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Sample records for acetylated moth bean

  1. Effect of acetylation, oxidation and annealing on physicochemical properties of bean starch.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Senay; Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Whitney, Kristin; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2012-10-15

    Black and Pinto bean starches were physically and chemically modified to investigate the effect of modification on digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch. The impact of acetylation, oxidation (ozonation) and annealing on the chemical composition, syneresis, swelling volume, pasting, thermal properties and digestibility of starches was evaluated. The physicochemical and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of the Black and Pinto bean starches treated with ozone were not significantly (P>0.05) different than that of their respective control starches. Annealed starches had improved thermal and pasting properties compared to native starches. Acetylated starches presented reduced syneresis, good pasting properties and lower eGI. Also, all modified starches had increased levels of resistant starch (RS). Therefore, the digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch were affected by the type of modification but there were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the Black and Pinto bean starches.

  2. A novel protein from mung bean hypocotyl cell walls with acetyl esterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bordenave, M; Goldberg, R; Huet, J C; Pernollet, J C

    1995-01-01

    An acetyl esterase was purified from cell walls isolated from mung bean hypocotyls. The purified enzyme had an apparent Mr of 43,300 and an apparent pI > 9. It rapidly deesterified triacetin and p-nitrophenylacetate and slowly released acetate from beet and flax pectins, the deesterification rate being increased by previous demethylation of the pectins. No significant peptide sequence identity between the acetyl esterase and any known protein could be found in protein data bases.

  3. The Yeast ATF1 Acetyltransferase Efficiently Acetylates Insect Pheromone Alcohols: Implications for the Biological Production of Moth Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Lager, Ida; Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-04-01

    Many moth pheromones are composed of mixtures of acetates of long-chain (≥10 carbon) fatty alcohols. Moth pheromone precursors such as fatty acids and fatty alcohols can be produced in yeast by the heterologous expression of genes involved in insect pheromone production. Acetyltransferases that subsequently catalyze the formation of acetates by transfer of the acetate unit from acetyl-CoA to a fatty alcohol have been postulated in pheromone biosynthesis. However, so far no fatty alcohol acetyltransferases responsible for the production of straight chain alkyl acetate pheromone components in insects have been identified. In search for a non-insect acetyltransferase alternative, we expressed a plant-derived diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) (EC 2.3.1.20) cloned from the seed of the burning bush (Euonymus alatus) in a yeast system. EaDAcT transformed various fatty alcohol insect pheromone precursors into acetates but we also found high background acetylation activities. Only one enzyme in yeast was shown to be responsible for the majority of that background activity, the acetyltransferase ATF1 (EC 2.3.1.84). We further investigated the usefulness of ATF1 for the conversion of moth pheromone alcohols into acetates in comparison with Ea DAcT. Overexpression of ATF1 revealed that it was capable of acetylating these fatty alcohols with chain lengths from 10 to 18 carbons with up to 27- and 10-fold higher in vivo and in vitro efficiency, respectively, compared to Ea DAcT. The ATF1 enzyme thus has the potential to serve as the missing enzyme in the reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathway of insect acetate pheromones from precursor fatty acids in yeast.

  4. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-02-25

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste.

  5. Learning about Moths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  6. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  7. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. The De Havilland "Moth"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

  9. Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

  10. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  11. Gypsy Moth Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Dennis R.

    The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

  12. Pheromone Transduction in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Stengl, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30 Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLCβ-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth's physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors. PMID:21228914

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts.

  14. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals.

  15. Moths smell with their antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Ballard, Matthew; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Moths are reported to smell each other from over 6 miles away, locating each other with just 200 airborne molecules. In this study, we investigate how the structure of the antennae influences particle capture. We measure the branching patterns of over 40 species of moths, across two orders of magnitude in weight. We find that moth antennae have 3 levels of hierarchy, with dimensions on each level scaling with body size. We perform lattice-Boltzman simulations to determine optimal flow patterns around antennae branches allowing for capture of small particles.

  16. Private ultrasonic whispering in moths

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2009-01-01

    Sound-producing moths have evolved a range of mechanisms to emit loud conspicuous ultrasounds directed toward mates, competitors and predators. We recently discovered a novel mechanism of sound production, i.e., stridulation of specialized scales on the wing and thorax, in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis, the male of which produces ultrasonic courtship songs in close proximity to a female (<2 cm). The signal is very quiet, being exclusively adapted for private communication. A quiet signal is advantageous in that it prevents eavesdropping by competitors and/or predators. We argue that communication via quiet ultrasound, which has not been reported previously, is probably common in moths and other insects. PMID:20835290

  17. THE EXCHANGE REACTION OF ACETYL FLUORIDE AND ACETYL HEXAFLUOROARSENATE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    From the temperature dependence of the exchange rate of the methyl protons between acetyl fluoride and acetyl hexafluoroarsenate an Arrhenius...the reaction was found to be one-half order in acetyl hexafluoroarsenate and zero order in acetyl fluoride. (Author)

  18. Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

    2014-01-29

    A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails.

  19. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms.

  20. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  1. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  2. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  3. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  4. Histone acetylation in neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Contestabile, Antonio; Sintoni, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modification of histones is a primary mechanism through which epigenetic regulation of DNA transcription does occur. Among these modifications, regulation of histone acetylation state is an important tool to influence gene expression. Epigenetic regulation of neurodevelopment contributes to the structural and functional shaping of the brain during neurogenesis and continues to impact on neural plasticity lifelong. Alterations of these mechanisms during neurodevelopment may result in later occurrence of neuropsychatric disorders. The present paper reviews and discusses available data on histone modifications, in particular histone acetylation, in neurogenesis considering results obtained in culture systems of neural progenitors as well as in in vivo studies. Possible teratogenic effects of altered histone acetylation state during development are also considered. The use during pregnancy of drugs such as valproic acid, which acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, may result during postnatal development in autistic-like symptoms. The effect of gestational administration of the drug has been, therefore, tested on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in animals showing behavioral impairment as a consequence of the drug administration at a specific stage of pregnancy. These experimental results show that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is not quantitatively altered by gestational valproic acid administration. Future steps and goals of research on the role and mechanisms of histone acetylation in neurodevelopment are briefly discussed.

  5. Final report on the safety assessment of acetyl triethyl citrate, acetyl tributyl citrate, acetyl trihexyl citrate, and acetyl trioctyl citrate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur

    2002-01-01

    Acetyl Triethyl Citrate, Acetyl Tributyl Citrate, Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate, and Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate all function as plasticizers in cosmetics. Additionally, the Trihexyl and Trioctyl forms are described as skin-conditioning agents-emollients, although there are currently no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate or Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate. Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate are used in nail products at concentrations up to 7%. Recognizing that there are no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl or Trioctyl Citrate, if they were to be used in the future, their concentration of use is expected to be no higher than that reported for Acetyl Triethyl and Tributyl Citrate. These ingredients were sufficiently similar in structure that safety test data on one were considered applicable to all. Approximately 99% of orally administered Acetyl Tributyl Citrate is excreted-intermediate metabolites include acetyl citrate, monobutyl citrate, acetyl monobutyl citrate, dibutyl citrate, and acetyl dibutyl citrate. In acute, short-term, subchronic, and chronic feeding studies, these ingredients were relatively nontoxic. Differences from controls were either not statistically significant or not related to any organ toxicity. Ocular exposures produced moderate reactions that cleared by 48 hours after instillation. Dermal application was not toxic in rabbits. In a guinea pig maximization test, Acetyl Triethyl Citrate was a sensitizer whereas Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was not. Limited clinical testing of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was negative for both skin irritation and sensitization. These clinical data were considered more relevant than the guinea pig maximization data, suggesting to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel that none of these ingredients would be a sensitizer. Physiologic effects noted with intravenous delivery of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate or Acetyl Tributyl Citrate include dose-related decreases in blood pressure and

  6. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  7. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths.

    PubMed

    van Langevelde, Frank; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Veenendaal, Elmar M; Fijen, Thijs P M

    2017-03-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand these declines, the question remains whether artificial light causes only increased mortality or also sublethal effects. We show that moths subjected to artificial night lighting spend less time feeding than moths in darkness, with the shortest time under light conditions rich in short wavelength radiation. These findings provide evidence for sublethal effects contributing to moth population declines. Because effects are strong under various types of light compared with dark conditions, the potential of spectral alterations as a conservation tool may be overestimated. Therefore, restoration and maintenance of darkness in illuminated areas is essential for reversing declines of moth populations.

  8. Nucleosome acetylation sequencing to study the establishment of chromatin acetylation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chitvan; Blacketer, Melissa J; Shogren-Knaak, Michael A

    2014-07-15

    The establishment of posttranslational chromatin modifications is a major mechanism for regulating how genomic DNA is utilized. However, current in vitro chromatin assays do not monitor histone modifications at individual nucleosomes. Here we describe a strategy, nucleosome acetylation sequencing, that allows us to read the amount of modification at each nucleosome. In this approach, a bead-bound trinucleosome substrate is enzymatically acetylated with radiolabeled acetyl CoA by the SAGA complex from Saccharomyces cerevisae. The product is digested by restriction enzymes that cut at unique sites between the nucleosomes and then counted to quantify the extent of acetylation at each nucleosomal site. We find that we can sensitively, specifically, and reproducibly follow enzyme-mediated nucleosome acetylation. Applying this strategy, when acetylation proceeds extensively, its distribution across nucleosomes is relatively uniform. However, when substrates are used that contain nucleosomes mutated at the major sites of SAGA-mediated acetylation, or that are studied under initial rate conditions, changes in the acetylation distribution can be observed. Nucleosome acetylation sequencing should be applicable to analyzing a wide range of modifications. Additionally, because our trinucleosomes synthesis strategy is highly modular and efficient, it can be used to generate nucleosomal systems in which nucleosome composition differs across the array.

  9. Histone acetylation in insect chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Allfrey, V G; Pogo, B G; Littau, V C; Gershey, E L; Mirsky, A E

    1968-01-19

    Acetylation of histones takes place along the salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus thummi when RNA synthesis is active. It can be observed but not measured quantitatively by autoradiography of chromosome squashes. The "fixatives" commonly used in preparing squashes of insect chromosomes preferentially extract the highly acetylated "arginine-rich" histone fractions; the use of such fixatives may explain the reported absence of histone acetylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

  10. STAT5 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Kosan, Christian; Ginter, Torsten; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2013-01-01

    The cytokine-inducible transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A and 5B (STAT5A and STAT5B) are important for the proper development of multicellular eukaryotes. Disturbed signaling cascades evoking uncontrolled expression of STAT5 target genes are associated with cancer and immunological failure. Here, we summarize how STAT5 acetylation is integrated into posttranslational modification networks within cells. Moreover, we focus on how inhibitors of deacetylases and tyrosine kinases can correct leukemogenic signaling nodes involving STAT5. Such small molecules can be exploited in the fight against neoplastic diseases and immunological disorders. PMID:24416653

  11. Sharing Beans with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  12. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this…

  13. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  17. Histone acetylation in heterochromatin assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Workman, Jerry L.

    2010-01-01

    Histone acetylation is generally considered a mark involved in activating gene expression by making chromatin structures less compact. In the April 1, 2010, issue of Genes & Development, Xhemalce and Kouzarides (pp. 647–652) demonstrate that the acetylation of histone H3 at Lys 4 (H3K4) plays a role in the formation of repressive heterochromatin in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. H3K4 acetylation mediates a switch of chromodomain proteins associated with methylated H3K9 during heterochromatin assembly. PMID:20395362

  18. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Brian T; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek; Schölz, Christian; Wagner, Sebastian A; Magnes, Christoph; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation accumulated in growth-arrested cells in a manner that depended on acetyl-CoA generation in distinct subcellular compartments. Mitochondrial acetylation levels correlated with acetyl-CoA concentration in vivo and acetyl-CoA acetylated lysine residues nonenzymatically in vitro. We developed a method to estimate acetylation stoichiometry and found that the vast majority of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylation had a very low stoichiometry. However, mitochondrial acetylation occurred at a significantly higher basal level than cytoplasmic acetylation, consistent with the distinct acetylation dynamics and higher acetyl-CoA concentration in mitochondria. High stoichiometry acetylation occurred mostly on histones, proteins present in histone acetyltransferase and deacetylase complexes, and on transcription factors. These data show that a majority of acetylation occurs at very low levels in exponentially growing yeast and is uniformly affected by exposure to acetyl-CoA.

  19. A diversity of moths (Lepidoptera) trapped with two feeding attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding attractants for moths are useful as survey tools to assess moth species diversity, and for monitoring of the relative abundance of certain pest species. We assessed the relative breadth of attractiveness of two such lures to moths, at sites with varied habitats during 2006. Eighty-six of the...

  20. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY: Animal and... of decision for the final supplemental environmental impact statement for the Gypsy Moth Program... name Mimic) to their list of treatments for the control of gypsy moth. In addition to the proposal...

  1. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  2. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  3. Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

  4. Codling Moth has a New Calendar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in 10 apple orchards in Washington State from 2003-2006 to characterize the seasonal cumulative curves of codling moth flight and the occurrence of fruit injury. Data from each generation were fit to logistic curves and these data were compared to a current widely-used model. ...

  5. Evolution of Moth Sex Pheromone Desaturases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moth sex pheromone communication has evolved to make use of complex blends of relatively simple long-chain fatty acid precursors. Species specificity is derived from the unique stereochemistry of double bonds introduced into exact locations along the hydrocarbon backbone of fatty acids, which are r...

  6. Moth pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect’s olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less ...

  7. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  8. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  9. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  10. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  11. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  12. Structure-activity relationship of adipokinetic hormone analogs in the striped hawk moth, Hippotion eson.

    PubMed

    Marco, Heather G; Gäde, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    We showed previously that the sphingid moth Hippotion eson synthesizes the highest number of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) ever recorded, viz. five, in its corpus cardiacum: two octa-, two nona- and one decapeptide. Further, the endogenous decapeptide (Manse-AKH-II) and the other four AKHs are all active in lipid mobilization, whereas a non-lepidopteran decapeptide (Lacsp-AKH, five amino acid substitutions compared with Manse-AKH-II), was inactive in H. eson. We tested the decapeptide, Lacol-AKH, from a noctuid moth for the first time in a bioassay and it shows a maximal AKH effect in H. eson. Lacol-AKH differs from Manse-AKH-II in three places and from Lacsp-AKH in four places. We, thus, used Lacol-AKH as a lead peptide on which a series of AKH analogs are based to represent: (a) single amino acid replacements (according to the substitutions in Lacsp-AKH), (b) shorter chain lengths, (c) modified termini, and (d) a replacement of Trp in position 8. These analogs, as well as a few naturally occurring AKHs from other lepidopterans were tested in in vivo adipokinetic assays to gain insight into the ligand-receptor interaction in H. eson. Our results show that the second and third amino acids are important for biological activity in the sphingid moth. Analogs with an N-[acetylated]Glu(1) (instead of a pyroGlu), or a free C-terminus, or Ala(8) were not active in the bioassays, while shortened Lacol-AKH analogs and the undecapeptide, non-amidated Vanca-AKH showed very reduced activity (below 25%). This information is important for the consideration of peptide mimetics to combat specific lepidopteran pest insects.

  13. N-ACETYL GROUPS IN VITELLENIN,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The presence of acetyl groups in vitellenin was confirmed by hydrazinolysis according to the DNP method of Phillips. After hydrazinolysis of 10-30...hydrazinolysis at room temperature for 1 hour, vitellenin contains N- acetyl , but no Oacetyl, groups. (Author)

  14. Bacterial protein acetylation: new discoveries unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alan J

    2016-05-01

    Nε-acetylation is emerging as an abundant post-translational modification of bacterial proteins. Two mechanisms have been identified: one is enzymatic, dependent on an acetyltransferase and acetyl-coenzyme A; the other is non-enzymatic and depends on the reactivity of acetyl phosphate. Some, but not most, of those acetylations are reversed by deacetylases. This review will briefly describe the current status of the field and raise questions that need answering.

  15. High duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests.

  16. Protein acetylation in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Jörg

    2010-09-16

    Proteins can be acetylated at the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal amino acid (methionine or the penultimate amino acid after methionine removal) or at the epsilon-amino group of internal lysines. In eukaryotes the majority of proteins are N-terminally acetylated, while this is extremely rare in bacteria. A variety of studies about N-terminal acetylation in archaea have been reported recently, and it was revealed that a considerable fraction of proteins is N-terminally acetylated in haloarchaea and Sulfolobus, while this does not seem to apply for methanogenic archaea. Many eukaryotic proteins are modified by differential internal acetylation, which is important for a variety of processes. Until very recently, only two bacterial proteins were known to be acetylation targets, but now 125 acetylation sites are known for E. coli. Knowledge about internal acetylation in archaea is extremely limited; only two target proteins are known, only one of which--Alba--was used to study differential acetylation. However, indications accumulate that the degree of internal acetylation of archaeal proteins might be underestimated, and differential acetylation has been shown to be essential for the viability of haloarchaea. Focused proteomic approaches are needed to get an overview of the extent of internal protein acetylation in archaea.

  17. Jumping mechanisms and strategies in moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Dorosenko, Marina

    2015-06-01

    To test whether jumping launches moths into the air, take-off by 58 species, ranging in mass from 0.1 to 220 mg, was captured in videos at 1000 frames s(-1). Three strategies for jumping were identified. First, rapid movements of both middle and hind legs provided propulsion while the wings remained closed. Second, middle and hind legs again provided propulsion but the wings now opened and flapped after take-off. Third, wing and leg movements both began before take-off and led to an earlier transition to powered flight. The middle and hind legs were of similar lengths and were between 10 and 130% longer than the front legs. The rapid depression of the trochantera and extension of the middle tibiae began some 3 ms before similar movements of the hind legs, but their tarsi lost contact with the ground before take-off. Acceleration times ranged from 10 ms in the lightest moths to 25 ms in the heaviest ones. Peak take-off velocities varied from 0.6 to 0.9 m s(-1) in all moths, with the fastest jump achieving a velocity of 1.2 m s(-1). The energy required to generate the fastest jumps was 1.1 µJ in lighter moths but rose to 62.1 µJ in heavier ones. Mean accelerations ranged from 26 to 90 m s(-2) and a maximum force of 9 G: was experienced. The highest power output was within the capability of normal muscle so that jumps were powered by direct contractions of muscles without catapult mechanisms or energy storage.

  18. Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as

  19. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  20. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  1. Analysis of variation for white mold resistance in the BeanCAP snap bean panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, is one of the most devastated diseases that infect snap and dry beans (Miklas et al. 2013). The USDA-NIFA supported Bean Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) has assembled and genotyped dry and a snap bean panels. The snap bean pa...

  2. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Xia-Fei; Chen, Peng; Liu, Fang-Tao; Zheng, Shuai-Chao; Ye, Hui; Mo, Ming-He

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses. PMID:27775569

  3. Monitoring and Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in two ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with sex pheromone in southern Oregon to implement the use of site-specific management practices for codling moth. The density of monitoring traps was increased and insecticide sprays were applied based on moth catch thresholds. Only porti...

  4. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  5. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  6. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  7. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Leavell, Brian C.; Keener, Adam L.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Chadwell, Brad A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Hill, Geena M.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator–prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  8. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold st...

  9. Sex Attractant Pheromone of the Luna Moth, Actias luna (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Haynes, Kenneth F; Dossey, Aaron T; McElfresh, J Steven; Allison, Jeremy D

    2016-09-01

    Giant silk moths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) typically are not well represented as larvae or adults in community level inventories of Lepidoptera, and as a result, little is known about their population dynamics. Furthermore, in recent years, many species of silk moths appear to have experienced population declines. Volatile sex pheromones are powerful sampling tools that can be used in operational conservation and monitoring programs for insects. Here, we describe the identification of the sex attractant pheromone of a giant silk moth, the luna moth Actias luna. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses of extracts from pheromone glands of female luna moths supported the identification of (6E,11Z)-6,11-octadecadienal (E6,Z11-18:Ald), (6E)-6-octadecenal (E6-18:Ald), and (11Z)-11-octadecenal (Z11-18:Ald) as the compounds in extracts that elicited responses from antennae of male moths. These identifications were confirmed by synthesis, followed by testing of blends of the synthetic compounds in field trials in Ontario, Canada, and Kentucky, USA. Male moths were attracted to synthetic E6,Z11-18:Ald as a single component. Attraction appeared to be enhanced by addition of E6-18:Ald but not Z11-18:Ald, suggesting that the luna moth pheromone consists of a blend of E6,Z11-18:Ald and E6-18:Ald.

  10. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  11. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  12. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  13. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  14. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  15. Registration of ‘Krimson’ cranberry bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cranberry is an important dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) market class grown in the United States and Canada. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) plagues cranberry bean production in the western U.S. (CA, ID, OR, WA). ‘Krimson’ (Reg. No. CV PI 663911 ) cranberry bean released by the USDA-ARS in 2009, ...

  16. Phytohemagglutination Activity in Extruded Dry Bean Powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans are a highly nutritious food. Besides making beans palatable, cooking is required to denature lectin, a protein found in beans. If consumed raw or undercooked, lectin poisoning can occur. Symptoms of lectin poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and occur within hours of...

  17. Cacao bean shell poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Drolet, R; Arendt, T D; Stowe, C M

    1984-10-15

    Cacao bean shells contain potentially toxic quantities of theobromine, a xanthine compound similar in effects to caffeine and theophylline. A dog, which ingested a lethal quantity of garden mulch made from cacao bean shells, developed severe convulsions and died 17 hours later. Analysis of the stomach contents and the ingested cacao bean shells revealed the presence of lethal amounts of theobromine.

  18. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae) were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone are attractive to P. orphisalis, ...

  19. Analysis of acetylation stoichiometry suggests that SIRT3 repairs nonenzymatic acetylation lesions.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Brian T; Moustafa, Tarek; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2015-11-03

    Acetylation is frequently detected on mitochondrial enzymes, and the sirtuin deacetylase SIRT3 is thought to regulate metabolism by deacetylating mitochondrial proteins. However, the stoichiometry of acetylation has not been studied and is important for understanding whether SIRT3 regulates or suppresses acetylation. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we measured acetylation stoichiometry in mouse liver tissue and found that SIRT3 suppressed acetylation to a very low stoichiometry at its target sites. By examining acetylation changes in the liver, heart, brain, and brown adipose tissue of fasted mice, we found that SIRT3-targeted sites were mostly unaffected by fasting, a dietary manipulation that is thought to regulate metabolism through SIRT3-dependent deacetylation. Globally increased mitochondrial acetylation in fasted liver tissue, higher stoichiometry at mitochondrial acetylation sites, and greater sensitivity of SIRT3-targeted sites to chemical acetylation in vitro and fasting-induced acetylation in vivo, suggest a nonenzymatic mechanism of acetylation. Our data indicate that most mitochondrial acetylation occurs as a low-level nonenzymatic protein lesion and that SIRT3 functions as a protein repair factor that removes acetylation lesions from lysine residues.

  20. DNA Barcoding of Gypsy Moths From China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Reveals New Haplotypes and Divergence Patterns Within Gypsy Moth Subspecies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Luo, Youqing; Keena, Melody A; Wu, Ying; Wu, Peng; Shi, Juan

    2016-02-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COI] sequence), together with two restriction site mtDNA markers (NlaIII and BamHI in COI), which is the standard system used to distinguish European gypsy moths from Asian gypsy moths. Relatedness of these populations to gypsy moths from seven other world areas was also examined. The restriction site markers showed that two Chinese populations had both Asian and European haplotypes. DNA barcode sequence divergence between the Asian populations and the European populations was three times greater than the variation within each group. Using Bayesian and parsimonious network analyses, nine previously unknown barcode haplotypes were documented from China and a single haplotype was found to be shared by 55% of the Chinese and some Far Eastern Russian and Japanese individuals. Some gypsy moths from two Chinese populations showed genetic affinity with mtDNA haplotypes from Siberia, Russia, suggesting there could be a cryptic new subspecies in Lymantria dispar (L.) or human-aided movement of moths between these two locations at an earlier point in time. The previously unknown haplotype patterns may complicate efforts to identify Asian gypsy moth introductions and require changes in monitoring and exclusion programs.

  1. The transcriptome of common bean: nodules to beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We performed next generation sequencing (RNAseq) on five...

  2. A Method to determine lysine acetylation stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles

    2014-07-21

    A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the lack of stoichiometry information. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of lysine acetylation on proteins globally. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy on hundreds of acetylated peptides from cell lysates and cross-validated the measurements via immunoblotting.

  3. Acetylation of prostaglandin synthase by aspirin.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, G J; Stanford, N; Majerus, P W

    1975-01-01

    When microsomes of sheep or bovine seminal vesicles are incubated with [acetyl-3H]aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid), 200 Ci/mol, we observe acetylation of a single protein, as measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein has a molecular weight of 85,000 and corresponds to a similar acetylated protein found in the particulate fraction of aspirin-treated human platelets. The aspirin-mediated acetylation reaction proceeds with the same time course and at the same concentration as does the inhibition of prostaglandin synthase (cyclo-oxygenase) (EC 1.14.99.1; 8,11,14-eicosatrienoate, hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase) by the drug. At 100 muM aspirin, 50% inhibition of prostaglandin synthase and 50% of maximal acetylation are observed after 15 min at 37 degrees. Furthermore, the substrate for cyclo-oxygenase, arachidonic acid, inhibits protein acetylation by aspirin at concentrations (50% inhibition at 10-30 muM) which correlate with the Michaelis constant of arachidonic acid as a substrate for cyclooxygenase. Arachidonic acid analogues and indomethacin inhibit the acetylation reaction in proportion to their effectiveness as cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. The results suggest that aspirin acts as an active-site acetylating agent for the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase. This action of aspirin may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet action. PMID:810797

  4. Acetylation of woody lignocellulose: significance and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Koutaniemi, Sanna; Tenkanen, Maija; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides constitute approximately one quarter of usable biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these components are usually substituted by O-acetyl groups, which affect their properties and interactions with other polymers, thus affecting their solubility and extractability. However, details of these interactions are still largely obscure. Moreover, polysaccharide hydrolysis to constituent monosaccharides is hampered by the presence of O-acetyl groups, necessitating either enzymatic (esterase) or chemical de-acetylation, increasing the costs and chemical consumption. Reduction of polysaccharide acetyl content in planta is a way to modify lignocellulose toward improved saccharification. In this review we: (1) summarize literature on lignocellulose acetylation in different tree species, (2) present data and current hypotheses concerning the role of O-acetylation in determining woody lignocellulose properties, (3) describe plant proteins involved in lignocellulose O-acetylation, (4) give examples of microbial enzymes capable to de-acetylate lignocellulose, and (5) discuss prospects for exploiting these enzymes in planta to modify xylan acetylation. PMID:23734153

  5. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2013-02-01

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold storage conditions and held under short day lengths could not break diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to establish a minimum viable population. This study expands the in-fruit work by examining the ability of codling moth to establish a laboratory population under a short photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, as compared with a long photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Codling moth larvae were collected from field infested fruits in 2010 and 2011. Moths were collected from the infested fruits and separated into two groups representing the two daylength conditions. In total, 1,004 larvae were monitored for adult emergence and ability to generate a subsequent population. Larvae held under the photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h generated only one moth in the 2 yr period, whereas larvae held under the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h generated 186 females and 179 males, that sustained subsequent generations on artificial diet under laboratory conditions. These results indicate that under controlled environmental conditions, codling moth cannot complete diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to sustain a viable population when held under a short photoperiod.

  6. Characterization and Prediction of Lysine (K)-Acetyl-Transferase Specific Acetylation Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Du, Yipeng; Wang, Likun; Huang, Lei; Li, Wenlin; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Xuegong; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a well-studied post-translational modification on both histone and nonhistone proteins. More than 2000 acetylated proteins and 4000 lysine acetylation sites have been identified by large scale mass spectrometry or traditional experimental methods. Although over 20 lysine (K)-acetyl-transferases (KATs) have been characterized, which KAT is responsible for a given protein or lysine site acetylation is mostly unknown. In this work, we collected KAT-specific acetylation sites manually and analyzed sequence features surrounding the acetylated lysine of substrates from three main KAT families (CBP/p300, GCN5/PCAF, and the MYST family). We found that each of the three KAT families acetylates lysines with different sequence features. Based on these differences, we developed a computer program, Acetylation Set Enrichment Based method to predict which KAT-families are responsible for acetylation of a given protein or lysine site. Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of our method, and experimentally detected four proteins that were predicted to be acetylated by two KAT families when one representative member of the KAT family is over expressed. We conclude that our approach, combined with more traditional experimental methods, may be useful for identifying KAT families responsible for acetylated substrates proteome-wide. PMID:21964354

  7. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  8. [Thermal tolerance of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiang-Qian; Ma, Chun-Sen; Zhang, Shu; Lü, Liang

    2012-03-01

    Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella is a worldwide important pest on cruciferous vegetables. Critical thermal maximum (CTMax) is often used as an index for the thermal tolerance of insects. By the method of dynamic heating, this paper measured the CTMax of P. xylostella in a self-assembled device, and studied the effects of development stage, rearing temperature, generation, sex, and heat shock on the thermal tolerance of P. xylostella based on the CTMax values. Reared at 25 degrees C, the mean CTMax of the 4th larva (50.31 degrees C) was significantly higher than that of the 1st larva (43.03 degrees C), 2nd larva (46.39 degrees C), 3rd larva (49.67 degrees C), female adult (45.76 degrees C), and male adult (47.73 degrees C); reared at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, the adults had no significant difference in their CTMax; reared at 30 degrees C for 1-, 3-, and 6 generations, the CTMax of the adults also had no significant difference. In all the treatments, the CTMax of the female and male adults had less difference. Heat shock with 40 degrees C for 45 minutes could make the CTMax of 5 day-old male moth increased from 45.51 degrees C to 46.49 degrees C.

  9. [Dynamic of lectin activity during germination of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, N V

    2006-01-01

    PHA quantity and activity dynamics during early germination of bean seed were investigated. Electrophoretic characteristics, subunits composition and carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectin extracted from white kidney bean cv. Bilozerna were studied. It was shown that investigated lectin consisted of 2 subunits E and L with molecular weight 34 and 36 kDa, respectively, analogously to purified PHA ("Serva", Germany), and specifically bound N-acetyl-D-galactosamin and galactose. During germination both quantity and activity of PHA were dramatically decreasing in embryonic axes and in cotyledons, possibly, as a result of the lectin release from seeds to the environment. It is very likely that one of the defence mechanisms of germinating seeds is related with the releasing of lectins that are able to bind components of the bacterial cell wall and to inhibit their growth.

  10. Characterizing the interaction between the bogus yucca moth and yuccas: do bogus yucca moths impact yucca reproductive success?

    PubMed

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Sparks, Jed P

    2004-07-01

    Yucca moths are most well known for their obligate pollination mutualism with yuccas, where pollinator moths provide yuccas with pollen and, in exchange, the moth larvae feed on a subset of the developing yucca seeds. The pollinators, however, comprise only two of the three genera of yucca moths. Members of the third genus, Prodoxus, are the "bogus yucca moths" and are sister to the pollinator moths. Adult Prodoxus lack the specialized mouthparts used for pollination and the larvae feed on plant tissues other than seeds. Prodoxus larvae feed within the same plants as pollinator larvae and have the potential to influence yucca reproductive success directly by drawing resources away from flowers and fruit, or indirectly by modifying the costs of the mutualism with pollinators. We examined the interaction between the scape-feeding bogus yucca moth, Prodoxus decipiens, and one of its yucca hosts, Yucca filamentosa, by comparing female reproductive success of plants with and without moth larvae. We determined reproductive success by measuring a set of common reproductive traits such as flowering characteristics, seed set, and seed germination. In addition, we also quantified the percent total nitrogen in the seeds to determine whether the presence of larvae could potentially reduce seed quality. Flowering characteristics, seed set, and seed germination were not significantly different between plants with and without bogus yucca moth larvae. In contrast, the percent total nitrogen content of seeds was significantly lower in plants with P. decipiens larvae, and nitrogen content was negatively correlated with the number of larvae feeding within the inflorescence scape. Surveys of percent total nitrogen at three time periods during the flowering and fruiting of Y. filamentosa also showed that larval feeding decreased the amount of nitrogen in fruit tissue. Taken together, the results suggest that although P. decipiens influences nitrogen distribution in Y. filamentosa, this

  11. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  12. Intercropping Corn with Lablab bean, Velvet Bean, and Scarlet Runner Bean for Forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low crude protein (CP) concentration in corn (Zea mays L.) forage is its major limitation in dairy rations. This experiment was designed to determine if intercropping corn with climbing beans is a viable option to increase CP concentration in forage rather than purchasing costly CP supplements for ...

  13. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries

    DOE PAGES

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; ...

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodiummore » butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions.« less

  14. Lysine acetylation and cancer: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Gil, Jeovanis; Ramírez-Torres, Alberto; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio

    2017-01-06

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible modification controlled by two groups of enzymes: lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs). Acetylated lysine residues are recognized by bromodomains, a family of evolutionarily conserved domains. The use of high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics, in combination with the enrichment of acetylated peptides through immunoprecipitation with anti-acetyl-lysine antibodies, has expanded the number of acetylated proteins from histones and a few nuclear proteins to more than 2000 human proteins. Because acetylation targets almost all cellular processes, this modification has been associated with cancer. Several KATs, KDACs and bromodomain-containing proteins have been linked to cancer development. Many small molecules targeting some of these proteins have been or are being tested as potential cancer therapies. The stoichiometry of lysine acetylation has not been explored in cancer, representing a promising field in which to increase our knowledge of how this modification is affected in cancer. In this review, we will focus on the strategies that can be used to go deeper in the characterization of the protein lysine acetylation emphasizing in cancer research.

  15. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and... regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the... action would allow for the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya...

  16. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner... the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As... action will allow for the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya...

  17. Metabolic control of methylation and acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaoyang; Wellen, Kathryn E.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    Methylation and acetylation of DNA and histone proteins are the chemical basis for epigenetics. From bacteria to humans, methylation and acetylation are sensitive to cellular metabolic status. Modification rates depend on the availability of one-carbon and two-carbon substrates (S-adenosylmethionine, acetyl-CoA, and in bacteria also acetyl-phosphate). In addition, they are sensitive to demodification enzyme cofactors (α-ketoglutarate, NAD+) and structural analog metabolites that function as epigenetic enzyme inhibitors (e.g., S-adenosylhomocysteine, 2-hydroxyglutarate). Methylation and acetylation likely initially evolved to tailor protein activities in microbes to their metabolic milieu. While the extracellular environment of mammals is more tightly controlled, the combined impact of nutrient abundance and metabolic enzyme expression impacts epigenetics in mammals sufficiently to drive important biological outcomes such as stem cell fate and cancer. PMID:26629854

  18. SPOTing Acetyl-Lysine Dependent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Post translational modifications have been recognized as chemical signals that create docking sites for evolutionary conserved effector modules, allowing for signal integration within large networks of interactions. Lysine acetylation in particular has attracted attention as a regulatory modification, affecting chromatin structure and linking to transcriptional activation. Advances in peptide array technologies have facilitated the study of acetyl-lysine-containing linear motifs interacting with the evolutionary conserved bromodomain module, which specifically recognizes and binds to acetylated sequences in histones and other proteins. Here we summarize recent work employing SPOT peptide technology to identify acetyl-lysine dependent interactions and document the protocols adapted in our lab, as well as our efforts to characterize such bromodomain-histone interactions. Our results highlight the versatility of SPOT methods and establish an affordable tool for rapid access to potential protein/modified-peptide interactions involving lysine acetylation. PMID:27600229

  19. Metabolic control of methylation and acetylation.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaoyang; Wellen, Kathryn E; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    Methylation and acetylation of DNA and histone proteins are the chemical basis for epigenetics. From bacteria to humans, methylation and acetylation are sensitive to cellular metabolic status. Modification rates depend on the availability of one-carbon and two-carbon substrates (S-adenosylmethionine, acetyl-CoA, and in bacteria also acetyl-phosphate). In addition, they are sensitive to demodification enzyme cofactors (α-ketoglutarate, NAD(+)) and structural analog metabolites that function as epigenetic enzyme inhibitors (e.g., S-adenosylhomocysteine, 2-hydroxyglutarate). Methylation and acetylation likely initially evolved to tailor protein activities in microbes to their metabolic milieu. While the extracellular environment of mammals is more tightly controlled, the combined impact of nutrient abundance and metabolic enzyme expression impacts epigenetics in mammals sufficiently to drive important biological outcomes such as stem cell fate and cancer.

  20. The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James

    1984-01-01

    Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

  1. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by "freezing", which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls.

  2. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

  3. Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement.

    PubMed

    Degen, Tobias; Mitesser, Oliver; Perkin, Elizabeth K; Weiß, Nina-Sophie; Oehlert, Martin; Mattig, Emily; Hölker, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri-urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male-biased attraction to light in moths. In this study, we sought to determine whether street lights could limit moth dispersal and whether there was any sex bias in attraction to light. More specifically, we aimed to determine sex-specific attraction radii for moths to street lights. We tested these hypotheses by collecting moths for 2 years at an experimental set-up. To estimate the attraction radii, we developed a Markov model and related it to the acquired data. Utilizing multinomial statistics, we found that attraction rates to lights in the middle of the matrix were substantially lower than predicted by the null hypothesis of equal attraction level (0·44 times). With the Markov model, we estimated that a corner light was 2·77 times more attractive than a wing light with an equivalentre attraction radius of c. 23 m around each light. We found neither sexual differences in the attraction rate nor in the attraction radius of males and females. Since we captured three times more males than females, we conclude that sex ratios are representative of operational sex ratios or of different flight activities. These results provide evidence for street lights to limit moth dispersal, and that they seem to act equally on male and female moths. Consequently, public lighting might divide a suitable landscape into many small habitats. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume (i) that public lighting near hedges and bushes or field margins reduces the quality of these important habitat structures and (ii) that public lighting may affect moth movement between patches.

  4. Degree-Day Prediction Models for the Flight Phenology of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Assessed with the Concordance Correlation Coefficient.

    PubMed

    Hanson, A A; Moon, R D; Wright, R J; Hunt, T E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-08-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native, univoltine pest of corn and dry beans in North America. The current degree-day model for predicting a specified percentage of yearly moth flight involves heat unit accumulation above 10°C after 1 May. However, because the moth's observed range has expanded into the northern and eastern United States, there is concern that suitable temperatures before May could allow for significant S. albicosta development. Daily blacklight moth catch and temperature data from four Nebraska locations were used to construct degree-day models using simple or sine-wave methods, starting dates between 1 January and 1 May, and lower (-5 to 15°C) and upper (20 to 43.3°C) developmental thresholds. Predicted dates of flight from these models were compared with observed flight dates using independent datasets to assess model performance. Model performance was assessed with the concordance correlation coefficient to concurrently evaluate precision and accuracy. The best model for predicting timing of S. albicosta flight used simple degree-day calculations beginning on 1 March, a 3.3°C (38°F) lower threshold, and a 23.9°C (75°F) upper threshold. The revised cumulative flight model indicated field scouting to estimate moth egg density at the time of 25% flight should begin when 1,432 degree-days (2,577 degree-days °F) have accumulated. These results underscore the importance of assessing multiple parameters in phenological models and utilizing appropriate assessment methods, which in this case may allow for improved timing of field scouting for S. albicosta.

  5. Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-03-20

    Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5 Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded.

  6. Postindustrial melanism in the peppered moth.

    PubMed

    Cook, L M; Mani, G S; Varley, M E

    1986-02-07

    New data show the geographical pattern of frequency of the melanic morph carbonaria of the peppered moth, Biston betularia, in 1983-84. These frequencies are compared with data from 1952 to 1970. After 20 years of smoke control, the area of high melanic frequency has contracted to the northeast. The change indicates a disadvantage to carbonaria of about 12 percent compared with 20 years ago. Computer simulations, which do not include the assumption of heterozygote advantage, provide a good match to the surface for the period 1952 to 1970, and also the 1983-84 surface. Experiments on visual predation have been criticized as giving unrepresentative estimates of selection but they permit satisfactory simulations to be made.

  7. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  8. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  9. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  10. Acetylation modulates the STAT signaling code.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Martin; Ginter, Torsten; Brand, Peter; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2012-12-01

    A fascinating question of modern biology is how a limited number of signaling pathways generate biological diversity and crosstalk phenomena in vivo. Well-defined posttranslational modification patterns dictate the functions and interactions of proteins. The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are physiologically important cytokine-induced transcription factors. They are targeted by a multitude of posttranslational modifications that control and modulate signaling responses and gene expression. Beyond phosphorylation of serine and tyrosine residues, lysine acetylation has recently emerged as a critical modification regulating STAT functions. Interestingly, acetylation can determine STAT signaling codes by various molecular mechanisms, including the modulation of other posttranslational modifications. Here, we provide an overview on the acetylation of STATs and how this protein modification shapes cellular cytokine responses. We summarize recent advances in understanding the impact of STAT acetylation on cell growth, apoptosis, innate immunity, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we discuss how STAT acetylation can be targeted by small molecules and we consider the possibility that additional molecules controlling STAT signaling are regulated by acetylation. Our review also summarizes evolutionary aspects and we show similarities between the acetylation-dependent control of STATs and other important molecules. We propose the concept that, similar to the 'histone code', distinct posttranslational modifications and their crosstalk orchestrate the functions and interactions of STAT proteins.

  11. Acetylation of rice straw for thermoplastic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Huang, Kai; Jiang, Xue; Huang, Dan; Yang, Yiqi

    2013-07-01

    An inexpensive and biodegradable thermoplastic was developed through acetylation of rice straw (RS) with acetic anhydride. Acetylation conditions were optimized. The structure and properties of acetylated RS were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that acetylation of RS has successfully taken place, and comparing with raw RS, the degree of crystallinity decreased and the decomposition rate was slow. The acetylated RS has got thermoplasticity when weight ratio of RS and acetic anhydride was 1:3, using sulphuric acid (9% to RS) as catalyst in glacial acetic acid 35°C for 12h, and the dosage of solvent was 9 times RS, in which weight percent gain (WPG) of the modified RS powder was 35.5% and its percent acetyl content was 36.1%. The acetylated RS could be formed into transparent thin films with different amount of plasticizer diethyl phthalate (DEP) using tape casting technology.

  12. Nonhistone protein acetylation as cancer therapy targets

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brahma N; Zhang, Guanghua; Hwa, Yi L; Li, Jinping; Dowdy, Sean C; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Acetylation and deacetylation are counteracting, post-translational modifications that affect a large number of histone and nonhistone proteins. The significance of histone acetylation in the modification of chromatin structure and dynamics, and thereby gene transcription regulation, has been well recognized. A steadily growing number of nonhistone proteins have been identified as acetylation targets and reversible lysine acetylation in these proteins plays an important role(s) in the regulation of mRNA stability, protein localization and degradation, and protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions. The recruitment of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) to the transcriptional machinery is a key element in the dynamic regulation of genes controlling cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Many nonhistone proteins targeted by acetylation are the products of oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes and are directly involved in tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastasis. Aberrant activity of HDACs has been documented in several types of cancers and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been employed for therapeutic purposes. Here we review the published literature in this field and provide updated information on the regulation and function of nonhistone protein acetylation. While concentrating on the molecular mechanism and pathways involved in the addition and removal of the acetyl moiety, therapeutic modalities of HDACi are also discussed. PMID:20553216

  13. Acetyl-phosphate is a critical determinant of lysine acetylation in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Brian T; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Wagner, Sebastian A; Schölz, Christian; Gummesson, Bertil; Beli, Petra; Nyström, Thomas; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2013-07-25

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification in bacteria; however, little is known about its origin and regulation. Using the model bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), we found that most acetylation occurred at a low level and accumulated in growth-arrested cells in a manner that depended on the formation of acetyl-phosphate (AcP) through glycolysis. Mutant cells unable to produce AcP had significantly reduced acetylation levels, while mutant cells unable to convert AcP to acetate had significantly elevated acetylation levels. We showed that AcP can chemically acetylate lysine residues in vitro and that AcP levels are correlated with acetylation levels in vivo, suggesting that AcP may acetylate proteins nonenzymatically in cells. These results uncover a critical role for AcP in bacterial acetylation and indicate that most acetylation in E. coli occurs at a low level and is dynamically affected by metabolism and cell proliferation in a global, uniform manner.

  14. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is

  15. Manipulating the attractiveness and suitability of hosts for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2005-06-01

    Ovipositional preference and larval survival of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were compared among cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata; glossy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata in different treatments of planting density, host plant age, intercropping, and water stress in 2003 and 2004. P. xylostella laid nearly twice as many eggs per plant in the high planting densities of glossy collards and yellow rocket than in the standard planting densities. Ovipositional preference was positively correlated with plant age in cabbage, glossy collards, and yellow rocket. Larval survival on cabbage was 1.9 times higher on 6-wk than on 12-wk-old plants, whereas larval survival on collards was 12.1 times higher on the younger plants. No larvae survived on either 6- or 12-wk-old yellow rocket plants. Intercropping cabbage with either tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or fava bean, Vicia fava L., did not reduce the number of eggs laid on cabbage. No significant differences in oviposition were found between water-stressed and well-irrigated host plants treatments. Yet, P. xylostella larval survival on water-stressed cabbage was 2.1 times lower than on well-irrigated cabbage plants. Based on our findings, the effectiveness of trap crops of glossy collards and yellow rocket could be enhanced by integrating the use of higher planting densities in the trap crop than in the main crop and seeding of the trap crop earlier than the main crop.

  16. Identification of lysine-acetylated mitochondrial proteins and their acetylation sites.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Markus; König, Ann-Christine; Finkemeier, Iris

    2015-01-01

    The (ε)N-acetylation of lysine side chains is a highly conserved posttranslational modification of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins. Lysine acetylation not only occurs on histones in the nucleus but also on many mitochondrial proteins in plants and animals. As the transfer of the acetyl group to lysine eliminates its positive charge, lysine acetylation can affect the biological function of proteins. This chapter describes two methods for the identification of lysine-acetylated proteins in plant mitochondria using an anti-acetyllysine antibody. We describe the Western blot analysis of a two-dimensional blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an anti-acetyllysine antibody as well as the immuno-enrichment of lysine-acetylated peptides followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry data acquisition and analysis.

  17. Acetylation Reader Proteins: Linking Acetylation Signaling to Genome Maintenance and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fade; Chiu, Li-Ya; Miller, Kyle M

    2016-09-01

    Chromatin-based DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are fundamental for preventing genome and epigenome instability, which are prevalent in cancer. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl groups on lysine residues, a post-translational modification important for the DDR. Acetylation can alter chromatin structure as well as function by providing binding signals for reader proteins containing acetyl-lysine recognition domains, including the bromodomain (BRD). Acetylation dynamics occur upon DNA damage in part to regulate chromatin and BRD protein interactions that mediate key DDR activities. In cancer, DDR and acetylation pathways are often mutated or abnormally expressed. DNA damaging agents and drugs targeting epigenetic regulators, including HATs, HDACs, and BRD proteins, are used or are being developed to treat cancer. Here, we discuss how histone acetylation pathways, with a focus on acetylation reader proteins, promote genome stability and the DDR. We analyze how acetylation signaling impacts the DDR in the context of cancer and its treatments. Understanding the relationship between epigenetic regulators, the DDR, and chromatin is integral for obtaining a mechanistic understanding of genome and epigenome maintenance pathways, information that can be leveraged for targeting acetylation signaling, and/or the DDR to treat diseases, including cancer.

  18. Acetylation Reader Proteins: Linking Acetylation Signaling to Genome Maintenance and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kyle M.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin-based DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are fundamental for preventing genome and epigenome instability, which are prevalent in cancer. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl groups on lysine residues, a post-translational modification important for the DDR. Acetylation can alter chromatin structure as well as function by providing binding signals for reader proteins containing acetyl-lysine recognition domains, including the bromodomain (BRD). Acetylation dynamics occur upon DNA damage in part to regulate chromatin and BRD protein interactions that mediate key DDR activities. In cancer, DDR and acetylation pathways are often mutated or abnormally expressed. DNA damaging agents and drugs targeting epigenetic regulators, including HATs, HDACs, and BRD proteins, are used or are being developed to treat cancer. Here, we discuss how histone acetylation pathways, with a focus on acetylation reader proteins, promote genome stability and the DDR. We analyze how acetylation signaling impacts the DDR in the context of cancer and its treatments. Understanding the relationship between epigenetic regulators, the DDR, and chromatin is integral for obtaining a mechanistic understanding of genome and epigenome maintenance pathways, information that can be leveraged for targeting acetylation signaling, and/or the DDR to treat diseases, including cancer. PMID:27631103

  19. Bean Samples The Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the Lunar Module pilot.

  20. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  1. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    PubMed

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.

  2. Extraction and analysis of coffee bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Salvaggio, J E

    1978-05-01

    Workers in the coffee industry can develop occupational allergic disease upon exposure to dust associated with coffee manufacturing. Since controversy exists as to the source or chemical nature of these allergens, the mouse model of reaginic antibody production was used to assess the potential sources of allergens in samples obtained from a local coffee manufacturing plant. Mice were immunized with extracts of coffee dust and beans and the resulting reaginic antibody response determined by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cross-reacting allergens were detected in samples of coffee dust, cleaner can debris and green coffee beans, but not in chaff or roasted coffee beans. None of the allergens detected in coffee samples cross-reacted with extract of castor beans, although these extracts contained the potent castor bean allergen. Green coffee bean allergens partially purified by gel filtration were heterogeneous with respect to molecular size, although quite similar in their reactivity with reaginic antiserum. These results suggest that the green coffee bean is the major source of allergen in coffee manufacturing plants. This allergen is heterogeneous with respect to size and heat lability, and is immunochemically different from the castor bean allergen.

  3. FOLATE CONTENT IN SELECT DRY BEAN GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry edible beans are a good natural source of folate (½-cup serving of cooked beans provide 35% daily value of folate). Recognized healthful benefits of folate in the human diet include reduced birth defects, decreased plasma homocysteine level which is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease, reduc...

  4. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  5. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  6. p53 Acetylation: Regulation and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sara M.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of p53 are critical in modulating its tumor suppressive functions. Ubiquitylation, for example, plays a major role in dictating p53 stability, subcellular localization and transcriptional vs. non-transcriptional activities. Less is known about p53 acetylation. It has been shown to govern p53 transcriptional activity, selection of growth inhibitory vs. apoptotic gene targets, and biological outcomes in response to diverse cellular insults. Yet recent in vivo evidence from mouse models questions the importance of p53 acetylation (at least at certain sites) as well as canonical p53 functions (cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis) to tumor suppression. This review discusses the cumulative findings regarding p53 acetylation, with a focus on the acetyltransferases that modify p53 and the mechanisms regulating their activity. We also evaluate what is known regarding the influence of other post-translational modifications of p53 on its acetylation, and conclude with the current outlook on how p53 acetylation affects tumor suppression. Due to redundancies in p53 control and growing understanding that individual modifications largely fine-tune p53 activity rather than switch it on or off, many questions still remain about the physiological importance of p53 acetylation to its role in preventing cancer. PMID:25545885

  7. Biological activity of acetylated phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Apostolakis, Constantinos; Pliakis, Emmanuel; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi

    2007-01-10

    In recent years an effort has been made to isolate and identify biologically active compounds that are included in the Mediterranean diet. The existence of naturally occurring acetylated phenolics, as well as studies with synthetic ones, provide evidence that acetyl groups could be correlated with their biological activity. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is implicated in atherosclerosis, whereas its inhibitors seem to play a protective role against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the biological activity of resveratrol and tyrosol and their acetylated derivatives as inhibitors of PAF-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Acetylation of resveratrol and tyrosol was performed, and separation was achieved by HPLC. Acetylated derivatives were identified by negative mass spectrometry. The data showed that tyrosol and its monoacetylated derivatives act as PAF inhibitors, whereas diacetylated derivatives induce platelet aggregation. Resveratrol and its mono- and triacetylated derivatives exert similar inhibitory activity, whereas the diacetylated ones are more potent inhibitors. In conclusion, acetylated phenolics exert the same or even higher antithrombotic activity compared to the biological activity of the initial one.

  8. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Protein Acetylation in Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, Josue; Smallegan, Michael J.; Denu, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Reversible protein acetylation is a major regulatory mechanism for controlling protein function. Through genetic manipulations, dietary perturbations, and new proteomic technologies, the diverse functions of protein acetylation are coming into focus. Protein acetylation in mitochondria has taken center stage, revealing that 63% of mitochondrially localized proteins contain lysine acetylation sites. Here we summarize the field, and discuss salient topics that cover spurious versus targeted acetylation, the role of SIRT3 deacetylation, nonenzymatic acetylation, and molecular models for regulatory acetylations that display high and low stoichiometry. PMID:26822488

  9. Proteome Characterization of Leaves in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Faith M.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Brick, Mark A.; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally relevant food crop. The bean genome was recently sequenced and annotated allowing for proteomics investigations aimed at characterization of leaf phenotypes important to agriculture. The objective of this study was to utilize a shotgun proteomics approach to characterize the leaf proteome and to identify protein abundance differences between two bean lines with known variation in their physiological resistance to biotic stresses. Overall, 640 proteins were confidently identified. Among these are proteins known to be involved in a variety of molecular functions including oxidoreductase activity, binding peroxidase activity, and hydrolase activity. Twenty nine proteins were found to significantly vary in abundance (p-value < 0.05) between the two bean lines, including proteins associated with biotic stress. To our knowledge, this work represents the first large scale shotgun proteomic analysis of beans and our results lay the groundwork for future studies designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen resistance. PMID:28248269

  10. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for Winter Moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon® 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths th...

  11. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  12. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  13. 76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions... detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on...

  14. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  15. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  16. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  18. 78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin... infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on October 24, 2013, we...

  19. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  20. 75 FR 78587 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Ohio, and Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. This document corrects errors... necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United...

  1. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  2. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  3. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  4. 75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of... South American cactus moth regulations by adding the entire State of Louisiana to the list of... American cactus moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on December 27, 2010,...

  5. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  6. The Evolution and Expression of the Moth Visual Opsin Family

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaowei; Murphy, Robert W.; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R), blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies. PMID:24205129

  7. The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengjun; Lu, Bin; Xiao, Haijun; Fu, Xiaowei; Murphy, Robert W; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R), blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies.

  8. [Biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromones in moth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Xin-da; Du, Yong-jun

    2015-10-01

    The crucial importance of sex pheromones in driving mating behaviors in moths has been well demonstrated in the process of sexual communication between individuals that produce and recognize species specific pheromones. Sex-pheromone molecules from different moth species are chemically characteristic, showing different terminal functional groups, various carbon chain lengths, different position and configuration of double bond system. This review summarized information on the biosynthetic pathways and enzymes involved in producing pheromone molecules in different moths. Then we listed the components and their ratios in the sex pheromones of 15 moth species belonging to different subfamilies in Noctuidae. We also discussed the various viewpoints regarding how sex pheromones with specific ratios are produced. In the discussion we attempted to classify the pheromone molecules based on their producers, characteristics of their functional groups and carbon chain lengths. In particular, composition and ratio variations of pheromones in closely related species or within a species were compared, and the possible molecular mechanisms for these variations and their evolutionary significance were discussed. Finally, we reviewed the endocrine regulation and signal transduction pathways, in which the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved. Comparing the biosynthetic pathways of sex pheromones among different species, this article aimed to reveal the common principles in pheromone biosynthesis among moth species and the characteristic features associated with the evolutionary course of individual species. Subsequently, some future research directions were proposed.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous...

  11. Breeding black beans for Haiti with multiple virus resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black bean production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop, test and release tropically-adapted black bean lines with resis...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  15. An epidemiologic study of gypsy moth rash.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, R W; Canada, A T; Wilcock, K; Etkind, P H; O'Dell, T M; Shama, S K

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, outbreaks of itchy skin rashes were reported accompanying the heavy infestation of gypsy moths (GM) in the Northeastern United States. The rash problem was widespread and a considerable public annoyance. In the spring of 1982, during the period of greatest contact with the caterpillars, a telephone survey was carried out in a highly infested community (HI) and a minimally infested community (LO). Information was collected from 1,000 persons, representing more than 90 per cent of those selected for study. The one-week risk of rash was 10.4 per cent in the HI area and 1.6 per cent in the LO area, for a risk ratio (RR) of 6.5. The occurrence of rash was strongly related to a history of having had a rash in the previous year or having had a caterpillar crawl on the affected area. The combination of both factors additively increased the risk of rash. Hay fever and hanging the wash outside were other related variables. History of allergies other than hay fever since childhood and the use of insecticides were unrelated to rash occurrence.

  16. RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  17. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  18. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-10-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable.

  19. Moth's eye anti-reflection gratings on germanium freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Shultz, Jason A.; Owen, Joseph D.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    Germanium is commonly used for optical components in the infrared, but the high refractive index of germanium causes significant losses due to Fresnel reflections. Anti-reflection (AR) surfaces based on subwavelength "moth's eye" gratings provide one means to significantly increase optical transmission. As found in nature, these gratings are conformal to the curved surfaces of lenslets in the eye of the moth. Engineered optical systems inspired by biological examples offer possibilities for increased performance and system miniaturization, but also introduce significant challenges to both design and fabrication. In this paper, we consider the design and fabrication of conformal moth's eye AR structures on germanium freeform optical surfaces, including lens arrays and Alvarez lenses. Fabrication approaches and limitations based on both lithography and multi-axis diamond machining are considered. Rigorous simulations of grating performance and approaches for simulation of conformal, multi-scale optical systems are discussed.

  20. Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Kopp, Artyom; Kimbrell, Deborah A; Leal, Walter S

    2010-05-18

    Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the "empty neuron" system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.

  1. Hymenopteran parasitoids of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong

    2005-04-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers.

  2. Acetyl-L-carnitine in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Malaguarnera, Michele

    2013-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis. The clinical diagnosis is based on two concurrent types of symptoms: impaired mental status and impaired neuromotor function. Impaired mental status is characterized by deterioration in mental status with psychomotor dysfunction, impaired memory, and increased reaction time, sensory abnormalities, poor concentration, disorientation and coma. Impaired neuromotor function include hyperreflexia, rigidity, myoclonus and asterixis. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy has not been clearly defined. The general consensus is that elevated levels of ammonia and an inflammatory response work in synergy to cause astrocyte to swell and fluid to accumulate in the brain which is thought to explain the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy. Acetyl-L-carnitine, the short-chain ester of carnitine is endogenously produced within mitochondria and peroxisomes and is involved in the transport of acetyl-moieties across the membranes of these organelles. Acetyl-L-carnitine administration has shown the recovery of neuropsychological activities related to attention/concentration, visual scanning and tracking, psychomotor speed and mental flexibility, language short-term memory, attention, and computing ability. In fact, Acetyl-L-carnitine induces ureagenesis leading to decreased blood and brain ammonia levels. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment decreases the severity of mental and physical fatigue, depression cognitive impairment and improves health-related quality of life. The aim of this review was to provide an explanation on the possible toxic effects of ammonia in HE and evaluate the potential clinical benefits of ALC.

  3. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  4. Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2015-01-01

    Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20–40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916

  5. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management.

  6. Immunological detection of bean common mosaic virus in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Gupta, U P

    2010-09-01

    Bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV) is an important seed borne pathogen of French bean. Differential inoculation with bean common mosaic virus at cotylodonary trifoliate leaf stage and pre-flowering stage of crop growth revealed that cotyledonary leaf infection favored maximum disease expression. Under immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) the virus particles of filamentous structure having a diameter of 750 nm (l) and 15 nm (w) were observed. These particles gave positive precipitin tests with polyclonal antiserum of Potato virus Y.

  7. Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?

    PubMed

    Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth.

  8. Biofortified black beans in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron to piglets than standard black beans.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Laparra, J Moises; Glahn, Raymond P; Welch, Ross M; Lei, Xin Gen; Beebe, Steve; Miller, Dennis D

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Two lines of black beans, one standard and the other biofortified (high) in Fe (71 and 106 microg Fe/g, respectively), were used. Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for swine except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 +/- 1.2 and 54.6 +/- 0.9 mg/kg). At birth, pigs were injected with 50 mg of Fe as Fe dextran. At age 28 d, pigs were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 10). They were fed 2 times per day for 5 wk and given free access to water at all times. Body weights and Hb concentrations were measured weekly. Hb repletion efficiencies (means +/- SEM) did not differ between groups and, after 5 wk, were 20.8 +/- 2.1% for the standard Fe group and 20.9 +/- 2.1% for the high Fe group. Final total body Hb Fe contents did not differ between the standard [539 +/- 39 mg (9.7 +/- 0.7 micromol)] and high Fe [592 +/- 28 mg (10.6 +/- 0.5 micromol)] bean groups (P = 0.15). The increase in total body Hb Fe over the 5-wk feeding period was greater in the high Fe bean group [429 +/- 24 mg (7.7 +/- 0.4 micromol)] than in the standard Fe bean group [361 +/- 23 mg (6.4 +/- 0.4 micromol)] (P = 0.034). We conclude that the biofortified beans are a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume beans as a dietary staple.

  9. Preliminary toxicological study of ferric acetyl acetonate

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    The calculated acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ (lethal does for 50% of the animals occuring with 30 days after compound administration) values for ferric acetyl acetonate were 584 mg/kg in mice and 995 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, this compound would be considered slightly toxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be irritating. The eye irritation study disclosed the compound to be a severe irritant causing permanent damage to the cornea (inflammation and scarring resulting in blindness). The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show ferric acetyl acetonate to be deleterious in this regard.

  10. Locust bean gum: a versatile biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J

    2013-05-15

    Biopolymers or natural polymers are an attractive class of biodegradable polymers since they are derived from natural sources, easily available, relatively cheap and can be modified by suitable reagent. Locust bean gum is one of them that have a wide potentiality in drug formulations due to its extensive application as food additive and its recognized lack of toxicity. It can be tailored to suit its demands of applicants in both the pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. Locust bean gum has a wide application either in the field of novel drug delivery system as rate controlling excipients or in tissue engineering as scaffold formation. Through keen references of reported literature on locust bean gum, in this review, we have described critical aspects of locust bean gum, its manufacturing process, physicochemical properties and applications in various drug delivery systems.

  11. Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Prime Crew Lunar Module Pilot of the Apollo 12 Lunar Landing Mission, in his space suit minus the helmet. He is standing outside beside a mock-up of the Lunar Lander.

  12. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem.

  13. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  14. Microbial hazards associated with bean sprouting.

    PubMed

    Andrews, W H; Mislivec, P B; Wilson, C R; Bruce, V R; Poelma, P L; Gibson, R; Trucksess, M W; Young, K

    1982-03-01

    The behaviour of microorganisms was studied in mung beans and alfalfa seeds before and after germination in modified, commercially available bean-sprouting kits. The microorganism were enumerated by the aerobic plate count (APC) and by total yeast and mold count procedures. Salmonella species were artificially inoculated into selected samples and were enumerated by the most probable number (MPN) method. After germination of the beans or seeds into mature sprouts, significant increases were noted in APCs and in MPN values of Salmonella species. Although counts of yeasts and molds did not increase significantly after germination, these samples show an increase in toxic Aspergillus flavus and potentially toxic Alternaria species. The presence of toxic Penicillium cyclopium molds also increase substantially in 5 samples of a single brand of mung beans. Analysis of selected sprout samples, however, showed no presence of aflatoxin.

  15. Effect of processing on ochratoxin A content in dried beans.

    PubMed

    Iha, M H; Trucksess, M W; Tournas, V H

    2009-10-01

    Dried pink beans naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA) and dried carioca beans artificially contaminated with OTA by inoculation with Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 22947) were tested for ochratoxin A levels as follows: dried beans were washed with water for 2, 60 or 120 min, soaked in water for 60, 120 min or 10 h, and cooked for 60 or 120 min. At each step, test water and beans were separated. Test water, raw beans and cooked beans were analyzed for OTA. The amount of OTA partitioned into water and in residual beans was determined by methanol-sodium bicarbonate extraction, buffer dilution, immunoaffinity column cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation and fluorescence detection. The results demonstrated that the distribution of OTA in processing water and beans depends on the method of preparation. All treatments (washing, soaking and cooking) when applied individually reduced the amounts of OTA retained in bean flour and whole beans. Higher amounts of OTA remained in whole beans than in bean flour after removing the processing water. The combination of the three treatments eliminated about 50% of the toxin from whole beans. This study provides evidence that discarding the washing, soaking and cooking water leads to a significant reduction in OTA contamination in dried beans.

  16. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater.

  17. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  18. Experimental evidence for chemical mate guarding in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; van Wijk, Michiel; Ke, Gao; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Schal, Coby; Groot, Astrid T.

    2016-01-01

    In polyandrous species, males seek to maximize their reproductive output by monopolizing their mate. Often the male transfers substances to the female that suppress her sexual receptivity or antagonize the behavior of competing males; both are usually transferred in seminal fluids and represent forms of chemical mate guarding. In moths, more long-range female sex pheromones have been identified than in any other animal group, and males often display with close-range sex pheromones, yet odor-based post-copulatory mate guarding has not been described in moths so far. We tested the hypothesis that the male sex pheromone in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens perfumes the female and functions as an anti-aphrodisiac. Indeed, virgin females perfumed with male pheromone extract, or with its main component, mated significantly less than control virgin females, and this effect persisted for two successive nights. This chemical mate guarding strategy was disadvantageous for H. virescens females, because the reproductive output of twice-mated females was significantly higher than that of once-mated females. Since the female and male sex pheromones are biosynthetically related in this and other moth species, chemical mate guarding may also impose selection pressure on the long-range female sex pheromone channel and consequently affect the evolution of sexual communication. PMID:27934963

  19. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  20. Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

  1. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  2. Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

  3. Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

  4. Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

    2000-03-22

    We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times.

  5. Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed.

  6. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code of... potential economic effects of this action on small entities. South American cactus moth is a pest that... emergency forage for cattle during periods of drought and as wildlife feed for game animals. This...

  7. Young Scientists Explore Butterflies and Moths. Book 4 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on butterflies and moths and their stages of development. The first section contains exercises on recognizing insect body…

  8. The De Havilland "Tiger Moth"a low wing monoplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    With a speed of 186.5 M.P.H. and an operational altitude of 20,000 feet the De Havilland Tiger Moth has caused comment as it was introduced just before the King's Cup race of 1927. It is a single seater with unusual control configuration due to the cramped cockpit area.

  9. Effects of Temperature and Controlled Atmospheres on Codling Moth Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although controlled atmosphere temperature treatments are effective in controlling codling moth in fruit, the mechanism by which this combination treatment kills the larvae is unknown. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the effects of elevated temperatures, low oxygen, and high ...

  10. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  11. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, P.G.; Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1996-09-24

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives are disclosed which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides. 5 figs.

  12. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  13. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  14. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  15. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  16. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, Paul G.; Ohlrogge, John B.

    1996-01-01

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives thereof which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides.

  17. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  18. Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

  19. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  20. Preharvest herbicide treatments affect black bean desiccation, yield, and canned bean color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted near Richville, Michigan in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of preharvest herbicide treatments on desiccation, yield, and canned black bean quality and color. Three Type II black bean varieties, Zorro, Eclipse, and Zenith, were planted on two different dates in each...

  1. Spatial variability of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pheromone trap captures in sprinkler irrigated corn in eastern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Hoeting, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    Strategies for controlling pests are an integral part of any agricultural management plan. Most field crops, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and corn (Zea mays L.) are managed as if they are homogeneous units. However, pests within fields are rarely homogenous. Development of plans that use targeted pest control tactics requires knowledge of the ecological drivers of the pest species. That is, by understanding the spatio-temporal factors influencing pest populations, we can develop management strategy to prevent or reduce pest damage. This study was conducted to quantify variables influencing the spatial variability of adult male western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith). Striacosta albicosta moths were collected in pheromone traps in two center pivot, irrigated corn fields near Wiggins, CO. We hypothesized that moth abundance would be influenced by the distance from the edge of the field, distance to nearest alternative corn crop and affected by anisotropic effects, such as prevailing wind direction. Greater trap catches of S. albicosta in each of the fields were found with increased proximity to the edge of the field, if the nearest neighboring crop was corn. Prevailing wind direction and directional effects were found to influence abundance. Results serve as a first step toward building a precision pest management system for controlling S. albicosta.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  5. Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids.

    PubMed

    Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K; Spalding, Adrian; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H

    2013-08-23

    With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations.

  6. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  7. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  8. Bean with Tools on the Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot, pauses near a tool carrier during extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Moon's surface. Commander Charles Conrad Jr., who took the black and white photo, is reflected in Bean's helmet visor.

  9. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in bldg 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  10. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Indian dishes Edamame, also known as green soybeans Snacks, salads, casseroles and rice dishes Fava beans, ... rice dishes Soy nuts, also known as roasted soybeans or soya beans Snack or garnish for salads ...

  11. Want to Leave Dinner Feeling Full? Bring on The Beans

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Leave Dinner Feeling Full? Bring on the Beans Vegetable patties make diners feel fuller than meat ... Jan. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Legumes such as beans and peas make people feel fuller after a ...

  12. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  13. Sex Pheromones: (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol in the Codling Moth.

    PubMed

    Beroza, M; Bierl, B A; Moffitt, H R

    1974-01-11

    Although (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-l-ol was reported to be a sex pheromone of the codling moth [Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)], its presence in the moth was questioned, mainly because it has not been isolated. A computerized search of data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of a partially purified extract equivalent to 45 abdominal tips of female moths produced a mass spectrum that matched that of the authentic coinpound. Other data also confirmed the presence of the compound.

  14. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  15. Genome-Wide Profiling of Histone Modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac) and Gene Expression in Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) Inoculated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki P.; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Smolinski, Tomasz G.; Manoharan, Muthusamy; Thurston, Yaqoob; Todd, Antonette; Kingham, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2) and acetylation (H4K12ac) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 1,235 and 556 histone methylation and acetylation responsive genes from common bean leaves treated with the rust pathogen at 0, 12 and 84 hour-after-inoculation (hai), while RNA-Seq analysis identified 145 and 1,763 genes differentially expressed between mock-inoculated and inoculated plants. The combined ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identified some key defense responsive genes (calmodulin, cytochrome p450, chitinase, DNA Pol II, and LRR) and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB, HSFB3, GRAS, NAC, and NMRA) in bean-rust interaction. Differential methylation and acetylation affected a large proportion of stress-responsive genes including resistant (R) proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and genes involved in ion flux and cell death. The genes identified were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO) and EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOGs). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified a putative pathway with ten key genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This first report of an integrated analysis of histone modifications and gene expression involved in the bean-rust interaction as reported here provides a comprehensive resource for other epigenomic regulation studies in non-model species under stress. PMID:26167691

  16. Genome-Wide Profiling of Histone Modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac) and Gene Expression in Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) Inoculated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, Vasudevan; Kalavacharla, Venu; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki P; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Smolinski, Tomasz G; Manoharan, Muthusamy; Thurston, Yaqoob; Todd, Antonette; Kingham, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2) and acetylation (H4K12ac) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 1,235 and 556 histone methylation and acetylation responsive genes from common bean leaves treated with the rust pathogen at 0, 12 and 84 hour-after-inoculation (hai), while RNA-Seq analysis identified 145 and 1,763 genes differentially expressed between mock-inoculated and inoculated plants. The combined ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identified some key defense responsive genes (calmodulin, cytochrome p450, chitinase, DNA Pol II, and LRR) and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB, HSFB3, GRAS, NAC, and NMRA) in bean-rust interaction. Differential methylation and acetylation affected a large proportion of stress-responsive genes including resistant (R) proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and genes involved in ion flux and cell death. The genes identified were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO) and EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOGs). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified a putative pathway with ten key genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This first report of an integrated analysis of histone modifications and gene expression involved in the bean-rust interaction as reported here provides a comprehensive resource for other epigenomic regulation studies in non-model species under stress.

  17. Dynamic Protein Acetylation in Plant–Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gaoyuan; Walley, Justin W.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen infection triggers complex molecular perturbations within host cells that results in either resistance or susceptibility. Protein acetylation is an emerging biochemical modification that appears to play central roles during host–pathogen interactions. To date, research in this area has focused on two main themes linking protein acetylation to plant immune signaling. Firstly, it has been established that proper gene expression during defense responses requires modulation of histone acetylation within target gene promoter regions. Second, some pathogens can deliver effector molecules that encode acetyltransferases directly within the host cell to modify acetylation of specific host proteins. Collectively these findings suggest that the acetylation level for a range of host proteins may be modulated to alter the outcome of pathogen infection. This review will focus on summarizing our current understanding of the roles of protein acetylation in plant defense and highlight the utility of proteomics approaches to uncover the complete repertoire of acetylation changes triggered by pathogen infection. PMID:27066055

  18. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  19. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species.

  20. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  1. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  6. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  7. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  9. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  10. A Phaseolus vulgaris diversity panel for Andean bean improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the Andean gene pool, including red mottled, kidney, cranberry, and yellow seed types are important in Africa and in the Americas. Andean dry bean breeding gains have lagged behind those of Mesoamerican beans. These differences may be due to a narrower genetic b...

  11. Activities to Grow On: Buttons, Beads, and Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzolis, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and beads as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a bead stringing activity. (SM)

  12. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  13. Standard nomenclature for common bean chromosomes and linkage groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several DNA-based linkage maps have been developed for common bean including the core common bean linkage map using the BAT93 x Jalo EEP558 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Correlation of common bean chromosomes to the genetic linkage groups was completed using RFLP markers to assign each l...

  14. Differential soil acidity tolerance of dry bean genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil acidity is a major yield limiting factors for bean production in the tropical regions. Using soil acidity tolerant genotypes is an important strategy in improving bean yields and reducing cost of production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating 20 dry bean geno...

  15. Acetylation of prostaglandin synthetase by aspirin. Purification and properties of the acetylated protein from sheep vesicular gland.

    PubMed

    Roth, G J; Stanford, N; Jacobs, J W; Majerus, P W

    1977-09-20

    We previously presented evidence that aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) inhibits prostaglandin synthetase by acetylating and active site of the enzyme. In the current work, we have labeled the enzyme from an aceton-pentane powder of sheep vesicular gland using [acetyl-3H]aspirin and purified the [3H]acetyl-protein to near homogeneity. The final preparation contains protein of a single molecular weight (85 000) and an amino-terminal sequence of Asp-Ala-Gly-Arg-Ala. The [3H]acetyl-protein contained 0.5 mol of acetyl residues per mol of protein based on amino acid composition but only a single sequence was found.

  16. New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems.

  17. Processing of Pheromone Information in Related Species of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Bente G.; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    In heliothine moths, the male-specific olfactory system is activated by a few odor molecules, each of which is associated with an easily identifiable glomerulus in the primary olfactory center of the brain. This arrangement is linked to two well-defined behavioral responses, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecific females and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. The chance of comparing the characteristic properties of pheromone receptor proteins, male-specific sensory neurons and macroglomerular complex (MGC)-units in closely-related species is especially intriguing. Here, we review studies on the male-specific olfactory system of heliothine moths with particular emphasis on five closely related species, i.e., Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:26462937

  18. Pheromone reception in moths: from molecules to behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Walker, William B; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths detect and find their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. Olfaction plays a vital role in this behavior. Since the first discovery of an insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, great efforts have been spent on understanding the sensing of the pheromones in vivo. Much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects in the past few decades. In this review, we focus on pheromone reception and detection in moths, from the molecular to the behavioral level. We trace the information pathway from the capture of pheromone by male antennae, binding and transportation to olfactory receptor neurons, receptor activation, signal transduction, molecule inactivation, through brain processing and behavioral response. We highlight the impact of recent studies and also provide our insights into pheromone processing.

  19. The neurobiology of acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Traina, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    A large body of evidence points to the positive effects of dietary supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC). Its use has shown health benefits in neuroinflammation, which is a common denominator in a host of neurodegenerative diseases. ALC is the principal acetyl ester of L-Carnitine (LC), and it plays an essential role in intermediary metabolism, acting as a donor of acetyl groups and facilitating the transfer of fatty acids from cytosol to mitochondria during beta-oxidation. Dietary supplementation of ALC exerts neuroprotective, neurotrophic, antidepressive and analgesic effects in painful neuropathies. ALC also has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. Moreover, ALC exhibits positive effects on mitochondrial metabolism, and shows promise in the treatment of aging and neurodegenerative pathologies by slowing the progression of mental deterioration. In addition, ALC plays neuromodulatory effects on both synaptic morphology and synaptic transmission. These effects are likely due to affects of ALC through modulation of gene expression on several targets in the central nervous system. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on effects of ALC in the nervous system.

  20. Antibodies specific to acetylated histones document the existence of deposition- and transcription-related histone acetylation in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have constructed synthetic peptides which are identical to hyperacetylated amino termini of two Tetrahymena core histones (tetra-acetylated H4 and penta-acetylated hv1) and used them to generate polyclonal antibodies specific for acetylated forms (mono-, di-, tri-, etc.) of these histones. Neither of these antisera recognizes histone that is unacetylated. Immunoblotting analyses demonstrate that both transcription-related and deposition-related acetate groups on H4 are recognized by both antisera. In addition, the antiserum raised against penta-acetylated hv1 also recognizes acetylated forms of this variant. Immunofluorescent analyses with both antisera demonstrate that, as expected, histone acetylation is specific to macronuclei (or new macronuclei) at all stages of the life cycle except when micronuclei undergo periods of rapid replication and chromatin assembly. During this time micronuclear staining is also detected. Our results also suggest that transcription-related acetylation begins selectively in new macronuclei immediately after the second postzygotic division. Acetylated histone is not observed in new micronuclei during stages corresponding to anlagen development and, therefore, histone acetylation can be distributed asymmetrically in development. Equally striking is the rapid turnover of acetylated histone in parental macronuclei during the time of their inactivation and elimination from the cell. Taken together, these data lend strong support to the idea that modulation of histone acetylation plays an important role in gene activation and in chromatin assembly. PMID:2654136

  1. Poly-acetylated chromatin signatures are preferred epitopes for site-specific histone H4 acetyl antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rothbart, Scott B; Lin, Shu; Britton, Laura-Mae; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Keogh, Michael-C; Garcia, Benjamin A; Strahl, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies specific for histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been central to our understanding of chromatin biology. Here, we describe an unexpected and novel property of histone H4 site-specific acetyl antibodies in that they prefer poly-acetylated histone substrates. By all current criteria, these antibodies have passed specificity standards. However, we find these site-specific histone antibodies preferentially recognize chromatin signatures containing two or more adjacent acetylated lysines. Significantly, we find that the poly-acetylated epitopes these antibodies prefer are evolutionarily conserved and are present at levels that compete for these antibodies over the intended individual acetylation sites. This alarming property of acetyl-specific antibodies has far-reaching implications for data interpretation and may present a challenge for the future study of acetylated histone and non-histone proteins.

  2. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  3. Space travel shortens diapause in gypsy moth eggs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, D K; Morgan, N O; Webb, R E; Bell, R A

    1991-02-01

    Field-collected and laboratory-reared gypsy moth eggs were exposed to microgravity, cosmic radiation, sub-freezing temperatures, unusual vibrations, and other extraterrestrial phenomena while they were sealed for 6 days, in January, in a Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister in the open bay of a NASA earth-orbiting spacecraft, the Columbia. Insects were not exposed to light after preparation for and during space flight. Under field conditions, out-of-doors, the eggs should have hatched in April, after 3-4 months of chilling temperatures and should not have hatched after the 6 days of chilling to -11 degrees C during flight in the Columbia spacecraft. However by April 1, more than 4000 larvae had hatched from eggs that had travelled in space, as opposed to approximately 350 from a similar number of control, earthbound eggs. These results indicate that the period of a circannual rhythm in field- and lab-reared insects had been shortened, presumably as result of exposure to microgravity, other factors associated with space flight, and/or conditions of outer space. These results suggest that it may be possible to develop methods for rearing the gypsy moth year round, without the necessity of three months chilling interspersed in the development process. This, in turn, would facilitate production of large numbers of insects for sterile male release or for use as a rearing medium for parasites, predators and pathogens of the gypsy moth.

  4. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth.

    PubMed

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant-insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids (E)-beta-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

  5. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids ( E)-β-caryophyllene, ( E)-β-farnesene and ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

  6. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to ‘cheat’ females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  7. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  8. Imprinted moth-eye antireflection patterns on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Byeong-Ju; Han, Kang-Soo; Hong, Eun-Ju; Lee, Heon; Choi, Kyung-Woo

    2009-03-01

    Sub-micron sized, conical shaped moth-eye structure was transferred to thermoplastic polymer film, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using hot embossing process. Since master template was made of polycarbonate, embossing temperature and pressure were carefully maintained to 100°C and 10 atm. Conical shaped moth-eye pattern was reversed to tapered hole pattern on PVC film. Hot embossed PVC film was then used as transparent template for subsequent UV nanoimprint process, in order to form the conical shaped sub-micron moth-eye structure on glass substrate. After thin layer of Si oxide and monolayer of self-assembled, silane based molecules was coated on hot embossed PVC film. UV nanoimprint process was done on the glass substrate using hot embossed PVC film. As a result, the transmittance of glass substrate was increased from 91 to 94% for single side patterned and 96% for both side patterned glass substrate for the spectral range of 350 to 800 nm.

  9. Recent history of melanism in American peppered moths.

    PubMed

    Grant, B S; Wiseman, L L

    2002-01-01

    Industrial melanism in peppered moths has been studied most intensively in Britain. The first melanic phenotype (effectively solid black) was recorded near Manchester in 1848. By 1895 about 98% of the specimens near Manchester were melanic, and this once rare phenotype had spread across regions of the country blackened by industrial soot. In rural, unpolluted regions, well away from industrial centers, the pale phenotype (peppered with white and black scales) remained the predominant form. During the latter half of the 20th century, following legislation designed to improve air quality, melanics began to decline in frequency and are now rare where once they had been common. Similar evolutionary changes have occurred elsewhere, but records from outside Britain are fragmentary. We have extended previous surveys of American peppered moth populations and present a composite picture of the recent decline in melanism in northern industrial states-Michigan and Pennsylvania-where melanic phenotypes decreased from more than 90% in 1959 to 6% by 2001. We contrast these changes to the near absence of melanism in a southern state-Virginia-during that same period. As in Britain, the decline in melanism in American peppered moths followed clean air legislation.

  10. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators.

  11. No impact of pupal predation on the altitudinal distribution of autumnal moth and winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in sub-arctic birch forest.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Norun M; Ims, Rolf A; Hagen, Snorre B

    2009-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that pupal predation by shrews underlies the altitudinal distribution pattern of the geometrid moth species Operophtera brumata L. (winter moth) and Epirrita autumnata Bkh (autumnal moth) in a sub-arctic birch forest in northern Fennoscandia. In particular, we predicted more intense pupal predation at low altitudes where the two moth species normally do not reach outbreak densities. Predation of pupae of both moth species was estimated along 10 parallel altitudinal transects, spanning from sea level to the altitudinal tree-limit in a coastal birch forest in northern Norway. Shrew abundance and the abundance and population growth rate of the two moth species were assessed in the same transects. Our study provided no support for the hypothesis that pupal predation by shrews can account for the altitudinal distribution of the two moth species. Despite high densities of common shrews (Sorex araneus L.) and an observed predation rate of approximately 90%, there was no difference in the rate of pupal predation either between the two geometrid species or between the various altitudes. These results narrow down the range of possible explanations for the altitudinal distribution pattern of these insects in northern birch forests.

  12. Biosynthesis and turnover of O-acetyl and N-acetyl groups in the gangliosides of human melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Manzi, A.E.; Sjoberg, E.R.; Diaz, S.; Varki, A.

    1990-08-05

    We and others previously described the melanoma-associated oncofetal glycosphingolipid antigen 9-O-acetyl-GD3, a disialoganglioside O-acetylated at the 9-position of the outer sialic acid residue. We have now developed methods to examine the biosynthesis and turnover of disialogangliosides in cultured melanoma cells and in Golgi-enriched vesicles from these cells. O-Acetylation was selectively expressed on di- and trisialogangliosides, but not on monosialogangliosides, nor on glycoprotein-bound sialic acids. Double-labeling of cells with (3H)acetate and (14C)glucosamine introduced easily detectable labels into each of the components of the ganglioside molecules. Pulse-chase studies of such doubly labeled molecules indicated that the O-acetyl groups turn over faster than the parent molecule. When Golgi-enriched vesicles from these cells were incubated with (acetyl-3H)acetyl-coenzyme A, the major labeled products were disialogangliosides. (Acetyl-3H)O-acetyl groups were found at both the 7- and the 9-positions, indicating that both 7-O-acetyl GD3 and 9-O-acetyl GD3 were synthesized by the action of O-acetyltransferase(s) on endogenous GD3. Analysis of the metabolically labeled molecules confirmed the existence of both 7- and 9-O-acetylated GD3 in the intact cells. Surprisingly, the major 3H-labeled product of the in vitro labeling reaction was not O-acetyl-GD3, but GD3, with the label exclusively in the sialic acid residues. Fragmentation of the labeled sialic acids by enzymatic and chemical methods showed that the 3H-label was exclusively in (3H)N-acetyl groups. Analyses of the double-labeled sialic acids from intact cells also showed that the 3H-label from (3H)acetate was exclusively in the form of (3H)N-acetyl groups, whereas the 14C-label was at the 4-position.

  13. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  15. Control of Storage Protein Metabolism in the Cotyledons of Germinating Mung Beans: Role of Endopeptidase 12

    PubMed Central

    Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Boulter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The autodigestive proteolytic activity of extracts of cotyledons of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) increased 4- to 5-fold during germination. A similar increase was found in the ability of these extracts to digest added casein or mung bean globulins. The increase occurred after a 2-day lag during the next 2 to 3 days of germination and coincided with the period of rapid storage protein breakdown. To understand which enzyme(s) may be responsible for this increase in proteolytic activity, the hydrolytic activity of cotyledon extracts toward a number of synthetic substrates and proteins was measured. Germination was accompanied by a marked decline in leucine aminopeptidase, while carboxypeptidase increased about 50%. There were no dramatic changes in either α-mannosidase or N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, enzymes which may be involved in the metabolism of the carbohydrate moieties of the reserve glycoproteins. The increase in general proteolytic activity was closely paralleled by a 10-fold increase in endopeptidase activity. This activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide. Studies with inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes showed that reagents which blocked sulfhydryl groups also inhibited the rise in general proteolytic activity. Our results suggest that the appearance of a sulfhydryl-type endopeptidase activity is a necessary prerequisite for the rapid metabolism of the reserve proteins which accompanies germination. PMID:16659204

  16. A Dual Pathogenic Mechanism Links Tau Acetylation to Sporadic Tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Tseng, Jui-Heng; Wander, Connor M.; Madden, Victoria; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Cohen, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    Tau acetylation has recently emerged as a dominant post-translational modification (PTM) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Mass spectrometry studies indicate that tau acetylation sites cluster within the microtubule (MT)-binding region (MTBR), suggesting acetylation could regulate both normal and pathological tau functions. Here, we combined biochemical and cell-based approaches to uncover a dual pathogenic mechanism mediated by tau acetylation. We show that acetylation specifically at residues K280/K281 impairs tau-mediated MT stabilization, and enhances the formation of fibrillar tau aggregates, highlighting both loss and gain of tau function. Full-length acetylation-mimic tau showed increased propensity to undergo seed-dependent aggregation, revealing a potential role for tau acetylation in the propagation of tau pathology. We also demonstrate that methylene blue, a reported tau aggregation inhibitor, modulates tau acetylation, a novel mechanism of action for this class of compounds. Our study identifies a potential “two-hit” mechanism in which tau acetylation disengages tau from MTs and also promotes tau aggregation. Thus, therapeutic approaches to limit tau K280/K281 acetylation could simultaneously restore MT stability and ameliorate tau pathology in AD and related tauopathies. PMID:28287136

  17. SWI/SNF Displaces SAGA-Acetylated Nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Chandy, Mark; Gutiérrez, José L.; Prochasson, Philippe; Workman, Jerry L.

    2006-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a well-characterized chromatin remodeling complex that remodels chromatin by sliding nucleosomes in cis and/or displacing nucleosomes in trans. The latter mechanism has the potential to remove promoter nucleosomes, allowing access to transcription factors and RNA polymerase. In vivo, histone acetylation often precedes apparent nucleosome loss; therefore, we sought to determine whether nucleosomes containing acetylated histones could be displaced by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. We found that SAGA-acetylated histones were lost from an immobilized nucleosome array when treated with the SWI/SNF complex. When the nucleosome array was acetylated by SAGA in the presence of bound transcription activators, it generated a peak of acetylation surrounding the activator binding sites. Subsequent SWI/SNF treatment suppressed this acetylation peak. Immunoblots indicated that SWI/SNF preferentially displaced acetylated histones from the array relative to total histones. Moreover, the Swi2/Snf2 bromodomain, an acetyl-lysine binding domain, played a role in the displacement of acetylated histones. These data indicate that targeted histone acetylation by the SAGA complex predisposes promoter nucleosomes for displacement by the SWI/SNF complex. PMID:17030999

  18. Importance of acetylator phenotype in the identity of Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Zaid, R B; Nargis, M; Neelotpol, S; Sayeed, M A; Banu, A; Shurovi, S; Hassan, K N; Salimullah, M; Ali, L; Azad Khan, A K

    2007-06-01

    The Marma, Tripura, and Chakma are tribal populations of South Asian countries such as Bangladesh. The populations are thought to be immigrants who started moving from their original home in the Far East toward the west and south. We randomly selected 80 Marma, 53 Tripura, and 43 Chakma to determine acetylation capacity and acetylator phenotype. The mean acetylation capacities were 63% in the Marma, 65% in the Tripura, and 70% in the Chakma. The acetylator phenotype was bimodally distributed as fast and slow acetylator. The frequencies of fast acetylator were 83% in the Marma, 89% in the Tripura, and 88% in the Chakma. According to acetylation capacity, the tribes are different from the founder nontribal populations of Bangladesh. They identify themselves as having a separate single population origin. The frequency of fast acetylator predicted served as the acetylator status of the Far East Asian population. The segregation of populations by acetylator phenotype on geographic longitude might be appropriate for geonational identification of Asian populations.

  19. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients’ sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  20. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala.

  1. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths.

  2. Mapping snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pod and color traits, in a dry bean x snap bean recombinant inbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) breeding programs are tasked with developing varieties that meet the standards of the vegetable processing industry and ultimately that of the consumer; all the while matching or exceeding the field performance of existing varieties. While traditional breeding methods ...

  3. Complete genome sequence of bean leaf crumple virus, a novel begomovirus infecting common bean in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Zambrano, Leidy; Bueno, Juan M; Raatz, Bodo; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2017-02-10

    A copy of the complete genome of a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia was obtained by rolling-circle amplification (RCA), cloned, and sequenced. The virus is associated with leaf crumple symptoms and significant yield losses in Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Such symptoms have been reported increasingly in Colombia since at least 2002, and we detected the virus in leaf material collected since 2008. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is a member of a distinct species, sharing 81% and 76% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity (in DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively) to other begomoviruses infecting common bean in the Americas. The data obtained support the taxonomic status of this virus (putatively named 'bean leaf crumple virus', BLCrV) as a member of a novel species in the genus Begomovirus.

  4. Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

  5. N-butyl sulfide as an attractant and co-attractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear eester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are am...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  8. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  9. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  12. Global Analysis of Lysine Acetylation Suggests the Involvement of Protein Acetylation in Diverse Biological Processes in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xiaoxian; Tan, Feng; Mujahid, Hana; Zhang, Jian; Nanduri, Bindu; Peng, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible, dynamic protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Recent advances in high-throughput proteomics have greatly contributed to the success of global analysis of lysine acetylation. A large number of proteins of diverse biological functions have been shown to be acetylated in several reports in human cells, E.coli, and dicot plants. However, the extent of lysine acetylation in non-histone proteins remains largely unknown in monocots, particularly in the cereal crops. Here we report the mass spectrometric examination of lysine acetylation in rice (Oryza sativa). We identified 60 lysine acetylated sites on 44 proteins of diverse biological functions. Immunoblot studies further validated the presence of a large number of acetylated non-histone proteins. Examination of the amino acid composition revealed substantial amino acid bias around the acetylation sites and the amino acid preference is conserved among different organisms. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that lysine acetylation occurs in diverse cytoplasmic, chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins in addition to the histone modifications. Our results suggest that lysine acetylation might constitute a regulatory mechanism for many proteins, including both histones and non-histone proteins of diverse biological functions. PMID:24586658

  13. Coordination of a transcriptional switch by HMGI(Y) acetylation.

    PubMed

    Munshi, N; Agalioti, T; Lomvardas, S; Merika, M; Chen, G; Thanos, D

    2001-08-10

    Dynamic control of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene expression requires the regulated assembly and disassembly of the enhanceosome, a higher-order nucleoprotein complex formed in response to virus infection. The enhanceosome activates transcription by recruiting the histone acetyltransferase proteins CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300/CBP-associated factors (PCAF)/GCN5, which, in addition to modifying histones, acetylate HMGI(Y), the architectural component required for enhanceosome assembly. We show that the accurate execution of the IFN-beta transcriptional switch depends on the ordered acetylation of the high-mobility group I protein HMGI(Y) by PCAF/GCN5 and CBP, which acetylate HMGI(Y) at distinct lysine residues on endogenous promoters. Whereas acetylation of HMGI(Y) by CBP at lysine-65 destabilizes the enhanceosome, acetylation of HMGI(Y) by PCAF/GCN5 at lysine-71 potentiates transcription by stabilizing the enhanceosome and preventing acetylation by CBP.

  14. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  15. Integrated pest management of the banded sunflower moth in cultivated sunflower in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key insect pest of cultivated sunflowers in North Dakota. We investigated pest management strategies to reduce feeding injury caused by the banded sunflower moth in commercial oilseed and confection sunflower fields l...

  16. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more p...

  17. Codling moth resistance and associated pytochemical variation in fruit of Malus tschonoskii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Work is ongoing to evaluate the potential for host plant resistance to codling moth and other apple pests among the diverse Malus germplasm housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PRGU) in Geneva, NY. Significant resistance to larval feeding from codling moth has been observed in fruit fro...

  18. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  19. Attractiveness of floral compounds to male and female moths in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl a...

  20. Attractiveness of binary blends of floral odorant compounds to moths in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl...

  1. Unique synteny and alternate splicing of the chitin synthases in closely related heliothine moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two chitin synthase genes were characterized in the genomes of two heliothine moths: the corn earworm/cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In both moths, the coding sequences for the two ge...

  2. Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

  3. Sexual communication in day-flying Lepidoptera with special reference to castniids or 'butterfly-moths'.

    PubMed

    Sarto I Monteys, V; Quero, C; Santa-Cruz, M C; Rosell, G; Guerrero, A

    2016-04-05

    Butterflies and moths are subject to different evolutionary pressures that affect several aspects of their behaviour and physiology, particularly sexual communication. Butterflies are day-flying insects (excluding hedylids) whose partner-finding strategy is mainly based on visual cues and female butterflies having apparently lost the typical sex pheromone glands. Moths, in contrast, are mostly night-flyers and use female-released long-range pheromones for partner-finding. However, some moth families are exclusively day-flyers, and therefore subject to evolutionary pressures similar to those endured by butterflies. Among them, the Castniidae, also called 'butterfly-moths' or 'sun-moths', behave like butterflies and, thus, castniid females appear to have also lost their pheromone glands, an unparallel attribute in the world of moths. In this paper, we review the sexual communication strategy in day-flying Lepidoptera, mainly butterflies (superfamily Papilionoidea), Zygaenidae and Castniidae moths, and compare their mating behaviour with that of moth families of nocturnal habits, paying particular attention to the recently discovered butterfly-like partner-finding strategy of castniids and the fascinating facts and debates that led to its discovery.

  4. An aerial-hawking bat uses stealth echolocation to counter moth hearing.

    PubMed

    Goerlitz, Holger R; ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Zeale, Matt R K; Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2010-09-14

    Ears evolved in many nocturnal insects, including some moths, to detect bat echolocation calls and evade capture [1, 2]. Although there is evidence that some bats emit echolocation calls that are inconspicuous to eared moths, it is difficult to determine whether this was an adaptation to moth hearing or originally evolved for a different purpose [2, 3]. Aerial-hawking bats generally emit high-amplitude echolocation calls to maximize detection range [4, 5]. Here we present the first example of an echolocation counterstrategy to overcome prey hearing at the cost of reduced detection distance. We combined comparative bat flight-path tracking and moth neurophysiology with fecal DNA analysis to show that the barbastelle, Barbastella barbastellus, emits calls that are 10 to 100 times lower in amplitude than those of other aerial-hawking bats, remains undetected by moths until close, and captures mainly eared moths. Model calculations demonstrate that only bats emitting such low-amplitude calls hear moth echoes before their calls are conspicuous to moths. This stealth echolocation allows the barbastelle to exploit food resources that are difficult to catch for other aerial-hawking bats emitting calls of greater amplitude.

  5. Parasitoid complex of the bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus, in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid complex of Yponomeuta evonymellus L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the bird cherry ermine moth, was sought in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) with the goal of identifying potential biological controls of the moth. 13 primary and two secondary parasitoids were found. Diadegma armil...

  6. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for control for codling moth control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies evaluated the lethal effectiveness of combining yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV). Apples were treated with CpGV and three yeast species, including Metschnikowia pulcherrima Pitt and Miller, Cryptococcus tephrensis...

  7. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella – expression in larvae and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide key pest of apple and pear. Behavior-modifying semiochemicals are successfully used and are being further developed for environmentally safe control of codling moth. The chemical senses, olfaction and gustation, play critically important role...

  8. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  9. Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-01-01

    Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%. PMID:22096534

  10. Geographic isolation trumps coevolution as a driver of yucca and yucca moth diversification.

    PubMed

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Smith, Christopher I; Leebens-Mack, James; Pellmyr, Olle

    2012-03-01

    Coevolution is thought to be especially important in diversification of obligate mutualistic interactions such as the one between yuccas and pollinating yucca moths. We took a three-step approach to examine if plant and pollinator speciation events were likely driven by coevolution. First, we tested whether there has been co-speciation between yuccas and pollinator yucca moths in the genus Tegeticula (Prodoxidae). Second, we tested whether co-speciation also occurred between yuccas and commensalistic yucca moths in the genus Prodoxus (Prodoxidae) in which reciprocal evolutionary change is unlikely. Finally, we examined the current range distributions of yuccas in relationship to pollinator speciation events to determine if plant and moth speciation events likely occurred in sympatry or allopatry. Co-speciation analyses of yuccas with their coexisting Tegeticula pollinator and commensalistic Prodoxus lineages demonstrated phylogenetic congruence between both groups of moths and yuccas, even though moth lineages differ in the type of interaction with yuccas. Furthermore, Yucca species within a lineage occur primarily in allopatry rather than sympatry. We conclude that biogeographic factors are the overriding force in plant and pollinator moth speciation and significant phylogenetic congruence between the moth and plant lineages is likely due to shared biogeography rather than coevolution.

  11. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, K.W.

    1993-02-02

    The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

  12. Identification of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth.

  13. Attraction of the gypsy moth to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Dahurian larch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Valimaki, Sanna; Shi, Juan; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Heliovaara, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory responses of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a major defoliator of deciduous trees, were examined in Inner Mongolia, China. We studied whether the gypsy moth adults are attracted by the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch) foliage and compared the attractiveness of the plant volatiles with that of the synthetic sex pheromone. Our results indicated that the VOCs of the Dahurian larch were effective in attracting gypsy moth males especially during the peak flight period. The VOCs also attracted moths significantly better than the sex pheromone of the moth. Our study is the first trial to show the responses of adult gypsy moths to volatile compounds emitted from a host plant. Electroantennogram responses of L. gmelinii volatiles on gypsy moths supported our field observations. A synergistic effect between host plant volatiles and sex pheromone was also obvious, and both can be jointly applied as a new attractant method or population management strategy of the gypsy moth.

  14. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  15. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  16. Registration of ‘Eldorado’ pinto bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eldorado’ (Reg. No. CV-302, PI 665012) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which was developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch, was released in 2012 as an upright, full-season,disease-resistant cultivar. Eldorado, tested as MSU breeding line P07863, was developed using the single-seed-de...

  17. Registration of ‘Zenith' black bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Zenith’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, full-season cultivar with anthracnose [caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. et Magnus) Lams.-Scrib] resistance and excellent canning q...

  18. Mung bean: technological and nutritional potential.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, P K; Linnemann, A R; Van Boekel, M A J S; Khetarpaul, N; Grewal, R B; Nout, M J R

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop's potential as food and to set research priorities. Results show that mung bean is a rich source of protein (14.6-33.0 g/100 g) and iron (5.9-7.6 mg/100 g). Grain color is correlated with compounds like polyphenols and carotenoids, while grain hardness is associated with fiber content. Physical properties like grain dimensions, sphericity, porosity, bulk, and true density are related to moisture content. Anti-nutrients are phytic acid, tannins, hemagglutinins, and polyphenols. Reported nutrient contents vary greatly, the causes of which are not well understood. Grain size and color have been associated with different regions and were used by plant breeders for selection purposes. Analytical methods require more accuracy and precision to distinguish biological variation from analytical variation. Research on nutrient digestibility, food processing properties, and bioavailability is needed. Furthermore, the effects of storage and processing on nutrients and food processing properties are required to enable optimization of processing steps, for better mung bean food quality and process efficiency.

  19. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  20. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  1. Survey of the human acetylator polymorphism in spontaneous disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D A

    1984-01-01

    There is ample evidence that the human acetylator phenotypes are associated with drug induced phenomena. It is principally the slow acetylators who exhibit toxic adverse effects because of their relative inability to detoxify the original drug compounds. In rare instances, however, it is the rapid acetylators who are at a disadvantage. In the matter of association of spontaneous disease with either acetylator phenotype, there are two groups of disorders to consider. First, disorders in which carcinogenic amines are known to be an aetiological factor. This is because these amines are substrates for the polymorphic N-acetyltransferase activity and hence there is a possible rational basis for searching for an association. Secondly, other disorders where searches for associations are based more on hunches. In the first group there is a definite statistical association between cancer of the bladder and the slow acetylator phenotype. In prevalence studies the slow phenotype is 39% more associated with bladder cancer than is the rapid phenotype. On the basis of the evidence now available it is not possible to say whether this association is because slow acetylators develop the disease more frequently or whether they survive longer. In the second group the relevant studies show (1) a greatly increased prevalence of slow acetylators in Gilbert's disease; (2) a confirmed association between the rapid acetylator phenotype and diabetes; (3) a possible association between the rapid acetylator phenotype and breast cancer; (4) a possible association between the slow acetylator phenotype and leprosy in Chinese patients; (5) an earlier age of onset of thyrotoxicosis (Graves' disease) in slow acetylators than in rapid acetylators; (6) no evidence of an association between either phenotype and spontaneous systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:6387123

  2. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jia; Zhang, Ziang; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin Wang, Dapeng

    2014-05-28

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  3. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

    2012-01-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

  4. Grizzly bear use of army cutworm moths in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.; Knight, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they seek shelter under various rock formations. Grizzly bears were observed feeding almost exclusively on moths up to 3 months each summer at the 10 moth-aggregation areas we identified. Fifty-one different grizzly bears were observed feeding at 4 of these areas during a single day in August 1991. Army cutworm moths are a preferred source of nutrition for many grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and represent a high quality food that is available during hyperphagia.

  5. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, F; Girod, R; Vassal, J M; Chandre, F; Lagneau, C; Fouque, F; Guiral, D; Raude, J; Robert, V

    2012-05-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as "papillonite" in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first "papillonite" epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health.

  6. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn.

    PubMed

    Throne, James E; Arbogast, Richard T

    2010-08-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn by using previously published data describing immature developmental times and survivorship, and adult longevity and fecundity. The model accurately simulated population development of Indianmeal moths in corn stored during fall and into winter of three separate storage seasons in South Carolina. This is the period when the Indianmeal moth is a pest in stored corn in South Carolina. The model predicted that populations would increase after winter as grain temperatures rose, but observed populations in the grain bins never increased after winter. Despite this, the model should be useful from a management perspective because the corn is being sold off or used up after winter, and the observed Indianmeal moth populations never reached damaging levels after winter.

  7. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-04

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments.

  8. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Dapeng; Weng, Zhankun

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  9. Caterpillars and moths: Part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars are the larval forms of moths and butterflies and belong to the order Lepidoptera. Caterpillars, and occasionally moths, have evolved defense mechanisms, including irritating hairs, spines, venoms, and toxins that may cause human disease. The pathologic mechanisms underlying reactions to Lepidoptera are poorly understood. Lepidoptera are uncommonly recognized causes of localized stings, eczematous or papular dermatitis, and urticaria. Part I of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews Lepidopteran life cycles, terminology, and the epidemiology of caterpillar and moth envenomation. It also reviews the known pathomechanisms of disease caused by Lepidopteran exposures and how they relate to diagnosis and management. Part II discusses the specific clinical patterns caused by Lepidopteran exposures, with particular emphasis on groups of caterpillars and moths that cause a similar pattern of disease. It also discusses current therapeutic options regarding each pattern of disease.

  10. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of acetylated EGCG and antioxidant properties of the acetylated derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) acetylated derivatives were prepared by lipase catalyzed acylation of EGCG with vinyl acetate to improve its lipophilicity and expand its application in lipophilic media. The immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, was found to be the optimum catalyst. The optimiz...

  11. Tubulin acetylation protects long-lived microtubules against mechanical ageing.

    PubMed

    Portran, Didier; Schaedel, Laura; Xu, Zhenjie; Théry, Manuel; Nachury, Maxence V

    2017-04-01

    Long-lived microtubules endow the eukaryotic cell with long-range transport abilities. While long-lived microtubules are acetylated on Lys40 of α-tubulin (αK40), acetylation takes place after stabilization and does not protect against depolymerization. Instead, αK40 acetylation has been proposed to mechanically stabilize microtubules. Yet how modification of αK40, a residue exposed to the microtubule lumen and inaccessible to microtubule-associated proteins and motors, could affect microtubule mechanics remains an open question. Here we develop FRET-based assays that report on the lateral interactions between protofilaments and find that αK40 acetylation directly weakens inter-protofilament interactions. Congruently, αK40 acetylation affects two processes largely governed by inter-protofilament interactions, reducing the nucleation frequency and accelerating the shrinkage rate. Most relevant to the biological function of acetylation, microfluidics manipulations demonstrate that αK40 acetylation enhances flexibility and confers resilience against repeated mechanical stresses. Thus, unlike deacetylated microtubules that accumulate damage when subjected to repeated stresses, long-lived microtubules are protected from mechanical ageing through their acquisition of αK40 acetylation. In contrast to other tubulin post-translational modifications that act through microtubule-associated proteins, motors and severing enzymes, intraluminal acetylation directly tunes the compliance and resilience of microtubules.

  12. Interindividual and intraindividual variability in acetylation: characterization with caffeine.

    PubMed

    Hardy, B G; Lemieux, C; Walker, S E; Bartle, W R

    1988-08-01

    The degree of interindividual and intraindividual variability in acetylator activity was investigated with caffeine used as a probe of enzyme activity. Acetylator phenotype and relative N-acetyltransferase activity were estimated in 46 subjects by measuring the urinary ratio of two metabolites, AFMU/1-MX, after a single 300 mg oral dose of caffeine on five separate occasions. Thirty homozygous slow (rr) and 15 heterozygous rapid (Rr) acetylators were identified. The degree of interindividual variability in acetylator activity was observed to be a mean of 32% (range 27% to 36%) and 20% (range 11% to 29%) in the rr and Rr groups, respectively. The mean intraindividual variation on repetitive measurement was 19% (range 6% to 49%) in the rr and 14% (range 7% to 24%) in the Rr acetylator group. Four subjects had apparent changes in acetylator activity with time such that they were unable to be assigned to any one acetylator group. Two of these four subjects exhibited apparent homozygous rapid acetylator activity intermittently during the 5-week trial. This variability may explain, in part, some of the high degree of patient variability observed in the toxicity, efficacy, and drug-related disease associated with acetylated drugs and environmental toxins.

  13. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production.

  14. N-ACETYL-β-GLUCOSAMINIDASE ACTIVITY IN SERUM DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Walker, P. G.; Woollen, Mary E.; Pugh, Doreen

    1960-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the estimation of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase in serum has been devised. Sera from normal adult males and females showed similar levels of activity. The activity in serum rose progressively during pregnancy and fell rapidly after parturition to normal levels. This change resembled closely that which occurs in serum β-glucuronidase. Placenta showed a moderate and chorion a high level of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase. High N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activity was demonstrated histochemically in decidual cells. The functions of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and β-glucuronidase and factors influencing their activity are discussed. Images PMID:13782743

  15. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  16. p300/CBP acetyl transferases interact with and acetylate the nucleotide excision repair factor XPG.

    PubMed

    Tillhon, Micol; Cazzalini, Ornella; Nardo, Tiziana; Necchi, Daniela; Sommatis, Sabrina; Stivala, Lucia A; Scovassi, A Ivana; Prosperi, Ennio

    2012-10-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism through which cells remove bulky DNA lesions. Following DNA damage, the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 (also referred to as lysine acetyltransferase or KAT) is known to associate with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a master regulator of DNA replication and repair processes. This interaction, which results in HAT inhibition, may be dissociated by the cell cycle inhibitor p21(CDKN1A), thereby restoring p300 activity; however, the role of this protein interplay is still unclear. Here, we report that silencing p300 or its homolog CREB-binding protein (CBP) by RNA interference (RNAi) significantly reduces DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts. In addition, we determined whether p300 and CBP may associate with and acetylate specific NER factors such as XPG, the 3'-endonuclease that is involved in the incision/excision step and is known to interact with PCNA. Our results show that p300 and CBP interact with XPG, which has been found to be acetylated in vivo. XPG is acetylated by p300 in vitro, and this reaction is inhibited by PCNA. Knocking down both p300/CBP by RNAi or by chemical inhibition with curcumin greatly reduced XPG acetylation, and a concomitant accumulation of the protein at DNA damage sites was observed. The ability of p21 to bind PCNA was found to regulate the interaction between p300 and XPG, and an abnormal accumulation of XPG at DNA damage sites was also found in p21(-/-) fibroblasts. These results indicate an additional function of p300/CBP in NER through the acetylation of XPG protein in a PCNA-p21 dependent manner.

  17. Volatile compounds as potential defective coffee beans' markers.

    PubMed

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Although Brazil is the largest raw coffee producer and exporter in the world, a large amount of its Arabica coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P), green (V) and sour (A) defective beans, which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of defective coffee beans (two lots) compared to good quality beans from the respective lots. Potential defective beans' markers were identified. In the raw samples, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-furylmethanol acetate were identified only in black-immature beans and butyrolactone only in sour beans, while benzaldehyde and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine showed to be potential markers of defective beans in general. In the roasted PVA beans, pyrazine, 2,3-butanediol meso, 2-methyl-5-(1-propenyl)pyrazine, hexanoic acid, 4-ethyl-guayacol and isopropyl p-cresol sulfide also showed to be potential defective coffee beans' markers.

  18. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  19. Chlorantraniliprole resistance in the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Yan, Hui-Hui; Gao, Li; Guo, Yun-Yun; Xue, Chao-Bin

    2014-04-01

    The wide application of chlorantraniliprole, which selectively targets insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has led to increasingly prominent development of resistance to this insecticide. Although much work has been carried out on the structure and function of RyR, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to chlorantraniliprole in diamondback moth still needs further investigation. P. xylostella strains with medium and high resistance to chlorantraniliprole were obtained by laboratory selection and field collection. The biological activity of chlorantraniliprole against the third-instar larvae of susceptible and resistant strains was tested, and resistance development and biological fitness were investigated. The realized heritability (h2) of resistance showed the diamondback moth has a high risk of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. RyR transcript levels were lower in resistant strains than in susceptible strains, indicating that decreased expression of PxRyR may be associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. A 4,400 bp fragment of the RyR cDNA, which encodes most of the functional domains of RyR, was cloned and characterized from four strains (S, F18, BY, and ZC). A 14 amino acid (Q4546-S4559) deletion was found in three resistant strains (F18, BY, and ZC). A point mutation resulting in a glycine to glutamate substitution, as reported in a previously published article, was also found in the carboxyl-terminal region of two resistant strains (BY and ZC). These results indicated that decreased transcriptional level of RyR mRNA and combined with the site mutation might be related to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella.

  20. Functional Specialization of Olfactory Glomeruli in a Moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Bill S.; Ljungberg, Hakan; Hallberg, Eric; Lofstedt, Christer

    1992-05-01

    The specific function of the glomerular structures present in the antennal lobes or olfactory bulbs of organisms ranging from insects to humans has been obscure because of limitations in neuronal marking methods. By tracing individual neurons in the moth Agrotis segetum, it was determined that physiologically distinct types of pheromone receptor neurons project axons to different regions of the macroglomerular complex (MGC). Each glomerulus making up the MGC has a specific functional identity, initially processing information about one specific pheromone component. This indicates that, at least through the first stage of synapses, olfactory information moves through labeled lines.

  1. Allelic melanism in American and British peppered moths.

    PubMed

    Grant, B S

    2004-01-01

    Parallel evolutionary changes in the incidence of melanism are well documented in widely geographically separated subspecies of the peppered moth (Biston betularia). The British melanic phenotype (f. carbonaria) and the American melanic phenotype (f. swettaria) are indistinguishable in appearance, and previous genetic analysis has established that both are inherited as autosomal dominants. This report demonstrates through hybridizations of the subspecies and Mendelian testcrosses of melanic progeny that carbonaria and swettaria are phenotypes produced by alleles (isoalleles) at a single locus. The possibility of close linkage at two loci remains, but the simpler one-locus model cannot be rejected in the absence of contrary evidence.

  2. Cryptically Patterned Moths Perceive Bark Structure When Choosing Body Orientations That Match Wing Color Pattern to the Bark Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang-ku; Moon, Jong-yeol; Lee, Sang-im; Jablonski, Piotr G.

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths’ behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

  3. Chemometric dissimilarity in nutritive value of popularly consumed Nigerian brown and white common beans.

    PubMed

    Moyib, Oluwasayo Kehinde; Alashiri, Ganiyy Olasunkanmi; Adejoye, Oluseyi Damilola

    2015-01-01

    Brown beans are the preferred varieties over the white beans in Nigeria due to their assumed richer nutrients. This study was aimed at assessing and characterising some popular Nigerian common beans for their nutritive value based on seed coat colour. Three varieties, each, of Nigerian brown and white beans, and one, each, of French bean and soybean were analysed for 19 nutrients. Z-statistics test showed that Nigerian beans are nutritionally analogous to French bean and soybean. Analysis of variance showed that seed coat colour varied with proximate nutrients, Ca, Fe, and Vit C. Chemometric analysis methods revealed superior beans for macro and micro nutrients and presented clearer groupings among the beans for seed coat colour. The study estimated a moderate genetic distance (GD) that will facilitate transfer of useful genes and intercrossing among the beans. It also offers an opportunity to integrate French bean and soybean into genetic improvement programs in Nigerian common beans.

  4. Biofortified black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize/bean diet provide more bioavailable iron to piglets than standard black beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one standard (“Low”) and the other biofortified (“High”) in Fe (71 and 106 ug Fe/g, respectively) were used. Maize-bas...

  5. Functional properties of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) starch.

    PubMed

    Mélo, E A; Stamford, T L M; Silva, M P C; Krieger, N; Stamford, N P

    2003-08-01

    The study was carried out in order to determine and establish the functional characters of starch extracted from yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L) Urban) compared with cassava starch. Yam bean is a tropical tuber legume easily grown and holds a great potential as a new source of starch. Yam bean starch shows functional properties which are peculiar to those of most starch root crops. Gelatinization temperature (53-63 degrees C) and the pasting temperature (64.5 degrees C) are less than those of cereal starch, however, the swelling power is high (54.4 g gel/g dried starch). Yam bean starch paste presents a high viscosity profile, high retrogradation tendency and low stability on cooking. The functional properties of yam bean starch, similar to those of cassava starch, allows yam bean to be used as a potential new source of starch.

  6. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  7. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses.

  8. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) CIAT germplasm collection for response to common bacterial blight and bean common mosaic necrosis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyvirus that cause production losses in common and tepary beans. Developing resistance to viruses, specifically BCMV, BCMNV and BGYMV, will be critical for expanding tepary bean production. This stu...

  9. An Alternative Strategy for Pan-acetyl-lysine Antibody Generation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Yee; Sim, Choon Kiat; Zhang, Qiongyi; Tang, Hui; Brunmeir, Reinhard; Pan, Hong; Karnani, Neerja; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Kangling; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in cell signaling. In acetylome studies, a high-quality pan-acetyl-lysine antibody is key to successful enrichment of acetylated peptides for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. Here we show an alternative method to generate polyclonal pan-acetyl-lysine antibodies using a synthesized random library of acetylated peptides as the antigen. Our antibodies are tested to be specific for acetyl-lysine peptides/proteins via ELISA and dot blot. When pooled, five of our antibodies show broad reactivity to acetyl-lysine peptides, complementing a commercial antibody in terms of peptide coverage. The consensus sequence of peptides bound by our antibody cocktail differs slightly from that of the commercial antibody. Lastly, our antibodies are tested in a proof-of-concept to analyze the acetylome of HEK293 cells. In total we identified 1557 acetylated peptides from 416 proteins. We thus demonstrated that our antibodies are well-qualified for acetylome studies and can complement existing commercial antibodies.

  10. Global analysis of lysine acetylation in strawberry leaves

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Zhao, Yun; Ruan, Songlin; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Jin, Liang; Cao, Lingling; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Huasheng; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification. It plays an important role in regulating diverse cellular processes including chromatin dynamic, metabolic pathways, and transcription in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although studies of lysine acetylome in plants have been reported, the throughput was not high enough, hindering the deep understanding of lysine acetylation in plant physiology and pathology. In this study, taking advantages of anti-acetyllysine-based enrichment and high-sensitive-mass spectrometer, we applied an integrated proteomic approach to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in strawberry. In total, we identified 1392 acetylation sites in 684 proteins, representing the largest dataset of acetylome in plants to date. To reveal the functional impacts of lysine acetylation in strawberry, intensive bioinformatic analysis was performed. The results significantly expanded our current understanding of plant acetylome and demonstrated that lysine acetylation is involved in multiple cellular metabolism and cellular processes. More interestingly, nearly 50% of all acetylated proteins identified in this work were localized in chloroplast and the vital role of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis was also revealed. Taken together, this study not only established the most extensive lysine acetylome in plants to date, but also systematically suggests the significant and unique roles of lysine acetylation in plants. PMID:26442052

  11. Effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine acetylation in male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tahir, I M; Iqbal, T; Saleem, S; Mehboob, H; Akhter, N; Riaz, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine N-acetylation by human N-acetyltrasferase-2 (NAT2) was studied in 19 (n=19) healthy male volunteers in two different phases. In the first phase of the study the volunteers were given an oral dose of sulfamethazine 500 mg alone and blood and urine samples were collected. After the 10-day washout period the same selected volunteers were again administered sulfamethazine 500 mg along with 1000 mg acetaminophen. The acetylation of sulfamethazine by human NAT2 in both phases with and without acetaminophen was determined by HPLC to establish their respective phenotypes. In conclusion obtained statistics of present study revealed that acetaminophen significantly (P<0.0001) decreased sulfamethazine acetylation in plasma of both slow and fast acetylator male volunteers. A highly significant (P<0.0001) decrease in plasma-free and total sulfamethazine concentration was also observed when acetaminophen was co-administered. Urine acetylation status in both phases of the study was found not to be in complete concordance with that of plasma. Acetaminophen significantly (P<0.0001) increased the acetyl, free and total sulfamethazine concentration in urine of both slow and fast acetylators. Urine acetylation analysis has not been found to be a suitable approach for phenotypic studies.

  12. Histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation breaks the genome's silence

    PubMed Central

    Shia, Wei-Jong; Pattenden, Samantha G; Workman, Jerry L

    2006-01-01

    Acetylation at histone H4 lysine 16 is involved in many cellular processes in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans. A recent biochemical study pinpoints this particular acetylation mark as a switch for changing chromatin from a repressive to a transcriptionally active state. PMID:16689998

  13. Effects of acylation on the functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of succinylation and acetylation on some functional properties and the in vitro trypsin digestibility of kidney bean protein isolate (KPI) were investigated. The extent of succinylation or acetylation progressively increased from 0% to 96% to 97%, as the anhydride-to-protein ratio increased from 0 to 1 g/g. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and zeta potential analyses indicated that acylation, especially succinylation, considerably increased the net charge and hydrodynamic radius of the proteins in KPI, especially vicilin. Acylation treatment at various anhydride-to-protein ratios (0.05 to 1 g/g) remarkably improved the protein solubility (PS) and emulsifying activity index (EAI) at neutral pH, but the improvement by succinylation was much better than that by acetylation. Succinylation resulted in a marked decrease in mechanical moduli of heat-induced gels of KPI, while the mechanical moduli were, on the contrary, increased by acetylation. Additionally, in vitro trypsin digestibility was improved by the acylation in an anhydride-type and level-dependent manner. The results suggest that the functional properties of KPI could be modulated by the chemical acylation treatment, using succinic or acetic anhydride at appropriate anhydride-to-protein ratios.

  14. Regulation of the seasonal population patterns of Helicoverpa armigera moths by Bt cotton planting.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Lin; Feng, Hong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2010-08-01

    Transgenic cotton expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac toxin has been commercially cultivated in China since 1997, and by 2000 Bt cotton had almost completely replaced non-transgenic cotton cultivars. To evaluate the impact of Bt cotton planting on the seasonal population patterns of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, the dynamics of H. armigera moths were monitored with light traps from four locations (Xiajin, Linqing and Dingtao of Shandong Province; Guantao of Hebei Province) in high Bt density region and five locations (Anci and Xinji of Hebei Province; Dancheng and Fengqiu of Henan Province; Gaomi of Shandong Province) in low Bt density region from 1996 to 2008. A negative correlation was found between moth densities of H. armigera and the planting years of Bt cotton in both high and low Bt density areas. These data indicate that the moth population density of H. armigera was reduced with the introduction of Bt cotton in northern China. Three generations of moths occurred between early June and late September in the cotton regions. Interestingly, second-generation moths decreased and seemed to vanish in recent years in high Bt density region, but this tendency was not found in low Bt density region. The data suggest that the planting of Bt cotton in high Bt density region was effective in controlling the population density of second-generation moths. Furthermore, the seasonal change of moth patterns associated with Bt cotton planting may regulate the regional occurrence and population development of this migratory insect.

  15. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    PubMed

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait.

  16. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

  17. Diamondback moth in Ukraine: current status and potential for use biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Likar, Y; Stefanovska, T

    2009-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xillostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the insect pest damaging cabbage in Ukraine, especially in the Southern region. Biology, damage, population dynamics of diamondback moth and effect of natural enemies on the level of infestation of this pest by parasitoids and pathogens were studied in 2004-2007 in the laboratory and field conditions. Obtained results show that in general the pest has 2-3 generations, although up to 5-6 can evolve in the South. Fecundity and life longevity of Diamondback were studied on white cabbage, red cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and two basic weeds: shepherd's purse and wild mustard. The host plant affects fecundity and life span of the diamondback moth. Fecundity differs significantly and is highest with white cabbage. Fauna of Diamondback moth parasitoids is quite rich. All stages are affected by numerous parasitoids and predators. Around 22 parasitoid species were recorded during the study. Overall parasitism ranged from 18% to 60% varying essentially between the areas. Apanteles (Cotesia) sp., Diadegma sp., Trichogramma sp. were most common in all areas. Steinernema sp., entomopathogenic nematodes are found to be natural enemies of diamondback moth. The range of natural enemies contributes significantly to the control of Diamondback moth. Conservation and augmentation of natural enemies should be used in IPM systems in order to control diamondback moth on cabbage. Entomopathogenic nematodes are prominent biocontrol agents.

  18. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

  19. Antemortem stress regulates protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhenyu; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2016-07-01

    Although exhaustive research has established that preslaughter stress is a major factor contributing to pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat, questions remain regarding the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis. In this study, the influence of preslaughter stress on protein acetylation in relationship to glycolysis was studied. The data show that antemortem swimming significantly enhanced glycolysis and the total acetylated proteins in postmortem longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of mice. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors eliminated stress induced increase in glycolysis. Inversely, antemortem injection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and nicotinamide (NAM), further increased protein acetylation early postmortem and the glycolysis. These data provide new insight into the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis by showing that protein acetylation regulates glycolysis, which may participate in the regulation of preslaughter stress on glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

  20. Acetylated triterpene saponins from the Thai medicinal plant, Sapindus emarginatus.

    PubMed

    Kanchanapoom, T; Kasai, R; Yamasaki, K

    2001-09-01

    From the pericarps of Sapindus emarginatus (Sapindaceae), three new acetylated triterpene saponins were isolated together with hederagenin and five known triterpene saponins, as well as one known sweet acyclic sesquiterpene glycoside, mukurozioside IIb. The structures of new compounds were elucidated as hederagenin 3-O-(2-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, 23-O-acetyl-hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside by chemical and spectroscopic data.

  1. Acetylated histone H3 increases nucleosome dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Marek; Manohar, Mridula; Ottesen, Jennifer; Poirier, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Chromatin's basic unit structure is the nucleosome, i.e. genomic DNA wrapped around a particular class of proteins -- histones -- which due to their physical hindrance, block vital biological processes, such as DNA repair, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. Histone post-translational modifications, which are known to exist in vivo, are hypothesized to regulate these biological processes by directly altering DNA-histone interactions and thus nucleosome structure and stability. Using magnetic tweezers technique we studied the acetylation of histone H3 in the dyad region, i.e. at K115 and K122, on reconstituted arrays of nucleosomes under constant external force. Based on the measured increase in the probability of dissociation of modified nucleosomes, we infer that this double modification could facilitate histone chaperone mediated nucleosome disassembly in vivo.

  2. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order.

  3. Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests.

  4. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken’Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective ‘single pgFARs’ produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a ‘single reductase’ can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  5. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Cardé, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  6. Extracellular transduction events under pulsed stimulation in moth olfactory sensilla.

    PubMed

    Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lánský, Petr; Krivan, Vlastimil

    2003-07-01

    In natural conditions, pheromones released continuously by female moths are broken in discontinuous clumps and filaments. These discontinuities are perceived by flying male moths as periodic variations in the concentration of the stimulus, which have been shown to be essential for location of females. We study analytically and numerically the evolution in time of the activated pheromone-receptor (signaling) complex in response to periodic pulses of pheromone. The 13-reaction model considered takes into account the transport of pheromone molecules by pheromone binding proteins (PBP), their enzymatic deactivation in the perireceptor space and their interaction with receptors at the dendritic membrane of neurons in Antheraea polyphemus sensitive to the main pheromone component. The time-averaged and periodic properties of the temporal evolution of the signaling complex are presented, in both transient and steady states. The same time-averaged response is shown to result from many different pulse trains and to depend hyperbolically on the time-averaged pheromone concentration in air. The dependency of the amplitude of the oscillations of the signaling complex on pulse characteristics, especially frequency, suggests that the model can account for the ability of the studied type of neuron to resolve repetitive pulses up to 2 Hz, as experimentally observed. Modifications of the model for resolving pulses up to 10 Hz, as found in other neuron types sensitive to the minor pheromone components, are discussed.

  7. DBM-DB: the diamondback moth genome database.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weiqi; Yu, Liying; He, Weiyi; Yang, Guang; Ke, Fushi; Baxter, Simon W; You, Shijun; Douglas, Carl J; You, Minsheng

    2014-01-01

    The diamondback moth Genome Database (DBM-DB) is a central online repository for storing and integrating genomic data of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.). It provides comprehensive search tools and downloadable datasets for scientists to study comparative genomics, biological interpretation and gene annotation of this insect pest. DBM-DB contains assembled transcriptome datasets from multiple DBM strains and developmental stages, and the annotated genome of P. xylostella (version 2). We have also integrated publically available ESTs from NCBI and a putative gene set from a second DBM genome (KONAGbase) to enable users to compare different gene models. DBM-DB was developed with the capacity to incorporate future data resources, and will serve as a long-term and open-access database that can be conveniently used for research on the biology, distribution and evolution of DBM. This resource aims to help reduce the impact DBM has on agriculture using genomic and molecular tools. Database URL: http://iae.fafu.edu.cn/DBM/

  8. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Breinholt, Jesse W.

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly–moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  9. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  10. Clinical complications of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-06-01

    Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are common legumes, consumed worldwide. The delicacy of kidney beans is highly appreciable but, at the same time, their toxicity has raised an alarming concern. Kidney bean toxicity may be divided into two subcategories: toxicity caused by its lectins, saponins, phytates, and protease inhibitors or allergenicity induced by its allergenic proteins. The purpose of this review is to unravel the facts behind the different aspects of toxicity and allergenicity induced by kidney beans and try to fill the gaps that exist currently.

  11. Nucleotide sequence of the bean strain of southern bean mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Othman, Y; Hull, R

    1995-01-10

    The genome of the bean strain of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV-B) comprises 4109 nucleotides and thus is slightly shorter than those of the two other sequenced sobemoviruses (southern bean mosaic virus, cowpea strain (SBMV-C) and rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV)). SBMV-B has an overall sequence similarity with SBMV-C of 55% and with RYMV of 45%. Three potential open reading frames (ORFs) were recognized in SBMV-B which were in similar positions in the genomes of SBMV-C and RYMV. However, there was no analog of SBMV-C and RYMV ORF 3. From a comparison of the predicted sequences of the ORFs of these three sobemoviruses and of the noncoding regions, it is suggested that the two SBMV strains differ from one another as much as they do from RYMV and that they should be considered as different viruses.

  12. Genetic control of inflorescence in common bean.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, S R; Ramalho, M A P; de F B Abreu, A; Pereira, L A

    2014-12-04

    The number of pods per common bean plant is a primary component of grain yield, which depends on the number of flowers produced and on the flower set. Thus, a larger number of flowers per plant would increase yield. Lines with inflorescences that had a large number of flowers compared to common bean plants now under cultivation were identified. We analyzed the genetic control of this trait and its association with grain yield. The cultivar BRSMG Talismã was crossed with 2 lines, L.59583 and L.59692, which have a large number of flowers. The F1, F2, and F3 generations were obtained. These generations were assessed together with the parents in a randomized block experimental design with 2 replications. The traits assessed included length of inflorescence, number of pods per inflorescence, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, 100-grain weight, and grain yield per plant. Mean genetic components and variance were estimated. The traits length of inflorescence and number of pods per inflorescence exhibited genetic control with predominance that showed an additive effect. In the 2 crosses, genetic control of grain yield and of its primary components showed that the allelic interaction of dominance was high. The wide variability in the traits assessed may be used to increase yield of the common bean plant by increasing the number of flowers on the plant.

  13. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylation suggests the widespread function is regulated by protein acetylation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zuoming; Zhu, Honglin; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Chengcheng; Liu, Yue; Sheng, Qing; Lv, Zhengbing; Zhang, Wenping; Yu, Wei; Jiang, Caiying; Xie, Longfei; Zhang, Yaozhou; Yao, Juming

    2015-09-01

    Lysine acetylation in proteins is a dynamic and reversible PTM and plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. In this study, using lysine-acetylation (Kac) peptide enrichment coupled with nano HPLC/MS/MS, we initially identified the acetylome in the silkworms. Overall, a total of 342 acetylated proteins with 667 Kac sites were identified in silkworm. Sequence motifs analysis around Kac sites revealed an enrichment of Y, F, and H in the +1 position, and F was also enriched in the +2 and -2 positions, indicating the presences of preferred amino acids around Kac sites in the silkworm. Functional analysis showed the acetylated proteins were primarily involved in some specific biological processes. Furthermore, lots of nutrient-storage proteins, such as apolipophorin, vitellogenin, storage proteins, and 30 K proteins, were highly acetylated, indicating lysine acetylation may represent a common regulatory mechanism of nutrient utilization in the silkworm. Interestingly, Ser2 proteins, the coating proteins of larval silk, were found to contain many Kac sites, suggesting lysine acetylation may be involved in the regulation of larval silk synthesis. This study is the first to identify the acetylome in a lepidoptera insect, and expands greatly the catalog of lysine acetylation substrates and sites in insects.

  14. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    PubMed Central

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that

  15. Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

    2011-01-01

    Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long–range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones. PMID:22654810

  16. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  17. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    PubMed

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  18. Replacement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae acetyl-CoA synthetases by alternative pathways for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Barbara U; van Rossum, Harmen M; Benjamin, Kirsten R; Wu, Liang; Daran, Jean-Marc G; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-01-01

    Cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A is a precursor for many biotechnologically relevant compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this yeast, cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis and growth strictly depend on expression of either the Acs1 or Acs2 isoenzyme of acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). Since hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate in the ACS reaction constrains maximum yields of acetyl-CoA-derived products, this study explores replacement of ACS by two ATP-independent pathways for acetyl-CoA synthesis. After evaluating expression of different bacterial genes encoding acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (A-ALD) and pyruvate-formate lyase (PFL), acs1Δ acs2Δ S. cerevisiae strains were constructed in which A-ALD or PFL successfully replaced ACS. In A-ALD-dependent strains, aerobic growth rates of up to 0.27 h(-1) were observed, while anaerobic growth rates of PFL-dependent S. cerevisiae (0.20 h(-1)) were stoichiometrically coupled to formate production. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures, intracellular metabolite analysis did not reveal major differences between A-ALD-dependent and reference strains. However, biomass yields on glucose of A-ALD- and PFL-dependent strains were lower than those of the reference strain. Transcriptome analysis suggested that reduced biomass yields were caused by acetaldehyde and formate in A-ALD- and PFL-dependent strains, respectively. Transcript profiles also indicated that a previously proposed role of Acs2 in histone acetylation is probably linked to cytosolic acetyl-CoA levels rather than to direct involvement of Acs2 in histone acetylation. While demonstrating that yeast ACS can be fully replaced, this study demonstrates that further modifications are needed to achieve optimal in vivo performance of the alternative reactions for supply of cytosolic acetyl-CoA as a product precursor.

  19. Mapping and recombination analysis of two moth colour mutations, Black moth and Wild wing spot, in the silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Katsuma, S; Kuwazaki, S; Jouraku, A; Fujimoto, T; Sahara, K; Yasukochi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tabunoki, H; Yokoyama, T; Kadono-Okuda, K; Shimada, T

    2016-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects exhibit body colour variations, where the high phenotypic diversity observed in the wings and bodies of adults provides opportunities for studying adaptive morphological evolution. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, two genes responsible for moth colour mutation, Bm and Ws, have been mapped to 0.0 and 14.7 cM of the B. mori genetic linkage group 17; however, these genes have not been identified at the molecular level. We performed positional cloning of both genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the moth wing- and body-colour patterns in B. mori. We successfully narrowed down Bm and Ws to ~2-Mb-long and 100-kb-long regions on the same scaffold Bm_scaf33. Gene prediction analysis of this region identified 77 candidate genes in the Bm region, whereas there were no candidate genes in the Ws region. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis in Bm mutant detected chromosome inversion, which explains why there are no recombination in the corresponding region. The comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the candidate regions of both genes shared synteny with a region associated with wing- and body-colour variations in other lepidopteran species including Biston betularia and Heliconius butterflies. These results suggest that the genes responsible for wing and body colour in B. mori may be associated with similar genes in other Lepidoptera. PMID:26219230

  20. Desaturases from the spotted fireworm moth (Choristoneura parallela) shed light on the evolutionary origins of novel moth sex pheromone desaturases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitian; Rooney, Alejandro P; Xue, Bingye; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2004-11-24

    Six acyl-CoA desaturase-encoding cDNAs from mRNA isolated from the spotted fireworm moth, Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were characterized and assayed for functionality. The expression levels of these cDNAs were determined in the pheromone gland and fat body by real-time PCR and the resulting patterns are in line with results from published studies on other moth sex pheromone desaturases. The cDNAs were found to correspond to six genes. Using both biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, four of these were found to belong to previously characterized desaturase functional groups [the Delta 10,11, the Delta 9 (16>18) and the Delta 9 (18>16) groups]. A desaturase highly expressed in the pheromone gland was a novel E11 desaturase that was specific to 14-carbon precursor acids. The fifth gene [CpaZ9(14-26)] was found to display a novel Z9 activity indicating that it belongs to a new Delta 9 functional group, whereas the sixth gene was determined to be nonfunctional with respect to desaturase activity. In accordance with previous studies, we find that desaturases of the Delta 10,11 and Delta 14 groups, which are the fastest evolving desaturases and possess the novel pheromone biosynthetic function, are expressed primarily in the pheromone gland whereas all other desaturases, which do not possess the novel reproductive function, evolve more slowly and display the ancestral metabolic function and pattern of gene expression.

  1. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  2. Histone Acetylation Inhibitors Promote Axon Growth in Adult DRG neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shen; Nazif, Kutaiba; Smith, Alexander; Baas, Peter W; Smith, George M

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic mechanisms that guide damaged axons to regenerate following spinal cord injury remain poorly understood. Manipulation of posttranslational modifications of key proteins in mature neurons could re-invigorate growth machinery after injury. One such modification is acetylation, a reversible process controlled by two enzyme families acting in opposition, the Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) and the Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs). While acetylated histones in the nucleus is associated with upregulation of growth promoting genes, de-acetylated tubulin in the axoplasm is associated with more labile microtubules, conducive to axon growth. In this study we investigated the effects of HAT inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors on cultured adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. We found that inhibition of HATs, using Anacardic Acid or CPTH2, improved axon outgrowth, while inhibition of HDACs using TSA or Tubacin, inhibited axon growth. Furthermore, Anacardic Acid increased the number of axons able to cross an inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) border. Histone acetylation, but not tubulin acetylation levels, was affected by HAT inhibitors, whereas tubulin acetylation levels were increased in the presence of HDAC inhibitor Tubacin. Although microtubule stabilizing drug taxol did not have an effect on the lengths of DRG axons, nocodazole decreased axon lengths. While the mechanistic basis will require future studies, our data show that inhibitors of HAT can augment axon growth in adult DRG neurons, with the potential of aiding axon growth over inhibitory substrates produced by the glial scar. PMID:25702820

  3. Chitosan Molecular Structure as a Function of N-Acetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, Eduardo F.; Freitas, Luiz C.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2011-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to characterize the structure and solubility of chitosan nanoparticle-like structures as a function of the deacetylation level (0, 40, 60, and 100%) and the spatial distribution of the N-acetyl groups in the particles. The polysaccharide chains of highly N-deacetylated particles where the N-acetyl groups are uniformly distributed present a high flexibility and preference for the relaxed two-fold helix and five-fold helix motifs. When these groups are confined to a given region of the particle, the chains adopt preferentially a two-fold helix with f and w values close to crystalline chitin. Nanoparticles with up to 40% acetylation are moderately soluble, forming stable aggregates when the N-acetyl groups are unevenly distributed. Systems with 60% or higher N-acetylation levels are insoluble and present similar degrees of swelling regardless the distribution of their N-acetyl groups. Overall particle solvation is highly affected by electrostatic forces resulting from the degree of acetylation. The water mobility and orientation around the polysaccharide chains affects the stability of the intramolecular O3- HO3(n) ... O5(n+ 1) hydrogen bond, which in turn controls particle aggregation.

  4. Regulation of Autophagy and Mitophagy by Nutrient Availability and Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Bradley R.; Scott, Iain; Traba, Javier; Han, Kim; Sack, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Normal cellular function is dependent on a number of highly regulated homeostatic mechanisms, which act in concert to maintain conditions suitable for life. During periods of nutritional deficit, cells initiate a number of recycling programs which break down complex intracellular structures, thus allowing them to utilize the energy stored within. These recycling systems, broadly named “autophagy”, enable the cell to maintain the flow of nutritional substrates until they can be replenished from external sources. Recent research has shown that a number of regulatory components of the autophagy program are controlled by lysine acetylation. Lysine acetylation is a reversible post-translational modification that can alter the activity of enzymes in a number of cellular compartments. Strikingly, the main substrate for this modification is a product of cellular energy metabolism: acetyl-CoA. This suggests a direct and intricate link between fuel metabolites and the systems which regulate nutritional homeostasis. In this review, we examine how acetylation regulates the systems that control cellular autophagy, and how global protein acetylation status may act as a trigger for recycling of cellular components in a nutrient-dependent fashion. In particular, we focus on how acetylation may control the degradation and turnover of mitochondria, the major source of fuel-derived acetyl-CoA. PMID:24525425

  5. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  6. Erasers of Histone Acetylation: The Histone Deacetylase Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Edward; Yoshida, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl functional groups from the lysine residues of both histone and nonhistone proteins. In humans, there are 18 HDAC enzymes that use either zinc- or NAD+-dependent mechanisms to deacetylate acetyl lysine substrates. Although removal of histone acetyl epigenetic modification by HDACs regulates chromatin structure and transcription, deacetylation of nonhistones controls diverse cellular processes. HDAC inhibitors are already known potential anticancer agents and show promise for the treatment of many diseases. PMID:24691964

  7. Acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers with vinyl acetate under moderate conditions.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Nihat Sami; Tingaut, Philippe; Ozmen, Nilgül; Henry, Nathan; Harper, David; Dadmun, Mark; Sèbe, Gilles

    2009-10-08

    A novel and straightforward method for the surface acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers by transesterification of vinyl acetate is proposed. The reaction of vinyl acetate with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanowhiskers obtained from cotton linters was examined with potassium carbonate as catalyst. Results indicate that during the first stage of the reaction, only the surface of the nanowhiskers was modified, while their dimensions and crystallinity remained unchanged. With increasing reaction time, diffusion mechanisms controlled the rate, leading to nanowhiskers with higher levels of acetylation, smaller dimensions, and lower crystallinity. In THF, a solvent of low polarity, the suspensions from modified nanowhiskers showed improved stability with increased acetylation.

  8. Structural Basis of Eco1-Mediated Cohesin Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Chao, William C. H.; Wade, Benjamin O.; Bouchoux, Céline; Jones, Andrew W.; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Federico, Stefania; O’Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Uhlmann, Frank; Singleton, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Sister-chromatid cohesion is established by Eco1-mediated acetylation on two conserved tandem lysines in the cohesin Smc3 subunit. However, the molecular basis of Eco1 substrate recognition and acetylation in cohesion is not fully understood. Here, we discover and rationalize the substrate specificity of Eco1 using mass spectrometry coupled with in-vitro acetylation assays and crystallography. Our structures of the X. laevis Eco2 (xEco2) bound to its primary and secondary Smc3 substrates demonstrate the plasticity of the substrate-binding site, which confers substrate specificity by concerted conformational changes of the central β hairpin and the C-terminal extension. PMID:28290497

  9. INSECT FLIGHT. Luminance-dependent visual processing enables moth flight in low light.

    PubMed

    Sponberg, Simon; Dyhr, Jonathan P; Hall, Robert W; Daniel, Thomas L

    2015-06-12

    Animals must operate under an enormous range of light intensities. Nocturnal and twilight flying insects are hypothesized to compensate for dim conditions by integrating light over longer times. This slowing of visual processing would increase light sensitivity but should also reduce movement response times. Using freely hovering moths tracking robotic moving flowers, we showed that the moth's visual processing does slow in dim light. These longer response times are consistent with models of how visual neurons enhance sensitivity at low light intensities, but they could pose a challenge for moths feeding from swaying flowers. Dusk-foraging moths avoid this sensorimotor tradeoff; their nervous systems slow down but not so much as to interfere with their ability to track the movements of real wind-blown flowers.

  10. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  11. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-05-27

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies.

  12. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  13. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  14. Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

  15. Moth eye antireflection coated GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Arto; Tommila, Juha; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Niemi, Tapio; Guina, Mircea

    2014-09-01

    The performance of a GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell incorporating AlInP moth eye antireflection coating is reported and compared with the performance of a similar cell comprising TiO2/SiO2 antireflection coating. The moth eye coating exhibits an average reflectance of only 2% within the spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm. EQE measurements revealed absorption-related losses in the AlInP moth eye coating at wavelengths below 510 nm. Short wavelength absorption decreases the current generation in the top GaInP junction by 10%. Despite the absorption losses, the moth eye patterned GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell exhibited higher current generation under AM1.5G real sun illumination.

  16. Isolation and properties of a lectin from the seeds of the Indian bean or lablab (Dolichos lablab L.).

    PubMed

    Güran, A; Tichá, M; Filka, K; Kocourek, J

    1983-03-01

    The lectin of the Indian bean or lablab (Dolichos lablab L.) was purified by affinity chromatography on two types of affinity carriers: O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-Separon and Separon-bound ovomucoid. The lectin is homogeneous in the ultracentrifuge: S20, w = 6.14 S, Mr = 110 000; the molecule appears to comprise two pairs of two types of subunits (Mr 16 000 and 40 000), and contains 2% neutral sugar and 0.2 Mn and 0.5 Zn atom respectively. The lectin agglutinates human erythrocytes non-specifically with regard to ABO grouping at a limit concentration of 8 micrograms/ml, and this activity is inhibited most effectively by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside and ovomucoid, but not by free D-mannose.

  17. Bean pod mottle virus movement in insect feeding resistant soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) impacts yield and seed quality. BPMV is vectored primarily by the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata) in Ohio. A 2-year experiment was carried out at two locations in Ohio to determine if resistance to insect feeding reduces disease incidence and spread in soybeans....

  18. 40. Coffee bean drying trays that are stored in racks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Coffee bean drying trays that are stored in racks under building and pulled out to sun dry beans on terraces to the north and south of building. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1C-3 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  19. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  20. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  1. Behavior of pesticides in coffee beans during the roasting process.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Katsushi; Nishizawa, Hideo; Manabe, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, maximum residue limits for pesticides (MRL) in coffee are set on green coffee beans, but not roasted coffee beans, although roasted beans are actually used to prepare coffee for drinking. Little is known about the behavior of pesticides during the roasting process. In the present study, we examined the changes in the concentration of pesticide (organochlorine: γ-BHC, chlordane and heptachlor) residues in coffee beans during the roasting process. We prepared green coffee beans spiked with these pesticides (0.2 and 1.0 μg/g), and the residue levels in the beans were measured before and after the roasting process. We determined the residual rate after the roasting process. γ-BHC was not detectable at all, and more than 90% of chlordane was lost after the roasting (3.1 and 5.1% of chlordane remained in the beans spiked with 0.2 and 1.0 μg/g of chlordane, respectively). A low level of heptachlor (0.72%) was left in the coffee beans spiked with 1 μg/g of heptachlor. Disappearance of γ-BHC during the roasting process may be due to the high vapor pressure of γ-BHC, while chlordane has a lower vapor pressure. We also examined the behavior of piperonyl butoxide and atrazine during the roasting process. Piperonyl butoxide behaved similarly to chlordane, but atrazine disappeared after the roasting process, because it is unstable to heat.

  2. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  3. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  4. Registration of ‘Snowdon’ White Kidney Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Snowdon’ white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI __), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2012 as an early-mid season, disease-resistant, bush bean cultivar. Snowdon was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F4 generation followed ...

  5. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  6. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) are a nutrient dense, low cost food and therefore are an excellent value for consumers (Drewnowski and Rehm, 2013). In spite of this value, long cooking times limit bean consumption. This is true in developing countries where cooking fuel is sometimes scarce and in d...

  7. The Genetics of Domestication of the Azuki Bean (Vigna angularis)

    PubMed Central

    Kaga, Akito; Isemura, Takehisa; Tomooka, Norihiko; Vaughan, Duncan A.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic differences between azuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) and its presumed wild ancestor (V. angularis var. nipponensis) were resolved into QTL for traits associated with adaptation to their respective distinct habits. A genetic linkage map constructed using progenies from a cross between Japanese cultivated and wild azuki beans covers 92.8% of the standard azuki bean linkage map. A reciprocal translocation between cultivated and wild azuki bean parents was identified on the basis of the linkage map having a pseudolinkage group and clustering of seed productivity-related QTL with large effect near the presumed breakpoints. In total, 162 QTL were identified for 46 domestication-related traits. Domestication of azuki bean has involved a trade-off between seed number and seed size: fewer but longer pods and fewer but larger seeds on plants with shorter stature in cultivated azuki bean being at the expense of overall seed yield. Genes found related to germination and flowering time in cultivated azuki bean may confer a selective advantage to the hybrid derivatives under some ecological conditions and may explain why azuki bean has evolved as a crop complex in Japan. PMID:18245368

  8. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S; Luthria, Devanand L

    2008-03-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin, while pinto beans contained kaempferol and its 3-O-glycosides. Light red kidney bean contained traces of quercetin 3-O-glucoside and its malonates, but pink and dark red kidney beans contained the diglycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Small red beans contained kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside, while no flavonoids were detected in alubia, cranberry, great northern, and navy beans. This is the first report of the tentative identification of quercetin 3-O-pentosylhexoside and flavonoid glucoside malonates, and the first detailed detection of hydroxycinnamates, in common beans.

  9. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  10. Variability for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Capacity in Beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As legumes, common beans have the capacity to form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Common beans however are considered to be poor nitrogen fixers as compared to other legumes. Identification of genetic variability for N fixation capac...

  11. Wisconsin - Increased corn silage protein with intercropped lablab bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein supplements for livestock are costly. In recent research in southern WI, lablab bean grown with corn increased forage CP concentration over monoculture corn without compromising forage yield or potential milk production per acre. Corn was intercropped with each of three climbing beans: lab...

  12. [Method of isolating isoflavone aglycones from soya beans].

    PubMed

    Levyts'kyĭ, A P; Bohatov, V V

    2002-01-01

    The method of isolating isoflavone aglycones from soya beans has been proposed. The procedure includes the extraction by hot water, glycosides oxidative hydrolysis, aglycones extracting by ethyl acetate and removing the lipophilic substances by means of hexanic extraction. The aglycones outcome is not less than 80%. The preparation obtained contains over 50% of soya bean aglycones.

  13. Potato Bean: Potential Forage/Dietary Supplement for Small Ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, leguminous vine indigenous to the eastern half of the United States. This vine climbs on plants and objects making its foliage accessible to browsing animals. We have observed deer eating potato bean foliage. Both deer and goa...

  14. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  15. 9-O-Acetylation of sialic acids is catalysed by CASD1 via a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Anna-Maria T.; Bakkers, Mark J. G.; Buettner, Falk F. R.; Hartmann, Maike; Grove, Melanie; Langereis, Martijn A.; de Groot, Raoul J.; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids, terminal sugars of glycoproteins and glycolipids, play important roles in development, cellular recognition processes and host–pathogen interactions. A common modification of sialic acids is 9-O-acetylation, which has been implicated in sialoglycan recognition, ganglioside biology, and the survival and drug resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Despite many functional implications, the molecular basis of 9-O-acetylation has remained elusive thus far. Following cellular approaches, including selective gene knockout by CRISPR/Cas genome editing, we here show that CASD1—a previously identified human candidate gene—is essential for sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. In vitro assays with the purified N-terminal luminal domain of CASD1 demonstrate transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-coenzyme A to CMP-activated sialic acid and formation of a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate. Our study provides direct evidence that CASD1 is a sialate O-acetyltransferase and serves as key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans. PMID:26169044

  16. Acetylation of Mammalian ADA3 Is Required for Its Functional Roles in Histone Acetylation and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mohibi, Shakur; Srivastava, Shashank; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Band, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3) is an essential component of specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. We have previously shown that ADA3 is required for establishing global histone acetylation patterns and for normal cell cycle progression (S. Mohibi et al., J Biol Chem 287:29442–29456, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.378901). Here, we report that these functional roles of ADA3 require its acetylation. We show that ADA3 acetylation, which is dynamically regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, reflects a balance of coordinated actions of its associated HATs, GCN5, PCAF, and p300, and a new partner that we define, the deacetylase SIRT1. We use mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis to identify major sites of ADA3 acetylated by GCN5 and p300. Acetylation-defective mutants are capable of interacting with HATs and other components of HAT complexes but are deficient in their ability to restore ADA3-dependent global or locus-specific histone acetylation marks and cell proliferation in Ada3-deleted murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Given the key importance of ADA3-containing HAT complexes in the regulation of various biological processes, including the cell cycle, our study presents a novel mechanism to regulate the function of these complexes through dynamic ADA3 acetylation. PMID:27402865

  17. Acetylation of Mammalian ADA3 Is Required for Its Functional Roles in Histone Acetylation and Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mohibi, Shakur; Srivastava, Shashank; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2016-10-01

    Alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3) is an essential component of specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. We have previously shown that ADA3 is required for establishing global histone acetylation patterns and for normal cell cycle progression (S. Mohibi et al., J Biol Chem 287:29442-29456, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.378901). Here, we report that these functional roles of ADA3 require its acetylation. We show that ADA3 acetylation, which is dynamically regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, reflects a balance of coordinated actions of its associated HATs, GCN5, PCAF, and p300, and a new partner that we define, the deacetylase SIRT1. We use mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis to identify major sites of ADA3 acetylated by GCN5 and p300. Acetylation-defective mutants are capable of interacting with HATs and other components of HAT complexes but are deficient in their ability to restore ADA3-dependent global or locus-specific histone acetylation marks and cell proliferation in Ada3-deleted murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Given the key importance of ADA3-containing HAT complexes in the regulation of various biological processes, including the cell cycle, our study presents a novel mechanism to regulate the function of these complexes through dynamic ADA3 acetylation.

  18. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with passive interception traps in sex pheromone-treated apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2000-12-01

    Male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were monitored with passive interception traps (PI-traps) in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone dispensers. The proportion of mated females recaptured by PI-traps was significantly higher than the proportion released after the release of both sexes into a codling moth-infested orchard. However, no significant difference occurred between the proportion of mated females recaptured and released when only females were released into uninfested orchards. Replicated nine-tree apple plots situated either on the edge or in the center ofpheromone-treated apple orchards were monitored with PI-traps during first moth flight in 1995 and during both flights in 1996. Moths caught on PI-traps were predominately males. The first male moths were captured 7-10 d before females during the first flight in both years. Initial capture of virgin and mated females on PI-traps coincided in 1995. Mated females were captured 14 d after the first virgin females in 1996. The mean proportion of females that were mated ranged from 32 to 55% during the first flight and 85 to 92% during the second flight. Moth catch and fruit injury were significantly higher in the edge versus the center plots. The numbers of total and female moths caught with PI-traps were significantly correlated with fruit injury for each generation. The percentage of female moths caught on PI-traps that were mated was 32% lower and the mean oocyte load of all females was 42% higher in a pheromone-treated apple orchard than in the untreated crabapple grove monitored during May and June 1997.

  19. Descending protocerebral neurons related to the mating dance of the male silkworm moth.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, R; Shibuya, T

    1986-07-09

    Descending protocerebral neurons in the male silkworm moth brain responding to the sexual pheromone (Bombykol) were identified. The neurons responded well with a tonic type of response and the high-frequency spikes evoked continued even after the end of the stimulus. Characteristics of the dose-response curves of the neurons to the pheromone remarkably resembled those of the wing vibration which is one of the mating behavioral components of the male moths.

  20. q-deformations and the dynamics of the larch bud-moth population cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Sudharsana V.; Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of q-deformation of numbers is applied here to improve and modify a tritrophic population dynamics model to understand defoliation of the coniferous larch trees due to outbreaks of the larch bud-moth insect population. The results are in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, with the larch needle lengths, bud-moth population and parasitoid populations all showing 9-period cycles which are mutually synchronized.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  3. Gypsy moths: Geographic distribution and control. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the forest pest, Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth). The occurrence, population dynamics, reproduction, environmental impact, and controls of gypsy moths are considered. Methods of control include use of insecticide, natural predators, introduced diseases, and local trapping. Economic impacts as well as environmental disruption due to major infestation in hardwood forests by this introduced pest are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Gypsy moth in the United States: An atlas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Luzader, E.R.; Mason, D.A.; Bush, R.

    1997-02-01

    This atlas includes 52 maps that doucment the historical spread of gypsy moth from 1900 to the present, historical forest defoliation in the Northeast from 1984 to the present, and the distribution of susceptible forests in the conterminous United States. These maps should be useful for planning activities to limit the spread of gypsy moth and mitigate the effects of this forest insect pest in areas that have not yet been invaded.

  5. Wave trains in a model of gypsy moth population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, J. W.; Vasquez, D. A.; Christie, I.; Colbert, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    A recent model of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] populations led to the observation of traveling waves in a one-dimensional spatial model. In this work, these waves are studied in more detail and their nature investigated. It was observed that when there are no spatial effects the model behaves chaotically under certain conditions. Under the same conditions, when diffusion is allowed, traveling waves develop. The biomass densities involved in the model, when examined at one point in the spatial domain, are found to correspond to a limit cycle lying on the surface of the chaotic attractor of the spatially homogeneous model. Also observed are wave trains that have modulating maxima, and which when examined at one point in the spatial domain show a quasiperiodic temporal behavior. This complex behavior is determined to be due to the interaction of the traveling wave and the chaotic background dynamics.

  6. Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

  7. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    PubMed Central

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  8. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: conserved karyotypes with diverged features.

    PubMed

    Síchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n = 31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n = 30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n = 28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the

  9. Chromosomal Evolution in Tortricid Moths: Conserved Karyotypes with Diverged Features

    PubMed Central

    Šíchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n = 31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n = 30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n = 28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the

  10. Germline transformation of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., using the piggyBac transposable element.

    PubMed

    Martins, S; Naish, N; Walker, A S; Morrison, N I; Scaife, S; Fu, G; Dafa'alla, T; Alphey, L

    2012-08-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most economically important agricultural pests. The larvae of this moth cause damage by feeding on the foliage of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and rapeseed. Control generally comprises chemical treatment; however, the diamondback moth is renowned for rapid development of resistance to pesticides. Other methods, such as biological control, have not been able to provide adequate protection. Germline transformation of pest insects has become available in recent years as an enabling technology for new genetics-based control methods, such as the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL(®) ). In the present study, we report the first transformation of the diamondback moth, using the piggyBac transposable element, by embryo microinjection. In generating transgenic strains using four different constructs, the function of three regulatory sequences in this moth was demonstrated in driving expression of fluorescent proteins. The transformation rates achieved, 0.48-0.68%, are relatively low compared with those described in other Lepidoptera, but not prohibitive, and are likely to increase with experience. We anticipate that germline transformation of the diamondback moth will permit the development of RIDL strains for use against this pest and facilitate the wider use of this species as a model organism for basic studies.

  11. Attraction of male gypsy and nun moths to disparlure and some of its chemical analogues.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D; Lange, R; Schwarz, F; Beroza, M; Bierl, B A

    1974-03-01

    The attractive power of disparlure-the sex attractant of the gypsy moth (Lymantria/Porthetria dispar)-vs. four synthetic analogous epoxides was tested in 1972 in a pine forest near Heidelberg. With two levels of concentration in the traps (2 and 20 μg), a total of 1112 nun moths (Lymantria/Porthetria monacha) and 257 gypsy moths were caught in 9 experiments. Approximately equal percentages of the two species were caught with a given compound. Disparlure was by far the most effective attractant. The other substances were between three and twenty times less effective. These experiments support the assumption that disparlure is also at least part of the sexual attractant of the nun moth. In two additional experiments, moth captures by a series of increasing disparlure concentrations (2-100 μg/trap) were determined. The catches of both species increased nonlinearly with the bait concentration. The experiments are discussed with respect to new (unpublished) electrophysiological recordings from disparlure receptor cells in both species. Special attention is given to the supposed masking effect of the disparlure precursor (an olefin). This substance is ineffective as an attractant, but has been reported to reduce the attraction of gypsy moth males to disparlure or to live females. However, the olefin elicits excitatory reactions in the same type of receptor cell that responds to disparlure and the related epoxides. Furthermore, no masking of the electrophysiological response was observed with the receptor cells when the olefin was added to disparlure.

  12. Life histories and fitness of two tuber moth species feeding on native Andean potatoes.

    PubMed

    Horgan, F G; Quiring, D T; Lagnaoui, A; Pelletier, Y

    2012-08-01

    In the inter-Andean valleys of central Perú, two species of tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) and Symmetrischema tangolias (Gyen), often occur simultaneously in stored potatoes. Traditional farming communities in the region produce a variety of native potatoes for local consumption. These include Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena, the presumed predecessor of commercial potatoes, S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum. In this study, we examined resistance against P. operculella in ten native Peruvian potato varieties (Casa blanca, Chispiadita, Madre de vaca, Mamaco negro, Misha, Chorisa, Mamaco rosado, Occa papa, Vacapa jayllo, and Yana tornasol). We also compared resistance in the first five of these varieties against S. tangolias. Varieties with pigmented periderms showed moderate resistance (30-40% against P. operculella in Mamaco negro, Mamaco rosado, and Yana tornasol and 55% against S. tangolias in Mamaco negro). All the other varieties were susceptible to both moth species. Small tubers tended to be the most resistant to the attack by both moths; however, this was not related to the availability of food for developing larvae, since pupal weight and development time were unaffected by the size of tubers. Similar responses by the two moths to native potatoes indicate that tuber resistance could be used to control the complex of tuber moths that damage potatoes in the Andes. We suggest that native potatoes, which are often easily introgressed with commercial potatoes, are a potential source of resistance against tuber moths.

  13. Suppression of backscattered diffraction from sub-wavelength 'moth-eye' arrays.

    PubMed

    Stavroulakis, Petros I; Boden, Stuart A; Johnson, Thomas; Bagnall, Darren M

    2013-01-14

    The eyes and wings of some species of moth are covered with arrays of nanoscale features that dramatically reduce reflection of light. There have been multiple examples where this approach has been adapted for use in antireflection and antiglare technologies with the fabrication of artificial moth-eye surfaces. In this work, the suppression of iridescence caused by the diffraction of light from such artificial regular moth-eye arrays at high angles of incidence is achieved with the use of a new tiled domain design, inspired by the arrangement of features on natural moth-eye surfaces. This bio-mimetic pillar architecture contains high optical rotational symmetry and can achieve high levels of diffraction order power reduction. For example, a tiled design fabricated in silicon and consisting of domains with 9 different orientations of the traditional hexagonal array exhibited a ~96% reduction in the intensity of the -1 diffraction order. It is suggested natural moth-eye surfaces have evolved a tiled domain structure as it confers efficient antireflection whilst avoiding problems with high angle diffraction. This combination of antireflection and stealth properties increases chances of survival by reducing the risk of the insect being spotted by a predator. Furthermore, the tiled domain design could lead to more effective artificial moth-eye arrays for antiglare and stealth applications.

  14. The brain organization of the lichen moth Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2012-10-03

    The neuroanatomy of the brain is important for the functional analysis of sex pheromone recognition in moths. Most moths use either of two types of compounds, aliphatic or alkenyl compounds, as sex pheromones. As previous studies on the neuroanatomy of moths have mostly been carried out using moths that use aliphatic compounds, information on the brain of moths that use alkenyl compounds is scarce. Here, we describe the brain anatomy of the male lichen-feeding moth Eilema japonica (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), which uses a mixture of alkenyl compounds as a sex pheromone. We reconstructed the major neuropils in the midbrain of E. japonica and compared them with those of the silkmoth, which uses an aliphatic derivative as a sex pheromone. The brain organization of the two species was basically similar, except for the size of the macroglomerular complex, where pheromone information is processed. The macroglomerular complex in E. japonica consisted of four large glomeruli, which were positioned along dorsoventral and anterior-posterior axes. The glomerulus at the site of entry of the antennal nerve was shown to have the largest volume. The number of glomeruli was equal to the number of pheromone components that are crucial for orientation behavior in E. japonica.

  15. "This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control.

  16. Weather-driven dynamics in a dual-migrant system: moths and bats.

    PubMed

    Krauel, Jennifer J; Westbrook, John K; McCracken, Gary F

    2015-05-01

    Animal migrations generate large spatial and temporal fluctuations in biomass that provide a resource base for many predator-prey interactions. These interactions are often driven by continent-scale weather patterns and are difficult to study. Few studies have included migratory animals on more than a single trophic level or for periods spanning multiple entire seasons. We tracked migrations of three species of agricultural pest noctuid moths over the 2010-2012 autumn seasons as the moths travelled past a large colony of migratory Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in Texas. Increases in moth abundance, mass of bats and duration of bat activity outside of the cave were correlated with passage of cold fronts over the study area and related increases in northerly wind. Moth responses to weather patterns varied among species and seasons, but overall moth abundances were low in late summer and spiked after one or more cold front passages in September and October. Changes in bat mass and behaviour appear to be consequences of bat migration, as cave use transitioned from summer maternity roost to autumn migratory stopover sites. Weather-driven migration is at considerable risk from climate change, and bat and moth responses to that change may have marked impacts on agricultural systems and bat ecosystem services.

  17. Unexpected dynamic up-tuning of auditory organs in day-flying moths.

    PubMed

    Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Kössl, Manfred

    2015-07-01

    In certain nocturnal moth species the frequency range of best hearing shifts to higher frequencies during repeated sound stimulation. This could provide the moths with a mechanism to better detect approaching echolocating bats. However, such a dynamic up-tuning would be of little value for day-flying moths that use intra-specific acoustic communication. Here we examined if the ears of day-flying moths provide stable tuning during longer sound stimulation. Contrary to our expectations, dynamic up-tuning was found in the ear of the day-flying species Urania boisduvalii and Empyreuma pugione. Audiograms were measured with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The level of the dominant distortion product (i.e. 2f1-f2) varied as a function of time by as much as 45 dB during ongoing acoustic stimulation, showing a systematic decrease at low frequencies and an increase at high frequencies. As a consequence, within about 2 s of acoustic stimulation, the DPOAEs audiogram shifted from low to high frequencies. Despite the up-tuning, the range of best audition still fell within the frequency band of the species-specific communication signals, suggesting that intra-specific communication should not be affected adversely. Up-tuning could be an ancestral condition in moth ears that in day-flying moths does not underlie larger selection pressure.

  18. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region.

  19. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

  20. Simulation Modeling to Interpret the Captures of Moths in Pheromone-Baited Traps Used for Surveillance of Invasive Species: the Gypsy Moth as a Model Case.

    PubMed

    Bau, Josep; Cardé, Ring T

    2016-09-01

    When pheromone traps are used for detection of an invasive pest and then delimitation of its distribution, an unresolved issue is the interpretation of failure to capture any target insects. Is a population present but not detected, a so-called false negative? Using the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) as an exemplar, we modeled the probability of males being captured in traps deployed at densities typical for surveillance (1 per 2.6 km(2) or 1 per mi(2)) and delimitation (up to 49 per 2.6 km(2)). The simulations used a dynamic wind model generating a turbulent plume structure and varying wind direction, and a behavior model based on the documented maneuvers of gypsy moths during plume acquisition and along-plume navigation. Several strategies of plume acquisition using Correlated Random Walks were compared to ensure that the generated dispersions over three days were not either overly clumped or ranged many km. Virtual moths were released into virtual space with patterns mimicking prior releases of gypsy moth males in Massachusetts at varying distance from a baited trap. In general, capture rates of virtual and real moths at varying trap densities were similar. One application of this approach was to estimate through bootstrapping the probabilities of not detecting populations having densities ranging from 1 to 100 moths per 2.6 km(2) and using traps that varied from 25 to 100 % in their efficiencies of capture. Low-level populations (e.g., 20-30 per 2.6 km(2)) often were not detected with one trap per 2.6 km(2), especially when traps had low efficiencies.

  1. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  2. Use of white beans instead of red beans may improve iron bioavailability from a Tanzanian complementary food mixture.

    PubMed

    Lung'aho, Mercy G; Glahn, Raymond P

    2010-01-01

    In the study presented, an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model was used to assess the amount of bioavailable iron from a modified Tanzanian complementary food formulation. The main objective of the study was to determine whether a change from red beans to white beans in the complementary food recipe would improve iron bioavailability from the mixture, as recent studies had indicated that iron bioavailability in white beans is significantly higher compared to that in the colored beans. The white beans had a significantly higher (p<0.0001) amount of ferritin formation (13.54 ng/mg) when compared to all other porridge ingredients including the red beans (2.3 ng/mg), and it is plausible that the complementary food formulated with the white beans may be superior to that formulated with the red beans, with reference to iron bioavailability. The results are important as they suggest that substitution of complementary food ingredients with high anti-nutrient concentrations with those that have lower anti-nutrient concentrations may improve iron bioavailability from complementary food home-recipes.

  3. Protective mechanism of the Mexican bean weevil against high levels of alpha-amylase inhibitor in the common bean.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, M; Chrispeels, M J

    1996-06-01

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI) protects seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) against predation by certain species of bruchids such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis), but not against predation by the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) or the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), insects that are common in the Americas. We characterized the interaction of alpha AI-1 present in seeds of the common bean, of a different isoform, alpha AI-2, present in seeds of wild common bean accessions, and of two homologs, alpha AI-Pa present in seeds of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and alpha AI-Pc in seeds of the scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus), with the midgut extracts of several bruchids. The extract of the Z. subfasciatus larvae rapidly digests and inactivates alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc, but not alpha AI-2 or alpha AI-Pa. The digestion is caused by a serine protease. A single proteolytic cleavage in the beta subunit of alpha AI-1 occurs at the active site of the protein. When degradation is prevented, alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc do not inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, although they are effective against the alpha-amylase of C. chinensis. Alpha AI-2 and alpha AI-Pa, on the other hand, do inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, suggesting that they are good candidates for genetic engineering to achieve resistance to Z. subfasciatus.

  4. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  5. Data detailing the platelet acetyl-lysine proteome.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Joseph E; David, Larry L; McCarty, Owen J T

    2015-12-01

    Here we detail proteomics data that describe the acetyl-lysine proteome of blood platelets (Aslan et al., 2015 [1]). An affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach was used to identify proteins modified by Nε-lysine acetylation in quiescent, washed human platelets. The data provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms of platelet function mediated by protein lysine acetylation. Additionally, as platelets are anucleate and lack histone proteins, they offer a unique and valuable system to study the regulation of cytosolic proteins by lysine acetylation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaino et al., 2014 [2]) via with PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002332.

  6. Protein kinase C coordinates histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Darieva, Zoulfia; Webber, Aaron; Warwood, Stacey; Sharrocks, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The re-assembly of chromatin following DNA replication is a critical event in the maintenance of genome integrity. Histone H3 acetylation at K56 and phosphorylation at T45 are two important chromatin modifications that accompany chromatin assembly. Here we have identified the protein kinase Pkc1 as a key regulator that coordinates the deposition of these modifications in S. cerevisiae under conditions of replicative stress. Pkc1 phosphorylates the histone acetyl transferase Rtt109 and promotes its ability to acetylate H3K56. Our data also reveal novel cross-talk between two different histone modifications as Pkc1 also enhances H3T45 phosphorylation and this modification is required for H3K56 acetylation. Our data therefore uncover an important role for Pkc1 in coordinating the deposition of two different histone modifications that are important for chromatin assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09886.001 PMID:26468616

  7. Acetylation of C/EBPα inhibits its granulopoietic function

    PubMed Central

    Bararia, Deepak; Kwok, Hui Si; Welner, Robert S.; Numata, Akihiko; Sárosi, Menyhárt B.; Yang, Henry; Wee, Sheena; Tschuri, Sebastian; Ray, Debleena; Weigert, Oliver; Levantini, Elena; Ebralidze, Alexander K.; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tenen, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an essential transcription factor for myeloid lineage commitment. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of C/EBPα at lysine residues K298 and K302, mediated at least in part by general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5), impairs C/EBPα DNA-binding ability and modulates C/EBPα transcriptional activity. Acetylated C/EBPα is enriched in human myeloid leukaemia cell lines and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) samples, and downregulated upon granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)- mediated granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells. C/EBPα mutants that mimic acetylation failed to induce granulocytic differentiation in C/EBPα-dependent assays, in both cell lines and in primary hematopoietic cells. Our data uncover GCN5 as a negative regulator of C/EBPα and demonstrate the importance of C/EBPα acetylation in myeloid differentiation. PMID:27005833

  8. Fabrication of silica moth-eye structures by photo-nanoimprinting using ordered anodic porous alumina molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagishita, Takashi; Endo, Takahide; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Moth-eye structures composed of an ordered array of tapered SiO2 pillars were fabricated by photo-nanoimprinting using anodic porous alumina as a mold. The formation of SiO2 moth-eye structures was carried out using a photosensitive polysilane solution as a precursor of silica. The SiO2 moth-eye structures formed on the surface of a glass plate effectively suppressed the reflection of incident light.

  9. Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

    1993-03-01

    A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

  10. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  11. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-62 - Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-62 Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L... Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Packinghouse requirements. The beans must be packed in packing facilities that...

  13. Physical properties and fatty acid profiles of oils from black, kidney, Great Northern, and pinto beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four common beans (black bean, kidney bean, great northern, and pinto) were extracted with hexane and found to contain about 2% triglyceride oils. The fatty acids found in these bean oils were mainly linolenic (41.7-46 wt %), linoleic (24.1-33.4 wt %), palmitic (10.7-12.7 wt %) and oleic (5.2-9.5 wt...

  14. A New Anthracnose Resistance Gene in Andean Common Bean Cultivar Jalo Listras Pretas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose is one of the most widespread and economically important diseases of common bean worldwide. Most anthracnose resistance genes in common bean are from beans of the Mesoamerican gene pool. The resistant reaction of the Andean common bean cultivar Jalo Listras Pretas to races 9, 64, 65 and ...

  15. Comparison of Metabolic Profiles of Three Varieties of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we compared the amino acid (11), organic acid (3) and sugar (9) profiles of three different varieties of dry beans (black bean (BB), dark red bean (DRB), and cranberry bean (CB)). The efficiency of the two commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1...

  16. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  17. Olig1 Acetylation and Nuclear Export Mediate Oligodendrocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jinxiang; Bercury, Kathryn K.; Jin, Weilin

    2015-01-01

    The oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig1 is critical for both oligodendrocyte development and remyelination in mice. Nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein occurs during brain development and in multiple sclerosis, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we report that Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation drive its active translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in both mouse and rat oligodendrocytes. We identified three functional nuclear export sequences (NES) localized in the basic helix-loop-helix domain and one specific acetylation site at Lys 150 (human Olig1) in NES1. Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation are regulated by the acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein and the histone deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC10. Acetylation of Olig1 decreased its chromatin association, increased its interaction with inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and facilitated its retention in the cytoplasm of mature oligodendrocytes. These studies establish that acetylation of Olig1 regulates its chromatin dissociation and subsequent translocation to the cytoplasm and is required for its function in oligodendrocyte maturation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein has been observed during mouse and human brain development and in multiple sclerosis in several studies, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we provide insight into the mechanism by which acetylation of Olig1 regulates its unique nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling during oligodendrocyte development and how the acetylation status of Olig1 modulates its distinct function in the nucleus versus the cytoplasm. The current study provides a unique example of a lineage-specific transcription factor that is actively translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm as the cell differentiates. Importantly, we demonstrate that this process is tightly controlled by acetylation at a single

  18. A colorimetric assay for the determination of acetyl xylan esterase or cephalosporin C acetyl esterase activities using 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, cephalosporin C, or acetylated xylan as substrate.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Montoro-García, Silvia; Lozada-Ramírez, José Daniel; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alvaro; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2007-10-15

    A bromothymol blue-based colorimetric assay has been devised to screen for acetyl xylan esterase or cephalosporin C (CPC) deacetylase activities using 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), CPC, or acetylated xylan as substrate. These enzymes are not screened with their natural substrates because of the tedious procedures available previously. Acetyl xylan esterase from Bacillus pumilus CECT 5072 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), and characterized using this assay. Similar K(M) values for 7-ACA and CPC were obtained when compared with those described using HPLC methods. The assay is easy to perform and can be carried out in robotic high-throughput colorimetric devices normally used in directed evolution experiments. The assay allowed us to detect improvements in activity at a minimum of twofold with a very low coefficient of variance in 96-well plates. This method is significantly faster and more convenient to use than are known HPLC and pH-stat procedures.

  19. Regulation of S-Adenosylhomocysteine Hydrolase by Lysine Acetylation*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Kavran, Jennifer M.; Chen, Zan; Karukurichi, Kannan R.; Leahy, Daniel J.; Cole, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) is an NAD+-dependent tetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of S-adenosylhomocysteine to adenosine and homocysteine and is important in cell growth and the regulation of gene expression. Loss of SAHH function can result in global inhibition of cellular methyltransferase enzymes because of high levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine. Prior proteomics studies have identified two SAHH acetylation sites at Lys401 and Lys408 but the impact of these post-translational modifications has not yet been determined. Here we use expressed protein ligation to produce semisynthetic SAHH acetylated at Lys401 and Lys408 and show that modification of either position negatively impacts the catalytic activity of SAHH. X-ray crystal structures of 408-acetylated SAHH and dually acetylated SAHH have been determined and reveal perturbations in the C-terminal hydrogen bonding patterns, a region of the protein important for NAD+ binding. These crystal structures along with mutagenesis data suggest that such hydrogen bond perturbations are responsible for SAHH catalytic inhibition by acetylation. These results suggest how increased acetylation of SAHH may globally influence cellular methylation patterns. PMID:25248746

  20. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  1. Kinetic studies on enzymatic acetylation of chloramphenicol in Streptococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Y; Nitahara, Y; Miyamura, S

    1979-01-01

    The kinetics of chloramphenicol (CP) acetylation by CP acetyltransferase from Streptococcus faecalis was studied. CP was shown to be acetylated enzymatically to its 3-O-acetyl derivative (3-AcCP) in the presence of acetyl coenzyme A, after which 3-AcCP was converted nonenzymatically to its 1-O-acetyl isomer, 1-O-acetyl CP (1-AcCP). At equilibrium, the 1-AcCP and 3-AcCP were present in a 1:4 ratio. Subsequently the diacetylated product, 1,3-O-O-diacetyl CP [1,3-(Ac)2CP], was enzymatically produced from 1-AcCP by the same enzyme. Theoretical calculation of rate constants (k1, k2, k3) for each successive reaction is as follows: (Formula: see text). This calculation gave k1 = 0.4 min-1, k2 = 0.002 min-1, and k3 = 0.016 min-1. Experimental results agreed closely with these calculated values. Images PMID:119483

  2. N-Butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested.

  3. Study on great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of drum drying process on bean flour properties and effect on gamma radiation on bean starch properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rayas-Solis, P.

    1988-01-01

    Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) drum dried flours at native pH of 6.54, pH 6 and 7 showed reduced activities of trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor, hemagglutinating titer, and nitrogen solubility. Electrophoretic analyses showed a slight modification of the native bean proteins, and the presence of at least four trypsin inhibitors. The study of the effect of 2.5-20 kGy irradiation doses on Great Northern beans showed essentially no modification of the electrophoretic mobility of the storage proteins or the trypsin inhibitors. Nitrogen solubility and hemagglutinating activity were essentially unchanged. With the 20 kGy dose, decrease in ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor activity, decrease reactive/available lysine content, and decrease cooking time of the irradiated beans after 11 months of storage were observed. Taste panel results indicated that the control and 20 kGy irradiated bean were significantly different at 5% level. At 20 kGy dose, the beans developed a partially water soluble brown color.

  4. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  5. Chemiluminescence of adzuki bean and soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Iida, T; Kawane, M; Ashikaga, K; Yoshiki, Y; Okubo, K

    2000-01-01

    The chemiluminescence of extracts from leguminous seedlings (adzuki bean and soybean) was investigated. In an H(2)O(2)/gallic acid/water extract system, the photon intensities of adzuki bean seedlings were increased after germination and in the hypocotyls it reached a maximum level during the first 4 days of germination. On day 4 after germination, chemiluminescence in the primary leaf part exhibited the strongest intensity. Emission spectra showed a main peak at 510 nm, with shoulders at 660 nm. Mechanical injuries to the stems and cotyledons resulted in about a 1.5- and 6.8-fold increase of chemiluminescence, respectively. In an H(2)O(2)/70% EtOH extract/HRP system, photon intensities increased after germination and reached a maximum level during the first 2 days of germination. On day 4 after germination, chemiluminescence in the root and leaf area was stronger than in any other area. Emission spectra showed a main peak at around 570 nm, with shoulders at around 660 nm. The photon intensities of stems and cotyledons after mechanical injuries resulted in about an 0.72-fold decrease and an 8.8-fold increase in the presence of H(2)O(2) and acetaldehyde (MeCHO), respectively.

  6. Characterization of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) proteins.

    PubMed

    Morales-Arellano, G Y; Chagolla-López, A; Paredes-López, O; Barba de la Rosa, A P

    2001-03-01

    Seed proteins from Mexican yam bean seeds (Pachyrhizus erosus L.) were sequentially extracted according to the Osborne classification. Albumins were the major fraction (52.1-31.0%), followed by globulins (30.7-27.5%). The minor protein fraction was prolamins (0.8%). Defatting with chloroform/methanol remarkably affected the distribution of protein solubility classes; albumins were the most affected fraction (4.3-17.5%). Electrophoretic patterns of albumins showed bands at 55, 40, 35, and 31 kDa. After reduction of the globulin fraction exhibited two triplets, one from 35 to 31 kDa and the second from 19 to 21 kDa, these could be compared to the acid and basic polypeptides of 11S-like proteins. Prolamins showed one band at 31 kDa, and glutelins after reduction showed three main bands at 52, 27, and 14 kDa. Trypsin inhibitors were assayed in saline extracts; the values found (1232-2608 IU/g of meal) were lower than those of other legumes. In general, yam bean seed proteins showed an excellent balance of all essential amino acids; albumins contain the highest amount of essential amino acids.

  7. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    PubMed

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  8. Radiofrequency radiation effects on the common bean

    SciTech Connect

    Thomkins, K.; Griggs, L.; Myles, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    Our environment is bombarded daily with thousands of objects we can visually detect. However, invisible to humans are the electromagnetic waves that penetrate our environment. Electromagnetic waves consist of a large spectrum of waves including the harmful gamma rays, x-rays, and ultraviolet rays. The question that has increased tremendously is: can low energy electromagnetic waves become harmful to living organisms? The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of radiofrequency radiation on protein synthesis of the common bean. Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) was surface-sterilized and allowed to germinate on Mushurage and Skoog`s medium for 1 week. Hypocotyls were wounded and placed on media to initiate callus production. Six petri dishes containing 1 g of callus were used in the experiment. Three dishes were exposed to 100kH in a Crawford cell for 24h. The remaining three petri dishes with callus were used as a control. After the exposure period, the protein from callus was extracted and analyzed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results show that hypocotyl growth was not different between control and experimental groups after 24 h. The result of one-dimensional gel electrophoresis did not show observable differences in protein synthesized by the control and experimental groups. Analysis of protein synthesis is still ongoing.

  9. Maintenance of Glucose Homeostasis through Acetylation of the Metabolic Transcriptional Coactivator PGC1-alpha

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    highlight that PGC-1α chemical acetylation is directly controlled by two enzymes: GCN5 and SIRT1 ; this strengths the possibility to use small...acetylated through GCN5 acetyltransferase activity, however under low nutrient conditions Sirt1 deacetylase will keep PGC-1α de-acetylated in an active form...acetylated by GCN5, we decided to use R13 because it did not respond to low glucose levels or Sirt1 activators. We think that the additional acetylation

  10. Purification and properties of an O-acetyl-transferase from Escherichia coli that can O-acetylate polysialic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Higa, H.; Varki, A.

    1986-05-01

    Certain strains of bacteria synthesize an outer polysialic acid (K1) capsule. Some strains of K1/sup +/ E.coli are also capable of adding O-acetyl-esters to the exocyclic hydroxyl groups of the sialic acid residues. Both the capsule and the O-acetyl modification have been correlated with differences in antigenicity and pathogenicity. The authors have developed an assay for an O-acetyl-transferase in E.coli that transfers O-(/sup 3/H)acetyl groups from (/sup 3/H)acetyl-Coenzyme A to colominic acid (fragments of the polysialic acid capsule). Using this assay, the enzyme was solubilized, and purified approx. 600-fold using a single affinity chromatography step with Procion Red-A Agarose. The enzyme also binds to Coenzyme A Sepharose, and can be eluted with high salt or Coenzyme A. The partially purified enzyme has a pH optimum of 7.0 - 7.5, is unaffected by divalent cations, is inhibited by high salt concentrations, is inhibited by Coenzyme A (50% inhibition at 100 ..mu..M), and shows an apparent Km for colominic acid of 3.7 mM (sialic acid concentration). This enzyme could be involved in the O-acetyl +/- form variation seen in some strains of K1/sup +/ E.coli.

  11. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    PubMed

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions.

  12. Preparation of bean curds from protein fractions of six legumes.

    PubMed

    Cai, R; Klamczynska, B; Baik, B K

    2001-06-01

    Chickpeas, lentils, smooth peas, mung beans, and faba beans were milled into flours and fractionated to protein and starch fractions. Compositions of the seeds, cotyledons, and flours were compared for each legume and the weight and protein recovery of each fraction analyzed. Bean curds were prepared from the protein fractions through heat denaturation of protein milk, followed by coagulation with calcium sulfate or magnesium sulfate. The effect of chickpea protein concentration and coagulant dosage on the texture of bean curds was evaluated using a texture analyzer. Textural analysis indicated that curd prepared at 2.3-3.0% protein concentration and 1.5% CaSO(4) dosage had better yield and better texture than curds prepared under other conditions. Bean curds prepared from chickpeas and faba beans exhibited the second highest springiness and cohesiveness after those from soybeans. Curds of mung beans and smooth peas, on the other hand, had the highest yields and the highest moisture contents. The protein yield of the first and second soluble extracts used for curd preparation accounted for approximately 90% of the total protein of the seeds.

  13. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans.

  14. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  15. Host plant volatiles induce oriented flight behaviour in male European grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana relies on a female produced sex pheromone for long-distance mate finding. Grapevine moth males compete heavily during limited time windows for females. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of host plant volatiles by grapevine moth males and whether such compounds elicit upwind oriented flights. We compared five host plant headspace extracts by means of gas chromatography linked electroantennogram (EAG) recording. We identified 12 common host plant volatiles (aliphatic esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenes) that elicit EAG responses from grapevine moth males and that occur in at least three of the host plant volatile headspace extracts tested. Subsequently the behavioural response of grapevine moth males to four these compounds presented singly and in mixtures (1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (E)-β-caryophyllene) was recorded in a wind tunnel. Grapevine moth males engaged in upwind flights to all of four compounds when released singly at 10,000 pg/min and to all, except 1-octen-3-ol, when released at 100 pg/min. A blend of the four host plant volatiles released at 10,000 pg/min and mixed at a ratio based on the analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Solaris volatile emissions attracted significantly more males than any single compound. Grapevine moth males perceive and respond to host plant volatiles at biologically relevant levels indicating that host plant volatiles figure as olfactory cues and that L. botrana males can discern places where the likelihood of encountering females is higher.

  16. Species-specific effects of herbivory on the oviposition behavior of the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Duffy, Kristin; Pesque, Adrien; Mikles, David; Goodwin, Brenna

    2013-01-01

    In Southwestern USA, the jimsonweed Datura wrightii and the nocturnal sphinx moth Manduca sexta form a pollinator-plant and herbivore-plant association. While certain plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) attract moths for oviposition, it is likely that other host-derived olfactory cues, such as herbivore-induced VOCs, repel moths for oviposition. Here, we studied the oviposition preference of female M. sexta towards intact and damaged host plants of three species: D. wrightii, D. discolor (a less preferred feeding resource but also used by females for oviposition), and Solanum lycopersicum-tomato-(used by moths as an oviposition resource only). Damage was inflicted to the plants either by larval feeding or artificial damage. Mated females were exposed to an intact plant and a damaged plant and allowed to lay eggs for 10 min. Oviposition preferences of females were highly heterogeneous in all cases, but a larger proportion of moths laid significantly fewer eggs on feeding-damaged and artificially damaged plants of S. lycopersicum. Many females also avoided feeding-damaged D. discolor and D. wrightii plants induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate. Chemical analyses showed a significant increase in the total amount of VOCs released by vegetative tissues of feeding-damaged plants, as well as species-specific increases in emission of certain VOCs. In particular, feeding-damaged S. lycopersicum plants emitted (-)-linalool, an odorant that repels moths for oviposition. Finally, the emission of D. wrightii floral VOCs, which are important in mediating feeding by adult moths (and hence pollination), did not change in plants damaged by larval feeding. We propose that the observed differential effects of herbivory on oviposition choice are due to different characteristics (i.e., mutually beneficial or parasitic) of the insect-plant interaction.

  17. The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

    2005-12-01

    We studied the efficiency and effects of the multiple sensory cues of tiger moths on echolocating bats. We used the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, a purported moth specialist that takes surface-bound prey (gleaning) and airborne prey (aerial hawking), and the dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, an eared species unpalatable to bats that possesses conspicuous colouration and sound-producing organs (tymbals). This is the first study to investigate the interaction of tiger moths and wild-caught bats under conditions mimicking those found in nature and to demand the use of both aerial hawking and gleaning strategies by bats. Further, it is the first to report spectrograms of the sounds produced by tiger moths while under aerial attack by echolocating bats. During both aerial hawking and gleaning trials, all muted C. tenera and perched intact C. tenera were attacked by M. septentrionalis, indicating that M. septentrionalis did not discriminate C. tenera from palatable moths based on potential echoic and/or non-auditory cues. Intact C. tenera were attacked significantly less often than muted C. tenera during aerial hawking attacks: tymbal clicks were therefore an effective deterrent in an aerial hawking context. During gleaning attacks, intact and muted C. tenera were always attacked and suffered similar mortality rates, suggesting that while handling prey this bat uses primarily chemical signals. Our results also show that C. tenera temporally matches the onset of click production to the ;approach phase' echolocation calls produced by aerial hawking attacking bats and that clicks themselves influence the echolocation behaviour of attacking bats. In the context of past research, these findings support the hypotheses that the clicks of arctiid moths are both an active defence (through echolocation disruption) and a reliable indicator of chemical defence against aerial-hawking bats. We suggest these signals are specialized for an aerial context.

  18. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) among Three Neotropical Ecoregions

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zeballos, Sebastián Rodolfo; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano). Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor. PMID:27681478

  19. Modification of oil palm wood using acetylation and impregnation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagiyo, Lambang; Rosamah, Enih; Hesim

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is chemical modification by process of acetylation and impregnation of oil palm wood to improve the dimensional stability. Acetylation process aimed at substituting the hydroxyl groups in a timber with an acetyl group. By increasing the acetyl groups in wood is expected to reduce the ability of wood to absorb water vapor which lead to the dimensions of the wood becomes more stable. Studies conducted on oil palm wood (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by acetylation and impregnation method. The results showed that acetylated and impregnated wood oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq) were changed in their physical properties. Impregnation with coal ashfly provide the greatest response to changes in weight (in wet conditions) and after conditioning (dry) with the average percentage of weight gain of 198.16% and 66.41% respectively. Changes in volume indicates an increase of volume in the wet condition (imbibition) with the coal ashfly treatment gave highest value of 23.04 %, whereas after conditioning (dry) the highest value obtained in the treatment of gum rosin:ethanol with a volume increase of 13:44%. The highest changes of the density with the coal ashfly impregnation in wet condition (imbibition) in value of 142.32% and after conditioning (dry) of 57.87%. The result of reduction in water absorption (RWA) test showed that in the palm oil wood samples most stable by using of gum rosin : ethanol of 0.97%, whereas the increase in oil palm wood dimensional stability (ASE) is the best of 59.42% after acetylation with Acetic Anhydride: Xylene.

  20. Identification of QTL conditioning partial resistance to white mold in kidney bean line VA19 derived from an interspecific population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scarlet-runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.), a representative species of the secondary gene pool of common bean, is a potential source of white mold resistance for improving dry bean and snap bean. VA19 is a light-red kidney bean line that possesses resistance to white mold putatively derived from...

  1. Economic injury levels and sequential sampling plans for Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on dry beans.

    PubMed

    Barrigossi, José A F; Hein, Gary L; Higley, Leon G

    2003-08-01

    Field studies were conducted during the growing seasons of 1995 and 1996, in Scotts-bluff, Nebraska, to determine yield-loss relationships for Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) on dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Results of those experiments were combined with data from other studies previously conducted to develop economic injury levels (EILs), economic thresholds (ETs), and a sequential sampling program for Mexican bean beetle. Yield loss was regressed against larvae/row-m, and the slope of the linear regression (113 kg/ha per larvae/row-m) was used as the DI (yield loss/insect density) variable in EIL calculations. The EILs calculated in larvae/row-m were converted to egg masses/row-m and adjusted to reflect average survivorship to the adult stage. An example EIL for esfenvalerate at 0.509 (formulation) liter/ha (0.0453 gal/a) and crop value of 0.44 dollars/kg (20 dollars/100 lbs) was 17.78 larvae/row-m. The corresponding ET is 1.04 egg masses/row-m, which reflects an average of 54.6 eggs/egg mass and 33% survival rate from egg to injurious stages. Sequential sampling plans were calculated based on a negative binomial distribution using parameter k estimated from previous research. Because sampling is based on egg masses, growers can make management decisions and take management actions before significant injury occurs. Also, ETs can be adjusted to include the occurrence of natural mortality in the egg and early instars. Analyses demonstrated that relatively minor variation in ETs has substantial impact on sequential sampling plans, including parameters such as average sample number. An interactive spreadsheet was developed that allows users to input economic and other data specific to their situation to calculate Mexican bean beetle EILs, ETs, and sequential sampling plans.

  2. A moth pheromone brewery: production of (Z)-11-hexadecenol by heterologous co-expression of two biosynthetic genes from a noctuid moth in a yeast cell factory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Moths (Lepidoptera) are highly dependent on chemical communication to find a mate. Compared to conventional unselective insecticides, synthetic pheromones have successfully served to lure male moths as a specific and environmentally friendly way to control important pest species. However, the chemical synthesis and purification of the sex pheromone components in large amounts is a difficult and costly task. The repertoire of enzymes involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis in insecta can be seen as a library of specific catalysts that can be used to facilitate the synthesis of a particular chemical component. In this study, we present a novel approach to effectively aid in the preparation of semi-synthetic pheromone components using an engineered vector co-expressing two key biosynthetic enzymes in a simple yeast cell factory. Results We first identified and functionally characterized a ∆11 Fatty-Acyl Desaturase and a Fatty-Acyl Reductase from the Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. The ∆11-desaturase produced predominantly Z11-16:acyl, a common pheromone component precursor, from the abundant yeast palmitic acid and the FAR transformed a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding alcohols which may serve as pheromone components in many moth species. Secondly, when we co-expressed the genes in the Brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a set of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols that are not naturally occurring in yeast were produced from inherent yeast fatty acids, and the presence of (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), demonstrated that both heterologous enzymes were active in concert. A 100 ml batch yeast culture produced on average 19.5 μg Z11-16:OH. Finally, we demonstrated that oxidized extracts from the yeast cells containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal and other aldehyde pheromone compounds elicited specific electrophysiological activity from male antennae of the Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, supporting the idea that

  3. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  4. Blend chemistry and field attraction of commercial pheromone lures for monitoring grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape berry moth pheromone lures from four manufacturers, Alpha Scents, Inc. (West Linn, OR), ISCA Technologies (Riverside, CA), Suterra (Bend, OR), and Trécé, Inc. (Adair, OK), were evaluated for purity and efficacy of attracting grape berry moth and a non-target torticid moth in vineyards. The pe...

  5. Trapping hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), in hop yards in Washington State with acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris, in commercial hop yards (Humulus lupulus L.) were captured in traps baited with a combination of acetic acid plus 3-methyl-1-butanol (AAMB). The two chemicals were synergistic in attracting hop looper moths; in a comparison of the lure chemicals, most moths we...

  6. Targeting O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, Julien; Fougeray, Sophie; Bahri, Meriem; Cochonneau, Denis; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Paris, François; Heczey, Andras; Birklé, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Target selection is a key feature in cancer immunotherapy, a promising field in cancer research. In this respect, gangliosides, a broad family of structurally related glycolipids, were suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy based on their higher abundance in tumors when compared with the matched normal tissues. GD2 is the first ganglioside proven to be an effective target antigen for cancer immunotherapy with the regulatory approval of dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 therapeutic antibody. Although the therapeutic efficacy of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies is well documented, neuropathic pain may limit its application. O-Acetyl-GD2, the O-acetylated-derivative of GD2, has recently received attention as novel antigen to target GD2-positive cancers. The present paper examines the role of O-acetyl-GD2 in tumor biology as well as the available preclinical data of anti-O-acetyl-GD2 monoclonal antibodies. A discussion on the relevance of O-acetyl-GD2 in chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy development is also included.

  7. Targeting O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fleurence, Julien; Fougeray, Sophie; Bahri, Meriem; Cochonneau, Denis; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Paris, François; Heczey, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Target selection is a key feature in cancer immunotherapy, a promising field in cancer research. In this respect, gangliosides, a broad family of structurally related glycolipids, were suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy based on their higher abundance in tumors when compared with the matched normal tissues. GD2 is the first ganglioside proven to be an effective target antigen for cancer immunotherapy with the regulatory approval of dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 therapeutic antibody. Although the therapeutic efficacy of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies is well documented, neuropathic pain may limit its application. O-Acetyl-GD2, the O-acetylated-derivative of GD2, has recently received attention as novel antigen to target GD2-positive cancers. The present paper examines the role of O-acetyl-GD2 in tumor biology as well as the available preclinical data of anti-O-acetyl-GD2 monoclonal antibodies. A discussion on the relevance of O-acetyl-GD2 in chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy development is also included. PMID:28154831

  8. N-Acetylation of Glucosamine-6-Phosphate in Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    PubMed Central

    DeMoss, R. D.; Moser, K.

    1969-01-01

    A partially purified enzyme (120-fold) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides catalyzed the reversible N-acetylation of d-glucosamine-6-phosphate. Coenzyme A was not required and inhibited the reaction rate. Neither d-glucosamine nor N-acetyl-d-glucosamine served as a substrate for the reversible reaction. The enzyme preparation retained 50% of its original activity after 5 min at 100 C. The Km for acetate was 7.7 × 10−2m in the presence of 2 × 10−2md-glucosamine-6-phosphate. The Km for d-glucosamine-6-phosphate was 5.0 × 10−3m in the presence of 0.64 m acetate. The product of the reaction was characterized by comparison with N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-6-phosphate prepared by enzymatic phosphorylation of N-acetyl-d-glusamine. The characterization tests were: chromatographic migration, acid hydrolysis, enzymatic dephosphorylation, sodium borohydride reduction, and periodate oxidation. The equilibrium constant for the reaction was about 7.5 m for the expression K = (d-glucosamine-6-phosphate)(acetate)/N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-6-phosphate. The standard free energy of the reaction was approximately 1,200 cal per mole. PMID:5781575

  9. Coherent array of branched filamentary scales along the wing margin of a small moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Tejima, Shin; Sakuma, Masayuki; Sakamaki, Yositaka; Kodama, Ryuji

    2017-04-01

    In butterflies and moths, the wing margins are fringed with specialized scales that are typically longer than common scales. In the hindwings of some small moths, the posterior margins are fringed with particularly long filamentary scales. Despite the small size of these moth wings, these scales are much longer than those of large moths and butterflies. In the current study, photography of the tethered flight of a small moth, Phthorimaea operculella, revealed a wide array composed of a large number of long filamentary scales. This array did not become disheveled in flight, maintaining a coherent sheet-like structure during wingbeat. Examination of the morphology of individual scales revealed that each filamentary scale consists of a proximal stalk and distal branches. Moreover, not only long scales but also shorter scales of various lengths were found to coexist in each small section of the wing margin. Scale branches were ubiquitously and densely distributed within the scale array to form a mesh-like architecture similar to a nonwoven fabric. We propose that possible mechanical interactions among branched filamentary scales, mediated by these branches, may contribute to maintaining a coherent sheet-like structure of the scale array during wingbeat.

  10. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) assemblages in the mature temperate forest on Changbai Mountain. A total of 9285 geometrid moths representing 131 species were collected, with many species displaying wide elevational distribution ranges. Moth α-diversity decreased monotonously, while the standardized effect size of mean pairwise phylogenetic distances (MPD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) increased significantly with increasing elevation. At high elevations, the insect assemblages consisted largely of habitat generalists that were individually more phylogenetically distinct from co-occurring species than species in assemblages at lower altitudes. This could hint at higher speciation rates in more favourable low-elevation environments generating a species-rich geometrid assemblage, while exclusion of phylogenetically closely related species becomes increasingly important in shaping moth assemblages at higher elevations. Overall, it appears likely that high-elevation temperate moth assemblages are strongly resilient to environmental change, and that they contain a much larger proportion of the genetic diversity encountered at low-elevation assemblages in comparison to tropical geometrid communities. PMID:26979402

  11. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Derks, Martijn F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S.; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A.M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allows the study of genes and gene families, such as the cytochrome P450 gene family, which is known to be vital in plant secondary metabolite detoxification and host-plant selection. It also enables exploration of the genomic basis for female brachyptery (wing reduction), a feature of sexual dimorphism in winter moth, and for seasonal timing, a trait extensively studied in this species. Here we present a reference genome for the winter moth, the first geometrid and largest sequenced Lepidopteran genome to date (638 Mb) including a set of 16,912 predicted protein-coding genes. This allowed us to assess the dynamics of evolution on a genome-wide scale using the P450 gene family. We also identified an expanded gene family potentially linked to female brachyptery, and annotated the genes involved in the circadian clock mechanism as main candidates for involvement in seasonal timing. The genome will contribute to Lepidopteran genomic resources and comparative genomics. In addition, the genome enhances our ability to understand the genetic and molecular basis of insect seasonal timing and thereby provides a reference for future evolutionary and population studies on the winter moth. PMID:26227816

  12. Combined heat and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for control of codling moth in sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2005-06-01

    Nonchemical quarantine treatments, using a combination of short-duration high temperatures under low oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide atmospheric environment were developed to control codling moth in sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.). The two treatments developed are a chamber temperature of 45 degrees C for 45 min and a chamber temperature of 47 degreesC for 25 min under a 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide, -2 degrees C dew point environment. Both these treatments have been shown to provide control of all life stages of codling moth while preserving commodity market quality. The third and fourth instars of codling moth are equally tolerant to CATTS treatments and are the most tolerant immature stages to these treatments. We determined that low levels of oxygen are more important than elevated carbon dioxide in achieving high levels of insect mortality. Efficacy tests of both treatments resulted in 100% mortality of 5000 third instars of codling moth in each treatment. These treatments may be used to provide quarantine security in exported sweet cherries where codling moth is a quarantine concern and fumigation with methyl bromide is not desired.

  13. Tone-deaf ears in moths may limit the acoustic detection of two-tone bats.

    PubMed

    Mora, Emanuel C; Fernández, Yohami; Hechavarría, Julio; Pérez, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Frequency alternation in the echolocation of insectivorous bats has been interpreted in relation to ranging and duty cycle, i.e. advantages for echolocation. The shifts in frequency of the calls of these so-called two-tone bats, however, may also play its role in the success of their hunting behavior for a preferred prey, the tympanate moth. How the auditory receptors (e.g. the A1 and A2 cells) in the moth's ear detect such frequency shifts is currently unknown. Here, we measured the auditory responses of the A1 cell in the noctuid Spodoptera frugiperda to the echolocation hunting sequence of Molossus molossus, a two-tone bat. We also manipulated the bat calls to control for the frequency shifts by lowering the frequency band of the search and approach calls. The firing response of the A1 receptor cell significantly decreases with the shift to higher frequencies during the search and approach phases of the hunting sequence of M. molossus; this could be explained by the receptor's threshold curve. The frequency dependence of the decrease in the receptor's response is supported by the results attained with the manipulated sequence: search and approach calls with the same minimum frequency are detected by the moth at the same threshold intensity. The two-tone bat M. molossus shows a call frequency alternation behavior that may enable it to overcome moth audition even in the mid-frequency range (i.e. 20-50 kHz) where moths hear best.

  14. Sex pheromone of browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhea (L.): synthesis and field deployment.

    PubMed

    Khrimian, Ashot; Lance, David R; Schwarz, Meier; Leonhardt, Barbara A; Mastro, Victor C

    2008-04-09

    The browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhea (L.), is native to Eurasia, where periodic outbreaks result in defoliation of forest, shade, and ornamental trees. In addition to the damage caused by defoliation, human contact with larval urticating hairs often results in severe dermatitis. Hence, tools for monitoring and controlling the moth populations are desirable. The female-produced sex pheromone of the browntail moth was identified previously, but the synthesis had not been published. This paper reports the synthesis of the pheromone of the browntail moth, (7Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosatetraenyl isobutyrate, using in a key step a Wittig olefination of (6Z)-13-(tetrahydo-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)tridecenal. Field trapping studies were conducted with rubber septa and string formulations of the pheromone and included dose-response, pheromone purity, and dispenser-aging trials. It was found that traps baited with 250 microg of pheromone of 91-94% isomeric purity (main impurity presumably being the 13E isomer) on rubber septa are suitable for monitoring moth populations during the entire flight season.

  15. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  16. Cabbage Seasonal Leaf Quality Mediating the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) Performance.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, N C; Santos, N A; Maurício, R M; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, M G A; Campos, W G

    2013-12-01

    Seasonal variation in plant quality may be intense enough to generate predictable patterns in insect herbivore populations. In order to explain seasonal oscillations in neotropical populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.), we tested the following: (1) if nutritional quality of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata), a primary host plant of diamondback moth, adversely affects the performance of this insect in late spring and early summer, when populations decline and go extinct, and (2) if nutritional features of cabbage change with the seasons. We measured the performance of diamondback moth reared on leaves of cabbages grown during the four seasons of the year. Summer plants proved to be worse for the survival of the immature stages and subsequent adult fecundity, but there were no significant differences between the remaining seasons. Our results support the hypothesis that short-lived plants, grown in different seasons of the year in the tropics, have different nutritional and defensive attributes. We analyzed nutritional quality of cabbage leaves from the four seasons, but only total lipids were reduced in summer plants. Neotropical populations of diamondback moth collapse before plant quality decay in the summer. If the diamondback moth is well adapted to the seasonal deterioration of the habitat, including the reduction in the quality of host plants, it is expected that emigration happens before the mortality increases and natality decreases during the summer.

  17. Monitoring and temperature-based prediction of the whitemarked tussock moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Rufus; Van Timmeren, Steven

    2009-04-01

    Larvae of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), defoliate and contaminate blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., in eastern North America, but infestations are often not detected until economic damage has been caused. To improve monitoring techniques and understand the phenology of the whitemarked tussock moth in blueberry, we compared four trap types and determined temperature-based phenology of this pest over two growing seasons. Large delta traps captured the greatest number of male moths, and similar moth captures were found with or without monthly lure changing. Traps placed at field perimeters adjacent to woods trapped significantly more moths than those inside fields, whereas position in the canopy (high versus low) did not affect captures. Under laboratory conditions, the lower developmental threshold for larvae was 12.3 degrees C, in close agreement with field studies indicating a 12.8 degrees C threshold. Using the 12.8 degrees C threshold, monitoring of O. leucostigma cohorts on caged blueberry plants revealed a spring generation with egg hatch starting at 206 +/- 3 growing degree-days (GDD) and a late-summer generation with egg hatch starting at 1,157 +/- 52 GDD. Combined use of optimized monitoring methods and the phenology model for O. leucostigma is expected to improve integrated management of this pest in blueberry.

  18. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) assemblages in the mature temperate forest on Changbai Mountain. A total of 9285 geometrid moths representing 131 species were collected, with many species displaying wide elevational distribution ranges. Moth α-diversity decreased monotonously, while the standardized effect size of mean pairwise phylogenetic distances (MPD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) increased significantly with increasing elevation. At high elevations, the insect assemblages consisted largely of habitat generalists that were individually more phylogenetically distinct from co-occurring species than species in assemblages at lower altitudes. This could hint at higher speciation rates in more favourable low-elevation environments generating a species-rich geometrid assemblage, while exclusion of phylogenetically closely related species becomes increasingly important in shaping moth assemblages at higher elevations. Overall, it appears likely that high-elevation temperate moth assemblages are strongly resilient to environmental change, and that they contain a much larger proportion of the genetic diversity encountered at low-elevation assemblages in comparison to tropical geometrid communities.

  19. Contrasting Patterns of Host Adaptation in Two Egg Parasitoids of the Pine Processionary Moth (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Romani, Roberto; Petrucco-Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Battisti, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation of parasitoids to their phytophagous host is often mediated by environmental conditions and by the food plant of the phytophagous host. Therefore, the host food plant can indirectly affect the survival and fitness of parasitoids that also attack quiescent host stages, such as eggs, in which the resources available to the immature parasitoid stages are limited. Our aim was to investigate how two egg parasitoid species of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller), respond to variations in egg traits at the extremes of a west-to-east geographic gradient in northern Italy. We considered one specialist [Baryscapus servadeii (Domenichini)] and one generalist [Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet)] parasitoid, which reproduce mainly by thelytokous parthenogenesis and are common throughout the whole range of this pest. The size and shell structure of the pine processionary moth eggs were studied under light microscopy and tested experimentally under controlled conditions. We can conclude that 1) the pine processionary moth egg shell thickness is inversely proportional to the parasitism performance; 2) the larger eggs from the pine processionary moth eastern population produce parasitoid females of a larger size, which have greater realized fecundity; 3) the generalist parasitoid performs successfully with either the "home" or "away" (i.e., from both extremes of the geographic gradient) pine processionary moth eggs, which is not the case for the specialist parasitoid. The implications of these responses in the regulation of phytophagous populations are numerous and should be considered in population dynamics studies and pest management programs.

  20. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-03-16

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) assemblages in the mature temperate forest on Changbai Mountain. A total of 9285 geometrid moths representing 131 species were collected, with many species displaying wide elevational distribution ranges. Moth α-diversity decreased monotonously, while the standardized effect size of mean pairwise phylogenetic distances (MPD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) increased significantly with increasing elevation. At high elevations, the insect assemblages consisted largely of habitat generalists that were individually more phylogenetically distinct from co-occurring species than species in assemblages at lower altitudes. This could hint at higher speciation rates in more favourable low-elevation environments generating a species-rich geometrid assemblage, while exclusion of phylogenetically closely related species becomes increasingly important in shaping moth assemblages at higher elevations. Overall, it appears likely that high-elevation temperate moth assemblages are strongly resilient to environmental change, and that they contain a much larger proportion of the genetic diversity encountered at low-elevation assemblages in comparison to tropical geometrid communities.

  1. Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Effect on Expression of Detoxification Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Barros-Parada, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a key worldwide fruit pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of conventional insecticides. Neonicotinoids, a new reduced-risk biorational insecticide class, have remained an effective control approach. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effect of conventional and reduced-risk biorational insecticides on transcripts abundance of three detoxification genes in codling moth were determined. Bioassays on a codling moth laboratory strain suggested that acetamiprid had the highest oral toxicity against the third-instar larvae compared with the other five pesticides. Results also indicated that acetamiprid exhibits long-term efficacy against codling moth even at 120 h post feeding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the detoxification genes CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 were differentially induced or suppressed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin, methomyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid, depending on the type of insecticides; in contrast, no significant difference in CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 expressions were observed after acetamiprid exposure, when compared with the control. These results suggest that the reduced-risk biorational insecticide acetamiprid is an effective insecticide with no induction of detoxification genes and can be integrated into the management of codling moth.

  2. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology.

    PubMed

    Derks, Martijn F L; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A M; Visser, Marcel E; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-07-29

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allows the study of genes and gene families, such as the cytochrome P450 gene family, which is known to be vital in plant secondary metabolite detoxification and host-plant selection. It also enables exploration of the genomic basis for female brachyptery (wing reduction), a feature of sexual dimorphism in winter moth, and for seasonal timing, a trait extensively studied in this species. Here we present a reference genome for the winter moth, the first geometrid and largest sequenced Lepidopteran genome to date (638 Mb) including a set of 16,912 predicted protein-coding genes. This allowed us to assess the dynamics of evolution on a genome-wide scale using the P450 gene family. We also identified an expanded gene family potentially linked to female brachyptery, and annotated the genes involved in the circadian clock mechanism as main candidates for involvement in seasonal timing. The genome will contribute to Lepidopteran genomic resources and comparative genomics. In addition, the genome enhances our ability to understand the genetic and molecular basis of insect seasonal timing and thereby provides a reference for future evolutionary and population studies on the winter moth.

  3. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies.

  4. THE Bct-1 LOCUS FOR RESISTANCE TO BEET CURLY TOP VIRUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE RESISTANCE TO BEAN DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS IN COMMON BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host resistance provides effective control of some diseases induced by geminiviruses in common bean. A recessive gene bgm-1 conditions resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and is located on linkage group B3 near the bc-12 gene for resistance to Bean common mosaic virus. The dominan...

  5. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  6. Phylogeny of the Geometridae and the evolution of winter moths inferred from a simultaneous analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sota, Teiji

    2007-08-01

    Geometridae is one of the most diverse families within the Lepidoptera, comprising nine subfamilies. Winter moths, which have a unique life history, are found in three subfamilies. To examine the phylogeny of the Geometridae at the subfamily level and determine the evolutionary history of winter moths, we constructed phylogenetic trees for all nine geometrid subfamilies using two mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences. Specimens of all subfamilies were sampled from Japan. Simultaneous analyses of the combined data from all genes revealed that the Geometridae comprised two major clades: one with subfamilies Larentiinae and Sterrhinae, and the other with the remaining seven subfamilies. The second clade included the largest subfamily, Ennominae, and the subfamily Archiearinae, which is traditionally considered to be an ancestral lineage of the Geometridae. The Larentiinae+Sterrhinae clade contained one winter moth lineage, and the second major clade consisted of three winter moth lineages, including Alsophilinae, which contains winter moths exclusively. Using a Bayesian inference of divergence times, we estimated that geometrids began to diverge 54 Mya (62-48 Mya), whereas winter moth lineages differentiated from non-winter moth lineages 34-12 Mya, during the global cooling events in the Oligocene and the early Miocene. The adaptation to cool climates may have been a preadaptation that facilitated the winter moth life cycle.

  7. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  8. Monitoring grape berry moth (Paralobesia vitianna: Lepidoptera) in commercial vineyards using a host plant based synthetic lure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For some Lepidopteran pests, such as the grape berry moth Paralobesia vitianna, poor correspondence between male captures in traps baited with sex pheromone and oviposition activities of female moths has called into question the value of pheromone-based monitoring for these species. As an alternativ...

  9. Baculovirus replication: characterization of DNA and proteins synthesized by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Lymantria dispar, the gypsy moth, in a homologous cell line

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (LdMNPV), is used for biological control. However, LdMNPV has low natural virulence and a long infection cycle in relation to other NPVs. Therefore, the replicative cycle of LdMNPV was investigated using a homologous cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y. Based on analyses of virus growth curves LdMNPV nonoccluded virus and polyhedral inclusion bodies appeared approximately 20 and 50 hr postinfection (p.i.), respectively. LdMNPV polypeptides, identified by autoradiography of (/sup 35/S)-methionine labeled fractions in SDS-PAGE, were synthesized in sequential phases: (1) an early ..cap alpha.. phase of replication (4 polypeptides from 4 to 12 hr p.i.), (2) an intermediate ..beta.. phase (20 polypeptides from 12 to 24 hr p.i.), and a late ..gamma.. phase (4 polypeptides from 24 to 28 hr p.i.). In infected cells at least four polypeptides were post-translational cleaved and/or modified. Pulse-labeling with (/sup 3/H)-mannose, (/sup 3/H)-N-acetyl-glucosamine or (/sup 32/P)-monosodium phosphate revealed several viral polypeptides which were glycosylated and/or phosphorylated. DNA:DNA dot hybridization experiments suggested that LdMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated between 12 to 16 hr p.i., increasing significantly thereafter.

  10. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  11. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  12. Astronaut Alan Bean works on Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, works at the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) on the Apollo 12 Lunar Module during the mission's first extravehicular activity, EVA-1, on November 19, 1969.

  13. Apollo 14 Lunar glass fragment known as Genesis bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A tiny green glass fragment taken from an Apollo 14 core tube sampling. Because of its scientific significance and shape, the fragment has been nicknamed the 'Genesis bean'. The main constituents are iron and magnesium.

  14. View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the third floor with hopper and drum type dryer in background - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  15. Studies on djenkol bean poisoning (djenkolism) in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Areekul, S; Kirdudom, P; Chaovanapricha, K

    1976-12-01

    Djenkolic acid was extracted from djenkol beans with 70% ethanol and water and was quantitatively determined by paper chromatography. Djenkol beans contained 0.3-1.3 gm% djenkolic acid and about 93% of this acid occurred in the free state. The toxicity of djenkol beans was studied in 5 rhesus monkeys, 9 albino rats and 22 mice fed with 70% ethanol extracts. The total urinary output decreased. There was an increase in specific gravity of the urine during the period of feeding monkeys with djenkol beans. Urinary samples of the experimental animals were turbid and contained some red cells, white cells, epithelial cells, albumin and amorphous particles. One of 22 mice excreted sharp needle-shaped crystals in the urine on day 3 after feeding. Histological examination of kidneys of rats and mice showed mild to severe acute tubular necrosis with some glomerular cell necrosis.

  16. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis. PMID:26458981

  17. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  18. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders.

  19. POLARIZED INTERCELLULAR BRIDGES IN OVARIAN FOLLICLES OF THE CECROPIA MOTH

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Richard I.; Telfer, William H.

    1973-01-01

    Fluorescein-labeled rabbit serum globulin was injected into vitellogenic oocytes of the cecropia moth. Though the label spread throughout the ooplasm in less than 30 min, it was unable even after 2 h to cross the complex of intercellular bridges connecting the oocyte to its seven nurse cells. After injection into a single nurse cell, fluorescence was detected in the oocyte adjacent to the bridge complex within 3 min and had spread throughout the ooplasm in 30 min. Here also, the cell bodies of the six uninjected nurse cells remained nonfluorescent. Four of the nurse cells are not bridged directly to the oocyte but only through the apical ends of their siblings. Unidirectional movement must therefore occur in the apical cytoplasm of the nurse cells, as well as in the intercellular bridges. The nurse cells of healthy follicles had an intracellular electrical potential -40 mV relative to blood or dissecting solution, while oocytes measured -30 mV. A mV difference was also detected by direct comparison between a ground electrode in one cell and a recording electrode in the other. Three conditions were found in which the 10 mV difference was reduced or reversed in polarity. In all three cases fluorescent globulin was able in some degree to cross the bridges from the oocyte to the nurse cells. PMID:4125369

  20. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

    2011-06-01

    A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality.