaternary structure and two distinct interfaces for each BCCP monomer. These BCCP binding sites are unique compared to phylogenetically related biotin-dependent carboxylases and therefore provide novel targets for developing antibiotics against bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase. PMID:23499019

  3. HFA1 encoding an organelle-specific acetyl-CoA carboxylase controls mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hoja, Ursula; Marthol, Sandra; Hofmann, Jörg; Stegner, Sabine; Schulz, Rainer; Meier, Sandra; Greiner, Eva; Schweizer, Eckhart

    2004-05-21

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, HFA1, encodes a >250-kDa protein, which is required for mitochondrial function. Hfa1p exhibits 72% overall sequence similarity (54% identity) to ACC1-encoded yeast cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Nevertheless, HFA1 and ACC1 functions are not overlapping because mutants of the two genes have different phenotypes and do not complement each other. Whereas ACC1 is involved in cytoplasmic fatty acid synthesis, the phenotype of hfa1Delta disruptants resembles that of mitochondrial fatty-acid synthase mutants. They fail to grow on lactate or glycerol, and the mitochondrial cofactor, lipoic acid, is reduced to <10% of its normal cellular concentration. Other than Acc1p, the N-terminal sequence of Hfa1p comprises a canonical mitochondrial targeting signal together with a matrix protease cleavage site. Accordingly, the HFA1-encoded protein was specifically assigned by Western blotting of appropriate cell fractions to the mitochondrial compartment. Removal of the mitochondrial targeting sequence abolished the competence of HFA1 DNA to complement hfal null mutants. Conversely and in contrast to the intact HFA1 sequence, the signal sequence-free HFA1 gene complemented the mutational loss of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Expression of HFA1 under the control of the ACC1 promoter restored cellular ACC activity in ACC1-defective yeast mutants to wild type levels. From this finding, it is concluded that HFA1 encodes a specific mitochondrial acetyl-CoA carboxylase providing malonyl-CoA for intraorganellar fatty acid and, in particular, lipoic acid synthesis. PMID:14761959

  4. Pyruvate carboxylase is critical for non-small-cell lung cancer proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Katherine; Fox, Matthew P; Bousamra, Michael; Slone, Stephen P; Higashi, Richard M; Miller, Donald M; Wang, Yali; Yan, Jun; Yuneva, Mariia O; Deshpande, Rahul; Lane, Andrew N; Fan, Teresa W-M

    2015-02-01

    Anabolic biosynthesis requires precursors supplied by the Krebs cycle, which in turn requires anaplerosis to replenish precursor intermediates. The major anaplerotic sources are pyruvate and glutamine, which require the activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutaminase 1 (GLS1), respectively. Due to their rapid proliferation, cancer cells have increased anabolic and energy demands; however, different cancer cell types exhibit differential requirements for PC- and GLS-mediated pathways for anaplerosis and cell proliferation. Here, we infused patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with uniformly 13C-labeled glucose before tissue resection and determined that the cancerous tissues in these patients had enhanced PC activity. Freshly resected paired lung tissue slices cultured in 13C6-glucose or 13C5,15N2-glutamine tracers confirmed selective activation of PC over GLS in NSCLC. Compared with noncancerous tissues, PC expression was greatly enhanced in cancerous tissues, whereas GLS1 expression showed no trend. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of paired lung tissues showed PC overexpression in cancer cells rather than in stromal cells of tumor tissues. PC knockdown induced multinucleation, decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in human NSCLC cells, and reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Growth inhibition was accompanied by perturbed Krebs cycle activity, inhibition of lipid and nucleotide biosynthesis, and altered glutathione homeostasis. These findings indicate that PC-mediated anaplerosis in early-stage NSCLC is required for tumor survival and proliferation. PMID:25607840

  5. Pyruvate carboxylase is critical for non-small-cell lung cancer proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Katherine; Fox, Matthew P; Bousamra, Michael; Slone, Stephen P; Higashi, Richard M; Miller, Donald M; Wang, Yali; Yan, Jun; Yuneva, Mariia O; Deshpande, Rahul; Lane, Andrew N; Fan, Teresa W-M

    2015-02-01

    Anabolic biosynthesis requires precursors supplied by the Krebs cycle, which in turn requires anaplerosis to replenish precursor intermediates. The major anaplerotic sources are pyruvate and glutamine, which require the activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutaminase 1 (GLS1), respectively. Due to their rapid proliferation, cancer cells have increased anabolic and energy demands; however, different cancer cell types exhibit differential requirements for PC- and GLS-mediated pathways for anaplerosis and cell proliferation. Here, we infused patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with uniformly 13C-labeled glucose before tissue resection and determined that the cancerous tissues in these patients had enhanced PC activity. Freshly resected paired lung tissue slices cultured in 13C6-glucose or 13C5,15N2-glutamine tracers confirmed selective activation of PC over GLS in NSCLC. Compared with noncancerous tissues, PC expression was greatly enhanced in cancerous tissues, whereas GLS1 expression showed no trend. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of paired lung tissues showed PC overexpression in cancer cells rather than in stromal cells of tumor tissues. PC knockdown induced multinucleation, decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in human NSCLC cells, and reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Growth inhibition was accompanied by perturbed Krebs cycle activity, inhibition of lipid and nucleotide biosynthesis, and altered glutathione homeostasis. These findings indicate that PC-mediated anaplerosis in early-stage NSCLC is required for tumor survival and proliferation.

  6. Purification and Properties of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Immature Pods of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Singal, H R; Singh, R

    1986-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) was purified to homogeneity with about 29% recovery from immature pods of chickpea using ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. The purified enzyme with molecular weight of about 200,000 daltons was a tetramer of four identical subunits and exhibited maximum activity at pH 8.1. Mg(2+) ions were specifically required for the enzyme activity. The enzyme showed typical hyperbolic kinetics with phosphoenolpyruvate with a K(m) of 0.74 millimolar, whereas sigmoidal response was observed with increasing concentrations of HCO(3) (-) with S(0.5) value as 7.6 millimolar. The enzyme was activated by inorganic phosphate and phosphate esters like glucose-6-phosphate, alpha-glycerophosphate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and inhibited by nucleotide triphosphates, organic acids, and divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mn(2+). Oxaloacetate and malate inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively. Glucose-6-phosphate reversed the inhibitory effects of oxaloacetate and malate.

  7. Targeting of the Arabidopsis homomeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase to plastids of rapeseeds.

    PubMed Central

    Roesler, K; Shintani, D; Savage, L; Boddupalli, S; Ohlrogge, J

    1997-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) occurs in at least two forms in rapeseed (Brassica napus): a homomeric (HO) and presumably cytosolic isozyme and a heteromeric, plastidial isozyme. We investigated whether the HO-ACCase of Arabidopsis can be targeted to plastids of B. napus seeds. A chloroplast transit peptide and the napin promoter were fused to the Arabidopsis ACC1 gene and transformed into B. napus, with the following results. (a) The small subunit transit peptide was sufficient to provide import of this very large protein into developing seed plastids. (b) HO-ACCase in isolated plastids was found to be biotinylated at a level comparable to extraplastidial HO-ACCase. (c) In vitro assays of HO-ACCase in isolated plastids from developing seeds indicate that it occurs as an enzymatically active form in the plastidial compartment. (d) ACCase activity in mature B. napus seeds is normally very low; however, plants expressing the SSU/ACC1 gene had 10- to 20-fold higher ACCase activity in mature seeds, suggesting that plastid localization prevents the turnover of HO-ACCase. (e) ACCase over-expression altered seed fatty acid composition, with the largest effect being an increase approximately 5% by the expression of HO-ACCase in plastids. PMID:9008389

  8. Resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase-inhibiting herbicides.

    PubMed

    Kaundun, Shiv S

    2014-09-01

    Resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase herbicides is documented in at least 43 grass weeds and is particularly problematic in Lolium, Alopecurus and Avena species. Genetic studies have shown that resistance generally evolves independently and can be conferred by target-site mutations at ACCase codon positions 1781, 1999, 2027, 2041, 2078, 2088 and 2096. The level of resistance depends on the herbicides, recommended field rates, weed species, plant growth stages, specific amino acid changes and the number of gene copies and mutant ACCase alleles. Non-target-site resistance, or in essence metabolic resistance, is prevalent, multigenic and favoured under low-dose selection. Metabolic resistance can be specific but also broad, affecting other modes of action. Some target-site and metabolic-resistant biotypes are characterised by a fitness penalty. However, the significance for resistance regression in the absence of ACCase herbicides is yet to be determined over a practical timeframe. More recently, a fitness benefit has been reported in some populations containing the I1781L mutation in terms of vegetative and reproductive outputs and delayed germination. Several DNA-based methods have been developed to detect known ACCase resistance mutations, unlike metabolic resistance, as the genes remain elusive to date. Therefore, confirmation of resistance is still carried out via whole-plant herbicide bioassays. A growing number of monocotyledonous crops have been engineered to resist ACCase herbicides, thus increasing the options for grass weed control. While the science of ACCase herbicide resistance has progressed significantly over the past 10 years, several avenues provided in the present review remain to be explored for a better understanding of resistance to this important mode of action.

  9. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from cherimoya fruit: properties, kinetics and effects of high CO(2).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, T; Escribano, M I; Merodio, C

    2001-12-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) regulatory properties were studied in non-photosynthetic (mesocarp) and photosynthetic (peel) tissues from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) fruit stored in air, in order to gain a better understanding of in vivo enzyme regulation. Analyses were also performed with fruit treated with 20% CO(2)-20% O(2) to define the role of PEPC as part of an adaptive mechanism to high external carbon dioxide levels. The results revealed that the special kinetic characteristics of the enzyme from mesocarp--high V(max) and low sensibility to L-malate inhibition - are related to the active acid metabolism of these fruits and point to a high rate of reassimilation of respired CO(2) into keto-acids. With respect to fruit stored in air, PEPC in crude extracts from CO(2)-treated cherimoyas gave a similar V(max) (1.12+/-0.03 microkat x mg(-1) protein), a lower apparent K(m) (68+/-9 microM for PEP) and a higher I(50) of L-malate (5.95+/-0.3 mM). These kinetic values showed the increase in the affinity of this enzyme toward one of its substrate, PEP, by elevated external CO(2) concentrations. The lower K(m) value and lower sensitivity to L-malate are consistent with higher in vivo carboxylation reaction efficiency in CO(2)-treated cherimoyas, while pointing to an additional enzyme regulation system via CO(2). PMID:11730863

  10. [Efficacy of thiamine pyrophosphate or carboxylase in the salvage of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Carmona-Cervantes, J

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic foot represents one of the most common complications in patients with a long standing disease. The etiology is neuropathy, infections and ischemia that together contribute to the sequence of tissue necrosis, ulceration and gangrene. Since treatment is very difficult, we must look for several options to solve these problems caused by chronic hyperglycemia. Thiamine pyrophosphate or carboxylase perform multiple metabolic and non-metabolic activities that are considered important in the resolution of diabetic impairments, therefore, this work shows the results when using it in patients with diabetic foot. 29 patients with diabetic foot were treated between January 1998 and July 2012: 19 Wagner type III and 12 Wagner type IV. Management was the administration of antibiotics, partial surgical procedures and thiamine pyrophosphate. The infectious process was controlled, the appearance of granulation tissue and scarring of the lesion in a period of 2 to 6 months depending on the severity of the problem. Given the clinical data and evolution of the patients, we conclude that the administration of thiamine pyrophosphate was able to control metabolic and non-metabolic dysfunctions that lead to complications in diabetic patients, therefore we must consider it a tool in the treatment of diabetic patients in general and for diabetic foot salvage in particular.

  11. Deregulation of Feedback Inhibition of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase for Improved Lysine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Bommareddy, Rajesh Reddy; Frank, Doinita; Rappert, Sugima

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) controls the metabolic flux distribution of anaplerotic pathways. In this study, the feedback inhibition of Corynebacterium glutamicum PEPC was rationally deregulated, and its effect on metabolic flux redistribution was evaluated. Based on rational protein design, six PEPC mutants were designed, and all of them showed significantly reduced sensitivity toward aspartate and malate inhibition. Introducing one of the point mutations (N917G) into the ppc gene, encoding PEPC of the lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum LC298, resulted in ∼37% improved lysine production. In vitro enzyme assays and 13C-based metabolic flux analysis showed ca. 20 and 30% increases in the PEPC activity and corresponding flux, respectively, in the mutant strain. Higher demand for NADPH in the mutant strain increased the flux toward pentose phosphate pathway, which increased the supply of NADPH for enhanced lysine production. The present study highlights the importance of allosteric regulation on the flux control of central metabolism. The strategy described here can also be implemented to improve other oxaloacetate-derived products. PMID:24334667

  12. Evaluation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency detected by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Millington, D S; Smith, W E; Weavil, S D; Muenzer, J; McCandless, S E; Kishnani, P S; McDonald, M T; Chaing, S; Boney, A; Moore, E; Frazier, D M

    2003-01-01

    Since the addition of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to the North Carolina Newborn Screening Program, 20 infants with two consecutive elevated 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH) levels have been evaluated for evidence of inborn errors of metabolism associated with this metabolite. Ten of these 20 infants had significant concentrations of both 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine in their urine, suggestive of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (3-MCC) deficiency. Four of these 10 were infants whose abnormal metabolites were found to be of maternal origin. Of 8 patients with probable 3-MCC deficiency, 7 have been tested and found to have the enzyme deficiency confirmed in lymphoblasts or cultured fibroblasts; one of these 7 infants had only marginally decreased 3-MCC activity in lymphocytes but deficient 3-MCC in fibroblasts. We estimate the incidence of 3-MCC deficiency at 1:64000 live births in North Carolina. We conclude that MS/MS newborn screening will detect additional inborn errors of metabolism, such as 3-MCC deficiency, not traditionally associated with newborn screening. The evaluation of newborns with two abnormally elevated C5OH levels on MS/MS newborn screening should include, at least, urine organic acid analysis by capillary GC-MS and a plasma acylcarnitine profile by MS/MS. Long-term follow-up is needed to determine the outcome of presymptomatically diagnosed patients with 3-MCC deficiency by MS/MS newborn screening.

  13. Ribulose Diphosphate Carboxylase from Freshly Ruptured Spinach Chloroplasts Having an in Vivo Km[CO(2)].

    PubMed

    Bahr, J T; Jensen, R G

    1974-01-01

    The properties of a form of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase having a high affinity for CO(2) have been studied. Its apparent Km(HCO(3) (-)) of 0.5 to 0.8 mm (pH 7.8) and calculated Km(CO(2)) of 11 to 18 mum are comparable to the values exhibited by intact chloroplasts during photosynthesis. This form of the enzyme was released from chloroplasts in hypotonic media and was unstable, rapidly converting to a form having a high Km(HCO(3) (-)) of 20 to 25 mm similar to that for the purified enzyme. Incubation of the enzyme with MgCl(2) and HCO(3) (-) yielded a third form with an intermediate Km(HCO(3) (-)) of 2.5 to 3.0 mm.The low Km form had sufficient activity both at air levels of CO(2) and at saturating CO(2) to account for the rates of photosynthesis by intact chloroplasts. The low Km form could be stabilized in the presence of ribose 5-phosphate, adenosine triphosphate, and MgCl(2), at low temperatures for up to 2 hours.

  14. Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Galka, Marek M; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Buhrow, Leann M; Nelson, Ken M; Switala, Jacek; Cutler, Adrian J; Palmer, David R J; Loewen, Peter C; Abrams, Suzanne R; Loewen, Michele C

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid ((+)-ABA) is a phytohormone involved in the modulation of developmental processes and stress responses in plants. A chemical proteomics approach using an ABA mimetic probe was combined with in vitro assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), x-ray crystallography and in silico modelling to identify putative (+)-ABA binding-proteins in crude extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was identified as a putative ABA-binding protein. Radiolabelled-binding assays yielded a Kd of 47 nM for (+)-ABA binding to spinach Rubisco, which was validated by ITC, and found to be similar to reported and experimentally derived values for the native ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) substrate. Functionally, (+)-ABA caused only weak inhibition of Rubisco catalytic activity (Ki of 2.1 mM), but more potent inhibition of Rubisco activation (Ki of ~ 130 μM). Comparative structural analysis of Rubisco in the presence of (+)-ABA with RuBP in the active site revealed only a putative low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site on the surface of the large subunit at a location distal from the active site. However, subtle distortions in electron density in the binding pocket and in silico docking support the possibility of a higher affinity (+)-ABA binding site in the RuBP binding pocket. Overall we conclude that (+)-ABA interacts with Rubisco. While the low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site and weak non-competitive inhibition of catalysis may not be relevant, the high affinity site may allow ABA to act as a negative effector of Rubisco activation. PMID:26197050

  15. Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Galka, Marek M.; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Buhrow, Leann M.; Nelson, Ken M.; Switala, Jacek; Cutler, Adrian J.; Palmer, David R. J.; Loewen, Peter C.; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Loewen, Michele C.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid ((+)-ABA) is a phytohormone involved in the modulation of developmental processes and stress responses in plants. A chemical proteomics approach using an ABA mimetic probe was combined with in vitro assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), x-ray crystallography and in silico modelling to identify putative (+)-ABA binding-proteins in crude extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was identified as a putative ABA-binding protein. Radiolabelled-binding assays yielded a Kd of 47 nM for (+)-ABA binding to spinach Rubisco, which was validated by ITC, and found to be similar to reported and experimentally derived values for the native ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) substrate. Functionally, (+)-ABA caused only weak inhibition of Rubisco catalytic activity (Ki of 2.1 mM), but more potent inhibition of Rubisco activation (Ki of ~ 130 μM). Comparative structural analysis of Rubisco in the presence of (+)-ABA with RuBP in the active site revealed only a putative low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site on the surface of the large subunit at a location distal from the active site. However, subtle distortions in electron density in the binding pocket and in silico docking support the possibility of a higher affinity (+)-ABA binding site in the RuBP binding pocket. Overall we conclude that (+)-ABA interacts with Rubisco. While the low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site and weak non-competitive inhibition of catalysis may not be relevant, the high affinity site may allow ABA to act as a negative effector of Rubisco activation. PMID:26197050

  16. Purification and some properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Brevibacterium flavum and its aspartate-overproducing mutant.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Shiio, I

    1985-04-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylases (PC) were purified from a wild strain and an aspartate-producing mutant of Brevibacterium flavum to electrophoretic homogeneity. The molecular weights of the enzymes were determined to be 4.1 X 10(5) by the gel-filtration technique. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the enzyme gave only one protein band with a molecular weight of 1.07 X 10(5). The enzyme was labile and stabilized by substrate PEP, activators, metallic cofactors, an allosteric inhibitor and ammonium sulfate. The mechanism for the PC reaction was rapid equilibrium random Bi Bi with a dead end complex, enzyme-bicarbonate-Pi. The KmS for PEP and bicarbonate were 2.5 and 0.63 mM, respectively, and the apparent KmS were not affected by the secondary substrate concentrations. Dissociation constants for Pi of enzyme-Pi and the dead end complex were 5.0 and 16 mM, respectively. Aspartate inhibition was completely competitive with both the substrates, PEP and bicarbonate, with an inhibitor constant of 0.044 mM. An activator, acetyl-CoA, did not alter the apparent Km for bicarbonate but decreased that for PEP. The activator constants for the enzyme-PEP complex and free enzyme were 6.3 and 40 microM, respectively. Double reciprocal plots of reaction rate against PEP concentration were not linear at lower PEP concentrations. Hill coefficients for PEP were 1.6 in the absence of any effectors, 1.0 in the presence of acetyl-CoA, and 2.3 in the presence of aspartate. As to the mutant enzyme, only the inhibitor constant for aspartate was increased, being 0.18 mM, but other constants, coefficients, as described above, and specific activity were almost the same as those of the wild-type enzyme. PMID:4030719

  17. In Vivo and in Vitro Phosphorylation of the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Wheat Seeds during Germination.

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, L.; Gonzalez, M. C.; Cejudo, F. J.; Vidal, J.; Echevarria, C.

    1996-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity was detected in the aleurone endosperm of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Chinese Spring) seeds, and specific anti-Sorghum C4 PEPC polyclonal anti-bodies cross-reacted with 103- and 100-kD polypeptides present in dry seeds and seeds that had imbibed; in addition, a new, 108-kD polypeptide was detected 6 h after imbibition. The use of specific anti-phosphorylation-site immunoglobulin G (APS-IgG) identified the presence of a phosphorylation motif equivalent to that found in other plant PEPCs studied so far. The binding of this APS-IgG to the target protein promoted changes in the properties of seed PEPC similar to those produced by phosphorylation, as previously shown for the recombinant Sorghum leaf C4 PEPC. In desalted seed extracts, an endogenous PEPC kinase activity catalyzed a bona fide phosphorylation of the target protein, as deduced from the immunoinhibition of the in vitro phosphorylation reaction by the APS- IgG. In addition, the major, 103-kD PEPC polypeptide was also shown to be radiolabeled in situ 48 h after imbibition in [32P]orthophosphate. The ratio between optimal (pH 8) and suboptimal (pH 7.3 or 7.1) PEPC activity decreased during germination, thereby suggesting a change in catalytic rate related to an in vivo phosphorylation process. These collective data document that the components needed for the regulatory phosphorylation of PEPC are present and functional during germination of wheat seeds. PMID:12226309

  18. Glucose regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in hepatoma and islet cells.

    PubMed

    Louis, N A; Witters, L A

    1992-02-01

    The regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by glucose and other fuel molecules has been examined in Fao Reuber hepatoma cells and Syrian hamster insulin tumor (HIT) cells in order to determine whether lipogenic substrates acutely alter ACC activity and to examine the mechanism of such regulation. In Fao cells, preincubated in simple medium without substrates, glucose addition results in a rapid activation of ACC. This effect, mimicked by other fuels such as lactate, is characterized by an increase in enzyme Vmax and a decrease in the activation constant for citrate. Several lines of evidence indicate that this activation of ACC is due to enzyme dephosphorylation, including the kinetic changes observed, the persistence of enzyme activation through ACC isolation, the necessity of inclusion of sodium fluoride/EDTA in the cell lysis buffer for preservation of the glucose-induced change, and the direct demonstration of diminished 32P-labeling of ACC after glucose exposure. Identical effects of glucose are also observed in HIT cells, although the ACC activation is smaller in magnitude and less sensitive than that observed in Fao cells. Other insulin secretagogues such as glutamine, lactate, and isobutylmethylxanthine are also found to activate HIT ACC. Others have suggested that glucose-induced changes in malonyl-CoA in beta-cells may be linked to glucose-induced insulin secretion. However, studies conducted in late passage HIT cells, which fail to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation, reveal the same glucose-induced activation seen in early passages, secretion-competent HIT cells, suggesting that glucose-induced ACC activation is not by itself sufficient to provoke insulin secretion. Taken together, these findings indicate that glucose and other fuel molecules can play a major role in the rapid regulation of the fatty acid synthesis pathway. The activation of fatty acid synthesis by substrate-induced ACC dephosphorylation insures ultimate fuel storage

  19. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in Arabidopsis Leaves Plays a Crucial Role in Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism1

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianghua; Yi, Keke; Liu, Yu; Xie, Li; Zhou, Zhongjing; Chen, Yue; Hu, Zhanghua; Zheng, Tao; Liu, Renhu; Chen, Yunlong; Chen, Jinqing

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes an irreversible primary metabolic reaction in plants. Previous studies have used transgenic plants expressing ectopic PEPC forms with diminished feedback inhibition to examine the role of PEPC in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. To date, the in vivo role of PEPC in carbon and nitrogen metabolism has not been analyzed in plants. In this study, we examined the role of PEPC in plants, demonstrating that PPC1 and PPC2 were highly expressed genes encoding PEPC in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves and that PPC1 and PPC2 accounted for approximately 93% of total PEPC activity in the leaves. A double mutant, ppc1/ppc2, was constructed that exhibited a severe growth-arrest phenotype. The ppc1/ppc2 mutant accumulated more starch and sucrose than wild-type plants when seedlings were grown under normal conditions. Physiological and metabolic analysis revealed that decreased PEPC activity in the ppc1/ppc2 mutant greatly reduced the synthesis of malate and citrate and severely suppressed ammonium assimilation. Furthermore, nitrate levels in the ppc1/ppc2 mutant were significantly lower than those in wild-type plants due to the suppression of ammonium assimilation. Interestingly, starch and sucrose accumulation could be prevented and nitrate levels could be maintained by supplying the ppc1/ppc2 mutant with exogenous malate and glutamate, suggesting that low nitrogen status resulted in the alteration of carbon metabolism and prompted the accumulation of starch and sucrose in the ppc1/ppc2 mutant. Our results demonstrate that PEPC in leaves plays a crucial role in modulating the balance of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Arabidopsis. PMID:25588735

  20. Molecular characterization of the non-biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    McKean, A L; Ke, J; Song, J; Che, P; Achenbach, S; Nikolau, B J; Wurtele, E S

    2000-02-25

    The biotin enzyme, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCase) (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.4.1. 4), catalyzes a pivotal reaction required for both leucine catabolism and isoprenoid metabolism. MCCase is a heteromeric enzyme composed of biotin-containing (MCC-A) and non-biotin-containing (MCC-B) subunits. Although the sequence of the MCC-A subunit was previously determined, the primary structure of the MCC-B subunit is unknown. Based upon sequences of biotin enzymes that use substrates structurally related to 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, we isolated the MCC-B cDNA and gene of Arabidopsis. Antibodies directed against the bacterially produced recombinant protein encoded by the MCC-B cDNA react solely with the MCC-B subunit of the purified MCCase and inhibit MCCase activity. The primary structure of the MCC-B subunit shows the highest similarity to carboxyltransferase domains of biotin enzymes that use methyl-branched thiol esters as substrate or products. The single copy MCC-B gene of Arabidopsis is interrupted by nine introns. MCC-A and MCC-B mRNAs accumulate in all cell types and organs, with the highest accumulation occurring in rapidly growing and metabolically active tissues. In addition, these two mRNAs accumulate coordinately in an approximately equal molar ratio, and they each account for between 0.01 and 0.1 mol % of cellular mRNA. The sequence of the Arabidopsis MCC-B gene has enabled the identification of animal paralogous MCC-B cDNAs and genes, which may have an impact on the molecular understanding of the lethal inherited metabolic disorder methylcrotonylglyciuria.

  1. [Formation of ribuloso-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase by Thiocapsa roseopersicina under different growth conditions].

    PubMed

    Zhukov, V G

    1976-01-01

    Contrary to other photosynthetic and some chemoautotrophic bacteria, formation of ribuloso-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase by the cells of Thiocapsa roseopersicina, strain BBS, is not inhibited by oxygen which is present in the medium. The intensity of light and the presence of organic substances in the medium produce only a minor effect on synthesis of the enzyme by the microorganism. PMID:1004280

  2. Severe hypoglycaemia in isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency; a rare, severe clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Oude Luttikhuis, H G M; Touati, G; Rabier, D; Williams, M; Jakobs, C; Saudubray, J M

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of neonatal screening for branched-chain organic acidurias, it has been noted that isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency is probably one of the most frequent organic acidurias. Only a few cases with severe clinical presentation have been described. Profound hypoglycaemia is an uncommon but life-threatening complication.

  3. Evolution of the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Protein Kinase Family in C3 and C4 Flaveria spp.1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Aldous, Sophia H.; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Waldera-Lupa, Daniel M.; Stühler, Kai; Mallmann, Julia; Groth, Georg; Gowik, Udo; Westhoff, Peter; Arsova, Borjana

    2014-01-01

    The key enzyme for C4 photosynthesis, Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase (PEPC), evolved from nonphotosynthetic PEPC found in C3 ancestors. In all plants, PEPC is phosphorylated by Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Protein Kinase (PPCK). However, differences in the phosphorylation pattern exist among plants with these photosynthetic types, and it is still not clear if they are due to interspecies differences or depend on photosynthetic type. The genus Flaveria contains closely related C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 species, which are evolutionarily young and thus well suited for comparative analysis. To characterize the evolutionary differences in PPCK between plants with C3 and C4 photosynthesis, transcriptome libraries from nine Flaveria spp. were used, and a two-member PPCK family (PPCKA and PPCKB) was identified. Sequence analysis identified a number of C3- and C4-specific residues with various occurrences in the intermediates. Quantitative analysis of transcriptome data revealed that PPCKA and PPCKB exhibit inverse diel expression patterns and that C3 and C4 Flaveria spp. differ in the expression levels of these genes. PPCKA has maximal expression levels during the day, whereas PPCKB has maximal expression during the night. Phosphorylation patterns of PEPC varied among C3 and C4 Flaveria spp. too, with PEPC from the C4 species being predominantly phosphorylated throughout the day, while in the C3 species the phosphorylation level was maintained during the entire 24 h. Since C4 Flaveria spp. evolved from C3 ancestors, this work links the evolutionary changes in sequence, PPCK expression, and phosphorylation pattern to an evolutionary phase shift of kinase activity from a C3 to a C4 mode. PMID:24850859

  4. Fungal metabolic model for 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José M; Ruíz-Sala, Pedro; Ugarte, Magdalena; Peñalva, Miguel A

    2004-02-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is able to use Leu as the sole carbon source through a metabolic pathway leading to acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate that is homologous to that used by humans. mccA and mccB, the genes encoding the subunits of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, are clustered with ivdA encoding isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, a third gene of the Leu catabolic pathway, on the left arm of chromosome III. Their transcription is induced by Leu and other hydrophobic amino acids and repressed by glucose. Phenotypically indistinguishable DeltamccA, DeltamccB, and DeltamccA DeltamccB mutations prevent growth on Leu but not on lactose or other amino acids, formally demonstrating in vivo the specific involvement of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase in Leu catabolism. Growth of mcc mutants on lactose plus Leu is impaired, indicating that Leu metabolite(s) accumulation resulting from the metabolic block is toxic. Human patients carrying loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the subunits of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase suffer from methylcrotonylglycinuria. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatants revealed that fungal Deltamcc strains accumulate 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, one of the diagnostic compounds in the urine of these patients, illustrating the remarkably similar consequences of equivalent genetic errors of metabolism in fungi and humans. We use our fungal model(s) for methylcrotonylglycinuria to show accumulation of 3-hydroxyisovalerate on transfer of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase-deficient strains to the isoprenoid precursors acetate, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate, or mevalonate. This represents the first reported genetic evidence for the existence of a metabolic link involving 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase between isoprenoid biosynthesis and Leu catabolism, providing additional support to the mevalonate shunt proposed previously (Edmond, J., and Popják, G. (1974) J. Biol. Chem. 249, 66-71).

  5. In vivo monoubiquitination of anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase occurs at Lys624 in germinating sorghum seeds

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC 4.1.1.31) is an important cytosolic regulatory enzyme that plays a pivotal role in numerous physiological processes in plants, including seed development and germination. Previous studies demonstrated the occurrence of immunoreactive PEPC polypeptides of ~110kDa and 107kDa (p110 and p107, respectively) on immunoblots of clarified extracts of germinating sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) seeds. In order to establish the biochemical basis for this observation, a 460kDa PEPC heterotetramer composed of an equivalent ratio of p110 and p107 subunits was purified to near homogeneity from the germinated seeds. Mass spectrometry established that p110 and p107 are both encoded by the same plant-type PEPC gene (CP21), but that p107 was in vivo monoubiquitinated at Lys624 to form p110. This residue is absolutely conserved in vascular plant PEPCs and is proximal to a PEP-binding/catalytic domain. Anti-ubiquitin IgG immunodetected p110 but not p107, whereas incubation with a deubiquitinating enzyme (USP-2 core) efficiently converted p110 into p107, while relieving the enzyme’s feedback inhibition by l-malate. Partial PEPC monoubiquitination was also detected during sorghum seed development. It is apparent that monoubiquitination at Lys624 is opposed to phosphorylation at Ser7 in terms of regulating the catalytic activity of sorghum seed PEPC. PEPC monoubiquitination is hypothesized to fine-tune anaplerotic carbon flux according to the cell’s immediate physiological requirements for tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates needed in support of biosynthesis and carbon–nitrogen interactions. PMID:24288181

  6. Regulation of pyruvate carboxylase in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Xia, W L; Ahmad, F

    1995-01-01

    When 3T3-L1 fibroblasts differentiate to adipocytes, the specific activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) increases about 25-fold in parallel with its intracellular protein concentration. The increase in PC protein concentration is accompanied by a 9-10-fold increase in the relative abundance of 4.2 kb PC mRNA measured by Northern-blot analysis using a cDNA probe encoding a segment of the PC gene of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) alone and together with insulin on levels of cellular protein, PC activity, PC protein and on the relative abundance of PC mRNA were examined in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes exposed to cAMP for 24 h exhibited a 25% decrease in cellular protein and marked decreases in enzyme activity (88%) and PC mRNA abundance (98%) compared with untreated adipocyte controls. After 48 h of exposure to cAMP, PC activity and PC mRNA diminished to levels approaching their detection limits. When exposed to medium containing cAMP plus insulin, adipocyte enzyme activity and PC mRNA declined more slowly during the first 24 h exposure (about 20% decrease) but after 48 h fell to values comparable with those of adipocytes exposed to cAMP alone. Despite these decreases in enzyme activity, the PC protein content of adipocytes treated with cAMP alone or cAMP plus insulin are nearly identical with that of control adipocytes. The inactivation of PC in cAMP-treated adipocytes does not involve loss of the prosthetic group from the holoenzyme. Cross-linking experiments suggest that the spatial arrangement of protomers in inactive PC may differ from that in the active tetrameric enzyme. Data presented suggest that, in addition to inducing inactivation, cAMP may also regulate adipocyte PC by decreasing transcription of the PC gene and/or enhancing the rate of degradation of PC mRNA. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7864811

  7. Evidence for allosterism in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from comfrey

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.D.; Bolden, T.D.

    1986-05-01

    Evidence has been obtained suggesting that ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is an allosteric enzyme in the sense that it shows cooperative active site binding, cooperative interactions between the activation and active sites and significant binding of some metabolites at a second site. Investigation of the binding of a potent competitive inhibitor. 2-carboxymannitol-1,6-bisphosphate (CMBP) by /sup 31/P-NMR indicated essentially 1:1 binding with the active sites of comfrey RuBisCo. Among the interactions of competitive inhibitors, as measured by difference UV spectroscopy, the binding curves for ortho-phosphate and ribose-5-phosphate were better fitted by a Monod-Wyman-Changeux model than by an independent site model, whereas the binding of CMBP and 2-phosphoglycolate were not. Difference UV methods also were used to study activation by CO/sub 2/ which at pH 7.9 in 10 mM MgCl/sub 2/ showed positive cooperativity with k = 100 +/- 3 ..mu..M (based on pK/sub a/ = 6.4 for the CO/sub 2/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ equilibrium) and L = 3.5 +/- 0.7. Addition of saturating amounts of CMBP and lowering the MgCl/sub 2/ to 2 mM still gave a sigmoidal curve but it was shifted to higher CO/sub 2/ concentrations (k = 124 +/- 2 ..mu..M and L = 31 +/- 3). In the absence of CMBP the same conditions gave k = 26 +/- 2 ..mu..M for L = 3.5. Conversely, k was 0.96 +/- 0.08 ..mu..M for CMBP in 0.5 mM MgCl/sub 2/ without added NaHCO/sub 3/ but was 21 +/- 0.06 ..mu..M in 10 MgCl/sub 2/ and 2 mM NaHCO/sub 3/, pH 7.3.

  8. Identification of 2-enolbutyrate as the product of the reaction of maize leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase with (Z)- and (E)-2-phosphoenolbutyrate: evidence from NMR and kinetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, D.H.; Andreo, C.S.

    1988-01-12

    (Z)- and (E)-2-phosphoenolbutyrates were dephosphorylated at similar rates by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase purified from maize leaves, as determined from proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The product of the reaction in D/sub 2/O was a mixture of 60-70% 2-oxo(3-H,D)butyrate, 25-30% 2-oxo(3-D/sub 2/) butyrate, and 5-10% 2-oxo(3-H/sub 2/) butyrate. The amounts of (R)- and (S)-2-oxo(3-H,D) butyrate in this mixture were determined by exchange at C-3 in D/sup 2/O catalyzed by pyruvate kinase as described previously. Forty-five minutes after the addition of pyruvate kinase, the proportions of 2-oxo(3-H,D) butyrate and 2-oxo(3-D/sub 2/)-butyrate were 36-39% and 61-64%, respectively, indicating that the original mixture contained equal amounts of R and S enantiomers. In addition, a compound with properties similar to those of enolpyruvate was detected in solution during the action of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase on 2-phosphoenolbutyrate. This compound, most likely 2-enolbutyrate, presented maximum light absorption at 220-230 nm and was ketonized in a solution containing 80% D/sub 2/O and 20% H/sub 2/O (pH 7) with a rate constant of 1.33 min/sup -1/. From these results, it is concluded that the actual product released from the active site of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase during the reaction with 2-phosphoenolbutyrate is the enolic form of 2-oxobutyrate and that protonation of this form takes place at random in solution.

  9. Regulation of bovine pyruvate carboxylase mRNA and promoter expression by thermal stress.

    PubMed

    White, H M; Koser, S L; Donkin, S S

    2012-09-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in gluconeogenesis from lactate and is a determinant of tricarboxylic acid cycle carbon flux. Bovine PC 5' untranslated region (UTR) mRNA variants are the products of a single PC gene containing 3 promoter regions (P3, P2, and P1, 5' to 3') that are responsive to physiological and nutritional stressors. The objective of this study was to determine the direct effects of thermal stress on PC mRNA and gene expression in bovine hepatocyte monolayer cultures, rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cells, and Madin-Darby bovine kidney epithelial (MDBK) cells. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3 Holstein bull calves and used to prepare monolayer cultures. Rat hepatoma cells and MDBK cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA. Beginning 24 h after initial seeding, cells were subjected to either 37°C (control) or 42°C (thermal stress) for 24 h. Treatments were applied in triplicate in a minimum of 3 independent cell preparations. For bovine primary hepatocytes, endogenous expression of bovine PC mRNA increased (P < 0.1) with 24 h of thermal stress (1.31 vs. 2.79 ± 0.49, arbitrary units, control vs. thermal stress, respectively), but there was no change (P ≥ 0.1) in cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) mRNA expression. Similarly, exposure of MDBK cells to thermal stress increased (P < 0.1) expression of bovine PC mRNA without altering (P ≥ 0.1) PEPCK-C mRNA expression. Conversely, there was no effect (P ≥ 0.1) of thermal stress on endogenous rat PC (0.47 vs. 0.30 ± 0.08, control vs. thermal stress) or PEPCK-C (1.61 vs. 1.20 ± 0.48, arbitrary units, control vs. thermal stress, respectively) mRNA expressions in H4IIE cells. To further investigate the regulation of PC, H4IIE cells were transiently transfected with bovine promoter-luciferase constructs containing either P1, P2, or P3, and exposed to thermal stress for 23 h. Activity of P1 was suppressed (P < 0.1) 5-fold, activity of P2

  10. Metabolic stroke in isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Steen, C; Baumgartner, E R; Duran, M; Lehnert, W; Suormala, T; Fingerhut, R; Stehn, M; Kohlschütter, A

    1999-09-01

    A mildly retarded infant with failure to thrive developed hypoglycaemia, focal seizures, respiratory failure and hemiparesis during a febrile episode at the age of 16 months. A brain scan was initially normal and showed hemilateral focal edema and gliosis at later stages. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency was suggested by elevated urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine, and confirmed by enzyme assays. The patient was treated with protein restriction and carnitine and remained stable during the following 5 years. Hemiparesis and some developmental delay persisted. In acute focal brain disease, metabolic disorders must be considered. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency adds to the list of possible causes of "metabolic stroke".

  11. Mitochondrial targeting signals and mature peptides of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Sonja C; Polanetz, Roman; Meier, Stephan; Mayerhofer, Peter U; Herrmann, Johannes M; Anslinger, Katja; Roscher, Adelbert A; Röschinger, Wulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    Inherited deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), an enzyme of leucine degradation, is an organic acidemia detectable by expanded newborn screening with a variable phenotype that ranges from asymptomatic to death in infancy. Here, we show that the two subunits of the enzyme (MCCalpha; MCCbeta) are imported into the mitochondrial matrix by the classical pathway involving cleavable amino-terminal targeting presequences. We identified the cleavage sites (Tyr41/Thr42 and Ala22/Tyr23 for MCCalpha and MCCbeta, respectively) of the targeting signals and the amino-termini of the mature polypeptides of MCC and propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a mitochondrial paralog. The amino-termini containing 39 (MCCalpha) or 20 amino acids (MCCbeta) were both necessary and sufficient for targeting. Structural requirements for mitochondrial import were defined by site-directed mutagenesis. Our studies provide the prerequisite to understand the impact of specific mutations on the clinical phenotype of MCC deficiency.

  12. Molecular and catalytic properties of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic extreme halophile Ectothiorhodospira halophila.

    PubMed

    Tabita, F R; McFadden, B A

    1976-06-01

    D-Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase has been purified from the photosynthetic extreme halophile Ectothiorhodospira halophila. Despite a growth requirement for almost saturating sodium chloride in the medium, both crude and homogeneous preparations of RuBP carboxylase obtained from this organism were inhibited by salts. Sedimentation equilibrium analyses showed the enzyme to be large (molecular weight: 601,000). The protein was composed of two types of polypeptide chains of 56,000 and of 18,000 daltons. The small subunit appeared to be considerably larger than the small subunit obtained from the RuBP carboxylase isolated from Chromatium, an organism related to E. halophila. Amino acid analyses of hydrolysates of both E. halophilia and Chromatium RuBP carboxylases were very similar. Initial velocity experiments showed that the E. halophila RuBP carboxylase had a Km for ribulose diphosphate of 0.07 mM and a Km for HCO3- of 10 mM. Moreover, 6-phospho-D-gluconate was found to markedly inhibit the E. halophila carboxylase; a Ki for phosphogluconate of 0.14 mM was determined.

  13. Anesthetic management of a patient with 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Karen A; León-Ruiz, Elias N

    2008-08-01

    Patients with inborn errors of metabolism require special considerations in perioperative care. In the following case report, we describe the successful management of a patient with 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, a deficit that causes a secondary carnitine deficiency and impaired beta oxidation. Patients may have significant underlying cardiomyopathy, and are at risk for metabolic decompensation, acidosis, and hypoglycemia during periods of stress.

  14. A Different Mechanism for the Inhibition of the Carboxyltransferase Domain of Acetyl-coenzyme A Carboxylase by Tepraloxydim

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, S.; Callaghan, M; Watson, K; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) are crucial metabolic enzymes and are attractive targets for drug discovery. Haloxyfop and tepraloxydim belong to two distinct classes of commercial herbicides and kill sensitive plants by inhibiting the carboxyltransferase (CT) activity of ACC. Our earlier structural studies showed that haloxyfop is bound near the active site of the CT domain, at the interface of its dimer, and a large conformational change in the dimer interface is required for haloxyfop binding. We report here the crystal structure at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution of the CT domain of yeast ACC in complex with tepraloxydim. The compound has a different mechanism of inhibiting the CT activity compared to haloxyfop, as well as the mammalian ACC inhibitor CP-640186. Tepraloxydim probes a different region of the dimer interface and requires only small but important conformational changes in the enzyme, in contrast to haloxyfop. The binding mode of tepraloxydim explains the structure-activity relationship of these inhibitors, and provides a molecular basis for their distinct sensitivity to some of the resistance mutations, as compared to haloxyfop. Despite the chemical diversity between haloxyfop and tepraloxydim, the compounds do share two binding interactions to the enzyme, which may be important anchoring points for the development of ACC inhibitors

  15. Identification and Functional Verification of Archaeal-Type Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase, a Missing Link in Archaeal Central Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ettema, Thijs J. G.; Makarova, Kira S.; Jellema, Gera L.; Gierman, Hinco J.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Huynen, Martijn A.; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Oost, John

    2004-01-01

    Despite the fact that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity has been measured and in some cases even purified from some Archaea, the gene responsible for this activity has not been elucidated. Using sensitive sequence comparison methods, we detected a highly conserved, uncharacterized archaeal gene family that is distantly related to the catalytic core of the canonical PEPC. To verify the predicted function of this archaeal gene family, we cloned a representative from the hyperthermophilic acidophile Sulfolobus solfataricus and functionally produced the corresponding enzyme as a fusion with the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein. The purified fusion protein indeed displayed highly thermostable PEPC activity. The structural and biochemical properties of the characterized archaeal-type PEPC (atPEPC) from S. solfataricus are in good agreement with previously reported biochemical analyses of other archaeal PEPC enzymes. The newly identified atPEPC, with its distinct properties, constitutes yet another example of the versatility of the enzymes of the central carbon metabolic pathways in the archaeal domain. PMID:15516590

  16. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

    PubMed

    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties. PMID:25289966

  17. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

    PubMed

    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties.

  18. Mechanism of metamifop inhibition of the carboxyltransferase domain of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in Echinochloa crus-galli

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiangdong; Tang, Wenjie; He, Shun; Kang, Jing; Ma, Hongju; Li, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) plays crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism and is an attractive target for herbicide discovery. Metamifop is a novel ACCase-inhibiting herbicide that can be applied to control sensitive weeds in paddy fields. In this study, the effects of metamifop on the chloroplasts, ACCase activity and carboxyltransferase (CT) domain gene expression in Echinochloa crus-galli were investigated. The results showed that metamifop interacted with the CT domain of ACCase in E. crus-galli. The three-dimensional structure of the CT domain of E. crus-galli ACCase in complex with metamifop was examined by homology modelling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Metamifop has a different mechanism of inhibiting the CT domain compared with other ACCase inhibitors as it interacted with a different region in the active site of the CT domain. The protonation of nitrogen in the oxazole ring of metamifop plays a crucial role in the interaction between metamifop and the CT domain. The binding mode of metamifop provides a foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism of target resistance and cross-resistance among ACCase herbicides, and for designing and optimizing ACCase inhibitors. PMID:27666674

  19. Mechanism of metamifop inhibition of the carboxyltransferase domain of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in Echinochloa crus-galli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiangdong; Tang, Wenjie; He, Shun; Kang, Jing; Ma, Hongju; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) plays crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism and is an attractive target for herbicide discovery. Metamifop is a novel ACCase-inhibiting herbicide that can be applied to control sensitive weeds in paddy fields. In this study, the effects of metamifop on the chloroplasts, ACCase activity and carboxyltransferase (CT) domain gene expression in Echinochloa crus-galli were investigated. The results showed that metamifop interacted with the CT domain of ACCase in E. crus-galli. The three-dimensional structure of the CT domain of E. crus-galli ACCase in complex with metamifop was examined by homology modelling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Metamifop has a different mechanism of inhibiting the CT domain compared with other ACCase inhibitors as it interacted with a different region in the active site of the CT domain. The protonation of nitrogen in the oxazole ring of metamifop plays a crucial role in the interaction between metamifop and the CT domain. The binding mode of metamifop provides a foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism of target resistance and cross-resistance among ACCase herbicides, and for designing and optimizing ACCase inhibitors.

  20. Dominant mutations causing alterations in acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase confer tolerance to cyclohexanedione and aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, W B; Marshall, L C; Burton, J D; Somers, D A; Wyse, D L; Gronwald, J W; Gengenbach, B G

    1990-01-01

    A partially dominant mutation exhibiting increased tolerance to cyclohexanedione and aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides was isolated by exposing susceptible maize (Zea mays) tissue cultures to increasingly inhibitory concentrations of sethoxydim (a cyclohexanedione). The selected tissue culture (S2) was greater than 40-fold more tolerant to sethoxydim and 20-fold more tolerant to haloxyfop (an aryloxyphenoxypropionate) than the nonselected wild-type tissue culture. Regenerated S2 plants were heterozygous for the mutant allele and exhibited a high-level, but not complete, tolerance to both herbicides. Homozygous mutant families derived by self-pollinating the regenerated S2 plants exhibited no injury after treatment with 0.8 kg of sethoxydim per ha, which was greater than 16-fold the rate lethal to wild-type plants. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase; EC 6.4.1.2) is the target enzyme of cyclohexanedione and aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides. ACCase activities of the nonselected wild-type and homozygous mutant seedlings were similar in the absence of herbicide. ACCase activity from homozygous tolerant plants required greater than 100-fold more sethoxydim and 16-fold more haloxyfop for 50% inhibition than ACCase from wild-type plants. These results indicate that tolerance to sethoxydim and haloxyfop is controlled by a partially dominant nuclear mutation encoding a herbicide-insensitive alteration in maize ACCase. Images PMID:1976254

  1. Expression of codon-optmized phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene from Glaciecola sp. HTCC2999 in Escherichia coli and its application for C4 chemical production.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyun; Pack, Seung Pil; Lee, Jinwon

    2012-08-01

    We examined the expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene from marine bacteria in Escherichia coli using codon optimization. The codon-optimized PEPC gene was expressed in the E. coli K-12 strain W3110. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the codon-optimized PEPC gene was only expressed in E. coli, and measurement of enzyme activity indicated the highest PEPC activity in the E. coli SGJS112 strain that contained the codon-optimized PEPC gene. In fermentation assays, the E. coli SGJS112 produced the highest yield of oxaloacetate using glucose as the source and produced a 20-times increase in the yield of malate compared to the control. We concluded that the codon optimization enabled E. coli to express the PEPC gene derived from the Glaciecola sp. HTCC2999. Also, the expressed protein exhibited an enzymatic activity similar to that of E. coli PEPC and increased the yield of oxaloacetate and malate in an E. coli system.

  2. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: mutation analysis in 28 probands, 9 symptomatic and 19 detected by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Maria Fernanda; Suormala, Terttu; Randolph, Ann; Coelho, David; Fowler, Brian; Valle, David; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2005-08-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that appears to be the most frequent organic aciduria detected in tandem mass spectrometry (TMS)-based neonatal screening programs. The phenotype is variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological involvement to asymptomatic adults. MCC is a heteromeric mitochondrial enzyme composed of biotin containing alpha subunits and smaller beta subunits, encoded by MCCA and MCCB, respectively. We report mutation analysis in 28 MCC-deficient probands, 19 of whom were asymptomatic newborns detected by TMS newborn screening, and nine presented with clinical symptoms. Ten have mutations in MCCA, and 18 in MCCB. We identified 10 novel MCCA and 14 novel MCCB mutant alleles including missense, nonsense, frameshift and splice site mutations, and show that three of the missense mutations result in severely decreased MCC activity when expressed in MCC-deficient cell lines. Our data demonstrate no clear correlation between genotype and phenotype suggesting that factors other than the genotype at the MCC loci have a major influence on the phenotype of MCC deficiency.

  3. Algal evolution in relation to atmospheric CO2: carboxylases, carbon-concentrating mechanisms and carbon oxidation cycles

    PubMed Central

    Raven, John A.; Giordano, Mario; Beardall, John; Maberly, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis evolved at least 2.4 Ga; all oxygenic organisms use the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco)–photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCRC) rather than one of the five other known pathways of autotrophic CO2 assimilation. The high CO2 and (initially) O2-free conditions permitted the use of a Rubisco with a high maximum specific reaction rate. As CO2 decreased and O2 increased, Rubisco oxygenase activity increased and 2-phosphoglycolate was produced, with the evolution of pathways recycling this inhibitory product to sugar phosphates. Changed atmospheric composition also selected for Rubiscos with higher CO2 affinity and CO2/O2 selectivity correlated with decreased CO2-saturated catalytic capacity and/or for CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). These changes increase the energy, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, zinc and manganese cost of producing and operating Rubisco–PCRC, while biosphere oxygenation decreased the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron. The majority of algae today have CCMs; the timing of their origins is unclear. If CCMs evolved in a low-CO2 episode followed by one or more lengthy high-CO2 episodes, CCM retention could involve a combination of environmental factors known to favour CCM retention in extant organisms that also occur in a warmer high-CO2 ocean. More investigations, including studies of genetic adaptation, are needed. PMID:22232762

  4. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition by ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves insulin sensitivity, and modulates dyslipidemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Harriman, Geraldine; Greenwood, Jeremy; Bhat, Sathesh; Huang, Xinyi; Wang, Ruiying; Paul, Debamita; Tong, Liang; Saha, Asish K.; Westlin, William F.; Kapeller, Rosana; Harwood, H. James

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous inhibition of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) isozymes ACC1 and ACC2 results in concomitant inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and may favorably affect the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Using structure-based drug design, we have identified a series of potent allosteric protein–protein interaction inhibitors, exemplified by ND-630, that interact within the ACC phosphopeptide acceptor and dimerization site to prevent dimerization and inhibit the enzymatic activity of both ACC isozymes, reduce fatty acid synthesis and stimulate fatty acid oxidation in cultured cells and in animals, and exhibit favorable drug-like properties. When administered chronically to rats with diet-induced obesity, ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves insulin sensitivity, reduces weight gain without affecting food intake, and favorably affects dyslipidemia. When administered chronically to Zucker diabetic fatty rats, ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and reduces hemoglobin A1c (0.9% reduction). Together, these data suggest that ACC inhibition by representatives of this series may be useful in treating a variety of metabolic disorders, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and fatty liver disease. PMID:26976583

  5. 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency and severe multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Darin, Niklas; Andersen, Oluf; Wiklund, Lars-Martin; Holmgren, Daniel; Holme, Elisabeth

    2007-02-01

    This report describes a female with isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency. She had a mild Reye-like episode, loss of scalp hair, psychomotor retardation, and an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The diagnosis was made at 13 years of age when she developed relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis with a malignant course. Treatment with steroids had initially a good therapeutic effect on the relapses. The response to interferon beta-1a treatment was poor. On mitoxantrone treatment there was a considerable neurologic recovery.

  6. Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 potentiates RLR-induced NF-κB signaling by targeting MAVS complex

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongying; Xia, Zhangchuan; Zhou, Yaqin; Yang, Xiaodan; Hao, Hua; Peng, Nanfang; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA virus infections are detected by the RIG-I family of receptors, which signal through the adaptor molecule mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). MAVS then recruits the adaptor’s tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 3 and TRAF6, which in turn activate IRF3 and NF-κB, respectively, to induce interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory responses. Here we show that the biotin-containing enzyme methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (MCCC1) enhances virus-induced, MAVS-mediated IFN and inflammatory cytokine expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway. MCCC1 knockdown strongly inhibits induction of IFNs and inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, MCCC1 shows extensive antiviral activity toward RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, human enterovirus 71, and vesicular stomatitis virus. Here, we have elucidated the mechanism underlying MCCC1-mediated inhibition of viral replication. MCCC1 interacts with MAVS and components of the MAVS signalosome and contributes to enhanced production of type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines by promoting phosphorylation of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex and NF-κB inhibitor-α (IκBα), as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation. This process leads to activation of IFNs and cytokine expression and subsequent activation of IFN-stimulated genes, including double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR and myxovirus resistance protein 1. These findings demonstrate that MCCC1 plays an essential role in virus-triggered, MAVS-mediated activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:27629939

  7. Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 potentiates RLR-induced NF-κB signaling by targeting MAVS complex.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhongying; Xia, Zhangchuan; Zhou, Yaqin; Yang, Xiaodan; Hao, Hua; Peng, Nanfang; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA virus infections are detected by the RIG-I family of receptors, which signal through the adaptor molecule mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). MAVS then recruits the adaptor's tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 3 and TRAF6, which in turn activate IRF3 and NF-κB, respectively, to induce interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory responses. Here we show that the biotin-containing enzyme methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (MCCC1) enhances virus-induced, MAVS-mediated IFN and inflammatory cytokine expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway. MCCC1 knockdown strongly inhibits induction of IFNs and inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, MCCC1 shows extensive antiviral activity toward RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, human enterovirus 71, and vesicular stomatitis virus. Here, we have elucidated the mechanism underlying MCCC1-mediated inhibition of viral replication. MCCC1 interacts with MAVS and components of the MAVS signalosome and contributes to enhanced production of type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines by promoting phosphorylation of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex and NF-κB inhibitor-α (IκBα), as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation. This process leads to activation of IFNs and cytokine expression and subsequent activation of IFN-stimulated genes, including double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR and myxovirus resistance protein 1. These findings demonstrate that MCCC1 plays an essential role in virus-triggered, MAVS-mediated activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:27629939

  8. Pathway of assembly of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Anabaena 7210 expressed in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevitz, M.; Somerville, C.R.; McIntosh, L.

    1985-10-01

    The authors have placed the genes encoding ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from the Anabaena 7120 operon under transcriptional control of the lac promoter carried on the Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19. The genes encoding both the large and small subunit polypeptides (rbcL and rbcS) are transcribed and translated so that approx. = 0.6% of the soluble protein in E. coli extracts is a fully functional holoenzyme with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 18S, which contains stoichiometric amounts of the two subunits. However, expression of the large subunit polypeptide vastly exceeds that of the small subunit because the majority of transcripts terminate in the intergenic region between the rbcL and rbcS genes. As a result, excess large subunit is synthesized and accumulates in E. coli as an insoluble and catalytically inactive form. Because small subunit is found only in the high molecular weight soluble form of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the authors propose that the small subunit promotes assembly of the hexadecameric form of the enzyme via heterodimers of large and small subunits.

  9. Hybrid Structure of a Dynamic Single-Chain Carboxylase from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Anna; Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Maier, Timm

    2016-08-01

    Biotin-dependent acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylases (aCCs) are involved in key steps of anabolic pathways and comprise three distinct functional units: biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyl transferase (CT). YCC multienzymes are a poorly characterized family of prokaryotic aCCs of unidentified substrate specificity, which integrate all functional units into a single polypeptide chain. We employed a hybrid approach to study the dynamic structure of Deinococcus radiodurans (Dra) YCC: crystal structures of isolated domains reveal a hexameric CT core with extended substrate binding pocket and a dimeric BC domain. Negative-stain electron microscopy provides an approximation of the variable positioning of the BC dimers relative to the CT core. Small-angle X-ray scattering yields quantitative information on the ensemble of Dra YCC structures in solution. Comparison with other carrier protein-dependent multienzymes highlights a characteristic range of large-scale interdomain flexibility in this important class of biosynthetic enzymes.

  10. In Vivo Regulatory Phosphorylation of Novel Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Isoforms in Endosperm of Developing Castor Oil Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Tripodi, Karina E.; Turner, William L.; Gennidakis, Sam; Plaxton, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Our previous research characterized two phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPC) isoforms (PEPC1 and PEPC2) from developing castor oil seeds (COS). The association of a shared 107-kD subunit (p107) with an immunologically unrelated bacterial PEPC-type 64-kD polypeptide (p64) leads to marked physical and kinetic differences between the PEPC1 p107 homotetramer and PEPC2 p107/p64 heterooctamer. Here, we describe the production of antiphosphorylation site-specific antibodies to the conserved p107 N-terminal serine-6 phosphorylation site. Immunoblotting established that the serine-6 of p107 is phosphorylated in COS PEPC1 and PEPC2. This phosphorylation was reversed in vitro following incubation of clarified COS extracts or purified PEPC1 or PEPC2 with mammalian protein phosphatase type 2A and is not involved in a potential PEPC1 and PEPC2 interconversion. Similar to other plant PEPCs examined to date, p107 phosphorylation increased PEPC1 activity at pH 7.3 by decreasing its Km(PEP) and sensitivity to l-malate inhibition, while enhancing glucose-6-P activation. By contrast, p107 phosphorylation increased PEPC2's Km(PEP) and sensitivity to malate, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid inhibition. Phosphorylation of p107 was promoted during COS development (coincident with a >5-fold increase in the I50 [malate] value for total PEPC activity in desalted extracts) but disappeared during COS desiccation. The p107 of stage VII COS became fully dephosphorylated in planta 48 h following excision of COS pods or following 72 h of dark treatment of intact plants. The in vivo phosphorylation status of p107 appears to be modulated by photosynthate recently translocated from source leaves into developing COS. PMID:16169958

  11. Characterization of spinach ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activase isoforms reveals hexameric assemblies with increased thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Keown, Jeremy R; Pearce, Frederick Grant

    2014-12-15

    Most plants contain two isoforms of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase (Rca), a chloroplast protein that maintains the activity of Rubisco during photosynthesis. The longer (α-) Rca isoform has previously been shown to regulate the activity of Rubisco in response to both the ADP:ATP ratio and redox potential via thioredoxin-f. We have characterized the arrangement of the different spinach (Spinacia oleracea) isoforms in solution, and show how the presence of nucleotides changes the oligomeric state. Although the shorter (β-) isoform from both tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and spinach tend to form a range of oligomers in solution, the size of which are relatively unaffected by the addition of nucleotide, the spinach α-isoform assembles as a hexamer in the presence of adenosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate (ATPγS). These hexamers have significantly higher heat stability, and may play a role in optimizing photosynthesis at higher temperatures. Hexamers were also observed for mixtures of the two isoforms, suggesting that the α-isoform can act as a structural scaffold for hexamer formation by the β-isoform. Additionally, it is shown that a variant of the tobacco β-isoform acts in a similar fashion to the α-isoform of spinach, forming thermally stable hexamers in the presence of ATPγS. Both isoforms had similar rates of ATP hydrolysis, suggesting that a propensity for hexamer formation may not necessarily be correlated with activity. Modelling of the hexameric structures suggests that although the N-terminus of Rca forms a highly dynamic, extended structure, the C-terminus is located adjacent to the intersubunit interface.

  12. The bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozyme from developing castor oil seeds is subject to in vivo regulatory phosphorylation at serine-451.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Katie J; O'Leary, Brendan; Brikis, Carolyne; Rao, Srinath K; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry; Plaxton, William C

    2012-04-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled anaplerotic enzyme situated at a pivotal branch point of plant carbohydrate-metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (COS) a novel allosterically-densensitized 910-kDa Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex arises from a tight interaction between 107-kDa plant-type PEPC and 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting with anti-phosphoSer451 specific antibodies established that COS BTPC is in vivo phosphorylated at Ser451, a highly conserved target residue that occurs within an intrinsically disordered region. This phosphorylation was enhanced during COS development or in response to depodding. Kinetic characterization of a phosphomimetic (S451D) mutant indicated that Ser451 phosphorylation inhibits the catalytic activity of BTPC subunits within the Class-2 PEPC complex.

  13. Cloning, expression, purification and physical and kinetic characterization of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from orange (Citrus sinensis osbeck var. Valencia) fruit juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Valeria E; Figueroa, Carlos M; Andreo, Carlos S; Iglesias, Alberto A; Podestá, Florencio E

    2010-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPCase) from orange fruit juice sacs has been cloned and heterogously expressed in high yield. The purified recombinant enzyme displays properties typical of plant PEPCase, including activation by sugar phosphates and inhibition by malate and citrate. Malate inhibition is weak in the physiological pH range, and the enzyme is also poorly affected by Glu and Asp, known inhibitors of C(3) plants PEPCases. However, it is strongly inhibited by citrate. Orange fruit PEPCase phosphorylation by mammalian protein kinase A decreased inhibition by malate. The enzyme presents an unusual high molecular mass in the absence of PEP, while in its presence it displays a more common tetrameric arrangement. The overall properties of the enzyme suggest that it is suited for organic acid synthesis and NADH reoxidation in the mature fruit. The present study provides the first analysis of a recombinant fruit PEPCase.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence and mRNA-mapping of the large subunit gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) from Chlamydomonas moewusii.

    PubMed

    Yang, R C; Dove, M; Seligy, V L; Lemieux, C; Turmel, M; Narang, S A

    1986-01-01

    Nucleotide (nt) sequence of the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from the green alga, Chlamydomonas moewusii, and mapping of transcription ends was achieved by two new strategies. The deduced LS sequence of 475 amino acid residues was compared with similar genes from six other species; cyanobacteria, land plants and a related alga (C. reinhardtii). The most conserved regions are the three ribulose bisphosphate binding sites and the CO2 activator site. The nt sequence conservation outside the coding region is limited to only three segments within the 5'-flanking region: a region of tandem repeats, TATAA box and ribosome-binding site. Termination point of transcription is an 'A' residue 3' to the first of two 18-nt inverted repeats, which has the potential to form a stem-loop hairpin structure. The possible role of these potential regulatory features for transcription and translation, and similar structures in other LS genes is presented.

  15. Structural and kinetic properties of high and low molecular mass phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoforms from the endosperm of developing castor oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Blonde, James D; Plaxton, William C

    2003-04-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is believed to play an important role in producing malate as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis by leucoplasts of the developing castor oilseed (COS) endosperm. Two kinetically distinct isoforms of COS PEPC were resolved by gel filtration chromatography and purified. PEPC1 is a typical 410-kDa homotetramer composed of 107-kDa subunits (p107). In contrast, PEPC2 exists as an unusual 681-kDa hetero-octamer composed of the same p107 found in PEPC1 and an associated 64-kDa polypeptide (p64) that is structurally and immunologically unrelated to p107. Relative to PEPC1, PEPC2 demonstrated significantly enhanced thermal stability and a much lower sensitivity to allosteric activators (Glc-6-P, Glc-1-P, Fru-6-P, glycerol-3-P) and inhibitors (Asp, Glu, malate) and pH changes within the physiological range. Nondenaturing PAGE of clarified extracts followed by in-gel PEPC activity staining indicated that the ratio of PEPC1:PEPC2 increases during COS development such that only PEPC1 is detected in mature COS. Dissimilar developmental profiles and kinetic properties support the hypotheses that (i) PEPC1 functions to replenish dicarboxylic acids consumed through transamination reactions required for storage protein synthesis, whereas (ii) PEPC2 facilitates PEP flux to malate in support of fatty acid synthesis. Interestingly, the respective physical and kinetic properties of COS PEPC1 and PEPC2 are remarkably comparable with those of the homotetrameric low M(r) Class 1 and heteromeric high M(r) Class 2 PEPC isoforms of unicellular green algae.

  16. Characteristics and composition of the vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase-binding domain on osteocalcin.

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Roger J T J; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Stanley, Thomas B; Acher, Francine; Azerad, Robert; Käkönen, Sanna-Maria; Vermeer, Cees; Soute, Berry A M

    2002-01-01

    Two different sites on vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (VKC) are involved in enzyme-substrate interaction: the propeptide-binding site required for high-affinity substrate binding and the active site for glutamate carboxylation. Synthetic descarboxy osteocalcin (d-OC) is a low-K(m) substrate for the VKC, but unique since it possesses a high-affinity recognition site for the VKC, distinct from the propeptide which is essential as a binding site for VKC. However, the exact location and composition of this VKC-recognition domain on d-OC has remained unclear until now. Using a stereospecific substrate analogue [t-butyloxycarbonyl-(2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid-Glu-Val (S-MeTPT)] we demonstrate in this paper that the high affinity of d-OC for VKC cannot be explained by a direct interaction with either the active site or with the propeptide-binding site on VKC. It is shown using various synthetic peptides derived from d-OC that there are two domains on d-OC necessary for recognition: one located between residues 1 and 12 and a second between residues 26 and 39, i.e. at the C-terminal side of the gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) domain. Both internal sequences contribute substantially to the efficiency of carboxylation. On the basis of these data we postulate the presence of a second high-affinity substrate-binding site on VKC capable of specifically binding d-OC, which is the first vitamin K-dependent substrate of which the VKC binding domain is interrupted by the Gla domain. PMID:11988107

  17. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene expression and diversity of Lake Erie planktonic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, H.H.; Tabita, F.R.

    1996-06-01

    Carbon dioxide fixation is carried out primarily through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle, in which rubulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is the key enzyme. The primary structure of the large subunit of form I RubisCO is well conserved; however, four distinct types, A, B, C, and D, may be distinguished. To better understand the environmental regulation of RubisCO in Lake Erie phytoplanktonic microorganisms, we have isolated total RNA and DNA from four Lake Erie sampling sites. Probes prepared from RubisCO large-subunit genes (rbcL) of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC6301 (representative of type IB) and the diatom Cylindrotheca sp. strain N1 (representative of type ID) was determined. It appeared that type ID (diatom) rbcL gene expression per gene dose decreased as the sampling sites shifted toward open water. By contrast, a similar trend was not observed for cyanobacterial (type IB) rbcL gene expression per gene dose. Thus far, a total of 21 clones of rbcL genes derived from mRNA have been obtained and completely sequenced from the Ballast Island site. For surface water samples, deduced amino acid sequences of five of six clones appeared to be representative of green algae. In contrast, six of nine sequenced rbcL clones from 10-m-deep samples were a chromophytic and rhodophytic lineages. At 5 m deep, the active CO{sub 2}-fixing planktonic organisms represented a diverse group, including organisms related to Chlorella ellipsoidea, Cylindrotheca sp. strain N1, and Olisthodiscus luteus. Although many more samplings at diverse sites must be accomplished, the discovery of distinctly different sequences of rbcL mRNA at different water depths suggests that there is a stratification of active CO{sub 2}-fixing organisms in western Lake Erie. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Propionyl Coenzyme A (Propionyl-CoA) Carboxylase in Haloferax mediterranei: Indispensability for Propionyl-CoA Assimilation and Impacts on Global Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA) is an important intermediate during the biosynthesis and catabolism of intracellular carbon storage of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) in haloarchaea. However, the haloarchaeal propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) and its physiological significance remain unclear. In this study, we identified a PCC that catalyzed propionyl-CoA carboxylation with an acetyl-CoA carboxylation side activity in Haloferax mediterranei. Gene knockout/complementation demonstrated that the PCC enzyme consisted of a fusion protein of a biotin carboxylase and a biotin-carboxyl carrier protein (PccA [HFX_2490]), a carboxyltransferase component (PccB [HFX_2478]), and an essential small subunit (PccX [HFX_2479]). Knockout of pccBX led to an inability to utilize propionate and a higher intracellular propionyl-CoA level, indicating that the PCC enzyme is indispensable for propionyl-CoA utilization. Interestingly, H. mediterranei DBX (pccBX-deleted strain) displayed multiple phenotypic changes, including retarded cell growth, decreased glucose consumption, impaired PHBV biosynthesis, and wrinkled cells. A propionyl-CoA concentration equivalent to the concentration that accumulated in DBX cells was demonstrated to inhibit succinyl-CoA synthetase of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in vitro. Genome-wide microarray analysis showed that many genes for glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, PHBV accumulation, electron transport, and stress responses were affected in DBX. This study not only identified the haloarchaeal PCC for the metabolism of propionyl-CoA, an important intermediate in haloarchaea, but also demonstrated that impaired propionyl-CoA metabolism affected global metabolism in H. mediterranei. PMID:25398867

  19. Cloning and Characterization of a Pyruvate Carboxylase Gene from Penicillium rubens and Overexpression of the Genein the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for Enhanced Citric Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ge-Yi; Lu, Yi; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Zhao, Shou-Feng; Jiang, Hong; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pyruvate carboxylase gene (PYC1) from a marine fungus Penicillium rubens I607 was cloned and characterized. ORF of the gene (accession number: KM397349.1) had 3534 bp encoding 1177 amino acids with a molecular weight of 127.531 kDa and a PI of 6.20. The promoter of the gene was located at -1200 bp and contained a TATAA box, several CAAT boxes and a sequence 5'-SYGGRG-3'. The PYC1 deduced from the gene had no signal peptide, was a homotetramer (α4), and had the four functional domains. After expression of the PYC1 gene from the marine fungus in the marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, the transformant PR32 obtained had much higher specific pyruvate carboxylase activity (0.53 U/mg) than Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b (0.07 U/mg), and the PYC1 gene expression (133.8%) and citric acid production (70.2 g/l) by the transformant PR32 were also greatly enhanced compared to those (100 % and 27.3 g/l) by Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b. When glucose concentration in the medium was 60.0 g/l, citric acid (CA) concentration formed by the transformant PR32 was 36.1 g/l, leading to conversion of 62.1% of glucose into CA. During a 10-l fed-batch fermentation, the final concentration of CA was 111.1 ± 1.3 g/l, the yield was 0.93 g/g, the productivity was 0.46 g/l/h, and only 1.72 g/l reducing sugar was left in the fermented medium within 240 h. HPLC analysis showed that most of the fermentation products were CA. However, minor malic acid and other unknown products also existed in the culture.

  20. Genes encoding the alpha-carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Wei-Bo; Guo, Huan; Song, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Hong; Guan, Rong-Zhan; Wang, Jing-Qiao; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2010-05-01

    Heteromeric acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase), a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, is a multi-enzyme complex consisting of biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase (alpha-CT and beta-CT). In the present study, four genes encoding alpha-CT were cloned from Brassica napus, and two were cloned from each of the two parental species, B. rapa and B. oleracea. Comparative and cluster analyses indicated that these genes were divided into two major groups. The major divergence between group-1 and group-2 occurred in the second intron. Group-2 alpha-CT genes represented the ancestral form in the genus Brassica. The divergence of group-1 and group-2 genes occurred in their common ancestor 12.96-17.78 million years ago (MYA), soon after the divergence of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica (15-20 MYA). This time of divergence is identical to that reported for the paralogous subgenomes of diploid Brassica species (13-17 MYA). Real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that the expression patterns of the two groups of genes were similar in different organs, except in leaves. To better understand the regulation and evolution of alpha-CT genes, promoter regions from two sets of orthologous gene copies from B. napus, B. rapa, and B. oleracea were cloned and compared. The function of the promoter of gene Bnalpha-CT-1-1 in group-1 and gene Bnalpha-CT-2-1 in group-2 was examined by assaying beta-glucuronidase activity in transgenic A. thaliana. Our results will be helpful in elucidating the evolution and regulation of ACCase in oilseed rape.

  1. The molecular basis of human 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, M R; Almashanu, S; Suormala, T; Obie, C; Cole, R N; Packman, S; Baumgartner, E R; Valle, D

    2001-02-01

    Isolated biotin-resistant 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism that appears to be the most frequent organic aciduria detected in tandem mass spectrometry-based neonatal screening programs. The phenotype is variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological involvement to asymptomatic adults. MCC is a heteromeric mitochondrial enzyme composed of biotin-containing alpha subunits and smaller beta subunits. Here, we report cloning of MCCA and MCCB cDNAs and the organization of their structural genes. We show that a series of 14 MCC-deficient probands defines two complementation groups, CG1 and 2, resulting from mutations in MCCB and MCCA, respectively. We identify five MCCA and nine MCCB mutant alleles and show that missense mutations in each result in loss of function.

  2. Leukodystrophy and CSF purine abnormalities associated with isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    de Kremer, Raquel Dodelson; Latini, Alexandra; Suormala, Terttu; Baumgartner, E Regula; Laróvere, Laura; Civallero, Gabriel; Guelbert, Norberto; Paschini-Capra, Ana; Depetris-Boldini, Catalina; Mayor, Carlos Quiroga

    2002-03-01

    We report the first case of isolated biotin resistant 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency in Argentina. The diagnosis was established at 14 months of age by urinary organic-acid analysis and confirmed by enzyme assay in fibroblasts. The patient suffered from severe psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, areflexia, and failure to thrive, and died unexpectedly at 3 years 4 months of life. Brain MRI at 14 months showed signals of the white matter on cerebral T2-weighted, which were indicative of confluent and multiple foci of leukodystrophy, a pattern not previously described in this entity. In addition, high levels of oxypurines were detected in cerebrospinal fluid. This might be related to energetic consequences of the enzyme deficiency in the brain. This case extends the phenotype of isolated MCC deficiency in infancy and suggests this entity should be considered to be one of the possible causes of "metabolic leukodystrophies."

  3. Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency in a 15-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Murayama, K; Kimura, M; Yamaguchi, S; Shinka, T; Kodama, K

    1997-06-01

    A 15-year-old girl with a former clinical diagnosis of cerebral palsy was found to have isolated deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis and enzyme determination. Her symptoms included marked growth retardation from birth, profound mental retardation, tonic seizures, rigospastic quadriplegia with opisthotonic dystonia, gastroesophageal reflux with poor esophageal peristalsis, and recurrent episodes of aspiration pneumonia. Brain MRI revealed marked brain atrophy, involving both the gray and white matter. Although she did not exhibit acute metabolic decompensation or acute encephalopathy, her neurological symptoms continuously worsened. This patient is the oldest among reported cases of MCC deficiency who had symptoms at birth, and this case may have the severest sequelae of the longest known natural course of this inborn error of metabolism.

  4. Recurrent attacks of status epilepticus as predominant symptom in 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dirik, Eray; Yiş, Uluç; Paşaoğlu, Güven; Chambaz, Céline; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2008-03-01

    A patient with isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency with an unusual clinical presentation is described. The patient presented with clusters of seizures with two or three months disease free interval in the first year of life which then evolved into attacks of status epilepticus after the age of 12 months. MCC deficiency was suspected because of elevated C5-OH-carnitine in tandem mass spectrometry and elevated 3-hydroxy-isovaleric acid in urine organic acid analysis. Deficiency of MCC was confirmed in cultured fibroblasts and mutation analysis revealed a novel mutation in MCCB, p.S39F. Attacks of status epilepticus as a predominant symptom have not been described before in isolated MCC deficiency.

  5. Variability of Reaction Kinetics for Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase in a Barley Population 1

    PubMed Central

    Rinehart, Claire A.; Tingey, Scott V.; Andersen, William R.

    1983-01-01

    The photosynthetic enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase [EC 4.1.1.39] (RuBPCase) plays a key role in the carbon reduction system of plants. In this study, we determined the kinetic variability of RuBPCase among 46 varieties of Hordeum vulgare L. at two ages. The Vmax CO2 and Km CO2 of RuBPCase was determined for each cultivar. Varietal differences were found in Km CO2 and Vmax CO2 for one and four genotypes, respectively. One variety exhibited atypical behavior in both Km and Vmax. A comparison of varieties and age showed a significant interaction between these factors for Km but not for Vmax. These data indicate the presence of kinetic variability in RuBPCase within the H. vulgare population and perhaps between plant ages. PMID:16662986

  6. Role of pyruvate carboxylase in accumulation of intracellular lipid of the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica ACA-DC 50109.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica ACA-DC 50109 is an oleaginous yeast. In order to know the function of pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) in lipid biosynthesis, the PYC gene cloned from Pichia guilliermondii Pcla22 was overexpressed in the oleaginous yeast. The lipid contents in the wild-type strain ACA-DC 50109 and the transformants P4, P7, and P103 were 30.2 % (w/w) 36.5 % (w/w), 38.2 % (w/w), and 37.9 % (w/w). However, the amount of the secreted citric acids by strains ACA-DC 50109, P4, P77, and P103 were 0.5, 10.1, 11.5, and 9.4 g/L. In order to reduce the amount of the secreted citric acid, the PYC gene and endogenous ACL1 gene encoding ATP citrate lyase (ACL1) were simultaneously overexpressed in the oleaginous yeast. The lipid contents of the transformants PA19, PA56, PA124 were 44.4 % (w/w), 45.3 % (w/w), and 43.7 % (w/w). At the same time, the amount of the secreted citric acid by the transformants PA19, PA56, and PA124 was reduced to 5.4, 6.2, and 6.3 g/L. The PYC and ACL1 activities and their gene transcriptional levels in all the transformants were greatly enhanced compared to those in their wild-type strain ACA-DC 50109. During 10-L fermentation, lipid content in the transformant PA56 was 49.6 % (w/w) and the amount of secreted citric acid was 2.9 g/L. This meant that PYC and ACL1 can play an important role in accumulation of intracellular lipid of the oleaginous yeast Y. lipolytica ACA-DC 50109. PMID:25427679

  7. Composition, quaternary structure, and catalytic properties of D-ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase from Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    McFadden, B A; Lord, J M; Rowe, A; Dilks, S

    1975-05-01

    D-Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase has been purified in one step by sedimenting extracts of autotrophically-grown Euglena gracilis into a linear 0.2-0.8 M sucrose density gradient. The resultant product was pure by the criteria of disc electrophoresis in gels polymerized from 5 or 7.5% acrylamide and sedimentation. The molecular weight of the enzyme estimated by density gradient centrifugation and electrophoresis in gels polymerized from various concentrations of acrylamide was 5.25 X 10(5). The S20,W was 16.4 S. Dissociation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate established that the enzyme was composed of two types of subunits (mr 50,000 and 15,000). The oligomeric structure was visualized through negative staining and transmission electron microscopy leading to a model for the quaternary structure. Although the enzyme was moderately unstable, the estimated maximal specific activity was 1.6 mumol CO2 fixed min-1 mg protien-1 at 30 degrees C and pH 8.0 Km values were 2.2 m M, 15. 1 MUM and 0.63 mM for Mg2+, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, and CO2, respectively, when measured under air. 6-Phospho-D-gluconate was a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (Ki = 0.04 mM). Oxygen was a competitive inhibitor with respect to CO2 suggesting that the enzyme was also an oxygenase. The latter was confirmed by experiments showing a molar equivalence between ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-dependent oxygen consumption and phosphoglycerate production. PMID:807477

  8. Role of pyruvate carboxylase in accumulation of intracellular lipid of the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica ACA-DC 50109.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica ACA-DC 50109 is an oleaginous yeast. In order to know the function of pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) in lipid biosynthesis, the PYC gene cloned from Pichia guilliermondii Pcla22 was overexpressed in the oleaginous yeast. The lipid contents in the wild-type strain ACA-DC 50109 and the transformants P4, P7, and P103 were 30.2 % (w/w) 36.5 % (w/w), 38.2 % (w/w), and 37.9 % (w/w). However, the amount of the secreted citric acids by strains ACA-DC 50109, P4, P77, and P103 were 0.5, 10.1, 11.5, and 9.4 g/L. In order to reduce the amount of the secreted citric acid, the PYC gene and endogenous ACL1 gene encoding ATP citrate lyase (ACL1) were simultaneously overexpressed in the oleaginous yeast. The lipid contents of the transformants PA19, PA56, PA124 were 44.4 % (w/w), 45.3 % (w/w), and 43.7 % (w/w). At the same time, the amount of the secreted citric acid by the transformants PA19, PA56, and PA124 was reduced to 5.4, 6.2, and 6.3 g/L. The PYC and ACL1 activities and their gene transcriptional levels in all the transformants were greatly enhanced compared to those in their wild-type strain ACA-DC 50109. During 10-L fermentation, lipid content in the transformant PA56 was 49.6 % (w/w) and the amount of secreted citric acid was 2.9 g/L. This meant that PYC and ACL1 can play an important role in accumulation of intracellular lipid of the oleaginous yeast Y. lipolytica ACA-DC 50109.

  9. Composition, quaternary structure, and catalytic properties of D-ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase from Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    McFadden, B A; Lord, J M; Rowe, A; Dilks, S

    1975-05-01

    D-Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase has been purified in one step by sedimenting extracts of autotrophically-grown Euglena gracilis into a linear 0.2-0.8 M sucrose density gradient. The resultant product was pure by the criteria of disc electrophoresis in gels polymerized from 5 or 7.5% acrylamide and sedimentation. The molecular weight of the enzyme estimated by density gradient centrifugation and electrophoresis in gels polymerized from various concentrations of acrylamide was 5.25 X 10(5). The S20,W was 16.4 S. Dissociation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate established that the enzyme was composed of two types of subunits (mr 50,000 and 15,000). The oligomeric structure was visualized through negative staining and transmission electron microscopy leading to a model for the quaternary structure. Although the enzyme was moderately unstable, the estimated maximal specific activity was 1.6 mumol CO2 fixed min-1 mg protien-1 at 30 degrees C and pH 8.0 Km values were 2.2 m M, 15. 1 MUM and 0.63 mM for Mg2+, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, and CO2, respectively, when measured under air. 6-Phospho-D-gluconate was a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (Ki = 0.04 mM). Oxygen was a competitive inhibitor with respect to CO2 suggesting that the enzyme was also an oxygenase. The latter was confirmed by experiments showing a molar equivalence between ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-dependent oxygen consumption and phosphoglycerate production.

  10. Overproduction of recombinant ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Synechococcus sp. strain PCC6301 in glucose-controlled high-cell-density fermentations by Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Kleman, G L; Horken, K M; Tabita, F R; Strohl, W R

    1996-01-01

    A predictive and feedback glucose feed controller, previously developed for nutrient-sufficient growth of Escherichia coli to high cell densities, was used to produce large quantities of a heterologous, cyanobacterial recombinant hexadecameric (L8S8) protein, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) in E. coli. Culture and plasmid stability conditions were optimized to yield the production of approximately 1 g of soluble, active recombinant RubisCO per liter. Recombinant RubisCO also was produced in lactose-induced high-cell-density fermentation of E. coli K-12. PMID:8795245

  11. Genes encoding the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Wei-Bo; Song, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Hong; Guan, Rong-Zhan; Wang, Jing-Qiao; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2011-03-01

    Comparative genomics is a useful tool to investigate gene and genome evolution. Biotin carboxylase (BC), an important subunit of heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) that is a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, catalyzes ATP, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and CO2 to form carboxybiotin carboxyl carrier protein. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding BC from Brassica napus L. (namely BnaC.BC.a, BnaC.BC.b, BnaA.BC.a, and BnaA.BC.b), and two were cloned from each of the two parental species Brassica rapa L. (BraA.BC.a and BraA.BC.b) and Brassica oleracea L. (BolC.BC.a and BolC.BC.b). Sequence analyses revealed that in B. napus the genes BnaC.BC.a and BnaC.BC.b were from the C genome of B. oleracea, whereas BnaA.BC.a and BnaA.BC.b were from the A genome of B. rapa. Comparative and cluster analysis indicated that these genes were divided into two major groups, BnaC.BC.a, BnaA.BC.a, BraA.BC.a, and BolC.BC.a in group-1 and BnaC.BC.b, BnaA.BC.b, BraA.BC.b, and BolC.BC.b in group-2. The divergence of group-1 and group-2 genes occurred in their common ancestor 13-17 million years ago (MYA), soon after the divergence of Arabidopsis and Brassica (15-20 MYA). This time of divergence is identical to the previously reported triplicated time of paralogous subgenomes of diploid Brassica species and the divergence date of group-1 and group-2 genes of α-carboxyltransferase, another subunit of heteromeric ACCase, in Brassica. Reverse transcription PCR revealed that the expression level of group-1 and group-2 genes varied in different organs, and the expression patterns of the two groups of genes were similar in different organs, except in flower. However, two paralogs of group-2 BC genes from B. napus could express differently in mature plants tested by generating BnaA.BC.b and BnaC.BC.b promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusions. The amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by these genes were highly conserved, except the sequence encoding

  12. Discovery of novel (4-piperidinyl)-piperazines as potent and orally active acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1/2 non-selective inhibitors: F-Boc and triF-Boc groups are acid-stable bioisosteres for the Boc group.

    PubMed

    Chonan, Tomomichi; Wakasugi, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Miyoko; Oi, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ohoka-Sugita, Ayumi; Io, Fusayo; Koretsune, Hiroko; Hiratate, Akira

    2011-03-01

    Novel (4-piperidinyl)-piperazine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as ACC1/2 non-selective inhibitors. Optimization of the substituents on the nitrogen of the piperidine ring led to the identification of the fluorine substituted tert-butoxycarbonyl group. Advanced analog, 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-methylpropan-2-yl 4-{4-[(2-amino-6-methyl-1-benzothiophen-3-yl)carbonyl]piperazin-1-yl}piperidine-1-carboxylate (12c) showed potent inhibitory activities in enzyme-assay and cell-based assays. Compound 12c also exhibited reduction of hepatic de novo fatty acid synthesis in rats after oral administration.

  13. Phosphorylation of bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase suggests a link between Ca2+ signalling and anaplerotic pathway control in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Hill, Allyson T; Ying, Sheng; Plaxton, William C

    2014-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the native protein kinase [BTPC (bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase)-K (BTPC Ser451 kinase)] that in vivo phosphorylates Ser451 of the BTPC subunits of an unusual Class-2 PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) carboxylase hetero-octameric complex of developing COS (castor oil seeds). COS BTPC-K was highly purified by PEG fractionation and hydrophobic size-exclusion anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. BTPC-K phosphorylated BTPC strictly at Ser451 (Km=1.0 μM; pH optimum=7.3), a conserved target residue occurring within an intrinsically disordered region, as well as the protein histone III-S (Km=1.7 μM), but not a COS plant-type PEP carboxylase or sucrose synthase or α-casein. Its activity was Ca2+- (K0.5=2.7 μM) and ATP- (Km=6.6 μM) dependent, and markedly inhibited by trifluoperazine, 3-phosphoglycerate and PEP, but insensitive to calmodulin or 14-3-3 proteins. BTPC-K exhibited a native molecular mass of ~63 kDa and was soluble rather than membrane-bound. Inactivation and reactivation occurred upon BTPC-K's incubation with GSSG and then DTT respectively. Ser451 phosphorylation by BTPC-K inhibited BTPC activity by ~50% when assayed under suboptimal conditions (pH 7.3, 1 mM PEP and 10 mM L-malate). Our collective results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca2+ signalling and anaplerotic flux control in developing COS.

  14. Effect of CO{sub 2} concentration on carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase expression in pea

    SciTech Connect

    Majeau, N.; Coleman, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of external CO{sub 2} concentration on the expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was examined in pea (Pisum sativum cv Little Marvel) leaves. Enzyme activities and their transcript levels were reduced in plants grown at 1000 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2} compared with plants grown in ambient air. Growth at 160 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2} also appeared to reduce steady-state transcript levels for the rbcS, the gene encoding the small subunit of Rubisco, and for ca, the gene encoding CA; however, rbcS transcripts were reduced to a greater extent at this concentration. Rubisco activity was slightly lower in plants grown at 160 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2}, and CA activity was significantly higher than that observed in air-grown plants. Transfer of plants from 1000 {mu}L/L to air levels of CO{sub 2} resulted in a rapid increase in both ca and rbcS transcript abundance in fully expanded leaves, followed by an increase in enzyme activity. Plants transferred from air to high-CO{sub 2} concentrations appeared to modulate transcript abundance and enzyme activity less quickly. Foliar carbohydrate levels were also examined in plants grown continuously at high and ambient CO{sub 2}, and following changes in growth conditions that rapidly altered ca and rbcS transcript abundance and enzyme activities. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Discovery of Small Molecule Isozyme Non-specific Inhibitors of Mammalian Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.; Freeman-Cook, K; Elliott, R; Vajdos, F; Rajamohan, F; Kohls, D; Marr, E; Harwood Jr., H; Esler, W; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Screening Pfizer's compound library resulted in the identification of weak acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors, from which were obtained rACC1 CT-domain co-crystal structures. Utilizing HTS hits and structure-based drug discovery, a more rigid inhibitor was designed and led to the discovery of sub-micromolar, spirochromanone non-specific ACC inhibitors. Low nanomolar, non-specific ACC-isozyme inhibitors that exhibited good rat pharmacokinetics were obtained from this chemotype.

  16. Discovery of small molecule isozyme non-specific inhibitors of mammalian acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Jeffrey W; Freeman-Cook, Kevin D; Elliott, Richard; Vajdos, Felix; Rajamohan, Francis; Kohls, Darcy; Marr, Eric; Zhang, Hailong; Tong, Liang; Tu, Meihua; Murdande, Sharad; Doran, Shawn D; Houser, Janet A; Song, Wei; Jones, Christopher J; Coffey, Steven B; Buzon, Leanne; Minich, Martha L; Dirico, Kenneth J; Tapley, Susan; McPherson, R Kirk; Sugarman, Eliot; Harwood, H James; Esler, William

    2010-04-01

    Screening Pfizer's compound library resulted in the identification of weak acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors, from which were obtained rACC1 CT-domain co-crystal structures. Utilizing HTS hits and structure-based drug discovery, a more rigid inhibitor was designed and led to the discovery of sub-micromolar, spirochromanone non-specific ACC inhibitors. Low nanomolar, non-specific ACC-isozyme inhibitors that exhibited good rat pharmacokinetics were obtained from this chemotype.

  17. Nitrate-Dependent Degradation of Acetone by Alicycliphilus and Paracoccus Strains and Comparison of Acetone Carboxylase Enzymes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dullius, Carlos Henrique; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Schink, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    A novel acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing bacterium, strain KN Bun08, was isolated from an enrichment culture with butanone and nitrate as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The cells were motile short rods, 0.5 to 1 by 1 to 2 μm in size, which gave Gram-positive staining results in the exponential growth phase and Gram-negative staining results in the stationary-growth phase. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was assigned to the genus Alicycliphilus. Besides butanone and acetone, the strain used numerous fatty acids as substrates. An ATP-dependent acetone-carboxylating enzyme was enriched from cell extracts of this bacterium and of Alicycliphilus denitrificans K601T by two subsequent DEAE Sepharose column procedures. For comparison, acetone carboxylases were enriched from two additional nitrate-reducing bacterial species, Paracoccus denitrificans and P. pantotrophus. The products of the carboxylase reaction were acetoacetate and AMP rather than ADP. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of cell extracts and of the various enzyme preparations revealed bands corresponding to molecular masses of 85, 78, and 20 kDa, suggesting similarities to the acetone carboxylase enzymes described in detail for the aerobic bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 (85.3, 78.3, and 19.6 kDa) and the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Protein bands were excised and compared by mass spectrometry with those of acetone carboxylases of aerobic bacteria. The results document the finding that the nitrate-reducing bacteria studied here use acetone-carboxylating enzymes similar to those of aerobic and phototrophic bacteria. PMID:21841031

  18. Regulation of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Expression in Second Leaves of Maize Seedlings from Low and High Yield Populations 1

    PubMed Central

    Loza-Tavera, Herminia; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar; Sánchez-de-Jiménez, Estela

    1990-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39) (Rubisco) activity, Rubisco-protein, and Rubisco large and small subunit gene (rbcL and rbcS) transcripts were measured at seven stages of development in the second leaf of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings belonging to low and high yield populations. During the three early stages of development, when the leaf has not yet expanded, it was determined that increments in Rubisco-activity were caused by increases in Rubisco-protein and its mRNAs. Afterward, the rbcS level decreased sharply down to nondetectable levels at the seventh stage, when the leaf was at the beginning of senescence. As a contrast, rbcL transcript decreased slowly and Rubisco-protein accumulated up to the fifth stage, when the leaf reached its maximum expansion. A slight decrease in Rubisco-protein was then observed. These results suggest that at early stages of development Rubisco-activity and Rubisco-protein are regulated mainly at the transcriptional level. At the later phase the regulation seems to be at other biochemical levels. Neither Rubisco activity nor Rubisco-protein showed correlation with yield for both maize populations at this stage of development. Slightly higher levels of both transcripts were observed in the high yield population. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 PMID:16667500

  19. Structural evidence for the involvement of the residues Ser187 and Tyr422 in substrate recognition in the 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pérez, César; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Rodríguez-Zavala, José Salud; Campos-García, Jesús

    2013-09-01

    The enzyme 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa-MCCase) is essential for the assimilation of leucine and acyclic monoterpenes. The structure of the Pa-MCCase was analysed by computational modelling to establish the molecular basis of substrate recognition. The active site is composed of two zones, which may play important roles in substrate recognition and catalysis. To further understand the interactions of the active site with the substrate, site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved residues S187 and R51 located in zone I, and F417, Y422 and G423 from zone II of the Pa-MCCase was carried out. The residue substitutions S187A and Y422D completely abolished the Pa-MCCase activity, whereas substitutions R51A, F417Y and G423A indicated that these residues are not essential. Interestingly, the residues R47, R51 and S187 form a well-defined pocket that may play important roles in substrate coupling to the Co-A motif. At zone one, mutation S187A was essential, but mutant R51A retained activity, suggesting that the R51 function could be relegated to neighbouring positive residues. Residue Y422 instead of contributing to substrate discrimination, it may participate in deprotonation of methyl group on MC-CoA, because it is located at adequate distances from the 3-methylcrotonyl-chain and carboxybiotin groups in the Pa-MCCase carboxylation site.

  20. Regulation of cyclic electron flow in C₃ plants: differential effects of limiting photosynthesis at ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Aaron K; Kanazawa, Atsuko; Cruz, Jeffrey A; Kramer, David M

    2010-11-01

    Cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF1) is thought to augment chloroplast ATP production to meet metabolic needs. Very little is known about the induction and regulation of CEF1. We investigated the effects on CEF1 of antisense suppression of the Calvin-Benson enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapR), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit (SSU), in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38). The gapR, but not ssuR, mutants showed substantial increases in CEF1, demonstrating that specific intermediates, rather than slowing of assimilation, induce CEF1. Both types of mutant showed increases in steady-state transthylakoid proton motive force (pmf) and subsequent activation of the photoprotective q(E) response. With gapR, the increased pmf was caused both by up-regulation of CEF1 and down-regulation of the ATP synthase. In ssuR, the increased pmf was attributed entirely to a decrease in ATP synthase activity, as previously seen in wild-type plants when CO₂ levels were decreased. Comparison of major stromal metabolites in gapR, ssuR and hcef1, a mutant with decreased fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase activity, showed that neither the ATP/ADP ratio, nor major Calvin-Benson cycle intermediates can directly account for the activation of CEF1, suggesting that chloroplast redox status or reactive oxygen species regulate CEF1.

  1. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene expression and diversity of Lake Erie planktonic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H; Tabita, F R

    1996-06-01

    Carbon dioxide fixation is carried out primarily through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle, in which ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is the key enzyme. The primary structure of the large subunit of form I RubisCO is well conserved; however, four distinct types, A, B, C, and D, may be distinguished, with types A and B and types C and D more closely related to one another. To better understand the environmental regulation of RubisCO in Lake Erie phytoplanktonic microorganisms, we have isolated total RNA and DNA from four Lake Erie sampling sites. Probes prepared from RubisCO large-subunit genes (rbcL) of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC6301 (representative of type IB) and the diatom Cylindrotheca sp. strain N1 (representative of type ID) were hybridized to the isolated RNA and DNA. To quantitate rbcL gene expression for each sample, the amount of gene expression per gene dose (i.e., the amount of mRNA divided by the amount of target DNA) was determined. With a limited number of sampling sites, it appeared that type ID (diatom) rbcL gene expression per gene dose decreased as the sampling sites shifted toward open water. By contrast, a similar trend was not observed for cyanobacterial (type IB) rbcL gene expression per gene dose. Complementary DNA specific for rbcL was synthesized from Lake Erie RNA samples and used as a template for PCR amplification of portions of various rbcL genes. Thus far, a total of 21 clones of rbcL genes derived from mRNA have been obtained and completely sequenced from the Ballast Island site. For surface water samples, deduced amino acid sequences of five of six clones appeared to be representative of green algae. In contrast, six of nine sequenced rbcL clones from 10-m-deep samples were of chromophytic and rhodophytic lineages. At 5 m deep, the active CO2-fixing planktonic organisms represented a diverse group, including organisms related to Chlorella ellipsoidea

  2. Characterization of the Mycobacterial Acyl-CoA Carboxylase Holo Complexes Reveals Their Functional Expansion into Amino Acid Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ehebauer, Matthias T.; Zimmermann, Michael; Jakobi, Arjen J.; Noens, Elke E.; Laubitz, Daniel; Cichocki, Bogdan; Marrakchi, Hedia; Lanéelle, Marie-Antoinette; Daffé, Mamadou; Sachse, Carsten; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Sauer, Uwe; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Biotin-mediated carboxylation of short-chain fatty acid coenzyme A esters is a key step in lipid biosynthesis that is carried out by multienzyme complexes to extend fatty acids by one methylene group. Pathogenic mycobacteria have an unusually high redundancy of carboxyltransferase genes and biotin carboxylase genes, creating multiple combinations of protein/protein complexes of unknown overall composition and functional readout. By combining pull-down assays with mass spectrometry, we identified nine binary protein/protein interactions and four validated holo acyl-coenzyme A carboxylase complexes. We investigated one of these - the AccD1-AccA1 complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with hitherto unknown physiological function. Using genetics, metabolomics and biochemistry we found that this complex is involved in branched amino-acid catabolism with methylcrotonyl coenzyme A as the substrate. We then determined its overall architecture by electron microscopy and found it to be a four-layered dodecameric arrangement that matches the overall dimensions of a distantly related methylcrotonyl coenzyme A holo complex. Our data argue in favor of distinct structural requirements for biotin-mediated γ-carboxylation of α−β unsaturated acid esters and will advance the categorization of acyl-coenzyme A carboxylase complexes. Knowledge about the underlying structural/functional relationships will be crucial to make the target category amenable for future biomedical applications. PMID:25695631

  3. RNA interference-based suppression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase results in susceptibility of rapeseed to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Tang, Yunlai; Zhang, Jingmei; Yang, Mingfeng; Xu, Yinong

    2010-06-01

    The diverse functions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase; EC 4.1.1.31) in C(3) plants are not as well understood as in C(4) plants. To investigate the functions of PEPCase in C(3) plants, rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) PEPCase gene (referred to as BNPE15) was silenced by the RNA interference (RNAi) technique. Under normal growth conditions, no significant difference in lipid content and fatty acid composition were found between wild-type (WT) and transgenic rapeseed plants. However, when these plants were subjected to osmotic stress induced by osmoticum polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000), membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidization in roots and leaves of transgenic plants were higher than those of WT plants. It suggested that transgenic plants are more susceptible to osmotic stress than WT plants. Taken together, the results showed that the suppression of PEPCase by RNAi leads to susceptibility to osmotic stress in rapeseed, and PEPCase is involved in the response of C(3) plants to environmental stress.

  4. The Molecular Basis of Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency: Mosaicism correlates with prolonged survival

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Yang, Hong; De Braganca, Kevin C.; Lu, Jiesheng; Yu Shih, Ling; Briones, Paz; De Vivo, Darryl C.

    2008-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) deficiency (OMIM, 266150) is a rare autosomal recessive disease. The revised PC gene structure described in this report consists of 20 coding exons and four non-coding exons at the 5’-untranslated region (5’-UTR). The gene codes for three transcripts due to alternative splicing: variant 1 (NM_000920.3), variant 2 (NM_022172.2) and variant 3 (BC011617.2). PC deficiency is manifested by three clinical phenotypes - an infantile form (Type A), a neonatal form (Type B), and a benign form (Type C). We report the molecular basis for eight cases (one Type A, five Type B and two Type C) of PC deficiency. Eight novel complex mutations were identified representing different combinations of missense mutations, deletions, a splice site substitution and a nonsense mutation. The classical phenotypes (A, B and C) correlated poorly with clinical outcomes. Mosaicism was found in five cases (one Type A, three Type B and one Type C) and four of these cases had prolonged survival. Death in the fifth case resulted from unrelated medical complications. The discrepancy between the current findings and the existing classification system should be addressed to accommodate these new observations. PMID:18676167

  5. Roots, cycles and leaves. Expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase gene family in soybean.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Stuart; Jenkins, Gareth I; Nimmo, Hugh G

    2004-08-01

    Phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc; EC 4.1.1.31) plays an important role in the control of central metabolism of higher plants. This phosphorylation is controlled largely at the level of expression of PEPc kinase (PPCK) genes. We have analyzed the expression of both PPCK genes and the PEPC genes that encode PEPc in soybean (Glycine max). Soybean contains at least four PPCK genes. We report the genomic and cDNA sequences of these genes and demonstrate the function of the gene products by in vitro expression and enzyme assays. For two of these genes, GmPPCK2 and GmPPCK3, transcript abundance is highest in nodules and is markedly influenced by supply of photosynthate from the shoots. One gene, GmPPCK4, is under robust circadian control in leaves but not in roots. Its transcript abundance peaks in the latter stages of subjective day, and its promoter contains a sequence very similar to the evening element found in Arabidopsis genes expressed at this time. We report the expression patterns of five PEPC genes, including one encoding a bacterial-type PEPc lacking the phosphorylation site of the plant-type PEPcs. The PEPc expression patterns do not match those of any of the PPCK genes, arguing against the existence of specific PEPc-PPCK expression partners. The PEPC and PPCK gene families in soybean are significantly more complex than previously understood.

  6. Inhibition of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase by two classes of grass-selective herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Rendina, A.R.; Craig-Kennard, A.C.; Beaudoin, J.D.; Breen, M.K. )

    1990-05-01

    The selective grass herbicides diclofop, haloxyfop, and trifop (((aryloxy)phenoxy)propionic acids) and alloxydim, sethoxydim, and clethodim (cyclohexanediones) are potent, reversible inhibitors of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) partially purified from barley, corn, and wheat. Although inhibition of the wheat enzyme by clethodim and diclofop is noncompetitive versus each of the substrates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), diclofop and clethodim are nearly competitive versus acetyl-CoA since the level of inhibition is most sensitive to the concentration of acetyl-CoA (K{sub is} < K{sub ii}). To conclusively show whether the herbicides interact at the biotin carboxylation site or the carboxyl transfer site, the inhibition of isotope exchange and partial reactions catalyzed at each site was studied with the wheat enzyme. Only the ({sup 14}C)acetyl-CoA-malonyl-CoA exchange and decarboxylation of ({sup 14}C)malonyl-CoA reactions are strongly inhibited by clethodim and diclofop, suggesting that the herbicides interfere with the carboxyl transfer site rather than the biotin carboxylation site of the enzyme. Double-inhibition studies with diclofop and clethodim suggest that the ((aryloxy)phenoxy)propionic acid and cyclohexanedione herbicides may bind to the same region of the enzyme.

  7. Consanguineous 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: early-onset necrotizing encephalopathy with lethal outcome.

    PubMed

    Baykal, T; Gokcay, G Huner; Ince, Z; Dantas, M F; Fowler, B; Baumgartner, M R; Demir, F; Can, G; Demirkol, M

    2005-01-01

    A patient with a severe neonatal variant of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is reported. The first child of healthy consanguineous Turkish parents presented on the second day of life with dehydration, cyanosis, no sucking, generalized muscular hypotonia, encephalopathy, respiratory depression requiring mechanic ventilation, macrocephaly, severe acidosis and hypoglycaemia. Elevated C5-OH-carnitine in dried blood spot by tandem MS and elevated urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine suggested MCC deficiency, confirmed by enzyme analysis in cultured fibroblasts. Cerebral ultrasonography and cranial CT findings revealed progressive changes such as disseminated encephalomalacia, cystic changes, ventricular dilatation and cerebral atrophy. Treatment with high-dose biotin and protein-restricted diet was ineffective and the patient died at the age of 33 days with progressive neurological deterioration. Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous mutation in the splice acceptor site of intron 15 in the MCC beta-subunit. Early-onset severe necrotizing encephalopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of isolated MCC deficiency.

  8. Molecular mechanism of dominant expression in 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, M R

    2005-01-01

    Most enzyme deficiencies in humans are inherited as autosomal recessive traits. The term dominant negative is applied to mutant alleles in which a mutant protein interferes in one way or another with the function of the normal protein being produced from the wild-type allele in a heterozygote. Such a dominant negative effect usually involves homomeric or heteromeric proteins. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) is a heteromeric mitochondrial enzyme comprised of biotin containing MCCalpha subunits and smaller MCCbeta subunits, encoded by the genes MCCA and MCCB, respectively. Mutations in these genes cause isolated MCC deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder with a variable phenotype ranging from severe neonatal to asymptomatic adult forms. Patients with MCC deficiency have a characteristic organic aciduria with greatly increased excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA) and 3-methylcrotonyl-glycine (3-MCG). Here, two patients with elevated excretion of 3-MCG and 3-HIVA and partial deficiency of MCC are discussed, one of them with severe neurological symptoms. Both showed evidence of biotin responsiveness and were heterozygous for the missense mutation MCCA-R385S. Evidence is presented that MCCA-R385S is a dominant negative allele leading to biochemical abnormalities and clinical symptoms in heterozygous individuals and that it is responsive to pharmacological doses of biotin in vivo.

  9. Glycine and L-carnitine therapy in 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, S L; Berry, G T; Stanley, C A; van Hove, J L; Millington, D

    1995-01-01

    Genetic deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (3-MCC) is a rare inborn error of leucine metabolism producing an organic acidaemia. With accumulation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, there is increased production of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, the glycine conjugate (3-methylcrotonylglycine), and the carnitine conjugate (3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine). The conjugates represent endogenous detoxification products. We studied excretion rates of these conjugates at baseline and with glycine and carnitine therapy in an 8-year-old girl with 3-MCC deficiency. Her preadmission diet was continued. Plasma and urine samples were obtained after 24 h of each of the following: L-carnitine 100 mg/kg per day and glycine 100, 175 and 250 mg/kg per day. Plasma and urinary carnitine levels were reduced by 80% and 50%, respectively with abnormal urinary excretion patterns. These normalized with carnitine therapy. Acylcarnitine excretion increased with carnitine therapy. The glycine conjugate, 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3-MCG), was the major metabolite excreted at all times and its excretion increased with glycine therapy. Clearly, in 3-MCC deficiency the available glycine and carnitine pools are not sufficient to meet the potential for conjugation of accumulated metabolites, suggesting a possible therapeutic role for glycine and carnitine therapy in this disorder.

  10. Immunocytochemical localization of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase in cultured ependymal, microglial and oligodendroglial cells.

    PubMed

    Murín, Radovan; Verleysdonk, Stephan; Rapp, Mirna; Hamprecht, Bernd

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the ability of ependymal, microglial and oligodendroglial cells to degrade leucine, the presence of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) was investigated in cultures of these cells. MCC is a biotin-containing heterodimeric enzyme that is specific for the irreversible part of the leucine catabolic pathway. It has been reported previously that in cell culture MCC is expressed in astrocytes and a subpopulation of neurones. In the present study ependymal, microglial and oligodendroglial cell cultures, derived from the brains of newborn rats, were examined for the expression of MCC by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The results of RT-PCR and western blotting showed the presence of mRNA as well as protein of both subunits of MCC in ependymal, microglial and oligodendroglial cell cultures. Immunocytochemical investigation of the cellular and subcellular distribution of MCC demonstrated a mitochondrial location of MCC in all neuroglial cell types investigated. The ubiquitous expression of MCC in glial cells demonstrates the ability of the cells to engage in the catabolism of leucine transported into the brain, mainly for the generation of energy.

  11. Novel mutations in five Japanese patients with 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Mitsugu; Sakamoto, Osamu; Sugawara, Noriko; Kumagai, Naonori; Morimoto, Tetsuji; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Hasegawa, Yuki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ihara, Kenji; Yoshino, Makoto; Watanabe, Yoriko; Inokuchi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Takato; Kiwaki, Kohji; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Endo, Fumio; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Ohura, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency appears to be the most frequent organic aciduria detected in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) screening programs in the United States, Australia, and Europe. A pilot study of newborn screening using MS/MS has recently been commenced in Japan. Our group detected two asymptomatic MCC deficiency patients by the pilot screening and collected data on another three MCC deficiency patients to study the molecular bases of the MCC deficiency in Japan. Molecular analyses revealed novel mutations in one of the causative genes, MCCA or MCCB, in all five of the patients: nonsense and frameshift mutations in MCCA (c.1750C > T/c.901_902delAA) in patient 1, nonsense and frameshift mutations in MCCB (c.1054_1055delGG/c.592C > T) in patient 2, frameshift and missense mutations in MCCB (c.1625_1626insGG/c.653_654CA > TT) in patient 3, a homozygous missense mutation in MCCA (c.1380T > G/ 1380T > G) in patient 4, and compound heterozygous missense mutations in MCCB (c.569A > G/ c.838G > T) in patient 5. No obvious clinical symptoms were observed in patients 1, 2, and 3. Patient 4 had severe neurological impairment and patient 5 developed Reye-like syndrome. The increasing use of MS/MS newborn screening in Japan will further clarify the clinical and genetic heterogeneity among patients with MCC deficiency in the Japanese population.

  12. The first case of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency responsive to biotin.

    PubMed

    Friebel, D; von der Hagen, M; Baumgartner, E R; Fowler, B; Hahn, G; Feyh, P; Heubner, G; Baumgartner, M R; Hoffmann, G F

    2006-04-01

    3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria is an inborn error of leucine catabolism with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance that results from a deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC). We report on a nine-year-old boy with severe psychomotor retardation who developed infantile spasms at the age of three weeks. Urine analysis at the age of two years revealed massive 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria and 3-hydroxyisovaleric aciduria suggesting MCC deficiency. Carnitine serum levels were decreased. Biotin therapy led to a dramatic decrease in the frequency of seizures, disappearance of hypsarrhythmia, and near normalisation of organic aciduria. Four months later a protein-restricted diet was introduced in addition and the boy remained clinically and metabolically stable. However, severe psychomotor delay persisted, and the seizures partially reoccurred. Biochemical findings showed partial MCC deficiency in cultured fibroblasts. Molecular genetic studies revealed a heterozygote missense mutation, MCCA-R385S, converting arginine to serine in a highly conserved region of the MCCA gene. This is the first patient with MCC deficiency caused by a heterozygote mutation and who demonstrated a substantial and sustained clinical and biochemical response to therapeutic doses of biotin. Sadly, this patient again also demonstrates that the main determinant of the outcome of even easily treatable metabolic diseases is timely diagnosis.

  13. A mutation affecting carbon catabolite repression suppresses growth defects in pyruvate carboxylase mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, M A; Gamo, F J; Gancedo, C

    1995-12-18

    Yeasts with disruptions in the genes PYC1 and PYC2 encoding the isoenzymes of pyruvate carboxylase cannot grow in a glucose-ammonium medium (Stucka et al. (1991) Mol. Gen. Genet. 229, 307-315). We have isolated a dominant mutation, BPC1-1, that allows growth in this medium of yeasts with interrupted PYC1 and PYC2 genes. The BPC1-1 mutation abolishes catabolite repression of a series of genes and allows expression of the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle during growth in glucose. A functional glyoxylate cycle is necessary for suppression as a disruption of gene ICL1 encoding isocitrate lyase abolished the phenotypic effect of BPC1-1 on growth in glucose-ammonium. Concurrent expression from constitutive promoters of genes ICL1 and MLS1 (encoding malate synthase) also suppressed the growth phenotype of pyc1 pyc2 mutants. The mutation BPC1-1 is either allelic or closely linked to the mutation DGT1-1.

  14. Regulation of synthesis of pyruvate carboxylase in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Yakunin, A F; Hallenbeck, P C

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) was studied by using quantitative immunoblot analysis with an antibody raised against PC purified from Rhodobacter capsulatus and was found to vary 20-fold depending on the growth conditions. The PC content was high in cells grown on pyruvate or on carbon substrates metabolized via pyruvate (lactate, D-malate, glucose, or fructose) and low in cells grown on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates or substrates metabolized without intermediate formation of pyruvate (acetate or glutamate). Under dark aerobic growth conditions with lactate as a carbon source, the PC content was approximately twofold higher than that found under light anaerobic growth conditions. The results of incubation experiments demonstrate that PC synthesis is induced by pyruvate and repressed by TCA cycle intermediates, with negative control dominating over positive control. The content of PC in R. capsulatus cells was also directly related to the growth rate in continuous cultures. The analysis of intracellular levels of pyruvate and TCA cycle intermediates in cells grown under different conditions demonstrated that the content of PC is directly proportional to the ratio between pyruvate and C4 dicarboxylates. These results suggest that the regulation of PC synthesis by oxygen and its direct correlation with growth rate may reflect effects on the balance of intracellular pyruvate and C4 dicarboxylates. Thus, this important enzyme is potentially regulated both allosterically and at the level of synthesis. PMID:9045800

  15. Soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit: Mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, R.B.

    1993-12-31

    An in vitro degradation system has been developed from petunia and soybean polysomes in order to investigate the mechanisms and determinants controlling RNA turnover in higher plants. This system faithfully degrades soybean ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS) mRNA into the same products observed in total RNA preparations. In previous years it was shown that the most stable products represent a nested constellation of fragments, which are shortened from their 3{prime} ends, and have intact 5{prime} ends. Exogenous rbcS RNA tagged with novel 5{prime} sequence 15 or 56 bp long were synthesized in vitro as Sp6 and T7 runoff transcripts, respectively. When added to the system they were degraded faithfully into constellation of products which were 15 or 56 bp longer than the endogenous products, respectively. Detailed kinetics on the appearance of these exogenous products confirmed degradation proceeds in an overall 3{prime} to 5{prime} direction but suggested that there are multiple pathways through which the RNA may be degraded. To further demonstrate a precursor product relationships, in vitro synthesized transcripts truncated at their 3{prime} ends were shown to degrade into the expected smaller fragments previously mapped in the 5{prime} portion of the rbcS RNA.

  16. Photosynthetic Induction State of Leaves in a Soybean Canopy in Relation to Light Regulation of Ribulose-1-5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase and Stomatal Conductance 1

    PubMed Central

    Pearcy, Robert W.; Seemann, Jeffrey R.

    1990-01-01

    Photosynthetic induction state, stomatal conductance and light regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) were examined for leaves in a mature, closed soybean (Glycine max) canopy (leaf area index approximately 5) with the objective to determine the extent to which these factors may be limiting the capacity to respond to light transients during sunflecks. When sampled along a vertical gradient, leaves near the bottom of the canopy had lower rubisco contents and chlorophyll a/b ratios as compared with upper leaves. Leaves sampled at midcanopy showed a wide variation in photosynthetic induction state (ratio of the photosynthetic rate achieved after 1 minute exposure to high light to the steady-state assimilation rate achieved after 20 minutes exposure). Both photosynthetic induction state and the initial rubisco activity varied in parallel with stomatal conductance. By contrast there was no correlation between total rubisco activity and stomatal conductance. The results indicate that induction state, as determined by the light regulation of both rubisco activity and stomatal conductance, is an important limitation to the ability of leaves in a soybean canopy to respond to light transients that occur during sunflecks. PMID:16667758

  17. Sequence analysis of the Alcaligenes eutrophus chromosomally encoded ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large and small subunit genes and their gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, K; Caton, J

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the chromosomally encoded ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) large (rbcL) and small (rbcS) subunit genes of the hydrogen bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17707 was determined. We found that the two coding regions are separated by a 47-base-pair intergenic region, and both genes are preceded by plausible ribosome-binding sites. Cotranscription of the rbcL and rbcS genes has been demonstrated previously. The rbcL and rbcS genes encode polypeptides of 487 and 135 amino acids, respectively. Both genes exhibited similar codon usage which was highly biased and different from that of other organisms. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of both subunit proteins was determined by Edman degradation. No processing of the rbcS protein was detected, while the rbcL protein underwent a posttranslational loss of formylmethionyl. The A. eutrophus rbcL and rbcS proteins exhibited 56.8 to 58.3% and 35.6 to 38.5% amino acid sequence homology, respectively, with the corresponding proteins from cyanobacteria, eucaryotic algae, and plants. The A. eutrophus and Rhodospirillum rubrum rbcL proteins were only about 32% homologous. The N- and C-terminal sequences of both the rbcL and the rbcS proteins were among the most divergent regions. Known or proposed active site residues in other rbcL proteins, including Lys, His, Arg, and Asp residues, were conserved in the A. eutrophus enzyme. The A. eutrophus rbcS protein, like those of cyanobacteria, lacks a 12-residue internal sequence that is found in plant RuBPCase. Comparison of hydropathy profiles and secondary structure predictions by the method described by Chou and Fasman (P. Y. Chou and G. D. Fasman, Adv. Enzymol. 47:45-148, 1978) revealed striking similarities between A. eutrophus RuBPCase and other hexadecameric enzymes. This suggests that folding of the polypeptide chains is similar. The observed sequence homologies were consistent with the notion that both the rbcL and rbcS genes of the

  18. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Roots and Nodules of Alnus glutinosa: I. Role of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase in Dark CO(2) Fixation, Citrulline Synthesis, and N(2) Fixation.

    PubMed

    McClure, P R; Coker, G T; Schubert, K R

    1983-03-01

    Detached roots and nodules of the N(2)-fixing species, Albus glutinosa (European black alder), actively assimilate CO(2). The maximum rates of dark CO(2) fixation observed for detached nodules and roots were 15 and 3 micromoles CO(2) fixed per gram dry weight per hour, respectively. The net incorporation of CO(2) in these tissues was catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase which produces organic acids, some of which are used in the synthesis of the amino acids, aspartate, glutamate, and citrulline and by carbamyl phosphate synthetase. The latter accounts for approximately 30 to 40% of the CO(2) fixed and provides carbamyl phosphate for the synthesis of citrulline. Results of labeling studies suggest that there are multiple pools of malate present in nodules. The major pool is apparently metabolically inactive and of unknown function while the smaller pool is rapidly utilized in the synthesis of amino acids. Dark CO(2) fixation and N(2) fixation in nodules decreased after treatment of nodulated plants with nitrate while the percentage of the total (14)C incorporated into organic acids increased. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase play key roles in the synthesis of amino acids including citrulline and in the metabolism of N(2)-fixing nodules and roots of alder. PMID:16662882

  19. Salinity and Nitrogen Effects on Photosynthesis, Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase and Metabolite Pool Sizes in Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Seemann, Jeffrey R.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    1986-01-01

    Salinity (100 millimolar NaCl) was found to reduce photosynthetic capacity independent of stomatal closure in Phaseolus vulgaris. This reduction was shown to be a consequence of a reduction in the efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase (RuBPCase) rather than a reduction in the leaf content of photosynthetic machinery. In control plants, photosynthesis became RuBP-limited at approximately 1.75 moles RuBP per mole 2-carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate binding sites. Salinization caused the RuBP pool size to reach this limiting value for CO2 fixation at much lower values of intercellular CO2. Plants grown at low nitrogen and ± NaCl became RuBP limited at similar RuBP pool sizes as the high nitrogen-grown plants. At limiting RuBP pool sizes and equal values of intercellular CO2 photosynthetic capacity of salt-stressed plants was less than control plants. This effect of salinity on RuBPCase activity could not be explained by deactivation of the enzyme or inhibitor synthesis. Thus, salinity reduced photosynthetic capacity by reducing both the RuBP pool size by an effect on RuBP regeneration capacity and RuBPCase activity by an unknown mechanism when RuBP was limiting. PMID:16665066

  20. The MDM2–p53–pyruvate carboxylase signalling axis couples mitochondrial metabolism to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomu; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Liu, Zhuohao; Yang, Jin-Kui; Wang, Baile; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Yawen; Hallenborg, Philip; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Lam, Karen S. L.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Gao, Xin; Xu, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is pivotal for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells. However, little is known about the molecular machinery that controls the homeostasis of intermediary metabolites in mitochondria. Here we show that the activation of p53 in β-cells, by genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of its negative regulator MDM2, impairs GSIS, leading to glucose intolerance in mice. Mechanistically, p53 activation represses the expression of the mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC), resulting in diminished production of the TCA cycle intermediates oxaloacetate and NADPH, and impaired oxygen consumption. The defective GSIS and mitochondrial metabolism in MDM2-null islets can be rescued by restoring PC expression. Under diabetogenic conditions, MDM2 and p53 are upregulated, whereas PC is reduced in mouse β-cells. Pharmacological inhibition of p53 alleviates defective GSIS in diabetic islets by restoring PC expression. Thus, the MDM2–p53–PC signalling axis links mitochondrial metabolism to insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis, and could represent a therapeutic target in diabetes. PMID:27265727

  1. Regulating Pyruvate Carboxylase in the Living Culture of Aspergillus Terreus Nrrl 1960 by L-Aspartate for Enhanced Itaconic Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Songserm, Pajareeya; Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Tolieng, Vasana; Piluk, Jiraporn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Assabumrungrat, Sutthichai; Yang, Shang-Tian; Karnchanatat, Aphichart; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus terreus was reported as the promising fungal strain for itaconic acid; however, the commercial production suffers from the low yield. Low production yield was claimed as the result of completing the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle towards biomass synthesis while under limiting phosphate and nitrogen; TCA cycle was somewhat shunted and consequently, the metabolite fluxes move towards itaconic acid production route. By regulating enzymes in TCA cycle, it is believed that itaconic acid production can be improved. One of the key responsible enzymes involved in itaconic acid production was triggered in this study. Pyruvate carboxylase was allosterically inhibited by L-aspartate. The presence of 10 mM L-aspartate in the production medium directly repressed PC expression in the living A. terreus while the limited malate flux regulated the malate/citrate antiporters resulting in the increasing cis-aconitate decarboxylase activity to simultaneously convert cis-aconitate, citrate isomer, into itaconic acid. The transport of cis-aconitate via the antiporters induced citrate synthase and 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase activities in response to balance the fluxes of TCA intermediates. Successively, itaconic acid production yield and final concentration could be improved by 8.33 and 60.32 %, respectively, compared to those obtained from the control fermentation with the shortened lag time to produce itaconic acid during the production phase.

  2. Maternal Obesity Reduces Milk Lipid Production in Lactating Mice by Inhibiting Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase and Impairing Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Saben, Jessica L.; Bales, Elise S.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Orlicky, David; MacLean, Paul S.; McManaman, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal metabolic and nutrient trafficking adaptations to lactation differ among lean and obese mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. Obesity is thought to impair milk lipid production, in part, by decreasing trafficking of dietary and de novo synthesized lipids to the mammary gland. Here, we report that de novo lipogenesis regulatory mechanisms are disrupted in mammary glands of lactating HF-fed obese (HF-Ob) mice. HF feeding decreased the total levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC), and this effect was exacerbated in obese mice. The relative levels of phosphorylated (inactive) ACC, were elevated in the epithelium, and decreased in the adipose stroma, of mammary tissue from HF-Ob mice compared to those of HF-fed lean (HF-Ln) mice. Mammary gland levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which catalyzes formation of inactive ACC, were also selectively elevated in mammary glands of HF-Ob relative to HF-Ln dams or to low fat fed dams. These responses correlated with evidence of increased lipid retention in mammary adipose, and decreased lipid levels in mammary epithelial cells, of HF-Ob dams. Collectively, our data suggests that maternal obesity impairs milk lipid production, in part, by disrupting the balance of de novo lipid synthesis in the epithelial and adipose stromal compartments of mammary tissue through processes that appear to be related to increased mammary gland AMPK activity, ACC inhibition, and decreased fatty acid synthesis. PMID:24849657

  3. Maternal obesity reduces milk lipid production in lactating mice by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase and impairing fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Saben, Jessica L; Bales, Elise S; Jackman, Matthew R; Orlicky, David; MacLean, Paul S; McManaman, James L

    2014-01-01

    Maternal metabolic and nutrient trafficking adaptations to lactation differ among lean and obese mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. Obesity is thought to impair milk lipid production, in part, by decreasing trafficking of dietary and de novo synthesized lipids to the mammary gland. Here, we report that de novo lipogenesis regulatory mechanisms are disrupted in mammary glands of lactating HF-fed obese (HF-Ob) mice. HF feeding decreased the total levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC), and this effect was exacerbated in obese mice. The relative levels of phosphorylated (inactive) ACC, were elevated in the epithelium, and decreased in the adipose stroma, of mammary tissue from HF-Ob mice compared to those of HF-fed lean (HF-Ln) mice. Mammary gland levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which catalyzes formation of inactive ACC, were also selectively elevated in mammary glands of HF-Ob relative to HF-Ln dams or to low fat fed dams. These responses correlated with evidence of increased lipid retention in mammary adipose, and decreased lipid levels in mammary epithelial cells, of HF-Ob dams. Collectively, our data suggests that maternal obesity impairs milk lipid production, in part, by disrupting the balance of de novo lipid synthesis in the epithelial and adipose stromal compartments of mammary tissue through processes that appear to be related to increased mammary gland AMPK activity, ACC inhibition, and decreased fatty acid synthesis.

  4. Status of the substrate binding sites of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase as determined with 2-C-carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate. [Spinacia oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Genhai; Jensen, R.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The properties of the tight and specific binding of 2-C-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate (CABP), which occurs only to reaction sites of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) that are activated by CO{sub 2} and Mg{sup 2+}, were studied. With fully active purified spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Rubisco the rate of tight binding of ({sup 14}C)CABP fit a multiple exponential rate equation with half of the sites binding with a rate constant of 40 per minute and the second half of the sites binding at 3.2 per minute. This suggests that after CABP binds to one site of a dimer of Rubisco large subunits, binding to the second site is considerably slower, indicating negative cooperativity as previously reported. The rate of CABP binding to partially activated Rubisco was complete within 2 to 5 minutes, with slower binding to inactive sites as they formed the carbamate and bound Mg{sup 2+}. Addition of ({sup 14}C)CABP and EDTA stopped binding of Mg{sup 2+} and allowed tight binding of the radiolabel only to sites which were CO{sub 2}/Mg{sup 2+}-activated at that moment. The rate of CO{sub 2} fixation was proportional to the CO{sub 2}/Mg{sup 2+}-activated sites. During light-dependent CO{sub 2} fixation with isolated spinach chloroplasts, the amount of carbamylation was proportional to Rubisco activity either initially upon lysis of the plastids or following total activation with Mg{sup 2+} and CO{sub 2}. Lysis of chloroplasts in media with ({sup 14}C)CABP plus EDTA estimated those carbamylated sites having Mg{sup 2+}. The loss of Rubisco activation during illumination was partially due to the lack of Mg{sup 2+} to stabilize the carbamylated sites.

  5. Multiple inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfers in the evolution of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yingmei; Cai, Jing; Wang, Wen; Su, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Pepcase is a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase that exists in bacteria, archaea and plants,playing an important role in plant metabolism and development. Most plants have two or more pepcase genes belonging to two gene sub-families, while only one gene exists in other organisms. Previous research categorized one plant pepcase gene as plant-type pepcase (PTPC) while the other as bacteria-type pepcase (BTPC) because of its similarity with the pepcase gene found in bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that PTPC is the ancestral lineage of plant pepcase, and that all bacteria, protistpepcase and BTPC in plants are derived from a lineage of pepcase closely related with PTPC in algae. However, their phylogeny contradicts the species tree and traditional chronology of organism evolution. Because the diversification of bacteria occurred much earlier than the origin of plants, presumably all bacterialpepcase derived from the ancestral PTPC of algal plants after divergingfrom the ancestor of vascular plant PTPC. To solve this contradiction, we reconstructed the phylogeny of pepcase gene family. Our result showed that both PTPC and BTPC are derived from an ancestral lineage of gamma-proteobacteriapepcases, possibly via an ancient inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria to the eukaryotic common ancestor of plants, protists and cellular slime mold. Our phylogenetic analysis also found 48other pepcase genes originated from inter-kingdom HGTs. These results imply that inter-kingdom HGTs played important roles in the evolution of the pepcase gene family and furthermore that HGTsare a more frequent evolutionary event than previouslythought. PMID:23251445

  6. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum. PMID:26168906

  7. Despite slow catalysis and confused substrate specificity, all ribulose bisphosphate carboxylases may be nearly perfectly optimized

    PubMed Central

    Tcherkez, Guillaume G. B.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Andrews, T. John

    2006-01-01

    The cornerstone of autotrophy, the CO2-fixing enzyme, d-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), is hamstrung by slow catalysis and confusion between CO2 and O2 as substrates, an “abominably perplexing” puzzle, in Darwin's parlance. Here we argue that these characteristics stem from difficulty in binding the featureless CO2 molecule, which forces specificity for the gaseous substrate to be determined largely or completely in the transition state. We hypothesize that natural selection for greater CO2/O2 specificity, in response to reducing atmospheric CO2:O2 ratios, has resulted in a transition state for CO2 addition in which the CO2 moiety closely resembles a carboxylate group. This maximizes the structural difference between the transition states for carboxylation and the competing oxygenation, allowing better differentiation between them. However, increasing structural similarity between the carboxylation transition state and its carboxyketone product exposes the carboxyketone to the strong binding required to stabilize the transition state and causes the carboxyketone intermediate to bind so tightly that its cleavage to products is slowed. We assert that all Rubiscos may be nearly perfectly adapted to the differing CO2, O2, and thermal conditions in their subcellular environments, optimizing this compromise between CO2/O2 specificity and the maximum rate of catalytic turnover. Our hypothesis explains the feeble rate enhancement displayed by Rubisco in processing the exogenously supplied carboxyketone intermediate, compared with its nonenzymatic hydrolysis, and the positive correlation between CO2/O2 specificity and 12C/13C fractionation. It further predicts that, because a more product-like transition state is more ordered (decreased entropy), the effectiveness of this strategy will deteriorate with increasing temperature. PMID:16641091

  8. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum.

  9. Epigenetic regulation of pyruvate carboxylase gene expression in the postpartum liver.

    PubMed

    Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Henty, K M; Handley, R R; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; White, H M; Donkin, S S; Snell, R G; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Loor, J J; Mitchell, M D; Roche, J R

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential for maintenance of whole body glucose homeostasis and glucose supply for mammary lactose synthesis in the dairy cow. Upregulation of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) during the transition period is vital in the adaptation to the greater glucose demands associated with peripartum lactogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine if PC transcription in hepatocytes is regulated by DNA methylation and if treatment with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) alters methylation of an upstream DNA sequence defined as promoter 1. Dairy cows were left untreated (n=20), or treated with a NSAID during the first 5 d postcalving (n=20). Liver was biopsied at d 7 precalving and d 7, 14, and 28 postcalving. Total PC and transcript specific gene expression was quantified using quantitative PCR and DNA methylation of promoter 1 was quantified using bisulfite Sanger sequencing. Expression of PC changed over the transition period, with increased expression postcalving occurring concurrently with increased circulating concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. The DNA methylation percentage was variable at all sites quantified and ranged from 21 to 54% across the 15 CpG dinucleotides within promoter 1. The DNA methylation at wk 1 postcalving, however, was not correlated with gene expression of promoter 1-regulated transcripts and we did not detect an effect of NSAID treatment on DNA methylation or PC gene expression. Our results do not support a role for DNA methylation in regulating promoter 1-driven gene expression of PC at wk 1 postcalving. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms regulating increased PC expression over the transition period. PMID:27085418

  10. Multiple inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfers in the evolution of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yingmei; Cai, Jing; Wang, Wen; Su, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Pepcase is a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase that exists in bacteria, archaea and plants,playing an important role in plant metabolism and development. Most plants have two or more pepcase genes belonging to two gene sub-families, while only one gene exists in other organisms. Previous research categorized one plant pepcase gene as plant-type pepcase (PTPC) while the other as bacteria-type pepcase (BTPC) because of its similarity with the pepcase gene found in bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that PTPC is the ancestral lineage of plant pepcase, and that all bacteria, protistpepcase and BTPC in plants are derived from a lineage of pepcase closely related with PTPC in algae. However, their phylogeny contradicts the species tree and traditional chronology of organism evolution. Because the diversification of bacteria occurred much earlier than the origin of plants, presumably all bacterialpepcase derived from the ancestral PTPC of algal plants after divergingfrom the ancestor of vascular plant PTPC. To solve this contradiction, we reconstructed the phylogeny of pepcase gene family. Our result showed that both PTPC and BTPC are derived from an ancestral lineage of gamma-proteobacteriapepcases, possibly via an ancient inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria to the eukaryotic common ancestor of plants, protists and cellular slime mold. Our phylogenetic analysis also found 48other pepcase genes originated from inter-kingdom HGTs. These results imply that inter-kingdom HGTs played important roles in the evolution of the pepcase gene family and furthermore that HGTsare a more frequent evolutionary event than previouslythought.

  11. Transcription control of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activase and adjacent genes in Anabaena species.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L A; Tabita, F R

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) activase (rca) was uniformly localized downstream from the genes encoding the large and small subunits of RubisCO (rbcL and rbcS) in three strains of Anabaena species. However, two open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), situated between rbcS and rca in Anabaena sp. strain CA, were not found in the intergenic region of Anabaena variabilis and Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. During autotrophic growth of Anabaena cells, rca and rbc transcripts accumulated in the light and diminished in the dark; light-dependent expression of these genes was not affected by the nitrogen source and the concentration of exogenous CO2 supplied to the cells. When grown on fructose, rca- and rbc-specific transcripts accumulated in A. variabilis regardless of whether the cells were illuminated. Transcript levels, however, were much lower in dark-grown heterotrophic cultures than in photoheterotrophic cultures. In photoheterotrophic cultures, the expression of the rca and rbc genes was similar to that in cultures grown with CO2 as the sole source of carbon. Although the rbcL-rbcS and rca genes are linked and are in the same transcriptional orientation in Anabaena strains, hybridization of rbc and rca to distinct transcripts suggested that these genes are not cotranscribed, consistent with the results of primer extension and secondary structure analysis of the nucleotide sequence. Transcription from ORF1 and ORF2 was not detected under the conditions examined, and the function of these putative genes remains unknown. Images PMID:7961423

  12. Multiple Inter-Kingdom Horizontal Gene Transfers in the Evolution of the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Su, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Pepcase is a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase that exists in bacteria, archaea and plants,playing an important role in plant metabolism and development. Most plants have two or more pepcase genes belonging to two gene sub-families, while only one gene exists in other organisms. Previous research categorized one plant pepcase gene as plant-type pepcase (PTPC) while the other as bacteria-type pepcase (BTPC) because of its similarity with the pepcase gene found in bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that PTPC is the ancestral lineage of plant pepcase, and that all bacteria, protistpepcase and BTPC in plants are derived from a lineage of pepcase closely related with PTPC in algae. However, their phylogeny contradicts the species tree and traditional chronology of organism evolution. Because the diversification of bacteria occurred much earlier than the origin of plants, presumably all bacterialpepcase derived from the ancestral PTPC of algal plants after divergingfrom the ancestor of vascular plant PTPC. To solve this contradiction, we reconstructed the phylogeny of pepcase gene family. Our result showed that both PTPC and BTPC are derived from an ancestral lineage of gamma-proteobacteriapepcases, possibly via an ancient inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria to the eukaryotic common ancestor of plants, protists and cellular slime mold. Our phylogenetic analysis also found 48other pepcase genes originated from inter-kingdom HGTs. These results imply that inter-kingdom HGTs played important roles in the evolution of the pepcase gene family and furthermore that HGTsare a more frequent evolutionary event than previouslythought. PMID:23251445

  13. Ribulose 1,5-Diphosphate Carboxylase Synthesis in Euglena: II. Effect of Inhibitors on Enzyme Synthesis during Regreening and Subsequent Transfer to Darkness.

    PubMed

    Lord, J M; Armitage, T L; Merrett, M J

    1975-11-01

    Dark-grown Euglena gracilis Klebs strain Z Pringsheim cells, which have been partially regreened in the light, show a striking, continued synthesis of the chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase on transfer back into darkness. This dark synthesis of the enzyme was completely prevented by the addition of 15 mug/ml of cycloheximide to the culture medium but was unaffected, for at least 8 hours, by the addition of 1 mg/ml of d-threo-chloramphenicol. The addition of either cycloheximide or d-threo-chloramphenicol to dark-grown cultures at the onset of illumination completely inhibited the light-induced synthesis of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase. When cells which had been illuminated in the presence of d-threo-chloramphenicol, and hence were unable to synthesize ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase, were transferred to darkness in the absence of this inhibitor, synthesis of the carboxylase then occurred. Dark-grown cells which had been illuminated in the presence of cycloheximide failed to synthesize the enzyme when placed in the dark in the absence of cycloheximide. The addition of 5-fluorouracil to regreening cultures to prevent light-induced transcriptional steps completely blocked the synthesis of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase.

  14. In vitro synthesis and processing of a maize chloroplast transcript encoded by the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hanley-Bowdoin, L; Orozco, E M; Chua, N H

    1985-01-01

    The large subunit gene (rbcL) of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase was transcribed in vitro by using maize and pea chloroplast extracts and a cloned plastid DNA template containing 172 base pairs (bp) of the maize rbcL protein-coding region and 791 bp of upstream sequences. Three major in vitro RNA species were synthesized which correspond to in vivo maize rbcL RNAs with 5' termini positioned 300, 100 to 105, and 63 nucleotides upstream of the protein-coding region. A deletion of 109 bp, including the "-300" 5' end (the 5' end at position -300), depressed all rbcL transcription in vitro. A plasmid DNA containing this 109-bp fragment was sufficient to direct correct transcription initiation in vitro. A cloned template, containing 191 bp of plastid DNA which includes the -105 and -63 rbcL termini, did not support transcription in vitro. Exogenously added -300 RNA could be converted to the -63 transcript by maize chloroplast extract. These results established that the -300 RNA is the primary maize rbcL transcript, the -63 RNA is a processed form of the -300 transcript, and synthesis of the -105 RNA is dependent on the -300 region. The promoter for the maize rbcL gene is located within the 109 bp flanking the -300 site. Mutagenesis of the 109-bp chloroplast sequence 11 bp upstream of the -300 transcription initiation site reduced rbcL promoter activity in vitro. Images PMID:2874479

  15. Increased expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in the valproic acid model of autism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianling; Wu, Wei; Fu, Yingmei; Yu, Shunying; Cui, Donghong; Zhao, Min; Du, Yasong; Li, Jijun; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in enzymes associated with fatty acid synthesis, namely fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the valproic acid (VPA)-induced animal model of autism. In this model, pregnant rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of VPA, and prefrontal cortex and cerebellum samples from their pups were analyzed. The results of western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that the protein and mRNA expression levels of FASN, ACC and phospho-ACC (pACC) were increased in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the VPA model of autism. Furthermore, in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the VPA model of autism, AMPK expression is increased, whereas PI3K and Akt expression are unchanged. This suggests that disorder of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/FASN and/or adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/ACC pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism. It is hypothesized that fatty acid synthesis participates in autism through PI3K/Akt/FASN and AMPK/ACC pathways. PMID:27602061

  16. Increased expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in the valproic acid model of autism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianling; Wu, Wei; Fu, Yingmei; Yu, Shunying; Cui, Donghong; Zhao, Min; Du, Yasong; Li, Jijun; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in enzymes associated with fatty acid synthesis, namely fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the valproic acid (VPA)-induced animal model of autism. In this model, pregnant rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of VPA, and prefrontal cortex and cerebellum samples from their pups were analyzed. The results of western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that the protein and mRNA expression levels of FASN, ACC and phospho-ACC (pACC) were increased in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the VPA model of autism. Furthermore, in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the VPA model of autism, AMPK expression is increased, whereas PI3K and Akt expression are unchanged. This suggests that disorder of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/FASN and/or adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/ACC pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism. It is hypothesized that fatty acid synthesis participates in autism through PI3K/Akt/FASN and AMPK/ACC pathways.

  17. Residues in three conserved regions of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase are required for quaternary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fitchen, J.H.; McIntosh, L. ); Knight, S.; Andersson, I.; Branden, C.I. )

    1990-08-01

    To explore the role of individual residues in the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, small subunits with single amino acid substitutions in three regions of relative sequence conservation were produced by directed mutagenesis of the rbcS gene from Anabaena 7120. These altered small subunits were cosythesized with large subunits (from an expressed Anabaena rbcL gene) in Escherichia coli. Mutants were analyzed for effects on quaternary structure and catalytic activity. Changing Glu-13S (numbering used is that of the spinach enzyme) to Val, Trp-67S to Arg, Pro-73S to His, or Tyr-98S to Asn prevented accumulation of stable holoenzyme. Interpretation of these results using a model for the three-dimensional structure of the spinach enzyme based on x-ray crystallographic data suggests that our small subunit mutants containing substitutions at positions 13S and 67S probably do not assemble because of mispairing or nonpairing of charged residues on the interfacing surfaces of the large and small subunits. The failure of small subunits substituted at positions 73S or 98S to assemble correctly may result from disruption of intersubunit or intrasubunit hydrophobic pockets, respectively.

  18. Neurochemical evidence that the metabolites accumulating in 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency induce oxidative damage in cerebral cortex of young rats.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Ângela; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Knebel, Lisiane Aurélio; Grings, Mateus; Lobato, Vannessa Araújo; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Wajner, Moacir

    2013-01-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3MCCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine metabolism biochemically characterized by accumulation of 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3MCG), 3-methylcrotonic acid (3MCA) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid. A considerable number of affected individuals present neurological symptoms with or without precedent crises of metabolic decompensation and brain abnormalities whose pathogenesis is poorly known. We investigated the in vitro effects of 3MCG and 3MCA on important parameters of oxidative stress in cerebral cortex of young rats. 3MCG and 3MCA significantly increased TBA-RS and carbonyl formation, indicating that these compounds provoke lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. In contrast, nitric oxide production was not affected by 3MCG and 3MCA. Furthermore, 3MCG- and 3MCA-induced elevation of TBA-RS values was fully prevented by melatonin, trolox and reduced glutathione, but not by the nitric oxide inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the combination of catalase plus superoxide dismutase, indicating that reactive oxygen species were involved in the oxidative damage caused by these compounds. We also found that the activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were not altered in vitro by 3MCG and 3MCA. It is therefore presumed that alterations of the cellular redox homeostasis caused by the major metabolites accumulating in 3MCCD may potentially be involved in the pathophysiology of the neurological dysfunction and structural brain alterations found in patients affected by this disorder.

  19. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: metabolic decompensation in a noncompliant child detected through newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Ficicioglu, Can; Payan, Irma

    2006-12-01

    We report a 19-month-old girl with a 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase deficiency that was detected through newborn screening. She was treated for the first 12 months but was lost to follow-up after the initial year. Her parents did not comply with the recommendations for management during periods of illness or for regular medical evaluations. During an acute illness, she presented with severe acidosis, hypoglycemia, and a low plasma carnitine level at 19 months of age. This report highlights the importance of more extensive follow-up plans to improve parental compliance.

  20. Purification and Characterization of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase from Diclofop-Resistant and -Susceptible Lolium multiflorum.

    PubMed

    Evenson, K. J.; Gronwald, J. W.; Wyse, D. L.

    1994-06-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) was purified >100-fold (specific activity 3.5 units mg-1) from leaf tissue of diclofopresistant and -susceptible biotypes of Lolium multiflorum. As determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified fractions from both biotypes contained a single 206-kD biotinylated polypeptide. The molecular mass of the native enzyme from both biotypes was approximately 520 kD. In some cases the native dimer from both biotypes dissociated during gel filtration to form a subunit of approximately 224 kD. The inclusion of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG) in the elution buffer prevented this dissociation. Steady-state substrate kinetics were analyzed in both the presence and absence of 5% PEG. For ACCase from both biotypes, addition of PEG increased the velocity 22% and decreased the apparent Km values for acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), but increased the Km values for bicarbonate and ATP. In the presence of PEG, the Km values for bicarbonate and ATP were approximately 35% higher for the enzyme from the susceptible biotype compared with the resistant enzyme. In the absence of PEG, no differences in apparent Km values were observed for the enzymes from the two biotypes. Inhibition constants (Ki app) were determined for CoA, malonyl-CoA, and diclofop. CoA was an S-hyperbolic (slope replots)-I-hyperbolic (intercept replots) noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to acetyl-CoA, with Ki app values of 711 and 795 [mu]M for enzymes from the resistant and susceptible biotypes, respectively. Malonyl-CoA competitively inhibited both enzymes (versus acetyl-CoA) with Ki app values of 140 and 104 [mu]M for ACCase from resistant and susceptible biotypes, respectively. Diclofop was a linear noncompetitive inhibitor of ACCase from the susceptible biotype and a nonlinear, or S-hyperbolic-I-hyperbolic, noncompetitive inhibitor of ACCase from the resistant biotype. For ACCase from the susceptible biotype the slope (Kis) and

  1. Enzymological evidence for the function of a plastid-located pyruvate carboxylase in the Haptophyte alga Emiliania huxleyi: a novel pathway for the production of C4 compounds.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Iwane; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2012-06-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) catalyzes the β-carboxylation of pyruvate to yield oxaloacetate (OAA). We previously isolated a cDNA encoding a putative PYC (EhPYC1) from the haptophyte alga Emiliania huxleyi and then proposed that EhPYC1 contributes to active anaplerotic β-carboxylation during photosynthesis although PYC activity was not detected in the cell extracts. Involvement of PYC in photosynthetic carbon metabolism is unique, since PYC generally functions in non-photosynthetic organisms. In the present study, we demonstrate that EhPYC1 is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases and therefore is easily degraded in cell extracts. By avoiding proteolytic degradation, PYC activity can be detected in the cell extracts of E. huxleyi. The activity of a recombinant His-tagged EhPYC1 expressed in Streptomyces lividans was inhibited by l-malate in a mixed non-competitive manner. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that EhPYC1 is located in the plastid. This result agrees with the prediction that a bipartite plastid-targeting signal is present that functions to deliver proteins into the four-membrane plastid of haptophyte algae. This is the first finding of a plastid-located PYC. These results indicate that E. huxleyi possesses a unique pathway to produce OAA catalyzed by PYC, and the pathway may provide carbon skeletons for amino acid biosynthesis in the plastid. A database search indicates that PYC genes are widespread in green algae, diatoms and brown algae, suggesting the crucial role of PYC in various aquatic phototrophs.

  2. Oxaloacetate and malate production in engineered Escherichia coli by expression of codon-optimized phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase2 gene from Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyun; Chang, Kwang Suk; Jin, Eonseon; Pack, Seung Pil; Lee, Jinwon

    2013-01-01

    A new phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene of Dunaliella salina is identified using homology analysis was conducted using PEPC gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis thaliana. Recombinant E. coli SGJS115 with increased production of malate and oxaloacetate was developed by introducing codon-optimized phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase2 (OPDSPEPC2) gene of Dunaliella salina. E. coli SGJS115 yielded a 9.9 % increase in malate production. In addition, E. coli SGJS115 exhibited two times increase in the yield of oxaloacetate over the E. coli SGJS114 having identified PEPC2 gene obtained from Dunaliella salina.

  3. Bovine kidney 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases: each enzyme contains nonidentical subunits.

    PubMed

    Lau, E P; Cochran, B C; Munson, L; Fall, R R

    1979-01-01

    3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCase; EC 6.4.1.4) and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCase; EC 6.4.1.3) have been obtained in highly purified form from bovine kidney mitochondria. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that each enzyme is composed of nonidentical subunits, including a smaller biotin-free subunit (Mr 62,000 and 58,000 for MCase and PCase, respectively), and a larger biotin-containing subunit (Mr 80,000 and 74,000 for MCase and PCase, respectively). The possibility that these subunits were derived from a single, larger precursor polypeptide via proteolysis was explored by purification and electrophoresis of each enzyme in the presence of protease inhibitors, but no evidence for proteolysis was obtained. Specific antisera directed towards each enzyme were prepared. The anti-PCase preparation was used to precipitate crossreacting PCase from a pig heart extract. Analysis of the immunoprecipitate obtained revealed a biotin-containing polypeptide (Mr 78,000) and a biotin-free polypeptide (Mr 55,000), suggesting that pig heart PCase also contains nonidentical subunits analogous to those seen in the kidney mitochondrial MCase and PCase. A bipartite subunit structure may be a common feature in mammalian MCase and PCase.

  4. Expression and Evolution of the Non-Canonically Translated Yeast Mitochondrial Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Hfa1p

    PubMed Central

    Suomi, Fumi; Menger, Katja E.; Monteuuis, Geoffray; Naumann, Uta; Kursu, V. A. Samuli; Shvetsova, Antonina; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes two sequence related acetyl-CoA carboxylases, the cytosolic Acc1p and the mitochondrial Hfa1p, required for respiratory function. Several aspects of expression of the HFA1 gene and its evolutionary origin have remained unclear. Here, we determined the HFA1 transcription initiation sites by 5′ RACE analysis. Using a novel “Stop codon scanning” approach, we mapped the location of the HFA1 translation initiation site to an upstream AUU codon at position −372 relative to the annotated start codon. This upstream initiation leads to production of a mitochondrial targeting sequence preceding the ACC domains of the protein. In silico analyses of fungal ACC genes revealed conserved “cryptic” upstream mitochondrial targeting sequences in yeast species that have not undergone a whole genome duplication. Our Δhfa1 baker's yeast mutant phenotype rescue studies using the protoploid Kluyveromyces lactis ACC confirmed functionality of the cryptic upstream mitochondrial targeting signal. These results lend strong experimental support to the hypothesis that the mitochondrial and cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylases in S. cerevisiae have evolved from a single gene encoding both the mitochondrial and cytosolic isoforms. Leaning on a cursory survey of a group of genes of our interest, we propose that cryptic 5′ upstream mitochondrial targeting sequences may be more abundant in eukaryotes than anticipated thus far. PMID:25503745

  5. Comparison of plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases from rice: identification of two plant-specific regulatory regions of the allosteric enzyme.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Masayuki; Suzuki, Rintaro; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Miyao, Mitsue

    2015-03-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a key enzyme of primary metabolism in bacteria, algae and vascular plants, and it undergoes allosteric regulation by various metabolic effectors. Rice (Oryza sativa) has five plant-type PEPCs, four cytosolic and one chloroplastic. We investigated their kinetic properties using recombinant proteins and found that, like most plant-type PEPCs, rice cytosolic isozymes were activated by glucose 6-phosphate and by alkaline pH. In contrast, no such activation was observed for the chloroplastic isozyme, Osppc4. In addition, Osppc4 showed low affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and very low sensitivities to allosteric inhibitors aspartate and glutamate. By comparing the isozyme amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures simulated on the basis of the reported crystal structures, we identified two regions where Osppc4 has unique features that can be expected to affect its kinetic properties. One is the N-terminal extension; replacement of the extension of Osppc2a (cytosolic) with that from Osppc4 reduced the aspartate and glutamate sensitivities to about one-tenth of the wild-type values but left the PEP affinity unaffected. The other is the N-terminal loop, in which a conserved lysine at the N-terminal end is replaced with a glutamate-alanine pair in Osppc4. Replacement of the lysine of Osppc2a with glutamate-alanine lowered the PEP affinity to a quarter of the wild-type level (down to the Osppc4 level), without affecting inhibitor sensitivity. Both the N-terminal extension and the N-terminal loop are specific to plant-type PEPCs, suggesting that plant-type isozymes acquired these regions so that their activity could be regulated properly at the sites where they function. PMID:25505033

  6. Reciprocal Control of Anaplerotic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase by in Vivo Monoubiquitination and Phosphorylation in Developing Proteoid Roots of Phosphate-Deficient Harsh Hakea1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shane, Michael W.; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Plaxton, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates important functions for phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPC) in inorganic phosphate (Pi)-starved plants. This includes controlling the production of organic acid anions (malate, citrate) that are excreted in copious amounts by proteoid roots of nonmycorrhizal species such as harsh hakea (Hakea prostrata). This, in turn, enhances the bioavailability of mineral-bound Pi by solubilizing Al3+, Fe3+, and Ca2+ phosphates in the rhizosphere. Harsh hakea thrives in the nutrient-impoverished, ancient soils of southwestern Australia. Proteoid roots from Pi-starved harsh hakea were analyzed over 20 d of development to correlate changes in malate and citrate exudation with PEPC activity, posttranslational modifications (inhibitory monoubiquitination versus activatory phosphorylation), and kinetic/allosteric properties. Immature proteoid roots contained an equivalent ratio of monoubiquitinated 110-kD and phosphorylated 107-kD PEPC polypeptides (p110 and p107, respectively). PEPC purification, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry indicated that p110 and p107 are subunits of a 430-kD heterotetramer and that they both originate from the same plant-type PEPC gene. Incubation with a deubiquitinating enzyme converted the p110:p107 PEPC heterotetramer of immature proteoid roots into a p107 homotetramer while significantly increasing the enzyme’s activity under suboptimal but physiologically relevant assay conditions. Proteoid root maturation was paralleled by PEPC activation (e.g. reduced Km [PEP] coupled with elevated I50 [malate and Asp] values) via in vivo deubiquitination of p110 to p107, and subsequent phosphorylation of the deubiquitinated subunits. This novel mechanism of posttranslational control is hypothesized to contribute to the massive synthesis and excretion of organic acid anions that dominates the carbon metabolism of the mature proteoid roots. PMID:23407057

  7. Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: evidence for an allele-specific dominant negative effect and responsiveness to biotin therapy.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Matthias R; Dantas, M Fernanda; Suormala, Terttu; Almashanu, Shlomo; Giunta, Cecilia; Friebel, Dolores; Gebhardt, Boris; Fowler, Brian; Hoffmann, Georg F; Baumgartner, E Regula; Valle, David

    2004-11-01

    Deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) results in elevated excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3-MCG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA). MCC is a heteromeric mitochondrial enzyme comprising biotin-containing alpha subunits and smaller beta subunits, encoded by MCCA and MCCB, respectively. Mutations in these genes cause isolated MCC deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder with a variable phenotype that ranges from severe neonatal to asymptomatic adult forms. No reported patients have responded to biotin therapy. Here, we describe two patients with a biochemical and, in one case, clinical phenotype of MCC deficiency, both of whom were responsive to biotin. The first patient presented at 3 months with seizures and progressive psychomotor retardation. Metabolic investigation at 2 years revealed elevated excretion of 3-MCG and 3-HIVA, suggesting MCC deficiency. High-dose biotin therapy was associated with a dramatic reduction in seizures, normalization of the electroencephalogram, and correction of the organic aciduria, within 4 weeks. MCC activity in fibroblasts was 25% of normal levels. The second patient, a newborn detected by tandem-mass-spectrometry newborn screening, displayed the same biochemical phenotype and remained asymptomatic with biotin up to the age of 18 months. In both patients, sequence analysis of the complete open reading frames of MCCA and MCCB revealed heterozygosity for MCCA-R385S and for the known polymorphic variant MCCA-P464H but revealed no other coding alterations. MCCA-R385S is unusual, in that it has a normal amount of MCC alpha protein but confers no MCC activity. We show that MCCA-R385S, but not other MCCA missense alleles, reduces the MCC activity of cotransfected MCCA-wild-type allele. Our results suggest that MCCA-R385S is a dominant negative allele and is biotin responsive in vivo.

  8. MEDICA 16 inhibits hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and reduces plasma triacylglycerol levels in insulin-resistant JCR: LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Laura L; Kelly, Sandra E; Russell, James C; Bar-Tana, Jacob; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2002-05-01

    Intracellular triacylglycerol (TG) content of liver and skeletal muscle contributes to insulin resistance, and a significant correlation exists between TG content and the development of insulin resistance. Because acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting enzyme for liver fatty acid biosynthesis and a key regulator of muscle fatty acid oxidation, we examined whether ACC plays a role in the accumulation of intracellular TG. We also determined the potential role of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in this process, since it can phosphorylate and inhibit ACC activity in both liver and muscle. TG content, ACC, and AMPK were examined in the liver and skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats during the time frame when insulin resistance develops. At 12 weeks of age, there was a threefold elevation in liver TG content and a sevenfold elevation in skeletal muscle TG content. Hepatic ACC activity was significantly elevated in 12-week-old JCR:LA-cp rats compared with lean age-matched controls (8.75 +/- 0.53 vs. 3.30 +/- 0.18 nmol. min(-1). mg(-1), respectively), even though AMPK activity was also increased. The observed increase in hepatic ACC activity was accompanied by a 300% increase in ACC protein expression. There were no significant differences in ACC activity, ACC protein expression, or AMPK activity in the skeletal muscle of the 12-week JCR:LA-cp rats. Treatment of 12-week JCR:LA-cp rats with MEDICA 16 (an ATP-citrate lyase inhibitor) resulted in a decrease in hepatic ACC and AMPK activities, but had no effect on skeletal muscle ACC and AMPK. Our data suggest that alterations in ACC or AMPK activity in muscle do not contribute to the development of insulin resistance. However, increased liver ACC activity in the JCR:LA-cp rat appears to contribute to the development of lipid abnormalities, although this increase does not appear to occur secondary to a decrease in AMPK activity.

  9. The impact of ozone on juvenile maize (Zea mays L.) plant photosynthesis: effects on vegetative biomass, pigmentation, and carboxylases (PEPc and Rubisco).

    PubMed

    Leitao, L; Bethenod, O; Biolley, J-P

    2007-07-01

    The impact of ozone on crops was more studied in C (3) than in C (4) species. In C (3) plants, ozone is known to induce a photosynthesis impairment that can result in significant depressions in biomass and crop yields. To investigate the impact of O (3) on C (4) plant species, maize seedlings ( ZEA MAYS L. cv. Chambord) were exposed to 5 atmospheres in open-top chambers: non-filtered air (NF, 48 nL L (-1) O (3)) and NF supplied with 20 (+ 20), 40 (+ 40), 60 (+ 60), and 80 (+ 80) nL L (-1) ozone. An unchambered plot was also available. Leaf area, vegetative biomass, and leaf dry mass per unit leaf area (LMA) were evaluated 33 days after seedling emergence in OTCs. At the same time, photosynthetic pigments as well as carboxylase (PEPc and Rubisco) activities and amounts were also examined in the 5th leaf. Ozone enhanced visible symptoms characterizing foliar senescence. Across NF, + 20, + 40, and + 60 atmospheres, both chlorophylls and carotenoids were found to be linearly decreased against increasing AOT40 ( CA. - 50 % in + 60). No supplementary decrease was observed between + 60 and + 80. Total above-ground biomass was reduced by 26 % in + 80 atmosphere; leaf dry matter being more depressed by ozone than leaf area. In some cases, LMA index was consistent to reflect low negative effects caused by a moderate increase in ozone concentration. PEPc and Rubisco were less sensitive to ozone than pigments: only the two highest external ozone doses reduced their activities by about 20 - 30 %. These changes might be connected to losses in PEPc and Rubisco proteins that were decreased by about one-third. The underlying mechanisms for these results were discussed with special reference to C (3) species. To conclude, we showed that both light and dark reactions of C (4) photosynthesis can be impaired by realistic ozone doses.

  10. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T; Hill, Allyson T; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K; Leach, Craig A; Plaxton, William C

    2011-11-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism.

  11. An unanticipated architecture of the 750-kDa α6β6 holoenzyme of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Christine S; Ge, Peng; Zhou, Z Hong; Tong, Liang

    2011-12-11

    3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), a member of the biotin-dependent carboxylase superfamily, is essential for the metabolism of leucine, and deficient mutations in this enzyme are linked to methylcrotonylglycinuria (MCG) and other serious diseases in humans. MCC has strong sequence conservation with propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC), and their holoenzymes are both 750-kilodalton (kDa) α(6)β(6) dodecamers. Therefore the architecture of the MCC holoenzyme is expected to be highly similar to that of PCC. Here we report the crystal structures of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC (PaMCC) holoenzyme, alone and in complex with coenzyme A. Surprisingly, the structures show that the architecture and overall shape of PaMCC are markedly different when compared to PCC. The α-subunits show trimeric association in the PaMCC holoenzyme, whereas they have no contacts with each other in PCC. Moreover, the positions of the two domains in the β-subunit of PaMCC are swapped relative to those in PCC. This structural information establishes a foundation for understanding the disease-causing mutations of MCC and provides new insights into the catalytic mechanism and evolution of biotin-dependent carboxylases. The large structural differences between MCC and PCC also have general implications for the relationship between sequence conservation and structural similarity.

  12. Genomic and cDNA clones for maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase: Expression of different gene-family members in leaves and roots

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, Richard L.; Glackin, Carlotta A.; Bonner, James; Grula, John W.

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones for the maize leaf enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate (P-ePrv) carboxylase [orthophosphate:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (phosphorylating) EC 4.1.1.31] and pyruvate,orthophosphate (Prv,Pi) dikinase (ATP:pyruvate,orthophosphate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.9.1) by exploiting the light-inducibility and large size of the mRNAs (3.5 kilobases) that encode the two enzymes. The clones were identified by hybrid-selection and immunoprecipitation assays. From a maize genomic library, two different types of genomic clones were screened with both the P-ePrv carboxylase and the Prv,Pi dikinase cDNA clones. Information from these genomic clones and genome blots indicates that the P-ePrv carboxylase gene family has at least three members and the Prv,Pi dikinase family at least two. Transcripts for both enzymes were detected in green leaves, etiolated leaves, and roots. The results show that the P-ePrv carboxylase mRNAs in green leaves and roots are encoded by different genes. Whereas the P-ePrv carboxylase mRNAs in all three tissues appear to be the same size, the Prv,Pi dikinase mRNA in green leaves is about 0.5 kilobases longer than the Prv,Pi dikinase mRNAs in etiolated leaves and roots. It is possible that all these Prv,Pi dikinase transcripts are encoded by one gene, and the size differences may correspond to the presence or absence of a sequence encoding a chloroplast transit peptide. Images PMID:16593689

  13. Synthesis of C11-Desmethoxy Soraphen A1α: A Natural Product Analogue That Inhibits Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A synthesis of C11-desmethoxy soraphen A1α is described that proceeds in just 14 steps from readily available starting materials. This natural product analogue was identified as a target of interest in a program aimed at identifying novel natural product-inspired inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) as potential anticancer therapeutics. While describing the most efficient synthesis of a soraphen A1α analogue (total syntheses of the natural product have been reported that proceed in 25 to ≥40 linear steps), we also present data supporting the conclusion that C11-heteroatom functionality is a beneficial but unnecessary structural characteristic of soraphen A1α analogues for inhibiting ACC. PMID:24639892

  14. Cloning and developmental expression of pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit N-methyltransferase

    DOEpatents

    Houtz, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    The gene sequence for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (LS) .epsilon.N-methyltransferase (protein methylase III or Rubisco LSMT) is disclosed. This enzyme catalyzes methylation of the .epsilon.-amine of lysine-14 in the large subunit of Rubisco. In addition, a full-length cDNA clone for Rubisco LSMT is disclosed. Transgenic plants and methods of producing same which (1) have the Rubisco LSMT gene inserted into the DNA, and (2) have the Rubisco LSMT gene product or the action of the gene product deleted from the DNA are also provided. Further, methods of using the gene to selectively deliver desired agents to a plant are also disclosed.

  15. Cloning and developmental expression of pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit N-methyltransferase

    DOEpatents

    Houtz, R.L.

    1998-03-03

    The gene sequence for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (LS) {epsilon}N-methyltransferase (protein methylase III or Rubisco LSMT) is disclosed. This enzyme catalyzes methylation of the {epsilon}-amine of lysine-14 in the large subunit of Rubisco. In addition, a full-length cDNA clone for Rubisco LSMT is disclosed. Transgenic plants and methods of producing same which (1) have the Rubisco LSMT gene inserted into the DNA, and (2) have the Rubisco LSMT gene product or the action of the gene product deleted from the DNA are also provided. Further, methods of using the gene to selectively deliver desired agents to a plant are also disclosed. 5 figs.

  16. Cloning and developmental expression of pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit epsilon N-methyltransferase

    DOEpatents

    Houtz, R.L.

    1999-02-02

    The gene sequence for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (LS){sup {epsilon}}N-methyltransferase (protein methylase III or Rubisco LSMT) is disclosed. This enzyme catalyzes methylation of the {epsilon}-amine of lysine-14 in the large subunit of Rubisco. In addition, a full-length cDNA clone for Rubisco LSMT is disclosed. Transgenic plants and methods of producing same which (1) have the Rubisco LSMT gene inserted into the DNA, and (2) have the Rubisco LSMT gene product or the action of the gene product deleted from the DNA are also provided. Further, methods of using the gene to selectively deliver desired agents to a plant are also disclosed. 8 figs.

  17. Cloning and developmental expression of pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit epsilon N-methyltransferase

    DOEpatents

    Houtz, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The gene sequence for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (LS) .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase (protein methylase III or Rubisco LSMT) is disclosed. This enzyme catalyzes methylation of the .epsilon.-amine of lysine-14 in the large subunit of Rubisco. In addition, a full-length cDNA clone for Rubisco LSMT is disclosed. Transgenic plants and methods of producing same which (1) have the Rubisco LSMT gene inserted into the DNA, and (2) have the Rubisco LSMT gene product or the action of the gene product deleted from the DNA are also provided. Further, methods of using the gene to selectively deliver desired agents to a plant are also disclosed.

  18. Toward a better knowledge of the molecular evolution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by comparison of partial cDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Gehrig, H H; Heute, V; Kluge, M

    1998-01-01

    To get deeper insight into the evolution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase we have identified PEPC fragments (about 1,100 bp) of another 12 plants species not yet investigated in this context. The selected plants include one Chlorophyta, two Bryophyta, four Pteridophyta, and five Spermatophyta species. The obtained phylogenetic trees on PEPC isoforms are the most complete ones up to now available. Independent of their manner of construction, the resulting dendrograms are very similar and fully consistent with the main topology as it is postulated for the evolution of the higher terrestrial plants. We found a distinct clustering of the PEPC sequences of the prokaryotes, the algae, and the spermatophytes. PEPC isoforms of the archegoniates are located in the phylogenetic trees between the algae and spermatophytes. Our results strengthen the view that the PEPC is a very useful molecular marker with which to visualize phylogenetic trends both on the metabolic and organismic levels.

  19. Cloning of the human MCCA and MCCB genes and mutations therein reveal the molecular cause of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA: carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, A; Röschinger, W; Lagler, F; Mayerhofer, P U; Lichtner, P; Kattenfeld, T; Thuy, L P; Nyhan, W L; Koch, H G; Muntau, A C; Roscher, A A

    2001-06-01

    3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA: carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.4; MCC) deficiency is an inborn error of the leucine degradation pathway (MIM *210200) characterized by increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine. The clinical phenotypes are highly variable ranging from asymptomatic to profound metabolic acidosis and death in infancy. Sequence similarity with Glycine max and Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding the two subunits of MCC permitted us to clone the cDNAs encoding the alpha- and beta-subunits of human MCC. The 2580 bp MCCA cDNA encodes the 725 amino acid biotin-containing alpha-subunit. The MCCA gene is located on chromosome 3q26-q28 and consists of 19 exons. The 2304 bp MCCB cDNA encodes the non-biotin-containing beta-subunit of 563 amino acids. The MCCB gene is located on chromosome 5q13 and consists of 17 exons. We have sequenced both genes in four patients with isolated biotin-unresponsive deficiency of MCC. In two of them we found mutations in the MCCA gene. Compound heterozygosity for a missense mutation (S535F) and a nonsense mutation (V694X) were identified in one patient. One heterozygous mutation (S535F) was found in another patient. The remaining two patients had mutations in the MCCB gene. One consanguineous patient was homozygous for a missense mutation (R268T). In the other we identified a missense mutation in one allele (E99Q) and allelic loss of the other. Mutations were correlated with an almost total lack of enzyme activity in fibroblasts. These data provide evidence that human MCC deficiency is caused by mutations in either the MCCA or MCCB gene.

  20. Characterization of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and transcriptional analysis of its related genes in Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhanru; Liu, Fuli; Li, Qiuying; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin

    2014-03-01

    Saccharina japonica is a common macroalga in sublittoral communities of cold seawater environments, and consequently may have highly efficient ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity for carbon assimilation. In our study, we cloned the full-length Rubisco gene from S. japonica ( SJ-rbc). It contained an open reading frame for a large subunit gene ( SJ — rbcL) of 1 467 bp, a small subunit gene ( SJ-rbcS) of 420 bp, and a SJ-rbcL/S intergenic spacer of 269 bp. The deduced peptides of SJ-rbcL and SJ-rbcS were 488 and 139 amino acids with theoretical molecular weights and isoelectric points of 53.97 kDa, 5.81 and 15.84 kDa, 4.71, respectively. After induction with 1 mmol/L isopropyl- β-D-thiogalactopyranoside for 5 h and purification by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, electrophoresis and western blot detection demonstrated successful expression of the 55 kDa SJ-rbcL protein. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL in gametophytes increased when transferred into normal growth conditions and exhibited diurnal variations: increased expression during the day but suppressed expression at night. This observation implied that Rubisco played a role in normal gametophytic growth and development. In juvenile sporophytes, mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL, carbonic anhydrase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle-related enzyme, and chloroplast light-harvesting protein were remarkably increased under continuous light irradiance. Similarly, expression of these genes was up-regulated under blue light irradiance at 350 μmol/(m2·s). Our results indicate that long-term white light and short-term blue light irradiance enhances juvenile sporophytic growth by synergistic effects of various photosynthetic elements.

  1. A 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficient human skin fibroblast transcriptome reveals underlying mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zandberg, L; van Dyk, H C; van der Westhuizen, F H; van Dijk, A A

    2016-09-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disease of leucine catabolism with a highly variable phenotype. Apart from extensive mutation analyses of the MCCC1 and MCCC2 genes encoding 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.4), molecular data on MCC deficiency gene expression studies in human tissues is lacking. For IEMs, unbiased '-omics' approaches are starting to reveal the secondary cellular responses to defects in biochemical pathways. Here we present the first whole genome expression profile of immortalized cultured skin fibroblast cells of two clinically affected MCC deficient patients and two healthy individuals generated using Affymetrix(®)HuExST1.0 arrays. There were 16191 significantly differentially expressed transcript IDs of which 3591 were well annotated and present in the predefined knowledge database of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software used for downstream functional analyses. The most noticeable feature of this MCCA deficient skin fibroblast transcriptome was the typical genetic hallmark of mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased antioxidant response and disruption of energy homeostasis, which was confirmed by mitochondrial functional analyses. The MCC deficient transcriptome seems to predict oxidative stress that could alter the complex secondary cellular response that involve genes of the glycolysis, the TCA cycle, OXPHOS, gluconeogenesis, β-oxidation and the branched-chain fatty acid metabolism. An important emerging insight from this human MCCA transcriptome in combination with previous reports is that chronic exposure to the primary and secondary metabolites of MCC deficiency and the resulting oxidative stress might impact adversely on the quality of life and energy levels, irrespective of whether MCC deficient individuals are clinically affected or asymptomatic.

  2. A 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficient human skin fibroblast transcriptome reveals underlying mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zandberg, L; van Dyk, H C; van der Westhuizen, F H; van Dijk, A A

    2016-09-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disease of leucine catabolism with a highly variable phenotype. Apart from extensive mutation analyses of the MCCC1 and MCCC2 genes encoding 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.4), molecular data on MCC deficiency gene expression studies in human tissues is lacking. For IEMs, unbiased '-omics' approaches are starting to reveal the secondary cellular responses to defects in biochemical pathways. Here we present the first whole genome expression profile of immortalized cultured skin fibroblast cells of two clinically affected MCC deficient patients and two healthy individuals generated using Affymetrix(®)HuExST1.0 arrays. There were 16191 significantly differentially expressed transcript IDs of which 3591 were well annotated and present in the predefined knowledge database of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software used for downstream functional analyses. The most noticeable feature of this MCCA deficient skin fibroblast transcriptome was the typical genetic hallmark of mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased antioxidant response and disruption of energy homeostasis, which was confirmed by mitochondrial functional analyses. The MCC deficient transcriptome seems to predict oxidative stress that could alter the complex secondary cellular response that involve genes of the glycolysis, the TCA cycle, OXPHOS, gluconeogenesis, β-oxidation and the branched-chain fatty acid metabolism. An important emerging insight from this human MCCA transcriptome in combination with previous reports is that chronic exposure to the primary and secondary metabolites of MCC deficiency and the resulting oxidative stress might impact adversely on the quality of life and energy levels, irrespective of whether MCC deficient individuals are clinically affected or asymptomatic. PMID:27417235

  3. Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} occurs in transformed tobacco with decreased ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content

    SciTech Connect

    Sicher, R.C.; Kremer, D.F.; Rodermel, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    Inhibition of net carbon assimilation rates during growth at elevated CO{sub 2} was studied in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants containing zero to two copies of antisense DNA sequences to the small subunit polypeptide (rbcS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). High- and low-Rubisco tobacco plants were obtained from the selfed progeny of the original line 3 transformant. Assimilation rates of high- and low-Rubisco tobacco plants increased 22 and 71%, respectively, when transferred from 35- to 70-Pa CO{sub 2} chamber air at 900 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} photon flux density. However, CO{sub 2}-dependent increases of net carbon assimilation rates of high- and low-Rubisco plants virtually disappeared after 9 d of growth in elevated CO{sub 2} chamber air. Total above-ground dry matter production of high- and low-Rubisco plants was 28 and 53% greater, respectively, after 9 d of growth at 70 Pa compared with 35 Pa CO{sub 2}. Most of this dry weight gain was due to increased specific leaf weight. Rubisco activity, Rubisco protein, and total chlorophyll were lower in both high- and low-Rubisco plants grown in enriched compared with ambient CO{sub 2} chamber air. Soluble leaf protein also decreased in response to CO{sub 2} enrichment in high- but not in low-Rub tobacco plants. Decreased Rubisco activities in CO{sub 2}adapted high- and low-Rubisco plants were not attributable to changes in activation state of the enzyme. Carbonic anhydrase activities and subunit levels measured with specific antibodies were similar in high- and low-Rubisco tobacco plants and were unchanged by CO{sub 2} enrichment. Collectively, these findings suggested that photosynthetic acclimation to enriched CO{sub 2} occurred in tobacco plants either with or without transgenically decreased Rubisco in CO{sub 2}-adapted tobacco plants was related to decreased specific activity of this enzyme. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Large structures at high resolution: the 1.6 A crystal structure of spinach ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase complexed with 2-carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Andersson, I

    1996-05-31

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) from spinach is a hexadecamer (L8S8, Mr = 550,000) consisting of eight large (L, 475 residues) and eight small subunits (S, 123 residues). High-resolution data collection on crystals with large unit cells is not a trivial task due to the effect of radiation damage and the large number of overlapping reflections when conventional data collection methods are used. In order to minimise these effects, data on rubisco were collected with a giant Weissenberg camera at long crystal to image-plate distances at the synchrotron of the Photon Factory, Japan. Relative to conventional data sets, this experimental arrangement allowed a 20 to 30-fold reduction of the X-ray dose/exposure time for data collection. This paper describes the refined 1.6 A crystal structure of activated rubisco complexed with a transition state analogue, 2-carboxyarabinitol-bisphosphate. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains an L4S4 unit, representing half of the molecule. The structure presented here is currently the highest resolution structure for any protein of comparable size. Refinement of the model was carried out by restrained least squares techniques without non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The results show that all L and S subunits have identical three-dimensional structures, and their arrangement within the hexadecamer has no intrinsic asymmetry. A detailed analysis of the high-resolution maps identified 30 differences in the sequence of the small subunit, indicating a larger than usual heterogeneity for this nuclear encoded protein in spinach. No such differences were found in the sequence of the chloroplast encoded large subunit. The transition state analogue is in the cis conformation at the active site suggesting a key role for the carbamate of Lys201 in catalysis. Analysis of the active site around the catalytically essential magnesium ion further indicates that residues in the second liganding sphere of the metal

  5. Resistance to herbicides caused by single amino acid mutations in acetyl-CoA carboxylase in resistant populations of grassy weeds.

    PubMed

    Jang, SoRi; Marjanovic, Jasmina; Gornicki, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    Eleven spontaneous mutations of acetyl-CoA carboxylase have been identified in many herbicide-resistant populations of 42 species of grassy weeds, hampering application of aryloxyphenoxypropionate, cyclohexadione and phenylpyrazoline herbicides in agriculture. IC(50) shifts (resistance indices) caused by herbicide-resistant mutations were determined using a recombinant yeast system that allows comparison of the effects of single amino acid mutations in the same biochemical background, avoiding the complexity inherent in the in planta experiments. The effect of six mutations on the sensitivity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase to nine herbicides representing the three chemical classes was studied. A combination of partially overlapping binding sites of the three classes of herbicides and the structure of their variable parts explains cross-resistance among and between the three classes of inhibitors, as well as differences in their specificity. Some degree of resistance was detected for 51 of 54 herbicide/mutation combinations. Introduction of new herbicides targeting acetyl-CoA carboxylase will depend on their ability to overcome the high degree of cross-resistance already existing in weed populations.

  6. Identification of dual Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 inhibitors by pharmacophore based virtual screening and molecular docking approach.

    PubMed

    Bhadauriya, Anuseema; Dhoke, Gaurao V; Gangwal, Rahul P; Damre, Mangesh V; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2013-02-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a crucial metabolic enzyme that plays a vital role in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes and fatty acid metabolism. To identify dual inhibitors of Acetyl-CoA carboxylase1 and Acetyl-CoA carboxylase2, a pharmacophore modelling approach has been employed. The best HypoGen pharmacophore model for ACC2 inhibitors (Hypo1_ACC2) consists of one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrophobic aliphatic and one hydrophobic aromatic feature, whereas the best pharmacophore (Hypo1_ACC1) for ACC1 consists of one additional hydrogen-bond donor (HBD) features. The best pharmacophore hypotheses were validated by various methods such as test set, decoy set and Cat-Scramble methodology. The validated pharmacophore models were used to screen several small-molecule databases, including Specs, NCI, ChemDiv and Natural product databases to identify the potential dual ACC inhibitors. The virtual hits were then subjected to several filters such as estimated [Formula: see text] value, quantitative estimation of drug-likeness and molecular docking analysis. Finally, three novel compounds with diverse scaffolds were selected as potential starting points for the design of novel dual ACC inhibitors.

  7. Chemical inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase suppresses self-renewal growth of cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Gumuzio, Juan; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Leis, Olatz; Martin, Ángel G.; Menendez, Javier A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) may take advantage of the Warburg effect-induced siphoning of metabolic intermediates into de novo fatty acid biosynthesis to increase self-renewal growth. We examined the anti-CSC effects of the antifungal polyketide soraphen A, a specific inhibitor of the first committed step of lipid biosynthesis catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA). The mammosphere formation capability of MCF-7 cells was reduced following treatment with soraphen A in a dose-dependent manner. MCF-7 cells engineered to overexpress the oncogene HER2 (MCF-7/HER2 cells) were 5-fold more sensitive than MCF-7 parental cells to soraphen A-induced reductions in mammosphere-forming efficiency. Soraphen A treatment notably decreased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive CSC-like cells and impeded the HER2's ability to increase the ALDH+-stem cell population. The following results confirmed that soraphen A-induced suppression of CSC populations occurred through ACACA-driven lipogenesis: a.) exogenous supplementation with supraphysiological concentrations of oleic acid fully rescued mammosphere formation in the presence of soraphen A and b.) mammosphere cultures of MCF-7 cells with stably silenced expression of the cytosolic isoform ACACA1, which specifically participates in de novo lipogenesis, were mostly refractory to soraphen A treatment. Our findings reveal for the first time that ACACA may constitute a previously unrecognized target for novel anti-breast CSC therapies. PMID:25246709

  8. (Nuclear genes from nicotiana encoding the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase). Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cashmore, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Two pea nuclear genes encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcS) were isolated and completely sequenced. These sequence studies include approximately 1 kb of 5' noncoding region and several hundred nucleotides of 3' noncoding sequences. The two genes are tightly linked being separated by 10 kb of DNA and they are oriented with their 3' ends towards one another. The two genes (ss3.6 and ss8.0) correspond to two of five EcoRI fragments of pea DNA that hybridize to a rbcS hybridization probe. The two genes ss3.6 and ss8.0 are quite divergent at their 5' and their 3' ends and in the first of the two intervening sequences. In direct contrast the second of the two intervening sequences is total conserved between the two genes. This conservation of sequence identity could result directly from evolutionary forces selecting against any sequence change. Such selection would presumably reflect a very sequence-dependent function for these introns. A role in splicing is one possibility and a transcriptional regulatory element is another possibility. 9 refs.

  9. Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase Regulates Triacylglycerol Accumulation in the Model Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Feng; Huang, Weichao; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Chunye; Xiong, Qian; Bowler, Chris; Yang, Juan; Xu, Jin; Hu, Hanhua

    2014-01-01

    The model marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) under nitrogen depletion and has attracted increasing attention as a potential system for biofuel production. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in TAG accumulation in diatoms are largely unknown. Here, we employed a label-free quantitative proteomics approach to estimate differences in protein abundance before and after TAG accumulation. We identified a total of 1193 proteins, 258 of which were significantly altered during TAG accumulation. Data analysis revealed major changes in proteins involved in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic processes, glycolysis, and lipid metabolic processes. Subsequent quantitative RT-PCR and protein gel blot analysis confirmed that four genes associated with BCAA degradation were significantly upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels during TAG accumulation. The most significantly upregulated gene, encoding the β-subunit of methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC2), was selected for further functional studies. Inhibition of MCC2 expression by RNA interference disturbed the flux of carbon (mainly in the form of leucine) toward BCAA degradation, resulting in decreased TAG accumulation. MCC2 inhibition also gave rise to incomplete utilization of nitrogen, thus lowering biomass during the stationary growth phase. These findings help elucidate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms leading to increased lipid production in diatoms. PMID:24769481

  10. Interaction between potyvirus P3 and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) of host plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Luo, Zhaopeng; Yan, Fei; Lu, Yuwen; Zheng, Hongying; Chen, Jianping

    2011-08-01

    The P3 protein encoded by Shallot yellow stripe virus onion isolate (SYSV-O) interacted in the Yeast Two-hybrid (Y2H) system and in co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays with the large subunit of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) protein that is encoded by the rbcL gene of its onion host. Dissection analysis by Y2H showed that the main part of SYSV P3 (amino acids 1-390) and onion RbcL (amino acids 1-137) were responsible for the interaction. The P3 proteins encoded by Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Soybean mosaic virus Pinellia isolate (SMV-P), and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) also interacted with RbcL, suggesting that a P3/RbcL interaction might exist generally for potyviruses. An interaction between P3 of these potyviruses and the small subunit of RubisCO (RbcS) was also demonstrated. Moreover, the P3N-PIPO protein encoded by a newly identified open reading frame embedded within the P3 cistron also interacted with both RbcL and RbcS. It is possible that the potyvirus P3 protein affects the normal functions of RubisCO which thus contributes to symptom development. PMID:21400205

  11. In Situ Association of Calvin Cycle Enzymes, Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Activase, Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase, and Nitrite Reductase with Thylakoid and Pyrenoid Membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts as Revealed by Immunoelectron Microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Suss, K. H.; Prokhorenko, I.; Adler, K.

    1995-01-01

    The in situ localization of the chloroplast enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), Rubisco activase, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, nitrite reductase, ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, and H+-ATP synthase was studied by immunoelectron microscopy in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Immunogold labeling revealed that, despite Rubisco in the pyrenoid matrix, Calvin cycle enzymes, Rubisco activase, nitrite reductase, ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, and H+-ATP synthase are associated predominantly with chloroplast thylakoid membranes and the inner surface of the pyrenoid membrane. This is in accord with previous enzyme localization studies in higher plants (K.H. Suss, C. Arkona, R. Manteuffel, K. Adler [1993] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 5514-5518). Pyrenoid tubules do not contain these enzymes. The pyrenoid matrix consists of Rubisco but is devoid of the other photosynthetic enzymes investigated. Evidence for the occurrence of two Rubisco forms differing in their spatial localization has also been obtained: Rubisco form I appears to be membrane associated like other Calvin cycle components, whereas Rubisco form II is confined to the pyrenoid matrix. It is proposed that enzyme form I represents an active Rubisco when assembled into Calvin cycle enzyme complexes, whereas Rubisco form II may be part of a CO2-concentrating mechanism. Pyrenoidal Calvin cycle complexes are thought to be highly active in CO2 fixation and important for the synthesis of starch around the pyrenoid. PMID:12228443

  12. In Vivo Studies in Rhodospirillum rubrum Indicate That Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (Rubisco) Catalyzes Two Obligatorily Required and Physiologically Significant Reactions for Distinct Carbon and Sulfur Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swati; North, Justin A; Sriram, Jaya; Evans, Bradley S; Tabita, F Robert

    2015-12-25

    All organisms possess fundamental metabolic pathways to ensure that needed carbon and sulfur compounds are provided to the cell in the proper chemical form and oxidation state. For most organisms capable of using CO2 as sole source of carbon, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes primary carbon dioxide assimilation. In addition, sulfur salvage pathways are necessary to ensure that key sulfur-containing compounds are both available and, where necessary, detoxified in the cell. Using knock-out mutations and metabolomics in the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, we show here that Rubisco concurrently catalyzes key and essential reactions for seemingly unrelated but physiologically essential central carbon and sulfur salvage metabolic pathways of the cell. In this study, complementation and mutagenesis studies indicated that representatives of all known extant functional Rubisco forms found in nature are capable of simultaneously catalyzing reactions required for both CO2-dependent growth as well as growth using 5-methylthioadenosine as sole sulfur source under anaerobic photosynthetic conditions. Moreover, specific inactivation of the CO2 fixation reaction did not affect the ability of Rubisco to support anaerobic 5-methylthioadenosine metabolism, suggesting that the active site of Rubisco has evolved to ensure that this enzyme maintains both key functions. Thus, despite the coevolution of both functions, the active site of this protein may be differentially modified to affect only one of its key functions.

  13. In Situ Association of Calvin Cycle Enzymes, Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Activase, Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase, and Nitrite Reductase with Thylakoid and Pyrenoid Membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts as Revealed by Immunoelectron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Suss, K. H.; Prokhorenko, I.; Adler, K.

    1995-04-01

    The in situ localization of the chloroplast enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), Rubisco activase, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, nitrite reductase, ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, and H+-ATP synthase was studied by immunoelectron microscopy in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Immunogold labeling revealed that, despite Rubisco in the pyrenoid matrix, Calvin cycle enzymes, Rubisco activase, nitrite reductase, ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, and H+-ATP synthase are associated predominantly with chloroplast thylakoid membranes and the inner surface of the pyrenoid membrane. This is in accord with previous enzyme localization studies in higher plants (K.H. Suss, C. Arkona, R. Manteuffel, K. Adler [1993] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 5514-5518). Pyrenoid tubules do not contain these enzymes. The pyrenoid matrix consists of Rubisco but is devoid of the other photosynthetic enzymes investigated. Evidence for the occurrence of two Rubisco forms differing in their spatial localization has also been obtained: Rubisco form I appears to be membrane associated like other Calvin cycle components, whereas Rubisco form II is confined to the pyrenoid matrix. It is proposed that enzyme form I represents an active Rubisco when assembled into Calvin cycle enzyme complexes, whereas Rubisco form II may be part of a CO2-concentrating mechanism. Pyrenoidal Calvin cycle complexes are thought to be highly active in CO2 fixation and important for the synthesis of starch around the pyrenoid.

  14. Regulation of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (Rubisco) Activase

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Suratna; Henderson, J. Nathan; Liles, Kevin; Hilton, Matthew T.; Wachter, Rebekka M.

    2015-01-01

    In many photosynthetic organisms, tight-binding Rubisco inhibitors are released by the motor protein Rubisco activase (Rca). In higher plants, Rca plays a pivotal role in regulating CO2 fixation. Here, the ATPase activity of 0.005 mm tobacco Rca was monitored under steady-state conditions, and global curve fitting was utilized to extract kinetic constants. The kcat was best fit by 22.3 ± 4.9 min−1, the Km for ATP by 0.104 ± 0.024 mm, and the Ki for ADP by 0.037 ± 0.007 mm. Without ADP, the Hill coefficient for ATP hydrolysis was extracted to be 1.0 ± 0.1, indicating noncooperative behavior of homo-oligomeric Rca assemblies. However, the addition of ADP was shown to introduce positive cooperativity between two or more subunits (Hill coefficient 1.9 ± 0.2), allowing for regulation via the prevailing ATP/ADP ratio. ADP-mediated activation was not observed, although larger amounts led to competitive product inhibition of hydrolytic activity. The catalytic efficiency increased 8.4-fold upon cooperative binding of a second magnesium ion (Hill coefficient 2.5 ± 0.5), suggesting at least three conformational states (ATP-bound, ADP-bound, and empty) within assemblies containing an average of about six subunits. The addition of excess Rubisco (24:1, L8S8/Rca6) and crowding agents did not modify catalytic rates. However, high magnesium provided for thermal Rca stabilization. We propose that magnesium mediates the formation of closed hexameric toroids capable of high turnover rates and amenable to allosteric regulation. We suggest that in vivo, the Rca hydrolytic activity is tuned by fluctuating [Mg2+] in response to changes in available light. PMID:26283786

  15. Influence of NaCl on Growth, Proline, and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Levels in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Suspension Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John C.; De Armond, Richard L.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1992-01-01

    The facultative halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum responds to salt stress by increasing the levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) and other enzymes associated with Crassulacean acid metabolism. A more common response to salt stress in sensitive and tolerant species, including M. crystallinum, is the accumulation of proline. We have established M. crystallinum suspension cultures to investigate whether both these salt-induced responses occur at the cellular level. Leaf-and root-derived cultures maintain 5% of the total soluble amino acids as proline. Cell culture growth slows upon addition of 400 millimolar NaCl, and proline levels increase to 40% of the total soluble amino acids. These results suggest a functional salt-stress and response program in Mesembryanthemum cells. Suspension cultures grown with or without 400 millimolar NaCl have PEPCase levels that compare with those from roots and unstressed leaves. The predominant protein cross-reacting with an anti-PEPCase antibody corresponds to 105 kilodaltons (apparent molecular mass), whereas a second species of approximately 110 kilodaltons is present at low levels. In salt-stressed leaves, the 110 kilodalton protein is more prevalent. Levels of mRNA for both ppc1 (salt stress induced in leaves) and ppc2 (constitutive) genes in salt-treated suspensions cultures are equal to unstressed leaves, and only twice the levels found in untreated suspension cultures. Whereas cells accumulate proline in response to NaCl, PEPCase protein amounts remain similar in salt-treated and untreated cultures. The induction upon salt stress of the 110 kilodalton PEPCase protein and other Crassulacean acid metabolism enzymes in organized tissues is not observed in cell culture and may depend on tissue-dependent or photoautotrophy-dependent programs. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668687

  16. Positive selection of Kranz and non-Kranz C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase amino acids in Suaedoideae (Chenopodiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Rosnow, Josh J.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Roalson, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    In subfamily Suaedoideae, four independent gains of C4 photosynthesis are proposed, which includes two parallel origins of Kranz anatomy (sections Salsina and Schoberia) and two independent origins of single-cell C4 anatomy (Bienertia and Suaeda aralocaspica). Additional phylogenetic support for this hypothesis was generated from sequence data of the C-terminal portion of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene used in C4 photosynthesis (ppc-1) in combination with previous sequence data. ppc-1 sequence was generated for 20 species in Suaedoideae and two outgroup Salsola species that included all types of C4 anatomies as well as two types of C3 anatomies. A branch-site test for positively selected codons was performed using the software package PAML. From labelling of the four branches where C4 is hypothesized to have developed (foreground branches), residue 733 (maize numbering) was identified to be under positive selection with a posterior probability >0.99 and residue 868 at the >0.95 interval using Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB). When labelling all the branches within C4 clades, the branch-site test identified 13 codons to be under selection with a posterior probability >0.95 by BEB; this is discussed considering current information on functional residues. The signature C4 substitution of an alanine for a serine at position 780 in the C-terminal end (which is considered a major determinant of affinity for PEP) was only found in four of the C4 species sampled, while eight of the C4 species and all the C3 species have an alanine residue; indicating that this substitution is not a requirement for C4 function. PMID:24600021

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleus-Encoded Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases Targeted at the Cytosol and Plastid of Algae.

    PubMed

    Huerlimann, Roger; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R; Heimann, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of algal phylogeny is being impeded by an unknown number of events of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and primary and secondary/tertiary endosymbiosis. Through these events, previously heterotrophic eukaryotes developed photosynthesis and acquired new biochemical pathways. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis and elongation pathways in algae, where ACCase exists in two locations (cytosol and plastid) and in two forms (homomeric and heteromeric). All algae contain nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase in the cytosol, independent of the origin of the plastid. Nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase is also found in plastids of algae that arose from a secondary/tertiary endosymbiotic event. In contrast, plastids of algae that arose from a primary endosymbiotic event contain heteromeric ACCase, which consists of three nucleus-encoded and one plastid-encoded subunits. These properties of ACCase provide the potential to inform on the phylogenetic relationships of hosts and their plastids, allowing different hypothesis of endosymbiotic events to be tested. Alveolata (Dinoflagellata and Apicomplexa) and Chromista (Stramenopiles, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta) have traditionally been grouped together as Chromalveolata, forming the red lineage. However, recent genetic evidence groups the Stramenopiles, Alveolata and green plastid containing Rhizaria as SAR, excluding Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Sequences coding for plastid and cytosol targeted homomeric ACCases were isolated from Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO), Chromera velia and Nannochloropsis oculata, representing three taxonomic groups for which sequences were lacking. Phylogenetic analyses show that cytosolic ACCase strongly supports the SAR grouping. Conversely, plastidial ACCase groups the SAR with the Haptophyta, Cryptophyta and Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta). These two ACCase based, phylogenetic relationships suggest that the plastidial homomeric ACCase was acquired by the

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleus-Encoded Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases Targeted at the Cytosol and Plastid of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Huerlimann, Roger; Zenger, Kyall R.; Jerry, Dean R.; Heimann, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of algal phylogeny is being impeded by an unknown number of events of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and primary and secondary/tertiary endosymbiosis. Through these events, previously heterotrophic eukaryotes developed photosynthesis and acquired new biochemical pathways. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis and elongation pathways in algae, where ACCase exists in two locations (cytosol and plastid) and in two forms (homomeric and heteromeric). All algae contain nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase in the cytosol, independent of the origin of the plastid. Nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase is also found in plastids of algae that arose from a secondary/tertiary endosymbiotic event. In contrast, plastids of algae that arose from a primary endosymbiotic event contain heteromeric ACCase, which consists of three nucleus-encoded and one plastid-encoded subunits. These properties of ACCase provide the potential to inform on the phylogenetic relationships of hosts and their plastids, allowing different hypothesis of endosymbiotic events to be tested. Alveolata (Dinoflagellata and Apicomplexa) and Chromista (Stramenopiles, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta) have traditionally been grouped together as Chromalveolata, forming the red lineage. However, recent genetic evidence groups the Stramenopiles, Alveolata and green plastid containing Rhizaria as SAR, excluding Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Sequences coding for plastid and cytosol targeted homomeric ACCases were isolated from Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO), Chromera velia and Nannochloropsis oculata, representing three taxonomic groups for which sequences were lacking. Phylogenetic analyses show that cytosolic ACCase strongly supports the SAR grouping. Conversely, plastidial ACCase groups the SAR with the Haptophyta, Cryptophyta and Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta). These two ACCase based, phylogenetic relationships suggest that the plastidial homomeric ACCase was acquired by the

  19. Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase sustains a fatty acid-dependent remote signal to waterproof the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Napal, Laura; Rubin, Thomas; Poidevin, Mickael; Perrin, Laurent; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Montagne, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA-interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA-interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles-the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA) within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes. PMID:22956916

  20. Diversity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large-subunit genes from groundwater and aquifer microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Alfreider, A; Vogt, C; Hoffmann, D; Babel, W

    2003-05-01

    To test our hypothesis that microbial autotrophic CO2 fixation plays an important role in subsurface systems of two large groundwater remediation projects, several anaerobic/microaerobic aquifer and groundwater samples were taken and used to investigate the distribution and phylogenetic diversity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) large-subunit genes. Two primer sets were designed for amplifying partial-subunit genes of RubisCO forms I and II from the DNA, directly extracted from the samples. PCR products were used to construct five clone libraries with putative RubisCO form I sequences, and two libraries of DNA amplified by form II primers. Selected clones were screened for variation by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and a total of 28 clone inserts were sequenced and further analyzed. The phylogenies constructed from amino acid sequences derived from the partial RubisCO large-subunit sequences showed a distinct pattern. Diverse sequences affiliated to the cluster of green-like type IA RubisCO sequences were found, representing various obligate and facultative chemolithoautotrophic Proteobacteria, whereas type II RubisCO sequences detected were most closely related to those of thiobacilli species. An isolate obtained from aquifer enrichment culture, which has been provisionally named Halothiobacillus sp. RA13 on the basis of its 16S rDNA sequence, was found to contain both types of RubisCO genes, i.e., forms I and II. Physiological and ecological considerations are discussed in the context of additional microbial data and physicochemical properties.

  1. Brain glycogenolysis, adrenoceptors, pyruvate carboxylase, Na+,K+-ATPase and Marie E. Gibbs' pioneering learning studies

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Leif; Xu, Junnan; Song, Dan; Du, Ting; Yan, Enzhi; Peng, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of glycogenolysis, occurring in astrocytes but not in neurons, in learning is undisputed (Duran et al., 2013). According to one school of thought the role of astrocytes for learning is restricted to supply of substrate for neuronal oxidative metabolism. The present “perspective” suggests a more comprehensive and complex role, made possible by lack of glycogen degradation, unless specifically induced by either (1) activation of astrocytic receptors, perhaps especially β-adrenergic or (2) even small increases in extracellular K+ concentration above its normal resting level. It discusses (1) the known importance of glycogenolysis for glutamate formation, requiring pyruvate carboxylation; (2) the established role of K+-stimulated glycogenolysis for K+ uptake in cultured astrocytes, which probably indicates that astrocytes are an integral part of cellular K+ homeostasis in the brain in vivo; and (3) the plausible role of transmitter-induced glycogenolysis, stimulating Na+,K+-ATPase/NKCC1 activity and thereby contributing both to the post-excitatory undershoot in extracellular K+ concentration and the memory-enhancing effect of transmitter-mediated reduction of slow neuronal afterhyperpolarization (sAHP). PMID:23565080

  2. Soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit: Mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, R.B.

    1990-02-01

    The goals of examining the mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover in higher plants remain the same. We will continue with two of the major approaches (1) in vivo chemical modification of RNA structure and (2) analysis of Rubisco SSU RNA structure and turnover in transgenic plants. We plan to reduce the amount of molecular physiology (studies of transcription and steady state levels) to a minimum and expand these efforts into the analysis of plant rebonucleases. We have also broadened our examination of light induced turnover of rubisco SSU RNA to include general RNA turnover. We plan to identify specific 3{prime}->5{prime} precessive ribonuclease by complementation of E. coli mutants. The activity of these novel RNases and their potential role in plant RNA turnover and processing will be characterized.

  3. Conversion of carbon dioxide to oxaloacetate using integrated carbonic anhydrase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwang Suk; Jeon, Hancheol; Gu, Man Bock; Pack, Seung Pil; Jin, EonSeon

    2013-12-01

    The development and implementation of strategies for CO2 mitigation are necessary to counteract the greenhouse gas effect of carbon dioxide emissions. To demonstrate the possibility of simultaneously capturing CO2 and utilizing four-carbon compounds, an integrated system using CA and PEPCase was developed, which mimics an in vivo carbon dioxide concentration mechanism. We first cloned the PEPCase 1 gene of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and produced a recombinant PtPEPCase 1. The affinity column purified PtPEPCase 1 exhibited specific enzymatic activity (5.89 U/mg). When the simultaneous and coordinated reactions of CA from Dunaliella sp. and the PtPEPCase 1 occurred, more OAA was produced than when only PEPCase was present. Therefore, this integrated CA-PEPCase system can be used not only to capture CO2 but also for a new technology to produce value-added four-carbon platform chemicals.

  4. 3-Methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiencies: a coupled enzyme assay useful for their detection.

    PubMed

    Narisawa, K; Gibson, K M; Sweetman, L; Nyhan, W L

    1989-09-15

    A coupled assay has been developed using 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA and NaH14CO3 which permits the detection of deficiencies of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA-lyase. The products of the reaction were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Using this method the site of the defect was documented in a patient with deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, 2 patients with deficiency of 3-methyl-glutaconyl-CoA hydratase, and 2 patients with deficiency of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA lyase.

  5. The cyclic keto-enol insecticide spirotetramat inhibits insect and spider mite acetyl-CoA carboxylases by interfering with the carboxyltransferase partial reaction.

    PubMed

    Lümmen, Peter; Khajehali, Jahangir; Luther, Kai; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the committed and rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. The two partial reactions, carboxylation of biotin followed by carboxyl transfer to the acceptor acetyl-CoA, are performed by two separate domains in animal ACCs. The cyclic keto-enol insecticides and acaricides have been proposed to inhibit insect ACCs. In this communication, we show that the enol derivative of the cylic keto-enol insecticide spirotetramat inhibited ACCs partially purified from the insect species Myzus persicae and Spodoptera frugiperda, as well as the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) ACC which was expressed in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus. Steady-state kinetic analysis revealed competitive inhibition with respect to the carboxyl acceptor, acetyl-CoA, indicating that spirotetramat-enol bound to the carboxyltransferase domain of ACC. Interestingly, inhibition with respect to the biotin carboxylase substrate ATP was uncompetitive. Amino acid residues in the carboxyltransferase domains of plant ACCs are important for binding of established herbicidal inhibitors. Mutating the spider mite ACC at the homologous positions, for example L1736 to either isoleucine or alanine, and A1739 to either valine or serine, did not affect the inhibition of the spider mite ACC by spirotetramat-enol. These results indicated different binding modes of the keto-enols and the herbicidal chemical families.

  6. A yeast acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase mutant links very-long-chain fatty acid synthesis to the structure and function of the nuclear membrane-pore complex.

    PubMed Central

    Schneiter, R; Hitomi, M; Ivessa, A S; Fasch, E V; Kohlwein, S D; Tartakoff, A M

    1996-01-01

    The conditional mRNA transport mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acc1-7-1 (mtr7-1), displays a unique alteration of the nuclear envelope. Unlike nucleoporin mutants and other RNA transport mutants, the intermembrane space expands, protuberances extend from the inner membrane into the intermembrane space, and vesicles accumulate in the intermembrane space. MTR7 is the same gene as ACC1, encoding acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (Acc1p), the rate-limiting enzyme of de novo fatty acid synthesis. Genetic and biochemical analyses of fatty acid synthesis mutants and acc1-7-1 indicate that the continued synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the enzymatic product of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, is required for an essential pathway which is independent from de novo synthesis of fatty acids. We provide evidence that synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids (C26 atoms) is inhibited in acc1-7-1, suggesting that very-long-chain fatty acid synthesis is required to maintain a functional nuclear envelope. PMID:8943372

  7. Prebiotic Fiber Increases Hepatic Acetyl CoA Carboxylase Phosphorylation and Suppresses Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Secretion More Effectively When Used with Metformin in Obese Rats1,2

    PubMed Central

    Pyra, Kim A.; Saha, Dolan C.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2013-01-01

    Independently, metformin (MET) and the prebiotic, oligofructose (OFS), have been shown to increase glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) secretion. Our objective was to determine whether using OFS as an adjunct with MET augments GLP-1 secretion in obese rats. Male, diet-induced obese Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to: 1) high-fat/-sucrose diet [HFHS; control (C); 20% fat, 50% sucrose wt:wt]; 2) HFHS+10% OFS (OFS); 3) HFHS + MET [300 mg/kg/d (MET)]; 4) HFHS+10% OFS+MET (OFS +MET). Body composition, glycemia, satiety hormones, and mechanisms related to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity in plasma, hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK; Western blots), and gut microbiota (qPCR) were examined. Direct effects of MET and SCFA were examined in human enteroendocrine cells. The interaction between OFS and MET affected fat mass, hepatic TG, secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and leptin, and AMPKα2 mRNA and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase (pACC) levels (P < 0.05). Combined, OFS and MET reduced GIP secretion to a greater extent than either treatment alone (P < 0.05). The hepatic pACC level was increased by OFS+MET by at least 50% above all other treatments, which did not differ from each other (P < 0.05). OFS decreased plasma DPP4 activity (P < 0.001). Cecal Bifidobacteria (P < 0.001) were markedly increased and C. leptum decreased (P < 0.001) with OFS consumption. In human enteroendocrine cells, the interaction between MET and SCFA affected GLP-1 secretion (P < 0.04) but was not associated with higher GLP-1 than the highest individual doses. In conclusion, the combined actions of OFS and MET were associated with important interaction effects that have the potential to improve metabolic outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:22223580

  8. Simple determination of the CO sub 2 /O sub 2 specificity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by the specific radioactivity of ( sup 14 C) glycerate 3-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Genhai Zhu; Jensen, R.G.; Hallick, R.B.; Wildner, G.F. )

    1992-02-01

    A new method is presented for measurement of the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} specificity factor of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The ({sup 14}C)3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) from the Rubisco carboxylase reaction and its dilution by the Rubisco oxygenase reaction was monitored by directly measuring the specific radioactivity of PGA. {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation with Rubisco occurred under two reaction conditions: carboxylase with oxygenase with 40 micromolar CO{sub 2} in O{sub 2}-saturated water and carboxylase only with 160 micromolar CO{sub 2} under N{sub 2}. Detection of the specific radioactivity used the amount of PGA as obtained from the peak area, which was determined by pulsed amperometry following separation by high-performance anion exchange chromatography and the radioactive counts of the ({sup 14}C)PGA in the same peak. The specificity factor of Rubisco from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) (93 {plus minus} 4), from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (66 {plus minus} 1), and from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum (13) were comparable with the published values measured by different methods.

  9. Isolated biotin-resistant deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase presenting as a clinically severe form in a newborn with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Bannwart, C; Wermuth, B; Baumgartner, R; Suormala, T; Weismann, U N

    1992-01-01

    The son of Kurdish, consanguineous parents (cousin marriage) presented from the first day of life with initially focal and later generalized attacks of epileptic seizures and a severe generalized muscular hypotonia. Urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate and of 3-methylcrotonylglycine was persistently increased. Diagnosis of isolated biotin-resistant 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency was confirmed in cultured fibroblasts. Psychomotor retardation was progressive, seizures and marked EEG abnormalities persisted. Treatment with leucine and protein-resistricted diet under hospital control did not significantly improve these conditions. The patient died from a cardiac and circulatory failure after a prolonged epileptic attack, with bronchial aspiration. The non-responsiveness of our patient to therapy and the fatal outcome indicate the existence of a severe neonatal variant of this otherwise rather benign genetic enzyme deficiency.

  10. Glutamine Induces the N-Dependent Accumulation of mRNAs Encoding Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and Carbonic Anhydrase in Detached Maize Leaf Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Sugiharto, Bambang; Suzuki, Iwane; Burnell, James N.; Sugiyama, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    We have used detached leaves to study the N-dependent control of expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) genes in maize (Zea mays L. cv Golden Cross Bantam T51). Following supplementation with an N-source and zeatin, PEPC and CA mRNA levels increased in leaves detached from N-deficient maize plants. Addition of methionine sulfoximine (MSX), a specific inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, inhibited the nitrate-dependent increase of PEPC and CA mRNA but did not affect the glutamine-dependent increase of PEPC and CA mRNA levels. Glutamine levels in detached maize leaves treated with various N sources in the presence or absence of MSX correlated with the levels of PEPC and CA mRNA. We conclude that glutamine is the most likely effector for controlling the N-dependent expression of PEPC and CA in maize plants. PMID:16653241

  11. Effects of ambient CO{sub 2} concentration on growth and nitrogen use in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants transformed with an antisense gene to the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Masle, J.; Hudson, G.S.; Badger, M.R.

    1993-12-01

    Growth of the R{sub 1} progeny of a tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum) transformed with an antisense gene to the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was analyzed under 330 and 930 {mu}bar of CO{sub 2r} at an irradiance of 1000 {mu}mol quanta m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Rubisco activity was reduced to 30 to 50% and 13 to 18% of that in the wild type when one and two copies of the antisense gene, respectively, were present in the genome, whereas null plants and wild-type plants had similar phenotypes. At 330 {mu}bar of CO{sub 2} all antisense plants were smaller than the wild type. There was no indication that Rubisco is present in excess in the wild type with respect to growth under high light. Raising ambient CO{sub 2} pressure to 930 {mu}bar caused plants with one copy of the DNA transferred from plasmid to plant genome to achieve the same size as the wild type at 330 {mu}bar, but plants with two copies remained smaller. The authors suggest other intrinsic rate-limiting processes independent of carbohydrate supply were involved. Under plentiful nitrogen supply, reduction in the amount of nitrogen invested in Rubisco was more than compensated for by an increase in leaf nitrate. Nitrogen content of organic matter, excluding Rubisco, was unaffected by the antisense gene. In contrast, it was systematically lower at elevated p{sub a} than at normal p{sub a}. Combined with the positive effects of p{sub a} on growth, this resulted in the single-dose antisense plants growing as fast at 930 {mu}bar of CO{sub 2} as the wild-type plants at 330 {mu}bar of CO{sub 2} but at a lower organic nitrogen cost.

  12. Multi-functional acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus is encoded by a multi-gene family: indication for plastidic localization of at least one isoform.

    PubMed

    Schulte, W; Töpfer, R; Stracke, R; Schell, J; Martini, N

    1997-04-01

    Three genes coding for different multifunctional acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase; EC 6.4.1.2) isoenzymes from Brassica napus were isolated and divided into two major classes according to structural features in their 5' regions: class I comprises two genes with an additional coding exon of approximately 300 bp at the 5' end, and class II is represented by one gene carrying an intron of 586 bp in its 5' untranslated region. Fusion of the peptide sequence encoded by the additional first exon of a class I ACCase gene to the jellyfish Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) and transient expression in tobacco protoplasts targeted GFP to the chloroplasts. In contrast to the deduced primary structure of the biotin carboxylase domain encoded by the class I gene, the corresponding amino acid sequence of the class II ACCase shows higher identity with that of the Arabidopsis ACCase, both lacking a transit peptide. The Arabidopsis ACCase has been proposed to be a cytosolic isoenzyme. These observations indicate that the two classes of ACCase genes encode plastidic and cytosolic isoforms of multi-functional, eukaryotic type, respectively, and that B. napus contains at least one multi-functional ACCase besides the multi-subunit, prokaryotic type located in plastids. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from B. napus, Brassica rapa, and Brassica oleracea, the ancestors of amphidiploid rapeseed, using a fragment of a multi-functional ACCase gene as a probe revealed that ACCase is encoded by a multi-gene family of at least five members.

  13. New insights into the post-translational modification of multiple phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoenzymes by phosphorylation and monoubiquitination during sorghum seed development and germination.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ballesta, Isabel; Baena, Guillermo; Gandullo, Jacinto; Wang, Liqun; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William Charles; Echevarría, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; E.C. 4.1.1.31) was characterized in developing and germinating sorghum seeds, focusing on the transcript and polypeptide abundance of multiple plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PTPC) genes, and the post-translational modification of each isoenzyme by phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination during germination. We observed high levels of SbPPC4 (Sb07g014960) transcripts during early development (stage I), and extensive transcript abundance of SbPPC2 (Sb02g021090) and SbPPC3 (Sb04g008720) throughout the entire life cycle of the seed. Although tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of immunopurified PTPC indicated that four different PTPC isoenzymes were expressed in the developing and germinating seeds, SbPPC3 was the most abundant isozyme of the developing seed, and of the embryo and the aleurone layer of germinating seeds. In vivo phosphorylation of the different PTPC isoenzymes at their conserved N-terminal seryl phosphorylation site during germination was also established by MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, three of the four isoenzymes were partially monoubiquitinated, with MS/MS pinpointing SbPPC2 and SbPPC3 monoubiquitination at the conserved Lys-630 and Lys-624 residues, respectively. Our results demonstrate that monoubiquitination and phosphorylation simultaneously occur in vivo with different PTPC isozymes during seed germination. In addition, we show that PTPC monoubiquitination in germinating sorghum seeds always increases at stage II (emergence of the radicle), is maintained during the aerobic period of rapid cell division and reserve mobilization, and remains relatively constant until stage IV-V when coleoptiles initiate the formation of the photosynthetic tissues.

  14. New insights into the post-translational modification of multiple phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoenzymes by phosphorylation and monoubiquitination during sorghum seed development and germination

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Ballesta, Isabel; Baena, Guillermo; Gandullo, Jacinto; Wang, Liqun; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William Charles; Echevarría, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; E.C. 4.1.1.31) was characterized in developing and germinating sorghum seeds, focusing on the transcript and polypeptide abundance of multiple plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PTPC) genes, and the post-translational modification of each isoenzyme by phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination during germination. We observed high levels of SbPPC4 (Sb07g014960) transcripts during early development (stage I), and extensive transcript abundance of SbPPC2 (Sb02g021090) and SbPPC3 (Sb04g008720) throughout the entire life cycle of the seed. Although tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of immunopurified PTPC indicated that four different PTPC isoenzymes were expressed in the developing and germinating seeds, SbPPC3 was the most abundant isozyme of the developing seed, and of the embryo and the aleurone layer of germinating seeds. In vivo phosphorylation of the different PTPC isoenzymes at their conserved N-terminal seryl phosphorylation site during germination was also established by MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, three of the four isoenzymes were partially monoubiquitinated, with MS/MS pinpointing SbPPC2 and SbPPC3 monoubiquitination at the conserved Lys-630 and Lys-624 residues, respectively. Our results demonstrate that monoubiquitination and phosphorylation simultaneously occur in vivo with different PTPC isozymes during seed germination. In addition, we show that PTPC monoubiquitination in germinating sorghum seeds always increases at stage II (emergence of the radicle), is maintained during the aerobic period of rapid cell division and reserve mobilization, and remains relatively constant until stage IV–V when coleoptiles initiate the formation of the photosynthetic tissues. PMID:27194739

  15. Pleiotropic phenotype of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase-defective yeast cells--viability of a BPL1-amber mutation depending on its readthrough by normal tRNA(Gln)(CAG).

    PubMed

    Hoja, U; Wellein, C; Greiner, E; Schweizer, E

    1998-06-15

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene BPL1 encodes the enzyme biotin:protein ligase (BPL), which is required for acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) holoenzyme formation. Disruption of one of the two BPL1 alleles present in diploid cells results, upon sporulation, in a 2+:2(0) segregation of cell viability, with none of the two viable spores being BPL1 negative. In contrast to BPL1 deletants, BPL1 base-substitution mutants are potentially viable and may be isolated as long-chain-fatty-acid-requiring auxotrophs. In addition to ACC pyruvate carboxylase and an additional biotin-containing protein of unknown function fail to be biotinylated in BPL1-defective yeast mutants. In this study, one of these mutants, bpl1-C25/17, is shown to contain an amber stop codon at position 151 of the 689-amino-acid BPL sequence. In bpl1-C25/17 cells, de novo fatty acid synthesis is almost absent (< 2% of the wild type), while very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) synthesis and, to some extent, medium-long-chain fatty acid elongation are still active. Hence, endogenous malonyl-CoA synthesis is reduced but not abolished by the translational stop mutation. A low rate of intact-BPL synthesis is accomplished in the mutant by occasional readthrough of the bpl1-C25/17 UAG nonsense triplet by normal yeast tRNA(Gln)(CAG). Correspondingly, ACC biotinylation is severely reduced though not completely absent in the two bpl1 mutants studied in this work. Residual BPL1 expression in bpl1-C25/17 cells is increased to a level allowing wild-type-like growth by transformation with high copy numbers of either the wild-type tRNA(Gln)(CAG) or the mutant bpl1-C25/17 genes. It is concluded that the lethality of BPL1 deletants is due to the lack of malonyl-CoA-dependent VLCFA synthesis and that the viability of distinct ACC-defective point mutants is due to their maintenance of a critical level of malonyl-CoA and, hence, VLCFA production. The residual capacity of malonyl-CoA synthesis, though, is inadequate to allow

  16. Effects of Growth Temperature on the Responses of Ribulose-1,5-Biphosphate Carboxylase, Electron Transport Components, and Sucrose Synthesis Enzymes to Leaf Nitrogen in Rice, and Their Relationships to Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Makino, A.; Nakano, H.; Mae, T.

    1994-08-01

    Effects of growth temperature on the photosynthetic gas-exchange rates and their underlying biochemical properties were examined in young, fully expanded leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The plants were grown hydroponically under day/night temperature regimes of 18/15[deg]C, 23/18[deg]C, and 30/23[deg]C and all photosynthetic measurements were made at a leaf temperature of 25[deg]C and an irradiance of 1800 [mu]mol quanta m-2 s-1. Growth temperature affected the photosynthetic CO2 response curve. The relative ratio of the initial slope to the CO2-saturated photosynthesis increased with rising growth temperature. This was caused mainly by an increase in CO2-limited photosynthesis for a given leaf nitrogen content with rising growth temperature. However, there was no difference in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) content at any given leaf nitrogen content among temperature treatments. In addition, the activation state and catalytic turnover rate of Rubisco were not affected by growth temperature. The increase in CO2-limited photosynthesis with rising growth temperature was the result of an increase in the CO2 transfer conductance between the intercellular airspaces and the carboxylation sites. The amounts of total chlorophyll and light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein II increased for the same leaf nitrogen content with rising growth temperature, but the amounts of cytochrome f and coupling factor 1 and the activities of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and sucrose-phosphate synthase were the same between plants grown at 23/18[deg]C and those grown at 30/23[deg]C. Similarly, CO2-saturated photosynthesis was not different for the same leaf nitrogen content between these treatments. For the 18/15[deg]C-grown plants, a slight decrease in the amounts of cytochrome f and coupling factor 1 and an increase in the activities of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and sucrose-phosphate synthase were found, but these were not reflected in CO2-saturated

  17. Decreased dissociation of the 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase complex from Achromobacter in the presence of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA. A possible regulatory mechanism for the intracellular degradation of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Schiele, U; Stürzer, M

    1975-12-01

    By inactivation of different concentrations of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase from Achromobacter IVS with a fixed concentration of iodoacetamide, it was demonstrated that the degree of dissociation of the complex is considerably lower in the presence of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA. ATP did not produce this effect. This property could serve to regulate the intracellular degradation of the enzyme, if the dissociated subunits were attacked preferentially.

  18. Resistance to spiromesifen in Trialeurodes vaporariorum is associated with a single amino acid replacement in its target enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Karatolos, N; Williamson, M S; Denholm, I; Gorman, K; ffrench-Constant, R; Nauen, R

    2012-06-01

    Spiromesifen is a novel insecticide and is classed as a tetronic acid derivative. It targets the insects' acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) enzyme, causing a reduction in lipid biosynthesis. At the time of this publication, there are no reports of resistance to this class of insecticides in insects although resistance has been observed in several mite species. The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) is a serious pest of protected vegetable and ornamental crops in temperate regions of the world and spiromesifen is widely used in its control. Mortality rates of UK and European populations of T. vaporariorum to spiromesifen were calculated and up to 26-fold resistance was found. We therefore sought to examine the molecular mechanism underlying spiromesifen resistance in this important pest. Pre-treatment with piperonyl butoxide did not synergize spiromesifen, suggesting a target-site resistance mechanism. The full length ACCase gene was sequenced for a range of T. vaporariorum strains and a strong association was found between spiromesifen resistance and a glutamic acid substitution with lysine in position 645 (E645K) of this gene. A TaqMan allelic discrimination assay confirmed these findings. Although this resistance is not considered sufficient to compromise the field performance of spiromesifen, this association of E645K with resistance is the first report of a potential target site mechanism affecting an ACCase inhibitor in an arthropod species.

  19. Characterisation of three cDNA clones encoding different mRNAs for the precursor to the small subunit of wheat ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S M; Bedbrook, J; Speirs, J

    1983-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced three cDNA clones for the nuclear-encoded precursor to the small subunit of the chloroplast enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase of wheat. The nucleotide sequences of these clones are different, indicating that they are probably derived from three different mRNAs. This finding is consistent with the proposal that this polypeptide is encoded by a multigene family in wheat, in support of similar data reported by Broglie et al. (Bio/Technology 1:55-61, 1983). We deduce that the mature small subunit polypeptide is comprised of 128 amino acids and that its precursor contains an N-terminal transit peptide sequence. The sequences of both the mature small subunit and its transit peptide differ at several positions from those determined by Broglie et al, (1983) from a different wheat cultivar. Different wheat cultivars might therefore contain different small subunit polypeptides. A comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the small subunit from wheat, pea, soybean and spinach shows that these sequences are not highly conserved, particularly between monocotyledon and dicotyledon species. Images PMID:6324097

  20. Decreasing the Rate of Metabolic Ketone Reduction in the Discovery of a Clinical Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitors offer significant potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hepatic steatosis, and cancer. However, the identification of tool compounds suitable to test the hypothesis in human trials has been challenging. An advanced series of spirocyclic ketone-containing ACC inhibitors recently reported by Pfizer were metabolized in vivo by ketone reduction, which complicated human pharmacology projections. We disclose that this metabolic reduction can be greatly attenuated through introduction of steric hindrance adjacent to the ketone carbonyl. Incorporation of weakly basic functionality improved solubility and led to the identification of 9 as a clinical candidate for the treatment of T2DM. Phase I clinical studies demonstrated dose-proportional increases in exposure, single-dose inhibition of de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and changes in indirect calorimetry consistent with increased whole-body fatty acid oxidation. This demonstration of target engagement validates the use of compound 9 to evaluate the role of DNL in human disease. PMID:25423286

  1. Characterization of Thylakoid-Derived Lipid-Protein Particles Bearing the Large Subunit of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. D.; Ghosh, S.; Dumbroff, E. B.; Thompson, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Lipid-protein particles bearing the 55-kD ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (EC 4.1.1.39) large subunit (RLSU) and no detectable corresponding Rubisco small subunit (RSSU) were isolated from the stroma of intact chloroplasts by flotation centrifugation. Stromal RLSU-bearing particles appear to originate from thylakoids because they can also be generated in vitro by illumination of isolated thylakoids. Their formation in vitro is largely heat denaturable and is facilitated by light or ATP. RLSU-containing lipid-protein particles range from 0.05 to 0.10 [mu]m in radius, contain the same fatty acids as thylakoids, but have a 10- to 15-fold higher free-to-esterified fatty acid ratio than thylakoids. RLSU-bearing lipid-protein particles with no detectable RSSU were also immunopurified from the populations of both stromal lipid-protein particles and those generated in vitro from illuminated thylakoids. Protease shaving indicated that the RLSU is embedded in the lipid-protein particles and that there is also a protease-protected RLSU in thylakoids. These observations collectively indicate that the RLSU associated with thylakoids is released into the stroma by light-facilitated blebbing of lipid-protein particles. The release of RLSU-containing particles may in turn be coordinated with the assembly of Rubisco holoenzyme because chaperonin 60 is also associated with lipid-protein particles isolated from stroma. PMID:12223858

  2. Electrophoretic assay for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in guard cells and other leaf cells of Vicia faba L

    SciTech Connect

    Tarczynski, M.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Arold, N.; Neuhoff, V.; Hampp, R. Max-Planck-Institute fuer Experimentelle Medizin, Goettingen Universitaet Tuebingen )

    1989-04-01

    The ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) contents of guard cells and other cells of Vicia faba L. leaflet were determined. To prevent proteolysis, proteins of frozen protoplast preparations or of cells excised from freeze-dried leaf were extracted directly in a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-containing solution which was heated immediately after sample addition. Protein profiles of the different cell types were obtained by electrophoresis of the extracts and subsequent densitometry of the stained protein bands. About one-third of the protein of palisade parenchyma and of spongy parenchyma was Rubisco large subunit. Using chlorophyll (Chl):protein ratios previously obtained, we calculate mesophyll contained ca. 22 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. In contrast, guard-cell protoplast preparations were calculated to contain from 0.7 to 2.2 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. The upper end of this range is an overestimate resulting from contamination by mesophyll and to the method of peak integration. Extracts of excised guard cells were calculated to contain 0.05 to 0.17 millimole Rubisco per mole Chl. We conclude that Rubisco is absent, or virtually so, in guard cells of V. faba.

  3. The glossyhead1 Allele of ACC1 Reveals a Principal Role for Multidomain Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in the Biosynthesis of Cuticular Waxes by Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.; Xu, C.; Zhao, H.; Parsons, E. P.; Kosma, D. K.; Xu, X.; Chao, D.; Lohrey, G.; Bangarusamy, D. K.; Wang, G.; Bressan, R. A.; Jenks, M. A.

    2011-11-01

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C{sub 20:0} or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling.

  4. The glossyhead1 allele of ACC1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shiyou; Zhao, Huayan; Parsons, Eugene P; Xu, Changcheng; Kosma, Dylan K; Xu, Xiaojing; Chao, Daiyin; Lohrey, Gregory; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth K; Wang, Guangchao; Bressan, Ray A; Jenks, Matthew A

    2011-11-01

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C(20:0) or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling.

  5. Quantitative analyses of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) large-subunit genes (cbbL) in typical paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke-Qing; Bao, Peng; Bao, Qiong-Li; Jia, Yan; Huang, Fu-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-01-01

    The Calvin cycle is known to be the major pathway for CO2 fixation, but our current understanding of its occurrence and importance in paddy soils is poor. In this study, the diversity of three ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large-subunit genes (cbbLG, cbbLR, cbbM) was investigated by clone library, T-RFLP, qPCR, and enzyme assay in five paddy soils in China. The cbbLG sequences revealed a relatively low level of diversity and were mostly related to the sequences of species from Thiobacillus. In contrast, highly diverse cbbLR and cbbM sequences were dispersed on the phylogenetic trees, and most of them were distantly related to known sequences, even forming separate clusters. Abundances of three cbbL genes ranged from 10(6) to 10(9) copies g(-1) soil, and cbbLR outnumbered cbbM and cbbLG in all soil samples, indicating that cbbLR may play a more important role than other two cbbL genes. Soil properties significantly influenced cbbL diversity in five paddy soils, of which clay content, C/N ratio, CEC, pH, and SOC correlated well with variations in microbial composition and abundance. In summary, this study provided a comparison of three cbbL genes, advancing our understanding of their role in carbon sequestration and nutrient turnover in the paddy soil.

  6. Modification of the Host Cell Lipid Metabolism Induced by Hypolipidemic Drugs Targeting the Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Impairs West Nile Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Casas, Josefina; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes that causes meningitis and encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. Several studies have highlighted that flavivirus infection is highly dependent on cellular lipids for virus replication and infectious particle biogenesis. The first steps of lipid synthesis involve the carboxylation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to malonyl-CoA that is catalyzed by the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). This makes ACC a key enzyme of lipid synthesis that is currently being evaluated as a therapeutic target for different disorders, including cancers, obesity, diabetes, and viral infections. We have analyzed the effect of the ACC inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) on infection by WNV. Lipidomic analysis of TOFA-treated cells confirmed that this drug reduced the cellular content of multiple lipids, including those directly implicated in the flavivirus life cycle (glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol). Treatment with TOFA significantly inhibited the multiplication of WNV in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis of the antiviral effect of this drug showed that the inhibitory effect was related to a reduction of viral replication. Furthermore, treatment with another ACC inhibitor, 3,3,14,14-tetramethylhexadecanedioic acid (MEDICA 16), also inhibited WNV infection. Interestingly, TOFA and MEDICA 16 also reduced the multiplication of Usutu virus (USUV), a WNV-related flavivirus. These results point to the ACC as a druggable cellular target suitable for antiviral development against WNV and other flaviviruses. PMID:26503654

  7. Genetic dissection of methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase indicates a complex role for mitochondrial leucine catabolism during seed development and germination.

    PubMed

    Ding, Geng; Che, Ping; Ilarslan, Hilal; Wurtele, Eve S; Nikolau, Basil J

    2012-05-01

    3-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase (MCCase) is a nuclear-encoded, mitochondrial-localized biotin-containing enzyme. The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme is required for leucine (Leu) catabolism, and it may also play a role in the catabolism of isoprenoids and the mevalonate shunt. In Arabidopsis, two MCCase subunits (the biotinylated MCCA subunit and the non-biotinylated MCCB subunit) are each encoded by single genes (At1g03090 and At4g34030, respectively). A reverse genetic approach was used to assess the physiological role of MCCase in plants. We recovered and characterized T-DNA and transposon-tagged knockout alleles of the MCCA and MCCB genes. Metabolite profiling studies indicate that mutations in either MCCA or MCCB block mitochondrial Leu catabolism, as inferred from the increased accumulation of Leu. Under light deprivation conditions, the hyper-accumulation of Leu, 3-methylcrotonyl CoA and isovaleryl CoA indicates that mitochondrial and peroxisomal Leu catabolism pathways are independently regulated. This biochemical block in mitochondrial Leu catabolism is associated with an impaired reproductive growth phenotype, which includes aberrant flower and silique development and decreased seed germination. The decreased seed germination phenotype is only observed for homozygous mutant seeds collected from a parent plant that is itself homozygous, but not from a parent plant that is heterozygous. These characterizations may shed light on the role of catabolic processes in growth and development, an area of plant biology that is poorly understood.

  8. RNAi knockdown of acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene eliminates jinggangmycin-enhanced reproduction and population growth in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Xin; Ge, Lin-Quan; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Lu, Xiu-Li; Li, Xin; Stanley, David; Song, Qi-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in ecology lies in understanding the coexistence of intraguild species, well documented at the organismal level, but not at the molecular level. This study focused on the effects of the antibiotic, jinggangmycin (JGM), a fungicide widely used in Asian rice agroecosystems, on reproduction of insects within the planthopper guild, including the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens and the white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera, both serious resurgence rice pests. JGM exposure significantly increased BPH fecundity and population growth, but suppressed both parameters in laboratory and field WBPH populations. We used digital gene expression and transcriptomic analyses to identify a panel of differentially expressed genes, including a set of up-regulated genes in JGM-treated BPH, which were down-regulated in JGM-treated WBPH. RNAi silencing of Acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACC), highly expressed in JGM-treated BPH, reduced ACC expression (by > 60%) and eliminated JGM-induced fecundity increases in BPH. These findings support our hypothesis that differences in ACC expression separates intraguild species at the molecular level. PMID:26482193

  9. Nucleotide variability at the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase gene and the signature of herbicide selection in the grass weed Alopecurus myosuroides (Huds.).

    PubMed

    Délye, Christophe; Straub, Cécile; Michel, Séverine; Le Corre, Valérie

    2004-05-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) is the target of highly effective herbicides. We investigated the nucleotide variability of the ACCase gene in a sample of 18 black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides [Huds.]) populations to search for the signature of herbicide selection. Sequencing 3,396 bp encompassing ACCase herbicide-binding domain in 86 individuals revealed 92 polymorphisms, which formed 72 haplotypes. The ratio of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions was very low, in agreement with ACCase being a vital metabolic enzyme. Within black grass, most nonsynonymous substitutions were related to resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. Differentiation between populations was strong, in contrast to expectations for an allogamous, annual plant. Significant H tests revealed recent hitchhiking events within populations. These results were consistent with recent and local positive selection. We propose that, although they have only been used since at most 15 black-grass generations, ACCase-inhibiting herbicides have exerted a positive selection targeting resistant haplotypes that has been strong enough to have a marked effect upon ACCase nucleotide diversity. A minimum-spanning network of nonrecombinant haplotypes revealed multiple, independent apparitions of resistance-associated mutations. This study provides the first evidence for the signature of ongoing, recent, pesticide selection upon variation at the gene encoding the targeted enzyme in natural plant populations.

  10. The effect of nitrogen limitation on acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression and fatty acid content in Chromera velia and Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO).

    PubMed

    Huerlimann, Roger; Steinig, Eike J; Loxton, Heather; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R; Heimann, Kirsten

    2014-06-15

    Lipids from microalgae have become a valuable product with applications ranging from biofuels to human nutrition. While changes in fatty acid (FA) content and composition under nitrogen limitation are well documented, the involved molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is a key enzyme in the FA synthesis and elongation pathway. Plastidial and cytosolic ACCases provide malonyl-CoA for de novo FA synthesis in the plastid and FA elongation in the endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. The present study aimed at investigating the expression of plastidial and cytosolic ACCase in Chromera velia and Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO) and their impact on FA content and elongation level when grown under nitrogen-deplete conditions. In C. velia, plastidial ACCase was significantly upregulated during nitrogen starvation and with culture age, strongly correlating with increased FA content. Conversely, plastidial ACCase of I. aff. galbana was not differentially expressed in nitrogen-deplete cultures, but upregulated during the logarithmic phase of nitrogen-replete cultures. In contrast to plastidial ACCase, the cytosolic ACCase of C. velia was downregulated with culture age and nitrogen-starvation, strongly correlating with an increase in medium-chain FAs. In conclusion, the expression of plastidial and cytosolic ACCase changed with growth phase and nutrient status in a species-specific manner and nitrogen limitation did not always result in FA accumulation.

  11. Nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict in pea (Pisum sativum L.) is associated with nuclear and plastidic candidate genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Vera S; Zaytseva, Olga O; Mglinets, Anatoliy V; Shatskaya, Natalia V; Kosterin, Oleg E; Vasiliev, Gennadiy V

    2015-01-01

    In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L.), nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized.

  12. Decreasing the Rate of Metabolic Ketone Reduction in the Discovery of a Clinical Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, David A.; Kung, Daniel W.; Esler, William P.; Amor, Paul A.; Bagley, Scott W.; Beysen, Carine; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Santos; Doran, Shawn D.; Limberakis, Chris; Mathiowetz, Alan M.; McPherson, Kirk; Price, David A.; Ravussin, Eric; Sonnenberg, Gabriele E.; Southers, James A.; Sweet, Laurel J.; Turner, Scott M.; Vajdos, Felix F.

    2014-12-26

    We found that Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitors offer significant potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hepatic steatosis, and cancer. However, the identification of tool compounds suitable to test the hypothesis in human trials has been challenging. An advanced series of spirocyclic ketone-containing ACC inhibitors recently reported by Pfizer were metabolized in vivo by ketone reduction, which complicated human pharmacology projections. Here, we disclose that this metabolic reduction can be greatly attenuated through introduction of steric hindrance adjacent to the ketone carbonyl. Incorporation of weakly basic functionality improved solubility and led to the identification of 9 as a clinical candidate for the treatment of T2DM. Phase I clinical studies demonstrated dose-proportional increases in exposure, single-dose inhibition of de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and changes in indirect calorimetry consistent with increased whole-body fatty acid oxidation. This demonstration of target engagement validates the use of compound 9 to evaluate the role of DNL in human disease.

  13. The Importance of the Strictly Conserved, C-terminal Glycine Residue in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase for Overall Catalysis: Mutagenesis and Truncation of GLY-961 in the Sorghum C4 Leaf Isoform

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,W.; Ahmed, S.; Moriyama, H.; Chollet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a 'multifaceted', allosteric enzyme involved in C4 acid metabolism in green plants/microalgae and prokaryotes. Before the elucidation of the three-dimensional structures of maize C4 leaf and Escherichia coli PEPC, our truncation analysis of the sorghum C4 homologue revealed important roles for the enzyme's C-terminal {alpha}-helix and its appended QNTG{sup 961} tetrapeptide in polypeptide stability and overall catalysis, respectively. Collectively, these functional and structural observations implicate the importance of the PEPC C-terminal tetrapeptide for both catalysis and negative allosteric regulation. We have now more finely dissected this element of PEPC structure-function by modification of the absolutely conserved C-terminal glycine of the sorghum C4 isoform by site-specific mutagenesis (G961(A/V/D)) and truncation ({Delta}C1/C4). Although the C4 polypeptide failed to accumulate in a PEPC{sup -} strain (XH11) of E. coli transformed with the Asp mutant, the other variants were produced at wild-type levels. Although neither of these four mutants displayed an apparent destabilization of the purified PEPC homotetramer, all were compromised catalytically in vivo and in vitro. Functional complementation of XH11 cells under selective growth conditions was restricted progressively by the Ala, {Delta}C1 and Val, and {Delta}C4 modifications. Likewise, steady-state kinetic analysis of the purified mutant enzymes revealed corresponding negative trends in k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K0.5 (phosphoenolpyruvate) but not in K{sub 0.5} or the Hill coefficient. Homology modeling of these sorghum C-terminal variants against the structure of the closely related maize C4 isoform predicted perturbations in active-site molecular cavities and/or ion-pairing with essential, invariant Arg-638. These collective observations reveal that even a modest, neutral alteration of the PEPC C-terminal hydrogen atom side chain is detrimental to enzyme

  14. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Relationships of PD-0162819, a Biotin Carboxylase Inhibitor Representing a New Class of Antibacterial Compounds, Using In Vitro Infection Models

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Dority, Michael; Buist, Susan; Mehrens, Shawn; Zhu, Tong; Xiao, Deqing; Miller, J. Richard; Hanna, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships of a prototype biotin carboxylase (BC) inhibitor, PD-0162819, against Haemophilus influenzae 3113 in static concentration time-kill (SCTK) and one-compartment chemostat in vitro infection models. H. influenzae 3113 was exposed to PD-0162819 concentrations of 0.5 to 16× the MIC (MIC = 0.125 μg/ml) and area-under-the-curve (AUC)/MIC ratios of 1 to 1,100 in SCTK and chemostat experiments, respectively. Serial samples were collected over 24 h. For efficacy driver analysis, a sigmoid maximum-effect (Emax) model was fitted to the relationship between bacterial density changes over 24 h and corresponding PK/PD indices. A semimechanistic PK/PD model describing the time course of bacterial growth and death was developed. The AUC/MIC ratio best explained efficacy (r2 = 0.95) compared to the peak drug concentration (Cmax)/MIC ratio (r2 = 0.76) and time above the MIC (T>MIC) (r2 = 0.88). Static effects and 99.9% killing were achieved at AUC/MIC values of 500 and 600, respectively. For time course analysis, the net bacterial growth rate constant, maximum bacterial density, and maximum kill rate constant were similar in SCTK and chemostat studies, but PD-0162819 was more potent in SCTK than in the chemostat (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 0.046 versus 0.34 μg/ml). In conclusion, basic PK/PD relationships for PD-0162819 were established using in vitro dynamic systems. Although the bacterial growth parameters and maximum drug effects were similar in SCTK and the chemostat system, PD-0162819 appeared to be more potent in SCTK, illustrating the importance of understanding the differences in preclinical models. Additional studies are needed to determine the in vivo relevance of these results. PMID:21986824

  15. Pyruvate Carboxylase Is Up-Regulated in Breast Cancer and Essential to Support Growth and Invasion of MDA-MB-231 Cells.

    PubMed

    Phannasil, Phatchariya; Thuwajit, Chanitra; Warnnissorn, Malee; Wallace, John C; MacDonald, Michael J; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an anaplerotic enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, which is crucial for replenishing tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates when they are used for biosynthetic purposes. We examined the expression of PC by immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded breast tissue sections of 57 breast cancer patients with different stages of cancer progression. PC was expressed in the cancerous areas of breast tissue at higher levels than in the non-cancerous areas. We also found statistical association between the levels of PC expression and tumor size and tumor stage (P < 0.05). The involvement of PC with these two parameters was further studied in four breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials; i.e., MCF-7, SKBR3 (low metastasis), MDA-MB-435 (moderate metastasis) and MDA-MB-231 (high metastasis). The abundance of both PC mRNA and protein in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells was 2-3-fold higher than that in MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PC expression in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells resulted in a 50% reduction of cell proliferation, migration and in vitro invasion ability, under both glutamine-dependent and glutamine-depleted conditions. Overexpression of PC in MCF-7 cells resulted in a 2-fold increase in their proliferation rate, migration and invasion abilities. Taken together the above results suggest that anaplerosis via PC is important for breast cancer cells to support their growth and motility. PMID:26070193

  16. Transcriptional regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α isoforms in dairy ewes during conjugated linoleic acid induced milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Ticiani, E; Urio, M; Ferreira, R; Harvatine, K J; De Oliveira, D E

    2016-10-01

    Feeding trans-10, cis-12 CLA to lactating ewes reduces milk fat by down-regulating expression of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis in the mammary gland and increases adipose tissue lipogenesis. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACC-α) is a key regulated enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis and is decreased by CLA. In the ovine, the ACC-α gene is expressed from three tissue-specific promoters (PI, PII and PIII). This study evaluated promoter-specific ACC-α expression in mammary and adipose tissue of lactating cross-bred Lacaune/Texel ewes during milk fat depression induced by rumen-unprotected trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement. In all, 12 ewes arranged in a completely randomized design were fed during early, mid and late lactation one of the following treatments for 14 days: Control (forage+0.9 kg of concentrate on a dry matter basis) and CLA (forage+0.9 kg of concentrate+27 g/day of CLA (29.9% trans-10, cis-12)). Mammary gland and adipose tissue biopsies were taken on day 14 for gene expression analysis by real-time PCR. Milk fat yield and concentration were reduced with CLA supplementation by 27%, 21% and 35% and 28%, 26% and 42% during early, mid and late lactation, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that trans-10, cis-12 CLA down-regulates mammary ACC-α gene expression by decreasing expression from PII and PIII in mammary gland and up-regulates adipose ACC-α gene expression by increasing expression from PI.

  17. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships of PD-0162819, a biotin carboxylase inhibitor representing a new class of antibacterial compounds, using in vitro infection models.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Adam; Kuhn, Michael; Dority, Michael; Buist, Susan; Mehrens, Shawn; Zhu, Tong; Xiao, Deqing; Miller, J Richard; Hanna, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships of a prototype biotin carboxylase (BC) inhibitor, PD-0162819, against Haemophilus influenzae 3113 in static concentration time-kill (SCTK) and one-compartment chemostat in vitro infection models. H. influenzae 3113 was exposed to PD-0162819 concentrations of 0.5 to 16× the MIC (MIC = 0.125 μg/ml) and area-under-the-curve (AUC)/MIC ratios of 1 to 1,100 in SCTK and chemostat experiments, respectively. Serial samples were collected over 24 h. For efficacy driver analysis, a sigmoid maximum-effect (E(max)) model was fitted to the relationship between bacterial density changes over 24 h and corresponding PK/PD indices. A semimechanistic PK/PD model describing the time course of bacterial growth and death was developed. The AUC/MIC ratio best explained efficacy (r(2) = 0.95) compared to the peak drug concentration (C(max))/MIC ratio (r(2) = 0.76) and time above the MIC (T>MIC) (r(2) = 0.88). Static effects and 99.9% killing were achieved at AUC/MIC values of 500 and 600, respectively. For time course analysis, the net bacterial growth rate constant, maximum bacterial density, and maximum kill rate constant were similar in SCTK and chemostat studies, but PD-0162819 was more potent in SCTK than in the chemostat (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] = 0.046 versus 0.34 μg/ml). In conclusion, basic PK/PD relationships for PD-0162819 were established using in vitro dynamic systems. Although the bacterial growth parameters and maximum drug effects were similar in SCTK and the chemostat system, PD-0162819 appeared to be more potent in SCTK, illustrating the importance of understanding the differences in preclinical models. Additional studies are needed to determine the in vivo relevance of these results.

  18. Bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes from developing castor oil seeds interact in vivo and associate with the surface of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonho; Khuu, Nicholas; Howard, Alexander S M; Mullen, Robert T; Plaxton, William C

    2012-07-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from developing castor oil seeds (COS) exists as two distinct oligomeric isoforms. The typical class-1 PEPC homotetramer consists of 107-kDa plant-type PEPC (PTPC) subunits, whereas the allosterically desensitized 910-kDa class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from the association of class-1 PEPC with 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. The in vivo interaction and subcellular location of COS BTPC and PTPC were assessed by imaging fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged PEPCs in tobacco suspension-cultured cells. The BTPC-FP mainly localized to cytoplasmic punctate/globular structures, identified as mitochondria by co-immunostaining of endogenous cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of respiration with KCN resulted in proportional decreases and increases in mitochondrial versus cytosolic BTPC-FP, respectively. The FP-PTPC and NLS-FP-PTPC (containing an appended nuclear localization signal, NLS) localized to the cytosol and nucleus, respectively, but both co-localized with mitochondrial-associated BTPC when co-expressed with BTPC-FP. Transmission electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled developing COS revealed that BTPC and PTPC are localized at the mitochondrial (outer) envelope, as well as the cytosol. Moreover, thermolysin-sensitive BTPC and PTPC polypeptides were detected on immunoblots of purified COS mitochondria. Overall, our results demonstrate that: (i) COS BTPC and PTPC interact in vivo as a class-2 PEPC complex that associates with the surface of mitochondria, (ii) BTPC's unique and divergent intrinsically disordered region mediates its interaction with PTPC, whereas (iii) the PTPC-containing class-1 PEPC is entirely cytosolic. We hypothesize that mitochondrial-associated class-2 PEPC facilitates rapid refixation of respiratory CO(2) while sustaining a large anaplerotic flux to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons withdrawn for biosynthesis. PMID:22404138

  19. Bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes from developing castor oil seeds interact in vivo and associate with the surface of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonho; Khuu, Nicholas; Howard, Alexander S M; Mullen, Robert T; Plaxton, William C

    2012-07-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from developing castor oil seeds (COS) exists as two distinct oligomeric isoforms. The typical class-1 PEPC homotetramer consists of 107-kDa plant-type PEPC (PTPC) subunits, whereas the allosterically desensitized 910-kDa class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from the association of class-1 PEPC with 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. The in vivo interaction and subcellular location of COS BTPC and PTPC were assessed by imaging fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged PEPCs in tobacco suspension-cultured cells. The BTPC-FP mainly localized to cytoplasmic punctate/globular structures, identified as mitochondria by co-immunostaining of endogenous cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of respiration with KCN resulted in proportional decreases and increases in mitochondrial versus cytosolic BTPC-FP, respectively. The FP-PTPC and NLS-FP-PTPC (containing an appended nuclear localization signal, NLS) localized to the cytosol and nucleus, respectively, but both co-localized with mitochondrial-associated BTPC when co-expressed with BTPC-FP. Transmission electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled developing COS revealed that BTPC and PTPC are localized at the mitochondrial (outer) envelope, as well as the cytosol. Moreover, thermolysin-sensitive BTPC and PTPC polypeptides were detected on immunoblots of purified COS mitochondria. Overall, our results demonstrate that: (i) COS BTPC and PTPC interact in vivo as a class-2 PEPC complex that associates with the surface of mitochondria, (ii) BTPC's unique and divergent intrinsically disordered region mediates its interaction with PTPC, whereas (iii) the PTPC-containing class-1 PEPC is entirely cytosolic. We hypothesize that mitochondrial-associated class-2 PEPC facilitates rapid refixation of respiratory CO(2) while sustaining a large anaplerotic flux to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons withdrawn for biosynthesis.

  20. Abundance and distribution of archaeal acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase genes indicative for putatively chemoautotrophic Archaea in the tropical Atlantic's interior.

    PubMed

    Bergauer, Kristin; Sintes, Eva; van Bleijswijk, Judith; Witte, Harry; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2013-06-01

    Recently, evidence suggests that dark CO2 fixation in the pelagic realm of the ocean does not only occur in the suboxic and anoxic water bodies but also in the oxygenated meso- and bathypelagic waters of the North Atlantic. To elucidate the significance and phylogeny of the key organisms mediating dark CO2 fixation in the tropical Atlantic, we quantified functional genes indicative for CO2 fixation. We used a Q-PCR-based assay targeting the bifunctional acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase (accA subunit), a key enzyme powering inter alia the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle (HP/HB) and the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA). Quantification of accA-like genes revealed a consistent depth profile in the upper mesopelagial with increasing gene abundances from subsurface layers towards the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), coinciding with an increase in archaeal amoA gene abundance. Gene abundance profiles of metabolic marker genes (accA, amoA) were correlated with thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA gene abundances as well as CO2 fixation rates to link the genetic potential to actual rate measurements. AccA gene abundances correlated with archaeal amoA gene abundance throughout the water column (r(2)  = 0.309, P < 0.0001). Overall, a substantial genetic predisposition of CO2 fixation was present in the dark realm of the tropical Atlantic in both Archaea and Bacteria. Hence, dark ocean CO2 fixation might be more widespread among prokaryotes inhabiting the oxygenated water column of the ocean's interior than hitherto assumed.

  1. Thyroid hormone and dietary carbohydrate induce different hepatic zonation of both "spot 14" and acetyl-coenzyme-A carboxylase: a novel mechanism of coregulation.

    PubMed

    Kinlaw, W B; Tron, P; Witters, L A

    1993-08-01

    The S14 gene encodes a protein found in the nuclei of lipogenic tissues that is induced synergistically by thyroid hormone (T3) and dietary carbohydrate, as are several lipogenic enzymes. In hyperthyroid rats, hepatic expression of S14 protein is zonated. The established association of S14 gene expression with lipogenesis, therefore, prompted a comparison of the zonal distribution of induction of S14 and acetyl-coenzyme-A-carboxylase (ACC), a rate-determining enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, by T3, dietary carbohydrate, and both stimuli together. As determined by immunohistochemistry, liver from chow-fed hypothyroid or euthyroid fasted rats showed essentially no reactivity for either S14 or ACC. Sections from hyperthyroid rats exhibited nuclear staining with anti-S14 antibodies and cytoplasmic reactivity for ACC that was primarily perivenous in both cases. In contrast, sections from euthyroid-fasted animals refed a high carbohydrate, fat-free diet for 3 days exhibited panlobular expression of both antigens. Animals receiving both T3 and high carbohydrate diet refeeding showed increased intensity of staining, compared to the refed group, for both S14 and ACC across the entire lobule. Therefore, in rats consuming normal chow, T3 induced S14 and ACC only in the perivenous zone of the acinus, whereas it further induced these proteins across the entire lobule in the presence of increased carbohydrate intake. Modulation, by the carbohydrate content of the diet, of the fraction of the liver that may express S14 and ACC in response to T3 provides a mechanism for coregulation of the genes involved in hepatic lipid formation. Moreover, the observed cozonation of S14 and ACC as well as the quantitatively similar effects of T3 and dietary carbohydrate on S14, ACC, fatty acid synthetase, and ATP-citrate lyase protein abundance prompt the speculation that S14 acts in the nucleus to promote expression of the genes involved in the lipogenic pathway.

  2. Cardiac-specific deletion of acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) prevents metabolic remodeling during pressure-overload hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Olson, David P.; Marney, Luke C.; Garcia-Menendez, Lorena; Synovec, Robert E.; Tian, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO) with increased reliance on glucose are hallmarks of metabolic remodeling that occurs in pathological cardiac hypertrophy and is associated with decreased myocardial energetics and impaired cardiac function. To date, it has not been tested whether prevention of the metabolic switch that occurs during the development of cardiac hypertrophy has unequivocal benefits on cardiac function and energetics. Objectives Since malonyl CoA production via acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid transport, we hypothesized that mice with a cardiac-specific deletion of ACC2 (ACC2H−/−) would maintain cardiac fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and improve function and energetics during the development of pressure-overload hypertrophy. Methods and Results ACC2 deletion led to a significant reduction in cardiac malonyl CoA levels. In isolated perfused heart experiments, left ventricular (LV) function and oxygen consumption were similiar in ACC2H−/− mice despite an ~60% increase in FAO compared to controls (CON). After 8 weeks of pressure-overload via transverse aortic constriction (TAC), ACC2H−/− mice exhibited a substrate utilization profile similar to sham animals while CON-TAC hearts had decreased FAO with increased glycolysis and anaplerosis. Myocardial energetics, assessed by 31P NMR spectroscopy, and cardiac function were maintained in ACC2H−/− after 8 weeks of TAC. Furthermore, ACC2H−/−-TAC demonstrated an attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy with a significant reduction in fibrosis relative to CON-TAC. Conclusions These data suggest that reversion to the fetal metabolic profile in chronic pathological hypertrophy is associated with impaired myocardial function and energetics and maintenance of the inherent cardiac metabolic profile and mitochondrial oxidative capacity is a viable therapeutic strategy. PMID:22730442

  3. Newborn screening for 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: population heterogeneity of MCCA and MCCB mutations and impact on risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Sonja C; Polanetz, Roman; Maier, Esther M; Heidenreich, Sylvia C; Niederer, Birgit; Mayerhofer, Peter U; Lagler, Florian; Koch, Hans-Georg; Santer, René; Fletcher, Janice M; Ranieri, Enzo; Das, Anibh M; Spiekerkötter, Ute; Schwab, Karl O; Pötzsch, Simone; Marquardt, Iris; Hennermann, Julia B; Knerr, Ina; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Kohlschmidt, Nicolai; Liebl, Bernhard; Fingerhut, Ralph; Olgemöller, Bernhard; Muntau, Ania C; Roscher, Adelbert A; Röschinger, Wulf

    2006-08-01

    New technology enables expansion of newborn screening (NBS) of inborn errors aimed to prevent adverse outcome. In conditions with a large share of asymptomatic phenotypes, the potential harm created by NBS must carefully be weighed against benefit. Policies vary throughout the United States, Australia, and Europe due to limited data on outcome and treatability of candidate screening conditions. We elaborated the rationale for decision making in 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase deficiency (MCCD), which afflicts leucine catabolism, with reported outcomes ranging from asymptomatic to death. In Bavaria, we screened 677,852 neonates for 25 conditions, including MCCD, based on elevated concentrations of 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (3-HIVA-C). Genotypes of MCCA (MCCC1) and MCCB (MCCC2) were assessed in identified newborns, their relatives, and in individuals (n = 17) from other regions, and correlated to biochemical and clinical phenotypes. NBS revealed eight newborns and six relatives with MCCD, suggesting a higher frequency than previously assumed (1:84,700). We found a strikingly heterogeneous spectrum of 22 novel and eight reported mutations. Allelic variants were neither related to biochemical nor anamnestic data of our probands showing all asymptomatic or benign phenotypes. Comparative analysis of case reports with NBS data implied that only few individuals (< 10%) develop symptoms. In addition, none of the symptoms reported so far can clearly be attributed to MCCD. MCCD is a genetic condition with low clinical expressivity and penetrance. It largely represents as nondisease. So far, there are no genetic or biochemical markers that would identify the few individuals potentially at risk for harmful clinical expression. The low ratio of benefit to harm was pivotal to the decision to exclude MCCD from NBS in Germany. MCCD may be regarded as exemplary of the ongoing controversy arising from the inclusion of potentially asymptomatic conditions, which

  4. Pyruvate Carboxylase Is Up-Regulated in Breast Cancer and Essential to Support Growth and Invasion of MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phannasil, Phatchariya; Thuwajit, Chanitra; Warnnissorn, Malee; Wallace, John C.; MacDonald, Michael J.; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an anaplerotic enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, which is crucial for replenishing tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates when they are used for biosynthetic purposes. We examined the expression of PC by immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded breast tissue sections of 57 breast cancer patients with different stages of cancer progression. PC was expressed in the cancerous areas of breast tissue at higher levels than in the non-cancerous areas. We also found statistical association between the levels of PC expression and tumor size and tumor stage (P < 0.05). The involvement of PC with these two parameters was further studied in four breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials; i.e., MCF-7, SKBR3 (low metastasis), MDA-MB-435 (moderate metastasis) and MDA-MB-231 (high metastasis). The abundance of both PC mRNA and protein in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells was 2-3-fold higher than that in MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PC expression in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells resulted in a 50% reduction of cell proliferation, migration and in vitro invasion ability, under both glutamine-dependent and glutamine-depleted conditions. Overexpression of PC in MCF-7 cells resulted in a 2-fold increase in their proliferation rate, migration and invasion abilities. Taken together the above results suggest that anaplerosis via PC is important for breast cancer cells to support their growth and motility. PMID:26070193

  5. Ozone-induced ethylene emission accelerates the loss of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and nuclear-encoded mRNAs in senescing potato leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, R.E.; Schlagnhaufer, C.D.; Arteca, R.N.

    1995-11-01

    The relationships among O{sub 3}-induced accelerated senescence, induction of ethylene, and changes in specific mRNA and protein levels were investigated in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Norland) plants. When plants were exposed to 0.08 {mu}L L{sup -1} O{sub 3} for 5 h d{sup -1}, steady-state levels of rbcS mRNA declined at least 5-fold in expanding leaves after 3 d of O{sub 3} exposure and ethylene levels increased 6- to 10-fold. The expression of OIP-1, a 1-aminocyclo-propane-1-carboxylate synthase cDNA from potato, correlated with increased production of ethylene and decreased levels of rbcS mRNA in foliage of plants treated with O{sub 3}. In plants exposed to 0.30 {mu}L L{sup -1} O{sub 3} for 4 h, rbcS transcript levels were reduced 4-fold, whereas nuclear run-on experiments revealed that rbcS mRNA may be due, in part, to posttranscriptional regulation. The levels of transcripts for other chloroplast proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and a photosystem II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein decreased in O{sub 3}-treated plants, in parallel with the decrease in rbcS mRNA. The steady-state mRNA level of a cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased in O{sub 3}-treated plants. The induction of ethylene and changes in transcript levels preceded visible leaf damage and decreases in ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein levels. 40 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Associations of polymorphisms in the promoter I of bovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha gene with beef fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Knight, T J; Reecy, J M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Cundiff, L V; Beitz, D C

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter I (PI) region of the bovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha (ACACA) gene and to evaluate the extent to which they were associated with lipid-related traits. Eight novel SNPs were identified, which were AJ276223:g.2064T>A (SNP1), g.2155C>T (SNP2), g.2203G>T (SNP3), g.2268T>C (SNP4), g.2274G>A (SNP5), g.2340A>G (SNP6), g.2350T>C (SNP7) and g.2370A>G (SNP8). Complete linkage disequilibrium was observed among SNP1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8. Phenotypic data were collected from 573 cross-bred steers with six sire breeds, including Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara and Romosinuano. The genotypes of SNP1/2/4/5/6/8 were significantly associated with adjusted backfat thickness. The genotypes of SNP3 were significantly associated with triacylglycerol (TAG) content and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) in Brangus-, Romosinuano- and Bonsmara-sired cattle. Cattle with g.2203GG genotype had greater concentrations of TAG, total lipid, total saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid than did cattle with g.2203GT genotype. The genotypes of SNP7 were significantly associated with fatty acid composition of LM. Cattle with genotype g.2350TC had greater amounts of several fatty acids in LM than did cattle with genotype g.2350CC. Our results suggested that the SNPs in the PI region of ACACA gene are associated with variations in the fatty acid contents in LM. PMID:20002363

  7. Light is essential for degradation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase large subunit during sudden death syndrome development in soybean.

    PubMed

    Ji, J; Scott, M P; Bhattacharyya, M K

    2006-09-01

    FUSARIUM SOLANI f. sp. GLYCINES (Fsg) has been reported to produce at least two phytotoxins. Cell-free FSG culture filtrates containing phytotoxins have been shown to develop foliar sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean. We have investigated the changes in protein profiles of diseased leaves caused by cell-free FSG culture filtrates prepared from FSG isolates. Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was conducted to investigate the protein profiles of diseased and healthy leaves. An approximately 55 kDa protein was found to be absent in diseased leaves. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses and a database search revealed that the missing protein is the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit, which is involved in carbon assimilation and photorespiration. This result was confirmed by Western blot experiments. We have shown that light is essential for disappearance of the Rubisco large subunit initiated by cell-free FSG culture filtrates. The disappearance of the protein is fairly rapid and occurs within 24 h, presumably due to degradation. Cell-free, FSG culture-induced degradation of the Rubisco large subunit was accompanied by accumulation of reactive oxygen species under light conditions. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labelling experiments suggested that programmed cell death was initiated in leaves of seedlings fed with cell-free FSG culture filtrates. These results suggest that, in the presence of light, FSG culture filtrates containing phytotoxins cause degradation of the Rubisco large subunit and accumulation of free radicals and, thereby, initiate programmed cell death leading to foliar SDS development in soybean. PMID:16821191

  8. Recombinant thermoactive phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and its coupling with mesophilic/thermophilic bacterial carbonic anhydrases (CAs) for the conversion of CO2 to oxaloacetate.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Sonia; De Luca, Viviana; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carginale, Vincenzo

    2016-01-15

    With the continuous increase of atmospheric CO2 in the last decades, efficient methods for carbon capture, sequestration, and utilization are urgently required. The possibility of converting CO2 into useful chemicals could be a good strategy to both decreasing the CO2 concentration and for achieving an efficient exploitation of this cheap carbon source. Recently, several single- and multi-enzyme systems for the catalytic conversion of CO2 mainly to bicarbonate have been implemented. In order to design and construct a catalytic system for the conversion of CO2 to organic molecules, we implemented an in vitro multienzyme system using mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. The system, in fact, was constituted by a recombinant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus, in combination with mesophilic/thermophilic bacterial carbonic anhydrases (CAs), for converting CO2 into oxaloacetate, a compound of potential utility in industrial processes. The catalytic procedure is in two steps: the conversion of CO2 into bicarbonate by CA, followed by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate with bicarbonate, catalyzed by PEPC, with formation of oxaloacetate (OAA). All tested CAs, belonging to α-, β-, and γ-CA classes, were able to increase OAA production compared to procedures when only PEPC was used. Interestingly, the efficiency of the CAs tested in OAA production was in good agreement with the kinetic parameters for the CO2 hydration reaction of these enzymes. This PEPC also revealed to be thermoactive and thermostable, and when coupled with the extremely thermostable CA from Sulphurhydrogenibium azorense (SazCA) the production of OAA was achieved even if the two enzymes were exposed to temperatures up to 60 °C, suggesting a possible role of the two coupled enzymes in biotechnological processes.

  9. Evidence for the presence of phosphoriboisomerase and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase in extracts of Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M; Barton, L L

    1977-07-01

    Cell extracts of Desulfovibrio vulgaris were found to incorporate 14CO2 into acid-stable products when ribose-5-phosphate or ribulose-1,5-diphosphate was used as a substrate. This CO2 fixation required adenosine triphosphate and produced 3-phosphoglyceric acid as one of the products. The assimilation of CO2 by pentose phosphates was unrelated to the pyruvate-CO2 exchange reaction. The pyruvate-CO2 exchange did not require adenosine triphosphate, did not produce phosphorylated compounds, and, unlike the pentose phosphate system, required an acidic protein fraction for activity.

  10. The gene for the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is located close to the gene for the large subunit in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans 6301.

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, K; Sugiura, M

    1983-01-01

    The gene for the small subunit (SS) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from a cyanobacterium, Anacystis nidulans 6301, has been cloned and subjected to sequence analysis. The SS coding region is located close to and downstream from the large subunit (LS) coding region on the same DNA strand. The spacer region between the LS and the SS coding regions contains 93 base pairs (bp), and has no promoter-like sequences. The coding region of A. nidulans SS gene contains 333 bp (111 codons). The deduced amino acid sequence of the A. nidulans SS protein shows 40% homology with those of higher plants. Images PMID:6415615

  11. Chemical inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase as a strategy to increase polyhydroxybutyrate yields in transgenic sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Petrasovits, Lars A; McQualter, Richard B; Gebbie, Leigh K; Blackman, Deborah M; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2013-12-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a naturally occurring bacterial polymer that can be used as a biodegradable replacement for some petrochemical-derived plastics. Polyhydroxybutyrate is produced commercially by fermentation, but to reduce production costs, efforts are underway to produce it in engineered plants, including sugarcane. However, PHB levels in this high-biomass crop are not yet commercially viable. Chemical ripening with herbicides is a strategy used to enhance sucrose production in sugarcane and was investigated here as a tool to increase PHB production. Class A herbicides inhibit ACCase activity and thus reduce fatty acid biosynthesis, with which PHB production competes directly for substrate. Treatment of PHB-producing transgenic sugarcane plants with 100 μM of the class A herbicide fluazifop resulted in a fourfold increase in PHB content in the leaves, which peaked ten days post-treatment. The minimum effective concentration of herbicide required to maximize PHB production was 30 μM for fluazifop and 70 μM for butroxydim when applied to saturation. Application of a range of class A herbicides from the DIM and FOP groups consistently resulted in increased PHB yields, particularly in immature leaf tissue. Butroxydim or fluazifop treatment of mature transgenic sugarcane grown under glasshouse conditions increased the total leaf biomass yield of PHB by 50%-60%. Application of an ACCase inhibitor in the form of a class A herbicide to mature sugarcane plants prior to harvest is a promising strategy for improving overall PHB yield. Further testing is required on field-grown transgenic sugarcane to more precisely determine the effectiveness of this strategy.

  12. Electron transport, pep carboxylase activity, and maximal net co2 assimilation exhibit coordinated and proportional decline with loss of hydraulic conductance during water stress in Zea mays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to improve the photosynthetic performance of species are presently focused on leaf-level traits (e.g., quantum efficiency, mesophyll osmoregulation, stress protein regulation). Here, we emphasize that efforts to improve plant performance in arid environments would benefit from also consider...

  13. Activities of the enzymes of hepatic gluconeogenesis in periparturient dairy cows with induced fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Murondoti, Absolom; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Beynen, Anton C; Wensing, Theo; Geelen, Math J H

    2004-05-01

    The objective was to measure the activities of all the enzymes essential for hepatic gluconeogenesis in dairy cows with induced fatty liver. We aimed to induce severe fatty liver in ten experimental cows by overfeeding them during the dry period while seven control cows were maintained on a restricted diet. To induce a marked negative energy balance, the experimental cows were deprived of feed for 8 h immediately after parturition. In addition, the experimental cows were given a restricted amount of diet during the first 5 d of lactation. Liver samples were collected 1 week before and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after parturition. Before parturition, liver triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ between the two groups. After parturition, the experimental cows developed marked fatty liver as indicated by a higher level of triacylglycerols in the liver compared with the control cows. Before parturition, all gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver were lower in experimental cows than in control cows. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate carboxylase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase were significantly lower and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase tended to be lower in the experimental cows. The activities of two crucial enzymes for gluconeogenesis in ruminants, i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase, remained low throughout the sampling period post partum. Activities of pyruvate carboxylase and glucose 6-phosphatase in the experimental cows post partum were upgraded to values similar to those of the control cows. The results showed that the capacity for hepatic gluconeogenesis before parturition was lower in cows with induced fatty liver than in control cows. After parturition, the low activities of crucial gluconeogenic enzymes indicated insufficient production of glucose. It is suggested that the low gluconeogenic capacity leads successively to low blood glucose concentrations, low insulin levels and high rates of

  14. Some enzyme activities associated with the chlorophyll containing layers of the immature barley pericarp.

    PubMed

    Duffus, C M; Rosie, R

    1973-09-01

    Some photosynthetic and biochemical properties of the chlorophyl containing layers of the pericarp of developing barley have been investigated. The tissue changes from pale green to bright green early in development, chlorophyll disappearing only at the later stages of maturity. It contains chloroplasts and probably amyloplasts and starch bearing chloroplasts. It is capable of high rates of light dependent oxygen evolution. It has been shown that the enzyme phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) is present in the pericarp and is 100 times as active in carbon dioxide fixation as ribulose diphosphate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.39). Other enzymes present in the pericarp are phosphoenol pyruvate synthetase, pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.1), malate NAD and NADP dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.37), malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40), and fructose 1,6 diphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). PMID:24458756

  15. New Rimocidin/CE-108 Derivatives Obtained by a Crotonyl-CoA Carboxylase/Reductase Gene Disruption in Streptomyces diastaticus var. 108: Substrates for the Polyene Carboxamide Synthase PcsA

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Leticia; Al-Refai, Mahmoud; Nieto, Cristina; Laatsch, Hartmut; Malpartida, Francisco; Seco, Elena M.

    2015-01-01

    The rimJ gene, which codes for a crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase, lies within the biosynthetic gene cluster for two polyketides belonging to the polyene macrolide group (CE-108 and rimocidin) produced by Streptomyces diastaticus var. 108. Disruption of rimJ by insertional inactivation gave rise to a recombinant strain overproducing new polyene derivatives besides the parental CE-108 (2a) and rimocidin (4a). The structure elucidation of one of them, CE-108D (3a), confirmed the incorporation of an alternative extender unit for elongation step 13. Other compounds were also overproduced in the fermentation broth of rimJ disruptant. The new compounds are in vivo substrates for the previously described polyene carboxamide synthase PcsA. The rimJ disruptant strain, constitutively expressing the pcsA gene, allowed the overproduction of CE-108E (3b), the corresponding carboxamide derivative of CE-108D (3a), with improved pharmacological properties. PMID:26284936

  16. Correct pK values for dissociation constant of carbonic acid lower the reported Km values of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase to half. Presentation of a nomograph and an equation for determining the pK values.

    PubMed

    Yokota, A; Kitaoka, S

    1985-09-30

    In the assay of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in vitro, the concentration of CO2, the substrate of the enzyme, has been calculated from the amount of sodium bicarbonate added to the assay mixture with a dissociation constant of carbonic acid in pure water, 6.35 to 6.37. However, Rubisco is generally assayed at ionic strength of 0.1 to 0.2 M, where the dissociation constant decreases up to 6.06. The decrease of this level of the constant reduces the calculated CO2 concentration in the assay mixture to about half and accordingly the Kms of Rubisco for CO2 reported so far are not correct. The present report presents a nomograph and an equation, from which dissociation constants of carbonic acid in the presence of various concentrations of salts can be easily calculated. PMID:3931642

  17. Human biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase gene (MCCA): cDNA sequence, genomic organization, localization to chromosomal band 3q27, and expression.

    PubMed

    Obata, K; Fukuda, T; Morishita, R; Abe, S; Asakawa, S; Yamaguchi, S; Yoshino, M; Ihara, K; Murayama, K; Shigemoto, K; Shimizu, N; Kondo, I

    2001-03-01

    3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCase; EC 6.4.1.4) is a mitochondrial biotin enzyme and plays an essential role in the catabolism of leucine and isovalerate in animals, bacterial species, and plants. MCCase consists of two subunits, those that are biotin-containing and non-biotin-containing. The genes responsible for these subunits have been isolated in soybean, Arabidopsis thaliana, and tomatoes, but not in mammals. In humans, MCCase deficiency has been thought to be a rare metabolic disease, but the number of patients with MCCase deficiency appears to be increasing with a wide range of clinical presentations, some that result in a lethal condition and others that are asymptomatic. In this report, we have isolated and carried out chromosomal mapping of the gene for the biotin-containing subunit (A subunit) of the human MCCase gene, MCCA. The cDNA predicts an open reading frame coding for a 725-amino-acid protein with mitochondrial signal peptide, biotin carboxylase, and biotin-carrier domains. The gene is composed of at least 19 exons and covers more than 70 kb of sequence on band q27 of chromosome 3. MCCA was abundantly expressed in mitochondria-rich organs, such as the heart, skeletal muscles, kidney, and liver. In exon 13, we observed a His/Pro polymorphism at codon 464 (an A to C transition at nucleotide position 1391 in the cDNA sequence). Then, we determined the DNA sequences of the 5' untranslated region and entire coding regions in two patients with MCCase deficiency, but no sequence substitution was detected, suggesting that the gene mutations might be in the non-biotin-containing subunit (B subunit) gene, MCCB, in these patients.

  18. Comparison of the A-Cc curve fitting methods in determining maximum ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase carboxylation rate, potential light saturated electron transport rate and leaf dark respiration.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zewei; Xu, Ming; Lathrop, Richard G; Wang, Yufei

    2009-02-01

    A review of the literature revealed that a variety of methods are currently used for fitting net assimilation of CO2-chloroplastic CO2 concentration (A-Cc) curves, resulting in considerable differences in estimating the A-Cc parameters [including maximum ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) carboxylation rate (Vcmax), potential light saturated electron transport rate (Jmax), leaf dark respiration in the light (Rd), mesophyll conductance (gm) and triose-phosphate utilization (TPU)]. In this paper, we examined the impacts of fitting methods on the estimations of Vcmax, Jmax, TPU, Rd and gm using grid search and non-linear fitting techniques. Our results suggested that the fitting methods significantly affected the predictions of Rubisco-limited (Ac), ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate-limited (Aj) and TPU-limited (Ap) curves and leaf photosynthesis velocities because of the inconsistent estimate of Vcmax, Jmax, TPU, Rd and gm, but they barely influenced the Jmax : Vcmax, Vcmax : Rd and Jmax : TPU ratio. In terms of fitting accuracy, simplicity of fitting procedures and sample size requirement, we recommend to combine grid search and non-linear techniques to directly and simultaneously fit Vcmax, Jmax, TPU, Rd and gm with the whole A-Cc curve in contrast to the conventional method, which fits Vcmax, Rd or gm first and then solves for Vcmax, Jmax and/or TPU with V(cmax), Rd and/or gm held as constants.

  19. Serine 363 of a Hydrophobic Region of Archaeal Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Thermococcus kodakaraensis Affects CO2/O2 Substrate Specificity and Oxygen Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kreel, Nathan E.; Tabita, F. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Archaeal ribulose 1, 5-bisphospate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is differentiated from other RubisCO enzymes and is classified as a form III enzyme, as opposed to the form I and form II RubisCOs typical of chemoautotrophic bacteria and prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs. The form III enzyme from archaea is particularly interesting as several of these proteins exhibit unusual and reversible sensitivity to molecular oxygen, including the enzyme from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Previous studies with A. fulgidus RbcL2 had shown the importance of Met-295 in oxygen sensitivity and pointed towards the potential significance of another residue (Ser-363) found in a hydrophobic pocket that is conserved in all RubisCO proteins. In the current study, further structure/function studies have been performed focusing on Ser-363 of A. fulgidus RbcL2; various changes in this and other residues of the hydrophobic pocket point to and definitively establish the importance of Ser-363 with respect to interactions with oxygen. In addition, previous findings had indicated discrepant CO2/O2 specificity determinations of the Thermococcus kodakaraensis RubisCO, a close homolog of A. fulgidus RbcL2. It is shown here that the T. kodakaraensis enzyme exhibits a similar substrate specificity as the A. fulgidus enzyme and is also oxygen sensitive, with equivalent residues involved in oxygen interactions. PMID:26381513

  20. Serine 363 of a hydrophobic region of Archaeal ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Thermococcus kodakaraensis affects CO2/O2 substrate specificity and oxygen sensitivity

    DOE PAGES

    Kreel, Nathan E.; Tabita, F. Robert; Berg, Ivan

    2015-09-18

    Archaeal ribulose 1, 5-bisphospate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is differentiated from other RubisCO enzymes and is classified as a form III enzyme, as opposed to the form I and form II RubisCOs typical of chemoautotrophic bacteria and prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs. The form III enzyme from archaea is particularly interesting as several of these proteins exhibit unusual and reversible sensitivity to molecular oxygen, including the enzyme from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Previous studies with A. fulgidus RbcL2 had shown the importance of Met-295 in oxygen sensitivity and pointed towards the potential significance of another residue (Ser-363) found in a hydrophobic pocket that is conservedmore » in all RubisCO proteins. In the current study, further structure/function studies have been performed focusing on Ser-363 of A. fulgidus RbcL2; various changes in this and other residues of the hydrophobic pocket point to and definitively establish the importance of Ser-363 with respect to interactions with oxygen. In addition, previous findings had indicated discrepant CO2/O2 specificity determinations of the Thermococcus kodakaraensis RubisCO, a close homolog of A. fulgidus RbcL2. As a result, it is shown here that the T. kodakaraensis enzyme exhibits a similar substrate specificity as the A. fulgidus enzyme and is also oxygen sensitive, with equivalent residues involved in oxygen interactions.« less

  1. Phylogeny of 16S rRNA, Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase, and Adenosine 5′-Phosphosulfate Reductase Genes from Gamma- and Alphaproteobacterial Symbionts in Gutless Marine Worms (Oligochaeta) from Bermuda and the Bahamas

    PubMed Central

    Blazejak, Anna; Kuever, Jan; Erséus, Christer; Amann, Rudolf; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Gutless oligochaetes are small marine worms that live in obligate associations with bacterial endosymbionts. While symbionts from several host species belonging to the genus Olavius have been described, little is known of the symbionts from the host genus Inanidrilus. In this study, the diversity of bacterial endosymbionts in Inanidrilus leukodermatus from Bermuda and Inanidrilus makropetalos from the Bahamas was investigated using comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization. As in all other gutless oligochaetes examined to date, I. leukodermatus and I. makropetalos harbor large, oval bacteria identified as Gamma 1 symbionts. The presence of genes coding for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase form I (cbbL) and adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA) supports earlier studies indicating that these symbionts are chemoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers. Alphaproteobacteria, previously identified only in the gutless oligochaete Olavius loisae from the southwest Pacific Ocean, coexist with the Gamma 1 symbionts in both I. leukodermatus and I. makropetalos, with the former harboring four and the latter two alphaproteobacterial phylotypes. The presence of these symbionts in hosts from such geographically distant oceans as the Atlantic and Pacific suggests that symbioses with alphaproteobacterial symbionts may be widespread in gutless oligochaetes. The high phylogenetic diversity of bacterial endosymbionts in two species of the genus Inanidrilus, previously known only from members of the genus Olavius, shows that the stable coexistence of multiple symbionts is a common feature in gutless oligochaetes. PMID:16885306

  2. Phylogeny of 16S rRNA, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase genes from gamma- and alphaproteobacterial symbionts in gutless marine worms (oligochaeta) from Bermuda and the Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Blazejak, Anna; Kuever, Jan; Erséus, Christer; Amann, Rudolf; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-08-01

    Gutless oligochaetes are small marine worms that live in obligate associations with bacterial endosymbionts. While symbionts from several host species belonging to the genus Olavius have been described, little is known of the symbionts from the host genus Inanidrilus. In this study, the diversity of bacterial endosymbionts in Inanidrilus leukodermatus from Bermuda and Inanidrilus makropetalos from the Bahamas was investigated using comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization. As in all other gutless oligochaetes examined to date, I. leukodermatus and I. makropetalos harbor large, oval bacteria identified as Gamma 1 symbionts. The presence of genes coding for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase form I (cbbL) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA) supports earlier studies indicating that these symbionts are chemoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers. Alphaproteobacteria, previously identified only in the gutless oligochaete Olavius loisae from the southwest Pacific Ocean, coexist with the Gamma 1 symbionts in both I. leukodermatus and I. makropetalos, with the former harboring four and the latter two alphaproteobacterial phylotypes. The presence of these symbionts in hosts from such geographically distant oceans as the Atlantic and Pacific suggests that symbioses with alphaproteobacterial symbionts may be widespread in gutless oligochaetes. The high phylogenetic diversity of bacterial endosymbionts in two species of the genus Inanidrilus, previously known only from members of the genus Olavius, shows that the stable coexistence of multiple symbionts is a common feature in gutless oligochaetes.

  3. Biotin supplementation increases expression of genes encoding interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta, and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and decreases expression of the gene encoding interleukin-4 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Silke; Eudy, James D; Zempleni, Janos

    2003-03-01

    Stimulation of immune cells by antigens triggers changes in the transcription of genes encoding cytokines and other proteins; these changes in gene expression are part of the normal immune response. Previous studies have provided evidence that biotin status may affect secretion of cytokines by immune cells. Here we determined whether biotin supplementation affects gene expression in human immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy adults before and after supplementation with 8.8 micro mol biotin/d for 21 d. Cells were cultured ex vivo with concanavalin A for 21 h to simulate stimulation with antigens. Expression of genes that play roles in cytokine metabolism, cell proliferation, signal transduction, stress response, apoptosis and biotin homeostasis was quantified by using DNA microarrays and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The abundance of mRNA encoding interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta, and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase was 4.3, 5.6 and 8.9 times greater, respectively, after supplementation with biotin compared with before supplementation. In contrast, the abundance of mRNA encoding interleukin-4 was 6.8 times greater before supplementation than after supplementation. These data suggest that biotin supplementation affects gene expression in human immune cells. Effects of biotin on gene expression are likely to modulate the response of immune cells to antigens.

  4. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. In vivo phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in guard cells of Vicia faba L. is enhanced by fusicoccin and suppressed by abscisic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Z.; Aghoram, K.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Plants regulate water loss and CO{sub 2} gain by modulating the aperture sizes of stomata that penetrate the epidermis. Aperture size itself is increased by osmolyte accumulation and consequent turgor increase in the pair of guard cells that flank each stoma. Guard-cell phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, which catalyzes the regulated step leading to malate synthesis, is crucial for charge and pH maintenance during osmolyte accumulation. Regulation of this cytosolic enzyme by effectors is well documented, but additional regulation by posttranslational modification is predicted by the alteration of PEPC kinetics during stomatal opening. In this study, the authors have investigated whether this alteration is associated with the phosphorylation status of this enzyme. Using sonicated epidermal peels (isolated guard cells) pre-loaded with {sub 32}PO{sub 4}, the authors induced stomatal opening and guard-cell malate accumulation by incubation with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with the FC antagonist, 10 {micro}M abscisic acid (ABA). The phosphorylation status of PEPC was assessed by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and autoradiography. PEPC was phosphorylated when stomata were stimulated to open, and phosphorylation was lessened by incubation with ABA.

  5. The glossyhead1 Allele of ACC1 Reveals a Principal Role for Multidomain Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in the Biosynthesis of Cuticular Waxes by Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Shiyou; Zhao, Huayan; Parsons, Eugene P.; Xu, Changcheng; Kosma, Dylan K.; Xu, Xiaojing; Chao, Daiyin; Lohrey, Gregory; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth K.; Wang, Guangchao; Bressan, Ray A.; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. PMID:21949210

  6. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  7. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The material presented is designed to help students explore geometric patterns involving Fibonnaci numbers and the golden ratio, and to aid in review of basic geometry skills. Worksheet masters intended for duplication are provided. Suggestions are made of possible classroom extensions to the initial activities. (MP)

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of novel tiliroside derivants.

    PubMed

    Qin, Nan; Li, Chun-Bao; Jin, Mei-Na; Shi, Li-Huan; Duan, Hong-Quan; Niu, Wen-Yan

    2011-10-01

    A series of new tiliroside derivatives were synthesized and characterized by analytical (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry. All of the compounds were evaluated for anti-diabetic properties in vitro using HepG2 cells. Compounds 3c, 3d, and 3i-l caused significant enhancements in glucose consumption by insulin-resistant HepG2 cells compared with control cells and cells that were exposed to metformin (an anti-diabetic drug). Moreover, compound 3l significantly activated adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Thus, the tiliroside derivative 3l offers potential to be developed as a new approach for treating type II diabetes.

  9. The nature and alternate rates of the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) oxygenation intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Harpel, M.R.; Chen, Yuh-Ru; Hartman, F.C.

    1995-12-31

    Mutant ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) were employed to investigate the partitioning of carbon flow between photosynthesis or photorespiration. Previous functional and structural studies implicate active site Lys329 and Glu48 or R. rubrum RuBp in promoting addition of CO2 to the RuBP-enediol. Two novel O2-dependent side products generated by the K329A and E49Q mutants provided insight into RuBP oxygenase intermediate and roles of Lys329 and Glu48 in oxygenation.

  10. Photoperiodism and Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Orlando; Morel, Claudine

    1974-01-01

    Metabolic readjustments after a change from long days to short days appear, in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, to be achieved through the operation of two main mechanisms: variation in enzyme capacity, and circadian rhythmicity. After a lag time, capacity in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and capacity in aspartate aminotransferase increase exponentially and appear to be allometrically linked during 50 to 60 short days; then a sudden fall takes place in the activity of the former. Malic enzyme and alanine aminotransferase behave differently. Thus, the operation of the two sections of the pathway (before and after the malate step) give rise to a continuously changing functional compartmentation in the pathway. Circadian rhythmicity, on the other hand, produces time compartmentation through phase shifts and variation in amplitude, independently for each enzyme. These characteristics suggest that the operation of a so-called biological clock would be involved. We propose the hypothesis that feedback regulation would be more accurate and efficient when applied to an already oscillating, clock-controlled enzyme system. PMID:16658749

  11. Metabolism of leucine in fibroblasts from patients with deficiencies in each of the major catabolic enzymes: branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, I; Søvik, O; Sweetman, L; Nyhan, W L

    1985-12-01

    The metabolism of leucine was studied in cultured human fibroblasts derived from patients with defects in each of the major steps in the catabolism of the amino acid. Intact fibroblasts were incubated with [U-14C]leucine and the organic acid products were isolated by liquid partition chromatography. In control fibroblasts the major product of leucine was 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid. This was also the case for fibroblasts with deficiency of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase. There was little or no accumulation of the compound with fibroblasts from patients with maple syrup urine disease and isovaleric acidemia.

  12. Mechanism and Significance of Post-Translational Modifications in the Large (LS) and Small (SS) Subunits of Ribulose-1,5 Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Houtz, Robert, L.

    2012-11-09

    This project focused on a molecular and biochemical characterization of the protein methyltransferases responsible for methylation of the LS and SS in Rubisco, and the associated functional consequences accompanying these modifications. Our results provided some of the most informative structural and mechanistic understandings of SET domain protein methyltransferases. These results also positioned us to provide the first unambiguous assignment of the kinetic reaction mechanism for SET-domain protein methyltransferases, and to design and engineer an alternative substrate for Rubisco LSMT, enabling substrate specificity and functional significance studies. We demonstrated that the minimal substrate recognized by Rubisco LSMT is free lysine as well as monomethyllysine, an observation corroborated both by structural analyses as well as enzymatic activity and subsequent product distribution analyses. Ternary complexes between Rubisco LSMT and free lysine compared to complexes with monomethyllysine demonstrated that the structural basis for multiple methyl group additions is a consequence of hydrogen-bond driven spatial shifts in the amino group of Lys-14, which maintains the direct in-line geometry necessary for SN2 nucleophilic attack. The structural observations are also consistent with the previous proposal that the multiplicity of methyl group additions takes place through a processive mechanism, with successive methyl group additions to an enzyme protein complex which does not disassociate prior to the formation of trimethyllysine. This mechanism has important implications, since the regulation of gene expression by SET domain histone methyltransferases is not only dependent on site-specific lysine methylation, but also the degree of methylation. We examined the kinetic reaction mechanism for three different types of SET domain protein methyltransferases, each under conditions supporting mono-, di-, or trimethyllysine formation corroborated by product analyses

  13. D-Xylose as a sugar complement regulates blood glucose levels by suppressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats and by enhancing glucose uptake in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunju; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Sangwon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more frequently diagnosed and is characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. D-Xylose, a sucrase inhibitor, may be useful as a functional sugar complement to inhibit increases in blood glucose levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of D-xylose both in vitro and stretpozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NA)-induced models in vivo. MATERIALS/METHODS Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: (i) normal control; (ii) diabetic control; (iii) diabetic rats supplemented with a diet where 5% of the total sucrose content in the diet was replaced with D-xylose; and (iv) diabetic rats supplemented with a diet where 10% of the total sucrose content in the diet was replaced with D-xylose. These groups were maintained for two weeks. The effects of D-xylose on blood glucose levels were examined using oral glucose tolerance test, insulin secretion assays, histology of liver and pancreas tissues, and analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) expression in liver tissues of a STZ-NA-induced experimental rat model. Levels of glucose uptake and insulin secretion by differentiated C2C12 muscle cells and INS-1 pancreatic β-cells were analyzed. RESULTS In vivo, D-xylose supplementation significantly reduced fasting serum glucose levels (P < 0.05), it slightly reduced the area under the glucose curve, and increased insulin levels compared to the diabetic controls. D-Xylose supplementation enhanced the regeneration of pancreas tissue and improved the arrangement of hepatocytes compared to the diabetic controls. Lower levels of PEPCK were detected in the liver tissues of D-xylose-supplemented rats (P < 0.05). In vitro, both 2-NBDG uptake by C2C12 cells and insulin secretion by INS-1 cells were increased with D-xylose supplementation in a dose-dependent manner compared to treatment with glucose alone. CONCLUSIONS In this study, D-xylose exerted anti-diabetic effects in vivo by

  14. Cellular membranes, the sites for the antifungal activity of the herbicide sethoxydim.

    PubMed

    Pakdaman, B S; Goltapeh, E Mohammadi; Sepehrifar, R; Pouriesa, M; Fard, M Rahimi; Moradi, F; Modarres, S A M

    2007-08-01

    The fungicidal effect of sethoxydim on the canola (Brassica napus var. Olifera) white stem rot pathogen (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) encouraged us to conduct a series of studies on the mechanism of the antifungal activity of this herbicide commonly applied in Iranian fields under canola cultivation. Present preliminary studies on the changes in the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) as the main product generated through peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids indicated the disintegration of the fungal bilayer of plasma membrane as the result of the herbicidal treatment. Also, it was demonstrated that the amount of hydrogen peroxide in the treated samples was higher than the control samples with no herbicidal treatment. Therefore, our present results confirm the disintegration of the plasma membrane as one of the mechanism for the antifungal impact of sethoxydim. As with weed plants, the phytotoxic impact of this herbicide has been attributed to the inhibition of the first enzyme in the lipid biosynthesis pathway, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, therefore, it would be very interesting to study on this subject and the relations between the sensitivity of different fungi and their DNA and protein sequences of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. PMID:19070118

  15. RHON1 mediates a Rho-like activity for transcription termination in plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wei; He, Baoye; Manavski, Nikolay; Mao, Juan; Ji, Daili; Lu, Congming; Rochaix, Jean David; Meurer, Jörg; Zhang, Lixin

    2014-12-01

    Although transcription termination is essential to generate functional RNAs, its underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood in plastids of vascular plants. Here, we show that the RNA binding protein RHON1 participates in transcriptional termination of rbcL (encoding large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Inactivation of RHON1 leads to enhanced rbcL read-through transcription and to aberrant accD (encoding β-subunit of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase) transcriptional initiation, which may result from inefficient transcription termination of rbcL. RHON1 can bind to the mRNA as well as to single-stranded DNA of rbcL, displays an RNA-dependent ATPase activity, and terminates transcription of rbcL in vitro. These results suggest that RHON1 terminates rbcL transcription using an ATP-driven mechanism similar to that of Rho of Escherichia coli. This RHON1-dependent transcription termination occurs in Arabidopsis but not in rice (Oryza sativa) and appears to reflect a fundamental difference between plastomes of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. Our results point to the importance and significance of plastid transcription termination and provide insights into its machinery in an evolutionary context.

  16. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management.

  17. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management. PMID:25005949

  18. Characterization of the effects of metformin on porcine oocyte meiosis and on AMP-activated protein kinase activation in oocytes and cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie; Magyara, Nora; Collignon, Coralie

    2014-05-01

    The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and metformin (MET) inhibit resumption of meiosis in porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes. The objective of this study was to characterize the inhibitory effect of MET on porcine oocyte meiosis by: (1) determining the effects of an AMPK inhibitor and of inhibitors of signalling pathways involved in MET-induced AMPK activation in other cell types on MET-mediated meiotic arrest in porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes; (2) determining whether MET and AICAR treatments lead to increased activation of porcine oocyte and/or cumulus cell AMPK as measured by phosphorylation of its substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase; and (3) determining the effects of inhibition of the AMPK kinase, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK), and Ca2+ chelation on oocyte meiotic maturation and AMPK activation in porcine oocytes and cumulus cells. The AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC; 1 μM) did not reverse the inhibitory effect of AICAR (1 mM) and MET (2 mM) on porcine oocyte meiosis. Additionally, CC had a significant inhibitory effect on its own. eNOS, c-Src and PI-3 kinase pathway inhibitors did not reverse the effect of metformin on porcine oocyte meiosis. The level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation in oocytes and cumulus cells did not change in response to culture in the presence of MET, AICAR, CC, the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM for 3 h, but STO-609 increased the percentage of porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO) that remained at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after 24 h of culture. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of MET and AICAR on porcine oocyte meiosis was probably not mediated through activation of AMPK.

  19. Membrane composition influences the activity of in vitro refolded human vitamin K epoxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Jaenecke, Frank; Friedrich-Epler, Beatrice; Parthier, Christoph; Stubbs, Milton T

    2015-10-27

    Human vitamin K epoxide reductase (hVKOR) is an integral membrane protein responsible for the maintenance of reduced vitamin K pools, a prerequisite for the action of γ-glutamyl carboxylase and hence for hemostasis. Here we describe the recombinant expression of hVKOR as an insoluble fusion protein in Escherichia coli, followed by purification and chemical cleavage under denaturing conditions. In vitro renaturation and reconstitution of purified solubilized hVKOR in phospholipids could be established to yield active protein. Crucially, the renatured enzyme is inhibited by the powerful coumarin anticoagulant warfarin, and we demonstrate that enzyme activity depends on lipid composition. The completely synthetic system for protein production allows a rational investigation of the multiple variables in membrane protein folding and paves the way for the provision of pure, active membrane protein for structural studies.

  20. Activation of reactive oxygen species/AMP activated protein kinase signaling mediates fisetin-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma U266 cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Young; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Koh, Wonil; Chen, Chang-Yan; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-06-28

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for fisetin-induced apoptosis in U266 cells. Fisetin elicited the cytotoxicity in U266 cells, manifested as an increased fraction of the cells with sub-G1 content or stained positively with TUNEL labeling. Fisetin enhanced caspase-3 activation, downregulation of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1(L), and upregulation of Bax, Bim and Bad. Fisetin activated AMPK as well as its substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), along with a decreased phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR. Fisetin also stimulated generation of ROS in U266 cells. Conversely, compound C or N-acetyl-L-cystein blocked fisetin-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that fisetin-induced apoptosis in U266 cells is through ROS and AMPK pathways.

  1. Structural mechanism of RuBisCO activation by carbamylation of the active site lysine

    PubMed Central

    Stec, Boguslaw

    2012-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is a crucial enzyme in carbon fixation and the most abundant protein on earth. It has been studied extensively by biochemical and structural methods; however, the most essential activation step has not yet been described. Here, we describe the mechanistic details of Lys carbamylation that leads to RuBisCO activation by atmospheric CO2. We report two crystal structures of nitrosylated RuBisCO from the red algae Galdieria sulphuraria with O2 and CO2 bound at the active site. G. sulphuraria RuBisCO is inhibited by cysteine nitrosylation that results in trapping of these gaseous ligands. The structure with CO2 defines an elusive, preactivation complex that contains a metal cation Mg2+ surrounded by three H2O/OH molecules. Both structures suggest the mechanism for discriminating gaseous ligands by their quadrupole electric moments. We describe conformational changes that allow for intermittent binding of the metal ion required for activation. On the basis of these structures we propose the individual steps of the activation mechanism. Knowledge of all these elements is indispensable for engineering RuBisCO into a more efficient enzyme for crop enhancement or as a remedy to global warming. PMID:23112176

  2. Flexibility in Anaerobic Metabolism as Revealed in a Mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Lacking Hydrogenase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dubini, A.; Mus, F.; Seibert, M.; Grossman, A. R.; Posewitz, M. C.

    2009-03-13

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a network of fermentation pathways that become active when cells acclimate to anoxia. Hydrogenase activity is an important component of this metabolism, and we have compared metabolic and regulatory responses that accompany anaerobiosis in wild-type C. reinhardtii cells and a null mutant strain for the HYDEF gene (hydEF-1 mutant), which encodes an [FeFe] hydrogenase maturation protein. This mutant has no hydrogenase activity and exhibits elevated accumulation of succinate and diminished production of CO2 relative to the parental strain during dark, anaerobic metabolism. In the absence of hydrogenase activity, increased succinate accumulation suggests that the cells activate alternative pathways for pyruvate metabolism, which contribute to NAD(P)H reoxidation, and continued glycolysis and fermentation in the absence of O2. Fermentative succinate production potentially proceeds via the formation of malate, and increases in the abundance of mRNAs encoding two malateforming enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme, are observed in the mutant relative to the parental strain following transfer of cells from oxic to anoxic conditions. Although C. reinhardtii has a single gene encoding pyruvate carboxylase, it has six genes encoding putative malic enzymes. Only one of the malic enzyme genes, MME4, shows a dramatic increase in expression (mRNA abundance) in the hydEF-1 mutant during anaerobiosis. Furthermore, there are marked increases in transcripts encoding fumarase and fumarate reductase, enzymes putatively required to convert malate to succinate. These results illustrate the marked metabolic flexibility of C. reinhardtii and contribute to the development of an informed model of anaerobic metabolism in this and potentially other algae.

  3. rbcS SRS4 promoter from Glycine max and its expression activity in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Cui, X Y; Chen, Z Y; Wu, L; Liu, X Q; Dong, Y Y; Wang, F W; Li, H Y

    2015-07-03

    The regulatory region of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene SRS4 from soybean (Glycine max) was cloned using TAIL-PCR and general PCR, and named the rbcS promoter. The promoter was fused with the GUS gene and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum via Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disk transformation. In 4-week-old transgenic tobacco plants, the highest GUS expression levels were observed in the leaves, GUS activity was 7.13- and 7.40-fold higher in leaves than in stems and roots, respectively. Moreover, GUS activity was stimulated by light. In conclusion, spatial and light regulation of the soybean rbcS promoter was observed in N. tabacum, thus illustrating a leaf-specific and light-induced promoter.

  4. rbcS SRS4 promoter from Glycine max and its expression activity in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Cui, X Y; Chen, Z Y; Wu, L; Liu, X Q; Dong, Y Y; Wang, F W; Li, H Y

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory region of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene SRS4 from soybean (Glycine max) was cloned using TAIL-PCR and general PCR, and named the rbcS promoter. The promoter was fused with the GUS gene and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum via Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disk transformation. In 4-week-old transgenic tobacco plants, the highest GUS expression levels were observed in the leaves, GUS activity was 7.13- and 7.40-fold higher in leaves than in stems and roots, respectively. Moreover, GUS activity was stimulated by light. In conclusion, spatial and light regulation of the soybean rbcS promoter was observed in N. tabacum, thus illustrating a leaf-specific and light-induced promoter. PMID:26214418

  5. Curcumin attenuates diet-induced hepatic steatosis by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Hwang, Kwang Hyun; Ahn, Jiyun; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-09-01

    Curcumin is a well-known component of traditional turmeric (Curcuma longa), which has been reported to prevent obesity and diabetes. However, the effect of curcumin on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of curcumin on hepatic steatosis in high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND), HFD or HFD with 0.15% curcumin (HFD+C) for 11 weeks. We found that curcumin significantly lowered the body-weight and adipose tissue weight of mice in the HFD+C group compared with the findings for the HFD group (p < 0.05). The levels of total cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin in serum were decreased, and HFD-induced impairment of insulin sensitivity was improved by curcumin supplementation (p < 0.05). Curcumin protected against the development of hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic fat accumulation. Moreover, curcumin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and elevated the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. By contrast, curcumin suppressed the HFD-mediated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase and cluster of differentiation 36 expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that curcumin attenuates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating hepatic lipid metabolism via AMPK activation, suggesting its use as a therapeutic for hepatic steatosis.

  6. The hypotensive effect of acute and chronic AMP-activated protein kinase activation in normal and hyperlipidemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Fiona H.; Ewart, Marie-Ann; McNaughton, Eilidh; Cooney, Josephine; Spickett, Corinne M.; Kennedy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is present in the arterial wall and is activated in response to cellular stressors that raise AMP relative to ADP/ATP. Activation of AMPK in vivo lowers blood pressure but the influence of hyperlipidemia on this response has not been studied. ApoE−/− mice on high fat diet for 6 weeks and age-matched controls were treated with the AMPK activator, AICAR daily for two weeks. Under anesthesia, the carotid artery was cannulated for blood pressure measurements. Aortic tissue was removed for in vitro functional experiments and AMPK activity was measured in artery homogenates by Western blotting. ApoE−/− mice had significantly raised mean arterial pressure; chronic AICAR treatment normalized this but had no effect in normolipidemic mice, whereas acute administration of AICAR lowered mean arterial pressure in both groups. Chronic AICAR treatment increased phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in normolipidemic but not ApoE−/− mice. In aortic rings, AMPK activation induced vasodilation and an anticontractile effect, which was attenuated in ApoE−/− mice. This study demonstrates that hyperlipidemia dysregulates the AMPK pathway in the arterial wall but this effect can be reversed by AMPK activation, possibly through improving vessel compliance. PMID:26196300

  7. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of fruit of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal in cholesterol-fed hyperlipidemic rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Dikshit, Piyush; Shukla, Rimi; Sharma, Sonal; Gambhir, Jasvinder K

    2014-09-01

    Withania coagulans (family: Solanaceae, English: Indian Cheese Maker, Hindi: Doda Paneer) fruit is known for its ethanopharmacological significance in health care system of India. Diet rich in high-fat is an important risk factor for diabetes, atherosclerosis and macro and microvascular complications. Treatment with aqueous extract of fruit of W. coagulans (aqWC; 250 mg/kg body weight) in cholesterol-fed animals resulted in significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein, tissue lipid content and acetyl CoA carboxylase activity whereas, the level of high density lipoprotein and activity of HMGCoA reductase also recovered partially. Treatment with aqWC also significantly decreased plasma lipid peroxide levels and increased reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of W. coagulans has potent lipid lowering and antioxidant activities.

  8. Accumulation of fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense [corrected].

    PubMed

    Leyva, Luis A; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  9. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase activity results in dependency on pyruvate carboxylation for cellular anabolism.

    PubMed

    Lussey-Lepoutre, Charlotte; Hollinshead, Kate E R; Ludwig, Christian; Menara, Mélanie; Morin, Aurélie; Castro-Vega, Luis-Jaime; Parker, Seth J; Janin, Maxime; Martinelli, Cosimo; Ottolenghi, Chris; Metallo, Christian; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Favier, Judith; Tennant, Daniel A

    2015-11-02

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway responsible for supplying reducing potential for oxidative phosphorylation and anabolic substrates for cell growth, repair and proliferation. As such it thought to be essential for cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis. However, since the initial report of an inactivating mutation in the TCA cycle enzyme complex, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in paraganglioma (PGL), it has become clear that some cells and tissues are not only able to survive with a truncated TCA cycle, but that they are also able of supporting proliferative phenotype observed in tumours. Here, we show that loss of SDH activity leads to changes in the metabolism of non-essential amino acids. In particular, we demonstrate that pyruvate carboxylase is essential to re-supply the depleted pool of aspartate in SDH-deficient cells. Our results demonstrate that the loss of SDH reduces the metabolic plasticity of cells, suggesting vulnerabilities that can be targeted therapeutically.

  10. 3-Methylcrotonylglycine disrupts mitochondrial energy homeostasis and inhibits synaptic Na(+),K (+)-ATPase activity in brain of young rats.

    PubMed

    Moura, Alana Pimentel; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Zanatta, Ângela; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Wajner, Moacir

    2012-03-01

    Deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase activity is an inherited metabolic disease biochemically characterized by accumulation and high urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3MCG), and also of 3-hydroisovalerate in lesser amounts. Affected patients usually have neurologic dysfunction, brain abnormalities and cardiomyopathy, whose pathogenesis is still unknown. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of 3MCG on important parameters of energy metabolism, including CO(2) production from labeled acetate, enzyme activities of the citric acid cycle, as well as of the respiratory chain complexes I-IV (oxidative phosphorylation), creatine kinase (intracellular ATP transfer), and synaptic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (neurotransmission) in brain cortex of young rats. 3MCG significantly reduced CO(2) production, implying that this compound compromises citric acid cycle activity. Furthermore, 3MCG diminished the activities of complex II-III of the respiratory chain, mitochondrial creatine kinase and synaptic membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, antioxidants were able to attenuate or fully prevent the inhibitory effect of 3MCG on creatine kinase and synaptic membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities. We also observed that lipid peroxidation was elicited by 3MCG, suggesting the involvement of free radicals on 3MCG-induced effects. Considering the importance of the citric acid cycle and the electron flow through the respiratory chain for brain energy production, creatine kinase for intracellular energy transfer, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase for the maintenance of the cell membrane potential, the present data indicate that 3MCG potentially impairs mitochondrial brain energy homeostasis and neurotransmission. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may be involved in the neurological damage found in patients affected by 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

  11. 2-Octynoic Acid Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Infection through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Darong; Xue, Binbin; Wang, Xiaohong; Yu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Nianli; Gao, Yimin; Liu, Chen; Zhu, Haizhen

    2013-01-01

    Many chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with current therapy do not clear the virus. It is necessary to find novel treatments. The effect of 2-octynoic acid (2-OA) on HCV infection in human hepatocytes was examined. The mechanism of 2-OA antiviral activity was explored. Our data showed that 2-OA abrogated lipid accumulation in HCV replicon cells and virus-infected hepatocytes. It suppressed HCV RNA replication and infectious virus production with no cytotoxicity to the host cells. 2-OA did not affect hepatitis B virus replication in HepG2.2.15 cells derived from HepG2 cells transfected with full genome of HBV. Further study demonstrated that 2-OA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase in viral-infected cells. Compound C, a specific inhibitor of AMPK, inhibited AMPK activity and reversed the reduction of intracellular lipid accumulation and the antiviral effect of 2-OA. Knockdown of AMPK expression by RNA interference abolished the activation of AMPK by 2-OA and blocked 2-OA antiviral activity. Interestingly, 2-OA induced interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and inhibited microRNA-122 (miR-122) expression in virus-infected hepatocytes. MiR-122 overexpression reversed the antiviral effect of 2-OA. Furthermore, knockdown of AMPK expression reversed both the induction of ISGs and suppression of miR-122 by 2-OA, implying that activated AMPK induces the intracellular innate response through the induction of ISGs and inhibiting miR-122 expression. 2-OA inhibits HCV infection through regulation of innate immune response by activated AMPK. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which active AMPK inhibits HCV infection. 2-OA and its derivatives hold promise for novel drug development for chronic hepatitis C. PMID:23741428

  12. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y

    2016-07-19

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition. PMID:27357679

  13. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G.; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J.; Adams, David J.; Leung, Hing Y.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition. PMID:27357679

  14. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y

    2016-07-19

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition.

  15. Hypoxia promotes drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells via activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changfu; Zhang, Qiao; Yu, Tao; Sun, Shudong; Wang, Wenjun; Liu, Guangyao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Drug resistance has been recognized to be a major obstacle to the chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. And the potential importance of hypoxia as a target to reverse drug resistance in osteosarcoma has been indicated, though the mechanism underlining such role is not clarified. The present study aims to investigate the role of hypoxia in the drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells via activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. Experimental design We investigated the promotion of the resistance to doxorubicin of osteosarcoma MG-63 and U2-os cells in vitro, and then determined the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)α and HIF-1β, the activation and regulatory role of AMPK in the osteosarcoma U2-os cells which were treated with doxorubicin under hypoxia. Results It was demonstrated that hypoxia significantly reduced the sensitivity of MG-63 and U2-os cells to doxorubicin, indicating an inhibited viability reduction and a reduced apoptosis promotion. And such reduced sensitivity was not associated with HIF-1α, though it was promoted by hypoxia in U2-os cells. Interestingly, the AMPK signaling was significantly promoted by hypoxia in the doxorubicin-treated U2-os cells, with a marked upregulation of phosphorylated AMPK (Thr 172) and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (Ser 79), which were sensitive to the AMPK activator, AICAR and the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. Moreover, the promoted AMPK activity by AICAR or the downregulated AMPK activity by Compound C significantly reduced or promoted the sensitivity of U2-os cells to doxorubicin. Conclusion The present study confirmed the AMPK signaling activation in the doxorubicin-treated osteosarcoma cells, in response to hypoxia, and the chemical upregulation or downregulation of AMPK signaling reduced or increased the chemo-sensitivity of osteosarcoma U2-os cells in vitro. Our study implies that AMPK inhibition might be a effective strategy to sensitize osteocarcoma cells to chemotherapy. PMID

  16. Limitation of CO2 Assimilation and Regulation of Benson-Calvin Cycle Activity in Barley Leaves in Response to Changes in Irradiance, Photoinhibition, and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Dujardyn, Marie; Foyer, Christine H.

    1989-01-01

    The response of the Benson-Calvin cycle to changes in irradiance and photoinhibition was measured in low-light grown barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves. Upon the transition from the growth irradiance (280 micromoles per square meter per second) to a high photoinhibitory irradiance (1400 micromoles per square meter per second), the CO2 assimilation rate of the leaves doubled within minutes but high irradiance rapidly caused a reduction in quantum efficiency. Following exposure to high light the activities of NADP-malate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase obtained near maximum values and the activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase increased. The activity of the latter remained constant throughout the period of photoinhibitory irradiance, but the increase in the activities of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase was transient decreasing once more to much lower values. This suggests that immediately following the transition to high light reduction and activation of redox-modulated enzymes occurred, but then the stroma became relatively oxidized as a result of photoinhibition. The leaf contents of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate increased following exposure to high light but subsequently decreased, suggesting that following photoinhibition sucrose synthesis exceeded the rate of carbon assimilation. The ATP content attained a constant value much higher than that in low light. During photoinhibition the glycerate 3-phosphate content greatly increased while ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate decreased. The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose phosphate contents increased initially and then remained constant. During photoinhibition CO2 assimilation was not limited by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity but rather by the regeneration of the substrate, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, related to a restriction on the supply of reducing equivalents. PMID:16667217

  17. Stearoyl lysophosphatidylcholine enhances the phagocytic ability of macrophages through the AMP-activated protein kinase/p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hui; Hur, Young-Hoe; Xin, Chun; Kim, Joung-Min; Choi, Jeong-Il; Kim, Man-Young; Bae, Hong-Beom

    2016-10-01

    A previous study showed that stearoyl lysophosphatidylcholine (sLPC) suppressed extracellular high mobility group box 1 translocation in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. In the present study, we investigated whether sLPC-induced AMPK activation could enhance macrophages phagocytosis of bacteria. We found that sLPC increased phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a downstream target of AMPK, in a time- and dose-dependent manner in macrophages. Furthermore, sLPC increased the uptake of FITC-conjugated Escherichia coli by macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, and treatment with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C) or siRNA to AMPKα1 reversed this uptake. sLPC increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but inhibition of AMPK activity with compound C or siRNA to AMPKα1 prevented the sLPC-induced increase in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, decreased sLPC-induced phagocytosis. In vivo, systemic administration of sLPC to mice led to increased AMPK and p38 MAPK activity in the lung and to increased phagocytosis of fluorescent E. coli in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. These results suggest that sLPC increases macrophages phagocytosis through activation of the AMPK/p38 MAPK pathway. Therefore, sLPC is a candidate pharmacological agent for the treatment of bacterial infections in clinically relevant conditions. PMID:27517519

  18. Viola mandshurica ethanolic extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2014-07-01

    Viola mandshurica W. Becker has been used as an expectorant, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory agent. We evaluated the effects of V. mandshurica ethanol extract (VME) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. HPLC analysis showed that the VME contained 11.95 ± 0.37 mg/g esculetin and 0.13 ± 0.01 mg/g scopoletin. Orally administered VME decreased the body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, and triglyceride and leptin serum concentrations. In contrast, VME increased serum adiponectin concentrations and adiponectin expression levels in epididymal adipose tissues. VME also significantly reversed the HFD-induced elevation of the mRNA and protein levels of lipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty-acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, VME reversed the HFD-induced inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coA carboxylase phosphorylation in epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, treatment of VME and esculetin in 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation. These results suggest that VME exerts anti-obesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice by activating AMPK and suppressing PPARγ expression in adipose tissues.

  19. Dibenzoylmethane Exerts Metabolic Activity through Regulation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK)-Mediated Glucose Uptake and Adipogenesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nami; Kim, Hong Min; Lee, Eun Soo; Lee, Jung Ok; Lee, Hye Jeong; Lee, Soo Kyung; Moon, Ji Wook; Kim, Ji Hae; Kim, Joong Kwan; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sun Hwa; Chung, Choon Hee; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2015-01-01

    Dibenzoylmethane (DBM) has been shown to exert a variety of beneficial effects on human health. However, the mechanism of action is poorly understood. In this study, DBM increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and stimulated glucose uptake in a skeletal muscle cell line. Both knockdown of AMPK with siRNA and inhibition with AMPK inhibitor blocked DBM-induced glucose uptake. DBM increased the concentration of intracellular calcium and glucose uptake due to DBM was abolished by STO-609 (a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor). DBM stimulated phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), which was blocked by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. The expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) was increased by DBM. The translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane was also increased by DBM in AMPK dependently. In addition, DBM suppressed weight gain and prevented fat accumulation in the liver and abdomen in mice fed a high-fat diet. In pre-adipocyte cells, DBM decreased the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis. Expression of the adipogenic gene, fatty acid synthase (FAS), was suppressed by DBM in an AMPK-dependent manner. These results showed that the beneficial metabolic effects of DBM might be due to regulation of glucose uptake via AMPK in skeletal muscle and inhibition of adipogenesis in pre-adipocytes. PMID:25756788

  20. Hypolipidemic activity of Taraxacum mongolicum associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jin; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Lee, Jang-Chang; Chen, Fu-An; Lee, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Way, Tzong-Der

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect and potential mechanisms of T. mongolicum extracts. T. mongolicum was extracted by refluxing three times with water (TM-1), 50% ethanol (TM-2) and 95% ethanol (TM-3). TM-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potentials in HepG2 cells. Extended administration of TM-2 stimulated a significant reduction in body weight and levels of serum triglyceride LDL-C and total cholesterol in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively fractionated TM-2 with n-hexane (TM-4), dichloromethane (TM-5), ethyl acetate (TM-6), and water (TM-7). TM-4 fraction had the most effective hypolipidemic potential in HepG2 cells, and it decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) through the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Linoleic acid, phytol and tetracosanol are bioactive compounds identified from TM-4. These results suggest that T. mongolicum is expected to be useful for hypolipidemic effects. PMID:24903219

  1. Hypolipidemic activity of Taraxacum mongolicum associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jin; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Lee, Jang-Chang; Chen, Fu-An; Lee, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Way, Tzong-Der

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect and potential mechanisms of T. mongolicum extracts. T. mongolicum was extracted by refluxing three times with water (TM-1), 50% ethanol (TM-2) and 95% ethanol (TM-3). TM-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potentials in HepG2 cells. Extended administration of TM-2 stimulated a significant reduction in body weight and levels of serum triglyceride LDL-C and total cholesterol in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively fractionated TM-2 with n-hexane (TM-4), dichloromethane (TM-5), ethyl acetate (TM-6), and water (TM-7). TM-4 fraction had the most effective hypolipidemic potential in HepG2 cells, and it decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) through the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Linoleic acid, phytol and tetracosanol are bioactive compounds identified from TM-4. These results suggest that T. mongolicum is expected to be useful for hypolipidemic effects.

  2. Pranlukast inhibits renal epithelial cyst progression via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Pathomthongtaweechai, Nutthapoom; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2014-02-01

    Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1 receptor) antagonists were found to inhibit chloride secretion in human airway epithelial cells. Since chloride secretion in renal epithelial cells, which shares common mechanisms with airway epithelial cells, plays important roles in renal cyst progression in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), this study was aimed to investigate effects of drugs acting as CysLT1 receptor antagonists on renal cyst progression and its underlying mechanisms. Effects of CysLT1 receptor antagonists on renal cyst growth and formation were determined using Madine Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cyst models. Mechanisms of actions of CysLT1 receptor antagonists were determined using short-circuit current measurement, assays of cell viability and cell proliferation, and immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins. Of the three drugs acting as CysLT1 receptor antagonists (montelukast, pranlukast and zafirlukast) tested, pranlukast was the most promising drug that inhibited MDCK cyst growth and formation without affecting cell viability. Its effect was independent of the inhibition of CysLT1 receptors. Instead, it reduced cAMP-activated chloride secretion and proliferation of MDCK cells in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner and had no effect on CFTR protein expression. Interestingly, pranlukast enhanced AMPK activation via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta (CaMKKβ) with consequent activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. These results indicate that pranlukast retards renal epithelial cyst progression by inhibiting cAMP-activated chloride secretion and cell proliferation via CaMKKβ-AMPK-mTOR pathway. Therefore, pranlukast represents a class of known drugs that may have potential utility in PKD treatment. PMID:24360935

  3. Serine 363 of a hydrophobic region of Archaeal ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Thermococcus kodakaraensis affects CO2/O2 substrate specificity and oxygen sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kreel, Nathan E.; Tabita, F. Robert; Berg, Ivan

    2015-09-18

    Archaeal ribulose 1, 5-bisphospate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is differentiated from other RubisCO enzymes and is classified as a form III enzyme, as opposed to the form I and form II RubisCOs typical of chemoautotrophic bacteria and prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs. The form III enzyme from archaea is particularly interesting as several of these proteins exhibit unusual and reversible sensitivity to molecular oxygen, including the enzyme from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Previous studies with A. fulgidus RbcL2 had shown the importance of Met-295 in oxygen sensitivity and pointed towards the potential significance of another residue (Ser-363) found in a hydrophobic pocket that is conserved in all RubisCO proteins. In the current study, further structure/function studies have been performed focusing on Ser-363 of A. fulgidus RbcL2; various changes in this and other residues of the hydrophobic pocket point to and definitively establish the importance of Ser-363 with respect to interactions with oxygen. In addition, previous findings had indicated discrepant CO2/O2 specificity determinations of the Thermococcus kodakaraensis RubisCO, a close homolog of A. fulgidus RbcL2. As a result, it is shown here that the T. kodakaraensis enzyme exhibits a similar substrate specificity as the A. fulgidus enzyme and is also oxygen sensitive, with equivalent residues involved in oxygen interactions.

  4. Fenofibrate activates AMPK and increases eNOS phosphorylation in HUVEC

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Hisashi; Murakami, Ryuichiro . E-mail: ryuichi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kambe, Fukushi; Cao, Xia; Takahashi, Ryotaro; Asai, Toru; Hirai, Toshihisa; Numaguchi, Yasushi; Okumura, Kenji; Seo, Hisao; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2006-03-24

    Fenofibrate improves endothelial function by lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects. Additionally, fenofibrate has been demonstrated to upregulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported to phosphorylate eNOS at Ser-1177 and stimulate vascular endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) production. We report here that fenofibrate activates AMPK and increases eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Incubation of HUVEC with fenofibrate increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Fenofibrate simultaneously increased eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. Inhibitors of protein kinase A and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase failed to suppress the fenofibrate-induced eNOS phosphorylation. Neither bezafibrate nor WY-14643 activated AMPK in HUVEC. Furthermore, fenofibrate activated AMPK without requiring any transcriptional activities. These results indicate that fenofibrate stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production through AMPK activation, which is suggested to be a novel characteristic of this agonist and unrelated to its effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}.

  5. Rheum palmatum L. Attenuates High Fat Diet-Induced Hepatosteatosis by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingxing; Li, Xiumin; Zeng, Xin; Ou, Zhimin; Xue, Mei; Gao, Dehong; Liu, Suhuan; Li, Xuejun; Yang, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder characterized by the accumulation of excess fat in the liver. Rheum palmatumL. (RP) decoctions have been reported to ameliorate NAFLD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of RP in fatty liver disease induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Low and high doses of aqueous RP extraction were orally administered to HFD-fed rats for six weeks. Body weight, tissue weight, glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, hepatic morphology, and liver triglyceride (TG) content were assessed. The effects of RP on the expressions of lipogenic and lipolysis genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was determined by Western blotting. Treatment with low-dose RP significantly reduced liver weight, liver TG content, and improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed rats. Consistently, RP attenuated excess fat accumulation and downregulated the expression of lipogenic genes in the liver. Further, an increased phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC was observed. These findings suggest that low-dose RP alleviates hepatosteatosis, at least in part, by stimulating AMPK activity.

  6. Structure and Identification of a Pterin Dehydratase-like Protein as a Ribulose-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RuBisCO) Assembly Factor in the α-Carboxysome*

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Nicole M.; Sundberg, Christopher D.; Gidaniyan, Soheil D.; Cascio, Duilio; Yeates, Todd O.

    2014-01-01

    Carboxysomes are proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments that increase the efficiency of the rate-limiting step in carbon fixation by sequestering reaction substrates. Typically, α-carboxysomes are genetically encoded as a single operon expressing the structural proteins and the encapsulated enzymes of the microcompartment. In addition, depending on phylogeny, as many as 13 other genes are found to co-occur near or within α-carboxysome operons. One of these genes codes for a protein with distant homology to pterin-4α-carbinolamine dehydratase (PCD) enzymes. It is present in all α-carboxysome containing bacteria and has homologs in algae and higher plants. Canonical PCDs play an important role in amino acid hydroxylation, a reaction not associated with carbon fixation. We determined the crystal structure of an α-carboxysome PCD-like protein from the chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiomonas intermedia K12, at 1.3-Å resolution. The protein retains a three-dimensional fold similar to canonical PCDs, although the prominent active site cleft present in PCD enzymes is disrupted in the α-carboxysome PCD-like protein. Using a cell-based complementation assay, we tested the PCD-like proteins from T. intermedia and two additional bacteria, and found no evidence for PCD enzymatic activity. However, we discovered that heterologous co-expression of the PCD-like protein from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus with RuBisCO and GroELS in Escherichia coli increased the amount of soluble, assembled RuBisCO recovered from cell lysates compared with co-expression of RuBisCO with GroELS alone. We conclude that this conserved PCD-like protein, renamed here α-carboxysome RuBisCO assembly factor (or acRAF), is a novel RuBisCO chaperone integral to α-carboxysome function. PMID:24459150

  7. [Peculiarities of ethanol oxidation by the producer of surface-active substances Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4].

    PubMed

    Pyroh, T P; Shevchuk, T A; Duhinets', O S

    2010-01-01

    Activity of key-enzymes of C2-metabolism was determined in the cells of strain-producer of surface-active substances Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 grown on ethanol. It is shown that ethanol and acetaldehyde oxidation in the strain K-4 is performed by pyroquinolinquinon (PQQ) and 4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (NDMA)-dependent dehydrogenases. Activity of NDMA-dependent enzymes was maximum (100-300 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein) in the early exponential growth phase of A. calcoaceticus K-4. Availability of NDMA-dependent alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases in gram-negative bacteria was established for the first time. Acetate is involved in metabolism in the strain K-4 with participation of both acetate kinase and acetate-KoA-synthetase; replenishment of the pool of C4-dicarbonic acids is performed in glioxylate cycle (activity of isocytrate lyase is 600 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein) and in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase reaction (1600 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein). Both key enzymes of gluconeogenesis take place in synthesis of carbohydrates: FEP-carboxykinase and FEP-synthetase (1200 and 4400 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein, respectively). Enzymatic investigations have confirmed the capacity of strain K-4 to synthesis of surface-active trehalosemycolates (activity of trehalosephosphate synthase is 150-160 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein).

  8. Rubisco activity and regulation as targets for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Parry, Martin A J; Andralojc, P John; Scales, Joanna C; Salvucci, Michael E; Carmo-Silva, A Elizabete; Alonso, Hernan; Whitney, Spencer M

    2013-01-01

    Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase) enables net carbon fixation through the carboxylation of RuBP. However, some characteristics of Rubisco make it surprisingly inefficient and compromise photosynthetic productivity. For example, Rubisco catalyses a wasteful reaction with oxygen that leads to the release of previously fixed CO(2) and NH(3) and the consumption of energy during photorespiration. Furthermore, Rubisco is slow and large amounts are needed to support adequate photosynthetic rates. Consequently, Rubisco has been studied intensively as a prime target for manipulations to 'supercharge' photosynthesis and improve both productivity and resource use efficiency. The catalytic properties of Rubiscos from diverse sources vary considerably, suggesting that changes in turnover rate, affinity, or specificity for CO(2) can be introduced to improve Rubisco performance in specific crops and environments. While attempts to manipulate plant Rubisco by nuclear transformation have had limited success, modifying its catalysis by targeted changes to its catalytic large subunit via chloroplast transformation have been much more successful. However, this technique is still in need of development for most major food crops including maize, wheat, and rice. Other bioengineering approaches for improving Rubisco performance include improving the activity of its ancillary protein, Rubisco activase, in addition to modulating the synthesis and degradation of Rubisco's inhibitory sugar phosphate ligands. As the rate-limiting step in carbon assimilation, even modest improvements in the overall performance of Rubisco pose a viable pathway for obtaining significant gains in plant yield, particularly under stressful environmental conditions.

  9. Human holocarboxylase synthetase with a start site at methionine-58 is the predominant nuclear variant of this protein and has catalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Baolong; Wijeratne, Subhashinee S.K.; Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Zempleni, Janos

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Unambiguous evidence is provided that methionine-58 serves as an in-frame alternative translation site for holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS58). {yields} Full-length HLCS and HLCS58 enter the nucleus, but HLCS58 is the predominant variant. {yields} HLCS58 has biological activity as biotin protein ligase. -- Abstract: Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the covalent binding of biotin to both carboxylases in extranuclear structures and histones in cell nuclei, thereby mediating important roles in intermediary metabolism, gene regulation, and genome stability. HLCS has three putative translational start sites (methionine-1, -7, and -58), but lacks a strong nuclear localization sequence that would explain its participation in epigenetic events in the cell nucleus. Recent evidence suggests that small quantities of HLCS with a start site in methionine-58 (HLCS58) might be able to enter the nuclear compartment. We generated the following novel insights into HLCS biology. First, we generated a novel HLCS fusion protein vector to demonstrate that methionine-58 is a functional translation start site in human cells. Second, we used confocal microscopy and western blots to demonstrate that HLCS58 enters the cell nucleus in meaningful quantities, and that full-length HLCS localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but may also enter the nucleus. Third, we produced recombinant HLCS58 to demonstrate its biological activity toward catalyzing the biotinylation of both carboxylases and histones. Collectively, these observations are consistent with roles of HLCS58 and full-length HLCS in nuclear events. We conclude this report by proposing a novel role for HLCS in epigenetic events, mediated by physical interactions between HLCS and other chromatin proteins as part of a larger multiprotein complex that mediates gene repression.

  10. Reactive Nitrogen Species Is Required for the Activation of the AMP-activated Protein Kinase by Statin in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyoung Chul; Song, Ping; Xie, Zhonglin; Wu, Yong; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Miao; Dong, Yunzhou; Wang, Shuangxi; Lau, Kai; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is reported to mediate the beneficial effects of statin on the vascular functions, but the biochemical mechanisms are incompletely understood. The aim of the study was to determine how statin activates AMPK. Exposure of confluent bovine aortic endothelial cells to simvastatin (statin) dose-dependently increased phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 and activities of AMPK, which was in parallel with increased detection of both LKB1 phosphorylation at Ser428 and LKB1 nuclear export. Furthermore, statin treatment was shown to increase protein kinase C (PKC)-ζ activity and PKC-ζ phosphorylation at Thr410/Thr403. Consistently, inhibition of PKC-ζ either by pharmacological or genetic manipulations abolished statin-enhanced LKB1 phosphorylation at Ser428, blocked LKB1 nucleus export, and prevented the subsequent activation of AMPK. Similarly, in vivo transfection of PKC-ζ-specific small interfering RNA in C57BL/6J mice significantly attenuated statin-enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK-Thr172, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-Ser79, and LKB1-Ser428. In addition, statin significantly increased reactive oxygen species, whereas preincubation of mito-TEMPOL, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, abolished statin-enhanced phosphorylation of both AMPK-Thr172 and ACC-Ser79. Finally, in vivo administration of statin increased 3-nitrotyrosine and the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in C57BL/6J mice but not in mice deficient in endothelial nitric-oxide synthase. Taken together, our data suggest that AMPK activation by statin is peroxynitrite-mediated but PKC-ζ-dependent. PMID:18474592

  11. Role of the AMP-activated protein kinase in regulating fatty acid metabolism during exercise.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Gregory R

    2009-06-01

    During moderate-intensity exercise, fatty acids are the predominant substrate for working skeletal muscle. The release of fatty acids from adipose tissue stores, combined with the ability of skeletal muscle to actively fine tune the gradient between fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism, depending on substrate availability and energetic demands, requires a coordinated system of metabolic control. Over the past decade, since the discovery that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased in accordance with exercise intensity, there has been significant interest in the proposed role of this ancient stress-sensing kinase as a critical integrative switch controlling metabolic responses during exercise. In this review, studies examining the role of AMPK as a regulator of fatty acid metabolism in both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle during exercise will be discussed. Exercise induces activation of AMPK in adipocytes and regulates triglyceride hydrolysis and esterfication through phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl-transferase, respectively. In skeletal muscle, exercise-induced activation of AMPK is associated with increases in fatty acid uptake, phosphorylation of HSL, and increased fatty acid oxidation, which is thought to occur via the acetyl-CoA carboxylase-malony-CoA-CPT-1 signalling axis. Despite the importance of AMPK in regulating fatty acid metabolism under resting conditions, recent evidence from transgenic models of AMPK deficiency suggest that alternative signalling pathways may also be important for the control of fatty acid metabolism during exercise.

  12. VASP Increases Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation by Activating AMPK in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tateya, Sanshiro; Rizzo-De Leon, Norma; Handa, Priya; Cheng, Andrew M.; Morgan-Stevenson, Vicki; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Kanter, Jenny E.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.; Daum, Guenter; Clowes, Alexander W.; Chait, Alan; Kim, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling reduces hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance; however, its regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we sought to determine whether vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) signaling improves lipid metabolism in the liver and, if so, whether VASP’s effects are mediated by AMPK. We show that disruption of VASP results in significant hepatic steatosis as a result of significant impairment of fatty acid oxidation, VLDL-triglyceride (TG) secretion, and AMPK signaling. Overexpression of VASP in hepatocytes increased AMPK phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation and reduced hepatocyte TG accumulation; however, these responses were suppressed in the presence of an AMPK inhibitor. Restoration of AMPK phosphorylation by administration of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside in Vasp−/− mice reduced hepatic steatosis and normalized fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG secretion. Activation of VASP by the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, in db/db mice reduced hepatic steatosis and increased phosphorylated (p-)AMPK and p-acetyl CoA carboxylase. In Vasp−/− mice, however, sildendafil treatment did not increase p-AMPK or reduce hepatic TG content. These studies identify a role of VASP to enhance hepatic fatty acid oxidation by activating AMPK and to promote VLDL-TG secretion from the liver. PMID:23349495

  13. Genetics Home Reference: 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... break down proteins containing a particular building block (amino acid) called leucine. Infants with 3-MCC deficiency appear ... for the fourth step in processing leucine, an amino acid that is part of many proteins. Mutations in ...

  14. A novel AMPK activator from Chinese herb medicine and ischemia phosphorylate the cardiac transcription factor FOXO3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingying; Ma, Heng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; He, Leilei; Wu, Jianming; Gao, Xiaoping; Ren, Jun; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Oleanolic Acid (OA) is a nature product extracted from Chinese Herb Medicine which is traditionally used as treatment of diabetes and ischemic heart diseases. Mounting evidence showed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has cardioprotective effect against ischemic injury and the forkhead transcription factor 3 (FOXO3) was recently identified as a downstream target of AMPK. We hypothesize that OA may protect against ischemic dysfunction of cardiomyocytes via activation of AMPK signaling pathway. Male C57BL/6 mice which were subjected to in vivo regional cardiac ischemia stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation, as well as phosphorylation of downstream FOXO3 (Ser413) and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). The natural product, OA, significantly stimulated cardiac AMPK activation in cardiomyocyes in time- and dose-dependent manners. The mechanism of AMPK activation by OA may be due to the loss mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) as shown by JC-1 fluorescence assay. Intriguingly, OA as an AMPK activator also triggered FOXO3 (Ser413) phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, OA treatment can protect cardiomyocytes from contractile dysfunction induced by hypoxia. Taken together, the results indicated that both ischemia and OA stimulated cardiac AMPK phosphorylation, as well downstream FOXO3 phosphorylation. The cardioprotective effect of OA maybe associated with activation of AMPK signaling pathways.

  15. A tomato chloroplast-targeted DnaJ protein protects Rubisco activity under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Kong, Fanying; Zhang, Song; Meng, Xia; Wang, Yong; Meng, Qingwei

    2015-06-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the biological processes most sensitive to heat stress in plants. Carbon assimilation, which depends on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), is one of the major sites sensitive to heat stress in photosynthesis. In this study, the roles of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chloroplast-targeted DnaJ protein (SlCDJ2) in resisting heat using sense and antisense transgenic tomatoes were examined. SlCDJ2 was found to be uniformly distributed in the thylakoids and stroma of the chloroplasts. Under heat stress, sense plants exhibited higher chlorophyll contents and fresh weights, and lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and membrane damage. Moreover, Rubisco activity, Rubisco large subunit (RbcL) content, and CO2 assimilation capacity were all higher in sense plants and lower in antisense plants compared with wild-type plants. Thus, SlCDJ2 contributes to maintenance of CO2 assimilation capacity mainly by protecting Rubisco activity under heat stress. SlCDJ2 probably achieves this by keeping the levels of proteolytic enzymes low, which prevents accelerated degradation of Rubisco under heat stress. Furthermore, a chloroplast heat-shock protein 70 was identified as a binding partner of SlCDJ2 in yeast two-hybrid assays. Taken together, these findings establish a role for SlCDJ2 in maintaining Rubisco activity in plants under heat stress. PMID:25801077

  16. Photosynthesis and regulation of rubisco activity in net phytoplankton from Delaware Bay

    SciTech Connect

    MacIntyre, H.L.; Geider, R.J.; McKay, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    Net phytoplankton (>20 {mu}m) comprised 51 {plus_minus} 9% of the total chlorophyll (Chl) in a Skeletonema costatum-dominated spring bloom in Delaware Bay. The net phytoplankton had low C:N and high protein:carbohydrate ratios, indicating that their growth was nutrient-replete. Their photosynthetic responses were characterized by low specific absorption, low light-limited and light-saturated rates of photosynthesis, and high quantum yields, indicative of acclimation to low irradiance and internal self-shading. High fucoxanthin: Chl ratios also indicated low light acclimation, but high photoprotective xanthophyll: Chl ratios suggested a high capacity for photoprotective energy dissipation. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) could be activated and deactivated in response to changes in irradiance and was fully activated at the surface of the water column and fully deactivated in aphotic deep water. Maximum Rubisco activity was correlated with Rubisco content and bulk protein content of the phytoplankton and with light-saturated rates of photosynthesis measured in short (<20-min) incubations. Long (60-min) incubations caused a decrease in the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis, possibly because of feedback limitation. While feedback limitation is unlikely to occur in the water column it should be considered when estimating productivity in well-mixed waters from fixed light-depth incubations. 90 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A tomato chloroplast-targeted DnaJ protein protects Rubisco activity under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Kong, Fanying; Zhang, Song; Meng, Xia; Wang, Yong; Meng, Qingwei

    2015-06-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the biological processes most sensitive to heat stress in plants. Carbon assimilation, which depends on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), is one of the major sites sensitive to heat stress in photosynthesis. In this study, the roles of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chloroplast-targeted DnaJ protein (SlCDJ2) in resisting heat using sense and antisense transgenic tomatoes were examined. SlCDJ2 was found to be uniformly distributed in the thylakoids and stroma of the chloroplasts. Under heat stress, sense plants exhibited higher chlorophyll contents and fresh weights, and lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and membrane damage. Moreover, Rubisco activity, Rubisco large subunit (RbcL) content, and CO2 assimilation capacity were all higher in sense plants and lower in antisense plants compared with wild-type plants. Thus, SlCDJ2 contributes to maintenance of CO2 assimilation capacity mainly by protecting Rubisco activity under heat stress. SlCDJ2 probably achieves this by keeping the levels of proteolytic enzymes low, which prevents accelerated degradation of Rubisco under heat stress. Furthermore, a chloroplast heat-shock protein 70 was identified as a binding partner of SlCDJ2 in yeast two-hybrid assays. Taken together, these findings establish a role for SlCDJ2 in maintaining Rubisco activity in plants under heat stress.

  18. Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang Decoction Reduces Fatty Liver by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Kang; Hung, Tzu-Min; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, I-Jung; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are currently a worldwide health problem. In Asian traditional medicine, Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang (BHJRST) is widely used in diabetes patients to reduce thirst. However, whether it has a therapeutic effect on T2DM or NAFLD is not known. The aim of this study was to examine whether BHJRST had a lipid-lowering effect using a HuS-E/2 cell model of fatty liver induced by palmitate and in a db/db mouse model of dyslipidemia. Incubation of HuS-E/2 cells with palmitate markedly increased lipid accumulation and expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is involved in lipolysis. BHJRST significantly decreased lipid accumulation and increased ATGL levels and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are involved in fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, after twice daily oral administration for six weeks, BHJRST significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation in db/db mice, as demonstrated by increased hepatic AMPK and ACC phosphorylation, reduced serum triglyceride levels, and reduced hepatic total lipid content. The results show that BHJRST has a lipid-lowering effect in the liver that is mediated by activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:26508982

  19. meso-Dihydroguaiaretic acid inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Kyung Jin; Kim, Daeyoung; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation is a major risk factor for dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance. The present study was conducted to evaluate hypolipidemic effects of meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDA), anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory compound isolated from the Myristica fragrans HOUTT., by oil red O staining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot. MDA significantly inhibited insulin-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. The lipid-lowering effect of MDA was accompanied by increased expression of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation and decreased expression of lipid synthetic proteins. In addition, MDA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as determined by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a downstream target of AMPK. The effects of MDA on lipogenic protein expression were suppressed by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Taken together, these findings show that MDA inhibits insulin-induced lipid accumulation in human HepG2 cells by suppressing expression of lipogenic proteins through AMPK signaling, suggesting a potent lipid-lowering agent. PMID:21963507

  20. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya Nan, Fa-Jun Li, Jia

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Coffee polyphenol caffeic acid but not chlorogenic acid increases 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Satoshi; Egawa, Tatsuro; Ma, Xiao; Oshima, Rieko; Kurogi, Eriko; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2012-11-01

    Chlorogenic acid is an ester of caffeic and quinic acids, and is one of the most widely consumed polyphenols because it is abundant in foods, especially coffee. We explored whether chlorogenic acid and its metabolite, caffeic acid, act directly on skeletal muscle to stimulate 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Incubation of rat epitrochlearis muscles with Krebs buffer containing caffeic acid (≥0.1 mM, ≥30 min) but not chlorogenic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPKα Thr(172), an essential step for kinase activation, and acetyl CoA carboxylase Ser(79), a downstream target of AMPK, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Analysis of isoform-specific AMPK activity revealed that AMPKα2 activity increased significantly, whereas AMPKα1 activity did not change. This enzyme activation was associated with a reduction in phosphocreatine content and an increased rate of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose transport activity in the absence of insulin. These results suggest that caffeic acid but not chlorogenic acid acutely stimulates skeletal muscle AMPK activity and insulin-independent glucose transport with a reduction of the intracellular energy status. PMID:22227267

  2. Melanocortin-induced PKA activation inhibits AMPK activity via ERK-1/2 and LKB-1 in hypothalamic GT1-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Damm, Ellen; Buech, Thomas R H; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced activation of the melanocortin-4 receptor in hypothalamic neurons increases energy expenditure and inhibits food intake. Active hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been reported to enhance food intake, and in vivo experiments suggested that intrahypothalamic injection of melanocortins decreased food intake due to the inhibition of AMPK activity. However, it is not clear whether α-MSH affects AMPK via direct intracellular signaling cascades or if the release of paracrine factors is involved. Here, we used a murine, hypothalamic cell line (GT1-7 cells) and monitored AMPK phosphorylation at Thr(172), which has been suggested to increase AMPK activity. We found that α-MSH dephosphorylated AMPK at Thr(172) and consequently decreased phosphorylation of the established AMPK substrate acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase at Ser(79). Inhibitory effects of α-MSH on AMPK were blocked by specific inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) or ERK-1/2, pointing to an important role of both kinases in this process. Because α-MSH-induced activation of ERK-1/2 was blunted by PKA inhibitors, we propose that ERK-1/2 serves as a link between PKA and AMPK in GT1-7 cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of liver kinase B-1, but not inhibition of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase-β or TGFβ-activated kinase-1 decreased basal phosphorylation of AMPK and its dephosphorylation induced by α-MSH. Thus, we propose that α-MSH inhibits AMPK activity via a linear pathway, including PKA, ERK-1/2, and liver kinase B-1 in GT1-7 cells. Given the importance of the melanocortin system in the formation of adipositas, detailed knowledge about this pathway might help to develop drugs targeting obesity.

  3. A function-based screen for seeking RubisCO active clones from metagenomes: novel enzymes influencing RubisCO activity.

    PubMed

    Böhnke, Stefanie; Perner, Mirjam

    2015-03-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is a key enzyme of the Calvin cycle, which is responsible for most of Earth's primary production. Although research on RubisCO genes and enzymes in plants, cyanobacteria and bacteria has been ongoing for years, still little is understood about its regulation and activation in bacteria. Even more so, hardly any information exists about the function of metagenomic RubisCOs and the role of the enzymes encoded on the flanking DNA owing to the lack of available function-based screens for seeking active RubisCOs from the environment. Here we present the first solely activity-based approach for identifying RubisCO active fosmid clones from a metagenomic library. We constructed a metagenomic library from hydrothermal vent fluids and screened 1056 fosmid clones. Twelve clones exhibited RubisCO activity and the metagenomic fragments resembled genes from Thiomicrospira crunogena. One of these clones was further analyzed. It contained a 35.2 kb metagenomic insert carrying the RubisCO gene cluster and flanking DNA regions. Knockouts of twelve genes and two intergenic regions on this metagenomic fragment demonstrated that the RubisCO activity was significantly impaired and was attributed to deletions in genes encoding putative transcriptional regulators and those believed to be vital for RubisCO activation. Our new technique revealed a novel link between a poorly characterized gene and RubisCO activity. This screen opens the door to directly investigating RubisCO genes and respective enzymes from environmental samples.

  4. Relationship of lipogenic enzyme activities to the rate of rat liver fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.; Kelley, D.; Schmidt, P.; Virk, S.; Serrato, C.

    1986-05-01

    The mechanism by which diet regulates liver lipogenesis is unclear. Here the authors report how dietary alterations effect the activities of key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 400-500 g, were fasted for 48h and then refed a fat-free, high carbohydrate (HC) diet (75% cal. from sucrose) for 0,3,9,24 and 48h, or refed a HC diet for 48h, then fed a high-fat (HF) diet (44% cal. from corn oil) for 3,9,24 and 48h. The FA synthesis rate and the activities of acetyl CoA carboxylase (AC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP citrate lyase (CL), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were determined in the livers. FA synthesis was assayed with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically except for AC which was assayed with /sup 14/C-bicarbonate. There was no change in the activity of AC during fasting or on the HC diet. Fasting decreased the rate of FA synthesis by 25% and the activities of FAS and CL by 50%; refeeding the HC diet induced parallel changes in FA synthesis and the activities of FAS, CL, and G6PDH. After 9h on the HF diet, FA synthesis had decreased sharply, AC activity increased significantly while no changes were detected in the other activities. Subsequently FA synthesis did not change while the activities of the enzymes decreased slowly. These enzymes did not appear to regulate FA synthesis during inhibition of lipogenesis, but FAS, CL or G6PDH may be rate limiting in the induction phase. Other key factors may regulate FA synthesis during dietary alterations.

  5. Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation parallels metabolic phenotype in leptin transgenic mice under dietary modification.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Shuji; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Yasue, Shintaro; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Ebihara, Ken; Chusho, Hideki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Taro; Sato, Kenji; Miyanaga, Fumiko; Fujimoto, Muneya; Tomita, Tsutomu; Kusakabe, Toru; Kobayashi, Nozomi; Tanioka, Hideki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Hosoda, Kiminori; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Sakata, Toshiie; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2005-08-01

    Leptin augments glucose and lipid metabolism independent of its effect on satiety. Administration of leptin in rodents increases skeletal muscle beta-oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We previously reported that, as hyperleptinemic as obese human subjects, transgenic skinny mice overexpressing leptin in liver (LepTg) exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity and lipid clearance. To assess skeletal muscle AMPK activity in leptin-sensitive and -insensitive states, we examined phosphorylation of AMPK and its target, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), in muscles from LepTg under dietary modification. Here we show that phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC are chronically augmented in LepTg soleus muscle, with a concomitant increase in the AMP-to-ATP ratio and a significant decrease in tissue triglyceride content. Despite preexisting hyperleptinemia, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed LepTg develop obesity, insulin-resistance, and hyperlipidemia. In parallel, elevated soleus AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in regular diet-fed LepTg is attenuated, and tissue triglyceride content is increased in those given HFD. Of note, substitution of HFD with regular diet causes a robust recovery of soleus AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in LepTg, with a higher rate of body weight reduction and a regain of insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, soleus AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in LepTg changes in parallel with its insulin sensitivity under dietary modification, suggesting a close association between skeletal muscle AMPK activity and sensitivity to leptin.

  6. Development of an activity-directed selection system enabled significant improvement of the carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhen; Liu, Guoxia; Zhang, Junli; Li, Yin

    2014-07-01

    Photosynthetic CO(2) fixation is the ultimate source of organic carbon on earth and thus is essential for crop production and carbon sequestration. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the first step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. However, the extreme low carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco makes it the most attractive target for improving photosynthetic efficiency. Extensive studies have focused on re-engineering a more efficient enzyme, but the effort has been impeded by the limited understanding of its structure-function relationships and the lack of an efficient selection system towards its activity. To address the unsuccessful molecular engineering of Rubisco, we developed an Escherichia coli-based activity-directed selection system which links the growth of host cell solely to the Rubisco activity therein. A Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 Rubisco mutant with E49V and D82G substitutions in the small subunit was selected from a total of 15,000 mutants by one round of evolution. This mutant showed an 85% increase in specific carboxylation activity and a 45% improvement in catalytic efficiency towards CO(2). The small-subunit E49V mutation was speculated to influence holoenzyme catalysis through interaction with the large-subunit Q225. This interaction is conserved among various Rubisco from higher plants and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Knowledge of these might provide clues for engineering Rubisco from higher plants, with the potential of increasing the crop yield.

  7. Effect of Chilling on Carbon Assimilation, Enzyme Activation, and Photosynthetic Electron Transport in the Absence of Photoinhibition in Maize Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Kingston-Smith, A. H.; Harbinson, J.; Williams, J.; Foyer, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between electron transport and photosynthetic carbon metabolism were measured in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves following exposure to suboptimal temperatures. The quantum efficiency for electron transport in unchilled leaves was similar to that previously observed in C3 plants, although maize has two types of chloroplasts, mesophyll and bundle sheath, with PSII being largely absent from the latter. The index of noncyclic electron transport was proportional to the CO2 assimilation rate. Chilled leaves showed decreased rates of CO2 assimilation relative to unchilled leaves, but the integral relationships between the quantum efficiency for electron transport or the index of noncyclic electron transport and CO2 fixation were unchanged and there was no photoinhibition. The maximum catalytic activities of the Benson-Calvin cycle enzymes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, were decreased following chilling, but activation was unaffected. Measurements of thiol-regulated enzymes, particularly NADP-malate dehydrogenase, indicated that chilling induced changes in the stromal redox state so that reducing equivalents were more plentiful. We conclude that chilling produces a decrease in photosynthetic capacity without changing the internal operational, regulatory or stoichiometric relationships between photosynthetic electron transport and carbon assimilation. The enzymes of carbon assimilation are particularly sensitive to chilling, but enhanced activation may compensate for decreases in maximal catalytic activity. PMID:12223758

  8. Pregnane X receptor activation and silencing promote steatosis of human hepatic cells by distinct lipogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Andreas; Rümmele, Petra; Klein, Kathrin; Kandel, Benjamin A; Rieger, Jessica K; Nüssler, Andreas K; Zanger, Ulrich M; Trauner, Michael; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    In addition to its well-characterized role in the regulation of drug metabolism and transport by xenobiotics, pregnane X receptor (PXR) critically impacts on lipid homeostasis. In mice, both ligand-dependent activation and knockout of PXR were previously shown to promote hepatic steatosis. To elucidate the respective pathways in human liver, we generated clones of human hepatoma HepG2 cells exhibiting different PXR protein levels, and analyzed effects of PXR activation and knockdown on steatosis and expression of lipogenic genes. Ligand-dependent activation as well as knockdown of PXR resulted in increased steatosis in HepG2 cells. Activation of PXR induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1-dependent lipogenic pathway via PXR-dependent induction of SREBP1a, which was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. Inhibiting SREBP1 activity by blocking the cleavage-dependent maturation of SREBP1 protein impaired the induction of lipogenic SREBP1 target genes and triglyceride accumulation by PXR activation. On the other hand, PXR knockdown resulted in up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, which enhanced the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-catalyzed reaction step of de novo lipogenesis. In a cohort of human liver samples histologically classified for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, AKR1B10, SREBP1a and SREBP1 lipogenic target genes proved to be up-regulated in steatohepatitis, while PXR protein was reduced. In summary, our data suggest that activation and knockdown of PXR in human hepatic cells promote de novo lipogenesis and steatosis by induction of the SREBP1 pathway and AKR1B10-mediated increase of ACC activity, respectively, thus providing mechanistic explanations for a putative dual role of PXR in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. PMID:25182422

  9. A homologue of AMP-activated protein kinase in Drosophila melanogaster is sensitive to AMP and is activated by ATP depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, David A; Hardie, D Grahame

    2002-01-01

    We have identified single genes encoding homologues of the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Kinase activity could be detected in extracts of a Drosophila cell line using the SAMS peptide, which is a relatively specific substrate for the AMPK/SNF1 kinases in mammals and yeast. Expression of double stranded (ds) RNAs targeted at any of the putative alpha, beta or gamma subunits ablated this activity, and abolished expression of the alpha subunit. The Drosophila kinase (DmAMPK) was activated by AMP in cell-free assays (albeit to a smaller extent than mammalian AMPK), and by stresses that deplete ATP (oligomycin and hypoxia), as well as by carbohydrate deprivation, in intact cells. Using a phosphospecific antibody, we showed that activation was associated with phosphorylation of a threonine residue (Thr-184) within the 'activation loop' of the alpha subunit. We also identified a homologue of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (DmACC) in Drosophila and, using a phosphospecific antibody, showed that the site corresponding to the regulatory AMPK site on the mammalian enzyme became phosphorylated in response to oligomycin or hypoxia. By immunofluorescence microscopy of oligomycin-treated Dmel2 cells using the phosphospecific antibody, the phosphorylated DmAMPK alpha subunit was mainly detected in the nucleus. Our results show that the AMPK system is highly conserved between insects and mammals. Drosophila cells now represent an attractive system to study this pathway, because of the small, well-defined genome and the ability to ablate expression of specific gene products using interfering dsRNAs. PMID:12093363

  10. The Compound of Mangiferin-Berberine Salt Has Potent Activities in Modulating Lipid and Glucose Metabolisms in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Can; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Wu, Wei; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2016-01-01

    The mangiferin-berberine (MB) salt was synthesized by ionic bonding of mangiferin (M) and berberine (B) at an equal molecular ratio. This study aimed to investigate the activities of MB salt in modulating lipid and glucose metabolisms in HepG2 cells. After 24 h treatment of the studying compounds, cellular AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα)/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) protein levels and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1 activities, intracellular lipid contents, mRNA expression levels of target genes, glucose consumption, and glucose production amounts were determined. Compound C (CC) was used in the blocking experiments. Our results showed that MB salt increased p-AMPKα (Thr172)/p-ACC (Ser79) levels and CPT1 activity and suppressed oleic acid- (OA-) induced lipid accumulation and upregulation of lipogenic genes potently in HepG2 cells. The above activities of MB salt were AMPK dependent and were superior to those of M or B when administered at an equal molar concentration. MB salt enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose consumption and suppressed gluconeogenesis more potently than M or B alone. The inhibiting activity of MB salt on cellular gluconeogenesis was AMPK dependent. Our results may support MB salt as a new kind of agent for the development of novel lipid or glucose-lowering drugs in the future. PMID:27123455

  11. The Compound of Mangiferin-Berberine Salt Has Potent Activities in Modulating Lipid and Glucose Metabolisms in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Can; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Wu, Wei; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2016-01-01

    The mangiferin-berberine (MB) salt was synthesized by ionic bonding of mangiferin (M) and berberine (B) at an equal molecular ratio. This study aimed to investigate the activities of MB salt in modulating lipid and glucose metabolisms in HepG2 cells. After 24 h treatment of the studying compounds, cellular AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα)/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) protein levels and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1 activities, intracellular lipid contents, mRNA expression levels of target genes, glucose consumption, and glucose production amounts were determined. Compound C (CC) was used in the blocking experiments. Our results showed that MB salt increased p-AMPKα (Thr172)/p-ACC (Ser79) levels and CPT1 activity and suppressed oleic acid- (OA-) induced lipid accumulation and upregulation of lipogenic genes potently in HepG2 cells. The above activities of MB salt were AMPK dependent and were superior to those of M or B when administered at an equal molar concentration. MB salt enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose consumption and suppressed gluconeogenesis more potently than M or B alone. The inhibiting activity of MB salt on cellular gluconeogenesis was AMPK dependent. Our results may support MB salt as a new kind of agent for the development of novel lipid or glucose-lowering drugs in the future. PMID:27123455

  12. Isoquercitrin activates the AMP–activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathway in rat H4IIE cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Isoquercitrin, a flavonoid compound that is widely distributed in medicinal and dietary plants, possesses many biological activities, including inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of isoquercitrin on lipid accumulation and its molecular mechanisms in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells. Methods To investigate the effect of isoquercitrin on lipid accumulation, H4IIE cells were induced by FFA and the total lipid levels were detected by Oil Red O staining. Furthermore, The protein levels of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the gene expressions of transcriptional factor, lipogenic genes, and adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) were analyzed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. To further confirm the pathway of isoquercitrin-mediated hepatic lipid metabolism, H4IIE cells were treated with an AMPK inhibitor and AdipoR1 siRNA. Results Isoquercitrin significantly enhances AMPK phosphorylation, downregulates sterol regulatory element binding protein transcription factor 1 (SREBP-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expressions. Pretreatment with AMPK inhibitor, significantly decreased the AMPK phosphorylation and increased FAS expression stimulated by isoquercitrin. Isoquercitrin might also upregulate the expression of AdipoR1 dose-dependently via AMPK in the presence of an AMPK inhibitor and AdipoR1 siRNA. Conclusions Isoquercitrin appears to regulate AMPK activation, thereby enhancing AdipoR1 expression, suppressing SREBP-1 and FAS expressions, and resulting in the regulation of lipid accumulation. These results suggest that isoquercitrin is a novel dietary compound that can be potentially be used to prevent lipid metabolic disorder and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:24490657

  13. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, substrate transporter translocation, and metabolism in the contracting hyperthyroid rat heart.

    PubMed

    Heather, Lisa C; Cole, Mark A; Atherton, Helen J; Coumans, Will A; Evans, Rhys D; Tyler, Damian J; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Clarke, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones can modify cardiac metabolism via multiple molecular mechanisms, yet their integrated effect on overall substrate metabolism is poorly understood. Here we determined the effect of hyperthyroidism on substrate metabolism in the isolated, perfused, contracting rat heart. Male Wistar rats were injected for 7 d with T(3) (0.2 mg/kg x d ip). Plasma free fatty acids increased by 97%, heart weights increased by 33%, and cardiac rate pressure product, an indicator of contractile function, increased by 33% in hyperthyroid rats. Insulin-stimulated glycolytic rates and lactate efflux rates were increased by 33% in hyperthyroid rat hearts, mediated by an increased insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the sarcolemma. This was accompanied by a 70% increase in phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and a 100% increase in phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase, confirming downstream signaling from AMPK. Fatty acid oxidation rates increased in direct proportion to the increased heart weight and rate pressure product in the hyperthyroid heart, mediated by synchronized changes in mitochondrial enzymes and respiration. Protein levels of the fatty acid transporter, fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), were reduced by 24% but were accompanied by a 19% increase in the sarcolemmal content of fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Thus, the relationship between fatty acid metabolism, cardiac mass, and contractile function was maintained in the hyperthyroid heart, associated with a sarcolemmal reorganization of fatty acid transporters. The combined effects of T(3)-induced AMPK activation and insulin stimulation were associated with increased sarcolemmal GLUT4 localization and glycolytic flux in the hyperthyroid heart. PMID:19940039

  14. Rubisco activity and regulation as targets for crop improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase) enables net carbon fixation through the carboxylation of RuBP. However, some characteristics of Rubisco make it surprisingly inefficient and compromise photosynthetic productivity. For example, Rubisco catalyses a wasteful reaction wit...

  15. Photosynthesis in Grass Species Differing in Carbon Dioxide Fixation Pathways: III. OXYGEN RESPONSE AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES OF SPECIES IN THE LAXA GROUP OF PANICUM.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J A; Brown, R H

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of CO(2) exchange at varying O(2) concentrations in seven grass species of the Laxa group of Panicum and activities of five photosynthetic enzymes were compared to values obtained for these characters in a cool season C(3) grass, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and a C(4) grass, P. maximum Jacq. Plants were divided into three groups on the basis of the inhibition of apparent photosynthesis by 21% O(2.) Rates of apparent photosynthesis in P. prionitis Griseb. and P. maximum were virtually unaffected by changes in O(2) concentration. In another group consisting of P. hylaeicum Mez., P. rivulare Trin., P. laxum Sw., and tall fescue apparent photosynthesis was inhibited by 28.2 to 36.0% at 21% O(2.) An intermediate inhibition of 20.6 to 23.3% at 21% O(2) was exhibited by P. milioides Nees ex Trin., P. schenckii Hack., and P. decipiens Nees ex Trin. The CO(2) compensation concentration for P. prionitis and P. maximum was low (Activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase were greatest in P. maximum and P. prionitis and one-fourth or less in the remaining species. Activity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was 548 micromoles per mg chlorophyll per hour in tall fescue; activity in the remaining species was approximately one-fourth or less of that in tall fescue, with the exception of P. rivulare, in which it was

  16. The plant G box promoter sequence activates transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is bound in vitro by a yeast activity similar to GBF, the plant G box binding factor.

    PubMed Central

    Donald, R G; Schindler, U; Batschauer, A; Cashmore, A R

    1990-01-01

    G box and I box sequences of the Arabidopsis thaliana ribulose-bisphosphate-1,5-carboxylase small subunit (RBCS) promoter are required for expression mediated by the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A promoter in transgenic tobacco plants and are bound in vitro by factors from plant nuclear extracts termed GBF and GA-1, respectively. We show here that a -390 to -60 rbcS-1A promoter fragment containing the G box and two I boxes activates transcription from a truncated iso-1-cytochrome c (CYC1) gene promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutagenesis of either the rbcS-1A G box or both I box sequences eliminated the expression mediated by this fragment. When polymerized, I box oligonucleotides were also capable of enhancing expression from the truncated CYC1 promoter. Single-copy G box sequences from the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A, Arabidopsis Adh and tomato rbcS-3A promoters were more potent activators and were used in mobility shift assays to identify a DNA binding activity in yeast functionally similar to GBF. In methylation interference experiments, the binding specificity of the yeast protein was indistinguishable from that obtained with plant nuclear extracts. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2161333

  17. Natural vanadium-containing Jeju ground water stimulates glucose uptake through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seung-Lark; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of natural vanadium-containing Jeju ground water on glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and adipogensesis in 3T3 L1 cells. The Jeju ground water samples containing vanadium components were designated as S1 (8.0 ± 0.9 μg/l), S2 (24.0 ± 2.0 μg/l), and S3 (26.0 ± 2.0 μg/l), respectively. To investigate the effects of the Jeju ground water on glucose uptake in L6 myotubes, L6 cells were differentiated in media containing deionized distilled water (DDW group) and the water samples (S1, S2, and S3 groups). After daily changes in cultured media containing the Jeju ground water samples for 1 week, all samples had increased glucose uptake compared to the DDW group and the order of glucose uptake increased in parallel with vanadium content (S3 > S2 > S1). In addition, S3 significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of the Thr-172 residue of the AMP-activated protein kinase-α subunit and the Ser-79 subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase compared to the DDW group. The effect of glucose uptake by S3 was reversed by pretreatment with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Interestingly, vanadium pentoxide also increased glucose uptake and activated AMPK activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, as compared to the DDW treated group, S3 treatment inhibited adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by down regulation of expressions of adipogenic transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that S3 displays beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes, at least in part through the activation of AMPK activity.

  18. Nectandrin B, a lignan isolated from nutmeg, inhibits liver X receptor-α-induced hepatic lipogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Du Gon; Kim, Eun Kyung; Yang, Jin Won; Song, Jae Sook; Kim, Young-Mi

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is recognized as the most commonly occurring chronic liver disease. Liver X receptor α (LXRα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c play a central role in de novo fatty acid synthesis. This study investigated pharmacological effects of nectandrin B, a lignan isolated from nutmeg extract, on hepatic lipogenesis stimulated by LXRα-SREBP-1c-mediated pathway and the possible molecular basis. The reporter gene assay revealed that nectandrin B completely represses LXRα activity enhanced by a synthetic LXRα ligand (T0901317) in HepG2 cells. The inhibitory effect was further supported by the suppression of mRNA expression of LXRα target genes, SREBP-1c and LXRα itself. Nectandrin B also inhibited the increase in SREBP-1c expression promoted by insulin plus high glucose, major contributors to hepatic lipid accumulation. LXRα-SREBP-1c-mediated induction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and fatty acid synthase, major genes for de novo lipogenesis, was suppressed by nectandrin B. Moreover, Oil Red O staining showed that nectandrin B notably attenuates LXRα-induced lipid accumulation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits the activities of LXRα and SREBP-1c. Nectandrin B strongly activated AMPK signaling in HepG2 cells. Taken together, the suppressive effects of nectandrin B on lipogenic gene expression and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes may be due to its inhibitory effect on the LXRα-SREBP-1c pathway presumably via AMPK activation. These results suggest the potential of nectandrin B as a therapeutic candidate for fatty liver disease. PMID:26790190

  19. Unveiling microbial activities along the halocline of Thetis, a deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin.

    PubMed

    Pachiadaki, Maria G; Yakimov, Michail M; LaCono, Violetta; Leadbetter, Edward; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are considered some of the most hostile environments on Earth. Little is known about the biochemical adaptations of microorganisms living in these habitats. This first metatranscriptome analysis of DHAB samples provides significant insights into shifts in metabolic activities of microorganisms as physicochemical conditions change from deep Mediterranean sea water to brine. The analysis of Thetis DHAB interface indicates that sulfate reduction occurs in both the upper (7.0-16.3% salinity) and lower (21.4-27.6%) halocline, but that expression of dissimilatory sulfate reductase is reduced in the more hypersaline lower halocline. High dark-carbon assimilation rates in the upper interface coincided with high abundance of transcripts for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase affiliated to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the lower interface, increased expression of genes associated with methane metabolism and osmoregulation is noted. In addition, in this layer, nitrogenase transcripts affiliated to uncultivated putative methanotrophic archaea were detected, implying nitrogen fixation in this anoxic habitat, and providing evidence of linked carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles. PMID:24950109

  20. Unveiling microbial activities along the halocline of Thetis, a deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin

    PubMed Central

    Pachiadaki, Maria G; Yakimov, Michail M; LaCono, Violetta; Leadbetter, Edward; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are considered some of the most hostile environments on Earth. Little is known about the biochemical adaptations of microorganisms living in these habitats. This first metatranscriptome analysis of DHAB samples provides significant insights into shifts in metabolic activities of microorganisms as physicochemical conditions change from deep Mediterranean sea water to brine. The analysis of Thetis DHAB interface indicates that sulfate reduction occurs in both the upper (7.0–16.3% salinity) and lower (21.4–27.6%) halocline, but that expression of dissimilatory sulfate reductase is reduced in the more hypersaline lower halocline. High dark-carbon assimilation rates in the upper interface coincided with high abundance of transcripts for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase affiliated to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the lower interface, increased expression of genes associated with methane metabolism and osmoregulation is noted. In addition, in this layer, nitrogenase transcripts affiliated to uncultivated putative methanotrophic archaea were detected, implying nitrogen fixation in this anoxic habitat, and providing evidence of linked carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles. PMID:24950109

  1. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang

    2015-08-07

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity.

  2. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  3. Maize rbcS promoter activity depends on sequence elements not found in dicot rbcS promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Schäffner, A R; Sheen, J

    1991-01-01

    Although the molecular mechanisms of dicot photosynthetic gene regulation have been pursued actively, comparable studies of monocot regulation have been slow to come forth. We show here that monocot (maize and wheat) but not dicot (pea, tobacco, and Arabidopsis) ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS) gene promoters are active in maize mesophyll protoplasts. The evolutionarily conserved GT and G boxes of dicot rbcS promoters are not essential for light-responsive expression in monocot leaf cells. Instead, at least six constitutive and light-sensitive regulatory elements are likely important for maize rbcS expression. Synergism between upstream and downstream promoter elements is required. Whereas in dicots, light triggers coupled leaf development and photosynthetic gene expression, in monocots, light regulation of rbcS is uncoupled from leaf development. Light regulation of maize rbcS may be divided into direct and indirect contributions mediated by different regulatory elements. Because wheat and maize rbcS promoters show sequence homologies and similar expression patterns in monocot and dicot leaf cells, it appears likely that monocots share conserved regulatory elements irrespective of whether they utilize the C3 or C4 pathway for carbon fixation. PMID:1822995

  4. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment.

  5. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  6. Brassinosteroids promote photosynthesis and growth by enhancing activation of Rubisco and expression of photosynthetic genes in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Li-Feng; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Mao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Kai; Wu, Jian-Xiang; Asami, Tadao; Chen, Zhixiang; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2009-11-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a new group of plant growth substances that promote plant growth and productivity. We showed in this study that improved growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants after treatment with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), an active BR, was associated with increased CO(2) assimilation and quantum yield of PSII (Phi(PSII)). Treatment of brassinazole (Brz), a specific inhibitor for BR biosynthesis, reduced plant growth and at the same time decreased CO(2) assimilation and Phi(PSII). Thus, the growth-promoting activity of BRs can be, at least partly, attributed to enhanced plant photosynthesis. To understand how BRs enhance photosynthesis, we have analyzed the effects of EBR and Brz on a number of photosynthetic parameters and their affecting factors, including the contents and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Northern and Western blotting demonstrated that EBR upregulated, while Brz downregulated, the expressions of rbcL, rbcS and other photosynthetic genes. In addition, EBR had a positive effect on the activation of Rubisco based on increased maximum Rubisco carboxylation rates (V (c,max)), total Rubisco activity and, to a greater extent, initial Rubisco activity. The accumulation patterns of Rubisco activase (RCA) based on immunogold-labeling experiments suggested a role of RCA in BR-regulated activation state of Rubisco. Enhanced expression of genes encoding other Calvin cycle genes after EBR treatment may also play a positive role in RuBP regeneration (J (max)), thereby increasing maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (V (c,max)). Thus, BRs promote photosynthesis and growth by positively regulating synthesis and activation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes including Rubisco in cucumber.

  7. 3,5 Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) Does Not Prevent Hepatic Steatosis or Insulin Resistance in Fat-Fed Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Vatner, Daniel F; Snikeris, Jaclyn; Popov, Violeta; Perry, Rachel J; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Samuel, Varman T

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone mimetics are alluring potential therapies for diseases like dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance. Though diiodothyronines are thought inactive, pharmacologic treatment with 3,5- Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) reportedly reduces hepatic lipid content and improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed male rats. To test this, male Sprague Dawley rats fed a safflower-oil based high-fat diet were treated with T2 (0.25 mg/kg-d) or vehicle. Neither 10 nor 30 days of T2 treatment had an effect on weight, adiposity, plasma fatty acids, or hepatic steatosis. Insulin action was quantified in vivo by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. T2 did not alter fasting plasma glucose or insulin concentration. Basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) rate was unchanged. During the clamp, there was no difference in insulin stimulated whole body glucose disposal. Insulin suppressed EGP by 60% ± 10 in T2-treated rats as compared with 47% ± 4 suppression in the vehicle group (p = 0.32). This was associated with an improvement in hepatic insulin signaling; insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation was ~2.5 fold greater in the T2-treated group as compared with the vehicle-treated group (p = 0.003). There was no change in expression of genes thought to mediate the effect of T2 on hepatic metabolism, including genes that regulate hepatic lipid oxidation (ppara, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a), genes that regulate hepatic fatty acid synthesis (srebp1c, acetyl coa carboxylase, fatty acid synthase), and genes involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (L-pyruvate kinase, glucose 6 phosphatase). Therefore, in contrast with previous reports, in Sprague Dawley rats fed an unsaturated fat diet, T2 administration failed to improve NAFLD or whole body insulin sensitivity. Though there was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin signaling, this was not associated with significant differences in hepatic insulin action. Further study will be necessary before

  8. 3,5 Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) Does Not Prevent Hepatic Steatosis or Insulin Resistance in Fat-Fed Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, Daniel F.; Snikeris, Jaclyn; Popov, Violeta; Perry, Rachel J.; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Samuel, Varman T.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone mimetics are alluring potential therapies for diseases like dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance. Though diiodothyronines are thought inactive, pharmacologic treatment with 3,5- Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) reportedly reduces hepatic lipid content and improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed male rats. To test this, male Sprague Dawley rats fed a safflower-oil based high-fat diet were treated with T2 (0.25 mg/kg-d) or vehicle. Neither 10 nor 30 days of T2 treatment had an effect on weight, adiposity, plasma fatty acids, or hepatic steatosis. Insulin action was quantified in vivo by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. T2 did not alter fasting plasma glucose or insulin concentration. Basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) rate was unchanged. During the clamp, there was no difference in insulin stimulated whole body glucose disposal. Insulin suppressed EGP by 60% ± 10 in T2-treated rats as compared with 47% ± 4 suppression in the vehicle group (p = 0.32). This was associated with an improvement in hepatic insulin signaling; insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation was ~2.5 fold greater in the T2-treated group as compared with the vehicle-treated group (p = 0.003). There was no change in expression of genes thought to mediate the effect of T2 on hepatic metabolism, including genes that regulate hepatic lipid oxidation (ppara, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a), genes that regulate hepatic fatty acid synthesis (srebp1c, acetyl coa carboxylase, fatty acid synthase), and genes involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (L-pyruvate kinase, glucose 6 phosphatase). Therefore, in contrast with previous reports, in Sprague Dawley rats fed an unsaturated fat diet, T2 administration failed to improve NAFLD or whole body insulin sensitivity. Though there was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin signaling, this was not associated with significant differences in hepatic insulin action. Further study will be necessary before

  9. Persimmon tannin accounts for hypolipidemic effects of persimmon through activating of AMPK and suppressing NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses in high-fat diet rats.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bo; Ge, Zhen-zhen; Zhang, Ying; Du, Jing; Xu, Ze; Li, Chun-mei

    2014-07-25

    The present study was to investigate whether high molecular weight persimmon tannin (HMWPT) is the main component associated with the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of consuming persimmon and its underlying mechanism. Male wistar rats were given a basic diet (control), a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet plus 0.5% of HMWPT or 4.2% of lyophilized fresh persimmon fruit (with the same diet HMWPT content in the two groups) for 9 weeks. Administration of HMWPT or persimmon fruit significantly (p < 0.05) lowered serum triglycerides and free fatty acids, enhanced the excretion of triglycerides, cholesterol and bile acids, and improved hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high-fat diet. Dietary HMWPT or persimmon fruit significantly decreased the protein levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and down-regulated genes involved in lipogenesis, including transcriptional factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, the expression of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), was notably up-regulated. Furthermore, HMWPT and persimmon fruit suppressed inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and the protein level of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) in the liver. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that HMWPT reproduced the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of persimmon fruit, and was a pivotal constituent of persimmon fruit accounting for prevention of liver steatosis and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by activation of the AMPK and regulation of its downstream targets, suppressing NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses, and inhibiting lipids and bile acid absorption. PMID:24841999

  10. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  11. Persimmon tannin accounts for hypolipidemic effects of persimmon through activating of AMPK and suppressing NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses in high-fat diet rats.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bo; Ge, Zhen-zhen; Zhang, Ying; Du, Jing; Xu, Ze; Li, Chun-mei

    2014-07-25

    The present study was to investigate whether high molecular weight persimmon tannin (HMWPT) is the main component associated with the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of consuming persimmon and its underlying mechanism. Male wistar rats were given a basic diet (control), a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet plus 0.5% of HMWPT or 4.2% of lyophilized fresh persimmon fruit (with the same diet HMWPT content in the two groups) for 9 weeks. Administration of HMWPT or persimmon fruit significantly (p < 0.05) lowered serum triglycerides and free fatty acids, enhanced the excretion of triglycerides, cholesterol and bile acids, and improved hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high-fat diet. Dietary HMWPT or persimmon fruit significantly decreased the protein levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and down-regulated genes involved in lipogenesis, including transcriptional factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, the expression of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), was notably up-regulated. Furthermore, HMWPT and persimmon fruit suppressed inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and the protein level of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) in the liver. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that HMWPT reproduced the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of persimmon fruit, and was a pivotal constituent of persimmon fruit accounting for prevention of liver steatosis and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by activation of the AMPK and regulation of its downstream targets, suppressing NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses, and inhibiting lipids and bile acid absorption.

  12. Aspirin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Jin Young; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation was greater in VSMC from SHR than WKY. {yields} Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMC from SHR. {yields} Low basal AMPK phosphorylation in SHR elicits increased VSMC proliferation. {yields} Inhibition of AMPK restored decreased VSMC proliferation by aspirin in SHR. {yields} Aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effect through AMPK activation in VSMC from SHR. -- Abstract: Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), used to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, plays an important role in the regulation of cellular proliferation. However, mechanisms responsible for aspirin-induced growth inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether aspirin may exert therapeutic effects via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from wistar kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Aspirin increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in VSMCs from WKY and SHR, but with greater efficacy in SHR. In SHR, a low basal phosphorylation status of AMPK resulted in increased VSMC proliferation and aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMCs. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and AMPK siRNA reduced the aspirin-mediated inhibition of VSMC proliferation, this effect was more pronounced in SHR than in WKY. In VSMCs from SHR, aspirin increased p53 and p21 expression and inhibited the expression of cell cycle associated proteins, such as p-Rb, cyclin D, and cyclin E. These results indicate that in SHR VSMCs aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effects through the induction of AMPK phosphorylation.

  13. Manipulation of the hypocotyl sink activity by reciprocal grafting of two Raphanus sativus varieties: its effects on morphological and physiological traits of source leaves and whole-plant growth.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Daisuke; Betsuyaku, Eriko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    To reveal whether hypocotyl sink activities are regulated by the aboveground parts, and whether physiology and morphology of source leaves are affected by the hypocotyl sink activities, we conducted grafting experiments using two Raphanus sativus varieties with different hypocotyl sink activities. Comet (C) and Leafy (L) varieties with high and low hypocotyl sink activities were reciprocally grafted and resultant plants were called by their scion and stock such as CC, LC, CL and LL. Growth, leaf mass per area (LMA), total non-structural carbohydrates (TNCs) and photosynthetic characteristics were compared among them. Comet hypocotyls in CC and LC grew well regardless of the scions, whereas Leafy hypocotyls in CL and LL did not. Relative growth rate was highest in LL and lowest in CC. Photosynthetic capacity was correlated with Rubisco (ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) content but unaffected by TNC. High C/N ratio and accumulation of TNC led to high LMA and structural LMA. These results showed that the hypocotyl sink activity was autonomously regulated by hypocotyl and that the down-regulation of photosynthesis was not induced by TNC. We conclude that the change in the sink activity alters whole-plant growth through the changes in both biomass allocation and leaf morphological characteristics in R. sativus.

  14. The nuclear protein Artemis promotes AMPK activation by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Koji; Uehata, Yasuko; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Toshihisa; Darmanin, Stephanie; Asaka, Masahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masanobu

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear protein Artemis physically interacts with AMPK{alpha}2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis co-localizes with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis promotes phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1 is stabilized by Artemis. -- Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a hetero-trimeric Ser/Thr kinase composed of a catalytic {alpha} subunit and regulatory {beta} and {gamma} subunits; it functions as an energy sensor that controls cellular energy homeostasis. In response to an increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in the {alpha}-subunit by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), including tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1). To elucidate more precise molecular mechanisms of AMPK activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the nuclear protein Artemis/DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C) as an AMPK{alpha}2-binding protein. Artemis was found to co-immunoprecipitate with AMPK{alpha}2, and the co-localization of Artemis with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in U2OS cells. Moreover, over-expression of Artemis enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK{alpha}2 and the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Artemis reduced AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In addition, Artemis markedly increased the physical association between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemis functions as a positive regulator of AMPK signaling by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex.

  15. Cinnamon extract enhances glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myocytes by inducing LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK. PMID:24551069

  16. [6]-Gingerol inhibits de novo fatty acid synthesis and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity which triggers apoptosis in HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Impheng, Hathaichanok; Richert, Lysiane; Pekthong, Dumrongsak; Scholfield, C Norman; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Pungpetchara, Ittipon; Srisawang, Piyarat

    2015-01-01

    The de novo fatty acid synthesis catalyzed by key lipogenic enzymes, including fatty acid synthase (FASN) has emerged as one of the novel targets of anti-cancer approaches. The present study explored the possible inhibitory efficacy of [6]-gingerol on de novo fatty acid synthesis associated with mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic induction in HepG2 cells. We observed a dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential accompanied by a reduction of fatty acid levels. [6]-gingerol administration manifested inhibition of FASN expression, indicating FASN is a major target of [6]-gingerol inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Indeed, we found that increased ROS generation could likely be a mediator of the anti-cancer effect of [6]-gingerol. A reduction of fatty acid levels and induction of apoptosis were restored by inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity, suggesting an accumulation of malonyl-CoA level could be the major cause of apoptotic induction of [6]-gingerol in HepG2 cells. The present study also showed that depletion of fatty acid following [6]-gingerol treatment caused an inhibitory effect on carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity (CPT-1), whereas C75 augmented CPT-1 activity, indicating that [6]-gingerol exhibits the therapeutic benefit on suppression of fatty acid β-oxidation. PMID:26101700

  17. Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (Veratrum nigrum L.) and Its Constituent Jervine Prevent Adipogenesis via Activation of the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC Axis In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinbong; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dae-Seung; Han, Yo-Han; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Yoon, Daeyeon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Junhee; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the antiobese effects of the ethanolic extract of Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (VN), a herb with limited usage, due to its toxicology. An HPLC analysis identified jervine as a constituent of VN. By an Oil Red O assay and a Real-Time RT-PCR assay, VN showed higher antiadipogenic effects than jervine. In high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese C57BL/6J mice, VN administration suppressed body weight gain. The levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), adiponectin, resistin, and LIPIN1 were suppressed by VN, while SIRT1 was upregulated. Furthermore, VN activated phosphorylation of the liver kinase B1- (LKB1-) AMP-activated protein kinase alpha- (AMPKα-) acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) axis. Further investigation of cotreatment of VN with the AMPK agonist AICAR or AMPK inhibitor Compound C showed that VN can activate the phosphorylation of AMPKα in compensation to the inhibition of Compound C. In conclusion, VN shows antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, VN has antiadipogenic features, which is due to activating the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC axis. These results suggest that VN has a potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:27143989

  18. Nootkatone, a characteristic constituent of grapefruit, stimulates energy metabolism and prevents diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK.

    PubMed

    Murase, Takatoshi; Misawa, Koichi; Haramizu, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi

    2010-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is implicated in the control of energy metabolism and is considered to be a molecular target for the suppression of obesity and the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Here, we identified and characterized nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, as a naturally occurring AMPK activator. Nootkatone induced an increase in AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 activity along with an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio and an increase the phosphorylation of AMPKalpha and the downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in C(2)C(12) cells. Nootkatone-induced activation of AMPK was possibly mediated both by LKB1 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Nootkatone also upregulated PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha in C(2)C(12) cells and C57BL/6J mouse muscle. In addition, administration of nootkatone (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly enhanced AMPK activity, accompanied by LKB1, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of mice. Whole body energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was also increased by nootkatone administration. Long-term intake of diets containing 0.1% to 0.3% (wt/wt) nootkatone significantly reduced high-fat and high-sucrose diet-induced body weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation, and the development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, endurance capacity, evaluated as swimming time to exhaustion in BALB/c mice, was 21% longer in mice fed 0.2% nootkatone than in control mice. These findings indicate that long-term intake of nootkatone is beneficial toward preventing obesity and improving physical performance and that these effects are due, at least in part, to enhanced energy metabolism through AMPK activation in skeletal muscle and liver. PMID:20501876

  19. T3-induced liver AMP-activated protein kinase signaling: Redox dependency and upregulation of downstream targets

    PubMed Central

    Videla, Luis A; Fernández, Virginia; Cornejo, Pamela; Vargas, Romina; Morales, Paula; Ceballo, Juan; Fischer, Alvaro; Escudero, Nicolás; Escobar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the redox dependency and promotion of downstream targets in thyroid hormone (T3)-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling as cellular energy sensor to limit metabolic stresses in the liver. METHODS: Fed male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single ip dose of 0.1 mg T3/kg or T3 vehicle (NaOH 0.1 N; controls) and studied at 8 or 24 h after treatment. Separate groups of animals received 500 mg N-acetylcysteine (NAC)/kg or saline ip 30 min prior T3. Measurements included plasma and liver 8-isoprostane and serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels (ELISA), hepatic levels of mRNAs (qPCR), proteins (Western blot), and phosphorylated AMPK (ELISA). RESULTS: T3 upregulates AMPK signaling, including the upstream kinases Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase-1, with T3-induced reactive oxygen species having a causal role due to its suppression by pretreatment with the antioxidant NAC. Accordingly, AMPK targets acetyl-CoA carboxylase and cyclic AMP response element binding protein are phosphorylated, with the concomitant carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α (CPT-1α) activation and higher expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α and that of the fatty acid oxidation (FAO)-related enzymes CPT-1α, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and acyl-CoA thioesterase 2. Under these conditions, T3 induced a significant increase in the serum levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, a surrogate marker for hepatic FAO. CONCLUSION: T3 administration activates liver AMPK signaling in a redox-dependent manner, leading to FAO enhancement as evidenced by the consequent ketogenic response, which may constitute a key molecular mechanism regulating energy dynamics to support T3 preconditioning against ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25516653

  20. Effect of dietary and hormonal alterations on the activity of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboylase in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, H.S.; Gleditsch, C.E.; Adibi, S.A.

    1986-05-01

    Previous studies have established that activities of leucine transaminase and branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) are under metabolic control. In the present experiment, the authors have investigated whether activity of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCase), an enzyme distal to BCKDH in pathways of leucine oxidation, is also subjected to metabolic regulation. Initially, they developed optimal conditions to assay the activity of this enzyme. The assay was based on the incorporation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ into 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA (MC-CoA) by liver mitochondria and required the presence of ATP and biotin. Subsequently, the authors determined the activity (nmol /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ incorporated/mg protein/min, mean +/- SE, 6 rats) of MCase under normal (2.80 +/- 0.09) and altered conditions. The activity of MCase was not affected either by starvation (2.88 +/- 0.13), diabetes (2.95 +/- 0.11), low-protein (2.35 +/- 0.05), or high-protein diet (3.06 +/- 0.06). To further substantiate these results, they measured accumulation of MC-CoA by incubating liver mitochondria with ..cap alpha..-ketoisocaproate (KIC). Of the KIC fraction that underwent flux through BCKDH (2.15 +/- 0.14 nmol/mg protein/min), only 0.26% accumulated as MC-CoA. Even if diabetes, when the flux through BCKDH was significantly increased (3.62 +/- 0.36), the accumulation of MC-CoA was negligible (0.33%). The authors conclude that a) MCase activity does not change in response to dietary and hormonal alterations, and b) MCase is not a rate-limiting reaction in pathways of leucine oxidation.

  1. Kirenol inhibits adipogenesis through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi-Bo; Song, Youngwoo; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Kirenol inhibits the adipogenic transcription factors and lipogenic enzymes. • Kirenol stimulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway components. • Kirenol inhibits adipogenesis through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. - Abstract: Kirenol, a natural diterpenoid compound, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities; however, its anti-adipogenic effect remains to be studied. The present study evaluated the effect of kirenol on anti-adipogenesis through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Kirenol prevented intracellular lipid accumulation by down-regulating key adipogenesis transcription factors [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)] and lipid biosynthesis-related enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)], as well as adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin). Kirenol effectively activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, in which kirenol up-regulated the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (LRP6), disheveled 2 (DVL2), β-catenin, and cyclin D1 (CCND1), while it inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) by increasing its phosphorylation. Kirenol down-regulated the expression levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα, which were up-regulated by siRNA knockdown of β-catenin. Overall, kirenol is capable of inhibiting the differentiation and lipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, suggesting its potential as natural anti-obesity agent.

  2. Three promoters regulate the transcriptional activity of the human holocarboxylase synthetase gene1,2

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Mengna; Malkaram, Sridhar A.; Zempleni, Janos

    2013-01-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) is the only protein biotin ligase in the human proteome. HLCS-dependent biotinylation of carboxylases plays crucial roles in macronutrient metabolism. HLCS appears to be an essential part of multiprotein complexes in the chromatin that cause gene repression and contribute toward genome stability. Consistent with these essential functions, HLCS knockdown causes strong phenotypes including shortened life span and low stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster, and de-repression of long-terminal repeats in humans, other mammalian cell lines, and Drosophila. Despite previous observations that the expression of HLCS depends on biotin status in rats and in human cell lines, little is known about the regulation of HLCS expression. The goal of this study was to identify promoters that regulate the expression of the human HLCS gene. Initially, the human HLCS locus was interrogated in silico using predictors of promoters including sequences of HLCS mRNA and expressed sequence tags, CpG islands, histone marks denoting transcriptionally poised chromatin, transcription factor binding sites, and DNaseI hypersensitive regions. Our predictions revealed three putative HLCS promoters, denoted P1, P2, and P3. Promoters lacked a TATA box, which is typical for housekeeping genes. When the three promoters were cloned into a luciferase reporter plasmid, reporter gene activity was at least three times background noise in human breast, colon, and kidney cell lines; activities consistently followed the pattern P1> >P3>P2. Promoter activity depended on the concentration of biotin in culture media, but the effect was moderate. We conclude that we have identified promoters in the human HLCS gene. PMID:24075901

  3. TBC1D1 reduces palmitate oxidation by inhibiting β-HAD activity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Maher, A C; McFarlan, J; Lally, J; Snook, L A; Bonen, A

    2014-11-01

    In skeletal muscle the Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has been implicated in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation by an unknown mechanism. We determined whether TBC1D1 altered fatty acid utilization via changes in protein-mediated fatty acid transport and/or selected enzymes regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We also determined the effects of TBC1D1 on glucose transport and oxidation. Electrotransfection of mouse soleus muscles with TBC1D1 cDNA increased TBC1D1 protein after 2 wk (P<0.05), without altering its paralog AS160. TBC1D1 overexpression decreased basal palmitate oxidation (-22%) while blunting 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR)-stimulated palmitate oxidation (-18%). There was a tendency to increase fatty acid esterification (+10 nmol·g(-1)·60 min(-1), P=0.07), which reflected the reduction in fatty acid oxidation (-12 nmol·g(-1)·60 min(-1)). Concomitantly, basal (+21%) and AICAR-stimulated glucose oxidation (+8%) were increased in TBC1D1-transfected muscles relative to their respective controls (P<0.05), independent of changes in GLUT4 and glucose transport. The reductions in TBC1D1-mediated fatty acid oxidation could not be attributed to changes in the transporter FAT/CD36, muscle mitochondrial content, CPT1 expression or the expression and phosphorylation of AS160, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, or AMPK. However, TBC1D1 overexpression reduced β-HAD enzyme activity (-18%, P<0.05). In conclusion, TBC1D1-mediated reduction of muscle fatty acid oxidation appears to occur via inhibition of β-HAD activity.

  4. Involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in mediating pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Jennifer C; Butini, Stefania; Campiani, Giuseppe; O'Meara, Anne; Williams, D Clive; Zisterer, Daniela M

    2016-10-01

    Neuroblastoma, a paediatric malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system, accounts for 15 % of childhood cancer deaths. Despite advances in understanding the biology, it remains one of the most difficult paediatric cancers to treat partly due to the development of multidrug resistance. There is thus a compelling demand for new treatment strategies that can bypass resistance mechanisms. The pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine (PBOX) compounds are a series of novel microtubule-targeting agents that potently induce apoptosis in various tumour models. We have previously reported that PBOX compounds induce apoptosis in drug sensitive and multidrug resistant neuroblastoma cells and synergistically enhance apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutics such as carboplatin. In this study we present further data concerning the molecular basis of PBOX-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma. We demonstrate that PBOX-6 induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and downstream acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) appeared to serve as the upstream signal for AMPK activation as pretreatment of cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited both AMPK activation and PBOX-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, activation of AMPK by PBOX-6 was found to inhibit mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling. Finally, we demonstrate the efficacy of PBOX-6 in an in vivo xenograft model of neuroblastoma. This study provides new insights into understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in PBOX-induced cell death in neuroblastoma and further supports their future use as novel anti-cancer agents for the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  5. Involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in mediating pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Jennifer C; Butini, Stefania; Campiani, Giuseppe; O'Meara, Anne; Williams, D Clive; Zisterer, Daniela M

    2016-10-01

    Neuroblastoma, a paediatric malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system, accounts for 15 % of childhood cancer deaths. Despite advances in understanding the biology, it remains one of the most difficult paediatric cancers to treat partly due to the development of multidrug resistance. There is thus a compelling demand for new treatment strategies that can bypass resistance mechanisms. The pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine (PBOX) compounds are a series of novel microtubule-targeting agents that potently induce apoptosis in various tumour models. We have previously reported that PBOX compounds induce apoptosis in drug sensitive and multidrug resistant neuroblastoma cells and synergistically enhance apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutics such as carboplatin. In this study we present further data concerning the molecular basis of PBOX-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma. We demonstrate that PBOX-6 induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and downstream acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) appeared to serve as the upstream signal for AMPK activation as pretreatment of cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited both AMPK activation and PBOX-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, activation of AMPK by PBOX-6 was found to inhibit mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling. Finally, we demonstrate the efficacy of PBOX-6 in an in vivo xenograft model of neuroblastoma. This study provides new insights into understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in PBOX-induced cell death in neuroblastoma and further supports their future use as novel anti-cancer agents for the treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:27334143

  6. Nitrogenase activity and dark CO2 fixation in the lichen Peltigera aphthosa Willd.

    PubMed

    Rai, A N; Rowell, P; Stewart, W D

    1981-03-01

    The lichen Peltigera aphthosa consists of a fungus and green alga (Coccomyxa) in the main thallus and of a Nostoc located in superficial packets, intermixed with fungus, called cephalodia. Dark nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) of lichen discs (of alga, fungus and Nostoc) and of excised cephalodia was sustained at higher rates and for longer than was the dark nitrogenase activity of the isolated Nostoc growing exponentially. Dark nitrogenase activity of the symbiotic Nostoc was supported by the catabolism of polyglucose accumulated in the ligh and which in darkness served to supply ATP and reductant. The decrease in glucose content of the cephalodia paralleled the decline in dark nitrogenase activity in the presence of CO2; in the absence of CO2 dark nitrogenase activity declined faster although the rate of glucose loss was similar in the presence and absence of CO2. Dark CO2 fixation, which after 30 min in darkness represented 17 and 20% of the light rates of discs and cephalodia, respectively, also facilitated dark nitrogenase activity. The isolated Nostoc, the Coccomyxa and the excised fungus all fixed CO2 in the dark; in the lichen most dark CO2 fixation was probably due to the fungus. Kinetic studies using discs or cephalodia showed highest initial incorporation of (14)CO2 in the dark in to oxaloacetate, aspartate, malate and fumarate; incorporation in to alanine and citrulline was low; incorporation in to sugar phosphates, phosphoglyceric acid and sugar alcohols was not significant. Substantial activities of the enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) and carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (EC 2.7.2.5 and 2.7.2.9) were detected but the activities of PEP carboxykinase (EC 4.1.1.49) and PEP carboxyphosphotransferase (EC 4.1.1.38) were negligible. In the dark nitrogenase activity by the cephalodia, but not by the free-living Nostoc, declined more rapidly in the absence than in the presence of CO2 in the gas phase. Exogenous NH 4

  7. Influence of gamma radiation on the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the cotyledons and the leaves of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. ) bean seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Ahanotu, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies indicated that 21-day old cotyledons from gamma irradiated seeds of fenugreek beans were heavier and had more starch and sugar than their non-irradiated controls. To test whether these effects occurred in the leaves and to seek a possible biochemical explanation for these results, the activities of five enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were studied. Three groups of fenugreek bean seeds were irradiated (100-300 Gy) and then allowed to grow for 21 days. On harvest, wet and dry weights of both cotyledons and leaves were determined. Starch and sugar contents in cotyledons and leaves were measured. The five enzymes ..cap alpha..-amylase, ..beta..-amylase, starch phosphorylase, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase were extracted from cotyledons and leaves, respectively. The protein contents and activities of the enzyme extracts were determined. The results suggest an increase in carbohydrate metabolism in cotyldeons and a decrease in leaves due to the radiation treatment of the seeds before germination. Thus, increased amounts of starch and sugars are observed in the cotyledons, and decreased amounts in the leaves. Radiation damage to the translocatory system of the plant may retard the movement of sugars from the cotyledons to the other parts of the plant. This may cause accumulation of sugars and starch in the cotyledons, leading to an increase in their size and weight.

  8. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract regulates glucose and lipid metabolism by activating AMPK and PPAR pathways in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zheng; Moss-Pierce, Tijuana; Ford, Paul; Jiang, T Alan

    2013-03-20

    An epidemic of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes is rising dramatically. Using natural products as potential preventive and therapeutic interventions for these disorders has drawn worldwide attention. Rosemary has been shown to lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels and mitigate weight gain in several in vivo studies. However, the mechanisms are essentially unknown. We investigated the effects of rosemary extract on metabolism and demonstrated that rosemary extract significantly increased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), was increased by rosemary extract. Rosemary extract also transcriptionally regulated the genes involved in metabolism, including SIRT1, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), ACC, and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Furthermore, the PPARγ-specific antagonist GW9662 diminished rosemary's effects on glucose consumption. Overall, our study suggested that rosemary potentially increases liver glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation by activating AMPK and PPAR pathways.

  9. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. II. Carbon exchange rates, enzyme activities, and starch and nutrient concentrations. [Cucumis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, M.M.; Huber, S.C.; Patterson, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon exchange capacity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germinated and grown in controlled environment chambers at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ decreased from the vegetative growth stage to the fruiting stage, during which time capacity of plants grown at 350 microliters per liter increased. Carbon exchange rates (CERs) measured under growth conditions during the fruiting period were, in fact, lower in plants grown at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ than those grown at 350. Progressive decreases in CERs in 1000 microliters per liter plants were associated with decreasing stomatal conductances and activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase. Leaf starch concentrations were higher in 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ grown-plants than in 350 microliters per liter grown plants but calcium and nitrogen concentrations were lower, the greatest difference occurring at flowering. Sucrose synthase and sucrose-P-synthase activities were similar in 1000 microliters per liter compared to 350 microliters per liter plants during vegetative growth and flowering but higher in 350 microliters per liter plants at fruiting. The decreased carbon exchange rates observed in this cultivar at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ could explain the lack of any yield increase when compared with plants grown at 350 microliters per liter.

  10. Hypolipidemic Activity of Peony Seed Oil Rich in α-Linolenic, is Mediated Through Inhibition of Lipogenesis and Upregulation of Fatty Acid β-Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianhui; Ma, Chaoyang; Liu, Chengxiang; Gao, Chuanzhong; Nie, Rongjing; Wang, Hongxin

    2016-04-01

    Peony seed oil (PSO) is a new resource food rich in α-Linolenic Acid(ALA) (38.66%). The objective of this study was to assess the modulatory effect of PSO on lipid metabolism. Lard oil, safflower oil (SFO), and PSO were fed to wistar rats with 1% cholesterol in the diet for 60 d. Serum and liver lipids showed significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in PSO fed rats compared to lard oil and SFO fed rats. ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), contents were significantly increased, whereas linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) levels decreased in serum and liver of PSO fed rats. Feeding PSO increased ALA level and decreased n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. The hypolipidemic result of PSO indicated that PSO participated in the regulation of plasma lipid concentration and cholesterol metabolism in liver. The decreased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1C (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)-reduced lipid synthesis; Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPARα) accompanied by increase of uncoupling protein2 (UP2) and acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) stimulated lipid metabolism and exerted an antiobesity effect via increasing energy expenditure for prevention of obesity. PMID:26930155

  11. Modified rubisco large subunit n-methyltransferase useful for targeting molecules to the active-site vicinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

    DOEpatents

    Houtz, Robert L.

    2012-03-20

    The present invention generally relates to a modified Rubisco large subunit .sup..epsilon.N-Methyltransferase (Rubisco LSMT, or RLSMT). The present invention also relates to a modified RLSMT-carbonic anhydrase (RLSMT-CA). This modified RLSMT-CA improves the efficiency of the reduction of CO.sub.2 during photosynthesis, which may increase plant growth rates. The present invention also relates to nucleic acids encoding the modified RLSMT-CA or modified RLSMT. Also, the present invention relates to cells including the modified RLSMT-CA or modified RLSMT, plants containing the modified RLSMT-CA or modified RLSMT, and methods using compositions of the present invention. In addition, the present invention relates to antibodies conjugated to CA which may bind to Rubisco, and antibodies which bind a modified RLSMT-CA. The invention also relates to modified forms of the LS and SS of Rubisco where the modified forms are fusions with CA or biologically active fragments thereof. The present invention provides methods of altering Rubisco carboxylase activity and altering plant growth.

  12. Simultaneous quantification of active carbon- and nitrogen-fixing communities and estimation of fixation rates using fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Allison S; Shepard, Alicia K; Raes, Eric J; Waite, Anya M; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the interconnectivity of oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically carbon and nitrogen fixation, is essential in elucidating the fate and distribution of carbon in the ocean. Traditional techniques measure either organism abundance or biochemical rates. As such, measurements are performed on separate samples and on different time scales. Here, we developed a method to simultaneously quantify organisms while estimating rates of fixation across time and space for both carbon and nitrogen. Tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH) of mRNA for functionally specific oligonucleotide probes for rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; carbon fixation) and nifH (nitrogenase; nitrogen fixation) was combined with flow cytometry to measure abundance and estimate activity. Cultured samples representing a diversity of phytoplankton (cyanobacteria, coccolithophores, chlorophytes, diatoms, and dinoflagellates), as well as environmental samples from the open ocean (Gulf of Mexico, USA, and southeastern Indian Ocean, Australia) and an estuary (Galveston Bay, Texas, USA), were successfully hybridized. Strong correlations between positively tagged community abundance and (14)C/(15)N measurements are presented. We propose that these methods can be used to estimate carbon and nitrogen fixation in environmental communities. The utilization of mRNA TSA-FISH to detect multiple active microbial functions within the same sample will offer increased understanding of important biogeochemical cycles in the ocean.

  13. 14-Deoxyandrographolide alleviates ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis through stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Samir; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata; Bandhopadhyay, Sukdeb; Sen, Gargi; Biswas, Tuli

    2014-03-01

    Andrographis paniculata (AP) is a traditional medicinal plant of Ayurveda. It grows widely in Asia and is prescribed in the treatment of liver diseases. Here we have investigated the beneficial role of 14-deoxyandrographolide (14-DAG), a bioactive diterpenoid from AP, against alcoholic steatosis in rats. 14-DAG was extracted from aerial parts (leaves and stems) of AP. Rats were fed with ethanol for 8 weeks. Animals were treated with 14-DAG during the last 4 weeks of ethanol treatment. In vitro studies were undertaken in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line culture. Hepatosteatosis was assessed from histopathological studies of liver sections. Acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and triglyceride contents were determined using commercially available kits. Fatty acid synthesis was evaluated from incorporation of 1-(14)C acetate. Regulation of fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis were monitored with immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation studies. Ethanol exposure led to hepatotoxicity, as evident from the marked enhancement in the levels of AST and ALT. The values decreased almost to control levels in response to 14-DAG treatment. Results showed that ethanol feeding induced deactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that led to enhanced lipid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation, culminating in hepatic fat accumulation. Treatment with 14-DAG activated AMPK through induction of cyclic AMP-protein kinase A pathway. Activation of AMPK was followed by down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase, leading to suppression of lipogenesis. This was associated with up-regulation of sirtuin 1 and depletion of malonyl-CoA, in favor of increased fatty acid oxidation. 14-DAG controlled ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis by interfering with dysregulation of lipid metabolism. In conclusion, our results indicated that 14-DAG was capable of preventing the development of fatty liver through AMPK

  14. [Impacts of suboptimal temperature and low light intensity on the activities and gene expression of photosynthetic enzymes in cucumber seedling leaves].

    PubMed

    Bi, Huan-Gai; Wang, Mei-Ling; Jiang, Zhen-Sheng; Dong, Xu-Bing; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2011-11-01

    Taking the cucumber cultivar 'Jinyou 3' as test material, this paper studied the variations of the mRNA expression and activities of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), and transketolase (TK) in cucumber seedling leaves under suboptimal temperature and low light intensity (ST+LL). In the treatment of ST+LL, the leaf area and the dry mass per plant decreased remarkably, compared with the control. On the early days of ST+LL treatment, the gene expression of Rubisco rbcL and rbcS, FBPase, GAPDH, FBA, and TK declined markedly, the activities of the enzymes except TK obviously weakened, and the photosynthetic rate (P(n)) decreased rapidly. 3 days later, the gene expression of Rubisco rbcL and rbcS and the initial activity of Rubisco showed a continuous decrease but the decrement was obviously lesser, the total activity of Rubisco and the activities and gene expression of FBPase, GAPDH, FBA, and TK had an increasing trend, and the P(n) ascended simultaneously. When the treating time exceeded 6 days, the gene expression and the activities of Rubisco and FBPase tended to be constant, while those of the other enzymes as well as the P(n) presented a decreasing trend. These results suggested that the decline of the gene expression and activities of the photosynthetic enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature and low light intensity was the important reason which led to the decrease of P(n). The adaptation of photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber seedlings to suboptimal temperature and low light intensity was related to the activation mechanisms of photosynthetic enzymes.

  15. Rubisco Activity in Guard Cells Compared with the Solute Requirement for Stomatal Opening 1

    PubMed Central

    Reckmann, Udo; Scheibe, Renate; Raschke, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    We investigated whether the reductive pentose phosphate path in guard cells of Pisum sativum had the capacity to contribute significantly to the production of osmotica during stomatal opening in the light. Amounts of ribulose 1,5-bisphophate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) were determined by the [14C]carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate assay. A guard cell contained about 1.2 and a mesophyll cell about 324 picograms of the enzyme; the ratio was 1:270. The specific activities of Rubisco in guard cells and in mesophyll cells were equal; there was no indication of a specific inhibitor of Rubisco in guard cells. Rubisco activity was 115 femtomol per guard-cell protoplast and hour. This value was different from zero with a probability of 0.99. After exposure of guard-cell protoplasts to 14CO2 for 2 seconds in the light, about one-half of the radioactivity was in phosphorylated compounds and <10% in malate. Guard cells in epidermal strips produced a different labelling pattern; in the light, <10% of the label was in phosphorylated compounds and about 60% in malate. The rate of solute accumulation in intact guard cells was estimated to have been 900 femto-osmol per cell and hour. If Rubisco operated at full capacity in guard cells, and h