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Sample records for acetylating myosin light

  1. Myosin, Transgelin, and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Léguillette, Renaud; Laviolette, Michel; Bergeron, Celine; Zitouni, Nedjma; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian; Kachmar, Linda; Hamid, Qutayba; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Airway smooth muscle (SM) of patients with asthma exhibits a greater velocity of shortening (Vmax) than that of normal subjects, and this is thought to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. A greater Vmax can result from increased myosin activation. This has been reported in sensitized human airway SM and in models of asthma. A faster Vmax can also result from the expression of specific contractile proteins that promote faster cross-bridge cycling. This possibility has never been addressed in asthma. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the expression of genes coding for SM contractile proteins is altered in asthmatic airways and contributes to their increased Vmax. Methods: We quantified the expression of several genes that code for SM contractile proteins in mild allergic asthmatic and control human airway endobronchial biopsies. The function of these contractile proteins was tested using the in vitro motility assay. Measurements and Main Results: We observed an increased expression of the fast myosin heavy chain isoform, transgelin, and myosin light chain kinase in patients with asthma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of these genes at the protein level. To address the functional significance of this overexpression, we purified tracheal myosin from the hyperresponsive Fisher rats, which also overexpress the fast myosin heavy chain isoform as compared with the normoresponsive Lewis rats, and found a faster rate of actin filament propulsion. Conversely, transgelin did not alter the rate of actin filament propulsion. Conclusions: Selective overexpression of airway smooth muscle genes in asthmatic airways leads to increased Vmax, thus contributing to the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in asthma. PMID:19011151

  2. Myosin light chains: Teaching old dogs new tricks

    PubMed Central

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2014-01-01

    The myosin holoenzyme is a multimeric protein complex consisting of heavy chains and light chains. Myosin light chains are calmodulin family members which are crucially involved in the mechanoenzymatic function of the myosin holoenzyme. This review examines the diversity of light chains within the myosin superfamily, discusses interactions between the light chain and the myosin heavy chain as well as regulatory and structural functions of the light chain as a subunit of the myosin holoenzyme. It covers aspects of the myosin light chain in the localization of the myosin holoenzyme, protein-protein interactions and light chain binding to non-myosin binding partners. Finally, this review challenges the dogma that myosin regulatory and essential light chain exclusively associate with conventional myosin heavy chains while unconventional myosin heavy chains usually associate with calmodulin. PMID:26155737

  3. Myosin light chain kinase steady-state kinetics: comparison of smooth muscle myosin II and nonmuscle myosin IIB as substrates.

    PubMed

    Alcala, Diego B; Haldeman, Brian D; Brizendine, Richard K; Krenc, Agata K; Baker, Josh E; Rock, Ronald S; Cremo, Christine R

    2016-10-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates S19 of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), which is required to activate myosin's ATPase activity and contraction. Smooth muscles are known to display plasticity in response to factors such as inflammation, developmental stage, or stress, which lead to differential expression of nonmuscle and smooth muscle isoforms. Here, we compare steady-state kinetics parameters for phosphorylation of different MLCK substrates: (1) nonmuscle RLC, (2) smooth muscle RLC, and heavy meromyosin subfragments of (3) nonmuscle myosin IIB, and (4) smooth muscle myosin II. We show that MLCK has a ~2-fold higher kcat for both smooth muscle myosin II substrates compared with nonmuscle myosin IIB substrates, whereas Km values were very similar. Myosin light chain kinase has a 1.6-fold and 1.5-fold higher specificity (kcat /Km ) for smooth versus nonmuscle-free RLC and heavy meromyosin, respectively, suggesting that differences in specificity are dictated by RLC sequences. Of the 10 non-identical RLC residues, we ruled out 7 as possible underlying causes of different MLCK kinetics. The remaining 3 residues were found to be surface exposed in the N-terminal half of the RLC, consistent with their importance in substrate recognition. These data are consistent with prior deletion/chimera studies and significantly add to understanding of MLCK myosin interactions. Phosphorylation of nonmuscle and smooth muscle myosin by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is required for activation of myosin's ATPase activity. In smooth muscles, nonmuscle myosin coexists with smooth muscle myosin, but the two myosins have very different chemo-mechanical properties relating to their ability to maintain force. Differences in specificity of MLCK for different myosin isoforms had not been previously investigated. We show that the MLCK prefers smooth muscle myosin by a significant factor. These data suggest that nonmuscle myosin is phosphorylated more slowly than smooth

  4. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A.; Penheiter, Alan R.; Burghardt, Thomas P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant

  5. Nonmuscle Myosin IIA Regulates Platelet Contractile Forces Through Rho Kinase and Myosin Light-Chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Feghhi, Shirin; Tooley, Wes W; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-10-01

    Platelet contractile forces play a major role in clot retraction and help to hold hemostatic clots against the vessel wall. Platelet forces are produced by its cytoskeleton, which is composed of actin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. In this work, we studied the role of Rho kinase, myosin light-chain kinase, and myosin in the generation of contractile forces by using pharmacological inhibitors and arrays of flexible microposts to measure platelet forces. When platelets were seeded onto microposts, they formed aggregates on the tips of the microposts. Forces produced by the platelets in the aggregates were measured by quantifying the deflection of the microposts, which bent in proportion to the force of the platelets. Platelets were treated with small molecule inhibitors of myosin activity: Y-27632 to inhibit the Rho kinase (ROCK), ML-7 to inhibit myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and blebbistatin to inhibit myosin ATPase activity. ROCK inhibition reduced platelet forces, demonstrating the importance of the assembly of actin and myosin phosphorylation in generating contractile forces. Similarly, MLCK inhibition caused weaker platelet forces, which verifies that myosin phosphorylation is needed for force generation in platelets. Platelets treated with blebbistatin also had weaker forces, which indicates that myosin's ATPase activity is necessary for platelet forces. Our studies demonstrate that myosin ATPase activity and the regulation of actin-myosin assembly by ROCK and MLCK are needed for the generation of platelet forces. Our findings illustrate and explain the importance of myosin for clot compaction in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  6. Myosin subunit interactions. Properties of the 19,000-dalton light chain-deficient myosin.

    PubMed

    Pastra-Landis, S C; Lowey, S

    1986-11-05

    The 19,000-dalton light chain (LC2) can be completely and reversibly removed from chicken pectoralis myosin in 1 mM EDTA and 5 mM ATP using immunoaffinity chromatography at 37 degrees C. Earlier methods have led to only partial removal of LC2 or have caused limited degradation of the heavy chain. Electron microscopy of LC2-deficient myosin showed it to have a marked tendency to aggregate into oligomers through the "neck" region of the myosin head. Myosin reverted to the monomeric form when it was reconstituted with light chains. LC2-deficient myosin retained full K+ (EDTA) or Ca2+-ATPase activity, and the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase was similar to that of the native molecule. Alkali light chain exchange at 37 degrees C, which has been demonstrated in subfragment 1 prepared with chymotrypsin, does not occur with intact myosin molecules or with papain subfragment 1, both of which contain LC2. However, a temperature-dependent exchange of alkali light chains was observed in myosin lacking LC2. The interaction of the alkali light chain with the heavy chain thus appears to be influenced by the presence of LC2, which may have an important stabilizing effect on the myosin molecule.

  7. HDAC3-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms modulates their enzymatic and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Courson, David S; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Rock, Ronald S; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2011-02-18

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, PCAF, associate with cardiac sarcomeres, and a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study, we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to the A band of sarcomeres and was capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the K(m) for the actin-activated ATPase activity of both α- and β-MHC isoforms. By an in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36%, compared to their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli, independent of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms.

  8. HDAC3-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Sadhana A.; Courson, David S.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming; Shroff, Sanjeev G.; Rock, Ronald S.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2011-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, PCAF, associate with cardiac sarcomeres, and a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study, we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to the A band of sarcomeres and was capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of both α- and β-MHC isoforms. By an in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36%, compared to their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli, independent of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:21177250

  9. Evaluation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in isolated pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, D.B.; Soeling, H.D.; Williams, J.A. Universitaet Goettingen )

    1988-01-01

    The role of contractile proteins in secretory granule exocytosis was evaluated by determining whether myosin light chain phosphorylation was altered during stimulation of secretion in mouse pancreatic acini. Acinar myosin was purified by extraction into isosmotic sucrose solution containing 40 mM pyrophosphate followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sepharose 4B-CL chromatography. Myosin was eluted as a single peak of K{sup +}-EDTA ATPase activity and was purified over 2,000-fold to a final ATPase specific activity of 0.96 {mu}mol{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}mg protein {sup {minus}1}. Three major myosin subunits of apparent M{sub r} of 200,000, 20,000, and 17,000 were present in the purified myosin preparation. A fourth protein of M{sub r} 21,000 was also present. Purification of myosin from {sup 32}P-labeled acini revealed that M{sub r} 200,000, 21,000, and 20,000 proteins to be heavily labeled. The effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) on myosin phosphorylation was studied after isolation of myosin from {sup 32}P-labeled acinar lysates by immunoprecipitation. Treatment of acini for 1-10 min with a concentration of CCK-8 that gives a maximal secretory response caused a 25-40% increase in light chain labeling. Treatment with a supramaximal CCK-8 concentration produced a 50-80% increase in light chain labeling. Phosphorylation of myosin heavy chain was not significantly affected by secretagogue treatment. These results indicate that stimulation of pancreatic acinar secretion is accompanied by an increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  10. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load.

    PubMed

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin's ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31-41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level.

  11. Blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, is photoinactivated by blue light.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takeshi; Limouze, John; Combs, Christian A; Straight, Aaron F; Sellers, James R

    2005-01-18

    Blebbistatin is a small molecule inhibitor discovered in a screen for inhibitors of nonmuscle myosin IIA. Blebbistatin inhibits the actin-activated MgATPase activity and in vitro motility of class II myosins. In cells, it has been shown to inhibit contraction of the cytokinetic ring. Blebbistatin has some photochemical properties that may affect its behavior in cells. In particular, we have found that exposure to light at wavelengths below 488 nm rapidly inactivates the inhibitory action of blebbistatin using the in vitro motility of myosin as an assay. In addition, the inhibition of cytokinetic ring contraction can be reversed by exposure of the cells to blue light. This property may be useful in locally reversing the action of blebbistatin treatment in a cell. However, caution should be exercised as free radicals may be produced upon irradiation of blebbistatin that could result in cell damage.

  12. A Mec17-Myosin II Effector Axis Coordinates Microtubule Acetylation and Actin Dynamics to Control Primary Cilium Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Yanhua; Hao, Rui; Wang, Bin; Yao, Tso-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are specialized, acetylated microtubule-based signaling processes. Cilium assembly is activated by cellular quiescence and requires reconfiguration of microtubules, the actin cytoskeleton, and vesicular trafficking machinery. How these components are coordinated to activate ciliogenesis remains unknown. Here we identify the microtubule acetyltransferase Mec-17 and myosin II motors as the key effectors in primary cilium biogenesis. We found that myosin IIB (Myh10) is required for cilium formation; however, myosin IIA (Myh9) suppresses it. Myh10 binds and antagonizes Myh9 to increase actin dynamics, which facilitates the assembly of the pericentrosomal preciliary complex (PPC) that supplies materials for cilium growth. Importantly, Myh10 expression is upregulated by serum-starvation and this induction requires Mec-17, which is itself accumulated upon cellular quiescence. Pharmacological stimulation of microtubule acetylation also induces Myh10 expression and cilium formation. Thus cellular quiescence induces Mec17 to couple the production of acetylated microtubules and Myh10, whose accumulation overcomes the inhibitory role of Myh9 and initiates ciliogenesis. PMID:25494100

  13. Four things to know about myosin light chains as reporters for non-muscle myosin-2 dynamics in live cells.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2015-02-01

    The interplay between non-muscle myosins-2 and filamentous actin results in cytoplasmic contractility which is essential for eukaryotic life. Concomitantly, there is tremendous interest in elucidating the physiological function and temporal localization of non-muscle myosin-2 in cells. A commonly used method to study the function and localization of non-muscle myosin-2 is to overexpress a fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged version of the regulatory light chain (RLC) which binds to the myosin-2 heavy chain by mass action. Caveats about this approach include findings from recent studies indicating that the RLC does not bind exclusively to the non-muscle myosin-2 heavy chain. Rather, it can also associate with the myosin heavy chains of several other classes as well as other targets than myosin. In addition, the presence of the FP moiety may compromise myosin's enzymatic and mechanical performance. This and other factors to be discussed in this commentary raise questions about the possible complications in using FP-RLC as a marker for the dynamic localization and regulatory aspects of non-muscle myosin-2 motor functions in cell biological experiments. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Masticatory (;superfast') myosin heavy chain and embryonic/atrial myosin light chain 1 in rodent jaw-closing muscles.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Peter J; Bicer, Sabahattin; Chen, Qun; Zhu, Ling; Quan, Ning

    2009-08-01

    Masticatory myosin is widely expressed among several vertebrate classes. Generally, the expression of masticatory myosin has been associated with high bite force for a carnivorous feeding style (including capturing/restraining live prey), breaking down tough plant material and defensive biting in different species. Masticatory myosin expression in the largest mammalian order, Rodentia, has not been reported. Several members of Rodentia consume large numbers of tree nuts that are encased in very hard shells, presumably requiring large forces to access the nutmeat. We, therefore, tested whether some rodent species express masticatory myosin in jaw-closing muscles. Myosin isoform expression in six Sciuridae species was examined, using protein gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and RNA analysis. The results indicate that masticatory myosin is expressed in some Sciuridae species but not in other closely related species with similar diets but having different nut-opening strategies. We also discovered that the myosin light chain 1 isoform associated with masticatory myosin heavy chain, in the same four Sciuridae species, is the embryonic/atrial isoform. We conclude that rodent speciation did not completely eliminate masticatory myosin and that its persistent expression in some rodent species might be related to not only diet but also to feeding style.

  15. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity.

  16. N-terminus of Cardiac Myosin Essential Light Chain Modulates Myosin Step-Size

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle myosin cyclically hydrolyzes ATP to translate actin. Ventricular cardiac myosin (βmys) moves actin with three distinct unitary step-sizes resulting from its lever-arm rotation and with step-frequencies that are modulated in a myosin regulation mechanism. The lever-arm associated essential light chain (vELC) binds actin by its 43 residue N-terminal extension. Unitary steps were proposed to involve the vELC N-terminal extension with the 8 nm step engaging the vELC/actin bond facilitating an extra ~19 degrees of lever-arm rotation while the predominant 5 nm step forgoes vELC/actin binding. A minor 3 nm step is the unlikely conversion of the completed 5 to the 8 nm step. This hypothesis was tested using a 17 residue N-terminal truncated vELC in porcine βmys (Δ17βmys) and a 43 residue N-terminal truncated human vELC expressed in transgenic mouse heart (Δ43αmys). Step-size and step-frequency were measured using the Qdot motility assay. Both Δ17βmys and Δ43αmys had significantly increased 5 nm step-frequency and coincident loss in the 8 nm step-frequency compared to native proteins suggesting the vELC/actin interaction drives step-size preference. Step-size and step-frequency probability densities depend on the relative fraction of truncated vELC and relate linearly to pure myosin species concentrations in a mixture containing native vELC homodimer, two truncated vELCs in the modified homodimer, and one native and one truncated vELC in the heterodimer. Step-size and step-frequency, measured for native homodimer and at two or more known relative fractions of truncated vELC, are surmised for each pure species by using a new analytical method. PMID:26671638

  17. Myosin light chain kinase-regulated endothelial cell contraction: the relationship between isometric tension, actin polymerization, and myosin phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chains by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been shown to be essential and sufficient for initiation of endothelial cell retraction in saponin permeabilized monolayers (Wysolmerski, R. B. and D. Lagunoff. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:16-20). We now report the effects of thrombin stimulation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVE) actin, myosin II and the functional correlate of the activated actomyosin based contractile system, isometric tension development. Using a newly designed isometric tension apparatus, we recorded quantitative changes in isometric tension from paired monolayers. Thrombin stimulation results in a rapid sustained isometric contraction that increases 2- to 2.5-fold within 5 min and remains elevated for at least 60 min. The phosphorylatable myosin light chains from HUVE were found to exist as two isoforms, differing in their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Resting isometric tension is associated with a basal phosphorylation of 0.54 mol PO4/mol myosin light chain. After thrombin treatment, phosphorylation rapidly increases to 1.61 mol PO4/mol myosin light chain within 60 s and remains elevated for the duration of the experiment. Myosin light chain phosphorylation precedes the development of isometric tension and maximal phosphorylation is maintained during the sustained phase of isometric contraction. Tryptic phosphopeptide maps from both control and thrombin-stimulated cultures resolve both monophosphorylated Ser-19 and diphosphorylated Ser-19/Thr-18 peptides indicative of MLCK activation. Changes in the polymerization of actin and association of myosin II correlate temporally with the phosphorylation of myosin II and development of isometric tension. Activation results in a 57% increase in F-actin content within 90 s and 90% of the soluble myosin II associates with the reorganizing F-actin. Furthermore, the disposition of actin and

  18. Characteristics of light chains of Chara myosin revealed by immunological investigation

    PubMed Central

    KAKEI, Toshihito; SUMIYOSHI, Hiroki; HIGASHI-FUJIME, Sugie

    2012-01-01

    Chara myosin is plant myosin responsible for cytoplasmic streaming and moves actin filaments at 60 µm/s, which is the fastest of all myosins examined. The neck of the myosin molecule has usually mechanical and regulatory roles. The neck of Chara myosin is supposed to bind six light chains, but, at present, we have no knowledge about them. We found Ca++-calmodulin activated Chara myosin motility and its actin-activated ATPase, and actually bound with the Chara myosin heavy chain, indicating calmodulin might be one of candidates for Chara myosin light chains. Antibody against essential light chain from Physarum myosin, and antibodies against Chara calmodulin and chicken myosin light chain from lens membranes reacted with 20 kDa and 18 kDa polypeptides of Chara myosin preparation, respectively. Correspondingly, column purified Chara myosin had light chains of 20 kDa, and 18 kDa with the molar ratio of 0.7 and 2.5 to the heavy chain, respectively. PMID:22687741

  19. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2015-06-19

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms.

  20. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Sadhana A.; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  1. N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Subunits Are Non-myosin Targets of Myosin Regulatory Light Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Gaurav; Zhang, Yong; Schimerlik, Michael I.; Hau, Andrew M.; Yang, Jing; Filtz, Theresa M.; Kioussi, Chrissa; Ishmael, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    Excitatory synapses contain multiple members of the myosin superfamily of molecular motors for which functions have not been assigned. In this study we characterized the molecular determinants of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binding to two major subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NR). Myosin RLC bound to NR subunits in a manner that could be distinguished from the interaction of RLC with the neck region of non-muscle myosin II-B (NMII-B) heavy chain; NR-RLC interactions did not require the addition of magnesium, were maintained in the absence of the fourth EF-hand domain of the light chain, and were sensitive to RLC phosphorylation. Equilibrium fluorescence spectroscopy experiments indicate that the affinity of myosin RLC for NR1 is high (30 nm) in the context of the isolated light chain. Binding was not favored in the context of a recombinant NMII-B subfragment one, indicating that if the RLC is already bound to NMII-B it is unlikely to form a bridge between two binding partners. We report that sequence similarity in the “GXXXR” portion of the incomplete IQ2 motif found in NMII heavy chain isoforms likely contributes to recognition of NR2A as a non-myosin target of the RLC. Using site-directed mutagenesis to disrupt NR2A-RLC binding in intact cells, we find that RLC interactions facilitate trafficking of NR1/NR2A receptors to the cell membrane. We suggest that myosin RLC can adopt target-dependent conformations and that a role for this light chain in protein trafficking may be independent of the myosin II complex. PMID:18945678

  2. Biochemistry of Smooth Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; Haldeman, Brian D.; Jackson, Del; Carter, Mike; Baker, Jonathan E.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2011-01-01

    The smooth muscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is a Ca2+-calmodulin-activated kinase that is found in many tissues. It is particularly important for regulating smooth muscle contraction by phosphorylation of myosin. This review summarizes selected aspects of recent biochemical work on MLCK that pertains to its function in smooth muscle. In general, the focus of the review is on new findings, unresolved issues, and areas with the potential for high physiological significance that need further study. The review includes a concise summary of the structure, substrates, and enzyme activity, followed by a discussion of the factors that may limit the effective activity of MLCK in the muscle. The interactions of each of the many domains of MLCK with the proteins of the contractile apparatus, and the multi-domain interactions of MLCK that may control its behaviors in the cell are summarized. Finally, new in vitro approaches to studying the mechanism of phosphorylation of myosin are introduced. PMID:21565153

  3. Removal of the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain increases isometric force production

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Kiran; Watt, James; Greenberg, Michael; Jones, Michelle; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    The myosin neck, which is supported by the interactions between light chains and the underlying α-helical heavy chain, is thought to act as a lever arm to amplify movements originating in the globular motor domain. Here, we studied the role of the cardiac myosin regulatory light chains (RLCs) in the capacity of myosin to produce force using a novel optical-trap-based isometric force in vitro motility assay. We measured the isometric force and actin filament velocity for native porcine cardiac (PC) myosin, RLC-depleted PC (PCdepl) myosin, and PC myosin reconstituted with recombinant bacterially expressed human cardiac RLC (PCrecon). RLC depletion reduced unloaded actin filament velocity by 58% and enhanced the myosin-based isometric force ∼2-fold. No significant change between PC and PCdepl preparations was observed in the maximal rate of actin-activated myosin ATPase activity. Reconstitution of PCdepl myosin with human RLC partially restored the velocity and force levels to near untreated values. The reduction in unloaded velocity after RLC extraction is consistent with the myosin neck acting as a lever, while the enhancement in isometric force can be directly related to enhancement of unitary force. The force data are consistent with a model in which the neck region behaves as a cantilevered beam.—Pant, K., Watt, J., Greenberg, M., Jones, M., Szczesna-Cordary, D., Moore, J. R. Removal of the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain increases isometric force production. PMID:19470801

  4. Thirteen is enough: the myosins of Dictyostelium discoideum and their light chains

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the most famous model organisms for studying motile processes like cell movement, organelle transport, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. Members of the myosin superfamily, that move on actin filaments and power many of these tasks, are tripartite proteins consisting of a conserved catalytic domain followed by the neck region consisting of a different number of so-called IQ motifs for binding of light chains. The tails contain functional motifs that are responsible for the accomplishment of the different tasks in the cell. Unicellular organisms like yeasts contain three to five myosins while vertebrates express over 40 different myosin genes. Recently, the question has been raised how many myosins a simple multicellular organism like Dictyostelium would need to accomplish all the different motility-related tasks. Results The analysis of the Dictyostelium genome revealed thirteen myosins of which three have not been described before. The phylogenetic analysis of the motor domains of the new myosins placed Myo1F to the class-I myosins and Myo5A to the class-V myosins. The third new myosin, an orphan myosin, has been named MyoG. It contains an N-terminal extension of over 400 residues, and a tail consisting of four IQ motifs and two MyTH4/FERM (myosin tail homology 4/band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin) tandem domains that are separated by a long region containing an SH3 (src homology 3) domain. In contrast to previous analyses, an extensive comparison with 126 class-VII, class-X, class-XV, and class-XXII myosins now showed that MyoI does not group into any of these classes and should not be used as a model for class-VII myosins. The search for calmodulin related proteins revealed two further potential myosin light chains. One is a close homolog of the two EF-hand motifs containing MlcB, and the other, CBP14, phylogenetically groups to the ELC/RLC/calmodulin (essential light chain/regulatory light chain) branch of the tree

  5. Structural requirement of the regulatory light chain of smooth muscle myosin as a substrate for myosin light chain kinase.

    PubMed

    Ikebe, M; Reardon, S; Schwonek, J P; Sanders, C R; Ikebe, R

    1994-11-11

    The substrate structure required for skeletal and smooth muscle myosin light chain kinases (MLC kinase) was studied by using various mutant regulatory light chains of smooth muscle myosin. The deletion of the NH2-terminal 10 residues did not greatly affect the kinetic parameters of smooth MLC kinase; however, deletion of an additional 3 residues, Lys11-Arg13, prevented phosphorylation. In contrast, deletion of Lys11-Arg13 did not completely abolish the phosphorylation for skeletal MLC kinase, and deletion of three additional residues was required for complete inhibition. Substitution of Arg16 with Glu markedly decreased Vmax for both smooth and skeletal MLC kinases. Substitution of Lys11-Arg13 with acidic or noncharged residues decreased Vmax, but these changes were much lower than that occurring on substitution of Arg16. Replacement of Lys11-Arg13 with acidic residues reduced the affinity of the free LC20 but had little effect on the myosin-incorporated LC20. These results were different from those previously obtained with synthetic peptide analogs (Kemp, B. E., Pearson, R. B., and House, C. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 80, 7471-7475) and suggest that a cluster of the basic amino acid residues are not fundamentally important for substrate recognition. The structural simulation revealed that the guanidyl group of Arg16 but not the corresponding Glu13 of skeletal light chain resides in close proximity to Ser19, suggesting that the guanidyl group of Arg16 stabilizes the phosphate transfer and that the introduction of Glu at the 16th position would significantly destabilized this reaction.

  6. Regulatory myosin light-chain genes of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, C; Anderson, P

    1988-01-01

    We have cloned and analyzed the Caenorhabditis elegans regulatory myosin light-chain genes. C. elegans contains two such genes, which we have designated mlc-1 and mlc-2. The two genes are separated by 2.6 kilobases and are divergently transcribed. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of both mlc-1 and mlc-2. A single, conservative amino acid substitution distinguishes the sequences of the two proteins. The C. elegans proteins are strongly homologous to regulatory myosin light chains of Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrates and weakly homologous to a superfamily of eucaryotic calcium-binding proteins. Both mlc-1 and mlc-2 encode abundant mRNAs. We mapped the 5' termini of these transcripts by using primer extension sequencing of mRNA templates. mlc-1 mRNAs initiate within conserved hexanucleotides at two different positions, located at -28 and -38 relative to the start of translation. The 5' terminus of mlc-2 mRNA is not encoded in the 4.8-kilobase genomic region upstream of mlc-2. Rather, mlc-2 mRNA contains at its 5' end a short, untranslated leader sequence that is identical to the trans-spliced leader sequence of three C. elegans actin genes. Images PMID:3244358

  7. Distinct interactions between actin and essential myosin light chain isoforms.

    PubMed

    Petzhold, Daria; Simsek, Burcu; Meißner, Ralf; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Morano, Ingo

    2014-07-04

    Binding of the utmost N-terminus of essential myosin light chains (ELC) to actin slows down myosin motor function. In this study, we investigated the binding constants of two different human cardiac ELC isoforms with actin. We employed circular dichroism (CD) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy to determine structural properties and protein-protein interaction of recombinant human atrial and ventricular ELC (hALC-1 and hVLC-1, respectively) with α-actin as well as α-actin with alanin-mutated ELC binding site (α-actin(ala3)) as control. CD spectroscopy showed similar secondary structure of both hALC-1 and hVLC-1 with high degree of α-helicity. SPR spectroscopy revealed that the affinity of hALC-1 to α-actin (KD=575 nM) was significantly (p<0.01) lower compared with the affinity of hVLC-1 to α-actin (KD=186 nM). The reduced affinity of hALC-1 to α-actin was mainly due to a significantly (p<0.01) lower association rate (kon: 1,018 M(-1)s(-1)) compared with kon of the hVLC-1/α-actin complex interaction (2,908 M(-1)s(-1)). Hence, differential expression of ELC isoforms could modulate muscle contractile activity via distinct α-actin interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Localization of myosin II regulatory light chain in the cerebral vasculature.

    PubMed

    Ishmael, Jane E; Löhr, Christiane V; Fischer, Kay; Kioussi, Chrissa

    2008-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells is a critical determinant of blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Barrier integrity appears to be particularly sensitive to the phosphorylation state of specific residues within myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), one of two accessory light chains of the myosin II motor complex. Phosphorylation of myosin RLC by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been implicated in BBB dysfunction associated with alcohol abuse and hypoxia, whereas dephosphorylation may enhance BBB integrity following exposure to lipid-lowering statin drugs. Using immunohistochemistry we provide evidence of widespread myosin II RLC distribution throughout the cerebral vasculature of the mouse. Light microscopy revealed immunolocalization of myosin II RLC protein in the endothelium of brain capillaries, the endothelial cell layer of arterioles and in association with venules. Immunolabeling of myosin RLC in non-muscle endothelial cells could be distinguished from myosin RLC immunoreactivity associated with the smooth muscle layer of the tunica media in larger muscular arterioles. These findings support an emerging role for myosin II RLC as a component of the actomyosin cytoskeleton of cerebral endothelial cells with the potential to contribute to the selective vulnerability of the brain in vivo.

  9. Primary structure and cellular localization of chicken brain myosin-V (p190), an unconventional myosin with calmodulin light chains

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Recent biochemical studies of p190, a calmodulin (CM)-binding protein purified from vertebrate brain, have demonstrated that this protein, purified as a complex with bound CM, shares a number of properties with myosins (Espindola, F. S., E. M. Espreafico, M. V. Coelho, A. R. Martins, F. R. C. Costa, M. S. Mooseker, and R. E. Larson. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 118:359-368). To determine whether or not p190 was a member of the myosin family of proteins, a set of overlapping cDNAs encoding the full-length protein sequence of chicken brain p190 was isolated and sequenced. Verification that the deduced primary structure was that of p190 was demonstrated through microsequence analysis of a cyanogen bromide peptide generated from chick brain p190. The deduced primary structure of chicken brain p190 revealed that this 1,830-amino acid (aa) 212,509-D) protein is a member of a novel structural class of unconventional myosins that includes the gene products encoded by the dilute locus of mouse and the MYO2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have named the p190-CM complex "myosin-V" based on the results of a detailed sequence comparison of the head domains of 29 myosin heavy chains (hc), which has revealed that this myosin, based on head structure, is the fifth of six distinct structural classes of myosin to be described thus far. Like the presumed products of the mouse dilute and yeast MYO2 genes, the head domain of chicken myosin-V hc (aa 1-764) is linked to a "neck" domain (aa 765-909) consisting of six tandem repeats of an approximately 23-aa "IQ-motif." All known myosins contain at least one such motif at their head-tail junctions; these IQ-motifs may function as calmodulin or light chain binding sites. The tail domain of chicken myosin-V consists of an initial 511 aa predicted to form several segments of coiled-coil alpha helix followed by a terminal 410-aa globular domain (aa, 1,421-1,830). Interestingly, a portion of the tail domain (aa, 1,094-1,830) shares 58% amino acid

  10. Primary structure and cellular localization of chicken brain myosin-V (p190), an unconventional myosin with calmodulin light chains.

    PubMed

    Espreafico, E M; Cheney, R E; Matteoli, M; Nascimento, A A; De Camilli, P V; Larson, R E; Mooseker, M S

    1992-12-01

    Recent biochemical studies of p190, a calmodulin (CM)-binding protein purified from vertebrate brain, have demonstrated that this protein, purified as a complex with bound CM, shares a number of properties with myosins (Espindola, F. S., E. M. Espreafico, M. V. Coelho, A. R. Martins, F. R. C. Costa, M. S. Mooseker, and R. E. Larson. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 118:359-368). To determine whether or not p190 was a member of the myosin family of proteins, a set of overlapping cDNAs encoding the full-length protein sequence of chicken brain p190 was isolated and sequenced. Verification that the deduced primary structure was that of p190 was demonstrated through microsequence analysis of a cyanogen bromide peptide generated from chick brain p190. The deduced primary structure of chicken brain p190 revealed that this 1,830-amino acid (aa) 212,509-D) protein is a member of a novel structural class of unconventional myosins that includes the gene products encoded by the dilute locus of mouse and the MYO2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have named the p190-CM complex "myosin-V" based on the results of a detailed sequence comparison of the head domains of 29 myosin heavy chains (hc), which has revealed that this myosin, based on head structure, is the fifth of six distinct structural classes of myosin to be described thus far. Like the presumed products of the mouse dilute and yeast MYO2 genes, the head domain of chicken myosin-V hc (aa 1-764) is linked to a "neck" domain (aa 765-909) consisting of six tandem repeats of an approximately 23-aa "IQ-motif." All known myosins contain at least one such motif at their head-tail junctions; these IQ-motifs may function as calmodulin or light chain binding sites. The tail domain of chicken myosin-V consists of an initial 511 aa predicted to form several segments of coiled-coil alpha helix followed by a terminal 410-aa globular domain (aa, 1,421-1,830). Interestingly, a portion of the tail domain (aa, 1,094-1,830) shares 58% amino acid

  11. The recruitment of acetylated and unacetylated tropomyosin to distinct actin polymers permits the discrete regulation of specific myosins in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Coulton, Arthur T.; East, Daniel A.; Galinska-Rakoczy, Agnieszka; Lehman, William; Mulvihill, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    Tropomyosin (Tm) is a conserved dimeric coiled-coil protein, which forms polymers that curl around actin filaments in order to regulate actomyosin function. Acetylation of the Tm N-terminal methionine strengthens end-to-end bonds, which enhances actin binding as well as the ability of Tm to regulate myosin motor activity in both muscle and non-muscle cells. In this study we explore the function of each Tm form within fission yeast cells. Electron microscopy and live cell imaging revealed that acetylated and unacetylated Tm associate with distinct actin structures within the cell, and that each form has a profound effect upon the shape and integrity of the polymeric actin filament. We show that, whereas Tm acetylation is required to regulate the in vivo motility of class II myosins, acetylated Tm had no effect on the motility of class I and V myosins. These findings illustrate a novel Tm-acetylation-state-dependent mechanism for regulating specific actomyosin cytoskeletal interactions. PMID:20807799

  12. The recruitment of acetylated and unacetylated tropomyosin to distinct actin polymers permits the discrete regulation of specific myosins in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Coulton, Arthur T; East, Daniel A; Galinska-Rakoczy, Agnieszka; Lehman, William; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2010-10-01

    Tropomyosin (Tm) is a conserved dimeric coiled-coil protein, which forms polymers that curl around actin filaments in order to regulate actomyosin function. Acetylation of the Tm N-terminal methionine strengthens end-to-end bonds, which enhances actin binding as well as the ability of Tm to regulate myosin motor activity in both muscle and non-muscle cells. In this study we explore the function of each Tm form within fission yeast cells. Electron microscopy and live cell imaging revealed that acetylated and unacetylated Tm associate with distinct actin structures within the cell, and that each form has a profound effect upon the shape and integrity of the polymeric actin filament. We show that, whereas Tm acetylation is required to regulate the in vivo motility of class II myosins, acetylated Tm had no effect on the motility of class I and V myosins. These findings illustrate a novel Tm-acetylation-state-dependent mechanism for regulating specific actomyosin cytoskeletal interactions.

  13. Prediction of the secondary structure of myosin light chains from comparison of homologous sequences. Implications for the interaction between myosin heavy and light chains.

    PubMed

    Béchet, J J; Houadjeto, M

    1989-07-06

    The primary sequences of seventeen essential and seventeen regulatory myosin light chains were analyzed and compared, using algorithms based on the different structural properties of their amino acid residues. This process allowed estimation of the structural homology between the proteins studied, and improved the prediction of their mean secondary structure and functionally important segments or residues. On the basis of the crystal structure of troponin C, a model of the myosin essential light chain with a fairly compact form is proposed. The possible sites of interaction between myosin light and heavy chains from rabbit skeletal muscle were also investigated by a complementarity method adapted to helix-rich proteins. Segments 139-149 and 65-75 in the essential light chain and segments 27-37, 67-77 and 97-107 in the regulatory light chain are suggested to constitute some of these sites, as most of them were found to have the features of surface-seeking helices.

  14. Mutations in Myosin Light Chain Kinase Cause Familial Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Guo, Dong-chuan; Cao, Jiumei; Gong, Limin; Kamm, Kristine E.; Regalado, Ellen; Li, Li; Shete, Sanjay; He, Wei-Qi; Zhu, Min-Sheng; Offermanns, Stephan; Gilchrist, Dawna; Elefteriades, John; Stull, James T.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific isoforms of α-actin and β-myosin heavy chain, two major components of the SMC contractile unit, cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections (FTAAD). To investigate whether mutations in the kinase that controls SMC contractile function (myosin light chain kinase [MYLK]) cause FTAAD, we sequenced MYLK by using DNA from 193 affected probands from unrelated FTAAD families. One nonsense and four missense variants were identified in MYLK and were not present in matched controls. Two variants, p.R1480X (c.4438C>T) and p.S1759P (c.5275T>C), segregated with aortic dissections in two families with a maximum LOD score of 2.1, providing evidence of linkage of these rare variants to the disease (p = 0.0009). Both families demonstrated a similar phenotype characterized by presentation with an acute aortic dissection with little to no enlargement of the aorta. The p.R1480X mutation leads to a truncated protein lacking the kinase and calmodulin binding domains, and p.S1759P alters amino acids in the α-helix of the calmodulin binding sequence, which disrupts kinase binding to calmodulin and reduces kinase activity in vitro. Furthermore, mice with SMC-specific knockdown of Mylk demonstrate altered gene expression and pathology consistent with medial degeneration of the aorta. Thus, genetic and functional studies support the conclusion that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in MYLK are associated with aortic dissections. PMID:21055718

  15. Diffusion of myosin light chain kinase on actin: A mechanism to enhance myosin phosphorylation rates in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Brizendine, Richard K; Carter, Michael S; Alcala, Diego B; Brown, Avery E; Chattin, Amy M; Haldeman, Brian D; Walsh, Michael P; Facemyer, Kevin C; Baker, Josh E; Cremo, Christine R

    2015-10-01

    Smooth muscle myosin (SMM) light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates SMM, thereby activating the ATPase activity required for muscle contraction. The abundance of active MLCK, which is tightly associated with the contractile apparatus, is low relative to that of SMM. SMM phosphorylation is rapid despite the low ratio of MLCK to SMM, raising the question of how one MLCK rapidly phosphorylates many SMM molecules. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor single molecules of streptavidin-coated quantum dot-labeled MLCK interacting with purified actin, actin bundles, and stress fibers of smooth muscle cells. Surprisingly, MLCK and the N-terminal 75 residues of MLCK (N75) moved on actin bundles and stress fibers of smooth muscle cell cytoskeletons by a random one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion mechanism. Although diffusion of proteins along microtubules and oligonucleotides has been observed previously, this is the first characterization to our knowledge of a protein diffusing in a sustained manner along actin. By measuring the frequency of motion, we found that MLCK motion is permitted only if acto-myosin and MLCK-myosin interactions are weak. From these data, diffusion coefficients, and other kinetic and geometric considerations relating to the contractile apparatus, we suggest that 1-D diffusion of MLCK along actin (a) ensures that diffusion is not rate limiting for phosphorylation, (b) allows MLCK to locate to areas in which myosin is not yet phosphorylated, and (c) allows MLCK to avoid getting "stuck" on myosins that have already been phosphorylated. Diffusion of MLCK along actin filaments may be an important mechanism for enhancing the rate of SMM phosphorylation in smooth muscle.

  16. Myosin light chain phosphorylation is correlated with cold-induced changes in platelet shape.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, H; Higashihara, M; Ohsaka, M; Miyazaki, K; Ikebe, M; Hirano, H

    2001-12-01

    Chilling induces shape changes in platelets from disks to spheres with abundant filopodia. Such changes were time-dependent and correlated well with the phosphorylation of 20-kDa myosin light chain (LC20). Both the shape changes and the phosphorylation were reversible. After the platelets had been chilled, myosin became incorporated into the Triton X-insoluble fraction. When the chilled platelets were immunocytochemically stained, anti-myosin antibody was localized with filamentous structures inside the filopodia. These results suggest that LC20 phosphorylation and subsequent interactions with actin filaments play a crucial role in the cold-induced changes in platelet shape and in the formation of filopodia.

  17. A Global, Myosin Light Chain Kinase-dependent Increase in Myosin II Contractility Accompanies the Metaphase–Anaphase Transition in Sea Urchin Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Amy; Stack, Christianna; Bresnick, Anne R.

    2006-01-01

    Myosin II is the force-generating motor for cytokinesis, and although it is accepted that myosin contractility is greatest at the cell equator, the temporal and spatial cues that direct equatorial contractility are not known. Dividing sea urchin eggs were placed under compression to study myosin II-based contractile dynamics, and cells manipulated in this manner underwent an abrupt, global increase in cortical contractility concomitant with the metaphase–anaphase transition, followed by a brief relaxation and the onset of furrowing. Prefurrow cortical contractility both preceded and was independent of astral microtubule elongation, suggesting that the initial activation of myosin II preceded cleavage plane specification. The initial rise in contractility required myosin light chain kinase but not Rho-kinase, but both signaling pathways were required for successful cytokinesis. Last, mobilization of intracellular calcium during metaphase induced a contractile response, suggesting that calcium transients may be partially responsible for the timing of this initial contractile event. Together, these findings suggest that myosin II-based contractility is initiated at the metaphase–anaphase transition by Ca2+-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity and is maintained through cytokinesis by both MLCK- and Rho-dependent signaling. Moreover, the signals that initiate myosin II contractility respond to specific cell cycle transitions independently of the microtubule-dependent cleavage stimulus. PMID:16837551

  18. Calcium-mediated regulation of recombinant hybrids of full-length Physarum myosin heavy chain with Physarum/scallop myosin light chains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Kawamichi, Hozumi; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Physarum myosin is a Ca2+-binding protein and its activity is inhibited by Ca2+. In the present study, to clarify the light chains (LCs) from the different species (Physarum and scallop) and to determine the specific Ca2+-regulated effects, we constructed hybrid myosins with a Physarum myosin heavy chain (Ph·HC) and Physarum and/or scallop myosin LCs, and examined Ca2+-mediated regulation of ATPases and motor activities. In these experiments, it was found that Ca2+ inhibited motilities and ATPase activities of Physarum hybrid myosin with scallop regulatory light chain (ScRLC) and Physarum essential light chain (PhELC) but could not inhibit those of the Physarum hybrid myosin mutant Ph·HC/ScRLC/PhELC-3A which lacks Ca2+-binding ability, indicating that PhELC plays a critical role in Ca2+-mediated regulation of Physarum myosin. Furthermore, the effects of Ca2+ on ATPase activities of Physarum myosin constructs are in the following order: Ph·HC/PhRLC/PhELC > Ph·HC/ScRLC/PhELC > Ph·HC/PhRLC/ScELC > Ph·HC/ScRLC/ScELC, suggesting that the presence of PhRLC and PhELC leads to the greatest Ca2+ sensitivity of Physarum myosin. Although we did not observe the motilities of Physarum hybrid myosin Ph·HC/PhRLC/ScELC and Ph·HC/ScRLC/ScELC, our results suggest that Ca2+-binding to the PhELC may alter the flexibility of the regulatory domain and induce a ’closed’ state, which may consequently prevent full activity and force generation. PMID:27125976

  19. The light chains of muscle myosin: its structure, function, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, G

    1983-01-01

    In this review I described the primary structures of myosin light chains contained in fast skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and gizzard muscle of chicken. In a comparison of these proteins many more amino acid substitutions than expected were recognized among the primary structures in the muscle from various organs. A fairly high homology was however shown between their primary structure, and this homology is also recognized among the light chains, parvalbumins, troponins C, and calmodulins. On the other hand, the relation between the primary structures and physiological function of these myosin light chains or the interaction between light chains and heavy chains still seems unclear. These problems are important subjects for future study.

  20. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-02-18

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies.

  1. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G.; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  2. New insights into the regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Loredo, Ariadna Yolanda; López-Colomé, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an essential role in the function of the neural retina and the maintenance of vision. Most of the functions displayed by RPE require a dynamic organization of the acto-myosin cytoskeleton. Myosin II, a main cytoskeletal component in muscle and non-muscle cells, is directly involved in force generation required for organelle movement, selective molecule transport within cell compartments, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, and cell division, among others. Contractile processes are triggered by the phosphorylation of myosin II light chains (MLCs), which promotes actin-myosin interaction and the assembly of contractile fibers. Considerable evidence indicates that non-muscle myosin II activation is critically involved in various pathological states, increasing the interest in studying the signaling pathways controlling MLC phosphorylation. Particularly, recent findings suggest a role for non-muscle myosin II-induced contraction in RPE cell transformation involved in the establishment of numerous retinal diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding myosin function in RPE cells, as well as the signaling networks leading to MLC phosphorylation under pathological conditions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying RPE dysfunction would improve the development of new therapies for the treatment or prevention of different ocular disorders leading to blindness.

  3. Sequence analysis of the myosin regulatory light chain gene of the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila.

    PubMed

    Ravaux, J; Hassanin, A; Deutsch, J; Gaill, F; Markmann-Mulisch, U

    2001-01-24

    We have isolated and characterized a cDNA (DNA complementary to RNA) clone (Rf69) from the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila. The cDNA insert consists of 1169 base pairs. The aminoacid sequence deduced from the longest reading frame is 193 residues in length, and clearly characterized it as a myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC primary structure is described in relation to its function in muscle contraction. The comparison with other RLCs suggested that Riftia myosin is probably regulated through its RLC either by phosphorylation like the vertebrate smooth muscle myosins, and/or by Ca2+-binding like the mollusk myosins. Riftia RLC possesses a N-terminal extension lacking in all other species besides the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Aminoacid sequence comparisons with a number of RLCs from vertebrates and invertebrates revealed a relatively high identity score (64%) between Riftia RLC and the homologous gene from Lumbricus. The relationships between the members of the myosin RLCs were examined by two phylogenetic methods, i.e. distance matrix and maximum parsimony. The resulting trees depict the grouping of the RLCs according to their role in myosin activity regulation. In all trees, Riftia RLC groups with RLCs that depend on Ca2+-binding for myosin activity regulation.

  4. K-252a, a novel microbial product, inhibits smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, S.; Yamada, K.; Kase, H.; Nakamura, S.; Nonomura, Y.

    1988-05-05

    Effects of K-252a, purified from the culture broth of Nocardiopsis sp., on the activity of myosin (light chain kinase were investigated. 1) K-252a affected three characteristic properties of chicken gizzard myosin-B, natural actomyosin, to a similar degree: the Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent activity of ATPase, superprecipitation, and the phosphorylation of the myosin light chain. 2) K-252a inhibited the activities of the purified myosin light chain kinase and a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent form of the enzyme which was constructed by cross-linking of myosin light chain kinase and calmodulin using glutaraldehyde. The degrees of inhibition by 3 x 10/sup -6/ M K-252a were 69 and 48% of the control activities with the purified enzyme and the cross-linked complex, respectively. Chlorpromazine (3 x 10/sup -4/ M), a calmodulin antagonist, inhibited the native enzyme, but not the cross-linked one. These results suggested that K-252a inhibited myosin light chain kinase by direct interaction with the enzyme, whereas chlorpromazine suppressed the enzyme activation by interacting with calmodulin. 3) The inhibition by K-252a of the cross-linked kinase was affected by the concentration of ATP, a phosphate donor. The concentration causing 50% inhibition was two orders magnitude lowere in the presence of 100 ..mu..M ATP than in the presence of 2 mM ATP. 4) Kinetic analyses using (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP indicated that the inhibitory mode of K-252a was competitive with respect to ATP. These results suggest that K-252a interacts at the ATP-binding domain of myosin light chain kinase.

  5. Minimum requirements for inhibition of smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase by synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J T; Floyd, D M; Lee, V G; Little, D K; Moreland, S

    1989-01-01

    Although the amino acid residues that are important for peptide substrates of myosin light-chain kinase have been reported, those that are important for peptide inhibitors of this enzyme have not previously been investigated. Synthetic peptides based on the sequence Lys11-Lys12-Arg13-Ala-Ala-Arg16-Ala-Thr-Ser19 -Asn-Val21-Phe22-Ala of the chicken gizzard myosin light chain were tested as inhibitors of pig carotid-artery myosin light-chain kinase. The basic amino acid residues of the known myosin light-chain kinase inhibitor Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Thr-Ser-NH2 (IC50 = 14 microM) [Pearson, Misconi & Kemp (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 25-27] were shown to be the important residues that contribute to inhibitor potency, as evidence by the finding that the hexapeptide Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-NH2 had an IC50 value of 22 microM. This indicates that binding of the phosphorylatable serine residue to myosin light-chain kinase, which is of obvious importance for a substrate, does not enhance the potency of an inhibitor. With the aim of preparing more potent inhibitors, peptides Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Ala-Xaa-NH2 were prepared with a variety of amino acids substituted for the phosphorylatable serine residue. None of these peptides was a more potent inhibitor than the serine peptide. PMID:2920029

  6. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylated Light Chain Domain of Scallop Smooth-Muscle Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.S.; Robinson, H.; O-Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Brown, J. H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-11-02

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphorylated smooth-muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This reconstituted LCD is of a sea scallop catch muscle myosin with its phosphorylatable regulatory light chain (RLC SmoA). In the crystal structure, Arg{sup 16}, an arginine residue that is present in this isoform but not in vertebrate smooth-muscle RLC, stabilizes the phosphorylation site. This arginine interacts with the carbonyl group of the phosphorylation-site serine in the unphosphorylated LCD (determined previously), and with the phosphate group when the serine is phosphorylated. However, the overall conformation of the LCD is essentially unchanged upon phosphorylation. This result provides additional evidence that phosphorylation of the RLC is unlikely to act as an on-switch in regulation of scallop catch muscle myosin.

  7. Expression of muscle-specific myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain 1 in the electric tissue of Electrophorus electricus (L.) in comparison with other vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Ayres Sá, L; Menezes, M A; dos Santos Mermelstein, C

    2001-08-01

    Myosin light and heavy chains from skeletal and cardiac muscles and from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus (L.) were characterised using biochemical and immunological methods, and compared with myosin extracted from avian, reptilian, and mammalian skeletal and cardiac muscles. The results indicate that the electric tissue has a myosin light chain 1 (LC1) and a muscle-specific myosin heavy chain. We also show that monoclonal antibody F109-12A8 (against LC1 and LC2) recognizes LC1 of myosin from human skeletal and cardiac muscles as well as those of rabbit, lizard, chick, and electric eel. However, only cardiac muscles from humans and rabbits have LC2, which is recognized by antibody F109-16F4. The data presented confirm the muscle origin of the electric tissue of E. electricus. This electric tissue has a profile of LC1 protein expression that resembles the myosin from cardiac muscle of the eel more than that from eel skeletal muscle. This work raises an interesting question about the ontogenesis and differentiation of the electric tissue of E. electricus. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. A small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii motility induces the posttranslational modification of myosin light chain-1 and inhibits myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Heaslip, Aoife T; Leung, Jacqueline M; Carey, Kimberly L; Catti, Federica; Warshaw, David M; Westwood, Nicholas J; Ballif, Bryan A; Ward, Gary E

    2010-01-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that enters cells by a process of active penetration. Host cell penetration and parasite motility are driven by a myosin motor complex consisting of four known proteins: TgMyoA, an unconventional Class XIV myosin; TgMLC1, a myosin light chain; and two membrane-associated proteins, TgGAP45 and TgGAP50. Little is known about how the activity of the myosin motor complex is regulated. Here, we show that treatment of parasites with a recently identified small-molecule inhibitor of invasion and motility results in a rapid and irreversible change in the electrophoretic mobility of TgMLC1. While the precise nature of the TgMLC1 modification has not yet been established, it was mapped to the peptide Val46-Arg59. To determine if the TgMLC1 modification is responsible for the motility defect observed in parasites after compound treatment, the activity of myosin motor complexes from control and compound-treated parasites was compared in an in vitro motility assay. TgMyoA motor complexes containing the modified TgMLC1 showed significantly decreased motor activity compared to control complexes. This change in motor activity likely accounts for the motility defects seen in the parasites after compound treatment and provides the first evidence, in any species, that the mechanical activity of Class XIV myosins can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to their associated light chains.

  9. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of T. gondii Motility Induces the Posttranslational Modification of Myosin Light Chain-1 and Inhibits Myosin Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Heaslip, Aoife T.; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Carey, Kimberly L.; Catti, Federica; Warshaw, David M.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Ward, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that enters cells by a process of active penetration. Host cell penetration and parasite motility are driven by a myosin motor complex consisting of four known proteins: TgMyoA, an unconventional Class XIV myosin; TgMLC1, a myosin light chain; and two membrane-associated proteins, TgGAP45 and TgGAP50. Little is known about how the activity of the myosin motor complex is regulated. Here, we show that treatment of parasites with a recently identified small-molecule inhibitor of invasion and motility results in a rapid and irreversible change in the electrophoretic mobility of TgMLC1. While the precise nature of the TgMLC1 modification has not yet been established, it was mapped to the peptide Val46-Arg59. To determine if the TgMLC1 modification is responsible for the motility defect observed in parasites after compound treatment, the activity of myosin motor complexes from control and compound-treated parasites was compared in an in vitro motility assay. TgMyoA motor complexes containing the modified TgMLC1 showed significantly decreased motor activity compared to control complexes. This change in motor activity likely accounts for the motility defects seen in the parasites after compound treatment and provides the first evidence, in any species, that the mechanical activity of Class XIV myosins can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to their associated light chains. PMID:20084115

  10. Purification, Characterization and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkia.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myosin light chain (MLC) plays a vital role in cell and muscle functions and has been identified as an allergen in close species. In this study, MLC with the molecular mass of 18kDa was purified from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle fibrils. Its physicochemical characterization showed that the...

  11. Kinetics of myosin light chain kinase activation of smooth muscle myosin in an in vitro model system.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Facemyer, Kevin C; Carter, Michael S; Jackson, Del R; Haldeman, Brian D; Ruana, Nick; Sutherland, Cindy; Walsh, Michael P; Cremo, Christine R; Baker, Josh E

    2013-11-26

    During activation of smooth muscle contraction, one myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) molecule rapidly phosphorylates many smooth muscle myosin (SMM) molecules, suggesting that muscle activation rates are influenced by the kinetics of MLCK-SMM interactions. To determine the rate-limiting step underlying activation of SMM by MLCK, we measured the kinetics of calcium-calmodulin (Ca²⁺CaM)-MLCK-mediated SMM phosphorylation and the corresponding initiation of SMM-based F-actin motility in an in vitro system with SMM attached to a coverslip surface. Fitting the time course of SMM phosphorylation to a kinetic model gave an initial phosphorylation rate, kp(o), of ~1.17 heads s⁻¹ MLCK⁻¹. Also, we measured the dwell time of single streptavidin-coated quantum dot-labeled MLCK molecules interacting with surface-attached SMM and phosphorylated SMM using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. From these data, the dissociation rate constant from phosphorylated SMM was 0.80 s⁻¹, which was similar to the kp(o) mentioned above and with rates measured in solution. This dissociation rate was essentially independent of the phosphorylation state of SMM. From calculations using our measured dissociation rates and Kd values, and estimates of SMM and MLCK concentrations in muscle, we predict that the dissociation of MLCK from phosphorylated SMM is rate-limiting and that the rate of the phosphorylation step is faster than this dissociation rate. Also, association with SMM (11-46 s⁻¹) would be much faster than with pSMM (<0.1-0.2 s⁻¹). This suggests that the probability of MLCK interacting with unphosphorylated versus phosphorylated SMM is 55-460 times greater. This would avoid sequestering MLCK to unproductive interactions with previously phosphorylated SMM, potentially leading to faster rates of phosphorylation in muscle.

  12. The Kinetics of Myosin Light Chain Kinase Activation of Smooth Muscle Myosin in an In Vitro Model System

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Carter, Michael S.; Jackson, Del R.; Haldeman, Brian D.; Ruana, Nick; Sutherland, Cindy; Walsh, Michael P.; Cremo, Christine R.; Baker, Josh E.

    2013-01-01

    During activation of smooth muscle contraction, one myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) molecule rapidly phosphorylates many smooth muscle myosin (SMM) molecules, suggesting that muscle activation rates are influenced by the kinetics of MLCK-SMM interactions. To determine the rate-limiting step underlying activation of SMM by MLCK, we measured the kinetics of calcium-calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM)-MLCK-mediated SMM phosphorylation and the corresponding initiation of SMM-based F-actin motility in an in vitro system with SMM attached to a coverslip surface. Fitting the time course of SMM phosphorylation to a kinetic model gave an initial phosphorylation rate, kpo, of ~1.17 heads s−1·MLCK−1. Also we measured the dwell time of single QD-labeled MLCK molecules interacting with surface-attached SMM and phosphorylated SMM using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. From these data, the dissociation rate constant from phosphorylated SMM was 0.80 s−1, which was similar to kpo mentioned above and with rates measured in solution. This dissociation rate was essentially independent of the phosphorylation state of SMM. From calculations using our measured dissociation rates and Kds, and estimates of [SMM] and [MLCK] in muscle, we predict that the dissociation of MLCK from phosphorylated SMM is rate-limiting and that the rate of the phosphorylation step is faster than this dissociation rate. Also, association to SMM (11-46 s−1) would be much faster than to pSMM (<0.1-0.2 s−1). This suggests that the probability of MLCK interacting with unphosphorylated versus pSMM is 55-460 times greater. This would avoid sequestering MLCK to unproductive interactions with previously phosphorylated SMM, potentially leading to faster rates of phosphorylation in muscle. PMID:24144337

  13. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase, supramolecular organization, modulation of activity, and related conformational changes.

    PubMed Central

    Filenko, A M; Danilova, V M; Sobieszek, A

    1997-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that activation of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) can be modulated by formation of supramolecular structures (Sobieszek, A. 1991. Regulation of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase. Allosteric effects and co-operative activation by CaM. J. Mol. Biol. 220:947-957). The present light scattering data demonstrate that the inactive (calmodulin-free) MLCK apoenzyme exists in solution as a mixture of oligomeric (2% by weight), dimeric (53%), and monomeric (45%) species at physiological ionic strength (160 mM salt). These long-living assemblies, the lifetime of which was measured by minutes, were in equilibrium with each other. The most likely form of the oligomer was a spiral-like hexamer, the dimensions of which fit very well the helical structure of self-assembled myosin filaments (Sobieszek, A. 1972. Cross-bridges on self-assembled smooth muscle myosin filaments. J. Mol. Biol. 70:741-744). After activation of the kinase by calmodulin (CaM) we could not detect any appreciable changes in the distribution of the kinase species either when the kinase was saturated with CaM or when its molar concentration exceeded that of CaM. Our fluorescent measurements suggest that the earlier observed inhibition of kinase at substoichiometric amounts of CaM (Sobieszek, A., A. Strobl, B. Ortner, and E. Babiychuk. 1993. Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent modification of smooth-muscle myosin light chain kinase leading to its co-operative activation by calmodulin. Biochem. J. 295:405-411) is associated with slow conformational change(s) of the activated (CaM-bound) kinase molecules. Such conformational rearrangements also took place with equimolar kinase to CaM; however, in this case there was no decrease in MLCK activity. The nature of these conformational changes, which are accompanied by reduction of the kinase for CaM affinity, is discussed. PMID:9284326

  14. Berberine Depresses Contraction of Smooth Muscle via Inhibiting Myosin Light-chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhili; Zhang, Mingbo; Dou, Deqiang; Tao, Xiaojun; Kang, Tingguo

    2017-01-01

    Berberine is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid possessing various pharmacological effects, particularly apparent in the treatment of diarrhea, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Smooth muscle myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) plays a crucial role in the smooth muscle relaxation-contraction events, and it is well known that berberine can effectively depress the contraction of smooth muscle. Hence, whether berberine could inhibit MLCK and then depress the smooth muscle contractility might be researched. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of berberine on MLCK. Based on this, the contractility of gastro-intestine, catalysis activity of MLCK, and molecular docking are going to be evaluated. The experiment of smooth muscle contraction was directly monitored the contractions of the isolated gastrointestine by frequency and amplitude at different concentration of berberine. The effects of berberine on MLCK were measured in the presence of Ca(2+)-calmodulin, using the activities of 20 kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation, and myosin Mg(2+)-ATPase induced by MLCK. The docking study was conducted with expert software in the meantime. The phosphorylation of myosin and the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity is reduced in the presence of berberine. Moreover, berberine could inhibit the contractibility of isolated gastric intestine smooth muscle. Berberine could bind to the ATP binding site of MLCK through hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding according to the docking study. The present work gives a deep insight into the molecular mechanism for the treatment of diarrhea with berberine, i.e., berberine could suppress the contractility of smooth muscle through binding to MLCK and depressing the catalysis activity of MLCK. Berberine significantly reduced the amplitude of contraction in isolated duodenum and gastric strips in ratsBerberine inhibited the phosphorylated extents of MLC20 and Mg2+-ATPase activity of phosphorylated myosin induced by

  15. Insulin-induced myosin light-chain phosphorylation during receptor capping in IM-9 human B-lymphoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Majercik, M H; Bourguignon, L Y

    1988-01-01

    We have examined further the interaction between insulin surface receptors and the cytoskeleton of IM-9 human lymphoblasts. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we determined that actin, myosin, calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) are all accumulated directly underneath insulin-receptor caps. In addition, we have now established that the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ (as measured by fura-2 fluorescence) increases just before insulin-induced receptor capping. Most importantly, we found that the binding of insulin to its receptor induces phosphorylation of myosin light chain in vivo. Furthermore, a number of drugs known to abolish the activation properties of calmodulin, such as trifluoperazine (TFP) or W-7, strongly inhibit insulin-receptor capping and myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These data imply that an actomyosin cytoskeletal contraction, regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin and MLCK, is involved in insulin-receptor capping. Biochemical analysis in vitro has revealed that IM-9 insulin receptors are physically associated with actin and myosin; and most interestingly, the binding of insulin-receptor/cytoskeletal complex significantly enhances the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain. This insulin-induced phosphorylation is inhibited by calmodulin antagonists (e.g. TFP and W-7), suggesting that the phosphorylation is catalysed by MLCK. Together, these results strongly suggest that MLCK-mediated myosin light-chain phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the membrane-associated actomyosin contraction required for the collection of insulin receptors into caps. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:3048249

  16. Identification of calmodulin and MlcC as light chains for Dictyostelium myosin-I isozymes.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Scott W; Liburd, Janine; Shaw, Kristopher; Jung, Yoojin; Smith, Steven P; Côté, Graham P

    2011-08-02

    Dictyostelium discoideum express seven single-headed myosin-I isozymes (MyoA-MyoE and MyoK) that drive motile processes at the cell membrane. The light chains for MyoA and MyoE were identified by expressing Flag-tagged constructs consisting of the motor domain and the two IQ motifs in the neck region in Dictyostelium. The MyoA and MyoE constructs both copurified with calmodulin. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) showed that apo-calmodulin bound to peptides corresponding to the MyoA and MyoE IQ motifs with micromolar affinity. In the presence of calcium, calmodulin cross-linked two IQ motif peptides, with one domain binding with nanomolar affinity and the other with micromolar affinity. The IQ motifs were required for the actin-activated MgATPase activity of MyoA but not MyoE; however, neither myosin exhibited calcium-dependent activity. A Flag-tagged construct consisting of the MyoC motor domain and the three IQ motifs in the adjacent neck region bound a novel 8.6 kDa two EF-hand protein named MlcC, for myosin light chain for MyoC. MlcC is most similar to the C-terminal domain of calmodulin but does not bind calcium. ITC studies showed that MlcC binds IQ1 and IQ2 but not IQ3 of MyoC. IQ3 contains a proline residue that may render it nonfunctional. Each long-tailed Dictyostelium myosin-I has now been shown to have a unique light chain (MyoB-MlcB, MyoC-MlcC, and MyoD-MlcD), whereas the short-tailed myosins-I, MyoA and MyoE, have the multifunctional calmodulin as a light chain. The diversity in light chain composition is likely to contribute to the distinct cellular functions of each myosin-I isozyme.

  17. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sunny S.; Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  18. Agonist-induced changes in the phosphorylation of the myosin- binding subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase and CPI17, two regulatory factors of myosin light chain phosphatase, in smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Niiro, Naohisa; Koga, Yasuhiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) enhances smooth muscle contraction at a constant [Ca2+]. There are two components, myosin-binding subunit of MLCP (MBS) and CPI17, thought to be responsible for the inhibition of MLCP by external stimuli. The phosphorylation of MBS at Thr-641 and of CPI17 at Thr-38 inhibits the MLCP activity in vitro. Here we determined the changes in the phosphorylation of MBS and CPI17 after agonist stimulation in intact as well as permeabilized smooth muscle strips using phosphorylation-site-specific antibodies as probes. The CPI17 phosphorylation transiently increased after agonist stimulation in both alpha-toxin skinned and intact fibres. The time course of the increase in CPI17 phosphorylation after stimulation correlated with the increase in myosin regulatory light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. The increase in CPI17 phosphorylation was significantly diminished by Y27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor, and GF109203x, a protein kinase C inhibitor, suggesting that both the protein kinase C and Rho kinase pathways influence the change in CPI17 phosphorylation. On the other hand, a significant level of MBS phosphorylation at Thr-641, an inhibitory site, was observed in the resting state for both skinned and intact fibres and the agonist stimulation did not significantly alter the MBS phosphorylation level at Thr-641. While the removal of the agonist markedly decreased MLC phosphorylation and induced relaxation, the phosphorylation of MBS was unchanged, while CPI17 phosphorylation markedly diminished. These results strongly suggest that the phosphorylation of CPI17 plays a more significant role in the agonist-induced increase in myosin phosphorylation and contraction of smooth muscle than MBS phosphorylation in the Ca2+-independent activation mechanism of smooth muscle contraction. PMID:12296769

  19. Structure of the Single-lobe Myosin Light Chain C in Complex with the Light Chain-binding Domains of Myosin-1C Provides Insights into Divergent IQ Motif Recognition.

    PubMed

    Langelaan, David N; Liburd, Janine; Yang, Yidai; Miller, Emily; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W; Côté, Graham P; Smith, Steven P

    2016-09-09

    Myosin light chains are key regulators of class 1 myosins and typically comprise two domains, with calmodulin being the archetypal example. They bind IQ motifs within the myosin neck region and amplify conformational changes in the motor domain. A single lobe light chain, myosin light chain C (MlcC), was recently identified and shown to specifically bind to two sequentially divergent IQ motifs of the Dictyostelium myosin-1C. To provide a molecular basis of this interaction, the structures of apo-MlcC and a 2:1 MlcC·myosin-1C neck complex were determined. The two non-functional EF-hand motifs of MlcC pack together to form a globular four-helix bundle that opens up to expose a central hydrophobic groove, which interacts with the N-terminal portion of the divergent IQ1 and IQ2 motifs. The N- and C-terminal regions of MlcC make critical contacts that contribute to its specific interactions with the myosin-1C divergent IQ motifs, which are contacts that deviate from the traditional mode of calmodulin-IQ recognition.

  20. Structure of the Single-lobe Myosin Light Chain C in Complex with the Light Chain-binding Domains of Myosin-1C Provides Insights into Divergent IQ Motif Recognition *

    PubMed Central

    Langelaan, David N.; Liburd, Janine; Yang, Yidai; Miller, Emily; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W.; Côté, Graham P.; Smith, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chains are key regulators of class 1 myosins and typically comprise two domains, with calmodulin being the archetypal example. They bind IQ motifs within the myosin neck region and amplify conformational changes in the motor domain. A single lobe light chain, myosin light chain C (MlcC), was recently identified and shown to specifically bind to two sequentially divergent IQ motifs of the Dictyostelium myosin-1C. To provide a molecular basis of this interaction, the structures of apo-MlcC and a 2:1 MlcC·myosin-1C neck complex were determined. The two non-functional EF-hand motifs of MlcC pack together to form a globular four-helix bundle that opens up to expose a central hydrophobic groove, which interacts with the N-terminal portion of the divergent IQ1 and IQ2 motifs. The N- and C-terminal regions of MlcC make critical contacts that contribute to its specific interactions with the myosin-1C divergent IQ motifs, which are contacts that deviate from the traditional mode of calmodulin-IQ recognition. PMID:27466369

  1. Interaction of protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) with smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Kunimatsu, Mitoshi

    2003-06-01

    The interaction of a protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) isolated from Basidiomycetes with smooth muscle myosin components was evaluated by limited digestion, urea/glycerol gel electrophoresis, affinity chromatography and overlay assay using a peptide array. PSK was bound to the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin, but not to the essential light chain. The binding to PSK was definitely observed for unphosphorylated RLC, compared to phosphorylated one. From the amino acid sequence of the RLC, 490 peptides were synthesized on a cellulose membrane. Overlay assays showed that the PSK-binding on the molecule of RLC were localized in the N- and C-terminal basic regions and these sites were conserved in RLC from the human smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells.

  2. A Cardiomyopathy Mutation in the Myosin Essential Light Chain Alters Actomyosin Structure.

    PubMed

    Guhathakurta, Piyali; Prochniewicz, Ewa; Roopnarine, Osha; Rohde, John A; Thomas, David D

    2017-07-11

    We have used site-directed time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer to determine the effect of a pathological mutation in the human ventricular essential light chain (hVELC) of myosin, on the structural dynamics of the actin-myosin complex. The hVELC modulates the function of actomyosin, through the interaction of its N-terminal extension with actin and its C-terminal lobe with the myosin heavy chain. Several mutations in hVELC are associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Some biochemical effects of these mutations are known, but further insight is needed about their effects on the structural dynamics of functioning actomyosin. Therefore, we introduced the HCM mutation E56G into a single-cysteine (C16) hVELC construct and substituted it for the VELC of bovine cardiac myosin subfragment 1. Using a donor fluorescent probe on actin (at C374) and an acceptor probe on C16 of hVELC, we performed time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer, directly detecting structural changes within the bound actomyosin complex during function. The E56G mutation has no significant effect on actin-activated ATPase activity or actomyosin affinity in the presence of ATP, or on the structure of the strong-binding S complex in the absence of ATP. However, in the presence of saturating ATP, where both W (prepowerstroke) and S (postpowerstroke) structural states are observed, the mutant increases the mole fraction of the S complex (increasing the duty ratio), while shifting the structure of the remaining W complex toward that of S, indicating a structural redistribution toward the strongly bound (force-generating) complex. We propose that this effect is responsible for the hypercontractile phenotype induced by this HCM mutation in myosin. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulatory light chain mutants linked to heart disease modify the cardiac myosin lever arm.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Sikkink, Laura A

    2013-02-19

    Myosin is the chemomechanical energy transducer in striated heart muscle. The myosin cross-bridge applies impulsive force to actin while consuming ATP chemical energy to propel myosin thick filaments relative to actin thin filaments in the fiber. Transduction begins with ATP hydrolysis in the cross-bridge driving rotary movement of a lever arm converting torque into linear displacement. Myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binds to the lever arm and modifies its ability to translate actin. Gene sequencing implicated several RLC mutations in heart disease, and three of them are investigated here using photoactivatable GFP-tagged RLC (RLC-PAGFP) exchanged into permeabilized papillary muscle fibers. A single-lever arm probe orientation is detected in the crowded environment of the muscle fiber by using RLC-PAGFP with dipole orientation deduced from the three-spatial dimension fluorescence emission pattern of the single molecule. Symmetry and selection rules locate dipoles in their half-sarcomere, identify those at the minimal free energy, and specify active dipole contraction intermediates. Experiments were performed in a microfluidic chamber designed for isometric contraction, total internal reflection fluorescence detection, and two-photon excitation second harmonic generation to evaluate sarcomere length. The RLC-PAGFP reports apparently discretized lever arm orientation intermediates in active isometric fibers that on average produce the stall force. Disease-linked mutants introduced into RLC move intermediate occupancy further down the free energy gradient, implying lever arms rotate more to reach stall force because mutant RLC increases lever arm shear strain. A lower free energy intermediate occupancy involves a lower energy conversion efficiency in the fiber relating a specific myosin function modification to the disease-implicated mutant.

  4. Mammalian Nonmuscle Myosin II Binds to Anionic Phospholipids with Concomitant Dissociation of the Regulatory Light Chain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Shu, Shi; Billington, Neil; Williamson, Chad D; Yu, Shuhua; Brzeska, Hanna; Donaldson, Julie G; Sellers, James R; Korn, Edward D

    2016-11-25

    Mammalian cells express three Class II nonmuscle myosins (NM): NM2A, NM2B, and NM2C. The three NM2s have well established essential roles in cell motility, adhesion, and cytokinesis and less well defined roles in vesicle transport and other processes that would require association of NM2s with cell membranes. Previous evidence for the mechanism of NM2-membrane association includes direct interaction of NM2s with membrane lipids and indirect interaction by association of NM2s with membrane-bound F-actin or peripheral membrane proteins. Direct binding of NM2s to phosphatidylserine-liposomes, but not to phosphatidylcholine-liposomes, has been reported, but the molecular basis of the interaction between NM2s and acidic phospholipids has not been previously investigated. We now show that filamentous, full-length NM2A, NM2B, and NM2C and monomeric, non-filamentous heavy meromyosin bind to liposomes containing one or more acidic phospholipids (phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate, and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate) but do not bind to 100% phosphatidylcholine-liposomes. Binding of NM2s to acidic liposomes occurs predominantly through interaction of the liposomes with the regulatory light chain (RLC) binding site in the myosin heavy chain with concomitant dissociation of the RLC. Phosphorylation of myosin-bound RLC by myosin light chain kinase substantially inhibits binding to liposomes of both filamentous NM2 and non-filamentous heavy meromyosin; the addition of excess unbound RLC, but not excess unbound essential light chain, competes with liposome binding. Consistent with the in vitro data, we show that endogenous and expressed NM2A associates with the plasma membrane of HeLa cells and fibrosarcoma cells independently of F-actin. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Myosin Subfragment 1 Isoforms with Different Essential Light Chains

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Denis I.; Zubov, Eugene O.; Nikolaeva, Olga P.; Kurganov, Boris I.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.

    2010-01-01

    We compared thermally induced denaturation and aggregation of two isoforms of the isolated myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) containing different “essential” (or “alkali”) light chains, A1 or A2. We applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the domain structure of these two S1 isoforms. For this purpose, a special calorimetric approach was developed to analyze the DSC profiles of irreversibly denaturing multidomain proteins. Using this approach, we revealed two calorimetric domains in the S1 molecule, the more thermostable domain denaturing in two steps. Comparing the DSC data with temperature dependences of intrinsic fluorescence parameters and S1 ATPase inactivation, we have identified these two calorimetric domains as motor domain and regulatory domain of the myosin head, the motor domain being more thermostable. Some difference between the two S1 isoforms was only revealed by DSC in thermal denaturation of the regulatory domain. We also applied dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the aggregation of S1 isoforms induced by their thermal denaturation. We have found no appreciable difference between these S1 isoforms in their aggregation properties under ionic strength conditions close to those in the muscle fiber (in the presence of 100 mM KCl). Under these conditions kinetics of this process was independent of protein concentration, and the aggregation rate was limited by irreversible denaturation of the S1 motor domain. PMID:21151434

  6. PKC-mediated cerebral vasoconstriction: Role of myosin light chain phosphorylation versus actin cytoskeleton reorganization.

    PubMed

    El-Yazbi, Ahmed F; Abd-Elrahman, Khaled S; Moreno-Dominguez, Alejandro

    2015-06-15

    Defective protein kinase C (PKC) signaling has been suggested to contribute to abnormal vascular contraction in disease conditions including hypertension and diabetes. Our previous work on agonist and pressure-induced cerebral vasoconstriction implicated PKC as a major contributor to force production in a myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation-independent manner. Here, we used phorbol dibutyrate to selectively induce a PKC-dependent constriction in rat middle cerebral arteries and delineate the relative contribution of different contractile mechanisms involved. Specifically, we employed an ultra-sensitive 3-step western blotting approach to detect changes in the content of phosphoproteins that regulate myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, thin filament activation, and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Data indicate that PKC activation evoked a greater constriction at a similar level of LC20 phosphorylation achieved by 5-HT. PDBu-evoked constriction persisted in the presence of Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent PKC, and in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Biochemical evidence indicates that either + or - extracellular Ca(2+), PDBu (i) inhibits MLCP activity via the phosphorylation of myosin targeting subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) and C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor (CPI-17), (ii) increases the phosphorylation of paxillin and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and reduces G-actin content, and (iii) does not change the phospho-content of the thin filament proteins, calponin and caldesmon. PDBu-induced constriction was more sensitive to disruption of actin cytoskeleton compared to inhibition of cross-bridge cycling. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for the pivotal contribution of cytoskeletal actin polymerization in force generation following PKC activation in cerebral resistance arteries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The essential light chain is required for full force production by skeletal muscle myosin.

    PubMed Central

    VanBuren, P; Waller, G S; Harris, D E; Trybus, K M; Warshaw, D M; Lowey, S

    1994-01-01

    Myosin, a molecular motor that is responsible for muscle contraction, is composed of two heavy chains each with two light chains. The crystal structure of subfragment 1 indicates that both the regulatory light chains (RLCs) and the essential light chains (ELCs) stabilize an extended alpha-helical segment of the heavy chain. It has recently been shown in a motility assay that removal of either light chain markedly reduces actin filament sliding velocity without a significant loss in actin-activated ATPase activity. Here we demonstrate by single actin filament force measurements that RLC removal has little effect on isometric force, whereas ELC removal reduces isometric force by over 50%. These data are interpreted with a simple mechanical model where subfragment 1 behaves as a torque motor whose leyer arm length is sensitive to light-chain removal. Although the effect of removing RLCs fits within the confines of this model, altered crossbridge kinetics, as reflected in a reduced unloaded duty cycle, probably contributes to the reduced velocity and force production of ELC-deficient myosins. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7809049

  8. MYPT1 regulates contractility and microtubule acetylation to modulate integrin adhesions and matrix assembly

    PubMed Central

    Joo, E. Emily; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Although much is known about how individual cytoskeletal systems contribute to physiological processes such as cell migration and branching morphogenesis, little is known about how these different systems actively coordinate their functions after polymerization. Here we show that both fibroblasts and developing glands reciprocally coordinate levels of cellular contractility and microtubule acetylation. We find that this balance is achieved by interaction of the myosin phosphatase target subunit of myosin phosphatase with either myosin light chain or HDAC6, a microtubule deacetylase. This balance of contractility and microtubule acetylation controlled progression of adhesion maturation by regulating surface density of α5β1 integrin and fibronectin. Thus, we propose that a homeostatic balance between contractility and microtubule acetylation is mediated by myosin phosphatase via controlled activation and deactivation of myosin II and HDAC6. This regulates the surface density of α5β1 integrin to modulate fibronectin matrix assembly and governs rates of cell migration and branching morphogenesis. PMID:24667306

  9. Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Diphosphorylation Slows Relaxation of Arterial Smooth Muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Cindy; Walsh, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The principal signal to activate smooth muscle contraction is phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains of myosin (LC20) at Ser19 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase. Inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase leads to Ca2+-independent phosphorylation at both Ser19 and Thr18 by integrin-linked kinase and/or zipper-interacting protein kinase. The functional effects of phosphorylation at Thr18 on steady-state isometric force and relaxation rate were investigated in Triton-skinned rat caudal arterial smooth muscle strips. Sequential phosphorylation at Ser19 and Thr18 was achieved by treatment with adenosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) in the presence of Ca2+, which induced stoichiometric thiophosphorylation at Ser19, followed by microcystin (phosphatase inhibitor) in the absence of Ca2+, which induced phosphorylation at Thr18. Phosphorylation at Thr18 had no effect on steady-state force induced by Ser19 thiophosphorylation. However, phosphorylation of Ser19 or both Ser19 and Thr18 to comparable stoichiometries (0.5 mol of Pi/mol of LC20) and similar levels of isometric force revealed differences in the rates of dephosphorylation and relaxation following removal of the stimulus: t½ values for dephosphorylation were 83.3 and 560 s, and for relaxation were 560 and 1293 s, for monophosphorylated (Ser19) and diphosphorylated LC20, respectively. We conclude that phosphorylation at Thr18 decreases the rates of LC20 dephosphorylation and smooth muscle relaxation compared with LC20 phosphorylated exclusively at Ser19. These effects of LC20 diphosphorylation, combined with increased Ser19 phosphorylation (Ca2+-independent), may underlie the hypercontractility that is observed in response to certain physiological contractile stimuli, and under pathological conditions such as cerebral and coronary arterial vasospasm, intimal hyperplasia, and hypertension. PMID:22661704

  10. Influence of fast and slow alkali myosin light chain isoforms on the kinetics of stretch-induced force transients of fast-twitch type IIA fibres of rat.

    PubMed

    Andruchov, Oleg; Galler, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    This study contributes to understand the physiological role of slow myosin light chain isoforms in fast-twitch type IIA fibres of skeletal muscle. These isoforms are often attached to the myosin necks of rat type IIA fibres, whereby the slow alkali myosin light chain isoform MLC1s is much more frequent and abundant than the slow regulatory myosin light chain isoform MLC2s. In the present study, single-skinned rat type IIA fibres were maximally Ca(2+) activated and subjected to stepwise stretches for causing a perturbation of myosin head pulling cycles. From the time course of the resulting force transients, myosin head kinetics was deduced. Fibres containing MLC1s exhibited slower kinetics independently of the presence or absence of MLC2s. At the maximal MLC1s concentration of about 75%, the slowing was about 40%. The slowing effect of MLC1s is possibly due to differences in the myosin heavy chain binding sites of the fast and slow alkali MLC isoforms, which changes the rigidity of the myosin neck. Compared with the impact of myosin heavy chain isoforms in various fast-twitch fibre types, the influence of MLC1s on myosin head kinetics of type IIA fibres is much smaller. In conclusion, the physiological role of fast and slow MLC isoforms in type IIA fibres is a fine-tuning of the myosin head kinetics.

  11. Autoregulatory Control of Smooth Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase Promoter by Notch Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanchita; Proweller, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (SM-MLCK) is the key enzyme responsible for phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chain (MLC20), resulting in actin-myosin cross-bridging and force generation in vascular smooth muscle required for physiological vasoreactivity and blood pressure control. In this study, we investigated the combinatorial role of myocardin/serum response factor (SRF) and Notch signaling in the transcriptional regulation of MLCK gene expression. Promoter reporter analyses in rat A10 smooth muscle cells revealed a bimodal pattern of MLCK promoter activity and gene expression upon stimulation with constitutively active Notch1 in presence of myocardin or by Jagged1 ligand stimulation. An initial Notch1-induced increase in MLCK transcription was followed by loss in promoter sensitivity, which could be restored with further Notch1 dose escalation. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that endogenous levels of Hairy Related Transcription (HRT) factor 2 (HRT2) peaked concurrently with inhibitory concentrations of Notch1. Forced expression of HRT2 demonstrated simultaneous repression of both myocardin- and Notch1-induced MLCK promoter activity. HRT2-mediated repression was further confirmed by HRT2 truncations and siHRT2 treatments that rescued MLCK promoter activity and gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed both Jagged1 ligand- and Notch1-enhanced myocardin/SRF complex formation at the promoter CArG element. In contrast, heightened levels of HRT2 concomitantly disrupted myocardin/SRF and Notch transcription complex formation at respective CArG and CSL binding elements. Taken together, SM-MLCK promoter activity appears highly sensitive to the relative levels of Notch1 signaling, HRT2, and myocardin. These findings identify a novel Notch-dependent HRT2 autoregulatory circuit coordinating transcriptional regulation of SM-MLCK. PMID:26703474

  12. Planarian myosin essential light chain is involved in the formation of brain lateral branches during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuying; Chen, Xuhui; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhou, Luming; Pang, Qiuxiang; Mao, Bingyu; Zhao, Bosheng

    2015-08-01

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structure component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, however, the functions in the central nervous system (CNS) development and regeneration remain poorly understood. Planarian Dugesia japonica has revealed fundamental mechanisms and unique aspects of neuroscience and neuroregeneration. In this study, the cDNA DjElc, encoding a planarian essential light chain of myosin, was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It encodes a deduced protein with highly conserved functionally domains EF-Hand and Ca(2+) binding sites that shares significant similarity with other members of ELC. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies show that DjElc expressed in CNS during embryonic development and regeneration of adult planarians. Loss of function of DjElc by RNA interference during planarian regeneration inhibits brain lateral branches regeneration completely. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that DjElc is required for maintenance of neurons and neurite outgrowth, particularly for involving the brain later branch regeneration.

  13. Rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase and phosphatase activities decrease with age.

    PubMed

    Belik, J; Kerc, Ewa; Pato, Mary D

    2006-03-01

    We and others have shown that the fetal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle potential for contraction and relaxation is significantly reduced compared with the adult. Whether these developmental changes relate to age differences in the expression and/or activity of key enzymes regulating the smooth muscle mechanical properties has not been previously evaluated. Therefore, we studied the catalytic activities and expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) catalytic (PP1cdelta) and regulatory (MYPT) subunits in late fetal, early newborn, and adult rat intrapulmonary arterial tissues. In keeping with the greater force development and relaxation of adult pulmonary artery, Western blot analysis showed that the MLCK, MYPT, and PP1cdelta contents increased significantly with age and were highest in the adult rat. In contrast, their specific activities (activity/enzyme content) were significantly higher in the fetal compared with the adult tissue. The fetal and newborn pulmonary arterial muscle relaxant response to the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 was greater than the adult tissue. In addition to the 130-kDa isoform of MLCK, we documented the presence of minor higher-molecular-weight embryonic isoforms in the fetus and newborn. During fetal life, the lung pulmonary arterial MLCK- and MLCP-specific activities are highest and appear to be related to Rho-kinase activation during lung morphogenesis.

  14. [Ontogenetic and phylogenetic analysis of myosin light chain proteins from skeletal muscles of loach Misgurnus fossilis].

    PubMed

    Miuge, N S; Tikhonov, A V; Ozerniuk, N D

    2005-01-01

    mRNAs of all three types of myosin light chain proteins are expressed in skeletal muscles of both larval and adult stages of loach Misgurnus fossilis (Cobitidae) and these proteins are encoded by different genes (mlc1, mlc2, and mlc3). No difference was revealed between transcripts from larval stage and adult fish for all three mlc proteins. Our approach (RT-PCR with fish-specific mlc1, mlc2, and mlc3 primers) failed to reveal the larval form of myosin light chain protein found previously by protein electrophoresis of loach fry muscle extract. Comparative analysis of the protein structure shows high homology of MLC1 and MLC3 proteins sharing a large EF-hand calcium-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of MLC1 from skeletal muscles of fish and other vertebrate species is concordant with the traditional phylogeny of the group. Within the Teleostei, loach MLC1 had the highest homology with other Cyprinidae, and least with Salmonidae fishes.

  15. Myosin Regulatory Light Chain (RLC) Phosphorylation Change as a Modulator of Cardiac Muscle Contraction in Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Toepfer, Christopher; Caorsi, Valentina; Kampourakis, Thomas; Sikkel, Markus B.; West, Timothy G.; Leung, Man-Ching; Al-Saud, Sara A.; MacLeod, Kenneth T.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Marston, Steven B.; Sellers, James R.; Ferenczi, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation alters cardiac muscle mechanics is important because it is often altered in cardiac disease. The effect this protein phosphorylation has on muscle mechanics during a physiological range of shortening velocities, during which the heart generates power and performs work, has not been addressed. We have expressed and phosphorylated recombinant Rattus norvegicus left ventricular RLC. In vitro we have phosphorylated these recombinant species with cardiac myosin light chain kinase and zipper-interacting protein kinase. We compare rat permeabilized cardiac trabeculae, which have undergone exchange with differently phosphorylated RLC species. We were able to enrich trabecular RLC phosphorylation by 40% compared with controls and, in a separate series, lower RLC phosphorylation to 60% of control values. Compared with the trabeculae with a low level of RLC phosphorylation, RLC phosphorylation enrichment increased isometric force by more than 3-fold and peak power output by more than 7-fold and approximately doubled both maximum shortening speed and the shortening velocity that generated peak power. We augmented these measurements by observing increased RLC phosphorylation of human and rat HF samples from endocardial left ventricular homogenate. These results demonstrate the importance of increased RLC phosphorylation in the up-regulation of myocardial performance and suggest that reduced RLC phosphorylation is a key aspect of impaired contractile function in the diseased myocardium. PMID:23530050

  16. Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of myosin II essential light chains of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites regulates their motility.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Moreno, Raúl; Pérez-Yépez, Eloy-Andrés; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Morales, Fernando O; Meza, Isaura

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites dwell in the human intestine as comensals although under still unclear circumstances become invasive and destroy the host tissues. For these activities, trophozoites relay on remarkable motility provided by the cytoskeleton organization. Amebic actin and some of its actin-associated proteins are well known, while components of the myosin II molecule, although predicted from the E. histolytica genome, need biochemical and functional characterization. Recently, an amebic essential light myosin II chain, named EhMLCI, was identified and reported to be phosphorylated in tyrosines. The phosphorylated form of the protein was associated with the soluble assembly incompetent conformation of the heavy myosin chains, while the non-phosphorylated protein was identified with filamentous heavy chains, organized in an assembly competent conformation. It was postulated that EhMLCI tyrosine phosphorylation could act as a negative regulator of myosin II activity by its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an expression vector containing an EhMLCI DNA sequence where two tyrosine residues, with strong probability of phosphorylation and fall within the single EF-hand domain that interacts with the N-terminus of myosin II heavy chains, were replaced by phenylalanines. Transfected trophozoites, expressing the mutant MutEhMLCI protein cannot process it, thereby not incorporated into the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles required for myosin II activity, results in motility defective trophozoites.

  17. The role of the N-terminus of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jones, Michelle; Guzman, Georgianna; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kerrick, W. Glenn L.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    Summary To study the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by the myosin essential light chain (ELC) and the physiological significance of its N-terminal extension, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice partially replacing the endogenous mouse ventricular ELC with either the human ventricular ELC wild type (Tg-WT) or its 43 amino acid N-terminal truncation mutant (Tg-Δ43) in the murine hearts. The mutant protein is similar in sequence to the short ELC variant present in skeletal muscle and the ELC protein distribution in Tg-Δ43 ventricles resembles that of fast skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle preparations from Tg-Δ43 mice demonstrate reduced force per cross-sectional area of muscle, which is likely caused by a reduced number of force generating myosin cross-bridges and/or by decreased force per cross-bridge. As the mice grow older, the contractile force per cross-sectional area further decreases in Tg-Δ43 mice and the mutant hearts develop a phenotype of non-pathologic hypertrophy while still maintaining normal cardiac performance. The myocardium of older Tg-Δ43 mice also exhibits reduced myosin content. Our results suggest that the role of the N-terminal ELC extension is to maintain the integrity of myosin and to modulate force generation by decreasing myosin neck region compliance and promoting strong cross-bridge formation and/or by enhancing myosin attachment to actin. PMID:19361417

  18. Phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain is necessary for migration of HeLa cells but not for localization of myosin II at the leading edge.

    PubMed Central

    Fumoto, Katsumi; Uchimura, Takashi; Iwasaki, Takahiro; Ueda, Kozue; Hosoya, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of phosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC) in living cell migration, these mutant MRLCs were engineered and introduced into HeLa cells. The mutant MRLCs include an unphosphorylatable form, in which both Thr-18 and Ser-19 were substituted with Ala (AA-MRLC), and pseudophosphorylated forms, in which Thr-18 and Ser-19 were replaced with Ala and Asp, respectively (AD-MRLC), and both Thr-18 and Ser-19 were replaced with Asp (DD-MRLC). Mutant MRLC-expressing cell monolayers were mechanically stimulated by scratching, and the cells were forced to migrate in a given direction. In this wound-healing assay, the AA-MRLC-expressing cells migrated much more slowly than the wild-type MRLC-expressing cells. In the case of DD-MRLC- and AD-MRLC-expressing cells, no significant differences compared with wild-type MRLC-expressing cells were observed in their migration speed. Indirect immunofluorescence staining showed that the accumulation of endogenous diphosphorylated MRLC at the leading edge was not observed in AA-MRLC-expressing cells, although AA-MRLC was incorporated into myosin heavy chain and localized at the leading edge. In conclusion, we propose that the phosphorylation of MRLC is required to generate the driving force in the migration of the cells but not necessary for localization of myosin II at the leading edge. PMID:12429016

  19. Site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory light-chain Ca2+/Mg2+ binding site and its role in hybrid myosins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinach, Fernando C.; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Kendrick-Jones, John

    1986-07-01

    The regulatory light chains, small polypeptides located on the myosin head, regulate the interaction of myosin with actin in response to either Ca2+ or phosphorylation. The demonstration that the regulatory light chains on scallop myosin can be replaced by light chains from other myosins has allowed us to compare the functional capabilities of different light chains1, but has not enabled us to probe the role of features, such as the Ca2+/Mg2+ binding site, that are common to all of them. Here, we describe the use of site-directed mutagenesis to study the function of that site. We synthesized the chicken skeletal myosin light chain in Escherichia coli and constructed mutants with substitutions within the Ca2+/Mg2+ binding site. When the aspartate residues at the first and sixth Ca2+ coordination positions are replaced by uncharged alanines, the light chains have a reduced Ca2+ binding capacity but still bind to scallop myosin with high affinity. Unlike the wild-type skeletal light chain which inhibits myosin interaction with actin, the mutants activate it. Thus, an intact Ca2+/Mg2+ binding site in the N-terminal region of the light chain is essential for regulating the interaction of myosin with actin.

  20. Myosin light chain kinase accelerates vesicle endocytosis at the calyx of Held synapse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity triggers endocytosis at synaptic terminals to retrieve efficiently the exocytosed vesicle membrane, ensuring the membrane homeostasis of active zones and the continuous supply of releasable vesicles. The kinetics of endocytosis depends on Ca(2+) and calmodulin which, as a versatile signal pathway, can activate a broad spectrum of downstream targets, including myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). MLCK is known to regulate vesicle trafficking and synaptic transmission, but whether this kinase regulates vesicle endocytosis at synapses remains elusive. We investigated this issue at the rat calyx of Held synapse, where previous studies using whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement have characterized two common forms of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent endocytosis, i.e., slow clathrin-dependent endocytosis and rapid endocytosis. Acute inhibition of MLCK with pharmacological agents was found to slow down the kinetics of both slow and rapid forms of endocytosis at calyces. Similar impairment of endocytosis occurred when blocking myosin II, a motor protein that can be phosphorylated upon MLCK activation. The inhibition of endocytosis was not accompanied by a change in Ca(2+) channel current. Combined inhibition of MLCK and calmodulin did not induce synergistic inhibition of endocytosis. Together, our results suggest that activation of MLCK accelerates both slow and rapid forms of vesicle endocytosis at nerve terminals, likely by functioning downstream of Ca(2+)/calmodulin.

  1. Characterization and bacterial expression of the Dictyostelium myosin light chain kinase cDNA. Identification of an autoinhibitory domain.

    PubMed

    Tan, J L; Spudich, J A

    1991-08-25

    A full-length cDNA corresponding to the Dictyostelium myosin light chain kinase gene has been isolated and characterized. Sequence analysis of the cDNA confirms conserved protein kinase subdomains and reveals that the Dictyostelium sequence is highly homologous to those of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, including myosin light chain kinases from higher eukaryotes. Despite the high homologies to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, there is no recognizable calmodulin-binding domain within the Dictyostelium sequence. However, the Dictyostelium myosin light chain kinase possesses a putative auto-inhibitory domain near its carboxyl terminus. To further characterize this domain, the full-length enzyme as well as a truncated form lacking this domain were expressed in bacterial cells and purified. The full-length enzyme expressed in bacteria exhibits essentially the same biochemical characteristics as the enzyme isolated from Dictyostelium. The truncated form however exhibits a Vmax that is approximately ten times greater than that of the native enzyme. In addition, unlike the native kinase and the full-length kinase expressed in bacteria, the truncated enzyme does not undergo autophosphorylation. These results suggest that the Dictyostelium enzyme, like myosin light chain kinases from higher eukaryotes, is regulated by an autoinhibitory domain but that the specific molecular signals necessary for activation of the Dictyostelium enzyme are entirely distinct.

  2. Purification, Characterization, and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xia; Chen, Heng-Li; Maleki, Soheila J; Cao, Min-Jie; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2015-07-15

    Myosin light chain (MLC) plays a vital role in cell and muscle functions and has been identified as an allergen in shrimp. In this study, MLC with a molecular mass of 18 kDa was purified from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle. Its physicochemical characterization showed that the purified MLC is a glycoprotein with 4.3% carbohydrate, highly stable to heat, acid-alkali, and digestion, and weakly retains IgE-binding activity when its secondary structure was altered. Serological assays suggested that conformational epitopes predominate over linear epitopes in the purified MLC. Two isoforms of the MLC gene (MLC1 and MLC2) were cloned, and the purified MLC was identified as MLC1. Analysis of the secondary and tertiary structures of the MLCs indicated that MLC1 has four conformational epitopes and three linear epitopes, whereas MLC2 had a major conformational epitope and three linear epitopes. These results are significant for understanding hypersensitization of humans to crayfish.

  3. Cytoplasmic free calcium, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and force in phasic and tonic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The time course of [Ca2+]i, tension, and myosin light chain phosphorylation were determined during prolonged depolarization with high K+ in intact tonic (rabbit pulmonary artery) and phasic (longitudinal layer of guinea pig ileum) smooth muscles. [Ca2+]i was monitored with the 340 nm/380 nm signal ratio of the fluorescent indicator fura-2. The fluorescence ratio had a similar time course in both muscle types during depolarization with 109 mM [K+]o; after a transient peak, there was a decline to 70% of its peak value in tonic smooth muscle, and to 60% in phasic smooth muscle. Tension, however, continued to increase in the pulmonary artery, while in the ileum it declined in parallel with the [Ca2+]i. On changing [K+]o from 109 to 20 mM, tension and [Ca2+]i either remained unchanged or declined in parallel in the pulmonary artery. Phosphorylation of the 20-kD myosin light chain, measured during stimulation of muscle strips with 109 mM [K+]o in another set of experiments, increased from 3% to a peak of 50% in the intact pulmonary artery, and then declined to a steady state value of 23%. In the intact ileum, a very rapid, early transient phosphorylation (up to 50%) at 2-3 s was seen. This transient declined by 30 s to a value that was close to the resting level (7%), while tension remained at 55% of its peak force. A quick release during maintained stimulation induced no detectable change in the [Ca2+]i in either type of smooth muscle. We discuss the possibility that the slowly rising tonic tension in pulmonary artery could be due to cooperativity between phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated crossbridges. PMID:3216188

  4. Novel Polymorphisms in the Myosin Light Chain Kinase Gene Confer Risk for Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; Grant, Audrey; Halder, Indrani; Brower, Roy; Sevransky, Jonathan; Maloney, James P.; Moss, Marc; Shanholtz, Carl; Yates, Charles R.; Meduri, Gianfranco Umberto; Shriver, Mark D.; Ingersoll, Roxann; Scott, Alan F.; Beaty, Terri H.; Moitra, Jaideep; Ma, Shwu Fan; Ye, Shui Q.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic basis of acute lung injury (ALI) is poorly understood. The myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) gene encodes the nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase isoform, a multifunctional protein involved in the inflammatory response (apoptosis, vascular permeability, leukocyte diapedesis). To examine MYLK as a novel candidate gene in sepsis-associated ALI, we sequenced exons, exon–intron boundaries, and 2 kb of 5′ UTR of the MYLK, which revealed 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Potential association of 28 MYLK SNPs with sepsis-associated ALI were evaluated in a case-control sample of 288 European American subjects (EAs) with sepsis alone, subjects with sepsis-associated ALI, or healthy control subjects, and a sample population of 158 African American subjects (AAs) with sepsis and ALI. Significant single locus associations in EAs were observed between four MYLK SNPs and the sepsis phenotype (P < 0.001), with an additional SNP associated with the ALI phenotype (P = 0.03). A significant association of a single SNP (identical to the SNP identified in EAs) was observed in AAs with sepsis (P = 0.002) and with ALI (P = 0.01). Three sepsis risk-conferring haplotypes in EAs were defined downstream of start codon of smooth muscle MYLK isoform, a region containing putative regulatory elements (P < 0.001). In contrast, multiple haplotypic analyses revealed an ALI-specific, risk-conferring haplotype at 5′ of the MYLK gene in both European and African Americans and an additional 3′ region haplotype only in African Americans. These data strongly implicate MYLK genetic variants to confer increased risk of sepsis and sepsis-associated ALI. PMID:16399953

  5. Cardiac myosin light chain is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and -independent kinase activities

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Pravin; Knapp, Stefan; Barton, Hannah; Sweeney, H. Lee; Kamm, Kristine E.; Stull, James T.

    2016-01-01

    The well-known, muscle-specific smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) (smMLCK) and skeletal muscle MLCK (skMLCK) are dedicated protein kinases regulated by an autoregulatory segment C terminus of the catalytic core that blocks myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binding and phosphorylation in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM). Although it is known that a more recently discovered cardiac MLCK (cMLCK) is necessary for normal RLC phosphorylation in vivo and physiological cardiac performance, information on cMLCK biochemical properties are limited. We find that a fourth uncharacterized MLCK, MLCK4, is also expressed in cardiac muscle with high catalytic domain sequence similarity with other MLCKs but lacking an autoinhibitory segment. Its crystal structure shows the catalytic domain in its active conformation with a short C-terminal “pseudoregulatory helix” that cannot inhibit catalysis as a result of missing linker regions. MLCK4 has only Ca2+/CaM-independent activity with comparable Vmax and Km values for different RLCs. In contrast, the Vmax value of cMLCK is orders of magnitude lower than those of the other three MLCK family members, whereas its Km (RLC and ATP) and KCaM values are similar. In contrast to smMLCK and skMLCK, which lack activity in the absence of Ca2+/CaM, cMLCK has constitutive activity that is stimulated by Ca2+/CaM. Potential contributions of autoregulatory segment to cMLCK activity were analyzed with chimeras of skMLCK and cMLCK. The constitutive, low activity of cMLCK appears to be intrinsic to its catalytic core structure rather than an autoinhibitory segment. Thus, RLC phosphorylation in cardiac muscle may be regulated by two different protein kinases with distinct biochemical regulatory properties. PMID:27325775

  6. Phosphorylation of Nonmuscle myosin II-A regulatory light chain resists Sendai virus fusion with host cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Provas; Saha, Shekhar; Chandra, Sunandini; Das, Alakesh; Dey, Sumit K.; Das, Mahua R.; Sen, Shamik; Sarkar, Debi P.; Jana, Siddhartha S.

    2015-01-01

    Enveloped viruses enter host cells through membrane fusion and the cells in turn alter their shape to accommodate components of the virus. However, the role of nonmuscle myosin II of the actomyosin complex of host cells in membrane fusion is yet to be understood. Herein, we show that both (−) blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) and small interfering RNA markedly augment fusion of Sendai virus (SeV), with chinese hamster ovary cells and human hepatocarcinoma cells. Inhibition of RLC phosphorylation using inhibitors against ROCK, but not PKC and MRCK, or overexpression of phospho-dead mutant of RLC enhances membrane fusion. SeV infection increases cellular stiffness and myosin light chain phosphorylation at two hour post infection. Taken together, the present investigation strongly indicates that Rho-ROCK-NMII contractility signaling pathway may provide a physical barrier to host cells against viral fusion. PMID:25993465

  7. Novel familial dilated cardiomyopathy mutation in MYL2 affects the structure and function of myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Zhou, Zhiqun; Morales, Ana; McBride, Kim L; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Hershberger, Ray E; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-06-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium characterized by left ventricular dilatation and diminished contractile function. Here we describe a novel DCM mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), in which aspartic acid at position 94 is replaced by alanine (D94A). The mutation was identified by exome sequencing of three adult first-degree relatives who met formal criteria for idiopathic DCM. To obtain insight into the functional significance of this pathogenic MYL2 variant, we cloned and purified the human ventricular RLC wild-type (WT) and D94A mutant proteins, and performed in vitro experiments using RLC-mutant or WT-reconstituted porcine cardiac preparations. The mutation induced a reduction in the α-helical content of the RLC, and imposed intra-molecular rearrangements. The phosphorylation of RLC by Ca²⁺/calmodulin-activated myosin light chain kinase was not affected by D94A. The mutation was seen to impair binding of RLC to the myosin heavy chain, and its incorporation into RLC-depleted porcine myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of mutant-reconstituted porcine cardiac myosin was significantly higher compared with ATPase of wild-type. No changes in the myofibrillar ATPase-pCa relationship were observed in wild-type- or D94A-reconstituted preparations. Measurements of contractile force showed a slightly reduced maximal tension per cross-section of muscle, with no change in the calcium sensitivity of force in D94A-reconstituted skinned porcine papillary muscle strips compared with wild-type. Our data indicate that subtle structural rearrangements in the RLC molecule, followed by its impaired interaction with the myosin heavy chain, may trigger functional abnormalities contributing to the DCM phenotype. © 2015 FEBS.

  8. Papaverine Prevents Vasospasm by Regulation of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Actin Polymerization in Human Saphenous Vein

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Putumbaka, Gowthami; Wise, Eric S.; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Brophy, Colleen M.; Komalavilas, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    Objective Papaverine is used to prevent vasospasm in human saphenous veins (HSV) during vein graft preparation prior to implantation as a bypass conduit. Papaverine is a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases, leading to increases in both intracellular cGMP and cAMP. We hypothesized that papaverine reduces force by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and myosin light chain phosphorylation, and increasing actin depolymerization via regulation of actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Approach and Results HSV was equilibrated in a muscle bath, pre-treated with 1 mM papaverine followed by 5 μM norepinephrine, and force along with [Ca2+]i levels were concurrently measured. Filamentous actin (F-actin) level was measured by an in vitro actin assay. Tissue was snap frozen to measure myosin light chain and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Pre-treatment with papaverine completely inhibited norepinephrine-induced force generation, blocked increases in [Ca2+]i and led to a decrease in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Papaverine pre-treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of the heat shock-related protein 20 (HSPB6) and the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), as well as decreased filamentous actin (F-actin) levels suggesting depolymerization of actin. Conclusions These results suggest that papaverine-induced force inhibition of HSV involves [Ca2+]i-mediated inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation-mediated actin depolymerization. Thus, papaverine induces sustained inhibition of contraction of HSV by the modulation of both myosin cross-bridge formation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics and is a pharmacological alternative to high pressure distention to prevent vasospasm. PMID:27136356

  9. Two distinct myosin light chain structures are induced by specific variations within the bound IQ motifs—functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Terrak, Mohammed; Wu, Guanming; Stafford, Walter F.; Lu, Renne C.; Dominguez, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    IQ motifs are widespread in nature. Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like myosin light chain that binds to IQ motifs of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and an IQGAP-related protein, Iqg1p, playing a role in polarized growth and cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The crystal structures of Mlc1p bound to IQ2 and IQ4 of Myo2p differ dramatically. When bound to IQ2, Mlc1p adopts a compact conformation in which both the N- and C-lobes interact with the IQ motif. However, in the complex with IQ4, the N-lobe no longer interacts with the IQ motif, resulting in an extended conformation of Mlc1p. The two light chain structures relate to two distinct subfamilies of IQ motifs, one of which does not interact with the N-lobes of calmodulin-like light chains. The correlation between light chain structure and IQ sequence is demonstrated further by sedimentation velocity analysis of complexes of Mlc1p with IQ motifs from Myo2p and Iqg1p. The resulting ‘free’ N-lobes of myosin light chains in the extended conformation could mediate the formation of ternary complexes during protein localization and/or partner recruitment. PMID:12554638

  10. Increasing evidence of mechanical force as a functional regulator in smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Fabian; Bauer, Magnus Sebastian; Rees, Martin; Alexandrovich, Alexander; Gautel, Mathias; Pippig, Diana Angela; Gaub, Hermann Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Mechanosensitive proteins are key players in cytoskeletal remodeling, muscle contraction, cell migration and differentiation processes. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a member of a diverse group of serine/threonine kinases that feature cytoskeletal association. Its catalytic activity is triggered by a conformational change upon Ca2+/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) binding. Due to its significant homology with the force-activated titin kinase, smMLCK is suspected to be also regulatable by mechanical stress. In this study, a CaM-independent activation mechanism for smMLCK by mechanical release of the inhibitory elements is investigated via high throughput AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy. The characteristic pattern of transitions between different smMLCK states and their variations in the presence of different substrates and ligands are presented. Interaction between kinase domain and regulatory light chain (RLC) substrate is identified in the absence of CaM, indicating restored substrate-binding capability due to mechanically induced removal of the auto-inhibitory regulatory region. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26473.001 PMID:28696205

  11. Novel Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy Mutation in MYL2 Affects the Structure and Function of Myosin Regulatory Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Zhou, Zhiqun; Morales, Ana; McBride, Kim L.; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M.; Hershberger, Ray E.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium characterized by left ventricular dilatation and diminished contractile function. In this report we describe a novel DCM mutation identified for the first time in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), replacing Aspartic Acid at position 94 with Alanine (D94A). The mutation was identified by exome sequencing of three adult first-degree relatives who met formal criteria for idiopathic DCM. To gain insight into the functional significance of this pathogenic MYL2 variant, we have cloned and purified the human ventricular RLC wild-type (WT) and D94A-mutant proteins and performed in vitro experiments using RLC-exchanged porcine cardiac preparations. The mutation was observed to induce a reduction in the α-helical content of the RLC and imposed intra-molecular rearrangements. The Ca2+-calmodulin-activated myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation of RLC was not affected by D94A. The mutation was seen to impair the binding of RLC to the MHC (myosin heavy chain), and its incorporation into the RLC-depleted porcine myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of mutant-reconstituted porcine cardiac myosin was significantly higher compared to ATPase of WT. No changes in myofibrillar ATPase-pCa relationship were observed in WT- or D94A-reconstituted preparations. Measurements of contractile force showed a slightly reduced maximal tension per cross-section of muscle with no change in calcium sensitivity of force in D94A-reconstituted skinned porcine papillary muscle strips compared with WT. Our data indicate that subtle structural rearrangements in the RLC molecule followed by its impaired interaction with the MHC may trigger functional abnormalities contributing to the DCM phenotype. PMID:25825243

  12. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain prevents development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Liang, Jingsheng; Huang, Wenrui; Irving, Thomas C.; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M.; Hare, Joshua M.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of cardiac myosin is known to play a beneficial role in heart disease, but the idea of a phosphorylation-mediated reversal of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype is novel. Our previous studies on transgenic (Tg) HCM-RLC mice revealed that the D166V (Aspartate166 →Valine) mutation-induced changes in heart morphology and function coincided with largely reduced RLC phosphorylation in situ. We hypothesized that the introduction of a constitutively phosphorylated Serine15 (S15D) into the hearts of D166V mice would prevent the development of a deleterious HCM phenotype. In support of this notion, MLCK-induced phosphorylation of D166V-mutated hearts was found to rescue some of their abnormal contractile properties. Tg-S15D-D166V mice were generated with the human cardiac RLC-S15D-D166V construct substituted for mouse cardiac RLC and were subjected to functional, structural, and morphological assessments. The results were compared with Tg-WT and Tg-D166V mice expressing the human ventricular RLC-WT or its D166V mutant, respectively. Echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic studies demonstrated significant improvements of intact heart function in S15D-D166V mice compared with D166V, with the systolic and diastolic indices reaching those monitored in WT mice. A largely reduced maximal tension and abnormally high myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity observed in D166V-mutated hearts were reversed in S15D-D166V mice. Low-angle X-ray diffraction study revealed that altered myofilament structures present in HCM-D166V mice were mitigated in S15D-D166V rescue mice. Our collective results suggest that expression of pseudophosphorylated RLC in the hearts of HCM mice is sufficient to prevent the development of the pathological HCM phenotype. PMID:26124132

  13. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain prevents development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Liang, Jingsheng; Huang, Wenrui; Irving, Thomas C.; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M.; Hare, Joshua M.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-06-29

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of cardiac myosin is known to play a beneficial role in heart disease, but the idea of a phosphorylation-mediated reversal of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype is novel. Our previous studies on transgenic (Tg) HCM-RLC mice revealed that the D166V (Aspartate166 →Valine) mutation-induced changes in heart morphology and function coincided with largely reduced RLC phosphorylation in situ. In this paper, we hypothesized that the introduction of a constitutively phosphorylated Serine15 (S15D) into the hearts of D166V mice would prevent the development of a deleterious HCM phenotype. In support of this notion, MLCK-induced phosphorylation of D166V-mutated hearts was found to rescue some of their abnormal contractile properties. Tg-S15D-D166V mice were generated with the human cardiac RLC-S15D-D166V construct substituted for mouse cardiac RLC and were subjected to functional, structural, and morphological assessments. The results were compared with Tg-WT and Tg-D166V mice expressing the human ventricular RLC-WT or its D166V mutant, respectively. Echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic studies demonstrated significant improvements of intact heart function in S15D-D166V mice compared with D166V, with the systolic and diastolic indices reaching those monitored in WT mice. A largely reduced maximal tension and abnormally high myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity observed in D166V-mutated hearts were reversed in S15D-D166V mice. Low-angle X-ray diffraction study revealed that altered myofilament structures present in HCM-D166V mice were mitigated in S15D-D166V rescue mice. Finally, our collective results suggest that expression of pseudophosphorylated RLC in the hearts of HCM mice is sufficient to prevent the development of the pathological HCM phenotype.

  14. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Marjorie; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A) of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1%) were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9%) were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30) and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21) and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29). However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03) and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts. PMID:27483374

  15. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain prevents development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; ...

    2015-06-29

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of cardiac myosin is known to play a beneficial role in heart disease, but the idea of a phosphorylation-mediated reversal of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype is novel. Our previous studies on transgenic (Tg) HCM-RLC mice revealed that the D166V (Aspartate166 →Valine) mutation-induced changes in heart morphology and function coincided with largely reduced RLC phosphorylation in situ. In this paper, we hypothesized that the introduction of a constitutively phosphorylated Serine15 (S15D) into the hearts of D166V mice would prevent the development of a deleterious HCM phenotype. In supportmore » of this notion, MLCK-induced phosphorylation of D166V-mutated hearts was found to rescue some of their abnormal contractile properties. Tg-S15D-D166V mice were generated with the human cardiac RLC-S15D-D166V construct substituted for mouse cardiac RLC and were subjected to functional, structural, and morphological assessments. The results were compared with Tg-WT and Tg-D166V mice expressing the human ventricular RLC-WT or its D166V mutant, respectively. Echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic studies demonstrated significant improvements of intact heart function in S15D-D166V mice compared with D166V, with the systolic and diastolic indices reaching those monitored in WT mice. A largely reduced maximal tension and abnormally high myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity observed in D166V-mutated hearts were reversed in S15D-D166V mice. Low-angle X-ray diffraction study revealed that altered myofilament structures present in HCM-D166V mice were mitigated in S15D-D166V rescue mice. Finally, our collective results suggest that expression of pseudophosphorylated RLC in the hearts of HCM mice is sufficient to prevent the development of the pathological HCM phenotype.« less

  16. Characterization and ontogenetic expression analysis of the myosin light chains from the fast white muscle of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi.

    PubMed

    Chu, W Y; Chen, J; Zhou, R X; Zhao, F L; Meng, T; Chen, D X; Nong, X X; Liu, Z; Lu, S Q; Zhang, J S

    2011-04-01

    Three full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones were isolated encoding the skeletal myosin light chain 1 (MLC1; 1237 bp), myosin light chain 2 (MLC2; 1206 bp) and myosin light chain 3 (MLC3; 1079 bp) from the fast white muscle cDNA library of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi. The sequence analysis indicated that MLC1 and MLC3 were not produced from differentially spliced messenger RNAs (mRNA) as reported in birds and rodents but were encoded by different genes. The MLC2 encodes 170 amino acids, which include four EF-hand (helix-loop-helix) structures. The primary structures of the Ca(2+)-binding domain were well conserved among the MLC2s of seven other fish species. The ontogenetic expression analysis by real-time PCR showed that the three light-chain mRNAs were first detected in the gastrula stage, and their expression increased from the tail bud stage to the larval stage. All three MLC mRNAs showed longitudinal expression variation in the fast white muscle of S. chuatsi, especially MLC1 which was highly expressed at the posterior area. Taken together, the study provides a better understanding about the MLC gene structure and their expression pattern in muscle development of S. chuatsi.

  17. Lens fiber cell elongation and differentiation is associated with a robust increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation in the developing mouse.

    PubMed

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Skiba, Nikolai; Vasantha Rao, Ponugoti

    2007-10-01

    Myosin II, a molecular motor, plays a critical role in cell migration, cell shape changes, cell adhesion, and cytokinesis. To understand the role of myosin II in lens fiber cell elongation and differentiation, we determined the distribution pattern of nonmuscle myosin IIA, IIB, and phosphorylated regulatory myosin light chain-2 (phospho-MLC) in frozen sections of the developing mouse lens by immunofluorescence analysis. While myosin IIA was distributed uniformly throughout the differentiating lens, including the epithelium and fibers, myosin IIB was localized predominantly to the epithelium and the posterior tips of the lens fibers. In contrast, immunostaining with a di-phospho-MLC antibody localized intensely and precisely to the elongating and differentiating primary and secondary lens fibers, co-localizing with actin filaments. An in situ analysis of Rho GTPase activation revealed that Rho-GTP was distributed uniformly throughout the embryonic lens, including epithelium and fibers. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity by ML-7 in organ cultured mouse lenses led to development of nuclear lens opacity in association with abnormal fiber cell organization. Taken together, these data reveal a distinct spatial distribution pattern of myosin II isoforms in the developing lens and a robust activation of MLC phosphorylation in the differentiating lens fibers. Moreover, the regulation of MLC phosphorylation by MLCK appears to be critical for crystallin organization and for maintenance of lens transparency and lens membrane function.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii myosin A and its light chain: a fast, single-headed, plus-end-directed motor

    PubMed Central

    Herm-Götz, Angelika; Weiss, Stefan; Stratmann, Rolf; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Ruff, Christine; Meyhöfer, Edgar; Soldati, Thierry; Manstein, Dietmar J.; Geeves, Michael A.; Soldati, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Successful host cell invasion is a prerequisite for survival of the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites and establishment of infection. Toxoplasma gondii penetrates host cells by an active process involving its own actomyosin system and which is distinct from induced phagocytosis. Toxoplasma gondii myosin A (TgMyoA) is presumed to achieve power gliding motion and host cell penetration by the capping of apically released adhesins towards the rear of the parasite. We report here an extensive biochemical characterization of the functional TgMyoA motor complex. TgMyoA is anchored at the plasma membrane and binds a novel type of myosin light chain (TgMLC1). Despite some unusual features, the kinetic and mechanical properties of TgMyoA are unexpectedly similar to those of fast skeletal muscle myosins. Microneedle–laser trap and sliding velocity assays established that TgMyoA moves in unitary steps of 5.3 nm with a velocity of 5.2 µm/s towards the plus end of actin filaments. TgMyoA is the first fast, single-headed myosin and fulfils all the requirements for power parasite gliding. PMID:11980712

  19. Cytokinesis is not controlled by calmodulin or myosin light chain kinase in the Caenorhabditis elegans early embryo

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, Ellen L.; Thomas–Virnig, Christina L.; Hardin, Jeffery D.; White, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Furrow ingression in animal cell cytokinesis is controlled by phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain (mRLC). In C. elegans embryos, Rho-dependent Kinase (RhoK) is involved in, but not absolutely required for, this phosphorylation. The calmodulin effector Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) can also phosphorylate mRLC and is widely regarded as a candidate for redundant function with RhoK. However, our results show that RNAi against C. elegans calmodulin and candidate MLCKs had no effect on cytokinesis in wild type or RhoK mutant embryos, ruling out the calmodulin/MLCK pathway as the missing regulator of cytokinesis in the C. elegans early embryo. PMID:17716666

  20. Cytokinesis is not controlled by calmodulin or myosin light chain kinase in the Caenorhabditis elegans early embryo.

    PubMed

    Batchelder, Ellen L; Thomas-Virnig, Christina L; Hardin, Jeffery D; White, John G

    2007-09-04

    Furrow ingression in animal cell cytokinesis is controlled by phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain (mRLC). In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, Rho-dependent Kinase (RhoK) is involved in, but not absolutely required for, this phosphorylation. The calmodulin effector myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) can also phosphorylate mRLC and is widely regarded as a candidate for redundant function with RhoK. However, our results show that RNA mediated interference against C. elegans calmodulin and candidate MLCKs had no effect on cytokinesis in wild-type or RhoK mutant embryos, ruling out the calmodulin/MLCK pathway as the missing regulator of cytokinesis in the C. elegans early embryo.

  1. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Noppe, Ytse; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-12

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30 min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV.

  2. Mechanism of action of endothelin in rat cardiac muscle: cross-bridge kinetics and myosin light chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Rossmanith, G H; Hoh, J F; Turnbull, L; Ludowyke, R I

    1997-01-01

    1. The molecular mechanism of inotropic action of endothelin was investigated in rat ventricular muscle by studying its effects on characteristics of isometric twitch, barium-induced steady contracture and the level of incorporation of 32Pi into myosin light chain 2. 2. Exposure of rat papillary muscle to endothelin caused an increase in isometric twitch force but did not alter the twitch-time parameters. 3. Endothelin did not significantly change the maximum contracture tension but did cause an increase in contracture tension at submaximal levels of activation, without changes in the tension-to-stiffness ratio and kinetics of attached cross-bridges. Kinetics of attached cross-bridges were deduced during steady contracture from complex-stiffness values, and in particular from the frequency at which muscle stiffness assumes a minimum value, fmin. Endothelin did not alter fmin. 4. Endothelin caused an increase in the level of incorporation of 32Pi into myosin light chain 2 without a concurrent change in the level of incorporation of 32Pi into troponin I. 5. We conclude that the inotropic action of endothelin is not due to an increase in the kinetics of attached cross-bridges, nor due to a change in the force per unit cross-bridge, but may result from an increased divalent cation sensitivity caused by elevated myosin light chain 2 phosphorylation, resembling post-tetanic potentiation in fast skeletal muscle fibres. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:9409484

  3. Age- and Activity-Related Differences in the Abundance of Myosin Essential and Regulatory Light Chains in Human Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cobley, James N.; Ab. Malik, Zulezwan; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L.; Edwards, Ben J.; Burniston, Jatin G.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for phenotyping skeletal muscle (e.g., immunohistochemistry) are labor-intensive and ill-suited to multixplex analysis, i.e., assays must be performed in a series. Addressing these concerns represents a largely unmet research need but more comprehensive parallel analysis of myofibrillar proteins could advance knowledge regarding age- and activity-dependent changes in human muscle. We report a label-free, semi-automated and time efficient LC-MS proteomic workflow for phenotyping the myofibrillar proteome. Application of this workflow in old and young as well as trained and untrained human skeletal muscle yielded several novel observations that were subsequently verified by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). We report novel data demonstrating that human ageing is associated with lesser myosin light chain 1 content and greater myosin light chain 3 content, consistent with an age-related reduction in type II muscle fibers. We also disambiguate conflicting data regarding myosin regulatory light chain, revealing that age-related changes in this protein more closely reflect physical activity status than ageing per se. This finding reinforces the need to control for physical activity levels when investigating the natural process of ageing. Taken together, our data confirm and extend knowledge regarding age- and activity-related phenotypes. In addition, the MRM transitions described here provide a methodological platform that can be fine-tuned to suite multiple research needs and thus advance myofibrillar phenotyping. PMID:28248225

  4. A comparison between mammalian and avian fast skeletal muscle alkali myosin light chain genes: regulatory implications.

    PubMed Central

    Daubas, P; Robert, B; Garner, I; Buckingham, M

    1985-01-01

    A single locus in the mouse, rat and chicken encodes both alkali myosin light chains, MLC1F and MLC3F. This gene has two distinct promoters and gives rise to two different primary transcripts, which are processed by alternative and different modes of splicing to form MLC1F and MLC3F mRNAs. The MLC1F/MLC3F gene is very similar between mouse, rat and chicken, in terms of its overall structure, the length and location of the introns, and the splice site consensus sequences. Nucleotide sequences of coding regions are very conserved but 3' and 5' non coding regions of the mRNAs have diverged. In the MLC1F promoter regions, several blocks of nucleotides are highly conserved (more than 70% homology), especially a sequence of about 70 nucleotides, located between positions -80 and -150 relative to the Cap site. Conserved blocks of homology are also found in the MLC3F promoter regions, although the common sequences are shorter. The presence of such highly conserved nucleotide sequences in the 5' flanking regions suggests that these sequences are functionally important in initiation of transcription and regulation of expression of this complex gene. Primer extension experiments indicate multiple cap sites for MLC3F mRNA. Images PMID:4022770

  5. The long myosin light chain kinase is differentially phosphorylated during interphase and mitosis.

    PubMed

    Dulyaninova, Natalya G; Bresnick, Anne R

    2004-10-01

    We have shown previously that the activity of the long myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is cell cycle regulated with a decrease in specific activity during mitosis that can be restored following treatment with alkaline phosphatase. To better understand the role and significance of phosphorylation in regulating MLCK function during mitosis, we examined the phosphorylation state of in vivo derived MLCK. Phosphoamino acid analysis and phosphopeptide mapping demonstrate that the long MLCK is differentially phosphorylated on serine residues during interphase and mitosis with the majority of the phosphorylation sites located within the N-terminal IgG domain. Biochemical assays show that Aurora B binds and phosphorylates the IgG domain of the long MLCK. In addition, phosphopeptide maps of the endogenous full-length MLCK from mitotic cells and in vitro phosphorylated IgG domain demonstrate that Aurora B phosphorylates the same sites as those observed in vivo. Altogether, these studies suggest that the long MLCK may be a cellular target for Aurora B during mitosis.

  6. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, L M; Hidalgo, M J; Palmero, M; Ballesta, J J; Reig, J A; Garcia, A G; Viniegra, S

    1989-01-01

    The myosin-light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation accompanying catecholamine release in chromaffin cells was investigated with the objective of assessing the possible role of this contractile protein in catecholamine secretion. The electrophoretic characteristics of adrenomedullary MLC were determined by immunochemical techniques using two different specific antibodies. The identified 22 kDa phosphoprotein was mainly present in the cytosol, as demonstrated by ultracentrifugation and immunocytochemical analysis. A part of this protein was located on, or close to, the plasma membrane. Cell stimulation by secretagogues resulted in a Ca2(+)-dependent 32P incorporation into MLC, the time course of this process being related to catecholamine release. These findings were supported by a two-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis by which means this protein was resolved into two acidic forms. A role for Ca2(+)-calmodulin and Ca2(+)-phospholipid kinases in adrenomedullary MLC phosphorylation is reported. The results obtained suggest a regulatory role for such a protein in the underlying exocytotic event. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2481449

  7. [Functional regulation of endothelial Myosin light chain kinase in extravascular migration of fibrosarcoma cells].

    PubMed

    Xin, Hua; Han, Zhen-guo

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the functional regulation of endothelial Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in extravascular migration of fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. An in vitro model of fibrosarcoma cell transmigration across a monolayer of HUVEC cultured on collagen gel was applied to observe extravascular migration of HT1080 cells,and were the electrical resistance of HUVEC monolayer and endothelial MLC phosphorylation in extravascular migration of HT1080 cells. HT1080 cells migrated through endothelial cells into collagen gel, the electrical resistance of a HUVEC monolayer was reduced and endothelial MLC phosphorylation was enhanced in extravascular migration of fibrosarcoma cells. Endothelial MLCK inhibitor (ML-7) blocked extravascular migration of HT1080 cells and inhibited reduction of electrical resistance of a HUVEC monolayer and enhancement of endothelial MLC phosphorylation in extravascular migration of HT1080 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Endothelial MLCK regulates fibrosarcoma cell transendothelial migration through MLC phosphorylation, leading to cytoskeletal reorganization and endothelial cell constriction, then fibrosarcoma cells migrate into extravascular tissue through the gaps between endothelial cells.

  8. Olanzapine May Inhibit Colonic Motility Associated with the 5-HT Receptor and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiarui; Qiao, Ying; Le, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study whether the effects of olanzapine on gastrointestinal motility is related to the serotonin antagonism and myosin light chain kinase. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Olanzapine gavage was performed for each treatment group during the course of 30 continuous days, while the same volume of saline was given to the rats in the control group. Defecation of the rats was observed on days 7 and 30 after olanzapine gavage. The effects of olanzapine on contraction of colonic smooth muscles were observed in ex vivo experiments. A Western blot was used to evaluate expression levels of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and MLCK in colon segments of the rats. Results ResultsaaCompared to the control group, 5-160 µ M of olanzapine could inhibit dose-dependently the contraction of colonic smooth muscle ex vivo experiments. The maximum smooth muscle contraction effects of 5-HT and acetylcholine significantly decreased after treatment with 40-160 µ M of olanzapine. Constipation was found in the olanzapine-treated rats on day 7 and have sustained day 30 after gavage. Expression of MLCK in olanzapine-treated rats was significantly decreased, whereas the expression of SERT significantly increased on the day 7, then significantly decreased on the day 30 after olanzapine gavage. Conclusion SERT and MLCK may involve in the inhibition of colonic contraction induced by olanzapine. PMID:27081386

  9. Peptide modulators of myosin light chain kinase affect smooth muscle cell contraction.

    PubMed

    Kargacin, G J; Ikebe, M; Fay, F S

    1990-08-01

    To examine the importance of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in the initiation of contraction in smooth muscle, we used a constitutively active form of MLCK (IMLCK) and two specific peptide inhibitors of MLCK to study the activation of skinned single smooth muscle cells. Although unregulated by Ca-calmodulin, IMLCK, in vitro, was found to have biochemical properties like those of MLCK. Upon photolysis of caged ATP, IMLCK caused Ca-free shortening of skinned cells similar in time course and extent to that induced by Ca2+. Two peptide probes, RS-20 and SM-1, patterned after the Ca-calmodulin binding site and a pseudosubstrate inhibitory site, respectively, of the native MLCK molecule, were shown to specifically inhibit MLCK in in vitro experiments. Both peptides dose dependently inhibited Ca-induced shortening of skinned single cells. These results indicate that MLCK plays an essential role in the activation process in the smooth muscle cell in that activation of this enzyme is both necessary and sufficient for the initiation of contraction.

  10. AMPK Regulates Mitotic Spindle Orientation through Phosphorylation of Myosin Regulatory Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Thaiparambil, Jose T.; Eggers, Carrie M.

    2012-01-01

    The proper orientation of the mitotic spindle is essential for mitosis; however, how these events unfold at the molecular level is not well understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates energy homeostasis in eukaryotes, and AMPK-null Drosophila mutants have spindle defects. We show that threonine172 phosphorylated AMPK localizes to the mitotic spindle poles and increases when cells enter mitosis. AMPK depletion causes a mitotic delay with misoriented spindles relative to the normal division plane and a reduced number and length of astral microtubules. AMPK-depleted cells contain mitotic actin bundles, which prevent astral microtubule-actin cortex attachments. Since myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) is an AMPK downstream target and mediates actin function, we investigated whether AMPK signals through MRLC to control spindle orientation. Mitotic levels of serine19 phosphorylated MRLC (pMRLCser19) and spindle pole-associated pMRLCser19 are abolished when AMPK function is compromised, indicating that AMPK is essential for pMRLCser19 spindle pole activity. Phosphorylation of AMPK and MRLC in the mitotic spindle is dependent upon calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CamKK) activity in LKB1-deficient cells, suggesting that CamKK regulates this pathway when LKB1 function is compromised. Taken together, these data indicate that AMPK mediates spindle pole-associated pMRLCser19 to control spindle orientation via regulation of actin cortex-astral microtubule attachments. PMID:22688514

  11. Effects of a Fluorescent Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase Inhibitor on Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grindrod, Scott; Suy, Simeng; Fallen, Shannon; Eto, Masumi; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Brown, Milton L.

    2011-01-01

    Myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) is an enzyme important to regulation of cell cycle and motility that is shown to be upregulated in aggressive prostate cancer cells and tissue. We developed a fluorescent small molecule inhibitor of MLCP using structure based design in recombinant protein phosphatase 1C. Several best fit compounds were synthesized and evaluated by their inhibition of MLCP/32P-MLC dephosphorylation, which resulted in the identification of novel MLCP inhibitors. Androgen dependent (AD) and castration resistant prostate cancer cell (CRPC) lines were treated with the lead inhibitor resulting in decreased growth rate, reduced DNA synthesis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Moreover, CRPC cell lines showed an increased sensitivity to drug treatment having GI50 values four times lower than the AD prostate cancer cell line. This was reinforced by reduced BrdU DNA incorporation into CRPC cells compared to AD cells. β-actin disruption was also seen at much lower drug concentrations in CR cells which caused a dose dependent reduction in cellular chemotaxis of PC-3 cells. Since there are currently few clinical therapeutics targeting CR prostate cancer, MLCP represents a new target for preclinical and clinical development of new potential therapeutics which inhibit this disease phenotype. PMID:22655237

  12. Myosin light chain phosphorylation enhances contraction of heart muscle via structural changes in both thick and thin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Contraction of heart muscle is triggered by calcium binding to the actin-containing thin filaments but modulated by structural changes in the myosin-containing thick filaments. We used phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (cRLC) by the cardiac isoform of its specific kinase to elucidate mechanisms of thick filament-mediated contractile regulation in demembranated trabeculae from the rat right ventricle. cRLC phosphorylation enhanced active force and its calcium sensitivity and altered thick filament structure as reported by bifunctional rhodamine probes on the cRLC: the myosin head domains became more perpendicular to the filament axis. The effects of cRLC phosphorylation on thick filament structure and its calcium sensitivity were mimicked by increasing sarcomere length or by deleting the N terminus of the cRLC. Changes in thick filament structure were highly cooperative with respect to either calcium concentration or extent of cRLC phosphorylation. Probes on unphosphorylated myosin heads reported similar structural changes when neighboring heads were phosphorylated, directly demonstrating signaling between myosin heads. Moreover probes on troponin showed that calcium sensitization by cRLC phosphorylation is mediated by the thin filament, revealing a signaling pathway between thick and thin filaments that is still present when active force is blocked by Blebbistatin. These results show that coordinated and cooperative structural changes in the thick and thin filaments are fundamental to the physiological regulation of contractility in the heart. This integrated dual-filament concept of contractile regulation may aid understanding of functional effects of mutations in the protein components of both filaments associated with heart disease. PMID:27162358

  13. Expression of a myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation site mutant complements the cytokinesis and developmental defects of Dictyostelium RMLC null cells.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, B D; Chen, P; Chisholm, R L

    1994-12-01

    In a number of systems phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RMLC) of myosin regulates the activity of myosin. In smooth muscle and vertebrate nonmuscle systems RMLC phosphorylation is required for contractile activity. In Dictyostelium discoideum phosphorylation of the RMLC regulates both ATPase activity and motor function. We have determined the site of phosphorylation on the Dictyostelium RMLC and used site-directed mutagenesis to replace the phosphorylated serine with an alanine. The mutant light chain was then expressed in RMLC null Dictyostelium cells (mLCR-) from an actin promoter on an integrating vector. The mutant RMLC was expressed at high levels and associated with the myosin heavy chain. RMLC bearing a ser13ala substitution was not phosphorylated in vitro by purified myosin light chain kinase, nor could phosphate be detected on the mutant RMLC in vivo. The mutant myosin had reduced actin-activated ATPase activity, comparable to fully dephosphorylated myosin. Unexpectedly, expression of the mutant RMLC rescued the primary phenotypic defects of the mlcR- cells to the same extent as did expression of wild-type RMLC. These results suggest that while phosphorylation of the Dictyostelium RMLC appears to be tightly regulated in vivo, it is not essential for myosin-dependent cellular functions.

  14. X-ray diffraction analysis of the effects of myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation and butanedione monoxime on skinned skeletal muscle fibers

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Masako; Li, Zhao-bo; Ohno, Tetsuo; Takemori, Shigeru; Hoh, Joseph F. Y.; Yagi, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) is an important modulator of skeletal muscle performance and plays a key role in posttetanic potentiation and staircase potentiation of twitch contractions. The structural basis for these phenomena within the filament lattice has not been thoroughly investigated. Using a synchrotron radiation source at SPring8, we obtained X-ray diffraction patterns from skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers before and after phosphorylation of myosin RLC in the presence of myosin light chain kinase, calmodulin, and calcium at a concentration below the threshold for tension development ([Ca2+] = 10−6.8 M). After phosphorylation, the first myosin layer line slightly decreased in intensity at ∼0.05 nm−1 along the equatorial axis, indicating a partial loss of the helical order of myosin heads along the thick filament. Concomitantly, the (1,1/1,0) intensity ratio of the equatorial reflections increased. These results provide a firm structural basis for the hypothesis that phosphorylation of myosin RLC caused the myosin heads to move away from the thick filaments towards the thin filaments, thereby enhancing the probability of interaction with actin. In contrast, 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), known to inhibit contraction by impeding phosphate release from myosin, had exactly the opposite effects on meridional and equatorial reflections to those of phosphorylation. We hypothesize that these antagonistic effects are due to the acceleration of phosphate release from myosin by phosphorylation and its inhibition by BDM, the consequent shifts in crossbridge equilibria leading to opposite changes in abundance of the myosin-ADP-inorganic phosphate complex state associated with helical order of thick filaments. PMID:26911280

  15. Functional activity of the two promoters of the myosin alkali light chain gene in primary muscle cell cultures: comparison with other muscle gene promoters and other culture systems.

    PubMed Central

    Daubas, P; Klarsfeld, A; Garner, I; Pinset, C; Cox, R; Buckingham, M

    1988-01-01

    Proximal upstream flanking sequences of the mouse myosin alkali light chain gene encoding MLC1F and MLC3F, the mouse alpha-cardiac actin gene and the chicken gene for the alpha-subunit of the acetylcholine receptor were linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene and transfected into primary cultures derived from mouse skeletal muscle or into myogenic cell lines. We demonstrate that the mouse MLC1F/MLC3F gene has two functional promoters. In primary muscle cultures, a 1200 bp sequence flanking exon 1 (MLC1F) and a 438 bp sequence flanking exon 2 (MLC3F) direct CAT activity in myotubes, but not in myoblasts or in non myogenic 3T6 and CV1 cells. Developmentally regulated expression is also seen with the alpha-cardiac actin (320 bp) and acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit (850 bp) upstream sequences in the primary culture system. Transfection experiments with myogenic cell lines show different results with a given promoter construct, reflecting possible differences in the levels of regulatory factors between lines. Different muscle gene promoters behave differently in a given cell line, suggesting different regulatory factor requirements between these promoters. Images PMID:2894633

  16. Temperature and ionic strength dependence of the subunit interactions in vertebrate skeletal myosin. A comparison of the interaction between the alkali light and heavy chains of mammalian and avian myosin.

    PubMed

    Zaager, S; Burke, M

    1988-09-25

    The stability of the interaction of A1 in myosin and subfragment 1 isolated from fast-twitch mammalian and avian muscles with respect to temperature and ionic strength has been examined. This was done by determining the extent of exchange of the endogenous free A1 light chain into these proteins from the two species. Whereas the extent of exchange at 37 degrees C into mammalian S1, occurring after 60 min, is about 80% of the theoretically expected amount at physiological ionic conditions, the level of exchange observed with the avian S1 is significantly lower. However, close to the theoretical limit is observed for the avian S1 when exchange is done at 43 degrees C which is close to average avian body temperature. A similar dependence with temperature is observed in the case of exchanges into avian myosin. In the case of mammalian myosin, 50% of the theoretical exchange is observed at 37 degrees C under physiological ionic strength, whereas the level of exchange observed under these conditions with the avian protein is much lower in agreement with recent observations (Waller, G. S., and Lowey, S. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 14368-14373; Pastra-Landis, S. C., and Lowey, S. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 14811-14816). If, however, the exchanges are done at 43 degrees C in physiological ionic strength, significant extents of exchange can be observed in avian myosin. These results suggest that at physiological ionic and temperature conditions relevant for the source of myosin and S1 being investigated, the alkali light chains are in dynamic equilibrium between free and heavy chain associated states. Therefore, the failure to observe alkali light chain exchange in avian myosin at 37 degrees C appears to be related to the higher temperature stability of its interaction with the heavy chain.

  17. Differential roles of Rho-kinase and myosin light chain kinase in regulating shape, adhesion, and migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Verena; Schmid, Manuela; Nievergelt, Alexandra

    2006-05-05

    We present evidence for differential roles of Rho-kinase and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in regulating shape, adhesion, migration, and chemotaxis of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells on laminin-coated surfaces. Pharmacological inhibition of Rho-kinase by Y-27632 or inhibition of MLCK by W-7 or ML-7 resulted in significant attenuation of constitutive myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rho-kinase inhibition resulted in sickle-shaped cells featuring long, thin F-actin-rich protrusions. These cells adhered more strongly to laminin and migrated faster. Inhibition of MLCK in contrast resulted in spherical cells and marked impairment of adhesion and migration. Inhibition of myosin II activation with blebbistatin resulted in a morphology similar to that induced by Y-27632 and enhanced migration and adhesion. Cells treated first with blebbistatin and then with ML-7 also rounded up, suggesting that effects of MLCK inhibition on HT1080 cell shape and motility are independent of inhibition of myosin activity.

  18. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2012-04-02

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-{Delta}43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing ({approx} 1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-{Delta}43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-{Delta}43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.

  19. Regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in the trabecular meshwork: role in aqueous humour outflow facility.

    PubMed

    Rao, P Vasantha; Deng, Peifeng; Sasaki, Yasuharu; Epstein, David L

    2005-02-01

    Cellular contraction and relaxation and integrity of the actin cytoskeleton in trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue have been thought to influence aqueous humour outflow. However, the cellular pathways that regulate these events in TM cells are not well understood. In this study, we investigated physiological agonist-mediated regulation of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in the TM, and correlated such effects with alterations in aqueous outflow facility, since MLC phosphorylation is a critical biochemical determinant of cellular contraction in TM cells. Treatment of serum starved human TM cells with endothelin-1 (0.1 microM), thromboxane A2 mimetic U-46619 (1.0 microM), or angiotensin II (1 microM), all of which are agonists of G-protein coupled receptors, triggered activation of MLC phosphorylation, as determined by urea/glycerol-based Western blot analysis. Agonist-stimulated increase in MLC phosphorylation was associated with activation of Rho GTPase in TM cells, as determined in pull-down assays. In contrast, treatment of human TM cells with a novel Rho-kinase inhibitor H-1152 (0.1-2 microM), in the presence of serum reduced basal MLC phosphorylation. H-1152 also increased aqueous outflow facility significantly in a dose-dependent fashion, in perfusion studies with cadaver porcine eyes. This effect of H-1152 on outflow facility was associated with decreased MLC phosphorylation in TM tissue of drug-perfused eyes. Collectively, this study identifies potential physiological regulators of MLC phosphorylation in human TM cells and demonstrates the significance of Rho/Rho-kinase pathway-mediated MLC phosphorylation in modulation of aqueous outflow facility through TM.

  20. Myosin light chain kinase controls voltage-dependent calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, A; Schakman, O; Yerna, X; Dessy, C; Morel, N

    2014-07-01

    The Ca(2+)-dependent kinase myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is the activator of smooth muscle contraction. In addition, it has been reported to be involved in Ca(2+) channel regulation in cultured cells, and we previously showed that the MLCK inhibitor ML-7 decreases arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced Ca(2+) influx in rat aorta. This study was designed to investigate whether MLCK is involved in Ca(2+) regulation in resistance artery smooth muscle cell, which plays a major role in the control of blood pressure. As ML compounds were shown to have off-target effects, MLCK was downregulated by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting MLCK (MLCK-siRNA) in rat small resistance mesenteric artery (RMA) and in the rat embryonic aortic cell line A7r5. Noradrenaline-induced contraction and Ca(2+) signal were significantly depressed in MLCK-siRNA compared to scramble-siRNA-transfected RMA. Contraction and Ca(2+) signal induced by high KCl and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were also significantly decreased in MLCK-siRNA-transfected RMA, suggesting that MLCK depletion modifies voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. KCl- and AVP-induced Ca(2+) signals and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were decreased in MLCK-depleted A7r5 cells. Eventually, real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that in A7r5, MLCK controlled mRNA expression of CaV1.2 (L-type) and CaV3.1 (T-type) voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Our results suggest that MLCK controls the transcription of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  1. Constraints on intron evolution in the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Leicht, B.G.; Muse, S.V.; Hanczyc, M.

    1995-01-01

    Interspecific comparisons of intron sequences reveal conserved blocks of invariant nucleotides and several other departures from the strictly neutral model of molecular evolution. To distinguish the past action of evolutionary forces in introns known to have regulatory information, we examined nucleotide sequence variation at 991 sites in a random sample of 16 Drosophila melanogaster alleles of the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain (Mlc1). The Mlc1 gene of D. melanogaster encodes two Mlc1 isoforms via developmentally regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Analyses of these data reveal that introns 4 and 5, which flank the alternatively spliced exon 5, have reduced levels of both intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence relative to intron 3. No polymorphism was observed in any of the exons examined in D. melanogaster. A genealogical analysis clearly demonstrates the occurrence of intragenic recombination in the ancestral history of Mlc1. Recombination events are estimated to be 13 times more likely than mutation events over the span of the sequenced region. Although there is little evidence for pairwise linkage disequilibrium in the Mlc1 region, higher order disequilibrium. does seem to be present in the 5{prime} half of the portion of the gene that was examined. Predictions of the folding free energy of the pre-mRNA reveal that sampled alleles have a significantly higher (less stable) free energy than do randomly permuted sequences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that introns surrounding an alternatively spliced exon are subjected to additional constraints, perhaps due to specific aspects of secondary structure required for appropriate splicing of the pre-mRNA molecule. 48 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Myosin Light Chain Kinase Mediates Intestinal Barrier Disruption following Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuanli; Wang, Pei; Su, Qin; Wang, Shiliang; Wang, Fengjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe burn injury results in the loss of intestinal barrier function, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation mediated by MLC kinase (MLCK) is critical to the pathophysiological regulation of intestinal barrier function. We hypothesized that the MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates the regulation of intestinal barrier function following burn injury, and that MLCK inhibition attenuates the burn-induced intestinal barrier disfunction. Methodology/Principal Findings Male balb/c mice were assigned randomly to either sham burn (control) or 30% total body surface area (TBSA) full thickness burn without or with intraperitoneal injection of ML-9 (2 mg/kg), an MLCK inhibitor. In vivo intestinal permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran was measured. Intestinal mucosa injury was assessed histologically. Tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 was analyzed by immunofluorescent assay. Expression of MLCK and phosphorylated MLC in ileal mucosa was assessed by Western blot. Intestinal permeability was increased significantly after burn injury, which was accompanied by mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and increase of both MLCK and MLC phosphorylation. Treatment with ML-9 attenuated the burn-caused increase of intestinal permeability, mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and decreased MLC phosphorylation, but not MLCK expression. Conclusions/Significance The MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction after severe burn injury. It is suggested that MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation may be a critical target for the therapeutic treatment of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption after severe burn injury. PMID:22529961

  3. Expression of Calmodulin and Myosin Light Chain Kinase during Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. PMID:22348072

  4. Cytoplasmic myosin from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Myosin is identified and purified from three different established Drosophila melanogaster cell lines (Schneider's lines 2 and 3 and Kc). Purification entails lysis in a low salt, sucrose buffer that contains ATP, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, precipitation with actin in the absence of ATP, gel filtration in a discontinuous KI-KCl buffer system, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Yield of pure cytoplasmic myosin is 5-10%. This protein is identified as myosin by its cross-reactivity with two monoclonal antibodies against human platelet myosin, the molecular weight of its heavy chain, its two light chains, its behavior on gel filtration, its ATP-dependent affinity for actin, its characteristic ATPase activity, its molecular morphology as demonstrated by platinum shadowing, and its ability to form bipolar filaments. The molecular weight of the cytoplasmic myosin's light chains and peptide mapping and immunochemical analysis of its heavy chains demonstrate that this myosin, purified from Drosophila cell lines, is distinct from Drosophila muscle myosin. Two-dimensional thin layer maps of complete proteolytic digests of iodinated muscle and cytoplasmic myosin heavy chains demonstrate that, while the two myosins have some tryptic and alpha-chymotryptic peptides in common, most peptides migrate with unique mobility. One-dimensional peptide maps of SDS PAGE purified myosin heavy chain confirm these structural data. Polyclonal antiserum raised and reacted against Drosophila myosin isolated from cell lines cross-reacts only weakly with Drosophila muscle myosin isolated from the thoraces of adult Drosophila. Polyclonal antiserum raised against Drosophila muscle myosin behaves in a reciprocal fashion. Taken together our data suggest that the myosin purified from Drosophila cell lines is a bona fide cytoplasmic myosin and is very likely the product of a different myosin gene than the muscle myosin heavy chain gene that has been previously identified and characterized. PMID

  5. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain

    PubMed Central

    Lima, V.V.; Lobato, N.S.; Filgueira, F.P.; Webb, R.C.; Tostes, R.C.; Giachini, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2±2 vs 7.9±1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4±2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3±2 vs 7.5±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1±2 vs 7.4±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca2+/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction. PMID:25140811

  6. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain.

    PubMed

    Lima, V V; Lobato, N S; Filgueira, F P; Webb, R C; Tostes, R C; Giachini, F R

    2014-10-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2 ± 2 vs 7.9 ± 1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4 ± 2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3 ± 2 vs 7.5 ± 2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1 ± 2 vs 7.4 ± 2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca(2+)/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction.

  7. The Plasmodium Class XIV Myosin, MyoB, Has a Distinct Subcellular Location in Invasive and Motile Stages of the Malaria Parasite and an Unusual Light Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Noor A.; Green, Judith L.; Wall, Richard J.; Knuepfer, Ellen; Moon, Robert W.; Schulte-Huxel, Christina; Stanway, Rebecca R.; Martin, Stephen R.; Howell, Steven A.; Douse, Christopher H.; Cota, Ernesto; Tate, Edward W.; Tewari, Rita; Holder, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Myosin B (MyoB) is one of the two short class XIV myosins encoded in the Plasmodium genome. Class XIV myosins are characterized by a catalytic “head,” a modified “neck,” and the absence of a “tail” region. Myosin A (MyoA), the other class XIV myosin in Plasmodium, has been established as a component of the glideosome complex important in motility and cell invasion, but MyoB is not well characterized. We analyzed the properties of MyoB using three parasite species as follows: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium berghei, and Plasmodium knowlesi. MyoB is expressed in all invasive stages (merozoites, ookinetes, and sporozoites) of the life cycle, and the protein is found in a discrete apical location in these polarized cells. In P. falciparum, MyoB is synthesized very late in schizogony/merogony, and its location in merozoites is distinct from, and anterior to, that of a range of known proteins present in the rhoptries, rhoptry neck or micronemes. Unlike MyoA, MyoB is not associated with glideosome complex proteins, including the MyoA light chain, myosin A tail domain-interacting protein (MTIP). A unique MyoB light chain (MLC-B) was identified that contains a calmodulin-like domain at the C terminus and an extended N-terminal region. MLC-B localizes to the same extreme apical pole in the cell as MyoB, and the two proteins form a complex. We propose that MLC-B is a MyoB-specific light chain, and for the short class XIV myosins that lack a tail region, the atypical myosin light chains may fulfill that role. PMID:25802338

  8. Tarantula myosin free head regulatory light chain phosphorylation stiffens N-terminal extension, releasing it and blocking its docking back.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Li, Xiaochuan Edward; Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Pinto, Antonio; Thomas, David D; Lehman, William; Padrón, Raúl

    2015-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of smooth and striated muscle myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) N-terminal extension (NTE) showed that diphosphorylation induces a disorder-to-order transition. Our goal here was to further explore the effects of mono- and diphosphorylation on the straightening and rigidification of the tarantula myosin RLC NTE. For that we used MD simulations followed by persistence length analysis to explore the consequences of secondary and tertiary structure changes occurring on RLC NTE following phosphorylation. Static and dynamic persistence length analysis of tarantula RLC NTE peptides suggest that diphosphorylation produces an important 24-fold straightening and a 16-fold rigidification of the RLC NTE, while monophosphorylation has a less profound effect. This new information on myosin structural mechanics, not fully revealed by previous EM and MD studies, add support to a cooperative phosphorylation-dependent activation mechanism as proposed for the tarantula thick filament. Our results suggest that the RLC NTE straightening and rigidification after Ser45 phosphorylation leads to a release of the constitutively Ser35 monophosphorylated free head swaying away from the thick filament shaft. This is so because the stiffened diphosphorylated RLC NTE would hinder the docking back of the free head after swaying away, becoming released and mobile and unable to recover its original interacting position on activation.

  9. Tarantula Myosin Free Head Regulatory Light Chain Phosphorylation Stiffens N-terminal Extension Releasing it and Blocking its Docking Back

    PubMed Central

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Li, Xiaochuan (Edward); Espinoza-Fonseca, L. Michel; Pinto, Antonio; Thomas, David D.; Lehman, William; Padrón, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of smooth and striated muscle myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) N-terminal extension (NTE) showed that diphosphorylation induces a disorder-to-order transition. Our goal here was to further explore the effects of mono- and diphosphorylation on the straightening and rigidification of the tarantula myosin RLC NTE. For that we used MD simulations followed by persistence length analysis to explore the consequences of secondary and tertiary structure changes occurring on RLC NTE following phosphorylation. Static and dynamic persistence lengths analysis of tarantula RLC NTE peptides suggest that diphosphorylation produces an important 24-fold straightening and a 16-fold rigidification of the RLC NTE, while monophosphorylation has a less profound effect. This new information on myosin structural mechanics, not fully revealed by previous EM and MD studies, add support to a cooperative phosphorylation-dependent activation mechanism as proposed for the tarantula thick filament. Our results suggest that the RLC NTE straightening and rigidification after Ser45 phosphorylation leads to a release of the constitutively Ser35 monophosphorylated free head swaying away from the thick filament shaft in the relaxed state. This is so because the stiffened diphosphorylated RLC NTE would hinder the docking back of the free head after swaying away, becoming released and mobile and unable to recover its original interacting position on activation. PMID:26038302

  10. Biochemical studies of myosin.

    PubMed

    Trybus, K M

    2000-12-01

    This article describes methods for expressing and obtaining purified smooth muscle myosin subfragments using the baculovirus/insect cell expression system, as well as methods for purifying whole myosin from tissue. Protocols for several gel assays that are routinely used with myosin are given, including gels to monitor light chain phosphorylation state and native gels to determine protein homogeneity. Steady-state myosin ATPase and actin-activated ATPase determinations are described, as are some of the more basic transient-state kinetic parameters that can be measured. The in vitro motility assay, in which the rate of actin movement over myosin or its subfragments is quantified, is also presented. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Heart Failure Induced by Perinatal Ablation of Cardiac Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Islam, Yasmin F K; Joseph, Ryan; Chowdhury, Rajib R; Anderson, Robert H; Kasahara, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Germline knockout mice are invaluable in understanding the function of the targeted genes. Sometimes, however, unexpected phenotypes are encountered, due in part to the activation of compensatory mechanisms. Germline ablation of cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) causes mild cardiac dysfunction with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas ablation in adult hearts results in acute heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy. We hypothesized that compensation after ablation of cMLCK is dependent on developmental staging and perinatal-onset of cMLCK ablation will result in more evident heart failure than germline ablation, but less profound when compared to adult-onset ablation. Methods and Results: The floxed-Mylk3 gene was ablated at the beginning of the perinatal stage using a single intra-peritoneal tamoxifen injection of 50 mg/kg into pregnant mice on the 19th day of gestation, this being the final day of gestation. The level of cMLCK protein level could no longer be detected 3 days after the injection, with these mice hereafter denoted as the perinatal Mylk3-KO. At postnatal day 19, shortly before weaning age, these mice showed reduced cardiac contractility with a fractional shortening 22.8 ± 1.0% (n = 7) as opposed to 31.4 ± 1.0% (n = 11) in controls. The ratio of the heart weight relative to body weight was significantly increased at 6.68 ± 0.28 mg/g (n = 12) relative to the two control groups, 5.90 ± 0.16 (flox/flox, n = 11) and 5.81 ± 0.33 (wild/wild/Cre, n = 5), accompanied by reduced body weight. Furthermore, their cardiomyocytes were elongated without thickening, with a long-axis of 101.8 ± 2.4 μm (n = 320) as opposed to 87.1 ± 1.6 μm (n = 360) in the controls. Conclusion: Perinatal ablation of cMLCK produces an increase of heart weight/body weight ratio, a reduction of contractility, and an increase in the expression of fetal genes. The perinatal Mylk3-KO cardiomyocytes were elongated in the absence of thickening, differing from the

  12. A Toxoplasma gondii class XIV myosin, expressed in Sf9 cells with a parasite co-chaperone, requires two light chains for fast motility.

    PubMed

    Bookwalter, Carol S; Kelsen, Anne; Leung, Jacqueline M; Ward, Gary E; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2014-10-31

    Many diverse myosin classes can be expressed using the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell expression system, whereas others have been recalcitrant. We hypothesized that most myosins utilize Sf9 cell chaperones, but others require an organism-specific co-chaperone. TgMyoA, a class XIVa myosin from the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is required for the parasite to efficiently move and invade host cells. The T. gondii genome contains one UCS family myosin co-chaperone (TgUNC). TgMyoA expressed in Sf9 cells was soluble and functional only if the heavy and light chain(s) were co-expressed with TgUNC. The tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TgUNC was not essential to obtain functional myosin, implying that there are other mechanisms to recruit Hsp90. Purified TgMyoA heavy chain complexed with its regulatory light chain (TgMLC1) moved actin in a motility assay at a speed of ∼1.5 μm/s. When a putative essential light chain (TgELC1) was also bound, TgMyoA moved actin at more than twice that speed (∼3.4 μm/s). This result implies that two light chains bind to and stabilize the lever arm, the domain that amplifies small motions at the active site into the larger motions that propel actin at fast speeds. Our results show that the TgMyoA domain structure is more similar to other myosins than previously appreciated and provide a molecular explanation for how it moves actin at fast speeds. The ability to express milligram quantities of a class XIV myosin in a heterologous system paves the way for detailed structure-function analysis of TgMyoA and identification of small molecule inhibitors.

  13. Arabidopsis NF-YCs Mediate the Light-Controlled Hypocotyl Elongation via Modulating Histone Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yang; Liu, Xuncheng; Liu, Xu; Li, Yuge; Wu, Keqiang; Hou, Xingliang

    2017-02-13

    Light is a crucial environmental signal that promotes photomorphogenesis, the developmental process with a series of light-dependent alterations for plants to adapt various external challenges. Chromatin modification has been proposed to be involved in such light-mediated growth, but the underlying mechanism is still elusive. In this study, we identified four Arabidopsis thaliana Nuclear Factor-YC homologs, NF-YC1, NF-YC3, NF-YC4, and NF-YC9 (NF-YCs), which function redundantly as repressors of light-controlled hypocotyl elongation via histone deacetylation. Obvious etiolation phenotypes are observed in NF-YCs loss-of-function mutant seedlings grown under light conditions, including significant elongated hypocotyls and fewer opened cotyledons. We found that NF-YCs interact with histone deacetylase HDA15 in the light, co-target the promoters of a set of hypocotyl elongation-related genes, and modulate the levels of histone H4 acetylation on the associated chromatins, thus repressing gene expression. In contrast, NF-YC-HDA15 complex is dismissed from the target genes in the dark, resulting in increased level of H4 acetylation and consequent etiolated growth. Further analyses revealed that transcriptional repression activity of NF-YCs on the light-controlled hypocotyl elongation partially depends on the deacetylation activity of HDA15, and loss of HDA15 function could rescue the short-hypocotyl phenotype of NF-YCs overexpression plants. Taken together, our results indicate that NF-YC1, NF-YC3, NF-YC4, and NF-YC9 function as transcriptional co-repressors by interacting with HDA15 to inhibit hypocotyl elongation in photomorphogenesis during the early seedling stage. Our findings highlight that NF-YCs can modulate plant development in response to environmental cues via epigenetic regulation.

  14. Phospholipase C and myosin light chain kinase inhibition define a common step in actin regulation during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raymond; Fabian, Lacramioara; Forer, Arthur; Brill, Julie A

    2007-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is required for successful completion of cytokinesis. In addition, both PIP2 and phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) have been localized to the cleavage furrow of dividing mammalian cells. PLC hydrolyzes PIP2 to yield diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3), which in turn induces calcium (Ca2+) release from the ER. Several studies suggest PIP2 must be hydrolyzed continuously for continued cleavage furrow ingression. The majority of these studies employ the N-substituted maleimide U73122 as an inhibitor of PLC. However, the specificity of U73122 is unclear, as its active group closely resembles the non-specific alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). In addition, the pathway by which PIP2 regulates cytokinesis remains to be elucidated. Results Here we compared the effects of U73122 and the structurally unrelated PLC inhibitor ET-18-OCH3 (edelfosine) on cytokinesis in crane-fly and Drosophila spermatocytes. Our data show that the effects of U73122 are indeed via PLC because U73122 and ET-18-OCH3 produced similar effects on cell morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization that were distinct from those caused by NEM. Furthermore, treatment with the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 caused cleavage furrow regression and loss of both F-actin and phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain from the contractile ring in a manner similar to treatment with U73122 and ET-18-OCH3. Conclusion We have used multiple inhibitors to examine the roles of PLC and MLCK, a predicted downstream target of PLC regulation, in cytokinesis. Our results are consistent with a model in which PIP2 hydrolysis acts via Ca2+ to activate myosin via MLCK and thereby control actin dynamics during constriction of the contractile ring. PMID:17509155

  15. Phospholipase C and myosin light chain kinase inhibition define a common step in actin regulation during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond; Fabian, Lacramioara; Forer, Arthur; Brill, Julie A

    2007-05-17

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is required for successful completion of cytokinesis. In addition, both PIP2 and phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) have been localized to the cleavage furrow of dividing mammalian cells. PLC hydrolyzes PIP2 to yield diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3), which in turn induces calcium (Ca2+) release from the ER. Several studies suggest PIP2 must be hydrolyzed continuously for continued cleavage furrow ingression. The majority of these studies employ the N-substituted maleimide U73122 as an inhibitor of PLC. However, the specificity of U73122 is unclear, as its active group closely resembles the non-specific alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). In addition, the pathway by which PIP2 regulates cytokinesis remains to be elucidated. Here we compared the effects of U73122 and the structurally unrelated PLC inhibitor ET-18-OCH3 (edelfosine) on cytokinesis in crane-fly and Drosophila spermatocytes. Our data show that the effects of U73122 are indeed via PLC because U73122 and ET-18-OCH3 produced similar effects on cell morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization that were distinct from those caused by NEM. Furthermore, treatment with the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 caused cleavage furrow regression and loss of both F-actin and phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain from the contractile ring in a manner similar to treatment with U73122 and ET-18-OCH3. We have used multiple inhibitors to examine the roles of PLC and MLCK, a predicted downstream target of PLC regulation, in cytokinesis. Our results are consistent with a model in which PIP2 hydrolysis acts via Ca2+ to activate myosin via MLCK and thereby control actin dynamics during constriction of the contractile ring.

  16. Isolation of cardiac myosin light-chain isotypes by chromatofocusing. Comparison of human cardiac atrial light-chain 1 and foetal ventricular light-chain 1.

    PubMed

    Vincent, N D; Cummins, P

    1985-04-01

    Cardiac myosin light chain isotypes have been resolved using chromatofocusing, a new preparative column chromatographic technique. The method relies on production of narrow-range, shallow and stable pH gradients using ion-exchange resins and buffers with even buffering capacity over the required pH range. Light chains were resolved in order of decreasing isoelectric point in the pH range 5.2-4.5. Gradients of delta pH = 0.004-0.006/ml elution volume were achieved which were capable of resolving light chains with isoelectric point differences of only 0.03. Analytical isoelectric focusing of light chains in polyacrylamide gels could be used to predict the results of preparative chromatofocusing for method development. Chromatofocusing was capable of resolving human and bovine cardiac light chain 1 and 2 subunits, atrial (ALC) and ventricular (VLC) light chain isotypes and homologous VLC-2 and VLC-2* light chains. The technique was used to purify and resolve the human foetal ventricular light chain 1 (FLC-1) from adult ventricular light chain 1 (VLC-1) present in foetal ventricles and the atrial light chain 1 (ALC-1) in adult atria. Comparative peptide mapping studies and amino acid analyses were carried out on FLC-1 and ALC-1. No differences were detected between FLC-1 and ALC-1 using three different proteases and amino acid compositions were similar with the exception of glycine content. The studies indicate that FLC-1 and ALC-1 are homologous, and possibly identical, light chains. Comparison of human FLC-1/ALC-1 with VLC-1 suggested marked structural and chemical differences in these light chain isotypes, in particular in the contents of methionine, proline, lysine and alanine residues. Differences in the contents of these residues were also apparent in the corresponding bovine atrial and ventricular light chains [Wikman-Coffelt, J. & Srivastava, S. (1979) FEBS Lett. 106, 207-212]. The latter three residues are known to be rich in the N-termini of cardiac and

  17. Mechanisms of cGMP-dependent mesangial-cell relaxation: a role for myosin light-chain phosphatase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, G; Díez-Marqués, M L; García-Escribano, C; Bosch, R J; Rodríguez-Puyol, D; Rodríguez-Puyol, M

    2000-01-01

    Although the cGMP-dependent relaxation of contractile cells seems to depend on the ability of the cyclic nucleotide to interfere with intracellular calcium, this does not appear to be the only mechanism involved. The present experiments were designed to analyse alternative mechanisms, trying to test the hypothesis that cGMP could relax rat mesangial cells by activating myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLC-PP), with the subsequent dephosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC). The effect of a cGMP analogue, dibutyryl cGMP (dbcGMP), on angiotensin II-(AII) and PMA-induced MLC phosphorylation (MLCP) was tested, in the presence of calyculin A (CA), an inhibitor of MLC-PP. MLCP was measured, after cell labelling with (32)P, by immunoprecipitation. dbcGMP prevented the increased MLCP induced by AII or PMA, and this inhibition was blocked by CA. dbcGMP also increased the MLC dephosphorylation observed in cells incubated with AII and in which MLC kinase and protein kinase C activities were blocked. The AII-elicited increased intracellular calcium concentration was only partially inhibited by dbcGMP. These results suggest that the cGMP-induced mesangial-cell relaxation could be due, at least partially, to the stimulation of MLC-PP. PMID:10657260

  18. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation by Light and O-Acetyl-l-Serine in Lemna minor L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Neuenschwander, Urs; Suter, Marianne; Brunold, Christian

    1991-01-01

    The effect of 0.5 millimolar O-acetyl-l-serine added to the nutrient solution on sulfate assimilation of Lemna minor L., cultivated in the light or in the dark, or transferred from light to the dark, was examined. During 24 hours after transfer from light to the dark the extractable activity of adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase, a key enzyme of sulfate assimilation, decreased to 10% of the light control. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.7.1.) activity, measured for comparison, decreased to 40%. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.4.) and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase (EC 4.2.99.8.) activities were not affected by the transfer. When O-acetyl-l-serine was added to the nutrient solution at the time of transfer to the dark, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity was still at 50% of the light control after 24 hours, ATP sulfurylase and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase activity were again not affected, and nitrate reductase activity decreased as before. Addition of O-acetyl-l-serine at the time of the transfer caused a 100% increase in acid-soluble SH compounds after 24 hours in the dark. In continuous light the corresponding increase was 200%. During 24 hours after transfer to the dark the assimilation of 35SO42− into organic compounds decreased by 80% without O-acetyl-l-serine but was comparable to light controls in its presence. The addition of O-acetyl-l-serine to Lemna minor precultivated in the dark for 24 hours induced an increase in adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity so that a constant level of 50% of the light control was reached after an additional 9 hours. Cycloheximide as well as 6-methyl-purine inhibited this effect. In the same type of experiment O-acetyl-l-serine induced a 100-fold increase in the incorporation of label from 35SO42− into cysteine after additional 24 hours in the dark. Taken together, these results show that exogenous O-acetyl-l-serine has a regulatory effect on

  19. Differential roles of regulatory light chain and myosin binding protein-C phosphorylations in the modulation of cardiac force development

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, Brett A.; Locher, Matthew R.; Bekyarova, Tanya; Patel, Jitandrakumar R.; Fitzsimons, Daniel P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Moss, Richard L.

    2010-05-25

    Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A (PKA) independently accelerate the kinetics of force development in ventricular myocardium. However, while MLCK treatment has been shown to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force (pCa{sub 50}), PKA treatment has been shown to decrease pCa{sub 50}, presumably due to cardiac troponin I phosphorylation. Further, MLCK treatment increases Ca{sup 2+}-independent force and maximum Ca{sup 2+}-activated force, whereas PKA treatment has no effect on either force. To investigate the structural basis underlying the kinase-specific differential effects on steady-state force, we used synchrotron low-angle X-ray diffraction to compare equatorial intensity ratios (I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}) to assess the proximity of myosin cross-bridge mass relative to actin and to compare lattice spacings (d{sub 1,0}) to assess the inter-thick filament spacing in skinned myocardium following treatment with either MLCK or PKA. As we showed previously, PKA phosphorylation of cMyBP-C increases I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0} and, as hypothesized, treatment with MLCK also increased I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, which can explain the accelerated rates of force development during activation. Importantly, interfilament spacing was reduced by {approx}2 nm ({Delta} 3.5%) with MLCK treatment, but did not change with PKA treatment. Thus, RLC or cMyBP-C phosphorylation increases the proximity of cross-bridges to actin, but only RLC phosphorylation affects lattice spacing, which suggests that RLC and cMyBP-C modulate the kinetics of force development by similar structural mechanisms; however, the effect of RLC phosphorylation to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force is mediated by a distinct mechanism, most probably involving changes in interfilament spacing.

  20. Comparison of Orientation and Rotational Motion of Skeletal Muscle Cross-bridges Containing Phosphorylated and Dephosphorylated Myosin Regulatory Light Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Midde, Krishna; Rich, Ryan; Marandos, Peter; Fudala, Rafal; Li, Amy; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Borejdo, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Calcium binding to thin filaments is a major element controlling active force generation in striated muscles. Recent evidence suggests that processes other than Ca2+ binding, such as phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) also controls contraction of vertebrate striated muscle (Cooke, R. (2011) Biophys. Rev. 3, 33–45). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies using nucleotide analog spin label probes showed that dephosphorylated myosin heads are highly ordered in the relaxed fibers and have very low ATPase activity. This ordered structure of myosin cross-bridges disappears with the phosphorylation of RLC (Stewart, M. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 430–435). The slower ATPase activity in the dephosporylated moiety has been defined as a new super-relaxed state (SRX). It can be observed in both skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers (Hooijman, P., Stewart, M. A., and Cooke, R. (2011) Biophys. J. 100, 1969–1976). Given the importance of the finding that suggests a novel pathway of regulation of skeletal muscle, we aim to examine the effects of phosphorylation on cross-bridge orientation and rotational motion. We find that: (i) relaxed cross-bridges, but not active ones, are statistically better ordered in muscle where the RLC is dephosporylated compared with phosphorylated RLC; (ii) relaxed phosphorylated and dephosphorylated cross-bridges rotate equally slowly; and (iii) active phosphorylated cross-bridges rotate considerably faster than dephosphorylated ones during isometric contraction but the duty cycle remained the same, suggesting that both phosphorylated and dephosphorylated muscles develop the same isometric tension at full Ca2+ saturation. A simple theory was developed to account for this fact. PMID:23319584

  1. Various Themes of Myosin Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Heissler, Sarah M.; Sellers, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the myosin superfamily are actin-based molecular motors that are indispensable for cellular homeostasis. The vast functional and structural diversity of myosins accounts for the variety and complexity of the underlying allosteric regulatory mechanisms that determine the activation or inhibition of myosin motor activity and enable precise timing and spatial aspects of myosin function at the cellular level. This review focuses on the molecular basis of posttranslational regulation of eukaryotic myosins from different classes across species by allosteric intrinsic and extrinsic effectors. First, we highlight the impact of heavy and light chain phosphorylation. Second, we outline intramolecular regulatory mechanisms such as autoinhibition and subsequent activation. Third, we discuss diverse extramolecular allosteric mechanisms ranging from actin-linked regulatory mechanisms to myosin:cargo interactions. At last, we briefly outline the allosteric regulation of myosins with synthetic compounds. PMID:26827725

  2. Effect of ATP and regulatory light-chain phosphorylation on the polymerization of mammalian nonmuscle myosin II.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Billington, Neil; Shu, Shi; Yu, Shu-Hua; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Sellers, James R; Korn, Edward D

    2017-08-08

    Addition of 1 mM ATP substantially reduces the light scattering of solutions of polymerized unphosphorylated nonmuscle myosin IIs (NM2s), and this is reversed by phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC). It has been proposed that these changes result from substantial depolymerization of unphosphorylated NM2 filaments to monomers upon addition of ATP, and filament repolymerization upon RLC-phosphorylation. We now show that the differences in myosin monomer concentration of RLC-unphosphorylated and -phosphorylated recombinant mammalian NM2A, NM2B, and NM2C polymerized in the presence of ATP are much too small to explain their substantial differences in light scattering. Rather, we find that the decrease in light scattering upon addition of ATP to polymerized unphosphorylated NM2s correlates with the formation of dimers, tetramers, and hexamers, in addition to monomers, an increase in length, and decrease in width of the bare zones of RLC-unphosphorylated filaments. Both effects of ATP addition are reversed by phosphorylation of the RLC. Our data also suggest that, contrary to previous models, assembly of RLC-phosphorylated NM2s at physiological ionic strength proceeds from folded monomers to folded antiparallel dimers, tetramers, and hexamers that unfold and polymerize into antiparallel filaments. This model could explain the dynamic relocalization of NM2 filaments in vivo by dephosphorylation of RLC-phosphorylated filaments, disassembly of the dephosphorylated filaments to folded monomers, dimers, and small oligomers, followed by diffusion of these species, and reassembly of filaments at the new location following rephosphorylation of the RLC.

  3. A mutation in the atrial-specific myosin light chain gene (MYL4) causes familial atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Orr, Nathan; Arnaout, Rima; Gula, Lorne J; Spears, Danna A; Leong-Sit, Peter; Li, Qiuju; Tarhuni, Wadea; Reischauer, Sven; Chauhan, Vijay S; Borkovich, Matthew; Uppal, Shaheen; Adler, Arnon; Coughlin, Shaun R; Stainier, Didier Y R; Gollob, Michael H

    2016-04-12

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia, is a growing epidemic with substantial morbidity and economic burden. Mechanisms underlying vulnerability to AF remain poorly understood, which contributes to the current lack of highly effective therapies. Recognizing mechanistic subtypes of AF may guide an individualized approach to patient management. Here, we describe a family with a previously unreported syndrome characterized by early-onset AF (age <35 years), conduction disease and signs of a primary atrial myopathy. Phenotypic penetrance was complete in all mutation carriers, although complete disease expressivity appears to be age-dependent. We show that this syndrome is caused by a novel, heterozygous p.Glu11Lys mutation in the atrial-specific myosin light chain gene MYL4. In zebrafish, mutant MYL4 leads to disruption of sarcomeric structure, atrial enlargement and electrical abnormalities associated with human AF. These findings describe the cause of a rare subtype of AF due to a primary, atrial-specific sarcomeric defect.

  4. Mammalian myosin-18A, a highly divergent myosin.

    PubMed

    Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Heissler, Sarah M; Billington, Neil; Takagi, Yasuharu; Yang, Yi; Knight, Peter J; Homsher, Earl; Sellers, James R

    2013-03-29

    The Mus musculus myosin-18A gene is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms, α and β, with reported roles in Golgi localization, in maintenance of cytoskeleton, and as receptors for immunological surfactant proteins. Both myosin-18A isoforms feature a myosin motor domain, a single predicted IQ motif, and a long coiled-coil reminiscent of myosin-2. The myosin-18Aα isoform, additionally, has an N-terminal PDZ domain. Recombinant heavy meromyosin- and subfragment-1 (S1)-like constructs for both myosin-18Aα and -18β species were purified from the baculovirus/Sf9 cell expression system. These constructs bound both essential and regulatory light chains, indicating an additional noncanonical light chain binding site in the neck. Myosin-18Aα-S1 and -18Aβ-S1 molecules bound actin weakly with Kd values of 4.9 and 54 μm, respectively. The actin binding data could be modeled by assuming an equilibrium between two myosin conformations, a competent and an incompetent form to bind actin. Actin binding was unchanged by presence of nucleotide. Both myosin-18A isoforms bound N-methylanthraniloyl-nucleotides, but the rate of ATP hydrolysis was very slow (<0.002 s(-1)) and not significantly enhanced by actin. Phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain had no effect on ATP hydrolysis, and neither did the addition of tropomyosin or of GOLPH3, a myosin-18A binding partner. Electron microscopy of myosin-18A-S1 showed that the lever is strongly angled with respect to the long axis of the motor domain, suggesting a pre-power stroke conformation regardless of the presence of ATP. These data lead us to conclude that myosin-18A does not operate as a traditional molecular motor in cells.

  5. Mammalian Myosin-18A, a Highly Divergent Myosin

    PubMed Central

    Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Heissler, Sarah M.; Billington, Neil; Takagi, Yasuharu; Yang, Yi; Knight, Peter J.; Homsher, Earl; Sellers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The Mus musculus myosin-18A gene is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms, α and β, with reported roles in Golgi localization, in maintenance of cytoskeleton, and as receptors for immunological surfactant proteins. Both myosin-18A isoforms feature a myosin motor domain, a single predicted IQ motif, and a long coiled-coil reminiscent of myosin-2. The myosin-18Aα isoform, additionally, has an N-terminal PDZ domain. Recombinant heavy meromyosin- and subfragment-1 (S1)-like constructs for both myosin-18Aα and -18β species were purified from the baculovirus/Sf9 cell expression system. These constructs bound both essential and regulatory light chains, indicating an additional noncanonical light chain binding site in the neck. Myosin-18Aα-S1 and -18Aβ-S1 molecules bound actin weakly with Kd values of 4.9 and 54 μm, respectively. The actin binding data could be modeled by assuming an equilibrium between two myosin conformations, a competent and an incompetent form to bind actin. Actin binding was unchanged by presence of nucleotide. Both myosin-18A isoforms bound N-methylanthraniloyl-nucleotides, but the rate of ATP hydrolysis was very slow (<0.002 s−1) and not significantly enhanced by actin. Phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain had no effect on ATP hydrolysis, and neither did the addition of tropomyosin or of GOLPH3, a myosin-18A binding partner. Electron microscopy of myosin-18A-S1 showed that the lever is strongly angled with respect to the long axis of the motor domain, suggesting a pre-power stroke conformation regardless of the presence of ATP. These data lead us to conclude that myosin-18A does not operate as a traditional molecular motor in cells. PMID:23382379

  6. Role of Non-muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase in Neutrophil-mediated Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction During Thermal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mingzhang; Yuan, Sarah Y.; Sun, Chongxiu; Frederich, Bert J.; Shen, Qiang; McLean, Danielle L.; Wu, Mack H.

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils and non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) have been implicated in intestinal microvascular leakage and mucosal hyperpermeability in inflammation and trauma. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of nmMLCK in neutrophil-dependent gut barrier dysfunction following thermal injury, a common form of trauma that typically induces inflammation in multiple organs. Histopathological examination of the small intestine in mice after a full-thickness burn revealed morphological evidence of mucosa inflammation characterized by neutrophil infiltration into the lamina propria, epithelial contraction, and narrow villi with blunt brush borders and loss of goblet cells. Compared to their wild-type counterparts, nmMLCK-/- mice displayed diminished morphological abnormalities. Likewise, intravital microscopic studies showed significant leukocyte adhesion in intestinal microvessels post-burn, a response that was blunted in the absence of nmMLCK. Functionally, thermal injury significantly increased the gut lumen-to-blood transport of FITC-dextran (4 kD), and this hyperpermeability was attenuated by either neutrophil depletion or nmMLCK deficiency. Consistent with the in vivo observations, in vitro assays with Caco-2 epithelial cell monolayers revealed a decrease in transcellular electric resistance coupled with myosin light chain phosphorylation, actomyosin ring condensation, and claudin-1 internalization upon stimulation with fMLP-activated neutrophils. Pretreatment of the cells with the MLCK inhibitor ML-7 prevented the tight junction responses. Taken together, the results suggest that nmMLCK plays an important role in neutrophil-dependent intestinal barrier dysfunction during inflammatory injury. PMID:22814287

  7. Myosin light chain phosphorylation is required for peak power output of mouse fast skeletal muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bowslaugh, Joshua; Gittings, William; Vandenboom, Rene

    2016-11-01

    The skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) catalyzed phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) is associated with potentiation of force, work, and power in rodent fast twitch muscle. The purpose of this study was to compare concentric responses of EDL from wild-type (WT) and skMLCK devoid (skMLCK(-/-)) muscles at a range of shortening speeds (0.05 to 0.70 V max) around that expected to produce maximal power (in vitro, 25 °C) both before (unpotentiated) and after (potentiated) a potentiating stimulus (PS). When collapsed across all speeds tested, neither unpotentiated force, work, or power differed between genotypes (all data n = 10, P < 0.05). In contrast, although both genotypes displayed speed-dependent increases, these increases were greater for WT than skMLCK(-/-) muscles. For example, when collapsed across the six fastest speeds we tested, both concentric force and power were increased 30-34 % in WT but only 15-17 % in skMLCK(-/-) muscles. In contrast, at the two slowest speeds, these parameters were increased in WT but decreased in skMLCK(-/-) muscles (8-10 and 7-9 %, respectively). Intriguingly, potentiation of concentric force and power was optimal near speeds producing maximal power in both genotypes. Because the PS elevated RLC phosphorylation above resting levels in WT but not in skMLCK(-/-) muscles, our data suggest that skMLCK-catalyzed phosphorylation of the RLC is required for maximal concentric power output of mouse EDL muscle stimulated at high frequency in vitro.

  8. Phosphorylation and the N-terminal extension of the regulatory light chain help orient and align the myosin heads in Drosophila flight muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Miller, Mark S.; Reedy, Mary C.; Soto-Adames, Felipe N.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.; Maughan, David W.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-02-02

    X-ray diffraction of the indirect flight muscle (IFM) in living Drosophila at rest and electron microscopy of intact and glycerinated IFM was used to compare the effects of mutations in the regulatory light chain (RLC) on sarcomeric structure. Truncation of the RLC N-terminal extension (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}) or disruption of the phosphorylation sites by substituting alanines (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) decreased the equatorial intensity ratio (I{sub 20}/I{sub 10}), indicating decreased myosin mass associated with the thin filaments. Phosphorylation site disruption (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}), but not N-terminal extension truncation (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}), decreased the 14.5 nm reflection intensity, indicating a spread of the axial distribution of the myosin heads. The arrangement of thick filaments and myosin heads in electron micrographs of the phosphorylation mutant (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) appeared normal in the relaxed and rigor states, but when calcium activated, fewer myosin heads formed cross-bridges. In transgenic flies with both alterations to the RLC (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46; S66A, S67A}), the effects of the dual mutation were additive. The results suggest that the RLC N-terminal extension serves as a 'tether' to help pre-position the myosin heads for attachment to actin, while phosphorylation of the RLC promotes head orientations that allow optimal interactions with the thin filament.

  9. TGF-β1 Causes EMT by regulating N-Acetyl Glucosaminyl Transferases via Downregulation of Non Muscle Myosin II-A through JNK/P38/PI3K pathway in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Gao, Yingsheng; Gu, Ming; Wang, Lai; Khan, Sara; Naeem, Farah; Yousef, Bashir Alsiddig; Roy, Debmalya; Semukunzi, Herve; Yuan, Shengtao; Sun, Li

    2017-08-07

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major determinant of cancer metastasis and is closely linked with TGF-β1. Intracellular proteins, including E. Cadherin, N. Cadherin and Vimentin are directly related to EMT that affect cell migration and adhesion; on the other hand, non muscle myosin (NM) has a central role in cytokinesis, migration and adhesion. We aimed to explore the association of EMT and metastasis with TGF-β1 through regulation of non-muscle myosin II-A (NMII-A) and its interaction with Hexosamine Biosynthesis Pathway (HBP). Protein expression changes were assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescent staining while transcription level changes were assessed by qRT-PCR. EMT was assessed by phenotypic analysis, wound healing, proliferation and transwell migration assay in vitro while in vivo studies were conducted in BALB/c nude mice for lung orthotopic and tail vein metastasis models. We demonstrated that regulation of JNK/ P38/PI3K by TGF-β1 led to down expression of NMII-A which promoted EMT and lung cancer metastasis. This down expression of NMII-A conversely upregulated the expression of Core 2 N-acetyl Glucosaminyl Transferase mucin type (C2GnT-M) and further facilitated up and down regulation of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT) -V and -III respectively; moreover, NMII-A K.D cells showed 3 times more tendency to migrate towards brain in vivo. The study reports a novel pathway through which NMII-A negatively regulates EMT and metastasis via up regulation of C2GnT-M, GnT-V and down expression of GnT-III. These findings of lung cancer may further be required to study in other cancer types. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Phosphorylation Regulates Interaction of 210-kDa Myosin Light Chain Kinase N-terminal Domain with Actin Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Vilitkevich, E L; Khapchaev, A Y; Kudryashov, D S; Nikashin, A V; Schavocky, J P; Lukas, T J; Watterson, D M; Shirinsky, V P

    2015-10-01

    High molecular weight myosin light chain kinase (MLCK210) is a multifunctional protein involved in myosin II activation and integration of cytoskeletal components in cells. MLCK210 possesses actin-binding regions both in the central part of the molecule and in its N-terminal tail domain. In HeLa cells, mitotic protein kinase Aurora B was suggested to phosphorylate MLCK210 N-terminal tail at serine residues (Dulyaninova, N. G., and Bresnick, A. R. (2004) Exp. Cell Res., 299, 303-314), but the functional significance of the phosphorylation was not established. We report here that in vitro, the N-terminal actin-binding domain of MLCK210 is located within residues 27-157 (N27-157, avian MLCK210 sequence) and is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Aurora B at serine residues 140/149 leading to a decrease in N27-157 binding to actin. The same residues are phosphorylated in a PKA-dependent manner in transfected HeLa cells. Further, in transfected cells, phosphomimetic mutants of N27-157 showed reduced association with the detergent-stable cytoskeleton, whereas in vitro, the single S149D mutation reduced N27-157 association with F-actin to a similar extent as that achieved by N27-157 phosphorylation. Altogether, our results indicate that phosphorylation of MLCK210 at distinct serine residues, mainly at S149, attenuates the interaction of MLCK210 N-terminus with the actin cytoskeleton and might serve to regulate MLCK210 microfilament cross-linking activity in cells.

  11. Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain eliminates force-dependent changes in relaxation rates in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, J R; Diffee, G M; Huang, X P; Moss, R L

    1998-01-01

    The rate of relaxation from steady-state force in rabbit psoas fiber bundles was examined before and after phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Relaxation was initiated using diazo-2, a photolabile Ca2+ chelator that has low Ca2+ binding affinity (K(Ca) = 4.5 x 10(5) M(-1)) before photolysis and high affinity (K(Ca) = 1.3 x 10(7) M(-1)) after photolysis. Before phosphorylating RLC, the half-times for relaxation initiated from 0.27 +/- 0.02, 0.51 +/- 0.03, and 0.61 +/- 0.03 Po were 90 +/- 6, 140 +/- 6, and 182 +/- 9 ms, respectively. After phosphorylation of RLC, the half-times for relaxation from 0.36 +/- 0.03 Po, 0.59 +/- 0.03 Po, and 0.65 +/- 0.02 Po were 197 +/- 35 ms, 184 +/- 35 ms, and 179 +/- 22 ms. This slowing of relaxation rates from steady-state forces less than 0.50 Po was also observed when bundles of fibers were bathed with N-ethylmaleimide-modified myosin S-1, a strongly binding cross-bridge derivative of S1. These results suggest that phosphorylation of RLC slows relaxation, most likely by slowing the apparent rate of transition of cross-bridges from strongly bound (force-generating) to weakly bound (non-force-generating) states, and reduces or eliminates Ca2+ and cross-bridge activation-dependent changes in relaxation rates. PMID:9449336

  12. Myosin chaperones.

    PubMed

    Hellerschmied, Doris; Clausen, Tim

    2014-04-01

    The folding and assembly of myosin motor proteins is essential for most movement processes at the cellular, but also at the organism level. Importantly, myosins, which represent a very diverse family of proteins, require the activity of general and specialized folding factors to develop their full motor function. The activities of the myosin-specific UCS (UNC-45/Cro1/She4) chaperones range from assisting acto-myosin dependent transport processes to scaffolding multi-subunit chaperone complexes, which are required to assemble myofilaments. Recent structure-function studies revealed the structural organization of TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat)-containing and TPR-less UCS chaperones. The observed structural differences seem to reflect the specialized and remarkably versatile working mechanisms of myosin-directed chaperones, as will be discussed in this review. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Myosin chaperones☆

    PubMed Central

    Hellerschmied, Doris; Clausen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The folding and assembly of myosin motor proteins is essential for most movement processes at the cellular, but also at the organism level. Importantly, myosins, which represent a very diverse family of proteins, require the activity of general and specialized folding factors to develop their full motor function. The activities of the myosin-specific UCS (UNC-45/Cro1/She4) chaperones range from assisting acto-myosin dependent transport processes to scaffolding multi-subunit chaperone complexes, which are required to assemble myofilaments. Recent structure–function studies revealed the structural organization of TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat)-containing and TPR-less UCS chaperones. The observed structural differences seem to reflect the specialized and remarkably versatile working mechanisms of myosin-directed chaperones, as will be discussed in this review. PMID:24440450

  14. Compositional and expression analyses of the glideosome during the Plasmodium life cycle reveal an additional myosin light chain required for maximum motility.

    PubMed

    Green, Judith L; Wall, Richard J; Vahokoski, Juha; Yusuf, Noor A; Ridzuan, Mohd A Mohd; Stanway, Rebecca R; Stock, Jessica; Knuepfer, Ellen; Brady, Declan; Martin, Stephen R; Howell, Steven A; Pires, Isa P; Moon, Robert W; Molloy, Justin E; Kursula, Inari; Tewari, Rita; Holder, Anthony A

    2017-09-11

    Myosin A (MyoA) is a Class XIV myosin implicated in gliding motility and host cell and tissue invasion by malaria parasites. MyoA is part of a membrane-associated protein complex called the glideosome, which is essential for parasite motility and includes the MyoA light chain MTIP, and several glideosome-associated proteins (GAPs). However, most studies of MyoA have focused on single stages of the parasite life cycle. We examined MyoA expression throughout the Plasmodium berghei life cycle in both mammalian and insect hosts. In extracellular ookinetes, sporozoites and merozoites, MyoA was located at the parasite periphery. In the sexual stages, zygote formation and initial ookinete differentiation precede MyoA synthesis and deposition, which occurred only in the developing protuberance. In developing intracellular asexual blood stages, MyoA was synthesized in mature schizonts and was located at the periphery of segmenting merozoites, where it remained throughout maturation, merozoite egress and host cell invasion. Besides the known GAPs in the malaria parasite, the complex included GAP40, an additional myosin light chain designated essential light chain (ELC) and several other candidate components. This ELC bound the MyoA neck region adjacent to the MTIP binding site, and both myosin light chains co-located to the glideosome. Co-expression of MyoA with its two light chains revealed that the presence of both light chains enhances MyoA-dependent actin motility. In conclusion, we have established a system to study the interplay and function of the three glideosome components, enabling the assessment of inhibitors that target this motor complex to block host cell invasion. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Aurora B but not rho/MLCK signaling is required for localization of diphosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain to the midzone in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tomo; Isoda, Rieko; Ookusa, Takayuki; Kamijo, Keiju; Hamao, Kozue; Hosoya, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II is stimulated by monophosphorylation of its regulatory light chain (MRLC) at Ser19 (1P-MRLC). MRLC diphosphorylation at Thr18/Ser19 (2P-MRLC) further enhances the ATPase activity of myosin II. Phosphorylated MRLCs localize to the contractile ring and regulate cytokinesis as subunits of activated myosin II. Recently, we reported that 2P-MRLC, but not 1P-MRLC, localizes to the midzone independently of myosin II heavy chain during cytokinesis in cultured mammalian cells. However, the mechanism underlying the distinct localization of 1P- and 2P-MRLC during cytokinesis is unknown. Here, we showed that depletion of the Rho signaling proteins MKLP1, MgcRacGAP, or ECT2 inhibited the localization of 1P-MRLC to the contractile ring but not the localization of 2P-MRLC to the midzone. In contrast, depleting or inhibiting a midzone-localizing kinase, Aurora B, perturbed the localization of 2P-MRLC to the midzone but not the localization of 1P-MRLC to the contractile ring. We did not observe any change in the localization of phosphorylated MRLC in myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)-inhibited cells. Furrow regression was observed in Aurora B- and 2P-MRLC-inhibited cells but not in 1P-MRLC-perturbed dividing cells. Furthermore, Aurora B bound to 2P-MRLC in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that Aurora B, but not Rho/MLCK signaling, is essential for the localization of 2P-MRLC to the midzone in dividing HeLa cells.

  16. Heterogeneity of myofibrillar proteins in lobster fast and slow muscles: variants of troponin, paramyosin, and myosin light chains comprise four distinct protein assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fast and slow muscles from the claws and abdomen of the American lobster Homarus americanus were examined for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and for differences in myofibrillar proteins. Both myosin and actomyosin ATPase were correlated with fiber composition and contractile speed. Four distinct patterns of myofibrilla proteins observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. A total of three species of troponin-T, five species of troponin-I, and three species of troponin-C were observed. Lobster myosins contained two groups of light chains (LC), termed alpha and beta. There were three ..cap alpha..-LC variants and two ..beta..-LC variants. There were no apparent differences in myosin heavy chain, actin, and tropomyosin. Only paramyosin showed a pattern completely consistent with muscle fiber type: slow fibers contained a species (105 kD) slightly smaller than the principle variant (110 kD) in fast fibers. It is proposed that the type of paramyosin present could provide a biochemical marker to identify the fiber composition of muscles that have not been fully characterized. The diversity of troponin and myosin LC variants suggests that subtle differences in physiological performance exist within the broader categories of fast- and slow-twitch muscles. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  17. The Dictyostelium class I myosin, MyoD, contains a novel light chain that lacks high-affinity calcium-binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    De La Roche, Marc A; Lee, Sheu-Fen; Côté, Graham P

    2003-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum MyoD, a long-tailed class I myosin, co-purified with two copies of a 16 kDa light chain. Sequence analysis of the MyoD light chain showed it to be a unique protein, termed MlcD, that shares 44% sequence identity with Dictyostelium calmodulin and 43% sequence identity with Acanthamoeba castellanii myosin IC light chain. MlcD comprises four EF-hands; however, EF-hands 2-4 contain mutations in key Ca2+-co-ordinating residues that would be predicted to impair Ca2+ binding. Electrospray ionization MS of MlcD in the presence of Ca2+ and La3+ showed the presence of one major and one minor metal-binding site. MlcD contains a single tryptophan residue (Trp39), the fluorescence intensity of which was quenched upon addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+, yielding apparent dissociation constants ( K'(d)) of 52 microM for Ca2+ and 450 microM for Mg2+. The low affinity of MlcD for Ca2+ indicates that it cannot function as a sensor of physiological Ca2+. Ca2+ did not affect the binding of MlcD to MyoD or to either of the two MyoD IQ (Ile-Gln) motifs. FLAG-MlcD expressed in Dictyostelium formed a complex with MyoD, but not with the two other long-tailed Dictyostelium myosin I isoenzymes, MyoB and MyoC. Through its specific association with the Ca2+-insensitive MlcD, MyoD may exhibit distinct regulatory properties that distinguish it from myosin I isoenzymes with calmodulin light chains. PMID:12826013

  18. Molecular mechanism of telokin-mediated disinhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase and cAMP/cGMP-induced relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Khromov, Alexander S; Momotani, Ko; Jin, Li; Artamonov, Mykhaylo V; Shannon, John; Eto, Masumi; Somlyo, Avril V

    2012-06-15

    Phospho-telokin is a target of elevated cyclic nucleotide concentrations that lead to relaxation of gastrointestinal and some vascular smooth muscles (SM). Here, we demonstrate that in telokin-null SM, both Ca(2+)-activated contraction and Ca(2+) sensitization of force induced by a GST-MYPT1(654-880) fragment inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase were antagonized by the addition of recombinant S13D telokin, without changing the inhibitory phosphorylation status of endogenous MYPT1 (the regulatory subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase) at Thr-696/Thr-853 or activity of Rho kinase. Cyclic nucleotide-induced relaxation of force in telokin-null ileum muscle was reduced but not correlated with a change in MYPT1 phosphorylation. The 40% inhibited activity of phosphorylated MYPT1 in telokin-null ileum homogenates was restored to nonphosphorylated MYPT1 levels by addition of S13D telokin. Using the GST-MYPT1 fragment as a ligand and SM homogenates from WT and telokin KO mice as a source of endogenous proteins, we found that only in the presence of endogenous telokin, thiophospho-GST-MYPT1 co-precipitated with phospho-20-kDa myosin regulatory light chain 20 and PP1. Surface plasmon resonance studies showed that S13D telokin bound to full-length phospho-MYPT1. Results of a protein ligation assay also supported interaction of endogenous phosphorylated MYPT1 with telokin in SM cells. We conclude that the mechanism of action of phospho-telokin is not through modulation of the MYPT1 phosphorylation status but rather it contributes to cyclic nucleotide-induced relaxation of SM by interacting with and activating the inhibited full-length phospho-MYPT1/PP1 through facilitating its binding to phosphomyosin and thus accelerating 20-kDa myosin regulatory light chain dephosphorylation.

  19. [Seasonal changes in phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains and C-protein in myocardium of hibernating ground squirrel Citellus undulatus].

    PubMed

    Malyshev, S L; Osipova, D A; Vikhliantsev, I M; Podlubnaia, Z A

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study concerning the extent of phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains and C-protein from the left ventricle of hibernating ground squirrel Citellus undulatus during the periods of hibernation and activity was carried out. During hibernation, regulatory light chains of ground squirrel were found to be completely dephosphorylated. In active animals, the share of phosphorylated light chains averages 40-45% of their total amount. The extent of phosphorylation of the cardiac C-protein during hibernation is about two times higher than that in the active state. Seasonal differences in phosphorylation of the two proteins of ground squirrel myocardium are discussed in the context of adaptation to hibernation.

  20. Structure of the smooth muscle myosin light-chain kinase calmodulin-binding domain peptide bound to calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, S.M.; Schneider, D.M.; Wand, A.J. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana ); Strobel, L.A. ); VanBerkum, M.F.A.; Means, A.R. )

    1991-10-22

    The interaction between the peptide corresponding to the calmodulin-binding domain of smooth muscle myosin light-chain kinase and (Ca{sup 2+}){sub 4}-calmodulin has been studied by multinuclear and multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The study was facilitated by the use of {sup 15}N-labeled peptide in conjunction with {sup 15}N-edited and {sup 15}N-correlated {sup 1}H spectroscopy. The peptide forms a 1:1 complex with calcium-saturated calmodulin which is in slow exchange with free peptide. The {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N resonances of the bound have been assigned. An extensive set of structural constraints for the bound peptide has been assembled from the analysis of nuclear Overhauser effects and three-bond coupling constants. The backbone conformation of the bound peptide has been determined using these constraints by use of distance geometry and related computational methods. The backbone conformation of the peptide has been determined to high precision and is generally indicative of helical secondary structure. Nonhelical backbone conformations are seen in the middle and at the C-terminal end of the bound peptide. These studies provide the first direct confirmation of the amphiphilic helix model for the structure of peptides bound to calcium-saturated calmodulin.

  1. Vincristine promotes migration and invasion of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells through RhoA/ROCK/ Myosin light chain pathway.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Liu, K; Jiao, B; Wang, X; Huang, S; Ren, W; Zhao, K

    2016-10-31

    Vincristine is an antitumor vinca alkaloid isolated from vinca rosea, and is a medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the impact of vincristine on oncogenic phenotypes of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. MTT assay demonstrated that vincristine showed a obviously inhibitory effect on cell growth compared to non-treated cells. However, Transwell assay showed that vincristine promoted migration and invasion of HCT116 cells in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.5 and 15 μM vincristine treatment, whereas cell growth showed no remarkable difference within the same concentration range. Additionally, Western blot analysis showed that vincristine significantly elevated RhoA activity and Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of RhoA/ROCK pathway in the vincristine-induced enhancement of cellular motility. Furthermore, we found that both the siRNA for RhoA and ROCK inhibitor Y27632 attenuated the phosphorylation of MLC, as well as vincristine-induced migration and invasion. These data indicate that vincristine enhanced migration and invasion of HCT116 cells possibly through stimulating RhoA/ROCK/MLC signaling pathway.

  2. Loss of β-PIX inhibits focal adhesion disassembly and promotes keratinocyte motility via myosin light chain activation.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Sho; Stimac, Gregory P; Hopkinson, Susan B; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2017-07-15

    During healing of the skin, the cytoskeleton of keratinocytes and their matrix adhesions, including focal adhesions (FAs), undergo reorganization. These changes are coordinated by small GTPases and their regulators, including the guanine nucleotide exchange factor β-PIX (also known as ARHGEF7). In fibroblasts, β-PIX activates small GTPases, thereby enhancing migration. In keratinocytes in vitro, β-PIX localizes to FAs. To study β-PIX functions, we generated β-PIX knockdown keratinocytes. During wound closure of β-PIX knockdown cell monolayers, disassembly of FAs is impaired, and their number and size are increased. In addition, in the β-PIX knockdown cells, phosphorylated myosin light chain (MLC; also known as MYL2) is present not only in the leading edge of cells at the wound front, but also in the cells following the front, while p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), a regulator of MLC kinase (MYLK), is mislocalized. Inhibition or depletion of MYLK restores FA distribution in β-PIX knockdown cells. Traction forces generated by β-PIX knockdown cells are increased relative to those in control cells, a result consistent with an unexpected enhancement in the migration of single β-PIX knockdown cells and monolayers of such cells. We propose that targeting β-PIX might be a means of promoting epithelialization of wounds in vivo. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Purification and characterization of the plasmodial phosphatase that hydrolyses the phosphorylated light chain of Physarum myosin II from Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Okada, Chisa; Nakamura, Akio; Tomioka, Shigeo; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Takako S

    2010-08-01

    A phosphatase was purified through a combination of ion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography followed by native PAGE from Physarum plasmodia. Recently, we demonstrated that this phosphatase isoform has a hydrolytic activity towards the PMLC (phosphorylated light chain of Physarum myosin II) at pH 7.6. The apparent molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at approximately 50 kDa by means of analytical gel filtration. The enzyme was purified 340-fold to a final phosphatase activity of 400 pkat/mg of protein. Among the phosphorylated compounds tested for hydrolytic activity at pH 7.6, the enzyme showed no activity towards nucleotides. At pH 7.6, hydrolytic activity of the enzyme against PMLC was detected; at pH 5.0, however, no hydrolytic activity towards PMLC was observed. The Km of the enzyme for PMLC was 10 microM, and the V(max) was 1.17 nkat/mg of protein. Ca(2+) (10 microM) inhibited the activity of the enzyme, and Mg(2+) (8.5 microM) activated the dephosphorylation of PMLC. Mn(2+) (1.6 microM) highly stimulated the enzyme's activity. Based on these results, we concluded that the enzyme is likely to be a phosphatase with hydrolytic activity towards PMLC.

  4. Tissue-specific transcription of the cardiac myosin light-chain 2 gene is regulated by an upstream repressor element.

    PubMed

    Shen, R A; Goswami, S K; Mascareno, E; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, M A

    1991-03-01

    Physiological expression of the cardiac muscle myosin light-chain 2 (MLC-2) gene in chickens is restricted to cardiac muscle tissue only, at least during the late embryonic to adult stages of development. The mechanism by which cardiac MLC-2 gene expression is repressed in differentiated noncardiac muscle tissues is unknown. Using sequential 5'-deletion mutants of the cardiac MLC-2 promoter introduced into primary skeletal muscle cells in culture, we have demonstrated that a 89-bp region, designated the cardiac-specific sequence (CSS), is essential for repression of cardiac MLC-2 expression in skeletal muscle. Removal of the CSS sequence alone allows transcription in skeletal muscle cells without affecting the transcriptional activity of the promoter in cardiac muscle cells. DNase I footprinting and gel shift assays indicate that protein binding to sequences in the CSS domain occurs readily in nuclear extracts obtained from skeletal muscle but not in extracts isolated under identical conditions from cardiac muscle. Thus, it appears that a negative regulatory mechanism accounts for the lack of expression of the cardiac MLC-2 gene in skeletal muscle and that the CSS element and its binding proteins are important functional components of the regulatory apparatus which ensures the developmental program for cardiac tissue-specific gene expression.

  5. Molecular and functional analyses of the fast skeletal myosin light chain2 gene of the Korean oily bitterling, Acheilognathus koreensis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Lee, Ye-Ji; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Soo; Kim, Bong-Seok; An, Cheul Min; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Cho, Hyun Kook

    2013-08-13

    We identified and characterized the primary structure of the Korean oily bitterling Acheilognathus koreensis fast skeletal myosin light chain 2 (Akmlc2f), gene. Encoded by seven exons spanning 3955 bp, the deduced 168-amino acid AkMLC2f polypeptide contained an EF-hand calcium-binding motif and showed strong homology (80%-98%) with the MLC2 proteins of Ictalurus punctatus and other species, including mammals. Akmlc2f mRNA was highly enriched in skeletal muscles, and was detectable in other tissues. The upstream regions of Akmlc2f included a TATA box, one copy of a putative MEF-2 binding site and several putative C/EBPβ binding sites. The functional activity of the promoter region of Akmlc2f was examined using luciferase and red fluorescent protein reporters. The Akmlc2f promoter-driven reporter expressions were detected and increased by the C/EBPβ transcription factor in HEK293T cells. The activity of the promoter of Akmlc2f was also confirmed in the developing zebrafish embryo. Although the detailed mechanism underlying the expression of Akmlc2f remains unknown, these results suggest the muscle-specific expression of Akmlc2f transcript and the functional activation of Akmlc2f promoter by C/EBPβ.

  6. Gene expression patterns in transgenic mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in myosin regulatory light chain☆

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenrui; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Zhou, Zhiqun; Aguiar-Pulido, Vanessa; Narasimhan, Giri; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2017-01-01

    Using microarray and bioinformatics, we examined the gene expression profiles in transgenic mouse hearts expressing mutations in the myosin regulatory light chain shown to cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We focused on two malignant RLC-mutations, Arginine 58→Glutamine (R58Q) and Aspartic Acid 166 → Valine (D166V), and one benign, Lysine 104 → Glutamic Acid (K104E)-mutation. Datasets of differentially expressed genes for each of three mutants were compared to those observed in wild-type (WT) hearts. The changes in the mutant vs. WT samples were shown as fold-change (FC), with stringency FC ≥ 2. Based on the gene profiles, we have identified the major signaling pathways that underlie the R58Q-, D166V- and K104E-HCM phenotypes. The correlations between different genotypes were also studied using network-based algorithms. Genes with strong correlations were clustered into one group and the central gene networks were identified for each HCM mutant. The overall gene expression patterns in all mutants were distinct from the WT profiles. Both malignant mutations shared certain classes of genes that were up or downregulated, but most similarities were noted between D166V and K104E mice, with R58Q hearts showing a distinct gene expression pattern. Our data suggest that all three HCM mice lead to cardiomyopathy in a mutation-specific manner and thus develop HCM through diverse mechanisms. PMID:26906074

  7. The human myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) from hippocampus: Cloning, sequencing, expression, and localization to 3qcen-q21

    SciTech Connect

    Potier, M.C.; Rossier, J.; Turnell, W.G.; Pekarsky, Y.; Gardiner, K.

    1995-10-10

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a key enzyme in muscle contraction, has been shown by immunohistology to be present in neurons and glia. We describe here the cloning of the cDNA for human MLCK from hippocampus, encoding a protein sequence 95% similar to smooth muscle MLCKs but less than 60% similar to skeletal muscle MLCKs. The cDNA clone detected two RNA transcripts in human frontal and entorhinal cortex, in hippocampus, and in jejunum, one corresponding to MLCK and the other probably to telokin, the carboxy-terminal 154 codons of MLCK expressed as an independent protein in smooth muscle. Levels of expression were lower in brain compared to smooth muscle. We show that within the protein sequence, a motif of 28 or 24 residues is repeated five times, the second repeat ending with the putative methionine start codon. These repeats overlap with a second previously reported module of 12 residues repeated five times in the human sequence. In addition, the acidic C-terminus of all MLCKs from both brain and smooth muscle resembles the C-terminus of tubulins. The chromosomal localization of the gene for human MLCK is shown to be at 3qcen-q21, as determined by PCR and Southern blotting using two somatic cell hybrid panels. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Amol; Cotton, James A.; Dixon, Brent R.; Gedamu, Lashitew; Yates, Robin M.; Buret, Andre G.

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates) trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate) trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections. PMID:26334299

  9. Rebeccamycin Attenuates TNF-α-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction by Inhibiting Myosin Light Chain Kinase Production.

    PubMed

    Watari, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yuta; Hisaie, Kota; Iwamoto, Kazuki; Fueta, Miho; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kondoh, Masuo

    2017-01-01

    Although proinflammatory cytokine-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier integrity is associated with intestinal inflammatory disease, effective treatment for barrier dysfunction is lacking. Previously, we demonstrated that rebeccamycin alleviates epithelial barrier dysfunction induced by inflammatory cytokines in Caco-2 cell monolayers; however, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which rebeccamycin protects the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 cells exposed to TNF-α. To confirm the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 cell monolayers, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular permeability were measured. Production levels and localization of tight junction (TJ) proteins were analyzed by immunoblot and immunofluorescence, respectively. Phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC) and MLC kinase (MLCK) mRNA expression levels were determined by immunoblot and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Rebeccamycin attenuated the TNF-α-induced reduction in TER and increase in paracellular permeability. Rebeccamycin increased claudin-5 expression, but not claudin-1, -2, -4, occludin or ZO-1 expression, and prevented the TNF-α-induced changes in ZO-1 and occludin localization. Rebeccamycin suppressed the TNF-α-induced increase in MLCK mRNA expression, thus suppressing MLC phosphorylation. The rebeccamycin-mediated reduction in MLCK production and protection of epithelial barrier function were alleviated by Chk1 inhibition. Rebeccamycin attenuates TNF-α-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier integrity by inducing claudin-5 expression and suppressing MLCK production via Chk1 activation. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Myosin light chain-2 mutation affects flight, wing beat frequency, and indirect flight muscle contraction kinetics in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have used a combination of classical genetic, molecular genetic, histological, biochemical, and biophysical techniques to identify and characterize a null mutation of the myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Mlc2E38 is a null mutation of the MLC-2 gene resulting from a nonsense mutation at the tenth codon position. Mlc2E38 confers dominant flightless behavior that is associated with reduced wing beat frequency. Mlc2E38 heterozygotes exhibit a 50% reduction of MLC-2 mRNA concentration in adult thoracic musculature, which results in a commensurate reduction of MLC-2 protein in the indirect flight muscles. Indirect flight muscle myofibrils from Mlc2E38 heterozygotes are aberrant, exhibiting myofilaments in disarray at the periphery. Calcium-activated Triton X-100-treated single fiber segments exhibit slower contraction kinetics than wild type. Introduction of a transformed copy of the wild type MLC-2 gene rescues the dominant flightless behavior of Mlc2E38 heterozygotes. Wing beat frequency and single fiber contraction kinetics of a representative rescued line are not significantly different from those of wild type. Together, these results indicate that wild type MLC-2 stoichiometry is required for normal indirect flight muscle assembly and function. Furthermore, these results suggest that the reduced wing beat frequency and possibly the flightless behavior conferred by Mlc2E38 is due in part to slower contraction kinetics of sarcomeric regions devoid or partly deficient in MLC-2. PMID:1469046

  11. Myosin light chain phosphatase activation is involved in the hydrogen sulfide-induced relaxation in mouse gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Dhaese, Ingeborg; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2009-03-15

    The relaxant effect of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in the vascular tree is well established but its influence and mechanism of action in gastrointestinal smooth muscle was hardly investigated. The influence of H(2)S on contractility in mouse gastric fundus was therefore examined. Sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS; H(2)S donor) was administered to prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha))-contracted circular muscle strips of mouse gastric fundus, before and after incubation with interfering drugs. NaHS caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the pre-contracted mouse gastric fundus strips. The K(+) channels blockers glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, 4-aminopyridin and barium chloride had no influence on the NaHS-induced relaxation. The relaxation by NaHS was also not influenced by L-NAME, ODQ and SQ 22536, inhibitors of the cGMP and cAMP pathway, by nerve blockers capsazepine, omega-conotoxin and tetrodotoxin or by several channel and receptor blockers (ouabain, nifedipine, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate, ryanodine and thapsigargin). The myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) inhibitor calyculin-A reduced the NaHS-induced relaxation, but the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 had no influence. We show that NaHS is able to relax PGF(2alpha)-contracted mouse gastric fundus strips. The results suggest that in the mouse gastric fundus, H(2)S causes relaxation at least partially via activation of MLCP.

  12. [Effect of vitamin E on myosin light chain kinase activity and endothelial permeability of the artery in atherosclerotic rabbit].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua-qing; Ren, Bin; Xiong, Jiang-xia; Hu, Ruo-lei; Liu, Xiao-ying; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Su-mei; Liu, Hui-lan; Jiang, Zhi-kui; Zhou, Qing; Gui, Shu-yu; Wang, Yuan

    2003-08-01

    To study the effect of vitamin E (Vit E) on the myosin light chain kinase(MLCK) activity and the endothelial permeability of the artery in atherosclerotic rabbits. The MLCK activity of rabbit artery was measured by incorporation of gamma-(32)P. The endothelial permeability was accessed by immunofluorescence. The model of atherosclerosis was established after rabbits were fed with cholesterol for four weeks. The activity of MLCK increased markedly, and there was significantly statistical difference compared with the normal control (P<0.05). When the rabbits were fed with cholesterol for twelve weeks or with cholesterol and Vit E for twelve weeks, the activity of MLCK did not change markedly, and there was no statistical difference compared with the normal control, respectively (P>0.05). The permeability of arterial wall was increased after the rabbits were fed with cholesterol for four weeks, and the permeability increased even more obviously after the rabbits were fed with cholesterol for twelve weeks. The permeability appeared to be decreased when Vit E was added into the cholesterol feeding. The change in integrity of arterial wall may be associated with the increase of the activity of MLCK. Vit E may decrease the MLCK activity. Vit E may decrease the endothelial permeability of atherosclerotic rabbits.

  13. Identification of a phosphorylation site on skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase that becomes phosphorylated during muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Haydon, Claire E; Watt, Peter W; Morrice, Nick; Knebel, Axel; Gaestel, Matthias; Cohen, Philip

    2002-01-15

    A protein phosphorylated efficiently in vitro by MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2) was purified from skeletal muscle extracts and identified as the calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). The phosphorylation site was mapped to Ser(161), a residue shown previously to be autophosphorylated by MLCK. The residue equivalent to Ser(161) became phosphorylated in vivo when rat hindlimbs were stimulated electrically. However, phosphorylation was triggered within seconds, whereas activation of MAPKAP-K2 required several minutes. Moreover, contraction-induced Ser(161) phosphorylation was similar in wild-type or MAPKAP-K2-/- mice. These results indicate that contraction-induced phosphorylation is probably catalyzed by MLCK and not MAPKAP-K2. Ser(161) phosphorylation induced the binding of MLCK to 14-3-3 proteins, but did not detectably affect the kinetic properties of MLCK. The sequence surrounding Ser(161) is unusual in that residue 158 is histidine. Previously, an arginine located three residues N-terminal to the site of phosphorylation was thought to be critical for the specificity of MAPKAP-K2. (c)2001 Elsevier Science.

  14. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Amol; Cotton, James A; Dixon, Brent R; Gedamu, Lashitew; Yates, Robin M; Buret, Andre G

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates) trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate) trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections.

  15. Cyclical compressive stress induces differentiation of rat primary mandibular condylar chondrocytes through phosphorylated myosin light chain II.

    PubMed

    Liu, Limin; Chen, Lin; Mai, Zhihui; Peng, Zhuli; Yu, Kafung; Liu, Guanqi; Ai, Hong

    2016-11-01

    The role of myosin light chain II (MLC‑II) in cellular differentiation of rat mandibular condylar chondrocytes (MCCs) induced by cyclical uniaxial compressive stress (CUCS) remains unclear. In the current study, a four‑point bending system was used to apply CUCS to primary cultured MCCs from rats. It was identified that CUCS stimulated features of cellular differentiation including morphological alterations, cytoskeleton rearrangement and overproduction of proteoglycans. Furthermore, CUCS promoted runt‑related transcription factor‑2 (RUNX2) expression at mRNA (P<0.01) and protein levels (P<0.05) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (P<0.01), which are both markers of osteogenic differentiation. Under conditions of stress, western blotting indicated that the ratio of phosphorylated MLC‑II to total MLC‑II was increased significantly (P<0.05). Silencing MLC‑II by RNA interference reduced ALP activity (P<0.01), and eliminated RUNX2 mRNA expression (P<0.01). Addition of the MLC kinase inhibitor, ML‑7, reduced the CUCS‑associated upregulation of RUNX2 expression (P<0.01) and ALP activity (P<0.01). The data indicated that CUCS promoted cellular differentiation of rat primary MCCs, and this was suggested to be via the phosphorylation of MLC‑II.

  16. A mutation in the atrial-specific myosin light chain gene (MYL4) causes familial atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Nathan; Arnaout, Rima; Gula, Lorne J.; Spears, Danna A.; Leong-Sit, Peter; Li, Qiuju; Tarhuni, Wadea; Reischauer, Sven; Chauhan, Vijay S.; Borkovich, Matthew; Uppal, Shaheen; Adler, Arnon; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Gollob, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia, is a growing epidemic with substantial morbidity and economic burden. Mechanisms underlying vulnerability to AF remain poorly understood, which contributes to the current lack of highly effective therapies. Recognizing mechanistic subtypes of AF may guide an individualized approach to patient management. Here, we describe a family with a previously unreported syndrome characterized by early-onset AF (age <35 years), conduction disease and signs of a primary atrial myopathy. Phenotypic penetrance was complete in all mutation carriers, although complete disease expressivity appears to be age-dependent. We show that this syndrome is caused by a novel, heterozygous p.Glu11Lys mutation in the atrial-specific myosin light chain gene MYL4. In zebrafish, mutant MYL4 leads to disruption of sarcomeric structure, atrial enlargement and electrical abnormalities associated with human AF. These findings describe the cause of a rare subtype of AF due to a primary, atrial-specific sarcomeric defect. PMID:27066836

  17. Abnormalities of the Duo/Rac-1/PAK1 Pathway Drive Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation in Frontal Cortex in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, María D.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies on GTPases have suggested that reduced Duo and Cdc42 transcript expression is involved in dendritic spine loss in schizophrenia. In murine models, Duo and Cdc42 phosphorylate PAK1, which modifies the activity of regulatory myosin light chain (MLC) and cofilin by altering their phosphorylation. Therefore, we hypothesized that in schizophrenia abnormal Duo and Cdc42 expression result in changes in MLC and/or cofilin phosphorylation, which may alter actin cytoskeleton dynamics underlying dendritic spine maintenance. METHODS We performed Western blot protein expression analysis in postmortem brains from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and a comparison group. We focused our studies in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (n=33 comparison group; n=36 schizophrenia) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (n=29 comparison group; n=35 schizophrenia). RESULTS In both ACC and DLPFC, we found a reduction of Duo expression and PAK1 phosphorylation in schizophrenia. Cdc42 protein expression was decreased in ACC, but not in DLPFC. In ACC, we observed decreased PAK1 phosphorylation and increased MLC (pMLC) phosphorylation, while in DLPFC pMLC remained unchanged. DISCUSSION These data suggest a novel mechanism that may underlie dendritic spine loss in schizophrenia. The increase in pMLC seen in ACC may be associated with dendritic spine shrinkage. The lack of an effect on pMLC in DLPFC suggests that in schizophrenia PAK1 downstream pathways are differentially affected in these cortical areas. PMID:22458949

  18. A Differentiation-dependent Splice Variant of Myosin Light Chain Kinase, MLCK1, Regulates Epithelial Tight Junction Permeability*

    PubMed Central

    Clayburgh, Daniel R.; Rosen, Shari; Witkowski, Edwina D.; Wang, Fengjun; Blair, Stephanie; Dudek, Steven; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Alverdy, John C.; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2005-01-01

    Activation of Na+-nutrient cotransport leads to increased tight junction permeability in intestinal absorptive (villus) enterocytes. This regulation requires myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC) phosphorylation mediated by MLC kinase (MLCK). We examined the spatiotemporal segregation of MLCK isoform function and expression along the crypt-villus axis and found that long MLCK, which is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms, accounts for 97 ± 4% of MLC kinase activity in interphase intestinal epithelial cells. Expression of the MLCK1 isoform is limited to well differentiated enterocytes, both in vitro and in vivo, and this expression correlates closely with development of Na+-nutrient cotransport-dependent tight junction regulation. Consistent with this role, MLCK1 is localized to the perijunctional actomyosin ring. Furthermore, specific knockdown of MLCK1 using siRNA reduced tight junction permeability in monolayers with active Na+-glucose cotransport, confirming a functional role for MLCK1. These results demonstrate unique physiologically relevant patterns of expression and subcellular localization for long MLCK isoforms and show that MLCK1 is the isoform responsible for tight junction regulation in absorptive enterocytes. PMID:15507455

  19. Tissue-specific transcription of the cardiac myosin light-chain 2 gene is regulated by an upstream repressor element.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, R A; Goswami, S K; Mascareno, E; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, M A

    1991-01-01

    Physiological expression of the cardiac muscle myosin light-chain 2 (MLC-2) gene in chickens is restricted to cardiac muscle tissue only, at least during the late embryonic to adult stages of development. The mechanism by which cardiac MLC-2 gene expression is repressed in differentiated noncardiac muscle tissues is unknown. Using sequential 5'-deletion mutants of the cardiac MLC-2 promoter introduced into primary skeletal muscle cells in culture, we have demonstrated that a 89-bp region, designated the cardiac-specific sequence (CSS), is essential for repression of cardiac MLC-2 expression in skeletal muscle. Removal of the CSS sequence alone allows transcription in skeletal muscle cells without affecting the transcriptional activity of the promoter in cardiac muscle cells. DNase I footprinting and gel shift assays indicate that protein binding to sequences in the CSS domain occurs readily in nuclear extracts obtained from skeletal muscle but not in extracts isolated under identical conditions from cardiac muscle. Thus, it appears that a negative regulatory mechanism accounts for the lack of expression of the cardiac MLC-2 gene in skeletal muscle and that the CSS element and its binding proteins are important functional components of the regulatory apparatus which ensures the developmental program for cardiac tissue-specific gene expression. Images PMID:1996116

  20. Phosphorylation-dependent Autoinhibition of Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase Accounts for Ca2+ Sensitization Force of Smooth Muscle Contraction*

    PubMed Central

    Khromov, Alexander; Choudhury, Nandini; Stevenson, Andra S.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Eto, Masumi

    2009-01-01

    The reversible regulation of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) in response to agonist stimulation and cAMP/cGMP signals plays an important role in the regulation of smooth muscle (SM) tone. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibition of MLCP induced by the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1), a regulatory subunit of MLCP, at Thr-696 and Thr-853 using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-MYPT1 fragments having the inhibitory phosphorylation sites. GST-MYPT1 fragments, including only Thr-696 and only Thr-853, inhibited purified MLCP (IC50 = 1.6 and 60 nm, respectively) when they were phosphorylated with RhoA-dependent kinase (ROCK). The activities of isolated catalytic subunits of type 1 and type 2A phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) were insensitive to either fragment. Phospho-GST-MYPT1 fragments docked directly at the active site of MLCP, and this was blocked by a PP1/PP2A inhibitor microcystin (MC)-LR or by mutation of the active sites in PP1. GST-MYPT1 fragments induced a contraction of β-escin-permeabilized ileum SM at constant pCa 6.3 (EC50 = 2 μm), which was eliminated by Ala substitution of the fragment at Thr-696 or by ROCK inhibitors or 8Br-cGMP. GST-MYPT1-(697–880) was 5-times less potent than fragments including Thr-696. Relaxation induced by 8Br-cGMP was not affected by Ala substitution at Ser-695, a known phosphorylation site for protein kinase A/G. Thus, GST-MYPT1 fragments are phosphorylated by ROCK in permeabilized SM and mimic agonist-induced inhibition and cGMP-induced activation of MLCP. We propose a model in which MYPT1 phosphorylation at Thr-696 and Thr-853 causes an autoinhibition of MLCP that accounts for Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle force. PMID:19531490

  1. Integrin β1, myosin light chain kinase and myosin IIA are required for activation of PI3K-AKT signaling following MEK inhibition in metastatic triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheolwon; Kwon, Junyeob; Lim, Sunyoung; Helfman, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of targeted therapies against the Ras-ERK signaling pathway are limited due to adaptive resistance of tumor cells. Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway can result in activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway, thereby diminishing the therapeutic effects of targeting ERK signaling. Here we investigated the crosstalk between the Ras-ERK and PI3K-AKT pathways in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines that have a preference to metastasize to lung (LM2), brain (BrM2) or bone (BoM2). Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway reduced motility in both parental and BoM2 cells. In contrast, inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway in BrM2 and LM2 cells resulted in activation of PI3K-AKT signaling that was responsible for continued cell motility. Analysis of the cross talk between Ras-ERK and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways revealed integrin β1, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin IIA are required for the activation of PI3K-AKT following inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway. Furthermore, feedback activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway following MEK suppression was independent of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Thus, integrin β1, MLCK, and myosin IIA are factors in the development of resistance to MEK inhibitors. These proteins could provide an opportunity to develop markers and therapeutic targets in a subgroup of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that exhibit resistance against MEK inhibition. PMID:27563827

  2. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates hyperosmolarity-induced vasoconstriction through myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin polymerization in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Tomoya; Yayama, Katsutoshi; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stress induces the contractile response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Previous studies have demonstrated that cytoskeleton reorganization and Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated inactivation of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) play an important role in hyperosmotic vasoconstriction, but the precise mechanism is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contractile response of endothelium-denuded rings of rat aortas to hyperosmolar sucrose (160 mM) in the presence or absence of inhibitors for various protein kinases. We found that the hyperosmotic constriction of aortic rings was attenuated not only by ML-7 or hydroxyfasudil, specific inhibitor for myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or Rho-kinase, respectively, but also by SB203580, a specific inhibitor for p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). Hyperosmolar sucrose evoked a transient increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) in rat VSMCs, and this response was not affected by SB203580. Western blot analysis of proteins extracted from rings showed that the hyperosmolar sucrose stimulated phosphorylation of the Rho-kinase-mediated myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, myosin light chain (MLC), and p38 MAPK. The experiments performed using a combination of the kinase inhibitors showed that hyperosmolarity-induced MLC phosphorylation is partially mediated via the SB203580-sensitive pathway and is independent of both MLCK and Rho-kinase-mediated inactivation of MLCP. Furthermore, the hyperosmolarity-induced increase in the F-actin/G-actin ratio in rings was attenuated not only by hydroxyfasudil but also by SB203580. These results suggest that p38 MAPK is involved in hyperosmotic vasoconstriction via stimulation of MLC phosphorylation and cytoskeleton reorganization through pathways independent of activation of MLCK and/or Rho-kinase-mediated mechanisms.

  3. Recombinant DNA approach for defining the primary structure of monoclonal antibody epitopes. The analysis of a conformation-specific antibody to myosin light chain 2.

    PubMed

    Reinach, F C; Fischman, D A

    1985-02-05

    A monoclonal antibody (MF5), capable of recognizing a divalent cation-induced conformational change in myosin light chain 2 (LC2f), has been used to screen a cDNA library constructed in the expression vector lambda gt11. A clone has been isolated that contains the whole coding sequence of this myosin subunit. The light chain was synthesized as a fusion peptide linked to beta-galactosidase by ten amino acids encoded in the 5' untranslated region of its mRNA. Seven imperfect repeats were identified in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. The amino acids conferring specificity on the MF 5 epitope were established by first determining the nucleotide sequence of shorter subclones that expressed the epitope and then eliminating those amino acid residues shared by cardiac myosin LC2, which was unreactive with this antibody. The epitope, which becomes accessible to MF 5 upon removal of bound divalent cations, resides at the junction between the first alpha-helical domain and the metal binding site. Theoretically, this approach can be used to define the primary structure of most protein epitopes.

  4. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C.; Schindler, Tony D.; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev

    2014-09-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears—speed up, slow down or switch directions—when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport.

  5. Myosin diversity in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Heintzelman, Matthew B; Enriquez, Matthew E

    2010-03-01

    This report describes the domain architecture of ten myosins cloned from the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Several of the P. tricornutum myosins show similarity to myosins from the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana as well as to one myosin from the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum. The P. tricornutum myosins, ranging in size from 126 kDa to over 250 kDa, all possess the canonical head, neck and tail domains common to most myosins, though variations in each of these domains is evident. Among the features distinguishing several of the diatom myosin head domains are N-terminal SH3-like domains, variations in or near the P-loop and Loop 1 regions close to the nucleotide binding pocket, and extended converter domains. Variations in the length of the neck domain or lever arm, defined by the light chain-binding IQ motifs, are apparent with the different diatom myosins predicted to contain from one to nine IQ motifs. Protein domains found within the P. tricornutum myosin tails include regions of coiled-coil structure, ankyrin repeats, CBS domain pairs, a PB1 domain, a kinase domain and a FYVE-finger motif. As many of these features have never before been characterized in myosins of any type, it is likely that these new diatom myosins will expand the repertoire of known myosin behaviors. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Acute heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy induced in adult mice by ablation of cardiac myosin light chain kinase.

    PubMed

    Massengill, Michael T; Ashraf, Hassan M; Chowdhury, Rajib R; Chrzanowski, Stephen M; Kar, Jeena; Warren, Sonisha A; Walter, Glenn A; Zeng, Huadong; Kang, Byung-Ho; Anderson, Robert H; Moss, Richard L; Kasahara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Under pressure overload, initial adaptive hypertrophy of the heart is followed by cardiomyocyte elongation, reduced contractile force, and failure. The mechanisms governing the transition to failure are not fully understood. Pressure overload reduced cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) by ∼80% within 1 week and persists. Knockdown of cMLCK in cardiomyocytes resulted in reduced cardiac contractility and sarcomere disorganization. Thus, we hypothesized that acute reduction of cMLCK may be causative for reduced contractility and cardiomyocyte remodelling during the transition from compensated to decompensated cardiac hypertrophy. To mimic acute cMLCK reduction in adult hearts, the floxed-Mylk3 gene that encodes cMLCK was inducibly ablated in Mylk3(flox/flox)/merCremer mice (Mylk3-KO), and compared with two control mice (Mylk3(flox/flox) and Mylk3(+/+)/merCremer) following tamoxifen injection (50 mg/kg/day, 2 consecutive days). In Mylk3-KO mice, reduction of cMLCK protein was evident by 4 days, with a decline to below the level of detection by 6 days. By 7 days, these mice exhibited heart failure, with reduction of fractional shortening compared with those in two control groups (19.8 vs. 28.0% and 27.7%). Severely convoluted cardiomyocytes with sarcomeric disorganization, wavy fibres, and cell death were demonstrated in Mylk3-KO mice. The cardiomyocytes were also unable to thicken adaptively to pressure overload. Our results, using a new mouse model mimicking an acute reduction of cMLCK, suggest that cMLCK plays a pivotal role in the transition from compensated to decompensated hypertrophy via sarcomeric disorganization. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Acute heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy induced in adult mice by ablation of cardiac myosin light chain kinase

    PubMed Central

    Massengill, Michael T.; Ashraf, Hassan M.; Chowdhury, Rajib R.; Chrzanowski, Stephen M.; Kar, Jeena; Warren, Sonisha A.; Walter, Glenn A.; Zeng, Huadong; Kang, Byung-Ho; Anderson, Robert H.; Moss, Richard L.; Kasahara, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    Aims Under pressure overload, initial adaptive hypertrophy of the heart is followed by cardiomyocyte elongation, reduced contractile force, and failure. The mechanisms governing the transition to failure are not fully understood. Pressure overload reduced cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) by ∼80% within 1 week and persists. Knockdown of cMLCK in cardiomyocytes resulted in reduced cardiac contractility and sarcomere disorganization. Thus, we hypothesized that acute reduction of cMLCK may be causative for reduced contractility and cardiomyocyte remodelling during the transition from compensated to decompensated cardiac hypertrophy. Methods and results To mimic acute cMLCK reduction in adult hearts, the floxed-Mylk3 gene that encodes cMLCK was inducibly ablated in Mylk3flox/flox/merCremer mice (Mylk3-KO), and compared with two control mice (Mylk3flox/flox and Mylk3+/+/merCremer) following tamoxifen injection (50 mg/kg/day, 2 consecutive days). In Mylk3-KO mice, reduction of cMLCK protein was evident by 4 days, with a decline to below the level of detection by 6 days. By 7 days, these mice exhibited heart failure, with reduction of fractional shortening compared with those in two control groups (19.8 vs. 28.0% and 27.7%). Severely convoluted cardiomyocytes with sarcomeric disorganization, wavy fibres, and cell death were demonstrated in Mylk3-KO mice. The cardiomyocytes were also unable to thicken adaptively to pressure overload. Conclusion Our results, using a new mouse model mimicking an acute reduction of cMLCK, suggest that cMLCK plays a pivotal role in the transition from compensated to decompensated hypertrophy via sarcomeric disorganization. PMID:27025239

  8. Phosphorylated Myosin Light Chain 2 (p-MLC2) as a Molecular Marker of Antemortem Coronary Artery Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liliang; Li, Yuhua; Lin, Junyi; Jiang, Jieqing; He, Meng; Sun, Daming; Zhao, Ziqin; Shen, Yiwen; Xue, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background It is not uncommon that only mild coronary artery stenosis is grossly revealed after a system autopsy. While coronary artery spasm (CAS) is the suspected mechanism of these deaths, no specific biomarker has been identified to suggest antemortem CAS. Material/Methods To evaluate the potential of using phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 (p-MLC2) as a diagnostic marker of antemortem CAS, human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultured and treated with common vasoconstrictors, including prostaglandins F2α (PGF2α), acetylcholine (ACh), and 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT). The p-MLC2 level was examined in the cultured cells using Western blot analysis and in a rat model of spasm provocation tests using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Effects of increased p-MLC2 level on VSMCs contractile activities were assessed in vitro using confocal immunofluorescence assay. Four fatal cases with known antemortem CAS were collected and subject to p-MLC2 detection. Results The p-MLC2 was significantly increased in VSMCs after treatments with vasoconstrictors and in the spasm provocation tests. Myofilament was well-organized and densely stained in VSMCs with high p-MLC2 level, but disarrayed in VSMCs with low p-MLC2 level. Three of the 4 autopsied cases showed strongly positive staining of p-MLC2 at the stenosed coronary segment and the adjacent interstitial small arteries. The fourth case was autopsied at the 6th day after death and showed negative-to-mild positive staining of p-MLC2. Conclusions p-MLC2 might be a useful marker for diagnosis of antemortem CAS. Autopsy should be performed as soon as possible to collect coronary arteries for detection of p-MLC2. PMID:27643564

  9. Regulation of MDCK cell-substratum adhesion by RhoA and myosin light chain kinase after ATP depletion.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, Priya; Calvo, Ignacio; Waechter, Holly; Matthews, Jeffrey B; Zuk, Anna; Matlin, Karl S

    2004-03-01

    The attachment of epithelial cells to the extracellular matrix substratum is essential for their differentiation and polarization. Despite this, the precise adhesion mechanism and its regulation are poorly understood. In the kidney, an ischemic insult causes renal tubular epithelial cells to detach from the basement membrane, even though they remain viable. To understand this phenomenon, and to probe the regulation of epithelial cell attachment, we used a model system consisting of newly adherent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells subjected to ATP depletion to mimic ischemic injury. We found that MDCK cells detach from collagen I after 60 min of ATP depletion but reattach when resupplied with glucose. Detachment is not caused by degradation or endocytosis of beta(1)-integrins, which mediate attachment to collagen I. Basal actin filaments and paxillin-containing adhesion complexes are disrupted by ATP depletion and quickly reform on glucose repletion. However, partial preservation of basal actin by overexpression of constitutively active RhoA does not significantly affect cell detachment. Furthermore, Y-27632, an inhibitor of the RhoA effector Rho-kinase, does not prevent reattachment of cells on glucose addition, even though reformation of central stress fibers and large adhesion complexes is blocked. In contrast, reattachment of ATP-depleted cells and detachment of cells not previously subjected to ATP depletion are prevented by ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). We conclude that initial adherence of MDCK cells to a collagen I substratum is mediated by peripheral actin filaments and adhesion complexes regulated by MLCK but not by stress fibers and adhesion complexes controlled by RhoA.

  10. Orthologous relationship of obscurin and Unc-89: phylogeny of a novel family of tandem myosin light chain kinases.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Sarah B; Raeker, Maide O; Borisov, Andrei B; Russell, Mark W

    2004-07-01

    Myosin light chain kinases (MLCK) are a family of signaling proteins that are required for cytoskeletal remodeling in myocytes. Recently, two novel MLCK proteins, SPEG and obscurin-MLCK, were identified with the unique feature of two tandemly-arranged MLCK domains. In this study, the evolutionary origins of this MLCK subfamily were traced to a probable orthologue of obscurin-MLCK in Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila Unc-89, and the MLCK kinase domains of zebrafish SPEG, zebrafish obscurin-MLCK, and human SPEG were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the MLCK domains indicates that the carboxy terminal kinase domains of obscurin-MLCK, SPEG and Unc-89 are more closely related to each other than to the amino terminal kinase domains or to other MLCKs, supporting the assertion that obscurin-MLCK is the vertebrate orthologue of Caenorhabditis elegans Unc-89, a giant multidomain protein that is required for normal myofibril assembly. The apparent lack of an invertebrate orthologue of SPEG and the conserved exon structure of the kinase domains between SPEG and obscurin-MLCK suggests that SPEG arose from obscurin-MLCK by a gene duplication event. The length of the primary amino acid sequence between the immunoglobulin (Ig) domains associated with the MLCK motifs is conserved in obscurin-MLCK, SPEG and C. elegans Unc-89, suggesting that these putative protein interaction domains may target the kinases to highly conserved intracellular sites. The conserved arrangement of the tandem MLCK domains and their relatively restricted expression in striated muscle indicates that further characterization of this novel MLCK subfamily may yield important insights into cardiac and skeletal muscle physiology.

  11. Inhibition of Myosin light-chain kinase attenuates cerebral edema after traumatic brain injury in postnatal mice.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Janet L; Todd, Tracey; Bazan, Nicolas G; Belayev, Ludmila

    2013-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children less than 8 years of age leads to decline in intelligence and executive functioning. Neurological outcomes after TBI correlate to development of cerebral edema, which affect survival rates after TBI. It has been shown that myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) increases cerebral edema and that pretreatment with an MLCK inhibitor (ML-7) reduces cerebral edema. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of MLCK after TBI in postnatal day 24 (PND-24) mice would prevent breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and development of cerebral edema and improve neurological outcome. We used a closed head injury model of TBI. ML-7 or saline treatment was administered at 4 h and every 24 h until sacrifice or 5 days after TBI. Mice were sacrificed at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h and 7 days after impact. Mice treated with ML-7 after TBI had decreased levels of MLCK-expressing cells (20.7±4.8 vs. 149.3±40.6), less albumin extravasation (28.3±11.2 vs. 116.2±60.7 mm(2)) into surrounding parenchymal tissue, less Evans Blue extravasation (339±314 vs. 4017±560 ng/g), and showed a significant difference in wet/dry weight ratio (1.9±0.07 vs. 2.2±0.05 g), compared to saline-treated groups. Treatment with ML-7 also resulted in preserved neurological function measured by the wire hang test (57 vs. 21 sec) and two-object novel recognition test (old vs. new, 10.5 touches). We concluded that inhibition of MLCK reduces cerebral edema and preserves neurological function in PND-24 mice.

  12. Biphasic regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation by p21-activated kinase modulates intestinal smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ji; Pham, Ngoc T; Olate, Nicole; Kislitsyna, Karina; Day, Mary-Clare; LeTourneau, Phillip A; Kots, Alexander; Stewart, Randolph H; Laine, Glen A; Cox, Charles S; Uray, Karen

    2013-01-11

    Supraphysiological mechanical stretching in smooth muscle results in decreased contractile activity. However, the mechanism is unclear. Previous studies indicated that intestinal motility dysfunction after edema development is associated with increased smooth muscle stress and decreased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in vivo, providing an ideal model for studying mechanical stress-mediated decrease in smooth muscle contraction. Primary human intestinal smooth muscle cells (hISMCs) were subjected to either control cyclical stretch (CCS) or edema (increasing) cyclical stretch (ECS), mimicking the biophysical forces in non-edematous and edematous intestinal smooth muscle in vivo. ECS induced significant decreases in phosphorylation of MLC and MLC phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and a significant increase in p21-activated kinase (PAK) activity compared with CCS. PAK regulated MLC phosphorylation in an activity-dependent biphasic manner. PAK activation increased MLC and MYPT1 phosphorylation in CCS but decreased MLC and MYPT1 phosphorylation in hISMCs subjected to ECS. PAK inhibition had the opposite results. siRNA studies showed that PAK1 plays a critical role in regulating MLC phosphorylation in hISMCs. PAK1 enhanced MLC phosphorylation via phosphorylating MYPT1 on Thr-696, whereas PAK1 inhibited MLC phosphorylation via decreasing MYPT1 on both Thr-696 and Thr-853. Importantly, in vivo data indicated that PAK activity increased in edematous tissue, and inhibition of PAK in edematous intestine improved intestinal motility. We conclude that PAK1 positively regulates MLC phosphorylation in intestinal smooth muscle through increasing inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 under physiologic conditions, whereas PAK1 negatively regulates MLC phosphorylation via inhibiting MYPT1 phosphorylation when PAK activity is increased under pathologic conditions.

  13. A variant of the myosin light chain kinase gene is associated with severe asthma in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Flores, Carlos; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Maresso, Karen; Ober, Carole; Garcia, Joe G N

    2007-05-01

    Asthma is a complex phenotype influenced by environmental and genetic factors for which severe irreversible structural airway alterations are more frequently observed in African Americans. In addition to a multitude of factors contributing to its pathobiology, increased amounts of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), the central regulator of cellular contraction, have been found in airway smooth muscle from asthmatics. The gene encoding MLCK (MYLK) is located in 3q21.1, a region noted by a number of genome-wide studies to show linkage with asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. We studied 17 MYLK genetic variants in European and African Americans with asthma and severe asthma and identified a single non-synonymous polymorphism (Pro147Ser) that was almost entirely restricted to African populations and which was associated with severe asthma in African Americans. These results remained highly significant after adjusting for proportions of ancestry estimated using 30 unlinked microsatellites (adjusted odds ratio: 1.76 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17-2.65], p = 0.005). Since all common HapMap polymorphisms in approximately 500 kb contiguous regions have low-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium with Pro147Ser, we speculate that this polymorphism is causally related to the severe asthma phenotype in African Americans. The association of this polymorphism, located in the N-terminal region of the non-muscle MLCK isoform, emphasizes the potential importance of the vascular endothelium, a tissue in which MLCK is centrally involved in multiple aspects of the inflammatory response, in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. This finding also offers a possible genetic explanation for some of the more severe asthma phenotype observed in African American asthmatics. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Cyclophilin A Secretion Requires ROCK-Dependent Diphosphorylation of Myosin Light Chain.

    PubMed

    Su, Zizhuo; Lin, Rongjie; Chen, Yuyang; Shu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Haifeng; Liang, Shumin; Nie, Ruqiong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xie, Shuanglun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) within atherosclerotic lesions is thought to be implicated in the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the source of CyPA within atherosclerotic lesions is still unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the role of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-derived CyPA secretion and the underlying mechanism. Abundant CyPA and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expressed in atherosclerotic lesions was observed in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. ox-LDL induced CyPA secretion from a primary culture of rat aortic smooth muscle cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sulfosuccinimidyloleate, a CD36 inhibitor, prevented the ox-LDL-induced CyPA secretion. Pre-exposure to either the actin-depolymerizing agent cytochalasin D or the actin-polymerizing agent jasplakinolide inhibited CyPA secretion induced by ox-LDL. Gene silencing of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 suppressed ox-LDL-induced CyPA secretion. ox-LDL caused the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC). Inhibition of MLC by blebbistatin reversed the secretion of CyPA and the phosphorylation of MLC induced by ox-LDL. MLC kinase inhibitor ML-7 reduced the monophosphorylation of MLC but did not reduce CyPA secretion. Pretreatment with the rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 blocked diphosphorylation of MLC and secretion of CyPA induced by ox-LDL. ox-LDL-induced CyPA secretion requires vesicle transportation, actin remodeling and ROCK-dependent diphosphorylation of MLC. VSMC-derived CyPA induced by ox-LDL may be associated with increased CyPA expression in atherosclerotic lesions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Porcine myosin-VI: characterization of a new mammalian unconventional myosin

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned a new mammalian unconventional myosin, porcine myosin-VI from the proximal tubule cell line, LLC-PK1 (CL4). Porcine myosin-VI is highly homologous to Drosophila 95F myosin heavy chain, and together these two myosins comprise a sixth class of myosin motors. Myosin-VI exhibits ATP-sensitive actin-binding activities characteristic of myosins, and it is associated with a calmodulin light chain. Within LLC- PK1 cells, myosin-VI is soluble and does not associate with the major actin-containing domains. Within the kidney, however, myosin-VI is associated with sedimentable structures and specifically locates to the actin- and membrane-rich apical brush border domain of the proximal tubule cells. This motor was not enriched within the glomerulus, capillaries, or distal tubules. Myosin-VI associates with the proximal tubule cytoskeleton in an ATP-sensitive fashion, suggesting that this motor is associated with the actin cytoskeleton within the proximal tubule cells. Given the difference in association of myosin-VI with the apical cytoskeleton between LLC-PK1 cells and adult kidney, it is likely that this cell line does not fully differentiate to form functional proximal tubule cells. Myosin-VI may require the presence of additional elements, only found in vivo in proximal tubule cells, to properly locate to the apical domain. PMID:7929586

  16. Vascular smooth muscle cell glycocalyx mediates shear stress-induced contractile responses via a Rho kinase (ROCK)-myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hongyan; Liu, Jiajia; Sun, Anqiang; Liu, Xiao; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    The vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are exposed to interstitial flow induced shear stress that may be sensed by the surface glycocalyx, a surface layer composed primarily of proteoglycans and glycoproteins, to mediate cell contraction during the myogenic response. We, therefore, attempted to elucidate the signal pathway of the glycocalyx mechanotransduction in shear stress regulated SMC contraction. Human umbilical vein SMCs (HUVSMCs) deprived of serum for 3–4 days were exposed to a step increase (0 to 20 dyn/cm2) in shear stress in a parallel plate flow chamber, and reduction in the cell area was quantified as contraction. The expressions of Rho kinase (ROCK) and its downstream signal molecules, the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT) and the myosin light chain 2 (MLC2), were evaluated. Results showed that the exposure of HUVSMCs to shear stress for 30 min induced cell contraction significantly, which was accompanied by ROCK1 up-regulation, re-distribution, as well as MYPT1 and MLC activation. However, these shear induced phenomenon could be completely abolished by heparinase III or Y-27632 pre-treatment. These results indicate shear stress induced VSMC contraction was mediated by cell surface glycocalyx via a ROCK-MLC phosphatase (MLCP) pathway, providing evidence of the glycocalyx mechanotransduction in myogenic response. PMID:28191820

  17. Vascular smooth muscle cell glycocalyx mediates shear stress-induced contractile responses via a Rho kinase (ROCK)-myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongyan; Liu, Jiajia; Sun, Anqiang; Liu, Xiao; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-13

    The vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are exposed to interstitial flow induced shear stress that may be sensed by the surface glycocalyx, a surface layer composed primarily of proteoglycans and glycoproteins, to mediate cell contraction during the myogenic response. We, therefore, attempted to elucidate the signal pathway of the glycocalyx mechanotransduction in shear stress regulated SMC contraction. Human umbilical vein SMCs (HUVSMCs) deprived of serum for 3-4 days were exposed to a step increase (0 to 20 dyn/cm(2)) in shear stress in a parallel plate flow chamber, and reduction in the cell area was quantified as contraction. The expressions of Rho kinase (ROCK) and its downstream signal molecules, the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT) and the myosin light chain 2 (MLC2), were evaluated. Results showed that the exposure of HUVSMCs to shear stress for 30 min induced cell contraction significantly, which was accompanied by ROCK1 up-regulation, re-distribution, as well as MYPT1 and MLC activation. However, these shear induced phenomenon could be completely abolished by heparinase III or Y-27632 pre-treatment. These results indicate shear stress induced VSMC contraction was mediated by cell surface glycocalyx via a ROCK-MLC phosphatase (MLCP) pathway, providing evidence of the glycocalyx mechanotransduction in myogenic response.

  18. Compressive Stress Induces Dephosphorylation of the Myosin Regulatory Light Chain via RhoA Phosphorylation by the Adenylyl Cyclase/Protein Kinase A Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Kenji; Ishihara, Seiichiro; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stress that arises due to deformation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) either stretches or compresses cells. The cellular response to stretching has been actively studied. For example, stretching induces phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) via the RhoA/RhoA-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway, resulting in increased cellular tension. In contrast, the effects of compressive stress on cellular functions are not fully resolved. The mechanisms for sensing and differentially responding to stretching and compressive stress are not known. To address these questions, we investigated whether phosphorylation levels of MRLC were affected by compressive stress. Contrary to the response in stretching cells, MRLC was dephosphorylated 5 min after cells were subjected to compressive stress. Compressive loading induced activation of myosin phosphatase mediated via the dephosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (Thr853). Because myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (Thr853) is phosphorylated only by ROCK, compressive loading may have induced inactivation of ROCK. However, GTP-bound RhoA (active form) increased in response to compressive stress. The compression-induced activation of RhoA and inactivation of its effector ROCK are contradictory. This inconsistency was due to phosphorylation of RhoA (Ser188) that reduced affinity of RhoA to ROCK. Treatment with the inhibitor of protein kinase A that phosphorylates RhoA (Ser188) induced suppression of compression-stimulated MRLC dephosphorylation. Incidentally, stretching induced phosphorylation of MRLC, but did not affect phosphorylation levels of RhoA (Ser188). Together, our results suggest that RhoA phosphorylation is an important process for MRLC dephosphorylation by compressive loading, and for distinguishing between stretching and compressing cells. PMID:25734240

  19. Maximal stimulation-induced in situ myosin light chain kinase activity is upregulated in fetal compared with adult ovine carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Injeti, Elisha R; Sandoval, Renan J; Williams, James M; Smolensky, Alexander V; Ford, Lincoln E; Pearce, William J

    2008-12-01

    Postnatal decreases in vascular reactivity involve decreases in the thick filament component of myofilament calcium sensitivity, which is measured as the relationship between cytosolic calcium concentration and myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation. The present study tests the hypothesis that downregulation of thick filament reactivity is due to downregulation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity in adult compared with fetal arteries. Total MLCK activity, calculated as %MLC20 phosphorylated per second in intact arteries during optimal inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase activity, was significantly less in adult (6.56+/-0.29%) than in fetal preparations (7.39+/-0.53%). In situ MLC20 concentrations (microM) in adult (198+/-28) and fetal arteries (236+/-44) did not differ significantly. In situ MLCK concentrations (microM), however, were significantly greater in adult (8.21+/-0.59) than in fetal arteries (1.83+/-0.13). In situ MLCK activities (ng MLC20 phosphorylated.s(-1).ng MLCK(-1)) were significantly less in adult (0.26+/-0.01) than in fetal arteries (1.52+/-0.11). In contrast, MLCK activities in adult (15.8+/-1.5) and fetal artery homogenates (17.3+/-1.3) were not significantly different. When in situ fractional activation was calculated, adult values (1.72+/-0.17%) were significantly less than fetal values (9.08+/-0.83%). Together, these results indicate that decreased thick filament reactivity in adult compared with fetal ovine carotid arteries is due at least in part to greater MLCK activity in fetal arteries, which in turn cannot be explained by differences in MLCK, MLC20, or calmodulin concentrations. Instead, this difference appears to involve age-related differences in fractional activation of the MLCK enzyme.

  20. Myosin polymorphism in human skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Libera, L D; Margreth, A; Mussini, I; Cerri, C; Scarlato, G

    1978-01-01

    Myosins isolated from individual human muscles (primarily normal muscles) were investigated with respect to their structural and catalytic properties. The results indicate unexpected elements of uniformity shared by the several myosins, such as a three-banded, electrophoretic pattern of light chains in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) gels and a low degree of alkaline lability. The pH activity profile and the effect of KCl on myosin ATPase activities were also found to be the same for the myosins from predominantly fast (e.g., vastus lateralis and rectus abdominis) and slow (e.g,, soleus and pectoralis minor) muscles. Coelectrophoretic experiments lend further credence to the interrelationship between human myosin light chains and the light chains of rabbit fast-muscle myosin. However, several kinds of circumstantial evidence, such as that derived from the study of myosin in nemaline myopathy, suggest that one shoould exercise caution in interpreting these results. On the other hand, human muscle myosins, like those of other mammalian species, can be divided into two main categories according to the peptide composition of tryptic heavy meromyosin (HMM) and the banding pattern of light meromyosin (LMM) paracrystals. These results, which are indicative of differences in the primary structure of the heavy chains, allow us to identify these heavy chains as the main site of heterogeneity among myosins in human mucles.

  1. ¹H, ¹⁵N and ¹³C chemical shifts of the D. melanogaster myosin VI light chain androcam in high calcium.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mehul K; Moran, Sean; MacKenzie, Kevin R

    2013-10-01

    Androcam is a calmodulin-like protein that acts as a testis-specific light chain to myosin VI during spermatogenesis in D. melanogaster. Modest, localized chemical shift changes that accompany Ca(2+) binding to the androcam N-terminal lobe indicate that unlike calmodulin, androcam does not undergo a dramatic conformational change upon binding calcium. Here we report the (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonances of androcam in the high calcium (10 mM) state and show the extent of chemical shift changes for backbone resonances relative to the low calcium state.

  2. The effect of myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation on the frequency-dependent regulation of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando A L; Walker, Lori A; Arteaga, Grace M; Walker, John S; Vijayan, Kalpana; Peña, James R; Ke, Yunbo; Fogaca, Rosalvo T H; Sanbe, Atsushi; Robbins, Jeffrey; Wolska, Beata M

    2006-08-01

    Although it has been suggested that in cardiac muscle the phosphorylation level of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) correlates with frequency of stimulation, its significance in the modulation of the force-frequency and pressure-frequency relationships remains unclear. We examined the role of RLC phosphorylation on the force-frequency relation (papillary muscles), the pressure-frequency relation (Langendorff perfused hearts) and shortening-frequency relation (isolated cardiac myocytes) in nontransgenic (NTG) and transgenic mouse hearts expressing a nonphosphorylatable RLC protein (RLC(P-)). At 22 degrees C, NTG and RLC(P-) muscles showed a negative force-frequency relation. At 32 degrees C, at frequencies above 1 Hz, both groups showed a flat force-frequency relation. There was a small increase in RLC phosphorylation in NTG muscles when the frequency of stimulation was increased from 0.2 Hz to 4.0 Hz. However, the level of RLC phosphorylation in these isolated muscles was significantly lower compared to samples taken from NTG intact hearts. In perfused hearts, there was no difference in the slope of pressure-frequency relationship between groups, but the RLC(P-) group consistently developed a reduced systolic pressure and demonstrated a decreased contractility. There was no difference in the level of RLC phosphorylation in hearts paced at 300 and 600 bpm. In RLC(P-) hearts, the level of TnI phosphorylation was reduced compared to NTG. There was no change in the expression of PLB between groups, but expression of SERCA2 was increased in hearts from RLC(P-) compared to NTG. In isolated cardiac myocytes, there was no change in shortening-frequency relationship between groups. Moreover, there was no change in Ca(2+) transient parameters in cells from NTG and RLC(P-) hearts. Our data demonstrate that in cardiac muscle RLC phosphorylation is not an essential determinant of force- and pressure-frequency relations but the absence of RLC phosphorylation decreases

  3. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Jianguo

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  4. Transgelin 2 Participates in Lovastatin-Induced Anti-Angiogenic Effects in Endothelial Cells through a Phosphorylated Myosin Light Chain-Related Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Li, Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Background Anti-angiogenic activity is considered to play a key role in the statin-induced anti-tumor effects. We aimed to identify new targets underlying this pleiotropic effect of lovastatin. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the inhibitory effects of lovastatin on endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis in vitro. Lovastatin at high doses inhibited endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry, we identified the up-regulation of the actin-binding protein transgelin 2 in endothelial cells following treatment with lovastatin. Changes in transgelin 2 levels were confirmed by Western blot and confocal microscopy. We further demonstrated that the Rho signaling inactivation and actin depolymerization contributed to the up-regulation of transgelin 2. The knockdown of transgelin 2 by siRNA dramatically enhanced endothelial migration and tube formation, and meanwhile attenuated the inhibitory effects of lovastatin on cell motility. Moreover, the lovastatin-induced inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation was also reversed by transgelin 2 knockdown. The activation of Rho GTPase in the absence of transgelin 2 may represent a mechanism underlying the regulation of phosphorylated myosin light chain by transgelin 2. Conclusions/Significance These results strongly imply a novel role for transgelin 2 in the angiostatic activities of lovastatin. PMID:23056327

  5. Importance of the converter region for the motility of myosin as revealed by the studies on chimeric Chara myosins.

    PubMed

    Seki, Masaya; Kashiyama, Taku; Hachikubo, You; Ito, Kohji; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2004-11-19

    A long alpha-helix in myosin head constitutes a lever arm together with light chains. It is known from X-ray crystallographic studies that the first three turns of this lever arm alpha-helix are inserted into the converter region of myosin. We previously showed that chimeric Chara myosin in which the motor domain of Chara myosin was connected to the lever arm alpha-helix of Dictyostelium myosin had motility far less than that expected for the motor domain of Chara myosin. Here, we replaced the inserted three turns of alpha-helix of Dictyostelium myosin with that of the Chara myosin and found that the replacement enhanced the motility 2.6-fold without changing the ATPase activity so much. The result clearly showed the importance of interaction between the converter region and the lever arm alpha-helix for the efficient motility of myosin.

  6. Identification of T. gondii myosin light chain-1 as a direct target of TachypleginA-2, a small-molecule inhibitor of parasite motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jacqueline M; Tran, Fanny; Pathak, Ravindra B; Poupart, Séverine; Heaslip, Aoife T; Ballif, Bryan A; Westwood, Nicholas J; Ward, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    Motility of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays an important role in the parasite's life cycle and virulence within animal and human hosts. Motility is driven by a myosin motor complex that is highly conserved across the Phylum Apicomplexa. Two key components of this complex are the class XIV unconventional myosin, TgMyoA, and its associated light chain, TgMLC1. We previously showed that treatment of parasites with a small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii invasion and motility, tachypleginA, induces an electrophoretic mobility shift of TgMLC1 that is associated with decreased myosin motor activity. However, the direct target(s) of tachypleginA and the molecular basis of the compound-induced TgMLC1 modification were unknown. We show here by "click" chemistry labelling that TgMLC1 is a direct and covalent target of an alkyne-derivatized analogue of tachypleginA. We also show that this analogue can covalently bind to model thiol substrates. The electrophoretic mobility shift induced by another structural analogue, tachypleginA-2, was associated with the formation of a 225.118 Da adduct on S57 and/or C58, and treatment with deuterated tachypleginA-2 confirmed that the adduct was derived from the compound itself. Recombinant TgMLC1 containing a C58S mutation (but not S57A) was refractory to click labelling and no longer exhibited a mobility shift in response to compound treatment, identifying C58 as the site of compound binding on TgMLC1. Finally, a knock-in parasite line expressing the C58S mutation showed decreased sensitivity to compound treatment in a quantitative 3D motility assay. These data strongly support a model in which tachypleginA and its analogues inhibit the motility of T. gondii by binding directly and covalently to C58 of TgMLC1, thereby causing a decrease in the activity of the parasite's myosin motor.

  7. A millennial myosin census.

    PubMed

    Berg, J S; Powell, B C; Cheney, R E

    2001-04-01

    The past decade has seen a remarkable explosion in our knowledge of the size and diversity of the myosin superfamily. Since these actin-based motors are candidates to provide the molecular basis for many cellular movements, it is essential that motility researchers be aware of the complete set of myosins in a given organism. The availability of cDNA and/or draft genomic sequences from humans, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Dictyostelium discoideum has allowed us to tentatively define and compare the sets of myosin genes in these organisms. This analysis has also led to the identification of several putative myosin genes that may be of general interest. In humans, for example, we find a total of 40 known or predicted myosin genes including two new myosins-I, three new class II (conventional) myosins, a second member of the class III/ninaC myosins, a gene similar to the class XV deafness myosin, and a novel myosin sharing at most 33% identity with other members of the superfamily. These myosins are in addition to the recently discovered class XVI myosin with N-terminal ankyrin repeats and two human genes with similarity to the class XVIII PDZ-myosin from mouse. We briefly describe these newly recognized myosins and extend our previous phylogenetic analysis of the myosin superfamily to include a comparison of the complete or nearly complete inventories of myosin genes from several experimentally important organisms.

  8. Structure of the Small Dictyostelium discoideum Myosin Light Chain MlcB Provides Insights into MyoB IQ Motif Recognition*

    PubMed Central

    Liburd, Janine; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W.; Munro, Kim; Miller, Emily; Denis, Chris M.; Spencer, Holly L.; Côté, Graham P.; Smith, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum MyoB is a class I myosin involved in the formation and retraction of membrane projections, cortical tension generation, membrane recycling, and phagosome maturation. The MyoB-specific, single-lobe EF-hand light chain MlcB binds the sole IQ motif of MyoB with submicromolar affinity in the absence and presence of Ca2+. However, the structural features of this novel myosin light chain and its interaction with its cognate IQ motif remain uncharacterized. Here, we describe the NMR-derived solution structure of apoMlcB, which displays a globular four-helix bundle. Helix 1 adopts a unique orientation when compared with the apo states of the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, S100B, and calbindin D9k. NMR-based chemical shift perturbation mapping identified a hydrophobic MyoB IQ binding surface that involves amino acid residues in helices I and IV and the functional N-terminal Ca2+ binding loop, a site that appears to be maintained when MlcB adopts the holo state. Complementary mutagenesis and binding studies indicated that residues Ile-701, Phe-705, and Trp-708 of the MyoB IQ motif are critical for recognition of MlcB, which together allowed the generation of a structural model of the apoMlcB-MyoB IQ complex. We conclude that the mode of IQ motif recognition by the novel single-lobe MlcB differs considerably from that of stereotypical bilobal light chains such as calmodulin. PMID:24790102

  9. Myosin II regulatory light chain as a novel substrate for AIM-1, an aurora/Ipl1p-related kinase from rat.

    PubMed

    Murata-Hori, M; Fumoto, K; Fukuta, Y; Iwasaki, T; Kikuchi, A; Tatsuka, M; Hosoya, H

    2000-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the phosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC) is localized at the cleavage furrow of dividing cells, suggesting that phosphorylation of MRLC plays an important role in cytokinesis. However, it remains unclear which kinase(s) phosphorylate MRLC during cytokinesis. AIM-1, an Aurora/Ipl1p-related kinase from rat, is known as a serine/threonine kinase that is required for cytokinesis. Here we examined the possibility that AIM-1 is a candidate for a kinase that phosphorylates MRLC during cytokinesis. As a result, we showed that AIM-1 monophosphorylated MRLC at Ser19 using two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping analysis and several MRLC mutants. Furthermore, AIM-1 was colocalized with monophosphorylated MRLC at the cleavage furrow of dividing cells. We propose here that AIM-1 may participate in monophosphorylation of MRLC during cytokinesis.

  10. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of the Human Long Myosin Light-Chain Kinase 1-Specific Domain IgCAM3

    SciTech Connect

    W Vallen Graham; A Magis; K Bailey; J Turner; D Ostrov

    2011-12-31

    Myosin light-chain kinase-dependent tight junction regulation is a critical event in inflammatory cytokine-induced increases in epithelial paracellular permeability. MLCK is expressed in human intestinal epithelium as two isoforms, long MLCK1 and long MLCK2, and MLCK1 is specifically localized to the tight junction, where it regulates paracellular permeability. The sole difference between these long MLCK splice variants is the presence of an immunoglobulin-like cell-adhesion molecule domain, IgCAM3, in MLCK1. To gain insight into the structure of the IgCAM3 domain, the IgCAM3 domain of MLCK1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution and were consistent with the primitive trigonal space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}.

  11. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) gene disruption in Dictyostelium: a role for MLCK-A in cytokinesis and evidence for multiple MLCKs.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J L; Silveira, L A; Spudich, J A

    1996-01-01

    We have created a strain of Dictyostelium that is deficient for the Ca2+/calmodulin-independent MLCK-A. This strain undergoes cytokinesis less efficiently than wild type, which results in an increased frequency of multinucleate cells when grown in suspension. The MLCK-A-cells are able, however, to undergo development and to cap crosslinked surface receptors, processes that require myosin heavy chain. Phosphorylated regulatory light chain (RLC) is still present in MLCK-A-cells, indicating that Dictyostelium has one or more additional protein kinases capable of phosphorylating RLC. Concanavalin A treatment was found to induce phosphorylation of essentially all of the RLC in wild-type cells, but RLC phosphorylation levels in MLCK-A-cells are unaffected by concanavalin A. Thus MLCK-A is regulated separately from the other MLCK(s) in the cell. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8901579

  12. Ca2+ sensitization due to myosin light chain phosphatase inhibition and cytoskeletal reorganization in the myogenic response of skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Domínguez, Alejandro; Colinas, Olaia; El-Yazbi, Ahmed; Walsh, Emma J; Hill, Michael A; Walsh, Michael P; Cole, William C

    2013-01-01

    The myogenic response of resistance arteries to intravascular pressure elevation is a fundamental physiological mechanism of crucial importance for blood pressure regulation and organ-specific control of blood flow. The importance of Ca2+ entry via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels leading to phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin regulatory light chains (LC20) in the myogenic response is well established. Recent studies, however, have suggested a role for Ca2+ sensitization via activation of the RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROK) pathway in the myogenic response. The possibility that enhanced actin polymerization is also involved in myogenic vasoconstriction has been suggested. Here, we have used pressurized resistance arteries from rat gracilis and cremaster skeletal muscles to assess the contribution to myogenic constriction of Ca2+ sensitization due to: (1) phosphorylation of the myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (MYPT1) by ROK; (2) phosphorylation of the 17 kDa protein kinase C (PKC)-potentiated protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor protein (CPI-17) by PKC; and (3) dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton evoked by ROK and PKC. Arterial diameter, MYPT1, CPI-17 and LC20 phosphorylation, and G-actin content were determined at varied intraluminal pressures ± H1152, GF109203X or latrunculin B to suppress ROK, PKC and actin polymerization, respectively. The myogenic response was associated with an increase in MYPT1 and LC20 phosphorylation that was blocked by H1152. No change in phospho-CPI-17 content was detected although the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, suppressed myogenic constriction. Basal LC20 phosphorylation at 10 mmHg was high at ∼40%, increased to a maximal level of ∼55% at 80 mmHg, and exhibited no additional change on further pressurization to 120 and 140 mmHg. Myogenic constriction at 80 mmHg was associated with a decline in G-actin content by ∼65% that was blocked by inhibition of ROK or PKC. Taken together, our findings indicate

  13. L-type calcium channels play a critical role in maintaining lens transparency by regulating phosphorylation of aquaporin-0 and myosin light chain and expression of connexins.

    PubMed

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Nagendran, Tharkika; de Ridder, Gustaaf G; Schey, Kevin L; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Homeostasis of intracellular calcium is crucial for lens cytoarchitecture and transparency, however, the identity of specific channel proteins regulating calcium influx within the lens is not completely understood. Here we examined the expression and distribution profiles of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and explored their role in morphological integrity and transparency of the mouse lens, using cDNA microarray, RT-PCR, immunoblot, pharmacological inhibitors and immunofluorescence analyses. The results revealed that Ca (V) 1.2 and 1.3 channels are expressed and distributed in both the epithelium and cortical fiber cells in mouse lens. Inhibition of LTCCs with felodipine or nifedipine induces progressive cortical cataract formation with time, in association with decreased lens weight in ex-vivo mouse lenses. Histological analyses of felodipine treated lenses revealed extensive disorganization and swelling of cortical fiber cells resembling the phenotype reported for altered aquaporin-0 activity without detectable cytotoxic effects. Analysis of both soluble and membrane rich fractions from felodipine treated lenses by SDS-PAGE in conjunction with mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses revealed decreases in β-B1-crystallin, Hsp-90, spectrin and filensin. Significantly, loss of transparency in the felodipine treated lenses was preceded by an increase in aquaporin-0 serine-235 phosphorylation and levels of connexin-50, together with decreases in myosin light chain phosphorylation and the levels of 14-3-3ε, a phosphoprotein-binding regulatory protein. Felodipine treatment led to a significant increase in gene expression of connexin-50 and 46 in the mouse lens. Additionally, felodipine inhibition of LTCCs in primary cultures of mouse lens epithelial cells resulted in decreased intracellular calcium, and decreased actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation, without detectable cytotoxic response. Taken together, these observations reveal a crucial

  14. L-Type Calcium Channels Play a Critical Role in Maintaining Lens Transparency by Regulating Phosphorylation of Aquaporin-0 and Myosin Light Chain and Expression of Connexins

    PubMed Central

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Nagendran, Tharkika; de Ridder, Gustaaf G.; Schey, Kevin L.; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Homeostasis of intracellular calcium is crucial for lens cytoarchitecture and transparency, however, the identity of specific channel proteins regulating calcium influx within the lens is not completely understood. Here we examined the expression and distribution profiles of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and explored their role in morphological integrity and transparency of the mouse lens, using cDNA microarray, RT-PCR, immunoblot, pharmacological inhibitors and immunofluorescence analyses. The results revealed that Ca (V) 1.2 and 1.3 channels are expressed and distributed in both the epithelium and cortical fiber cells in mouse lens. Inhibition of LTCCs with felodipine or nifedipine induces progressive cortical cataract formation with time, in association with decreased lens weight in ex-vivo mouse lenses. Histological analyses of felodipine treated lenses revealed extensive disorganization and swelling of cortical fiber cells resembling the phenotype reported for altered aquaporin-0 activity without detectable cytotoxic effects. Analysis of both soluble and membrane rich fractions from felodipine treated lenses by SDS-PAGE in conjunction with mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses revealed decreases in β-B1-crystallin, Hsp-90, spectrin and filensin. Significantly, loss of transparency in the felodipine treated lenses was preceded by an increase in aquaporin-0 serine-235 phosphorylation and levels of connexin-50, together with decreases in myosin light chain phosphorylation and the levels of 14-3-3ε, a phosphoprotein-binding regulatory protein. Felodipine treatment led to a significant increase in gene expression of connexin-50 and 46 in the mouse lens. Additionally, felodipine inhibition of LTCCs in primary cultures of mouse lens epithelial cells resulted in decreased intracellular calcium, and decreased actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation, without detectable cytotoxic response. Taken together, these observations reveal a crucial

  15. Phototropin Mediated Relocation of Myosins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Gabryś, Halina

    2007-09-01

    The mechanism of the light-dependent movements of chloroplasts is based on actin and myosin but its details are largely unknown. The movements are activated by blue light in terrestrial angiosperms. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of myosin associated with the chloroplast surface in the light-induced chloroplast responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. The localization of myosins was investigated under blue light intensities generating avoidance and accumulation responses of chloroplasts. The localization was compared in wild type plants and in phot2 mutant lacking the avoidance response. Wild type and phot2 mutant plants were irradiated with strong (36 microEm(-2)s(-1)) and/or weak (0.8 microEm(-2)s(-1)) blue light. The leaf tissue was immunolabeled with antimyosin antibodies. Different arrangements of myosins were observed in the mesophyll depending on the fluence rate in wild type plants. In tissue irradiated with weak blue light myosins were associated with chloroplast envelopes. In contrast, in tissue irradiated with strong blue light chloroplasts were almost myosin-free. The effect did not occur in red light and in the phot2 mutant. Myosin displacement is blue light specific, i.e., it is associated with the activation of a specific blue-light photoreceptor. We suggest that the reorganization of myosins is essential for chloroplast movement. Myosins appear to be the final step of the signal transduction pathway starting with phototropin2 and leading to chloroplast movements.

  16. Definite differences between in vitro actin-myosin sliding and muscle contraction as revealed using antibodies to myosin head.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Abe, Takahiro; Kimura, Kazushige; Saeki, Yasutake; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2014-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from attachment-detachment cycles between myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and actin filaments. It is generally believed that a myosin head first attaches to actin, undergoes conformational changes to produce force and motion in muscle, and then detaches from actin. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanism of myosin head conformational changes still remains to be a matter for debate and speculation. The myosin head consists of catalytic (CAD), converter (CVD) and lever arm (LD) domains. To give information about the role of these domains in the myosin head performance, we have examined the effect of three site-directed antibodies to the myosin head on in vitro ATP-dependent actin-myosin sliding and Ca2+-activated contraction of muscle fibers. Antibody 1, attaching to junctional peptide between 50K and 20K heavy chain segments in the CAD, exhibited appreciable effects neither on in vitro actin-myosin sliding nor muscle fiber contraction. Since antibody 1 covers actin-binding sites of the CAD, one interpretation of this result is that rigor actin-myosin linkage is absent or at most a transient intermediate in physiological actin-myosin cycling. Antibody 2, attaching to reactive lysine residue in the CVD, showed a marked inhibitory effect on in vitro actin-myosin sliding without changing actin-activated myosin head (S1) ATPase activity, while it showed no appreciable effect on muscle contraction. Antibody 3, attaching to two peptides of regulatory light chains in the LD, had no significant effect on in vitro actin-myosin sliding, while it reduced force development in muscle fibers without changing MgATPase activity. The above definite differences in the effect of antibodies 2 and 3 between in vitro actin-myosin sliding and muscle contraction can be explained by difference in experimental conditions; in the former, myosin heads are randomly oriented on a glass surface, while in the latter myosin heads are regularly

  17. Investigations of human myosin VI targeting using optogenetically controlled cargo loading.

    PubMed

    French, Alexander R; Sosnick, Tobin R; Rock, Ronald S

    2017-02-28

    Myosins play countless critical roles in the cell, each requiring it to be activated at a specific location and time. To control myosin VI with this specificity, we created an optogenetic tool for activating myosin VI by fusing the light-sensitive Avena sativa phototropin1 LOV2 domain to a peptide from Dab2 (LOVDab), a myosin VI cargo protein. Our approach harnesses the native targeting and activation mechanism of myosin VI, allowing direct inferences on myosin VI function. LOVDab robustly recruits human full-length myosin VI to various organelles in vivo and hinders peroxisome motion in a light-controllable manner. LOVDab also activates myosin VI in an in vitro gliding filament assay. Our data suggest that protein and lipid cargoes cooperate to activate myosin VI, allowing myosin VI to integrate Ca(2+), lipid, and protein cargo signals in the cell to deploy in a site-specific manner.

  18. Differential signalling by muscarinic receptors in smooth muscle: m2-mediated inactivation of myosin light chain kinase via Gi3, Cdc42/Rac1 and p21-activated kinase 1 pathway, and m3-mediated MLC20 (20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II) phosphorylation via Rho-associated kinase/myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 and protein kinase C/CPI-17 pathway.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Karnam S; Zhou, Huiping; Grider, John R; Brautigan, David L; Eto, Masumi; Makhlouf, Gabriel M

    2003-08-15

    Signalling via m3 and m2 receptors in smooth muscles involved activation of two G-protein-dependent pathways by each receptor. m2 receptors were coupled via Gbetagammai3 with activation of phospholipase C-beta3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Cdc42/Rac1 (where Cdc stands for cell division cycle) and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Each step was inhibited by methoctramine and pertussis toxin. PAK1 activity was abolished in cells expressing both Cdc42-DN (where DN stands for dominant negative) and Rac1-DN. MLCK phosphorylation was inhibited by PAK1 antibody, and in cells expressing Cdc42-DN and Rac1-DN. m3 receptors were coupled via Galpha(q/11) with activation of phospholipase C-beta1 and via RhoA with activation of Rho-associated kinase (Rho kinase), phospholipase D and protein kinase C (PKC). Rho kinase and phospholipase D activities were inhibited by C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. PKC activity was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide, and in cells expressing RhoA-DN; PKC activity was also inhibited partly by Y27632 (44+/-5%). PKC-induced phosphorylation of PKC-activated 17 kDa inhibitor protein of type 1 phosphatase (CPI-17) at Thr38 was abolished by bisindolylmaleimide and inhibited partly by Y27632 (28+/-3%). Rho-kinase-induced phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and was abolished by Y27632. Sustained phosphorylation of 20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) and contraction were abolished by bisindolylmaleimide Y27632 and C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. The results suggest that Rho-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and PKC-dependent phosphorylation and enhancement of CPI-17 binding to the catalytic subunit of MLC phosphatase (MLCP) act co-operatively to inhibit MLCP activity, leading to sustained stimulation of MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction. Because Y27632 inhibited both Rho kinase and PKC activities

  19. Differential signalling by muscarinic receptors in smooth muscle: m2-mediated inactivation of myosin light chain kinase via Gi3, Cdc42/Rac1 and p21-activated kinase 1 pathway, and m3-mediated MLC20 (20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II) phosphorylation via Rho-associated kinase/myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 and protein kinase C/CPI-17 pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Karnam S; Zhou, Huiping; Grider, John R; Brautigan, David L; Eto, Masumi; Makhlouf, Gabriel M

    2003-01-01

    Signalling via m3 and m2 receptors in smooth muscles involved activation of two G-protein-dependent pathways by each receptor. m2 receptors were coupled via Gbetagammai3 with activation of phospholipase C-beta3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Cdc42/Rac1 (where Cdc stands for cell division cycle) and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Each step was inhibited by methoctramine and pertussis toxin. PAK1 activity was abolished in cells expressing both Cdc42-DN (where DN stands for dominant negative) and Rac1-DN. MLCK phosphorylation was inhibited by PAK1 antibody, and in cells expressing Cdc42-DN and Rac1-DN. m3 receptors were coupled via Galpha(q/11) with activation of phospholipase C-beta1 and via RhoA with activation of Rho-associated kinase (Rho kinase), phospholipase D and protein kinase C (PKC). Rho kinase and phospholipase D activities were inhibited by C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. PKC activity was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide, and in cells expressing RhoA-DN; PKC activity was also inhibited partly by Y27632 (44+/-5%). PKC-induced phosphorylation of PKC-activated 17 kDa inhibitor protein of type 1 phosphatase (CPI-17) at Thr38 was abolished by bisindolylmaleimide and inhibited partly by Y27632 (28+/-3%). Rho-kinase-induced phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and was abolished by Y27632. Sustained phosphorylation of 20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) and contraction were abolished by bisindolylmaleimide Y27632 and C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. The results suggest that Rho-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and PKC-dependent phosphorylation and enhancement of CPI-17 binding to the catalytic subunit of MLC phosphatase (MLCP) act co-operatively to inhibit MLCP activity, leading to sustained stimulation of MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction. Because Y27632 inhibited both Rho kinase and PKC activities

  20. Melatonin alleviates myosin light chain kinase expression and activity via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway during atherosclerosis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, XIAOWEN; WAN, YUFENG; XU, YUANHONG; ZHOU, QING; WANG, YUAN; ZHU, HUAQING

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous indole compound with numerous biological activities that has been associated with atherosclerosis (AS). In the present study, rabbits were used as an AS model in order to investigate whether MLT affects endothelial cell permeability, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity and MLCK expression via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Expression and activity of MLCK were measured using western blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and γ-32P-adenosine triphosphate incorporation. Endothelial permeability was detected using rhodamine phalloidin fluorescence staining. The phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in endothelial cells were also analyzed using western blot analysis. Atheromatous plaques were formed in rabbits with a high cholesterol diet; however, following treatment with MLT, the number and areas of atheromatous plaques were significantly reduced. In addition, MLT treatment reversed the increase of MLCK activity and expression that occurred in rabbits with high cholesterol intake. Furthermore, levels of phosphorylated ERK, JNK and p38 decreased following MLT treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that AS may be associated with increased MLCK expression and activity, which was reduced following treatment with MLT. The mechanism of action of MLT was thought to proceed via modulating MAPK pathway signal transduction; however, further studies are required in order to fully elucidate the exact regulatory mechanisms involved. PMID:25339116

  1. Human blood-brain barrier disruption by retroviral-infected lymphocytes: role of myosin light chain kinase in endothelial tight-junction disorganization.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Philippe Vicente; Ozden, Simona; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Schmitt, Christine; Seilhean, Danielle; Weksler, Babette; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Romero, Ignacio Andres; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2007-08-15

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which constitutes the interface between blood and cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral associated neuromyelopathies. Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, in which evidence of BBB breakdown has been demonstrated by the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates in the CNS and plasma protein leakage through cerebral endothelium. Using an in vitro human BBB model, we investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in endothelial changes induced by HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. We demonstrate that coculture with infected lymphocytes induces an increase in paracellular endothelial permeability and transcellular migration, via IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha secretion. This disruption is associated with tight junction disorganization between endothelial cells, and alterations in the expression pattern of tight junction proteins such as zonula occludens 1. These changes could be prevented by inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway or of myosin light chain kinase activity. Such disorganization was confirmed in histological sections of spinal cord from an HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patient. Based on this BBB model, the present data indicate that HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes can induce BBB breakdown and may be responsible for the CNS infiltration that occurs in the early steps of retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies.

  2. Activation of Endothelial Pro-resolving Anti-Inflammatory Pathways by Circulating Microvesicles from Non-muscular Myosin Light Chain Kinase-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Gaceb, Abderahim; Vergori, Luisa; Martinez, M C; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2016-01-01

    Microvesicles, small membrane vesicles released from cells, have beneficial and/or deleterious effects in sepsis. We previously reported that non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) deletion protects mice against endotoxic shock by reducing inflammation. Here, we have evaluated the consequences of nmMLCK deletion on microvesicle phenotypes and their effects on mouse aortic endothelial cells in association with vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction during endotoxic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide induced an increase in levels of circulating microvesicles in wild type but not in nmMLCK-deficient mice. Microvesicles from nmMLCK-deficient mice (MVs(nmMLCK-/-)) prevented the inflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide with concomitant increase of anti- inflammatory and reduction of pro-inflammatory secretome in mouse aortic endothelial cells. In addition, MVs(nmMLCK-/-) reduced the efficacy of lipopolysaccharide to increase aortic oxidative and nitrosative stresses as well as macrophage infiltration in the aorta. Moreover, MVs(nmMLCK-/-) prevented ex vivo endothelial dysfunction, vascular hyporeactivity, and in vivo overproduction of nitric oxide in heart and liver in response to lipopolysaccharide. Altogether, these findings provide evidence that nmMLCK deletion generates circulating microvesicles displaying protective effects by activating endothelial pro-resolving anti-inflammatory pathways allowing the effective down-regulation of oxidative and nitrative stresses associated with endotoxic shock. Thus, nmMLCK plays a pivotal role in susceptibility to sepsis via the control of cellular activation and release of circulating microvesicles.

  3. The Rho-GTPase effector ROCK regulates meiotic maturation of the bovine oocyte via myosin light chain phosphorylation and cofilin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Rim; Xu, Yong-Nan; Jo, Yu-Jin; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Oocyte meiosis involves a unique asymmetric division involving spindle movement from the central cytoplasm to the cortex, followed by polar body extrusion. ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector involved in various cellular functions in somatic cells as well as oocyte meiosis. ROCK was previously shown to promote actin organization by phosphorylating several downstream targets, including LIM domain kinase (LIMK), phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin), and myosin light chain (MLC). In this study, we investigated the roles of ROCK and MLC during bovine oocyte meiosis. We found that ROCK was localized around the nucleus at the oocyte's germinal-vesicle (GV) stage, but spreads to the rest of the cytoplasm in later developmental stages. On the other hand, phosphorylated MLC (p-MLC) localized at the cortex, and its abundance decreased by the metaphase-II stage. Disrupting ROCK activity, via RNAi or the chemical inhibitor Y-27632, blocked both cell cycle progression and polar body extrusion. ROCK inhibition also resulted in decreased cortical actin, p-cofilin, and p-MLC levels. Similar to the phenotype associated with inhibition of ROCK activity, inhibition of MLC kinase by the chemical inhibitor ML-7 caused defects in polar body extrusion. Collectively, our results suggest that the ROCK/MLC/actomyosin as well as ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathways regulate meiotic spindle migration and cytokinesis during bovine oocyte maturation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A novel mechanism for the Ca(2+)-sensitizing effect of protein kinase C on vascular smooth muscle: inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Mechanisms of Ca2+ sensitization of both myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and force development by protein kinase C (PKC) were studied in permeabilized tonic smooth muscle obtained from the rabbit femoral artery. For comparison, the Ca2+ sensitizing effect of guanosine 5'-O-(gamma-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) was examined, which had been previously shown to inhibit MLC phosphatase in phasic vascular smooth muscle. We now report that PKC activators (phorbol esters, short chain synthetic diacylglycerols and a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor) and GTP gamma S significantly increase both MLC phosphorylation and force development at constant [Ca2+]. Major phosphorylation site occurring in the presence of phorbol-12,13- dibutyrate (PDBu) or GTP gamma S at constant [Ca2+] is the same serine residue (Ser-19) as that phosphorylated by MLC kinase in response to increased Ca2+ concentrations. In an ATP- and Ca(2+)-free solution containing 1-(5-chloronaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4- diazepine (ML-9), to avoid the kinase activity, both PDBu and GTP gamma S significantly decreased the rate of MLC dephosphorylation to half its control value. However, PDBu inhibited the relaxation rate more than did GTP gamma S. In the presence of microcystin-LR to inhibit the phosphatase activity, neither PDBu nor GTP gamma S affected MLC phosphorylation and force development. These results indicate that PKC, like activation of GTP binding protein, increases Ca2+ sensitivity of both MLC phosphorylation and force production through inhibition of MLC phosphatase. PMID:7807049

  5. Structure–Function Analysis of the Non-Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase (nmMLCK) Isoform by NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling: Influence of MYLK Variants

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kui; Ramirez, Benjamin; Mapes, Brandon; Shen, Grace R.; Gokhale, Vijay; Brown, Mary E.; Santarsiero, Bernard; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Dudek, Steven M.; Wang, Ting; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2015-01-01

    The MYLK gene encodes the multifunctional enzyme, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), involved in isoform-specific non-muscle and smooth muscle contraction and regulation of vascular permeability during inflammation. Three MYLK SNPs (P21H, S147P, V261A) alter the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the non-muscle isoform of MLCK (nmMLCK) and are highly associated with susceptibility to acute lung injury (ALI) and asthma, especially in individuals of African descent. To understand the functional effects of SNP associations, we examined the N-terminal segments of nmMLCK by 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) spectroscopy, a 2-D NMR technique, and by in silico molecular modeling. Both NMR analysis and molecular modeling indicated SNP localization to loops that connect the immunoglobulin-like domains of nmMLCK, consistent with minimal structural changes evoked by these SNPs. Molecular modeling analysis identified protein-protein interaction motifs adversely affected by these MYLK SNPs including binding by the scaffold protein 14-3-3, results confirmed by immunoprecipitation and western blot studies. These structure-function studies suggest novel mechanisms for nmMLCK regulation, which may confirm MYLK as a candidate gene in inflammatory lung disease and advance knowledge of the genetic underpinning of lung-related health disparities. PMID:26111161

  6. Polymorphisms in the myosin light chain kinase gene that confer risk of severe sepsis are associated with a lower risk of asthma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Grant, Audrey V; Rafaels, Nicholas; Stockton-Porter, Maria; Watkins, Tonya; Gao, Peisong; Chi, Peter; Muñoz, Melba; Watson, Harold; Dunston, Georgia; Togias, Alkis; Hansel, Nadia; Sevransky, Jonathan; Maloney, James P; Moss, Marc; Shanholtz, Carl; Brower, Roy; Garcia, Joe G N; Grigoryev, Dmitry N; Cheadle, Christopher; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2007-05-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) is a multifunctional protein involved in regulation of airway hyperreactivity and other activities relevant to asthma. To determine the role of MYLK gene variants in asthma among African Caribbean and African American populations. We performed association tests between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MYLK gene and asthma susceptibility and total serum IgE concentrations in 2 independent, family-based populations of African descent. Previously we identified variants/haplotypes in MYLK that confer risk for sepsis and acute lung injury; we compared findings from our asthma populations to findings in the African American sepsis and acute lung injury groups. Significant associations between MYLK SNPs and asthma and total serum IgE concentrations were observed in the African Caribbean families: a promoter SNP (rs936170) in the smooth muscle form gave the strongest association (P = .009). A haplotype including rs936170 corresponding to the actin-binding activity of the nonmuscle and smooth muscle forms was negatively associated with asthma (eg, decreased risk) in both the American (P = .005) and Caribbean families (P = .004), and was the same haplotype that conferred risk for severe sepsis (P = .002). RNA expression studies on PBMCs and rs936170 suggested a significant decrease in MYLK expression among patients with asthma with this variant (P = .025). MYLK polymorphisms may function as a common genetic factor in clinically distinct diseases involving bronchial smooth muscle contraction and inflammation. Genetic variants in MYLK are significantly associated with both asthma and sepsis in populations of African ancestry.

  7. Effect of the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 on the proteome of hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-bin; Cadete, Virgilio J J; Sawicka, Jolanta; Wozniak, Mieczyslaw; Sawicki, Grzegorz

    2012-09-18

    In the development of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the role of the myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation has been given increased consideration. ML-7, a MLC kinase inhibitor, has been shown to protect cardiac function from I/R, however the exact mechanism remains unclear. Isolated rat hearts were perfused under aerobic conditions (controls) or subjected to I/R in the presence or absence of ML-7. Continuous administration of ML-7 (5 μM) from 10 min before onset of ischemia to the first 10 min of reperfusion resulted in significant recovery of heart contractility. Analysis of gels from two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed eight proteins with decreased levels in I/R hearts. Six proteins are involved in energy metabolism:ATP synthase beta subunit, cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 1, 24-kDa mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 8, cytochrome c oxidase subunit, and succinyl-CoA ligase subunit. The other two proteins with decreased levels in I/R hearts are: peroxiredoxin-2 and tubulin. Administration of ML-7 increased level of succinyl-CoA ligase, key enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle. The increased level of succinyl-CoA ligase in I/R hearts perfused with ML-7 suggests that the cardioprotective effect of ML-7, at least partially, also may involve increase of energy production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  9. The molecular structure of the fastest myosin from green algae, Chara.

    PubMed

    Morimatsu, M; Nakamura, A; Sumiyoshi, H; Sakaba, N; Taniguchi, H; Kohama, K; Higashi-Fujime, S

    2000-04-02

    Chara myosin in green algae, Chara corallina, is the fastest myosin of all those observed so far. To shed light on the molecular mechanism of this fast sliding, we determined the primary structure of Chara myosin heavy chain (hc). It has a motor domain, six IQ motifs for calmodulin binding, a coiled-coil structure to dimerize, and a globular tail. Chara myosin hc is very similar to some plant myosins and has been predicted to belong to the class XI. Short loop 1 and loop 2 may account for the characteristics of mechanochemical properties of Chara myosin. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Ocular Inflammation and Corneal Permeability Alteration by Benzalkonium Chloride in Rats: A Protective Effect of a Myosin Light Chain Kinase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Droy-Lefaix, Marie Thérèse; Bueno, Lionel; Caron, Philippe; Belot, Eric; Roche, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interest of an ophthalmic eyedrop preparation containing a myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, ML-7, in the treatment of ocular surface. The local protective effect on the inflammation and the increase of corneal permeability induced by benzalkonium (BAK) was evaluated. Methods. An ocular instillation of 10 μL BAK at a concentration of 0.1% in PBS was performed on rats. The eyes were rinsed with sterilized water, 10 minutes after BAK preceded by instillation at T −24, −12, and −0.5 hours of 10 μL of ML-7: 100 μg (10 μL) into a gel form vehicle. All animals were sacrificed 6 hours after BAK instillation. The eyes were isolated for study in a masked manner. The ocular surface inflammation was assessed by measuring the inflammatory cell infiltration by a histologic quantitative analysis and for total ocular myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The tight junction permeability was tested. Results. Instillation of 0.1% BAK increased the inflammation of the eye. The quantitative analysis showed an increase in the number of eosinophil and neutrophil polynuclears, and MPO activity. Pretreatment with ML-7 reduced inflammation (P < 0.05). The vehicle alone produced no notable effects. BAK instillation also thickened the fluorescent corneal front on frozen sections, indicating an increase of tight junction permeability. Pretreatment with ML-7 suppressed BAK-induced alterations of paracellular permeability while the vehicle had no visible effects. Conclusions. Our study indicates that the inhibition of corneal cytoskeleton contraction by an MLCK inhibitor prevents BAK-induced ocular inflammatory response, and that ML-7 may be a new and original preparation in the treatment of ocular surface pathologies. PMID:23518768

  11. TRPV4 calcium entry and surface expression attenuated by inhibition of myosin light chain kinase in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Parker, James C; Hashizumi, Masahiro; Kelly, Sarah V; Francis, Michael; Mouner, Marc; Meyer, Angela L; Townsley, Mary I; Wu, Songwei; Cioffi, Donna L; Taylor, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    In previous studies, blockade or gene deletion of either myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or the mechanogated transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel attenuated mechanical lung injury. To determine their effects on calcium entry, rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMVEC) were labeled with fluo-4 and calcium entry initiated with the TRPV4 agonist, 4α-phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (4αPDD). Mean calcium transients peaked at ∼25 sec and persisted ∼500 sec. The 4αPDD response was essentially abolished in calcium-free media, or after pretreatment with the MLCK inhibitor, ML-7. ML-7 also attenuated the 4αPDD-induced inward calcium current measured directly using whole-cell patch clamp. Pretreatment with dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin produced an initial calcium transient followed by a 4αPDD transient of unchanged peak intensity. Automated averaging of areas under the curve (AUC) of calcium transients in individual cells indicated total calcium activity with a relationship between treatment groups of ML-7 + 4αPDD < 4αPDD only < dynasore + 4αPDD. Measurement of biotinylated surface TRPV4 protein indicated a significant reduction after ML-7 pretreatment, but no significant change with dynasore treatment. RPMVEC monolayer electrical resistances were decreased by only 3% with 10 μmol/L 4αPDD and the response was dose-related. Dynasore alone produced a 29% decrease in resistance, but neither ML-7 nor dynasore affected the subsequent 4αPDD resistance response. These studies suggest that MLCK may inhibit mechanogated calcium responses through reduced surface expression of stretch activated TRPV4 channels in the plasma membrane. PMID:24303188

  12. Gluten-induced symptoms in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome are associated with increased myosin light chain kinase activity and claudin-15 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Richard Licheng; Vazquez-Roque, Maria; Carlson, Paula; Burton, Duane; Grover, Madhusudan; Camilleri, Michael; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) are poorly understood, but increased intestinal permeability is thought to contribute to symptoms. A recent clinical trial of gluten-free diet (GFD) demonstrated symptomatic improvement, relative to gluten-containing diet (GCD), that was associated with reduced intestinal permeability in non-celiac disease IBS-D patients. The aim of this study was to characterize intestinal epithelial tight junction composition in IBS-D before and after dietary gluten challenge. Biopsies from 27 IBS-D patients (13 GFD; 14 GCD) were examined by H&E staining and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC), MLC kinase, claudin-2, claudin-8, and claudin-15. Diet-induced changes were assessed and correlated with urinary mannitol excretion (after oral administration). In the small intestine, epithelial MLC phosphorylation was increased or decreased by GCD or GFD, respectively, and this correlated with increased intestinal permeability (P < 0.03). Colonocyte expression of the paracellular Na+ channel claudin-15 was also markedly augmented following GCD challenge (P < 0.05). Conversely, colonic claudin-2 expression correlated with reduced intestinal permeability (P < 0.03). Claudin-8 expression was not affected by dietary challenge. These data show that alterations in MLC phosphorylation and claudin-15 and claudin-2 expression are associated with gluten-induced symptomatology and intestinal permeability changes in IBS-D. The results provide new insight into IBS-D mechanisms and can explain permeability responses to gluten challenge in these patients. PMID:27869798

  13. Repression of the cardiac myosin light chain‐2 gene in skeletal muscle requires site‐specific association of antithetic regulator, Nished, and HDACs

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Sumy; Galatioto, Josephine; Mascareno, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The transcriptional activation mechanisms that regulate tissue‐specific expression of cardiac muscle genes have been extensively investigated, but little is known of the regulatory events involved in repression of cardiac‐specific genes in non‐cardiac cells. We have previously reported that Nished, a ubiquitous transcription factor, interacts with a positive sequence element, the Intron Regulatory Element (IRE) as well as a negatively acting element, the Cardiac‐Specific Sequence (CSS), in myosin light chain‐2 (MLC2v) gene to promote activation and repression of the gene in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells respectively. Here, we show that the negative regulation of cardiac MLC2v gene in skeletal muscle cells is mediated via the interaction of Nished with histone deacetylase (HDAC) co‐repressor. Treatment of cells with the HDAC inhibitor, Trichostatin A (TSA), alleviates the repressor activity of Nished in a dose‐dependent manner. Co‐transfection studies in primary muscle cells in culture and in Nished expressing stable skeletal muscle cell line demonstrate that Nished down‐regulates the cardiac MLC2 gene expression when its association is restricted to CSS alone. Chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest that the CSS‐mediated repression of cardiac MLC2v gene in skeletal muscle cells excludes the participation of the positive element IRE despite the presence of an identical Nished binding site. Taken together, it appears that the negative control of MLC2v transcription is based on a dual mode of regulations, one that affords inaccessibility of IRE to Nished and second that promotes the formation of the transcription repression complex at the inhibitory CSS site to silence the cardiac gene in skeletal muscle cell. PMID:19604314

  14. Repression of the cardiac myosin light chain-2 gene in skeletal muscle requires site-specific association of antithetic regulator, Nished, and HDACs.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sumy; Galatioto, Josephine; Mascareno, Eduardo; Siddiqui, M A Q

    2009-08-01

    The transcriptional activation mechanisms that regulate tissue-specific expression of cardiac muscle genes have been extensively investigated, but little is known of the regulatory events involved in repression of cardiac-specific genes in non-cardiac cells. We have previously reported that Nished, a ubiquitous transcription factor, interacts with a positive sequence element, the Intron Regulatory Element (IRE) as well as a negatively acting element, the Cardiac-Specific Sequence (CSS), in myosin light chain-2 (MLC2v) gene to promote activation and repression of the gene in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells respectively. Here, we show that the negative regulation of cardiac MLC2v gene in skeletal muscle cells is mediated via the interaction of Nished with histone deacetylase (HDAC) co-repressor. Treatment of cells with the HDAC inhibitor, Trichostatin A (TSA), alleviates the repressor activity of Nished in a dose-dependent manner. Co-transfection studies in primary muscle cells in culture and in Nished expressing stable skeletal muscle cell line demonstrate that Nished down-regulates the cardiac MLC2 gene expression when its association is restricted to CSS alone. Chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest that the CSS-mediated repression of cardiac MLC2v gene in skeletal muscle cells excludes the participation of the positive element IRE despite the presence of an identical Nished binding site. Taken together, it appears that the negative control of MLC2v transcription is based on a dual mode of regulations, one that affords inaccessibility of IRE to Nished and second that promotes the formation of the transcription repression complex at the inhibitory CSS site to silence the cardiac gene in skeletal muscle cell.

  15. Cloning of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alpha-actin, myosin regulatory light chain genes and the 5'-flanking region of alpha-tropomyosin. Functional assessment of promoters.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Aleksei; Teerijoki, Heli; Gorodilov, Yuri; Mölsä, Hannu

    2003-02-01

    We report PCR cloning of rainbow trout alpha-actin (alpha-OnmyAct), myosin regulatory light chain (OnmyMLC2) genes and the 5'-flanking region of alpha-tropomyosin (alpha-OnmyTM). Being expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle, alpha-OnmyAct was a predominant isoform in trunk muscle of adult rainbow trout. Exon structure of this gene was identical to all known vertebrate skeletal and to some of the cardiac alpha-Act genes. Two distinct OnmyMLC2 promoters were cloned and both included transposon-like sequences. The coding part of OnmyMLC2 consisted of seven exons whose length was typical for vertebrate MLC2 genes. The upstream regions of alpha-OnmyAct and OnmyMLC2 included a TATA box and a number of putative regulatory motifs (E-boxes in all three sequences and CArG-boxes in alpha-OnmyAct), whereas there were no canonical motifs in the alpha-OnmyTM promoter. LacZ reporter gene was fused with the 5'-flanking regions of alpha-OnmyAct, two OnmyMLC2 genes and alpha-OnmyTM promoters. These constructs were transferred into rainbow trout eggs. At the stage of 39 somite pairs, LacZ reporter was detected in the myotomes, neural plate and neural crest, brain and yolk syncytial layer of all analysed embryos. alpha-OnmyTMLacZ was also expressed in the heart. Functionality of promoters and the alpha-OnmyAct terminator was confirmed in rainbow trout primary embryonic cell cultures. We cloned rainbow trout glucose transporter type I (OnmyGLUT1) into vectors including the alpha-OnmyAct and OnmyMLC2 promoters and the alpha-SkAct terminator. Recombinant OnmyGLUT1 transcripts were detected in rainbow trout embryos during somitogenesis.

  16. Gluten-induced symptoms in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome are associated with increased myosin light chain kinase activity and claudin-15 expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Richard L; Vazquez-Roque, Maria I; Carlson, Paula; Burton, Duane; Grover, Madhusudan; Camilleri, Michael; Turner, Jerrold R

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) are poorly understood, but increased intestinal permeability is thought to contribute to symptoms. A recent clinical trial of gluten-free diet (GFD) demonstrated symptomatic improvement, relative to gluten-containing diet (GCD), which was associated with reduced intestinal permeability in non-celiac disease IBS-D patients. The aim of this study was to characterize intestinal epithelial tight junction composition in IBS-D before and after dietary gluten challenge. Biopsies from 27 IBS-D patients (13 GFD and 14 GCD) were examined by H&E staining and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC), MLC kinase, claudin-2, claudin-8 and claudin-15. Diet-induced changes were assessed and correlated with urinary mannitol excretion (after oral administration). In the small intestine, epithelial MLC phosphorylation was increased or decreased by GCD or GFD, respectively, and this correlated with increased intestinal permeability (P<0.03). Colonocyte expression of the paracellular Na(+) channel claudin-15 was also markedly augmented following GCD challenge (P<0.05). Conversely, colonic claudin-2 expression correlated with reduced intestinal permeability (P<0.03). Claudin-8 expression was not affected by dietary challenge. These data show that alterations in MLC phosphorylation and claudin-15 and claudin-2 expression are associated with gluten-induced symptomatology and intestinal permeability changes in IBS-D. The results provide new insight into IBS-D mechanisms and can explain permeability responses to gluten challenge in these patients.

  17. Immune protection conferred by recombinant MRLC (myosin regulatory light chain) antigen in TiterMax Gold® adjuvant against experimental fasciolosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Henker, Luan C; Schwertz, Claiton I; Lucca, Neuber J; Piva, Manoela M; Prior, Keila C; Baska, Piotr; Norbury, Luke; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Dezen, Diogenes; Duarte, Marta M M F; Moresco, Rafael N; Bertagnolli da Rosa, Liana; Mendes, Ricardo E

    2017-01-23

    Protection against experimental fasciolosis in rats immunized with recombinant myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in TiterMax Gold® adjuvant was assessed. The experimental trial consisted of four groups of 15 animals; group 1 was unimmunized and infected, group 2 was immunized with MRLC in adjuvant and infected, group 3 was infected and immunized with adjuvant only and group 4 was unimmunized and uninfected. Immunization with MRLC in TiterMax Gold® adjuvant (group 2) induced a reduction in fluke burdens of 51.0% (p<0.001) when compared with the adjuvant control group, and 61.5% (p<0.001) when compared with the unimmunized infected controls. There was a reduction in fecal egg output in group 2 of 44.8% and 37.3% compared with group 1 and group 3, respectively; although this difference was not statistically significant. Measurement of cytokine levels revealed higher levels of TNF-alpha and IL-2 as well as lower levels of IL-4 in group 2 during the chronic stage of infection (p<0.05), along with higher levels of IFN-gamma during early stages of infection (p<0.05). These results suggest a mixed Th1/Th2 phenotype immune response; however predominance of Th1 cytokines was observed. Levels of anti-MRLC serum IgG in group 2 were significantly higher than controls at the time of euthanasia (p<0.05). This is the first report of immunization with recombinant MRLC in rats, demonstrating that this antigen significantly reduces fluke burdens, increases the Th1 immune response and encourages further studies to improve the vaccine's efficacy.

  18. Myosin Light Chain Kinase Expression Induced via Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Signaling in the Epithelial Cells Regulates the Development of Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Motomi; Onizawa, Michio; Watabe, Taro; Sakamaki, Yuriko; Ichinose, Shizuko; Totsuka, Mamoru; Oshima, Shigeru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Yagita, Hideo; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that prolonged inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may lead to colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). We previously observed that the NF-κB activation in colonic epithelial cells is associated with increased tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression in CAC development. However, the mechanism by which epithelial NF-κB activation leading to CAC is still unclear. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been reported to be responsible for the epithelial permeability associated with TNF signaling. Therefore we focused on the role of MLCK expression via TNFR2 signaling on CAC development. Pro-tumorigenic cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6 and MIP-2 production as well as INF-γ and TNF production at the lamina propria were increased in the setting of colitis, and further in tumor tissues in associations with up-regulated TNFR2 and MLCK expressions in the epithelial cells of a CAC model. The up-regulated MLCK expression was observed in TNF-stimulated colonic epithelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion in association with up-regulation of TNFR2. Silencing TNFR2, but not TNFR1, resulted in restoration of epithelial tight junction (TJ) associated with decreased MLCK expression. Antibody-mediated blockade of TNF signaling also resulted in restoration of TJ in association with suppressed MLCK expression, and interestingly, similar results were observed with suppressing TNFR2 and MLCK expressions by inhibiting MLCK in the epithelial cells. Silencing of MLCK also resulted in suppressed TNFR2, but not TNFR1, expression, suggesting that the restored TJ leads to reduced TNFR2 signaling. Such suppression of MLCK as well as blockade of TNFR2 signaling resulted in restored TJ, decreased pro-tumorigenic cytokines and reduced CAC development. These results suggest that MLCK may be a potential target for the prevention of IBD-associated tumor development. PMID:24520376

  19. Segregated assembly of muscle myosin expressed in nonmuscle cells.

    PubMed

    Moncman, C L; Rindt, H; Robbins, J; Winkelmann, D A

    1993-10-01

    Skeletal muscle myosin cDNAs were expressed in a simian kidney cell line (COS) and a mouse myogenic cell line to investigate the mechanisms controlling early stages of myosin filament assembly. An embryonic chicken muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) cDNA was linked to constitutive promoters from adenovirus or SV40 and transiently expressed in COS cells. These cells accumulate hybrid myosin molecules composed of muscle MHCs and endogenous, nonmuscle, myosin light chains. The muscle myosin is found associated with a Triton insoluble fraction from extracts of the COS cells by immunoprecipitation and is detected in 2.4 +/- 0.8-micron-long filamentous structures distributed throughout the cytoplasm by immunofluorescence microscopy. These structures are shown by immunoelectron microscopy to correspond to loosely organized bundles of 12-16-nm-diameter myosin filaments. The muscle and nonmuscle MHCs are segregated in the transfected cells; the endogenous nonmuscle myosin displays a normal distribution pattern along stress fibers and does not colocalize with the muscle myosin filament bundles. A similar assembly pattern and distribution are observed for expression of the muscle MHC in a myogenic cell line. The myosin assembles into filament bundles, 1.5 +/- 0.6 micron in length, that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the undifferentiated myoblasts and segregated from the endogenous nonmuscle myosin. In both cell lines, formation of the myosin filament bundles is dependent on the accumulation of the protein. In contrast to these results, the expression of a truncated MHC that lacks much of the rod domain produces an assembly deficient molecule. The truncated MHC is diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasm and not associated with cellular stress fibers. These results establish that the information necessary for the segregation of myosin isotypes into distinct cellular structures is contained within the primary structure of the MHC and that other factors are not

  20. Actin and Myosin in Pea Tendrils 1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Ze; Yen, Lung-Fei

    1989-01-01

    We demonstrate here the presence of actin and myosin in pea (Pisum sativum L.) tendrils. The molecular weight of tendril actin is 43,000, the same as rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The native molecular weight of tendril myosin is about 440,000. Tendril myosin is composed of two heavy chains of molecular weight approximately 165,000 and four (two pairs) light chains of 17,000 and 15,000. At high ionic strength, the ATPase activity of pea tendril myosin is activated by K+-EDTA and Ca2+ and is inhibited by Mg2+. At low ionic strength, the Mg2+-ATPase activity of pea tendril myosin is activated by rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin. Superprecipitation occurred after incubation at room temperature when ATP was added to the crude actomyosin extract. It is suggested that the interaction of actin and myosin may play a role in the coiling movement of pea tendril. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16666586

  1. Myosins in cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Katy C.; Cheney, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of cell-cell junctions was a fundamental step in metazoan evolution, and human health depends on the formation and function of cell junctions. Although it has long been known that actin and conventional myosin have important roles in cell junctions, research has begun to reveal the specific functions of the different forms of conventional myosin. Exciting new data also reveals that a growing number of unconventional myosins have important roles in cell junctions. Experiments showing that cell junctions act as mechanosensors have also provided new impetus to understand the functions of myosins and the forces they exert. In this review we will summarize recent developments on the roles of myosins in cell junctions. PMID:22954512

  2. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  3. Regulation of myosin 5a and myosin 7a.

    PubMed

    Siththanandan, Verl B; Sellers, James R

    2011-10-01

    The myosin superfamily is diverse in its structure, kinetic mechanisms and cellular function. The enzymatic activities of most myosins are regulated by some means such as Ca2+ ion binding, phosphorylation or binding of other proteins. In the present review, we discuss the structural basis for the regulation of mammalian myosin 5a and Drosophila myosin 7a. We show that, although both myosins have a folded inactive state in which domains in the myosin tail interact with the motor domain, the details of the regulation of these two myosins differ greatly.

  4. Erythrocyte Protein 4.1 Binds and Regulates Myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, Gary R.; Racusen, Richard H.

    1989-12-01

    Myosin was recently identified in erythrocytes and was shown to partition both with membrane and cytosolic fractions, suggesting that it may be loosely bound to membranes [Fowler, V. M., Davis, J. Q. & Bennett, V. (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 47-55, and Wong, A. J., Kiehart, D. P. & Pollard, T. D. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 46-49]; however, the molecular basis for this binding was unclear. The present studies employed immobilized monomeric myosin to examine the interaction of myosin with erythrocyte protein 4.1. In human erythrocytes, protein 4.1 binds to integral membrane proteins and mediates spectrin-actin assembly. Protein 4.1 binds to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with a Kd = 140 nM and a stoichiometry consistent with 1:1 binding. Heavy meromyosin competes for protein 4.1 binding with Ki = 36-54 nM; however, the S1 fragment (the myosin head) competes less efficiently. Affinity chromatography of partial chymotryptic digests of protein 4.1 on immobilized myosin identified a 10-kDa domain of protein 4.1 as the myosin-binding site. In functional studies, protein 4.1 partially inhibited the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with Ki = 51 nM. Liver cytosolic and erythrocyte myosins preactivated with myosin light-chain kinase were similarly inhibited by protein 4.1. These studies show that protein 4.1 binds, modulates, and thus may regulate myosin. This interaction might serve to generate the contractile forces involved in Mg2+-ATP-dependent shape changes in erythrocytes and may additionally serve as a model for myosin organization and regulation in non-muscle cells.

  5. Structural changes accompanying phosphorylation of tarantula muscle myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Electron microscopy has been used to study the structural changes that occur in the myosin filaments of tarantula striated muscle when they are phosphorylated. Myosin filaments in muscle homogenates maintained in relaxing conditions (ATP, EGTA) are found to have nonphosphorylated regulatory light chains as shown by urea/glycerol gel electrophoresis and [32P]phosphate autoradiography. Negative staining reveals an ordered, helical arrangement of crossbridges in these filaments, in which the heads from axially neighboring myosin molecules appear to interact with each other. When the free Ca2+ concentration in a homogenate is raised to 10(-4) M, or when a Ca2+-insensitive myosin light chain kinase is added at low Ca2+ (10(-8) M), the regulatory light chains of myosin become rapidly phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is accompanied by potentiation of the actin activation of the myosin Mg- ATPase activity and by loss of order of the helical crossbridge arrangement characteristic of the relaxed filament. We suggest that in the relaxed state, when the regulatory light chains are not phosphorylated, the myosin heads are held down on the filament backbone by head-head interactions or by interactions of the heads with the filament backbone. Phosphorylation of the light chains may alter these interactions so that the crossbridges become more loosely associated with the filament backbone giving rise to the observed changes and facilitating crossbridge interaction with actin. PMID:2958483

  6. Myosin light chain kinase is necessary for post-shock mesenteric lymph drainage enhancement of vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic-shocked rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y P; Niu, C Y; Zhao, Z G; Zhang, L M; Si, Y H

    2013-07-01

    Vascular hyporeactivity is an important factor in irreversible shock, and post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) blockade improves vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock. This study explored the possible involvement of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in PSML-mediated vascular hyporeactivity and calcium desensitization. Rats were divided into sham (n=12), shock (n=18), and shock+drainage (n=18) groups. A hemorrhagic shock model (40 ± 2 mmHg, 3 h) was established in the shock and shock+drainage groups. PSML drainage was performed from 1 to 3 h from start of hypotension in shock+drainage rats. Levels of phospho-MLCK (p-MLCK) were determined in superior mesenteric artery (SMA) tissue, and the vascular reactivity to norepinephrine (NE) and sensitivity to Ca²⁺ were observed in SMA rings in an isolated organ perfusion system. p-MLCK was significantly decreased in the shock group compared with the sham group, but increased in the shock+drainage group compared with the shock group. Substance P (1 nM), an agonist of MLCK, significantly elevated the decreased contractile response of SMA rings to both NE and Ca²⁺ at various concentrations. Maximum contractility (Emax) in the shock group increased with NE (from 0.179 ± 0.038 to 0.440 ± 0.177 g/mg, P<0.05) and Ca²⁺ (from 0.515 ± 0.043 to 0.646 ± 0.096 g/mg, P<0.05). ML-7 (0.1 nM), an inhibitor of MLCK, reduced the increased vascular response to NE and Ca²⁺ at various concentrations in the shock+drainage group (from 0.744 ± 0.187 to 0.570 ± 0.143 g/mg in Emax for NE and from 0.729 ± 0.037 to 0.645 ± 0.056 g/mg in Emax for Ca²⁺, P<0.05). We conclude that MLCK is an important contributor to PSML drainage, enhancing vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity in rats with hemorrhagic shock.

  7. Hypercontractility of intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle induced by cytokines is mediated by the nuclear factor-κB/AMP-activated kinase/myosin light chain kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Nalli, Ancy D; Kumar, Divya P; Mahavadi, Sunila; Al-Shboul, Othman; Alkahtani, Reem; Kuemmerle, John F; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have identified AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) as a target of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKKβ) and a negative regulator of myosin light-chain (MLC) kinase (MLCK). The present study examined whether a change in expression or activity of AMPK is responsible for hypercontractility of intestinal longitudinal muscle during inflammation or in response to proinflammatory cytokines. In mouse colonic longitudinal muscle cells, acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated AMPK and MLCK phosphorylation and activity and induced MLC20 phosphorylation and muscle contraction. Blockade of CaMKKβ with STO609 (7-oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid acetate) inhibited AMPK and MLCK phosphorylation and augmented MLCK activity, MLC20 phosphorylation, and smooth muscle cell contraction. In muscle cells isolated from the colon of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid)-treated mice or from strips treated with interleukin-1β or tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor κB was activated as indicated by an increase in p65 phosphorylation and IκBα degradation, and AMPK was phosphorylated at a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-specific site (Ser(485)) that is distinct from the stimulatory CaMKKβ site (Thr(172)), resulting in attenuation of ACh-stimulated AMPK activity and augmentation of MLCK activity and muscle cell contraction. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activity with MG-132 (carbobenzoxy-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal Z-LLL-CHO) or PKA activity with myristoylated PKA inhibitor 14-22 amide blocked phosphorylation of AMPK at Ser(485) and restored MLCK activity and muscle cell contraction to control levels. The results imply that PKA released from IκBα complex phosphorylated AMPK at a PKA-specific site and inhibited its activity, thereby relieving the inhibitory effect of AMPK on MLCK and increasing MLCK activity and muscle cell contraction. We conclude that hypercontractility of intestinal longitudinal muscle induced by inflammation

  8. Polo-like kinase 1 directs the AMPK-mediated activation of myosin regulatory light chain at the cytokinetic cleavage furrow independently of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Menendez, Javier A

    2012-07-01

    It has been recently proposed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) might indirectly promote the phosphorylation of MRLC (myosin II regulatory light chain) at Ser19 to regulate the transition from metaphase to anaphase and the completion of cytokinesis. Although these findings provide biochemical support for our earlier observations showing that the active form of the α catalytic AMPK subunit associates dynamically with essential mitotic regulators, several important issues remained unexplored. Does glucose starvation alter the ability of AMPK to bind to the mitotic apparatus and travel from centrosomes to the spindle midzone during mitosis and cytokinesis? Does AMPK activate MRLC exclusively at the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis? What is the mitosis-specific stimulus that activates the mito-cytokinetic AMPK/MRLC axis regardless of energy deprivation? First, we confirm that exogenous glucose deprivation fails to alter the previously described distribution of phospho-AMPKα(Thr172) in all of the mitotic phases and does not disrupt its apparent association with the mitotic spindle and other structures involved in cell division. Second, we establish for the first time that phospho-AMPKα(Thr172) colocalizes exclusively with Ser19-phosphorylated MRLC at the cleavage furrow of dividing cells, a previously unvisualized interaction between phospho-AMPKα(Thr172) and phospho-MRLC(Ser19) that occurs in cleavage furrows, intercellular bridges and the midbody during cell division that appears to occur irrespective of glucose availability. Third, we reveal for the first time that the inhibition of AMPK mitotic activity in response to PLK1 inhibition completely prevents the co-localization of phospho-AMPKα(Thr172) and phospho-MRLC(Ser19) during the final stages of cytokinesis and midbody ring formation. Because PLK1 inhibition efficiently suppresses the AMPK-mediated activation of MRLC at the cytokinetic cleavage furrow, we propose a previously unrecognized role for

  9. Myosin light chain kinase is necessary for post-shock mesenteric lymph drainage enhancement of vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic-shocked rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.P.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Si, Y.H.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular hyporeactivity is an important factor in irreversible shock, and post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) blockade improves vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock. This study explored the possible involvement of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in PSML-mediated vascular hyporeactivity and calcium desensitization. Rats were divided into sham (n=12), shock (n=18), and shock+drainage (n=18) groups. A hemorrhagic shock model (40±2 mmHg, 3 h) was established in the shock and shock+drainage groups. PSML drainage was performed from 1 to 3 h from start of hypotension in shock+drainage rats. Levels of phospho-MLCK (p-MLCK) were determined in superior mesenteric artery (SMA) tissue, and the vascular reactivity to norepinephrine (NE) and sensitivity to Ca2+ were observed in SMA rings in an isolated organ perfusion system. p-MLCK was significantly decreased in the shock group compared with the sham group, but increased in the shock+drainage group compared with the shock group. Substance P (1 nM), an agonist of MLCK, significantly elevated the decreased contractile response of SMA rings to both NE and Ca2+ at various concentrations. Maximum contractility (Emax) in the shock group increased with NE (from 0.179±0.038 to 0.440±0.177 g/mg, P<0.05) and Ca2+ (from 0.515±0.043 to 0.646±0.096 g/mg, P<0.05). ML-7 (0.1 nM), an inhibitor of MLCK, reduced the increased vascular response to NE and Ca2+ at various concentrations in the shock+drainage group (from 0.744±0.187 to 0.570±0.143 g/mg in Emax for NE and from 0.729±0.037 to 0.645±0.056 g/mg in Emax for Ca2+, P<0.05). We conclude that MLCK is an important contributor to PSML drainage, enhancing vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity in rats with hemorrhagic shock. PMID:23903684

  10. Role of the N-terminal region of the skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase target sequence in its interaction with calmodulin.

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, W. A.; Gradwell, M. J.; Bayley, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    The binding of calmodulin (CaM) to four synthetic peptide analogues of the skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase (sk-MLCK) target sequence has been studied using 1H-NMR. The 18-residue peptide WFF is anchored to CaM via the interaction of the Trp 4 side chain with the C-domain and the Phe 17 side chain with the N-domain of the protein. A peptide corresponding to the first 10 residues (WF10) does not provide the second anchoring residue and is not long enough to span both domains of CaM. 1H-NMR spectroscopy indicates that the WF10 peptide interacts specifically with the C-domain of CaM, and the chemical shifts of the bound Trp side chain are very similar in the CaM:WF10 and CaM:WFF complexes. Binding of the C-domain of CaM to the strongly basic region around Trp 4 of this MLCK sequence may be an important step in target recognition. Comparison of 1H-NMR spectra of CaM bound to WFF, a Trp 4-->Phe analogue (FFF), or a Trp 4-->Phe/Phe 17-->Trp analogue (FFW) suggests that all three peptides bind to CaM in the same orientation, i.e., with the peptide side chain in position 4 interacting with the C-domain and the side chain in position 17 interacting with the N-domain. This indicates that a Trp residue in position 4 is not an absolute requirement for binding this target sequence and that interchanging the Trp 4 and Phe 17 residues does not reverse the orientation of the bound peptide, in confirmation of the deduction from previous indirect studies using circular dichroism (Findlay WA, Martin SR, Beckingham K, Bayley PM, 1995, Biochemistry 34:2087-2094). Molecular modeling/energy minimization studies indicate that only minor local changes in the protein structure are required to accommodate binding of the bulkier Trp 17 side chain of the FFW peptide to the N-domain of CaM. PMID:8563635

  11. Cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and tumour necrosis factor-α-induced regulation of myosin light chain kinase gene activity

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dongmei; Ma, Thomas Y

    2008-01-01

    The patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have a ‘leaky gut’ manifested by an increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) permeability. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a proto-typical pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in intestinal inflammation of CD. An important pro-inflammatory action of TNF-α is to cause a functional opening of intestinal TJ barrier. Previous studies have shown that TNF-α increase in TJ permeability was regulated by an increase in myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) gene activity and protein expression. The major aim of this study was to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and TNF-α-induced increase in MLCK gene activity. By progressive 5′ deletion, minimal MLCK promoter was localized between −313 to +118 on MLCK promoter. A p53 binding site located within minimal promoter region was identified as an essential determinant for basal promoter activity. A 4 bp start site and a 5 bp downstream promoter element were required for MLCK gene activity. TNF-α-induced increase in MLCK promoter activity was mediated by NF-κB activation. There were eight κB binding sites on MLCK promoter. The NF-κB1 site at +48 to +57 mediated TNF-α-induced increase in MLCK promoter activity. The NF-κB2 site at −325 to −316 had a repressive role on promoter activity. The opposite effects on promoter activity were due to differences in the NF-κB dimer type binding to the κB sites. p50/p65 dimer preferentially binds to the NF-κB1 site and up-regulates promoter activity; while p50/p50 dimer preferentially binds to the NF-κB2 site and down-regulates promoter activity. In conclusion, we have identified the minimal MLCK promoter region, essential molecular determinants and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and TNF-α-induced modulation of MLCK promoter activity in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. These studies provide novel insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate

  12. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  13. Myosin-I nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, P G; Albanesi, J P; Bahler, M; Bement, W M; Berg, J S; Burgess, D R; Burnside, B; Cheney, R E; Corey, D P; Coudrier, E; de Lanerolle, P; Hammer, J A; Hasson, T; Holt, J R; Hudspeth, A J; Ikebe, M; Kendrick-Jones, J; Korn, E D; Li, R; Mercer, J A; Milligan, R A; Mooseker, M S; Ostap, E M; Petit, C; Pollard, T D; Sellers, J R; Soldati, T; Titus, M A

    2001-11-26

    We suggest that the vertebrate myosin-I field adopt a common nomenclature system based on the names adopted by the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). At present, the myosin-I nomenclature is very confusing; not only are several systems in use, but several different genes have been given the same name. Despite their faults, we believe that the names adopted by the HUGO nomenclature group for genome annotation are the best compromise, and we recommend universal adoption.

  14. Cargo recognition and cargo-mediated regulation of unconventional myosins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Li, Jianchao; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-10-21

    Organized motions are hallmarks of living organisms. Such motions range from collective cell movements during development and muscle contractions at the macroscopic scale all the way down to cellular cargo (e.g., various biomolecules and organelles) transportation and mechanoforce sensing at more microscopic scales. Energy required for these biological motions is almost invariably provided by cellular chemical fuels in the form of nucleotide triphosphate. Biological systems have designed a group of nanoscale engines, known as molecular motors, to convert cellular chemical fuels into mechanical energy. Molecular motors come in various forms including cytoskeleton motors (myosin, kinesin, and dynein), nucleic-acid-based motors, cellular membrane-based rotary motors, and so on. The main focus of this Account is one subfamily of actin filament-based motors called unconventional myosins (other than muscle myosin II, the remaining myosins are collectively referred to as unconventional myosins). In general, myosins can use ATP to fuel two types of mechanomotions: dynamic tethering actin filaments with various cellular compartments or structures and actin filament-based intracellular transport. In contrast to rich knowledge accumulated over many decades on ATP hydrolyzing motor heads and their interactions with actin filaments, how various myosins recognize their specific cargoes and whether and how cargoes can in return regulate functions of motors are less understood. Nonetheless, a series of biochemical and structural investigations in the past few years, including works from our own laboratory, begin to shed lights on these latter questions. Some myosins (e.g., myosin-VI) can function both as cellular transporters and as mechanical tethers. To function as a processive transporter, myosins need to form dimers or multimers. To be a mechanical tether, a monomeric myosin is sufficient. It has been shown for myosin-VI that its cellular cargo proteins can play critical roles

  15. Purification of native myosin filaments from muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, C; Padrón, R; Horowitz, R; Zhao, F Q; Craig, R

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the structure and function of native thick (myosin-containing) filaments of muscle has been hampered in the past by the difficulty of obtaining a pure preparation. We have developed a simple method for purifying native myosin filaments from muscle filament suspensions. The method involves severing thin (actin-containing) filaments into short segments using a Ca(2+)-insensitive fragment of gelsolin, followed by differential centrifugation to purify the thick filaments. By gel electrophoresis, the purified thick filaments show myosin heavy and light chains together with nonmyosin thick filament components. Contamination with actin is below 3.5%. Electron microscopy demonstrates intact thick filaments, with helical cross-bridge order preserved, and essentially complete removal of thin filaments. The method has been developed for striated muscles but can also be used in a modified form to remove contaminating thin filaments from native smooth muscle myofibrils. Such preparations should be useful for thick filament structural and biochemical studies. PMID:11606293

  16. Calcium-dependent regulation of the motor activity of recombinant full-length Physarum myosin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Kawamichi, Hozumi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yoshiyama, Shinji; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Akio

    2012-08-01

    We successfully synthesized full-length and the mutant Physarum myosin and heavy meromyosin (HMM) constructs associated with Physarum regulatory light chain and essential light chain (PhELC) using Physarum myosin heavy chain in Sf-9 cells, and examined their Ca(2+)-mediated regulation. Ca(2+) inhibited the motility and ATPase activities of Physarum myosin and HMM. The Ca(2+) effect is also reversible at the in vitro motility of Physarum myosin. We demonstrated that full-length myosin increases the Ca(2+) inhibition more effectively than HMM. Furthermore, Ca(2+) did not affect the motility and ATPase activities of the mutant Physarum myosin with PhELC that lost Ca(2+)-binding ability. Therefore, we conclude that PhELC plays a critical role in Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of Physarum myosin.

  17. Characterizations of myosin essential light chain's N-terminal truncation mutant Δ43 in transgenic mouse papillary muscles by using tension transients in response to sinusoidal length alterations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Muthu, Priya; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Kawai, Masataka

    2013-05-01

    Cross-bridge kinetics were studied at 20 °C in cardiac muscle strips from transgenic (Tg) mice expressing N-terminal 43 amino acid truncation mutation (Δ43) of myosin essential light chain (ELC), and the results were compared to those from Tg-wild type (WT) mice. Sinusoidal length changes were applied to activated skinned papillary muscle strips to induce tension transients, from which two exponential processes were deduced to characterize the cross-bridge kinetics. Their two rate constants were studied as functions of ATP, phosphate (Pi), ADP, and Ca(2+) concentrations to characterize elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle consisting of six states. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the cross-bridge kinetics of Δ43 are accelerated owing to an acceleration of the rate constant k 2 of the cross-bridge detachment step, and that the number of strongly attached cross-bridges are decreased because of a reduction of the equilibrium constant K 4 of the force generation step. The isometric tension and stiffness of Δ43 are diminished compared to WT, but the force per cross-bridge is not changed. Stiffness measurement during rigor induction demonstrates a reduction in the stiffness in Δ43, indicating that the N-terminal extension of ELC forms an extra linkage between the myosin cross-bridge and actin. The tension-pCa study demonstrates that there is no Ca(2+) sensitivity change with Δ43, but the cooperativity is diminished. These results demonstrate the importance of the N-terminal extension of ELC in maintaining the myosin motor function during force generation and optimal cardiac performance.

  18. In vivo myosin step-size from zebrafish skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ajtai, Katalin; Sun, Xiaojing; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Muscle myosins transduce ATP free energy into actin displacement to power contraction. In vivo, myosin side chains are modified post-translationally under native conditions, potentially impacting function. Single myosin detection provides the ‘bottom-up’ myosin characterization probing basic mechanisms without ambiguities inherent to ensemble observation. Macroscopic muscle physiological experimentation provides the definitive ‘top-down’ phenotype characterizations that are the concerns in translational medicine. In vivo single myosin detection in muscle from zebrafish embryo models for human muscle fulfils ambitions for both bottom-up and top-down experimentation. A photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in transgenic zebrafish skeletal muscle specifically modifies the myosin lever-arm. Strychnine induces the simultaneous contraction of the bilateral tail muscles in a live embryo, causing them to be isometric while active. Highly inclined thin illumination excites the GFP tag of single lever-arms and its super-resolution orientation is measured from an active isometric muscle over a time sequence covering many transduction cycles. Consecutive frame lever-arm angular displacement converts to step-size by its product with the estimated lever-arm length. About 17% of the active myosin steps that fall between 2 and 7 nm are implicated as powerstrokes because they are beyond displacements detected from either relaxed or ATP-depleted (rigor) muscle. PMID:27249818

  19. Probing myosin head structure with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, D A; Lowey, S

    1986-04-20

    Monoclonal antibodies that react with defined regions of the heavy and light chains of chicken skeletal muscle myosin have been used to provide a correlation between the primary and the tertiary structures of the head. Electron microscopy of rotary shadowed antibody-myosin complexes shows that the sites for three epitopes in the 25,000 Mr tryptic fragment (25k) of subfragment-1, including one within 4000 Mr of the amino terminus of the myosin heavy chain, are clustered 145(+/- 20) A from the head-rod junction. An epitope in the 50,000 Mr fragment maps even further out on the head. These antibodies bind to the head in several orientations, suggesting that each of the heads can rotate can rotate 180 degrees about the head-rod junction. The epitopes are accessible on subfragment-1 bound to actin when they were probed with Fab fragments; therefore, none of these heavy chain sites is is on the contact surface between the head and actin. Two of the anti-25k antibodies affect the K+-EDTA-and Ca2+-ATPase activities of myosin in a manner that mimics the effect on activity of the modification of the reactive thiol, SH-1. These two antibodies also inhibit the actin-activated ATPase non-competitively with respect to actin. None of the other eight antibodies tested had any marked effect on activity. A monoclonal antibody that reacts with an epitope in the amino-terminal third of myosin light chain 2 maps close to the head-rod junction. A polyclonal antibody specific for the amino terminus of light chain 3 binds further up in the "neck region" of the head, indicating that these portions of the two classes of light chains are located at different sites.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of tarantula myosin filaments suggests how phosphorylation may regulate myosin activity.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Wriggers, Willy; Pinto, Antonio; Bártoli, Fulvia; Salazar, Leiria; Zhao, Fa-Qing; Craig, Roger; Padrón, Raúl

    2008-12-26

    Muscle contraction involves the interaction of the myosin heads of the thick filaments with actin subunits of the thin filaments. Relaxation occurs when this interaction is blocked by molecular switches on these filaments. In many muscles, myosin-linked regulation involves phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chains (RLCs). Electron microscopy of vertebrate smooth muscle myosin molecules (regulated by phosphorylation) has provided insight into the relaxed structure, revealing that myosin is switched off by intramolecular interactions between its two heads, the free head and the blocked head. Three-dimensional reconstruction of frozen-hydrated specimens revealed that this asymmetric head interaction is also present in native thick filaments of tarantula striated muscle. Our goal in this study was to elucidate the structural features of the tarantula filament involved in phosphorylation-based regulation. A new reconstruction revealed intra- and intermolecular myosin interactions in addition to those seen previously. To help interpret the interactions, we sequenced the tarantula RLC and fitted an atomic model of the myosin head that included the predicted RLC atomic structure and an S2 (subfragment 2) crystal structure to the reconstruction. The fitting suggests one intramolecular interaction, between the cardiomyopathy loop of the free head and its own S2, and two intermolecular interactions, between the cardiac loop of the free head and the essential light chain of the blocked head and between the Leu305-Gln327 interaction loop of the free head and the N-terminal fragment of the RLC of the blocked head. These interactions, added to those previously described, would help switch off the thick filament. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest how phosphorylation could increase the helical content of the RLC N-terminus, weakening these interactions, thus releasing both heads and activating the thick filament.

  1. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Hiroki; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made.

  2. Sensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for Detection of N-Acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase Based on a "Light-Switch" Molecule Combined with DNA Dendrimer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Yali; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-06-07

    Here, a novel "light-switch" molecule of Ru (II) complex ([Ru(dcbpy)2dppz](2+)-DPEA) with self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) property is proposed, which is almost nonemissive in aqueous solution but is brightly luminescent when it intercalates into DNA duplex. Owing to less energy loss and shorter electron-transfer distance, the intramolecular ECL reaction between the luminescent [Ru(dcbpy)2dppz](2+) and coreactive tertiary amine group in N,N-diisopropylethylenediamine (DPEA) makes the obtained "light-switch" molecule possess much higher light-switch efficiency compared with the traditional "light-switch" molecule. For increasing the loading amount and further enhancing the luminous efficiency of the "light-switch" molecule, biotin labeled DNA dendrimer (the fourth generation, G4) is prepared from Y-shape DNA by a step-by-step assembly strategy, which provides abundant intercalated sites for [Ru(dcbpy)2dppz](2+)-DPEA. Meanwhile, the obtained nanocomposite (G4-[Ru(dcbpy)2dppz](2+)-DPEA) could well bind with streptavidin labeled detection antibody (SA-Ab2) due to the existence of abundant biotin. Through sandwiched immunoreaction, an ECL immunosensor was fabricated for sensitive determination of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), a typical biomarker for diabetic nephropathy (DN). The detemination linear range was 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 1 ng mL(-1), and the detection limit was 0.028 pg mL(-1). The developed strategy combining the ECL self-enhanced "light-switch" molecular and DNA nanotechnology offers an effective signal amplification mean and provides ample potential for further bioanalysis and clinical study.

  3. The effects of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of brain myosin on its actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase and contractile activities.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, S; Takashima, T; Ohmori, H; Kumon, A

    1988-02-01

    Purified bovine brain myosin contained approximately 1 and 3 mol of protein-bound phosphate/mol myosin in the light chains and heavy chains, respectively. Large portions of this light chain- and heavy chain-bound phosphate (about 0.8 and 2.4 mol, respectively) were removed by incubation with a brain phosphoprotein phosphatase and potato acid phosphatase, respectively. Upon phosphorylation of the dephosphorylated brain myosin with myosin light chain kinase and casein kinase II, about 1.6 and 3.0 mol of phosphate was incorporated into the light chains and heavy chains, respectively, while much lower levels of phosphate were incorporated into the non-dephosphorylated brain myosin under the same conditions. The actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of brain myosin rephosphorylated with myosin light chain kinase was about twice as high as that of dephosphorylated brain myosin (about 30 and 15 nmol phosphate/mg/min, respectively). On the other hand, whereas the rephosphorylated brain myosin superprecipitated rapidly with F-actin, the rate of superprecipitation of the dephosphorylated brain myosin was extremely low. Under appropriate conditions, a loose network of tiny superprecipitates, which formed initially throughout the solution, contracted to form eventually a large and dense particle. These results indicate that phosphorylation of the light chains of brain myosin is a prerequisite for the contraction of brain actomyosin. The role of phosphorylation of the heavy chains by casein kinase II remains to be elucidated.

  4. Drosophila non-muscle myosin II motor activity determines the rate of tissue folding.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Heissler, Sarah M; Billington, Neil; Sellers, James R; Martin, Adam C

    2016-12-30

    Non-muscle cell contractility is critical for tissues to adopt shape changes. Although, the non-muscle myosin II holoenzyme (myosin) is a molecular motor that powers contraction of actin cytoskeleton networks, recent studies have questioned the importance of myosin motor activity cell and tissue shape changes. Here, combining the biochemical analysis of enzymatic and motile properties for purified myosin mutants with in vivo measurements of apical constriction for the same mutants, we show that in vivo constriction rate scales with myosin motor activity. We show that so-called phosphomimetic mutants of the Drosophila regulatory light chain (RLC) do not mimic the phosphorylated RLC state in vitro. The defect in the myosin motor activity in these mutants is evident in developing Drosophila embryos where tissue recoil following laser ablation is decreased compared to wild-type tissue. Overall, our data highlights that myosin activity is required for rapid cell contraction and tissue folding in developing Drosophila embryos.

  5. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Tarantula Myosin Filaments Suggests How Phosphorylation May Regulate Myosin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Wriggers, Willy; Pinto, Antonio; Bártoli, Fulvia; Salazar, Leiría; Zhao, Fa-Qing; Craig, Roger; Padrón, Raúl

    2008-01-01

    Summary Muscle contraction involves the interaction of the myosin heads of the thick filaments with actin subunits of the thin filaments. Relaxation occurs when this interaction is blocked by molecular switches on these filaments. In many muscles, myosin-linked regulation involves phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chains (RLC). Electron microscopy of vertebrate smooth muscle myosin molecules (regulated by phosphorylation) has provided insight into the relaxed structure, revealing that myosin is switched off by intramolecular interactions between its two heads, the free-head and the blocked head. Three-dimensional reconstruction of frozen-hydrated specimens reveals that this asymmetric head interaction is also present in native thick filaments of tarantula striated muscle. Our goal here has been to elucidate the structural features of the tarantula filament involved in phosphorylation-based regulation. A new reconstruction reveals intra- and intermolecular myosin interactions in addition to those seen previously. To help interpret the interactions, we sequenced the tarantula RLC, and fitted to the reconstruction an atomic model of the myosin head that included the predicted RLC atomic structure and an S2 crystal structure. The fitting suggests an intramolecular interaction between the cardiomyopathy loop of the free-head and its own S2 and two intermolecular interactions—between the cardio-loop of the free head and the ELC of the blocked head, and between the Leu-305 - Gln-327 “interaction loop” (loop I) of the free-head and the N-terminal fragment of the RLC of the blocked-head. These interactions, added to those previously described, would help to switch off the thick filament. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest how phosphorylation could increase the helical content of the RLC N-terminus, weakening these interactions, thus releasing both heads and activating the thick filament. PMID:18951904

  6. The motor domain and the regulatory domain of myosin solely dictate enzymatic activity and phosphorylation-dependent regulation, respectively

    PubMed Central

    Sata, Masataka; Stafford, Walter F.; Mabuchi, Katsuhide; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    1997-01-01

    While the structures of skeletal and smooth muscle myosins are homologous, they differ functionally from each other in several respects, i.e., motor activities and regulation. To investigate the molecular basis for these differences, we have produced a skeletal/smooth chimeric myosin molecule and analyzed the motor activities and regulation of this myosin. The produced chimeric myosin is composed of the globular motor domain of skeletal muscle myosin (Met1–Gly773) and the C-terminal long α-helix domain of myosin subfragment 1 as well as myosin subfragment 2 (Gly773–Ser1104) and light chains of smooth muscle myosin. Both the actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-translocating activity of the chimeric myosin were completely regulated by light chain phosphorylation. On the other hand, the maximum actin-activated ATPase activity of the chimeric myosin was the same as skeletal myosin and thus much higher than smooth myosin. These results show that the C-terminal light chain-associated domain of myosin head solely confers regulation by light chain phosphorylation, whereas the motor domain determines the rate of ATP hydrolysis. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that directly determines the function of the two structurally separated domains in myosin head. PMID:8990166

  7. Human myosin-IXb, an unconventional myosin with a chimerin-like rho/rac GTPase-activating protein domain in its tail.

    PubMed

    Wirth, J A; Jensen, K A; Post, P L; Bement, W M; Mooseker, M S

    1996-03-01

    The full-length primary structure and expression profile of a novel unconventional myosin heavy chain, human myosin-IXb, is described. The primary structure of this myosin predicts a 229 kDa protein that together with its recently described rat homolog, myr 5, is the ninth class of myosins to be identified. In comparison to skeletal muscle myosin-II, the myosin-IXb 'head' has two unusual features: a novel N-terminal domain of 140 amino acids, which includes a 60 amino acid extension, and a large insertion of 126 amino acids in the putative actin-binding site. The 'neck' contains four tandemly repeated IQ motifs, suggesting that this myosin may have four associated light chains. The 'tail' contains a region similar to regions found in the chimerins, with a putative zinc and diacylglycerol binding domain, homologous to the regulatory domain of protein kinase C and a putative GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain of the rho/rac family of ras-like G-proteins. Northern blot analysis of 16 different human tissues revealed an approximately 8 kb transcript that is most highly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes, with somewhat lower levels of expression in thymus and spleen, suggesting that myosin-IXb is most abundant in cells of myeloid origin. Myosin-IXb was also expressed in a number of other tissues at significantly lower levels. Analysis of myosin-IXb protein expression, using a tail-domain directed antibody, was performed in HL-60 cells, a human leukocyte cell. Myosin-IXb expression increases by 4- to 5-fold upon induced differentiation of these cells into macrophage-like cells. The localization of myosin-IXb is also altered upon differentiation. In undifferentiated HL-60 cells, myosin-IXb colocalizes with F-actin in the cell periphery, while in differentiated cells its localization becomes more cytoplasmic, with the highest levels in the perinuclear region.

  8. Actin-myosin contractility is responsible for the reduced viability of dissociated human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guokai; Hou, Zhonggang; Gulbranson, Daniel R; Thomson, James A

    2010-08-06

    Human ESCs are the pluripotent precursor of the three embryonic germ layers. Human ESCs exhibit basal-apical polarity, junctional complexes, integrin-dependent matrix adhesion, and E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion, all characteristics shared by the epiblast epithelium of the intact mammalian embryo. After disruption of epithelial structures, programmed cell death is commonly observed. If individualized human ESCs are prevented from reattaching and forming colonies, their viability is significantly reduced. Here, we show that actin-myosin contraction is a critical effector of the cell death response to human ESC dissociation. Inhibition of myosin heavy chain ATPase, downregulation of myosin heavy chain, and downregulation of myosin light chain all increase survival and cloning efficiency of individualized human ESCs. ROCK inhibition decreases phosphorylation of myosin light chain, suggesting that inhibition of actin-myosin contraction is also the mechanism through which ROCK inhibitors increase cloning efficiency of human ESCs.

  9. Actin Age Orchestrates Myosin-5 and Myosin-6 Runlengths

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Dennis; Santos, Alicja; Kovar, David R.; Rock, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike a static and immobile skeleton, the actin cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network of filamentous actin (F-actin) polymers that continuously turn over. In addition to generating mechanical forces and sensing mechanical deformation, dynamic F-actin networks serve as cellular tracks for myosin motor traffic. However, much of our mechanistic understanding of processive myosins comes from in vitro studies where motility was studied on pre-assembled and artificially stabilized, static F-actin tracks. In this work, we examine the role of actin dynamics in single-molecule myosin motility using assembling F-actin and the two highly processive motors, myosin-5 and myosin-6. These two myosins have distinct functions in the cell and travel in opposite directions along actin filaments [1–3]. Myosin-5 walks towards the barbed ends of F-actin, traveling to sites of actin polymerization at the cell periphery [4]. Myosin-6 walks towards the pointed end of F-actin [5], traveling towards the cell center along older segments of the actin filament. We find that myosin-5 takes 1.3 to 1.5-fold longer runs on ADP•Pi (young) F-actin, while myosin-6 takes 1.7 to 3.6-fold longer runs along ADP (old) F-actin. These results suggest that conformational differences between ADP•Pi and ADP F-actin tailor these myosins to walk farther toward their preferred actin filament end. Taken together, these experiments define a new mechanism by which myosin traffic may sort to different F-actin networks depending on filament age. PMID:26190073

  10. On the Role of Myosin-II in Cytokinesis: Division of Dictyostelium Cells under Adhesive and Nonadhesive Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Ji-Hong; Cavet, Guy; Sabry, James H.; Wagner, Peter; Moores, Sheri L.; Spudich, James A.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the role of myosin in cytokinesis in Dictyostelium cells by examining cells under both adhesive and nonadhesive conditions. On an adhesive surface, both wild-type and myosin-null cells undergo the normal processes of mitotic rounding, cell elongation, polar ruffling, furrow ingression, and separation of daughter cells. When cells are denied adhesion through culturing in suspension or on a hydrophobic surface, wild-type cells undergo these same processes. However, cells lacking myosin round up and polar ruffle, but fail to elongate, furrow, or divide. These differences show that cell division can be driven by two mechanisms that we term Cytokinesis A, which requires myosin, and Cytokinesis B, which is cell adhesion dependent. We have used these approaches to examine cells expressing a myosin whose two light chain-binding sites were deleted (ΔBLCBS-myosin). Although this myosin is a slower motor than wild-type myosin and has constitutively high activity due to the abolition of regulation by light-chain phosphorylation, cells expressing ΔBLCBS-myosin were previously shown to divide in suspension (Uyeda et al., 1996). However, we suspected their behavior during cytokinesis to be different from wild-type cells given the large alteration in their myosin. Surprisingly, ΔBLCBS-myosin undergoes relatively normal spatial and temporal changes in localization during mitosis. Furthermore, the rate of furrow progression in cells expressing a ΔBLCBS-myosin is similar to that in wild-type cells. PMID:9398680

  11. Three-dimensional in vivo analysis of Dictyostelium mounds reveals directional sorting of prestalk cells and defines a role for the myosin II regulatory light chain in prestalk cell sorting and tip protrusion.

    PubMed

    Clow, P A; Chen, T; Chisholm, R L; McNally, J G

    2000-06-01

    During cell sorting in Dictyostelium, we observed that GFP-tagged prestalk cells (ecmAO-expressing cells) moved independently and directionally to form a cluster. This is consistent with a chemotaxis model for cell sorting (and not differential adhesion) in which a long-range signal attracts many of the prestalk cells to the site of cluster formation. Surprisingly, the ecmAO prestalk cluster that we observed was initially found at a random location within the mound of this Ax3 strain, defining an intermediate sorting stage not widely reported in Dictyostelium. The cluster then moved en masse to the top of the mound to produce the classic, apical pattern of ecmAO prestalk cells. Migration of the cluster was also directional, suggesting the presence of another long-range guidance cue. Once at the mound apex, the cluster continued moving upward leading to protrusion of the mound's tip. To investigate the role of the cluster in tip protrusion, we examined ecmAO prestalk-cell sorting in a myosin II regulatory light chain (RLC) null in which tips fail to form. In RLC-null mounds, ecmAO prestalk cells formed an initial cluster that began to move to the mound apex, but then arrested as a vertical column that extended from the mound's apex to its base. Mixing experiments with wild-type cells demonstrated that the RLC-null ecmAO prestalk-cell defect is cell autonomous. These observations define a specific mechanism for myosin's function in tip formation, namely a mechanical role in the upward movement of the ecmAO prestalk cluster. The wild-type data demonstrate that cell sorting can occur in two steps, suggesting that, in this Ax3 strain, spatially and temporally distinct cues may guide prestalk cells first to an initial cluster and then later to the tip.

  12. Fast-to-Slow Transition of Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function and Corresponding Changes in Myosin Heavy and Light Chain Formation in the R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hering, Tanja; Braubach, Peter; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Lindenberg, Katrin S.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington´s disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease resulting from an expanded polyglutamine sequence (poly-Q) in the protein huntingtin (HTT). Various studies report atrophy and metabolic pathology of skeletal muscle in HD and suggest as part of the process a fast-to-slow fiber type transition that may be caused by the pathological changes in central motor control or/and by mutant HTT in the muscle tissue itself. To investigate muscle pathology in HD, we used R6/2 mice, a common animal model for a rapidly progressing variant of the disease expressing exon 1 of the mutant human gene. We investigated alterations in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), a typical fast-twitch muscle, and the soleus (SOL), a slow-twitch muscle. We focussed on mechanographic measurements of excised muscles using single and repetitive electrical stimulation and on the expression of the various myosin isoforms (heavy and light chains) using dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole muscle and single fiber preparations. In EDL of R6/2, the functional tests showed a left shift of the force-frequency relation and decrease in specific force. Moreover, the estimated relative contribution of the fastest myosin isoform MyHC IIb decreased, whereas the contribution of the slower MyHC IIx isoform increased. An additional change occurred in the alkali MyLC forms showing a decrease in 3f and an increase in 1f level. In SOL, a shift from fast MyHC IIa to the slow isoform I was detectable in male R6/2 mice only, and there was no evidence of isoform interconversion in the MyLC pattern. These alterations point to a partial remodeling of the contractile apparatus of R6/2 mice towards a slower contractile phenotype, predominantly in fast glycolytic fibers. PMID:27820862

  13. Structure of androcam supports specialized interactions with myosin VI

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mehul K.; Moran, Sean; Beckingham, Kathleen M.; MacKenzie, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Androcam replaces calmodulin as a tissue-specific myosin VI light chain on the actin cones that mediate D. melanogaster spermatid individualization. We show that the androcam structure and its binding to the myosin VI structural (Insert 2) and regulatory (IQ) light chain sites are distinct from those of calmodulin and provide a basis for specialized myosin VI function. The androcam N lobe noncanonically binds a single Ca2+ and is locked in a “closed” conformation, causing androcam to contact the Insert 2 site with its C lobe only. Androcam replacing calmodulin at Insert 2 will increase myosin VI lever arm flexibility, which may favor the compact monomeric form of myosin VI that functions on the actin cones by facilitating the collapse of the C-terminal region onto the motor domain. The tethered androcam N lobe could stabilize the monomer through contacts with C-terminal portions of the motor or recruit other components to the actin cones. Androcam binds the IQ site at all calcium levels, constitutively mimicking a conformation adopted by calmodulin only at intermediate calcium levels. Thus, androcam replacing calmodulin at IQ will abolish a Ca2+-regulated, calmodulin-mediated myosin VI structural change. We propose that the N lobe prevents androcam from interfering with other calmodulin-mediated Ca2+ signaling events. We discuss how gene duplication and mutations that selectively stabilize one of the many conformations available to calmodulin support the molecular evolution of structurally and functionally distinct calmodulin-like proteins. PMID:22851764

  14. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, Hiroki; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We succeeded in recording structural changes of hydrated myosin cross-bridges. {yields} We succeeded in position-marking the cross-bridges with site-directed antibodies. {yields} We recorded cross-bridge movement at different regions in individual cross-bridge. {yields} The movement was smallest at the cross-bridge-subfragment two boundary. {yields} The results provide evidence for the cross-bridge lever arm mechanism. -- Abstract: Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made.

  15. Calcium inhibition as an intracellular signal for actin–myosin interaction

    PubMed Central

    KOHAMA, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways include both the activation and the inhibition of biological processes. The activation of Ca2+ regulation of actin-myosin interactions was examined first, whereas it took 20 years for the author to clarify the inhibitory mode by using Physarum polycephalum, a lower eukaryote. This review describes the investigation of the inhibitory mode since 1980. The inhibitory effect of Ca2+ on myosin was detected chemically by ATPase assays and mechanically by in vitro motility assays. The Ca2+-binding ability of Physarum myosin is as high as that of scallop myosin. Ca2+ inhibits Physarum myosin, whereas it activates scallop myosin. We cloned cDNA of the myosin heavy chain and light chains to express a hybrid of Physarum and scallop myosin, and found that the Ca-binding light chain (CaLc), which belongs to an alkali light chain class, plays a major role in Ca inhibition. The role of CaLc was confirmed by mutating its EF-hand, Ca-binding structure and expressing Physarum myosin as a recombinant protein. Thus, the data obtained by classical protein purification were confirmed by the results obtained with the modern recombinant techniques. However, there are some discrepancies that remain to be solved as described in Section XII. PMID:27941307

  16. Calcium inhibition as an intracellular signal for actin-myosin interaction.

    PubMed

    Kohama, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways include both the activation and the inhibition of biological processes. The activation of Ca(2+) regulation of actin-myosin interactions was examined first, whereas it took 20 years for the author to clarify the inhibitory mode by using Physarum polycephalum, a lower eukaryote. This review describes the investigation of the inhibitory mode since 1980. The inhibitory effect of Ca(2+) on myosin was detected chemically by ATPase assays and mechanically by in vitro motility assays. The Ca(2+)-binding ability of Physarum myosin is as high as that of scallop myosin. Ca(2+) inhibits Physarum myosin, whereas it activates scallop myosin. We cloned cDNA of the myosin heavy chain and light chains to express a hybrid of Physarum and scallop myosin, and found that the Ca-binding light chain (CaLc), which belongs to an alkali light chain class, plays a major role in Ca inhibition. The role of CaLc was confirmed by mutating its EF-hand, Ca-binding structure and expressing Physarum myosin as a recombinant protein. Thus, the data obtained by classical protein purification were confirmed by the results obtained with the modern recombinant techniques. However, there are some discrepancies that remain to be solved as described in Section XII.

  17. Cardiac and skeletal muscle myosin polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Lowey, S

    1986-06-01

    Skeletal muscles, unlike cardiac tissue, express several myosin isozymes during development which differ in primary structure from adult myosin. Monoclonal antibodies have shown the presence of at least two embryonic myosins, followed by a post-hatch myosin that persists until the appearance of adult myosin in chicken pectoralis muscle. Although the two major cardiac isozymes differ in enzymatic activity, the avian skeletal myosin isozymes all share the same high level of ATPase activity found for adult pectoralis myosin. The functional basis for the extensive myosin polymorphism in skeletal muscles thus remains to be determined.

  18. Distribution and evolution of stable single α-helices (SAH domains) in myosin motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Dominic; Hatje, Klas

    2017-01-01

    Stable single-alpha helices (SAHs) are versatile structural elements in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins acting as semi-flexible linkers and constant force springs. This way SAH-domains function as part of the lever of many different myosins. Canonical myosin levers consist of one or several IQ-motifs to which light chains such as calmodulin bind. SAH-domains provide flexibility in length and stiffness to the myosin levers, and may be particularly suited for myosins working in crowded cellular environments. Although the function of the SAH-domains in human class-6 and class-10 myosins has well been characterised, the distribution of the SAH-domain in all myosin subfamilies and across the eukaryotic tree of life remained elusive. Here, we analysed the largest available myosin sequence dataset consisting of 7919 manually annotated myosin sequences from 938 species representing all major eukaryotic branches using the SAH-prediction algorithm of Waggawagga, a recently developed tool for the identification of SAH-domains. With this approach we identified SAH-domains in more than one third of the supposed 79 myosin subfamilies. Depending on the myosin class, the presence of SAH-domains can range from a few to almost all class members indicating complex patterns of independent and taxon-specific SAH-domain gain and loss. PMID:28369123

  19. Cloning and characterization of mouse brush border myosin-I in adult and embryonic intestine.

    PubMed

    Skowron, J F; Mooseker, M S

    1999-02-15

    Brush border myosin-I is a class I myosin with calmodulin light chains that has been identified in several vertebrate species. In chicken, it is exclusively expressed in intestinal epithelial cells where it forms spirally arrayed bridges that tether the microvillar actin bundle to the membrane. To facilitate future knockout strategies, we have isolated mouse brush border myosin-I cDNA and genomic clones. The deduced primary structure of mouse brush border myosin-I is homologous to other known brush border myosins-I. Northern blot, immunoblot, and immunolocalization studies indicate that the intestine-specific and subcellular localization profile of mouse brush border myosin-I are comparable to that determined for other brush border myosins-I. Northern analysis during embryogenesis revealed a 3.9-kb transcript first detected in 15-day embryos. This is in marked contrast to chicken, where brush border myosin-I expression begins early in embryogenesis. In situ localization in 17-day embryos indicated that RNA expression is restricted to the intestine. Protein expression is first detected in 16-day embryos with decreasing levels observed in a proximal to distal fashion. Immunolocalization in embryonic intestine revealed that brush border myosin-I is evenly distributed on both apical and basolateral membrane domains. There is also pronounced localization to a supranuclear region, presumably the Golgi apparatus. This suggests that brush border myosin-I may be targeted to the plasma membrane on Golgi-derived vesicles rather than by direct targeting to microvillar actin cores.

  20. Distance measurements near the myosin head-rod junction using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Kekic, M; Huang, W; Moens, P D; Hambly, B D; dos Remedios, C G

    1996-01-01

    We reacted a fluorescent probe, N-methyl-2-anilino-6-naphthalenesulfonyl chloride (MNS-Ci), with a specific lysine residue of porcine cardiac myosin located in the S-2 region of myosin. We performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy measurements between this site and three loci (Cys109, Cys125, and Cys154) located within different myosin light-chain 2s (LC2) bound to the myosin "head". We used LC2s from rabbit skeletal muscle myosin (Cys125), chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (Cys109), or a genetically engineered mutant of chicken skeletal muscle myosin (Cys154). The atomic coordinates of these LC2 loci can be closely approximated, and the FRET measurements were used to determine the position of the MNS-labeled lysine with respect to the myosin head. The C-terminus of myosin subfragment-1 determined by Rayment et al. ends abruptly after a sharp turn of its predominantly alpha-helical structure. We have constructed a model based on our FRET distance data combined with the known structure of chicken skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1. This model suggests that the loci that bracket the head-rod junction will be useful for evaluating dynamic changes in this region. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:8804587

  1. Distance measurements near the myosin head-rod junction using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kekic, M; Huang, W; Moens, P D; Hambly, B D; dos Remedios, C G

    1996-07-01

    We reacted a fluorescent probe, N-methyl-2-anilino-6-naphthalenesulfonyl chloride (MNS-Ci), with a specific lysine residue of porcine cardiac myosin located in the S-2 region of myosin. We performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy measurements between this site and three loci (Cys109, Cys125, and Cys154) located within different myosin light-chain 2s (LC2) bound to the myosin "head". We used LC2s from rabbit skeletal muscle myosin (Cys125), chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (Cys109), or a genetically engineered mutant of chicken skeletal muscle myosin (Cys154). The atomic coordinates of these LC2 loci can be closely approximated, and the FRET measurements were used to determine the position of the MNS-labeled lysine with respect to the myosin head. The C-terminus of myosin subfragment-1 determined by Rayment et al. ends abruptly after a sharp turn of its predominantly alpha-helical structure. We have constructed a model based on our FRET distance data combined with the known structure of chicken skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1. This model suggests that the loci that bracket the head-rod junction will be useful for evaluating dynamic changes in this region.

  2. Myosin inhibitors block accumulation movement of chloroplasts in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells.

    PubMed

    Paves, H; Truve, E

    2007-01-01

    Chloroplasts alter their distribution within plant cells depending on the external light conditions. Myosin inhibitors 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and 1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine hydrochloride (ML-7) were used to study the possible role of myosins in chloroplast photorelocation in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll cells. None of these agents had an effect on the chloroplast high-fluence-rate avoidance movement but all of the three myosin inhibitors blocked the accumulation movement of chloroplasts after a high-fluence-rate irradiation of the leaves. The results suggest that myosins have a role in A. thaliana chloroplast photorelocation.

  3. Myosin II-mediated cell shape changes and cell intercalation contribute to primitive streak formation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feifei; Sang, Helen M.; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; MacDonald, Michael P; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves large scale highly coordinated flows of over 100.000 cells in the epiblast. These large scale tissue flows and deformations can be correlated with specific anisotropic cell behaviours in the forming mesendoderm through a combined light-sheet microscopy and computational analysis. Relevant behaviours include apical contraction, elongation along the apical-basal axis followed by ingression as well as asynchronous directional cell intercalation of small groups of mesendoderm cells. Cell intercalation is associated with sequential, directional contraction of apical junctions, the onset, localisation and direction of which correlate strongly with the appearance of active Myosin II cables in aligned apical junctions in neighbouring cells. Use of a class specific Myosin inhibitors and gene specific knockdowns show that apical contraction and intercalation are Myosin II dependent and also reveal critical roles for Myosin I and Myosin V family members in the assembly of junctional Myosin II cables. PMID:25812521

  4. Chaperone-enhanced purification of unconventional myosin 15, a molecular motor specialized for stereocilia protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Jonathan E.; Takagi, Yasuharu; Billington, Neil; Strub, Marie-Paule; Sellers, James R.; Friedman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional myosin 15 is a molecular motor expressed in inner ear hair cells that transports protein cargos within developing mechanosensory stereocilia. Mutations of myosin 15 cause profound hearing loss in humans and mice; however, the properties of this motor and its regulation within the stereocilia organelle are unknown. To address these questions, we expressed a subfragment 1-like (S1) truncation of mouse myosin 15, comprising the predicted motor domain plus three light-chain binding sites. Following unsuccessful attempts to express functional myosin 15-S1 using the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9)-baculovirus system, we discovered that coexpression of the muscle-myosin–specific chaperone UNC45B, in addition to the chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) significantly increased the yield of functional protein. Surprisingly, myosin 15-S1 did not bind calmodulin with high affinity. Instead, the IQ domains bound essential and regulatory light chains that are normally associated with class II myosins. We show that myosin 15-S1 is a barbed-end–directed motor that moves actin filaments in a gliding assay (∼430 nm·s−1 at 30 °C), using a power stroke of 7.9 nm. The maximum ATPase rate (kcat ∼6 s−1) was similar to the actin-detachment rate (kdet = 6.2 s−1) determined in single molecule optical trapping experiments, indicating that myosin 15-S1 was rate limited by transit through strongly actin-bound states, similar to other processive myosin motors. Our data further indicate that in addition to folding muscle myosin, UNC45B facilitates maturation of an unconventional myosin. We speculate that chaperone coexpression may be a simple method to optimize the purification of other myosin motors from Sf9 insect cells. PMID:25114250

  5. The molecular phenotype of human cardiac myosin associated with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Adam M.; Briceno, Natalia; Messer, Andrew E.; Gallon, Clare E.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Garcia, Edwin; Kikonda-Kanda, Gaelle; Goddard, Jennifer; Harding, Sian E.; Watkins, Hugh; Esteban, M. Tomé; Tsang, Victor T.; McKenna, William J.; Marston, Steven B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Aim The aim of the study was to compare the functional and structural properties of the motor protein, myosin, and isolated myocyte contractility in heart muscle excised from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients by surgical myectomy with explanted failing heart and non-failing donor heart muscle. Methods Myosin was isolated and studied using an in vitro motility assay. The distribution of myosin light chain-1 isoforms was measured by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation was measured by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein stain. Results The fraction of actin filaments moving when powered by myectomy myosin was 21% less than with donor myosin (P = 0.006), whereas the sliding speed was not different (0.310 ± 0.034 for myectomy myosin vs. 0.305 ± 0.019 µm/s for donor myosin in six paired experiments). Failing heart myosin showed 18% reduced motility. One myectomy myosin sample produced a consistently higher sliding speed than donor heart myosin and was identified with a disease-causing heavy chain mutation (V606M). In myectomy myosin, the level of atrial light chain-1 relative to ventricular light chain-1 was 20 ± 5% compared with 11 ± 5% in donor heart myosin and the level of myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation was decreased by 30–45%. Isolated cardiomyocytes showed reduced contraction amplitude (1.61 ± 0.25 vs. 3.58 ± 0.40%) and reduced relaxation rates compared with donor myocytes (TT50% = 0.32 ± 0.09 vs. 0.17 ± 0.02 s). Conclusion Contractility in myectomy samples resembles the hypocontractile phenotype found in end-stage failing heart muscle irrespective of the primary stimulus, and this phenotype is not a direct effect of the hypertrophy-inducing mutation. The presence of a myosin heavy chain mutation causing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be predicted from a simple functional assay. PMID:18411228

  6. Conformational flexibility of loops of myosin enhances the global bias in the actin-myosin interaction landscape.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qing-Miao; Sasai, Masaki; Terada, Tomoki P

    2014-04-14

    A long-standing controversy on the mechanism of an actomyosin motor is the role of the Brownian motion of the myosin head in force generation. In order to shed light on this problem, we calculate free-energy landscapes of interaction between an actin filament and the head (S1) of myosin II by using a coarse-grained model of actomyosin. The results show that the free-energy landscape has a global gradient toward the strong-binding site on actin filament, which explains the biased Brownian motion of myosin S1 observed in a single-molecule experiment [Kitamura et al., Nature, 1999, 397, 129 and Biophysics, 2005, 1, 1]. The distinct global gradient in the landscape is brought about only when the conformation of loop 2 at the actin interface of myosin S1 is flexible. The conformational flexibility of loop 3 also contributes to the gradient in the landscape by compensating the role of loop 2. Though the structure of loop 2 is expanded in the weak-binding state, loop 2 shows the larger fluctuation of compaction and expansion due to the actin-myosin interactions as myosin S1 moves toward the strong-binding site on actin filament. Hence, the increase in the compaction-expansion fluctuation of loop 2, the stronger binding of myosin to actin, and the biased Brownian motion of myosin S1 are coupled with each other and should take place in a concurrent way. This predicted coupling should provide opportunities to further test the hypothesis of the biased Brownian motion in actomyosin.

  7. Myosin V is a biological Brownian machine

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Keisuke; Iwaki, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Myosin V is a vesicle transporter that unidirectionally walks along cytoskeletal actin filaments by converting the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical work. Recently, it was found that myosin V force generation is a composition of two processes: a lever-arm swing, which involves a conformational change in the myosin molecule, and a Brownian search-and-catch, which involves a diffusive “search” by the motor domain that is followed by an asymmetric “catch” in the forward actin target such that Brownian motion is rectified. Here we developed a system that combines optical tweezers with DNA nano-material to show that the Brownian search-and-catch mechanism is the energetically dominant process at near stall force, providing 13 kBT of work compared to just 3 kBT by the lever-arm swing. Our result significantly reconsiders the lever-arm swinging model, which assumes the swing dominantly produces work (>10 kBT), and sheds light on the Brownian search-and-catch as a driving process. PMID:27493501

  8. Myosin V is a biological Brownian machine.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Keisuke; Iwaki, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Myosin V is a vesicle transporter that unidirectionally walks along cytoskeletal actin filaments by converting the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical work. Recently, it was found that myosin V force generation is a composition of two processes: a lever-arm swing, which involves a conformational change in the myosin molecule, and a Brownian search-and-catch, which involves a diffusive "search" by the motor domain that is followed by an asymmetric "catch" in the forward actin target such that Brownian motion is rectified. Here we developed a system that combines optical tweezers with DNA nano-material to show that the Brownian search-and-catch mechanism is the energetically dominant process at near stall force, providing 13 kBT of work compared to just 3 kBT by the lever-arm swing. Our result significantly reconsiders the lever-arm swinging model, which assumes the swing dominantly produces work (>10 kBT), and sheds light on the Brownian search-and-catch as a driving process.

  9. Canine cardiac myosin with special referrence to pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy. I. Subunit composition.

    PubMed

    Siemankowski, R F; Dreizen, P

    1978-12-10

    In studies of myosin from left and right ventricles of normal hearts and hypertrophic hearts at 5 weeks and 13 weeks after aortic banding, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows intermediate molecular weight components which derive from heavy chains fragmented in the presence of dodecyl sulfate. The proportion of degraded heavy chains is greater in myosin from hypertrophic hearts than normal hearts, with comparable degradation in left and right ventricle myosin. The observed fragmentation of myosin results from proteolysis due to contaminant proteases or a thermally activated, heat-stable nonenzymatic process, or both. The susceptibility of heavy chains to crude myofibrillar proteases differs in normal and hypertrophic cardiac myosin; however, the kinetics of tryptic digestion are identical for both myosins. With precautions to minimize proteolytic artifacts on dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, preparations of myosin from left and right ventricles of normal and hypertrophic hearts exhibit comparable subunit composition, with approximately molar ratios of heavy chains, light chain L1, and light chain L2. Comparable stoichiometry for the light chain fraction is determined by high speed sedimentation equilibrium at pH 11 and direct fractionation of the different cardiac myosins. We do not confirm reports (e.g. Wikman-Coffelt, J., Fenner, C., Smith, A., and Mason, D. T. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 1257-1262) of different proportions of light chains in left and right ventricle myosin of normal and hypertrophic canine hearts. The light chains display microheterogeneity, with L1 generating two isoelectric variants and L2 generating two major and two minor variants, but identical mobilities and isoelectric values are obtained in the different myosin preparations.

  10. Phosphorylation of myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase by Rho-kinase in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Y; Fukata, Y; Oshiro, N; Amano, M; Nakamura, T; Ito, M; Matsumura, F; Inagaki, M; Kaibuchi, K

    1999-11-29

    Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which is activated by the small GTPase Rho, phosphorylates myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase and thereby inactivates the phosphatase activity in vitro. Rho-kinase is thought to regulate the phosphorylation state of the substrates including myosin light chain (MLC), ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family proteins and adducin by their direct phosphorylation and by the inactivation of myosin phosphatase. Here we identified the sites of phosphorylation of MBS by Rho-kinase as Thr-697, Ser-854 and several residues, and prepared antibody that specifically recognized MBS phosphorylated at Ser-854. We found by use of this antibody that the stimulation of MDCK epithelial cells with tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced the phosphorylation of MBS at Ser-854 under the conditions in which membrane ruffling and cell migration were induced. Pretreatment of the cells with Botulinum C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase (C3), which is thought to interfere with Rho functions, or Rho-kinase inhibitors inhibited the TPA- or HGF-induced MBS phosphorylation. The TPA stimulation enhanced the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated MBS in the cytoplasm and membrane ruffling area of MDCK cells. In migrating MDCK cells, phosphorylated MBS as well as phosphorylated MLC at Ser-19 were localized in the leading edge and posterior region. Phosphorylated MBS was localized on actin stress fibers in REF52 fibroblasts. The microinjection of C3 or dominant negative Rho-kinase disrupted stress fibers and weakened the accumulation of phosphorylated MBS in REF52 cells. During cytokinesis, phosphorylated MBS, MLC and ERM family proteins accumulated at the cleavage furrow, and the phosphorylation level of MBS at Ser-854 was increased. Taken together, these results indicate that MBS is phosphorylated by Rho-kinase downstream of Rho in vivo, and suggest that myosin phosphatase and Rho-kinase spatiotemporally regulate the

  11. The Effects of Hsp90α1 Mutations on Myosin Thick Filament Organization.

    PubMed

    He, Qiuxia; Liu, Kechun; Tian, Zhenjun; Du, Shao Jun

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90α plays a key role in myosin folding and thick filament assembly in muscle cells. To assess the structure and function of Hsp90α and its potential regulation by post-translational modification, we developed a combined knockdown and rescue assay in zebrafish embryos to systematically analyze the effects of various mutations on Hsp90α function in myosin thick filament organization. DNA constructs expressing the Hsp90α1 mutants with altered putative ATP binding, phosphorylation, acetylation or methylation sites were co-injected with Hsp90α1 specific morpholino into zebrafish embryos. Myosin thick filament organization was analyzed in skeletal muscles of the injected embryos by immunostaining. The results showed that mutating the conserved D90 residue in the Hsp90α1 ATP binding domain abolished its function in thick filament organization. In addition, phosphorylation mimicking mutations of T33D, T33E and T87E compromised Hsp90α1 function in myosin thick filament organization. Similarly, K287Q acetylation mimicking mutation repressed Hsp90α1 function in myosin thick filament organization. In contrast, K206R and K608R hypomethylation mimicking mutations had not effect on Hsp90α1 function in thick filament organization. Given that T33 and T87 are highly conserved residues involved post-translational modification (PTM) in yeast, mouse and human Hsp90 proteins, data from this study could indicate that Hsp90α1 function in myosin thick filament organization is potentially regulated by PTMs involving phosphorylation and acetylation.

  12. The Effects of Hsp90α1 Mutations on Myosin Thick Filament Organization

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiuxia; Liu, Kechun; Tian, Zhenjun; Du, Shao Jun

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90α plays a key role in myosin folding and thick filament assembly in muscle cells. To assess the structure and function of Hsp90α and its potential regulation by post-translational modification, we developed a combined knockdown and rescue assay in zebrafish embryos to systematically analyze the effects of various mutations on Hsp90α function in myosin thick filament organization. DNA constructs expressing the Hsp90α1 mutants with altered putative ATP binding, phosphorylation, acetylation or methylation sites were co-injected with Hsp90α1 specific morpholino into zebrafish embryos. Myosin thick filament organization was analyzed in skeletal muscles of the injected embryos by immunostaining. The results showed that mutating the conserved D90 residue in the Hsp90α1 ATP binding domain abolished its function in thick filament organization. In addition, phosphorylation mimicking mutations of T33D, T33E and T87E compromised Hsp90α1 function in myosin thick filament organization. Similarly, K287Q acetylation mimicking mutation repressed Hsp90α1 function in myosin thick filament organization. In contrast, K206R and K608R hypomethylation mimicking mutations had not effect on Hsp90α1 function in thick filament organization. Given that T33 and T87 are highly conserved residues involved post-translational modification (PTM) in yeast, mouse and human Hsp90 proteins, data from this study could indicate that Hsp90α1 function in myosin thick filament organization is potentially regulated by PTMs involving phosphorylation and acetylation. PMID:26562659

  13. In vitro actin motility velocity varies linearly with the number of myosin impellers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Burghardt, T P

    2017-03-15

    Cardiac myosin is the motor powering the heart. It moves actin with 3 step-size varieties generated by torque from the myosin heavy chain lever-arm rotation under the influence of myosin essential light chain whose N-terminal extension binds actin. Proposed mechanisms adapting myosin mechanochemical characteristics on the fly sometimes involve modulation of step-size selection probability via motor strain sensitivity. Strain following the power stroke, hypothetically imposed by the finite actin detachment rate 1/ton, is shown to have no effect on unloaded velocity when multiple myosins are simultaneously strongly actin bound in an in vitro motility assay. Actin filaments slide ∼2 native step-sizes while more than 1 myosin strongly binds actin probably ruling out an actin detachment limited model for imposing strain. It suggests that single myosin estimates for ton are too large, not applicable to the ensemble situation, or both. Parallel motility data quantitation involving instantaneous particle velocities (frame velocity) and actin filament track averaged velocities (track velocity) give an estimate of the random walk step-size, δ. Comparing δ for slow and fast motility components suggests the higher speed component has cardiac myosin upshifting to longer steps. Variable step-size characteristics imply cardiac myosin maintains a velocity dynamic range not involving strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolutionary traces decode molecular mechanism behind fast pace of myosin XI.

    PubMed

    Syamaladevi, Divya P; Sowdhamini, R

    2011-09-26

    Cytoplasmic class XI myosins are the fastest processive motors known. This class functions in high-velocity cytoplasmic streaming in various plant cells from algae to angiosperms. The velocities at which they process are ten times faster than its closest class V homologues. To provide sequence determinants and structural rationale for the molecular mechanism of this fast pace myosin, we have compared the sequences from myosin class V and XI through Evolutionary Trace (ET) analysis. The current study identifies class-specific residues of myosin XI spread over the actin binding site, ATP binding site and light chain binding neck region. Sequences for ET analysis were accumulated from six plant genomes, using literature based text search and sequence searches, followed by triple validation viz. CDD search, string-based searches and phylogenetic clustering. We have identified nine myosin XI genes in sorghum and seven in grape by sequence searches. Both the plants possess one gene product each belonging to myosin type VIII as well. During this process, we have re-defined the gene boundaries for three sorghum myosin XI genes using fgenesh program. Molecular modelling and subsequent analysis of putative interactions involving these class-specific residues suggest a structural basis for the molecular mechanism behind high velocity of plant myosin XI. We propose a model of a more flexible switch I region that contributes to faster ADP release leading to high velocity movement of the algal myosin XI.

  15. Evolutionary traces decode molecular mechanism behind fast pace of myosin XI

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytoplasmic class XI myosins are the fastest processive motors known. This class functions in high-velocity cytoplasmic streaming in various plant cells from algae to angiosperms. The velocities at which they process are ten times faster than its closest class V homologues. Results To provide sequence determinants and structural rationale for the molecular mechanism of this fast pace myosin, we have compared the sequences from myosin class V and XI through Evolutionary Trace (ET) analysis. The current study identifies class-specific residues of myosin XI spread over the actin binding site, ATP binding site and light chain binding neck region. Sequences for ET analysis were accumulated from six plant genomes, using literature based text search and sequence searches, followed by triple validation viz. CDD search, string-based searches and phylogenetic clustering. We have identified nine myosin XI genes in sorghum and seven in grape by sequence searches. Both the plants possess one gene product each belonging to myosin type VIII as well. During this process, we have re-defined the gene boundaries for three sorghum myosin XI genes using fgenesh program. Conclusion Molecular modelling and subsequent analysis of putative interactions involving these class-specific residues suggest a structural basis for the molecular mechanism behind high velocity of plant myosin XI. We propose a model of a more flexible switch I region that contributes to faster ADP release leading to high velocity movement of the algal myosin XI. PMID:21942950

  16. Characteristics of Myosin V Processivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Ping; Liu, Yi; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; La, Ta; Guo, Wei-Sheng

    2017-02-14

    Myosin V is a processive doubled-headed biomolecular motor involved in many intracellular organelle and vesicle transport. The unidirectional movement is coupled with the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and product release cycle. With the progress of experimental techniques and the enhancement of measuring directness, detailed knowledge of the motility of myosin V has been obtained.Following the ATPase cycle, the 4-state mechanochemical model of the myosin V's processive movement is used. The transitions between various states take place in a stochastic manner. We can use the master equation to analyze and calculate quantitatively. Meanwhile the effect of the reverse reaction is takenfully into account. We fit the mean velocity, the mean dwell time, the mean run length andtheratio of forward/backward steps as a functionof ATP, ADP and Pi concertration. The theoretical curves are generally in line with the experimental data. This work provides a new insight for the characteristic of myosin V.

  17. Azidoblebbistatin, a photoreactive myosin inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Képiró, Miklós; Várkuti, Boglárka H.; Bodor, Andrea; Hegyi, György; Drahos, László; Kovács, Mihály; Málnási-Csizmadia, András

    2012-01-01

    Photoreactive compounds are important tools in life sciences that allow precisely timed covalent crosslinking of ligands and targets. Using a unique technique we have synthesized azidoblebbistatin, which is a derivative of blebbistatin, the most widely used myosin inhibitor. Without UV irradiation azidoblebbistatin exhibits identical inhibitory properties to those of blebbistatin. Using UV irradiation, azidoblebbistatin can be covalently crosslinked to myosin, which greatly enhances its in vitro and in vivo effectiveness. Photo-crosslinking also eliminates limitations associated with the relatively low myosin affinity and water solubility of blebbistatin. The wavelength used for photo-crosslinking is not toxic for cells and tissues, which confers a great advantage in in vivo tests. Because the crosslink results in an irreversible association of the inhibitor to myosin and the irradiation eliminates the residual activity of unbound inhibitor molecules, azidoblebbistatin has a great potential to become a highly effective tool in both structural studies of actomyosin contractility and the investigation of cellular and physiological functions of myosin II. We used azidoblebbistatin to identify previously unknown low-affinity targets of the inhibitor (EC50 ≥ 50 μM) in Dictyostelium discoideum, while the strongest interactant was found to be myosin II (EC50 = 5 μM). Our results demonstrate that azidoblebbistatin, and potentially other azidated drugs, can become highly useful tools for the identification of strong- and weak-binding cellular targets and the determination of the apparent binding affinities in in vivo conditions. PMID:22647605

  18. The neck region of the myosin motor domain acts as a lever arm to generate movement.

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, T Q; Abramson, P D; Spudich, J A

    1996-01-01

    The myosin head consists of a globular catalytic domain that binds actin and hydrolyzes ATP and a neck domain that consists of essential and regulatory light chains bound to a long alpha-helical portion of the heavy chain. The swinging neck-level model assumes that a swinging motion of the neck relative to the catalytic domain is the origin of movement. This model predicts that the step size, and consequently the sliding velocity, are linearly related to the length of the neck. We have tested this point by characterizing a series of mutant Dictyostelium myosins that have different neck lengths. The 2xELCBS mutant has an extra binding site for essential light chain. The delta RLCBS mutant myosin has an internal deletion that removes the regulatory light chain binding site. The delta BLCBS mutant lacks both light chain binding sites. Wild-type myosin and these mutant myosins were subjected to the sliding filament in vitro motility assay. As expected, mutants with shorter necks move slower than wild-type myosin in vitro. Most significantly, a mutant with a longer neck moves faster than the wild type, and the sliding velocities of these myosins are linearly related to the neck length, as predicted by the swinging neck-lever model. A simple extrapolation to zero speed predicts that the fulcrum point is in the vicinity of the SH1-SH2 region in the catalytic domain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8633089

  19. Molecular engineering of a backwards-moving myosin motor.

    PubMed

    Tsiavaliaris, Georgios; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Manstein, Dietmar J

    2004-02-05

    All members of the diverse myosin superfamily have a highly conserved globular motor domain that contains the actin- and nucleotide-binding sites and produces force and movement. The light-chain-binding domain connects the motor domain to a variety of functionally specialized tail domains and amplifies small structural changes in the motor domain through rotation of a lever arm. Myosins move on polarized actin filaments either forwards to the barbed (+) or backwards to the pointed (-) end. Here, we describe the engineering of an artificial backwards-moving myosin from three pre-existing molecular building blocks. These blocks are: a forward-moving class I myosin motor domain, a directional inverter formed by a four-helix bundle segment of human guanylate-binding protein-1 and an artificial lever arm formed by two alpha-actinin repeats. Our results prove that reverse-direction movement of myosins can be achieved simply by rotating the direction of the lever arm 180 degrees.

  20. Comparative studies on the structure and aggregative properties of the myosin molecule. III. The in vitro aggregative properties of the lobster myosin molecule.

    PubMed

    Siemankowski, R F; Zobel, C R

    1976-02-20

    The solubility of rabbit skeletal and lobster abdominal muscle myosin has been studied in monovalent salt solutions as a function of pH (over the range 4.75 to 8.5) and ionic strength (50-500 mM). Rabbit skeletal muscle myosin was found to precipitate over a narrower pH range than the lobster abdominal muscle myosin but at equivalent pH values and ionic strengths the former exhibited greater solubility. Comparison of the solubility of rabbit myosin, per se with that of light meromyosin and lobster myosin with its equivalent proteolytically produced fragment (fraction B1) showed that both rod fragments were more soluble than their parent molecules. Under conditions of low solubility (low ionic strength and pH) the quantitiy of protein in solution remained essentially constant with increasing total protein, thus suggesting that the aggregation phenomenon is of a phase transition type. Examination of the aggregates by electron microscopy revealed that rabbit myosin formed classical, elongate, spindle-shaped filaments similar to those previously observed by others. In contrast lobster myosin only formed short, dumbbell-shaped filaments 0.2-0.3 mum long. Consideration of the pH ranges over which aggregation occurred suggests that protonation of histidine residues may be involved in rabbit myosin filament formation while for lobster myosin, aggregation may involve protonation of epsilon-amino or guanidino groups. The possible relationship between the distribution of these groups along the rod portion of the myosin molecule and the formation of elongate filaments has been explored.

  1. Myosin content of individual human muscle fibers isolated by laser capture microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Stone, William L.; Howell, Mary E. A.; Brannon, Marianne F.; Hall, H. Kenton; Gibson, Andrew L.; Stone, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle fiber composition correlates with insulin resistance, and exercise training can increase slow-twitch (type I) fibers and, thereby, mitigate diabetes risk. Human skeletal muscle is made up of three distinct fiber types, but muscle contains many more isoforms of myosin heavy and light chains, which are coded by 15 and 11 different genes, respectively. Laser capture microdissection techniques allow assessment of mRNA and protein content in individual fibers. We found that specific human fiber types contain different mixtures of myosin heavy and light chains. Fast-twitch (type IIx) fibers consistently contained myosin heavy chains 1, 2, and 4 and myosin light chain 1. Type I fibers always contained myosin heavy chains 6 and 7 (MYH6 and MYH7) and myosin light chain 3 (MYL3), whereas MYH6, MYH7, and MYL3 were nearly absent from type IIx fibers. In contrast to cardiomyocytes, where MYH6 (also known as α-myosin heavy chain) is seen solely in fast-twitch cells, only slow-twitch fibers of skeletal muscle contained MYH6. Classical fast myosin heavy chains (MHC1, MHC2, and MHC4) were present in variable proportions in all fiber types, but significant MYH6 and MYH7 expression indicated slow-twitch phenotype, and the absence of these two isoforms determined a fast-twitch phenotype. The mixed myosin heavy and light chain content of type IIa fibers was consistent with its role as a transition between fast and slow phenotypes. These new observations suggest that the presence or absence of MYH6 and MYH7 proteins dictates the slow- or fast-twitch phenotype in skeletal muscle. PMID:26676053

  2. Myosin content of individual human muscle fibers isolated by laser capture microdissection.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Charles A; Stone, William L; Howell, Mary E A; Brannon, Marianne F; Hall, H Kenton; Gibson, Andrew L; Stone, Michael H

    2016-03-01

    Muscle fiber composition correlates with insulin resistance, and exercise training can increase slow-twitch (type I) fibers and, thereby, mitigate diabetes risk. Human skeletal muscle is made up of three distinct fiber types, but muscle contains many more isoforms of myosin heavy and light chains, which are coded by 15 and 11 different genes, respectively. Laser capture microdissection techniques allow assessment of mRNA and protein content in individual fibers. We found that specific human fiber types contain different mixtures of myosin heavy and light chains. Fast-twitch (type IIx) fibers consistently contained myosin heavy chains 1, 2, and 4 and myosin light chain 1. Type I fibers always contained myosin heavy chains 6 and 7 (MYH6 and MYH7) and myosin light chain 3 (MYL3), whereas MYH6, MYH7, and MYL3 were nearly absent from type IIx fibers. In contrast to cardiomyocytes, where MYH6 (also known as α-myosin heavy chain) is seen solely in fast-twitch cells, only slow-twitch fibers of skeletal muscle contained MYH6. Classical fast myosin heavy chains (MHC1, MHC2, and MHC4) were present in variable proportions in all fiber types, but significant MYH6 and MYH7 expression indicated slow-twitch phenotype, and the absence of these two isoforms determined a fast-twitch phenotype. The mixed myosin heavy and light chain content of type IIa fibers was consistent with its role as a transition between fast and slow phenotypes. These new observations suggest that the presence or absence of MYH6 and MYH7 proteins dictates the slow- or fast-twitch phenotype in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Single Myosin Step-Sizes in Striated Muscle a

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Sun, Xiaojing; Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Myosin in muscle transduces ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. It has a motor domain transducer containing ATP and actin binding sites, and, mechanical elements coupling motor impulse to the myosin filament backbone providing transduction/mechanical-coupling. The mechanical coupler is a lever-arm stabilized by bound essential and regulatory light chains. The lever-arm rotates cyclically to impel bound filamentous actin. Linear actin displacement due to lever-arm rotation is the myosin step-size. A high-throughput quantum dot labeled actin in vitro motility assay (Qdot assay) measures motor step-size in the context of an ensemble of actomyosin interactions. The ensemble context imposes a constant velocity constraint for myosins interacting with one actin filament. In a cardiac myosin producing multiple step-sizes, a “second characterization” is step-frequency that adjusts longer step-size to lower frequency maintaining a linear actin velocity identical to that from a shorter step-size and higher frequency actomyosin cycle. The step-frequency characteristic involves and integrates myosin enzyme kinetics, mechanical strain, and other ensemble affected characteristics. The high-throughput Qdot assay suits a new paradigm calling for wide surveillance of the vast number of disease or aging relevant myosin isoforms that contrasts with the alternative model calling for exhaustive research on a tiny subset myosin forms. The zebrafish embryo assay (Z assay) performs single myosin step-size and step-frequency assaying in vivo combining single myosin mechanical and whole muscle physiological characterizations in one model organism. The Qdot and Z assays cover “bottom-up” and “top-down” assaying of myosin characteristics. PMID:26728749

  4. Pregnane X Receptor Activation Attenuates Inflammation-Associated Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction by Inhibiting Cytokine-Induced Myosin Light-Chain Kinase Expression and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 1/2 Activation.

    PubMed

    Garg, Aditya; Zhao, Angela; Erickson, Sarah L; Mukherjee, Subhajit; Lau, Aik Jiang; Alston, Laurie; Chang, Thomas K H; Mani, Sridhar; Hirota, Simon A

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders with a complex etiology. IBD is thought to arise in genetically susceptible individuals in the context of aberrant interactions with the intestinal microbiota and other environmental risk factors. Recently, the pregnane X receptor (PXR) was identified as a sensor for microbial metabolites, whose activation can regulate the intestinal epithelial barrier. Mutations in NR1I2, the gene that encodes the PXR, have been linked to IBD, and in animal models, PXR deletion leads to barrier dysfunction. In the current study, we sought to assess the mechanism(s) through which the PXR regulates barrier function during inflammation. In Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayers, tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ exposure disrupted the barrier and triggered zonula occludens-1 relocalization, increased expression of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2). Activation of the PXR [rifaximin and [[3,5-Bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethenylidene]bis-phosphonic acid tetraethyl ester (SR12813); 10 μM] protected the barrier, an effect that was associated with attenuated MLCK expression and JNK1/2 activation. In vivo, activation of the PXR [pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN)] attenuated barrier disruption induced by toll-like receptor 4 activation in wild-type, but not Pxr-/-, mice. Furthermore, PCN treatment protected the barrier in the dextran-sulfate sodium model of experimental colitis, an effect that was associated with reduced expression of mucosal MLCK and phosphorylated JNK1/2. Together, our data suggest that the PXR regulates the intestinal epithelial barrier during inflammation by modulating cytokine-induced MLCK expression and JNK1/2 activation. Thus, targeting the PXR may prove beneficial for the treatment of inflammation-associated barrier disruption in the context of IBD. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  5. Two distinct factor-binding DNA elements in cardiac myosin light chain 2 gene are essential for repression of its expression in skeletal muscle. Isolation of a cDNA clone for repressor protein Nished.

    PubMed

    Dhar, M; Mascareno, E M; Siddiqui, M A

    1997-07-18

    The expression of the cardiac myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) gene is repressed in skeletal muscle as a result of the negative regulation of its transcription. Two regulatory elements, the cardiac specific sequence (CSS) located upstream (-360 base pairs) and a downstream negative modulatory sequence (NMS), which function in concert with each other, are required for repression of the MLC2 promoter activity in skeletal muscle. Individually, CSS and NMS have no effect. Transient transfection analysis with recombinant plasmids indicated that CSS- and NMS-mediated repression of transcription is position- and orientation-dependent and is transferable to heterologous promoters. A minimal conserved motif, GAAG/CTTC, present in both CSS and NMS, is responsible for repression as the mutation in the core CTTC sequence alone was sufficient to abrogate its repressor activity. The DNA binding assay by gel mobility shift analysis revealed that one of the two complexes, CSSBP2, is significantly enriched in embryonic skeletal muscle relative to cardiac muscle. In extracts from adult skeletal muscle, where the cardiac MLC2 expression is suppressed, both complexes, CSSBP1 and CSSBP2, were present, whereas the cardiac muscle extracts contained CSSBP1 alone, suggesting that the protein(s) in the CSSBP2 complex accounts for the negative regulation of cardiac MLC2 in skeletal muscle. A partial cDNA clone (Nished) specific for the candidate repressor factor was isolated by expression screening of the skeletal muscle cDNA library by multimerized CSS-DNA as probe. The recombinant Nished protein binds to the CSS-DNA, but not to DeltaCSS-DNA where the core CTTC sequence was mutated. The amino acid sequence of Nished showed a significant structural similarity to the sequence of transcription factor "runt," a known repressor of gap and pair-rule gene expression in Drosophila.

  6. Biomarker panel of cardiac and skeletal muscle troponins, fatty acid binding protein 3 and myosin light chain 3 for the accurate diagnosis of cardiotoxicity and musculoskeletal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Yutaka; Matsushima, Shuuichi; Kashiwagi, Emi; Fujisawa, Kae; Takagi, Shingo; Nishimura, Yoko; Fukushima, Ryou; Torii, Mikinori; Matsubara, Mitsunobu

    2012-12-16

    Cardiotoxicity and musculoskeletal toxicity can be life-threatening, and thus have strong impact on both the development and marketing of drugs. Because the conventional biomarkers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK) have low detection power, there has been increasing interest in developing biomarkers with higher detection power. The current study examined the usefulness of several promising biomarkers, cardiac and skeletal muscle troponins (cTnI, cTnT and sTnI), fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) and myosin light chain 3 (MYL3), and compared the obtained data to AST, LDH and CK in rat models treated with various myotoxic and non-myotoxic compounds (isoproterenol, metaproterenol, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, allylamine, cyclosporine A, cyclophosphamide, aminoglutethimide, acetaminophen, methapyrilene, allylalcohol and α-naphthylisothiocyanate). These promising biomarkers were found to be superior to the conventional biomarkers, as they had a specific and abundant distribution within the heart and/or skeletal muscles; exhibited a positive correlation between the amplitude of increases and the degree of pathological alterations; had higher diagnostic accuracy for detecting pathological alterations; and had the additive effect of improving the diagnostic accuracy of conventional biomarkers. However, these promising biomarkers have several drawbacks including a rapid clearance, the fact that they are affected by renal dysfunction, and different reactivity to the mode of action of individual myotoxicants. In conclusion, the promising biomarkers cTnI, cTnT, FABP3, MYL3, and sTnI demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for cardiac and skeletal myotoxicity that was superior to those of conventional biomarkers, while we should pay attention to the drawbacks of these biomarkers when used in toxicity studies.

  7. Effects of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy mutations on power output by human β-cardiac myosin.

    PubMed

    Spudich, James A; Aksel, Tural; Bartholomew, Sadie R; Nag, Suman; Kawana, Masataka; Yu, Elizabeth Choe; Sarkar, Saswata S; Sung, Jongmin; Sommese, Ruth F; Sutton, Shirley; Cho, Carol; Adhikari, Arjun S; Taylor, Rebecca; Liu, Chao; Trivedi, Darshan; Ruppel, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequently occurring inherited cardiovascular disease, with a prevalence of more than one in 500 individuals worldwide. Genetically acquired dilated cardiomyopathy is a related disease that is less prevalent. Both are caused by mutations in the genes encoding the fundamental force-generating protein machinery of the cardiac muscle sarcomere, including human β-cardiac myosin, the motor protein that powers ventricular contraction. Despite numerous studies, most performed with non-human or non-cardiac myosin, there is no clear consensus about the mechanism of action of these mutations on the function of human β-cardiac myosin. We are using a recombinantly expressed human β-cardiac myosin motor domain along with conventional and new methodologies to characterize the forces and velocities of the mutant myosins compared with wild type. Our studies are extending beyond myosin interactions with pure actin filaments to include the interaction of myosin with regulated actin filaments containing tropomyosin and troponin, the roles of regulatory light chain phosphorylation on the functions of the system, and the possible roles of myosin binding protein-C and titin, important regulatory components of both cardiac and skeletal muscles.

  8. Biochemical and bioinformatic analysis of the myosin-XIX motor domain.

    PubMed

    Adikes, Rebecca C; Unrath, William C; Yengo, Christopher M; Quintero, Omar A

    2013-05-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics are dependent on both the microtubule and actin cytoskeletal systems. Evidence for the involvement of myosin motors has been described in many systems, and until recently a candidate mitochondrial myosin transport motor had not been described in vertebrates. Myosin-XIX (MYO19) was predicted to represent a novel class of myosin and had previously been shown to bind to mitochondria and increase mitochondrial network dynamics when ectopically expressed. Our analyses comparing ∼40 MYO19 orthologs to ∼2000 other myosin motor domain sequences identified instances of homology well-conserved within class XIX myosins that were not found in other myosin classes, suggesting MYO19-specific mechanochemistry. Steady-state biochemical analyses of the MYO19 motor domain indicate that Homo sapiens MYO19 is a functional motor. Insect cell-expressed constructs bound calmodulin as a light chain at the predicted stoichiometry and displayed actin-activated ATPase activity. MYO19 constructs demonstrated high actin affinity in the presence of ATP in actin-co-sedimentation assays, and translocated actin filaments in gliding assays. Expression of GFP-MYO19 containing a mutation impairing ATPase activity did not enhance mitochondrial network dynamics, as occurs with wild-type MYO19, indicating that myosin motor activity is required for mitochondrial motility. The measured biochemical properties of MYO19 suggest it is a high-duty ratio motor that could serve to transport mitochondria or anchor mitochondria, depending upon the cellular microenvironment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Myosin‑II heavy chain and formin mediate the targeting of myosin essential light chain to the division site before and during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhonghui; Okada, Satoshi; Cai, Guoping; Zhou, Bing; Bi, Erfei

    2015-01-01

    MLC1 is a haploinsufficient gene encoding the essential light chain for Myo1, the sole myosin‑II heavy chain in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mlc1 defines an essential hub that coordinates actomyosin ring function, membrane trafficking, and septum formation during cytokinesis by binding to IQGAP, myosin‑II, and myosin‑V. However, the mechanism of how Mlc1 is targeted to the division site during the cell cycle remains unsolved. By constructing a GFP‑tagged MLC1 under its own promoter control and using quantitative live‑cell imaging coupled with yeast mutants, we found that septin ring and actin filaments mediate the targeting of Mlc1 to the division site before and during cytokinesis, respectively. Both mechanisms contribute to and are collectively required for the accumulation of Mlc1 at the division site during cytokinesis. We also found that Myo1 plays a major role in the septin‑dependent Mlc1 localization before cytokinesis, whereas the formin Bni1 plays a major role in the actin filament–dependent Mlc1 localization during cytokinesis. Such a two‑tiered mechanism for Mlc1 localization is presumably required for the ordered assembly and robustness of cytokinesis machinery and is likely conserved across species. PMID:25631819

  10. Regulatory and Catalytic Domain Dynamics of Smooth Muscle Myosin Filaments†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Chun; Song, Likai; Salzameda, Bridget; Cremo, Christine R.; Fajer, Piotr G.

    2016-01-01

    Domain dynamics of the chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin catalytic domain (heavy chain Cys-717) and regulatory domain (regulatory light chain Cys-108) were determined in the absence of nucleotides using saturation-transfer electron paramagnetic resonance. In unphosphorylated synthetic filaments, the effective rotational correlation times, τr, were 24 ± 6 μs and 441 ± 79 μs for the catalytic and regulatory domains, respectively. The corresponding amplitudes of motion were 42 ± 4° and 24 ± 9° as determined from steady-state phosphorescence anisotropy. These results suggest that the two domains have independent mobility due to a hinge between the two domains. Although a similar hinge was observed for skeletal myosin (Adhikari and Fajer (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 9643–9647. Brown et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 8283–8291), the latter displayed higher regulatory domain mobility, τr = 40 ± 3 μs, suggesting a smooth muscle specific mechanism of constraining regulatory domain dynamics. In the myosin monomers the correlation times for both domains were the same (~4 μs) for both smooth and skeletal myosin, suggesting that the motional difference between the two isoforms in the filaments was not due to intrinsic variation of hinge stiffness. Heavy chain/regulatory light chain chimeras of smooth and skeletal myosin pinpointed the origin of the restriction to the heavy chain and established correlation between the regulatory domain dynamics with the ability of myosin to switch off but not to switch on the ATPase and the actin sliding velocity. Phosphorylation of smooth muscle myosin filaments caused a small increase in the amplitude of motion of the regulatory domain (from 24 ± 4° to 36 ± 7°) but did not significantly affect the rotational correlation time of the regulatory domain (441 to 408 μs) or the catalytic domain (24 to 17 μs). These data are not consistent with a stable interaction between the two catalytic domains in

  11. Directional Mechanosensing in Myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yubo; Tehver, Riina

    2013-03-01

    Myosin is a family of versatile motor proteins that perform various tasks, such as organelle transport, anchoring and cell deformation. Although the general mechanism of the motors has been fairly well established, details on dynamic aspects like force response of the motor, and force propagation are yet to be fully understood. In this poster, we present the response of the ATP binding region to force exerted on the tail domain in order to test the proposed tension-dependent gating mechanism of myosin VI processive motion. We employed the Self-Organized Polymer model in a computer simulation to explore the effect. Current results show that the ATP binding domain of myosin VI indeed exhibits tension dependence - both structurally and dynamically.

  12. Heavy chain of Acanthamoeba myosine IB is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Korn, E.D.; Hammer, J.A. III

    1987-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii myosins IA and IB demonstrate the catalytic properties of a myosin and can support analogues of contractile and motile activity in vitro, but their single, low molecular weight heavy chains, roughly globular shapes, and inabilities to self-assemble into filaments make them structurally atypical myosins. The authors present the complete amino acid sequence of the 128-kDa myosin IB heavy chain, which they deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene and which reveals that the polypeptide is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences. Specifically, the amino-terminal approx. 76 kDa of amino acid sequence is highly similar to the globular head sequences of conventional myosins. By contrast, the remaining approx. 51 kDa of sequence shows no similarity to any portion of conventional myosin sequences, contains regions that are rich in glycine, proline, and alanine residues, and lacks the distinctive sequence characteristics of an ..cap alpha..-helical, coiled-coil structure. They conclude, therefore, that the protein is composed of a myosin globular head fused not to the typical coiled-coil rod-like myosin tail structure but rather to an unusual carboxyl-terminal domain. These results support the conclusion that filamentous myosin is not required for force generation and provide a further perspective on the structural requirements for myosin function. Finally, they find a striking conservation of intron/exon structure between this gene and a vertebrate muscle myosin gene. They discuss this observation in relation to the evolutionary origin of the myosin IB gene and the antiquity of myosin gene intron/exon structure.

  13. Imaging individual myosin molecules within living cells.

    PubMed

    Nenasheva, Tatiana A; Mashanov, Gregory I; Peckham, Michelle; Molloy, Justin E

    2011-01-01

    Myosins are mechano-enzymes that convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work. They are involved in diverse biological functions including muscle contraction, cell migration, cell division, hearing, and vision. All myosins have an N-terminal globular domain, or "head" that binds actin, hydrolyses ATP, and produces force and movement. The C-terminal "tail" region is highly divergent amongst myosin types, and this part of the molecule is responsible for determining the cellular role of each myosin. Many myosins bind to cell membranes. Their membrane-binding domains vary, specifying which lipid each myosin binds to. To directly observe the movement and localisation of individual myosins within the living cell, we have developed methods to visualise single fluorescently labelled molecules, track them in space and time, and gather a sufficient number of individual observations so that we can draw statistically valid conclusions about their biochemical and biophysical behaviour. Specifically, we can use this approach to determine the affinity of the myosin for different binding partners, and the nature of the movements that the myosins undergo, whether they cluster into larger molecular complexes and so forth. Here, we describe methods to visualise individual myosins as they move around inside live mammalian cells, using myosin-10 and myosin-6 as examples for this type of approach.

  14. Electron microscopic localization of cytoplasmic myosin with ferritin- labeled antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    We localized myosin in vertebrate nonmuscle cells by electron microscopy using purified antibodies coupled with ferritin. Native and formaldehyde-fixed filaments of purified platelet myosin filaments each consisting of approximately 30 myosin molecules bound an equivalent number of ferritin-antimyosin conjugates. In preparations of crude platelet actomyosin, the ferritin-antimyosin bound exclusively to similar short, 10-15 nm wide filaments. In both cases, binding of the ferritin-antimyosin to the myosin filaments was blocked by preincubation with unlabeled antimyosin. With indirect fluorescent antibody staining at the light microscope level, we found that the ferritin-antimyosin and unlabeled antimyosin stained HeLa cells identically, with the antibodies concentrated in 0.5-microns spots along stress fibers. By electron microscopy, we found that the concentration of ferritin-antimyosin in the dense regions of stress fibers was five to six times that in the intervening less dense regions, 20 times that in the cytoplasmic matrix, and 100 times that in the nucleus. These concentration differences may account for the light microscope antibody staining pattern of spread interphase cells. Some, but certainly not all, of the ferritin-antimyosin was associated with 10-15-nm filaments. In mouse intestinal epithelial cells, ferritin- antimyosin was located almost exclusively in the terminal web. In isolated brush borders exposed to 5 mM MgCl2, ferritin-antimyosin was also concentrated in the terminal web associated with 10-15-nm filaments. PMID:7193682

  15. Primary structure of myosin heavy chain from fast skeletal muscle of Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Yuki; Ojima, Takao; Inoue, Akira; Nishita, Kiyoyoshi

    2002-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding myosin heavy chain of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta fast skeletal muscle was determined. The sequence consists of 5,994 bp, including 5,814 bp of translated region deducing an amino acid sequence of 1,937 residues. The deduced sequence showed 79% homology to that of rabbit fast skeletal myosin and 84-87% homology to those of fast skeletal myosins from walleye pollack, white croaker and carp. The putative binding-sites for ATP, actin and regulatory light-chains in the subfragment-1 region of the salmon myosin showed high homology with the fish myosins (78-100% homology). However, the Loop-1 and Loop-2 showed considerably low homology (31-60%). On the other hand, the deduced sequences of subfragment-2 (533 residues) and light meromyosin (564 residues) showed 88-93% homology to the corresponding regions of the fish myosins. It becomes obvious that several specific residues of the rabbit LMM are substituted to Gly in the salmon LMM as well as the other fish LMMs. This may be involved in the structural instability of the fish myosin tail region.

  16. In Vivo Orientation of Single Myosin Lever Arms in Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojing; Ekker, Stephen C.; Shelden, Eric A.; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal myosin assembled in the muscle lattice power contraction by transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin catalytic/lever-arm domains comprise the transduction/mechanical coupling machinery that move actin by lever-arm rotation. In vivo, myosin is crowded and constrained by the fiber lattice as side chains are mutated and otherwise modified under normal, diseased, or aging conditions that collectively define the native myosin environment. Single-myosin detection uniquely defines bottom-up characterization of myosin functionality. The marriage of in vivo and single-myosin detection to study zebrafish embryo models of human muscle disease is a multiscaled technology that allows one-to-one registration of a selected myosin molecular alteration with muscle filament-sarcomere-cell-fiber-tissue-organ- and organism level phenotypes. In vivo single-myosin lever-arm orientation was observed at superresolution using a photoactivatable-green-fluorescent-protein (PAGFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in zebrafish skeletal muscle. By simultaneous observation of multiphoton excitation fluorescence emission and second harmonic generation from myosin, we demonstrated tag specificity for the lever arm. Single-molecule detection used highly inclined parallel beam illumination and was verified by quantized photoactivation and photobleaching. Single-molecule emission patterns from relaxed muscle in vivo provided extensive superresolved dipole orientation constraints that were modeled using docking scenarios generated for the myosin (S1) and GFP crystal structures. The dipole orientation data provided sufficient constraints to estimate S1/GFP coordination. The S1/GFP coordination in vivo is rigid and the lever-arm orientation distribution is well-ordered in relaxed muscle. For comparison, single myosins in relaxed permeabilized porcine papillary muscle fibers indicated slightly differently oriented lever arms and rigid S1

  17. In vivo orientation of single myosin lever arms in zebrafish skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojing; Ekker, Stephen C; Shelden, Eric A; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua; Burghardt, Thomas P

    2014-09-16

    Cardiac and skeletal myosin assembled in the muscle lattice power contraction by transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin catalytic/lever-arm domains comprise the transduction/mechanical coupling machinery that move actin by lever-arm rotation. In vivo, myosin is crowded and constrained by the fiber lattice as side chains are mutated and otherwise modified under normal, diseased, or aging conditions that collectively define the native myosin environment. Single-myosin detection uniquely defines bottom-up characterization of myosin functionality. The marriage of in vivo and single-myosin detection to study zebrafish embryo models of human muscle disease is a multiscaled technology that allows one-to-one registration of a selected myosin molecular alteration with muscle filament-sarcomere-cell-fiber-tissue-organ- and organism level phenotypes. In vivo single-myosin lever-arm orientation was observed at superresolution using a photoactivatable-green-fluorescent-protein (PAGFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in zebrafish skeletal muscle. By simultaneous observation of multiphoton excitation fluorescence emission and second harmonic generation from myosin, we demonstrated tag specificity for the lever arm. Single-molecule detection used highly inclined parallel beam illumination and was verified by quantized photoactivation and photobleaching. Single-molecule emission patterns from relaxed muscle in vivo provided extensive superresolved dipole orientation constraints that were modeled using docking scenarios generated for the myosin (S1) and GFP crystal structures. The dipole orientation data provided sufficient constraints to estimate S1/GFP coordination. The S1/GFP coordination in vivo is rigid and the lever-arm orientation distribution is well-ordered in relaxed muscle. For comparison, single myosins in relaxed permeabilized porcine papillary muscle fibers indicated slightly differently oriented lever arms and rigid S1/GFP

  18. Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yingqiong; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhen; Yin, Mingzhu; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu; Kou, Junping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In our study, when neuronal cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an exogenous oxidant, cell apoptosis was observed with typical morphological changes including membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and cell contraction. The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear. We demonstrate that myosin IIA was required for neuronal contraction, while myosin IIB was required for neuronal outgrowth in normal conditions. During H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis, myosin IIA, rather than IIB, interacted with actin filaments to generate contractile forces that lead to morphological changes. Moreover, myosin IIA knockout using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) reduced H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis and the associated morphological changes. We further demonstrate that caspase-3/Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1) dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) was required for the formation of the myosin IIA-actin complex. Meanwhile, either inhibition of myosin II ATPase with blebbistatin or knockdown of myosin IIA with siRNA reversely attenuated caspase-3 activation, suggesting a positive feedback loop during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Based on our observation, myosin IIA-actin complex contributes to actomyosin contractility and is associated with the positive feedback loop of caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway. This study unravels the biochemical and mechanistic mechanisms during oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and may be applicable for the development of therapies for CNS diseases.

  19. Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yingqiong; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhen; Yin, Mingzhu; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu; Kou, Junping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In our study, when neuronal cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an exogenous oxidant, cell apoptosis was observed with typical morphological changes including membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and cell contraction. The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear. We demonstrate that myosin IIA was required for neuronal contraction, while myosin IIB was required for neuronal outgrowth in normal conditions. During H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis, myosin IIA, rather than IIB, interacted with actin filaments to generate contractile forces that lead to morphological changes. Moreover, myosin IIA knockout using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) reduced H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis and the associated morphological changes. We further demonstrate that caspase-3/Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1) dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) was required for the formation of the myosin IIA-actin complex. Meanwhile, either inhibition of myosin II ATPase with blebbistatin or knockdown of myosin IIA with siRNA reversely attenuated caspase-3 activation, suggesting a positive feedback loop during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Based on our observation, myosin IIA-actin complex contributes to actomyosin contractility and is associated with the positive feedback loop of caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway. This study unravels the biochemical and mechanistic mechanisms during oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and may be applicable for the development of therapies for CNS diseases. PMID:28352215

  20. The molecular cloning and characterization of Drosophila melanogaster myosin-IA and myosin-IB.

    PubMed

    Morgan, N S; Skovronsky, D M; Artavanis-Tsakonas, S; Mooseker, M S

    1994-06-10

    In this paper we describe the isolation and characterization of myosin-IA and myosin-IB, two distinct class I myosins from Drosophila melanogaster. A polymerase chain reaction based strategy using degenerate primers directed against two highly-conserved regions in the head domain of most myosins resulted in the isolation of these two novel myosins-I in addition to a number of previously identified myosins from three Drosophila cDNA libraries. A approximately 3.9 kilobase cDNA clone encoding the putative full-length myosin-IA gene product was isolated from an early embryonic library. Its deduced amino acid sequence predicts a protein of 1011 residues (117,094 Da) with a typical although highly basic myosin head, a neck composed of two IQ motifs, and a unique tail. A approximately 3.4 kilobase cDNA clone encoding the putative full-length myosin-IB gene product was isolated from an adult head library. Its deduced amino acid sequence predicts a protein of 1026 residues (117,741 Da) with a canonical head, three IQ motifs constituting the neck, and a distinct tail. Although both are myosins-I from fly, myosin-IA at cytological locus 31D-F and myosin-IB at cytological locus 61F appear to be more similar to their vertebrate homologs than they are to each other. Primary sequence analyses of both the head and tail domains of the known class I myosins illustrate a division of the metazoan myosin-I family into four distinct subclasses with myosin-IA and myosin-IB as members of two of these groups. Just as the sequence comparisons demonstrate a disparity between myosin-IA and myosin-IB, Northern blot analysis of these two unconventional myosins indicates distinct patterns of temporal expression.

  1. Small-molecule inhibitors of myosin proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Lisa M; Tumbarello, David A; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2014-01-01

    Advances in screening and computational methods have enhanced recent efforts to discover/design small-molecule protein inhibitors. One attractive target for inhibition is the myosin family of motor proteins. Myosins function in a wide variety of cellular processes, from intracellular trafficking to cell motility, and are implicated in several human diseases (e.g., cancer, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, deafness and many neurological disorders). Potent and selective myosin inhibitors are, therefore, not only a tool for understanding myosin function, but are also a resource for developing treatments for diseases involving myosin dysfunction or overactivity. This review will provide a brief overview of the characteristics and scientific/therapeutic applications of the presently identified small-molecule myosin inhibitors before discussing the future of myosin inhibitor and activator design. PMID:23256812

  2. Myosin types in cultured muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Fluorescent antibodies against fast skeletal, slow skeletal, and ventricular myosins were applied to muscle cultures from embryonic pectoralis and ventricular myocadium of the chicken. A number of spindle-shaped mononucleated cells, presumably myoblasts, and all myotubes present in skeletal muscle cultures were labeled by all three antimyosin antisera. In contrast, in cultures from ventricular myocardium all muscle cells were labeled by anti-ventricular myosin, whereas only part of them were stained by anti-slow skeletal myosin and rare cells reacted with anti-fast skeletal myosin. The findings indicate that myosin(s) present in cultured embryonic skeletal muscle cells contains antigenic determinants similar to those present in adult fast skeletal, slow skeletal, and ventricular myosins. PMID:6156177

  3. THE EXCHANGE REACTION OF ACETYL FLUORIDE AND ACETYL HEXAFLUOROARSENATE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    From the temperature dependence of the exchange rate of the methyl protons between acetyl fluoride and acetyl hexafluoroarsenate an Arrhenius...the reaction was found to be one-half order in acetyl hexafluoroarsenate and zero order in acetyl fluoride. (Author)

  4. The effect of myosin antibody on the division of starfish blastomeres

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, I; Okuno, M

    1977-01-01

    Antiserum against starfish egg myosin was produced in rabbits. Antibody specificity to myosin was demonstrated by Ouchterlony's immunodiffusion test and by immunoelectrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). The latter technique showed that the antibody binds to both heavy and light chains of egg myosin. Furthermore, the antibody reacted with starfish sperm mysosin and starfish adult muscle myosin at both the heavy and light chains. It did not react with bovine platelet mysosin or rabbit skeletal muscle myosin in Ouchterlony's test; however, a weak reaction was observed in the presence of SDS between the antibody and these myosin heavy chains. Ca- and Mg-ATPase activities of egg myosin were not affected by the antibody, but it did inhibit actin-activated ATPase activity of egg myosin. Microinjection of the antibody into blastomeres of starfish eggs at the two-cell stage was carried out. Anti-egg myosin γ-globulin inhibited the subsequent cleavages at an amount of more than 0.3 ng when injected at interphase. The inhibition was reduced when the injection was carried out near the initiation of cleavage. At the onset of the second cleavage the antibody was not inhibitory; however, an appropriate amount inhibited the third cleavage. Although the disappearance of the nuclear membrane was observed in the presence of the antibody, the formation of the mitotic apparatus was more or less disturbed. However the formation of daughter nuclei seemed to be scarcely affected by the antibody except that the distance between the nuclei was significantly smaller than normal. PMID:141455

  5. Biochemical and Immunocytochemical Characterization of Two Types of Myosins in Cultured Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Etsuo; Yukawa, Chiharu; Muto, Shoshi; Sonobe, Seiji; Shimmen, Teruo

    1999-01-01

    We have isolated a myosin (referred to as 170-kD myosin) from lily pollen tubes, which consists of 170-kD heavy chain and calmodulin (CaM) light chain and is responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. A 170-kD polypeptide that has similar antigenicity to the 170-kD myosin heavy chain of lily pollen tubes was also present in cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells, and possessed the ability to interact with F-actin in an ATP-dependent manner. In addition to this myosin, we identified biochemically another kind of myosin in BY-2 cells. This myosin consisted of a CaM light chain and a 175-kD heavy chain with antigenicity different from the 170-kD myosin heavy chain. In the present study, we referred to this myosin as 175-kD myosin. This myosin was able to translocate rhodamine-phalloidin (RP)-labeled F-actin at an average velocity of about 9 μm/s in the motility assay in vitro. In contrast, the sliding velocity of RP-labeled F-actin translocated by fractions containing the 170-kD myosin was 3 to 4 μm/s. The velocity of cytoplasmic streaming in living BY-2 cells ranged from 2 to 9 μm/s. The motile activity of 175-kD myosin in vitro was inhibited by Ca2+ at concentrations higher than 10−6 m. Immunoblot analyses using an antiserum against the heavy chain of 170- or 175-kD myosin revealed that in tobacco plants, the 175-kD myosin was expressed in leaf, stem, and root, but not in germinating pollen, while 170-kD myosin was present in all of these plant parts and in germinating pollen. These results suggest that the two types of myosins, 170 and 175 kD, presumably participate in cytoplasmic streaming in BY-2 cells and other somatic cells of tobacco plants. PMID:10517844

  6. Immunocytochemical localization of tubulin, actin, and myosin in axonemes of ciliated cells from quail oviduct.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, D; Gounon, P; Karsenti, E; Sauron, M E

    1982-05-01

    Tubulin, actin, and myosin have been localized in isolated demembranated ciliated cells from quail oviduct by immunocytochemistry in both light and electron microscopy by using purified antibodies. The peripheral doublets and the central tubules are stained by the antitubulin whereas the kinetosomes are poorly stained. Actin antibodies clearly stain the axonemes, but only on the proximal-half portion, whereas myosin antibodies stain a small area of the axonemes just above the ciliary neck region.

  7. Immunocytochemical localization of tubulin, actin, and myosin in axonemes of ciliated cells from quail oviduct.

    PubMed Central

    Sandoz, D; Gounon, P; Karsenti, E; Sauron, M E

    1982-01-01

    Tubulin, actin, and myosin have been localized in isolated demembranated ciliated cells from quail oviduct by immunocytochemistry in both light and electron microscopy by using purified antibodies. The peripheral doublets and the central tubules are stained by the antitubulin whereas the kinetosomes are poorly stained. Actin antibodies clearly stain the axonemes, but only on the proximal-half portion, whereas myosin antibodies stain a small area of the axonemes just above the ciliary neck region. Images PMID:7048302

  8. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, James R. Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-04-25

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins.

  9. Expression of the inclusion body myopathy 3 mutation in Drosophila depresses myosin function and stability and recapitulates muscle inclusions and weakness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Melkani, Girish C.; Suggs, Jennifer A.; Melkani, Anju; Kronert, William A.; Cammarato, Anthony; Bernstein, Sanford I.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary myosin myopathies are characterized by variable clinical features. Inclusion body myopathy 3 (IBM-3) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with a missense mutation (E706K) in the myosin heavy chain IIa gene. Adult patients experience progressive muscle weakness. Biopsies reveal dystrophic changes, rimmed vacuoles with cytoplasmic inclusions, and focal disorganization of myofilaments. We constructed a transgene encoding E706K myosin and expressed it in Drosophila (E701K) indirect flight and jump muscles to establish a novel homozygous organism with homogeneous populations of fast IBM-3 myosin and muscle fibers. Flight and jump abilities were severely reduced in homozygotes. ATPase and actin sliding velocity of the mutant myosin were depressed >80% compared with wild-type myosin. Light scattering experiments and electron microscopy revealed that mutant myosin heads bear a dramatic propensity to collapse and aggregate. Thus E706K (E701K) myosin appears far more labile than wild-type myosin. Furthermore, mutant fly fibers exhibit ultrastructural hallmarks seen in patients, including cytoplasmic inclusions containing aberrant proteinaceous structures and disorganized muscle filaments. Our Drosophila model reveals the unambiguous consequences of the IBM-3 lesion on fast muscle myosin and fibers. The abnormalities observed in myosin function and muscle ultrastructure likely contribute to muscle weakness observed in our flies and patients. PMID:22496423

  10. Drosophila non-muscle myosin II motor activity determines the rate of tissue folding

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Heissler, Sarah M; Billington, Neil; Sellers, James R; Martin, Adam C

    2016-01-01

    Non-muscle cell contractility is critical for tissues to adopt shape changes. Although, the non-muscle myosin II holoenzyme (myosin) is a molecular motor that powers contraction of actin cytoskeleton networks, recent studies have questioned the importance of myosin motor activity cell and tissue shape changes. Here, combining the biochemical analysis of enzymatic and motile properties for purified myosin mutants with in vivo measurements of apical constriction for the same mutants, we show that in vivo constriction rate scales with myosin motor activity. We show that so-called phosphomimetic mutants of the Drosophila regulatory light chain (RLC) do not mimic the phosphorylated RLC state in vitro. The defect in the myosin motor activity in these mutants is evident in developing Drosophila embryos where tissue recoil following laser ablation is decreased compared to wild-type tissue. Overall, our data highlights that myosin activity is required for rapid cell contraction and tissue folding in developing Drosophila embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20828.001 PMID:28035903

  11. Catch Muscle Myorod Modulates ATPase Activity of Myosin in a Phosphorylation-Dependent Way

    PubMed Central

    Matusovsky, Oleg S.; Shevchenko, Ulyana V.; Matusovskaya, Galina G.; Sobieszek, Apolinary; Dobrzhanskaya, Anna V.; Shelud’ko, Nikolay S.

    2015-01-01

    Myorod is expressed exclusively in molluscan catch muscle and localizes on the surface of thick filaments together with twitchin and myosin. Myorod is an alternatively spliced product of the myosin heavy-chain gene that contains the C-terminal rod part of myosin and a unique N-terminal domain. The unique domain is a target for phosphorylation by gizzard smooth myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) and, perhaps, molluscan twitchin, which contains a MLCK-like domain. To elucidate the role of myorod and its phosphorylation in the catch muscle, the effect of chromatographically purified myorod on the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of myosin was studied. We found that phosphorylation at the N-terminus of myorod potentiated the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of mussel and rabbit myosins. This potentiation occurred only if myorod was phosphorylated and introduced into the ATPase assay as a co-filament with myosin. We suggest that myorod could be related to the catch state, a function specific to molluscan muscle. PMID:25915932

  12. SLOW MYOSIN ATP TURNOVER IN THE SUPER-RELAXED STATE IN TARANTULA MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Nariman; Cooke, Roger

    2011-01-01

    We measured the nucleotide turnover rate of myosin in tarantula leg-muscle fibers by observing single turnovers of the fluorescent nucleotide analog, mantATP, as monitored by the decrease in fluorescence when mantATP is replaced by ATP in a chase experiment. We find a multi-exponential process, with approximately two-thirds of the myosin showing a very slow nucleotide turnover time constant, ~30 minutes. This slow-turnover state is termed the super-relaxed state (SRX). If fibers are incubated in mantADP and chased with ADP, the SRX is not seen, indicating that trinucleotide-relaxed myosins are responsible for the SRX. Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain eliminates the fraction of myosin with the very long lifetime. The data imply that the very long-lived SRX in tarantula fibers is a highly novel adaptation for energy conservation in an animal that spends extremely long periods of time in a quiescent state employing a lie-in-wait hunting strategy. The presence of the SRX measured here correlates well with the binding of myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the “interacting-heads motif” observed previously by electron microscopy. Both the structural array and the long-lived SRX require relaxed filaments or relaxed fibers, both are lost upon myosin phosphorylation, and both appear to be more stable in tarantula than in vertebrate skeletal or vertebrate cardiac preparations. PMID:21763701

  13. A composite approach towards a complete model of the myosin rod.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, E Nihal; Taylor, Keenan C; Andreas, Michael P; Ajay, Guatam; Heinze, Nathan T; Cui, Qiang; Rayment, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomeric myosins have the remarkable ability to form regular bipolar thick filaments that, together with actin thin filaments, constitute the fundamental contractile unit of skeletal and cardiac muscle. This has been established for over 50 years and yet a molecular model for the thick filament has not been attained. In part this is due to the lack of a detailed molecular model for the coiled-coil that constitutes the myosin rod. The ability to self-assemble resides in the C-terminal section of myosin known as light meromyosin (LMM) which exhibits strong salt-dependent aggregation that has inhibited structural studies. Here we evaluate the feasibility of generating a complete model for the myosin rod by combining overlapping structures of five sections of coiled-coil covering 164 amino acid residues which constitute 20% of LMM. Each section contains ∼ 7-9 heptads of myosin. The problem of aggregation was overcome by incorporating the globular folding domains, Gp7 and Xrcc4 which enhance crystallization. The effect of these domains on the stability and conformation of the myosin rod was examined through biophysical studies and overlapping structures. In addition, a computational approach was developed to combine the sections into a contiguous model. The structures were aligned, trimmed to form a contiguous model, and simulated for >700 ns to remove the discontinuities and achieve an equilibrated conformation that represents the native state. This experimental and computational strategy lays the foundation for building a model for the entire myosin rod.

  14. A composite approach towards a complete model of the myosin rod

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Michael P.; Ajay, Guatam; Heinze, Nathan T.; Cui, Qiang; Rayment, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomeric myosins have the remarkable ability to form regular bipolar thick filaments that, together with actin thin filaments, constitute the fundamental contractile unit of skeletal and cardiac muscle. This has been established for over fifty years and yet a molecular model for the thick filament has not been attained. In part this is due to the lack of a detailed molecular model for the coiled-coil that constitutes the myosin rod. The ability to self-assemble resides in the C-terminal of the section of myosin known as light meromyosin (LMM) which exhibits strong salt dependent aggregation that has inhibited structural studies. Here we evaluate the feasibility of generating a complete model for the myosin rod by combining overlapping structures of five sections of coiled-coil covering 164 amino acid residues which constitute 20% of LMM. Each section contains ~7-9 heptads of myosin. The problem of aggregation was overcome by incorporating the globular folding domains, Gp7 and Xrcc4 which enhance crystallization. The effect of these domains on the stability and conformation of the myosin rod was examined through biophysical studies and overlapping structures. In addition, a computational approach was developed to combine the sections into a contiguous model. The structures were aligned, trimmed to form a contiguous model, and simulated for >700 ns to remove the discontinuities and achieve an equilibrated conformation that represents the native state. This experimental and computational strategy lays the foundation for building a model for the entire myosin rod. PMID:26573747

  15. Preparation, physicochemical characterization and application of acetylated lotus rhizome starches.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suling; Zhang, Ganwei; Ma, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Acetylated lotus rhizome starches were prepared, physicochemically characterized and used as food additives in puddings. The percentage content of the acetyl groups and degree of substitution increased linearly with the amount of acetic anhydride used. The introduction of acetyl groups was confirmed via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The values of the pasting parameters were lower for acetylated starch than for native starch. Acetylation was found to increase the light transmittance (%), the freeze-thaw stability, the swelling power and the solubility of the starch. Sensorial scores for puddings prepared using native and acetylated lotus rhizome starches as food additives indicated that puddings produced from the modified starches with superior properties over those prepared from native starch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation and expression of metazoan unconventional myosins.

    PubMed

    Sokac, A M; Bement, W M

    2000-01-01

    Unconventional myosins are molecular motors that convert adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis into movement along actin filaments. On the basis of primary structure analysis, these myosins are represented by at least 15 distinct classes (classes 1 and 3-16), each of which is presumed to play a specific cellular role. However, in contrast to the conventional myosins-2, which drive muscle contraction and cytokinesis and have been studied intensively for many years in both uni- and multicellular organisms, unconventional myosins have only been subject to analysis in metazoan systems for a short time. Here we critically review what is known about unconventional myosin regulation, function, and expression. Several points emerge from this analysis. First, in spite of the high relative conservation of motor domains among the myosin classes, significant differences are found in biochemical and enzymatic properties of these motor domains. Second, the idea that characteristic distributions of unconventional myosins are solely dependent on the myosin tail domain is almost certainly an oversimplification. Third, the notion that most unconventional myosins function as transport motors for membranous organelles is challenged by recent data. Finally, we present a scheme that clarifies relationships between various modes of myosin regulation.

  17. Electron microscopic recording of myosin head power stroke in hydrated myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Minoda, Hiroki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2015-10-26

    Muscle contraction results from cyclic attachment and detachment between myosin heads and actin filaments, coupled with ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive studies, however, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke still remains to be a mystery. Using the gas environmental chamber, we have succeeded in recording the power stroke of position-marked myosin heads in hydrated mixture of actin and myosin filaments in a nearly isometric condition, in which myosin heads do not produce gross myofilament sliding, but only stretch adjacent elastic structures. On application of ATP, individual myosin heads move by ~3.3 nm at the distal region, and by ~2.5 nm at the proximal region of myosin head catalytic domain. After exhaustion of applied ATP, individual myosin heads return towards their initial position. At low ionic strength, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke increases to >4 nm at both distal and proximal regions of myosin heads catalytic domain, being consistent with the report that the force generated by individual myosin heads in muscle fibers is enhanced at low ionic strength. The advantages of the present study over other in vitro motility assay systems, using myosin heads detached from myosin filaments, are discussed.

  18. Mouse Myosin-19 Is a Plus-end-directed, High-duty Ratio Molecular Motor*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zekuan; Ma, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Hai-Man; Ji, Huan-Hong; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Dan; Sun, Yujie; Li, Xiang-dong

    2014-01-01

    Class XIX myosin (Myo19) is a vertebrate-specific unconventional myosin, responsible for the transport of mitochondria. To characterize biochemical properties of Myo19, we prepared recombinant mouse Myo19-truncated constructs containing the motor domain and the IQ motifs using the baculovirus/Sf9 expression system. We identified regulatory light chain (RLC) of smooth muscle/non-muscle myosin-2 as the light chain of Myo19. The actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding velocity of Myo19-truncated constructs were about one-third and one-sixth as those of myosin-5a, respectively. The apparent affinity of Myo19 to actin was about the same as that of myosin-5a. The RLCs bound to Myo19 could be phosphorylated by myosin light chain kinase, but this phosphorylation had little effect on the actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Using dual fluorescence-labeled actin filaments, we determined that Myo19 is a plus-end-directed molecular motor. We found that, similar to that of the high-duty ratio myosin, such as myosin-5a, ADP release rate was comparable with the maximal actin-activated ATPase activity of Myo19, indicating that ADP release is a rate-limiting step for the ATPase cycle of acto-Myo19. ADP strongly inhibited the actin-activated ATPase activity and actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Based on the above results, we concluded that Myo19 is a high-duty ratio molecular motor moving to the plus-end of the actin filament. PMID:24825904

  19. Complete primary structure of vertebrate smooth muscle myosin heavy chain deduced from its complementary DNA sequence. Implications on topography and function of myosin.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, M; Hamada, Y; Katsuragawa, Y; Imamura, M; Mikawa, T; Masaki, T

    1987-11-20

    The 1979 amino acid sequence of embryonic chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) have been determined by cloning and sequencing its cDNA. Genomic Southern analysis and Northern analysis with the cDNA sequence show that gizzard MHC is encoded by a single-copy gene, and this gene is expressed in the gizzard and aorta. The encoded protein has a calculated Mr of 229 X 10(3), and can be divided into a long alpha-helical rod and a globular head. Only 32 to 33% of the amino acid residues in the rod and 48 to 49% in the head are conserved when compared with nematode or vertebrate sarcomeric MHC sequences. However, the seven residue hydrophobic periodicity, together with the 28 and 196 residue repeat of charge distribution previously described in nematode myosin rod, are all present in the gizzard myosin rod. Two of the trypsin-sensitive sites in gizzard light meromyosin have been mapped by partial peptide sequencing to 99 nm and 60 nm from the tip of the myosin tail, where these sites coincide with the two "hinges" for the 6 S/10 S transition. In the head sequence, several polypeptide segments, including the regions around the putative ATP-binding site and the reactive thiol groups, are highly conserved. These areas presumably reflect conserved structural elements important for the function of myosin. A multi-domain folding model of myosin head is proposed on the basis of the conserved sequences, information on the topography of myosin in the literature, and the predicted secondary structures. In this model, Mg2+ ATP is bound to a pocket between two opposing alpha/beta domains, while actin undergoes electrostatic interactions with lysine-rich surface loops on two other domains. The actin-myosin interactions are thought to be modulated through relative movements of the domains induced by the binding of ATP.

  20. Motility assays using myosin attached to surfaces through specific binding to monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, D A; Bourdieu, L; Kinose, F; Libchaber, A

    1995-04-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. These monoclonal antibodies were used to provide increasing flexibility in the mode of attachment. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these monoclonal antibodies and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable, myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform movement of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM monoclonal antibodies yielded a maximum velocity of 10 microns/s at 30 degrees C, whereas attachment through anti-LC2 produced a lower velocity of 4-5 microns/s. Each antibody showed a characteristic minimum myosin density below which sliding movement was no longer supported and an exponential dependence of actin filament velocity on myosin surface density below Vmax. Maximum sliding velocity was achieved over a range of myosin surface densities. Thus, the specific mode of attachment can influence the characteristic velocity of actin filament movement and the surface density needed to support movement. These data are being used to analyze the dynamics of sliding filament assays and evaluate estimates of the average number of motor molecules per unit length of actin required to support movement.

  1. Motility assays using myosin attached to surfaces through specific binding to monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, D. A.; Bourdieu, L.; Kinose, F.; Libchaber, A.

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. These monoclonal antibodies were used to provide increasing flexibility in the mode of attachment. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these monoclonal antibodies and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable, myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform movement of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM monoclonal antibodies yielded a maximum velocity of 10 microns/s at 30 degrees C, whereas attachment through anti-LC2 produced a lower velocity of 4-5 microns/s. Each antibody showed a characteristic minimum myosin density below which sliding movement was no longer supported and an exponential dependence of actin filament velocity on myosin surface density below Vmax. Maximum sliding velocity was achieved over a range of myosin surface densities. Thus, the specific mode of attachment can influence the characteristic velocity of actin filament movement and the surface density needed to support movement. These data are being used to analyze the dynamics of sliding filament assays and evaluate estimates of the average number of motor molecules per unit length of actin required to support movement. PMID:7787107

  2. Myosin 2 Maintains an Open Exocytic Fusion Pore in Secretory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Purnima

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have implicated F-actin and myosin 2 in the control of regulated secretion. Most recently, evidence suggests a role for the microfilament network in regulating the postfusion events of vesicle dynamics. This is of potential importance as postfusion behavior can influence the loss of vesicle content and may provide a new target for drug therapy. We have investigated the role of myosin 2 in regulating exocytosis in secretory epithelial cells by using novel assays to determine the behavior of the fusion pore in individual granules. We immunolocalize myosin 2A to the apical region of pancreatic acinar cells, suggesting it is this isoform that plays a role in granule exocytosis. We further show myosin 2 phosphorylation increased on cell stimulation, consistent with a regulatory role in secretion. Importantly, in a single-cell, single-granule secretion assay, neither the myosin 2 inhibitor (−)-blebbistatin nor the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-9 had any effect on the numbers of granules stimulated to fuse after cell stimulation. These data indicate that myosin 2, if it has any action on secretion, must be targeting postfusion granule behavior. This interpretation is supported by direct study of fusion pore opening in which we show that (−)-blebbistatin and ML-9 promote fusion pore closure and decrease fusion pore lifetimes. Our work now adds to a growing body of evidence showing that myosin 2 is an essential regulator of postfusion granule behavior. In particular, in the case of the secretory epithelial cells, myosin 2 activity is necessary to maintain fusion pore opening. PMID:19158378

  3. Myosin V from Drosophila reveals diversity of motor mechanisms within the myosin V family.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Judit; Kovács, Mihály; Wang, Fei; Nyitray, László; Sellers, James R

    2005-08-26

    Myosin V is the best characterized vesicle transporter in vertebrates, but it has been unknown as to whether all members of the myosin V family share a common, evolutionarily conserved mechanism of action. Here we show that myosin V from Drosophila has a strikingly different motor mechanism from that of vertebrate myosin Va, and it is a nonprocessive, ensemble motor. Our steady-state and transient kinetic measurements on single-headed constructs reveal that a single Drosophila myosin V molecule spends most of its mechanochemical cycle time detached from actin, therefore it has to function in processive units that comprise several molecules. Accordingly, in in vitro motility assays, double-headed Drosophila myosin V requires high surface concentrations to exhibit a continuous translocation of actin filaments. Our comparison between vertebrate and fly myosin V demonstrates that the well preserved function of myosin V motors in cytoplasmic transport can be accomplished by markedly different underlying mechanisms.

  4. An unconventional myosin heavy chain gene from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, K A; Miller, K G

    1992-11-01

    As part of a study of cytoskeletal proteins involved in Drosophila embryonic development, we have undertaken the molecular analysis of a 140-kD ATP-sensitive actin-binding protein (Miller, K. G., C. M. Field, and B. M. Alberts. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 109:2963-2975). Analysis of cDNA clones encoding this protein revealed that it represents a new class of unconventional myosin heavy chains. The amino-terminal two thirds of the protein comprises a head domain that is 29-33% identical (60-65% similar) to other myosin heads, and contains ATP-binding, actin-binding and calmodulin/myosin light chain-binding motifs. The carboxy-terminal tail has no significant similarity to other known myosin tails, but does contain a approximately 100-amino acid region that is predicted to form an alpha-helical coiled-coil. Since the unique gene that encodes this protein maps to the polytene map position 95F, we have named the new gene Drosophila 95F myosin heavy chain (95F MHC). The expression profile of the 95F MHC gene is complex. Examination of multiple cDNAs reveals that transcripts are alternatively spliced and encode at least three protein isoforms; in addition, a fourth isoform is detected on Western blots. Developmental Northern and Western blots show that transcripts and protein are present throughout the life cycle, with peak expression occurring during mid-embryogenesis and adulthood. Immunolocalization in early embryos demonstrates that the protein is primarily located in a punctate pattern throughout the peripheral cytoplasm. Most cells maintain a low level of protein expression throughout embryogenesis, but specific tissues appear to contain more protein. We speculate that the 95F MHC protein isoforms are involved in multiple dynamic processes during Drosophila development.

  5. Muscle myosin filaments: cores, crowns and couplings.

    PubMed

    Squire, John M

    2009-09-01

    Myosin filaments in muscle, carrying the ATPase myosin heads that interact with actin filaments to produce force and movement, come in multiple varieties depending on species and functional need, but most are based on a common structural theme. The now successful journeys to solve the ultrastructures of many of these myosin filaments, at least at modest resolution, have not been without their false starts and erroneous sidetracks, but the picture now emerging is of both diversity in the rotational symmetries of different filaments and a degree of commonality in the way the myosin heads are organised in resting muscle. Some of the remaining differences may be associated with how the muscle is regulated. Several proteins in cardiac muscle myosin filaments can carry mutations associated with heart disease, so the elucidation of myosin filament structure to understand the effects of these mutations has a clear and topical clinical relevance.

  6. The expression of myosin genes in developing skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, G.E.; Ontell, M.; Cox, R.; Sassoon, D.; Buckingham, M. )

    1990-10-01

    Using in situ hybridization, we have investigated the temporal sequence of myosin gene expression in the developing skeletal muscle masses of mouse embryos. The probes used were isoform-specific, 35S-labeled antisense cRNAs to the known sarcomeric myosin heavy chain and myosin alkali light chain gene transcripts. Results showed that both cardiac and skeletal myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain mRNAs were first detected between 9 and 10 d post coitum (p.c.) in the myotomes of the most rostral somites. Myosin transcripts appeared in more caudal somites at later stages in a developmental gradient. The earliest myosin heavy chain transcripts detected code for the embryonic skeletal (MHCemb) and beta-cardiac (MHC beta) isoforms. Perinatal myosin heavy chain (MHCpn) transcripts begin to accumulate at 10.5 d p.c., which is much earlier than previously reported. At this stage, MHCemb is the major MHC transcript. By 12.5 d p.c., MHCpn and MHCemb mRNAs are present to an equal extent, and by 15.5 d p.c. the MHCpn transcript is the major MHC mRNA detected. Cardiac MHC beta transcripts are always present as a minor component. In contrast, the cardiac MLC1A mRNA is initially more abundant than that encoding the skeletal MLC1F isoform. By 12.5 d p.c. the two MLC mRNAs are present at similar levels, and by 15.5 d p.c., MLC1F is the predominant MLC transcript detected. Transcripts for the ventricular/slow (MLC1V) and another fast skeletal myosin light chain (MLC3F) are not detected in skeletal muscle before 15 d p.c., which marks the beginning of the fetal stage of muscle development. This is the first stage at which we can detect differences in expression of myosin genes between developing muscle fibers. We conclude that, during the development of the myotome and body wall muscles, different myosin genes follow independent patterns of activation and acculumation.

  7. Nonmuscle Myosin IIB Links Cytoskeleton to IRE1α Signaling during ER Stress

    PubMed Central

    He, Yin; Beatty, Alexander; Han, Xuemei; Ji, Yewei; Ma, Xuefei; Adelstein, Robert S.; Yates, John R.; Kemphues, Kenneth; Qi, Ling

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Here we identify and characterize a cytoskeletal myosin protein required for IRE1α oligomerization, activation, and signaling. Proteomic screening identified nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIB (NMHCIIB), a subunit of nonmuscle myosin IIB (NMIIB), as an ER stress-dependent interacting protein specific to IRE1α. Loss of NMIIB compromises XBP1s and UPR target gene expression with no effect on the PERK pathway. Mechanistically, NMIIB is required for IRE1α aggregation and foci formation under ER stress. The NMIIB-mediated effect on IRE1α signaling is in part dependent on the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain and the actomyosin contractility of NMIIB. Biologically, the function of NMIIB in ER stress response is conserved as both mammalian cells and C. elegans lacking NMIIB exhibit hypersensitivity to ER stress. Thus, optimal IRE1α activation and signaling require concerted coordination between the ER and cytoskeleton. PMID:23237951

  8. Myosin XI-I is Mechanically and Enzymatically Unique Among Class-XI Myosins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Tominaga, Motoki; Nakano, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Ito, Kohji

    2016-08-01

    Arabidopsis possesses 13 genes encoding class-XI myosins. Among these, myosin XI-I is phylogenetically distant. To examine the molecular properties of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-I (At myosin XI-I), we performed in vitro mechanical and enzymatic analyses using recombinant constructs of At myosin XI-I. Unlike other biochemically studied class-XI myosins, At myosin XI-I showed extremely low actin-activated ATPase activity (Vmax = 3.7 Pi s(-1) head(-1)). The actin-sliding velocity of At myosin XI-I was 0.25 µm s(-1), >10 times lower than those of other class-XI myosins. The ADP dissociation rate from acto-At myosin XI-I was 17 s(-1), accounting for the low actin-sliding velocity. In contrast, the apparent affinity for actin in the presence of ATP, estimated from Kapp (0.61 µM) of actin-activated ATPase, was extremely high. The equilibrium dissociation constant for actin was very low in both the presence and absence of ATP, indicating a high affinity for actin. To examine At myosin XI-I motility in vivo, green fluorescent protein-fused full-length At myosin XI-I was expressed in cultured Arabidopsis cells. At myosin XI-I localized not only on the nuclear envelope but also on small dots moving slowly (0.23 µm s(-1)) along actin filaments. Our results show that the properties of At myosin XI-I differ from those of other Arabidopsis class-XI myosins. The data suggest that At myosin XI-I does not function as a driving force for cytoplasmic streaming but regulates the organelle velocity, supports processive organelle movement or acts as a tension generator. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Conformational selection during weak binding at the actin and myosin interface.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Root, D D

    2000-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of the powerstroke in muscle is examined by resonance energy transfer techniques. Recent models suggesting a pre-cocking of the myosin head involving an enormous rotation between the lever arm and the catalytic domain were tested by measuring separation distances among myosin subfragment-2, the nucleotide site, and the regulatory light chain in the presence of nucleotide transition state analogs. Only small changes (<0.5 nm) were detected that are consistent with internal conformational changes of the myosin molecule, but not with extreme differences in the average lever arm position suggested by some atomic models. These results were confirmed by stopped-flow resonance energy transfer measurements during single ATP turnovers on myosin. To examine the participation of actin in the powerstroke process, resonance energy transfer between the regulatory light chain on myosin subfragment-1 and the C-terminus of actin was measured in the presence of nucleotide transition state analogs. The efficiency of energy transfer was much greater in the presence of ADP-AlF(4), ADP-BeF(x), and ADP-vanadate than in the presence of ADP or no nucleotide. These data detect profound differences in the conformations of the weakly and strongly attached cross-bridges that appear to result from a conformational selection that occurs during the weak binding of the myosin head to actin. PMID:10969011

  10. Myosin lever arm directs collective motion on cellular actin network

    PubMed Central

    Hariadi, Rizal F.; Cale, Mario; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2014-01-01

    The molecular motor myosin teams up to drive muscle contraction, membrane traffic, and cell division in biological cells. Myosin function in cells emerges from the interaction of multiple motors tethered to a scaffold, with surrounding actin filaments organized into 3D networks. Despite the importance of myosin function, the influence of intermotor interactions on collective motion remains poorly understood. In this study, we used precisely engineered myosin assemblies to examine emergence in collective myosin movement. We report that tethering multiple myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, modifies their movement trajectories on keratocyte actin networks. Single myosin V and VI dimers display similar skewed trajectories, albeit in opposite directions, when traversing the keratocyte actin network. In contrast, tethering myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, progressively straightens the trajectories with increasing myosin number. Trajectory shape of multimotor scaffolds positively correlates with the stiffness of the myosin lever arm. Swapping the flexible myosin VI lever arm for the relatively rigid myosin V lever increases trajectory skewness, and vice versa. A simplified model of coupled motor movement demonstrates that the differences in flexural rigidity of the two myosin lever arms is sufficient to account for the differences in observed behavior of groups of myosin V and VI motors. In accordance with this model trajectory, shapes for scaffolds containing both myosin V and VI are dominated by the myosin with a stiffer lever arm. Our findings suggest that structural features unique to each myosin type may confer selective advantages in cellular functions. PMID:24591646

  11. Myosin lever arm directs collective motion on cellular actin network.

    PubMed

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Cale, Mario; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2014-03-18

    The molecular motor myosin teams up to drive muscle contraction, membrane traffic, and cell division in biological cells. Myosin function in cells emerges from the interaction of multiple motors tethered to a scaffold, with surrounding actin filaments organized into 3D networks. Despite the importance of myosin function, the influence of intermotor interactions on collective motion remains poorly understood. In this study, we used precisely engineered myosin assemblies to examine emergence in collective myosin movement. We report that tethering multiple myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, modifies their movement trajectories on keratocyte actin networks. Single myosin V and VI dimers display similar skewed trajectories, albeit in opposite directions, when traversing the keratocyte actin network. In contrast, tethering myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, progressively straightens the trajectories with increasing myosin number. Trajectory shape of multimotor scaffolds positively correlates with the stiffness of the myosin lever arm. Swapping the flexible myosin VI lever arm for the relatively rigid myosin V lever increases trajectory skewness, and vice versa. A simplified model of coupled motor movement demonstrates that the differences in flexural rigidity of the two myosin lever arms is sufficient to account for the differences in observed behavior of groups of myosin V and VI motors. In accordance with this model trajectory, shapes for scaffolds containing both myosin V and VI are dominated by the myosin with a stiffer lever arm. Our findings suggest that structural features unique to each myosin type may confer selective advantages in cellular functions.

  12. Myosin II transport, organization, and phosphorylation: evidence for cortical flow/solation-contraction coupling during cytokinesis and cell locomotion.

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasio, R L; LaRocca, G M; Post, P L; Taylor, D L

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of cytokinesis has been difficult to define because of the short duration and the temporal-spatial dynamics involved in the formation, activation, force production, and disappearance of the cleavage furrow. We have investigated the structural and chemical dynamics of myosin II in living Swiss 3T3 cells from prometaphase through the separation and migration of daughter cells. The structural and chemical dynamics of myosin II have been defined using the semiautomated, multimode light microscope, together with a fluorescent analogue of myosin II and a fluorescent biosensor of myosin II regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation at serine 19. The correlation of image data from live cells using different modes of light microscopy allowed interpretations not possible from single-mode investigations. Myosin II transported toward the equatorial plane from adjacent regions, forming three-dimensional fibers that spanned the volume of the equator during anaphase and telophase. A global phosphorylation of myosin II at serine 19 of the RLC was initiated at anaphase when cortical myosin II transport started. The phosphorylation of myosin II remained high near the equatorial plane through telophase and into cytokinesis, whereas the phosphorylation of myosin II at serine 19 of the RLC decreased at the poles. The timing and pattern of phosphorylation was the same as the shortening of myosin II-based fibers in the cleavage furrow. Myosin II-based fibers shortened and transported out of the cleavage furrow into the tails of the two daughter cells late in cytokinesis. The patterns of myosin II transport, phosphorylation, and shortening of fibers in the migrating daughter cells were similar to that previously defined for cells migrating in a wound in vitro. The temporal-spatial patterns and dynamics of myosin II transport, phosphorylation at serine 19 of the RLC, and the shortening and disappearance of myosin II-based fibers support the proposal that a combination of

  13. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  14. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  15. The actin-activated ATPase of co-polymer filaments of myosin and myosin-rod.

    PubMed Central

    Stepkowski, D; Orlova, A A; Moos, C

    1994-01-01

    The actin activated ATPase of myosin at low ionic strength shows a complex dependence on actin concentration, in contrast with the simple hyperbolic actin activation kinetics of heavy meromyosin and subfragment-1. To investigate how the aggregation of myosin influences the actomyosin ATPase kinetics, we have studied the actin-activated ATPase of mixed filaments in which the myosin molecules are separated from each other by copolymerization with myosin rod. Electron microscopy of copolymer filaments, alone and bound to actin, indicates that the myosin heads are distributed randomly along the co-polymer filaments. The actin-activated ATPase of myosin decreases with increasing rod, approaching a plateau of about 30% of the control at a rod/myosin molar ratio of 4:1. The decrease in ATPase persists even at Vmax, the extrapolated limit at infinite actin, indicating that it is not due merely to the loss of cooperative actin binding. Furthermore, the actin dependence of the ATPase still shows a biphasic character like that of control myosin, even at rod/myosin ratio of 12:1, so this complexity is not probably due solely to the structural proximity of myosin molecules, but may involve a non-equivalence of myosin heads or myosin molecules in the filament environment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8198528

  16. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes.

  17. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba myosin-IC as a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as "traction-mediated cytokinesis". We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy.

  18. Structural basis of the relaxed state of a Ca2+-regulated myosin filament and its evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, John L; Zhao, Fa-Qing; Craig, Roger

    2013-05-21

    Myosin filaments of muscle are regulated either by phosphorylation of their regulatory light chains or Ca(2+) binding to the essential light chains, contributing to on-off switching or modulation of contraction. Phosphorylation-regulated filaments in the relaxed state are characterized by an asymmetric interaction between the two myosin heads, inhibiting their actin binding or ATPase activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar interaction switches off activity in myosin filaments regulated by Ca(2+) binding. Cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle image reconstruction of Ca(2+)-regulated (scallop) filaments reveals a helical array of myosin head-pair motifs above the filament surface. Docking of atomic models of scallop myosin head domains into the motifs reveals that the heads interact in a similar way to those in phosphorylation-regulated filaments. The results imply that the two major evolutionary branches of myosin regulation--involving phosphorylation or Ca(2+) binding--share a common structural mechanism for switching off thick-filament activity in relaxed muscle. We suggest that the Ca(2+)-binding mechanism evolved from the more ancient phosphorylation-based system to enable rapid response of myosin-regulated muscles to activation. Although the motifs are similar in both systems, the scallop structure is more tilted and higher above the filament backbone, leading to different intermolecular interactions. The reconstruction reveals how the myosin tail emerges from the motif, connecting the heads to the filament backbone, and shows that the backbone is built from supramolecular assemblies of myosin tails. The reconstruction provides a native structural context for understanding past biochemical and biophysical studies of this model Ca(2+)-regulated myosin.

  19. Direct photoaffinity labeling by nucleotides of the apparent catalytic site on the heavy chains of smooth muscle and Acanthamoeba myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Maruta, H.; Korn, E.D.

    1981-01-10

    The heavy chains of Acanthamoeba myosins, IA, IB and II, turkey gizzard myosin, and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 were specifically labeled by radioactive ATP, ADP, and UTP, each of which is a substrate or product of myosin ATPase activity, when irradiated with uv light at 0/sup 0/C. With UTP, as much as 0.45 mol/mol of Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and 1 mol/mol of turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain was incorporated. Evidence that the ligands were associated with the catalytic site included the observations that reaction occurred only with nucleotides that are substrates or products of the ATPase activity; that the reaction was blocked by pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of the ATPase activity; that ATP was bound as ADP; and that label was probably restricted to a single peptide following limited subtilisin proteolysis of labeled Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and extensive cleavage with CNBr and trypsin of labeled turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain.

  20. Reassessing the Role and Dynamics of Nonmuscle Myosin II during Furrow Formation in Early Drosophila EmbryosD⃞V⃞

    PubMed Central

    Royou, Anne; Field, Christine; Sisson, John C.; Sullivan, William; Karess, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The early Drosophila embryo undergoes two distinct membrane invagination events believed to be mechanistically related to cytokinesis: metaphase furrow formation and cellularization. Both involve actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, and both have myosin II at or near the forming furrow. Actin and myosin are thought to provide the force driving membrane invagination; however, membrane addition is also important. We have examined the role of myosin during these events in living embryos, with a fully functional myosin regulatory light-chain-GFP chimera. We find that furrow invagination during metaphase and cellularization occurs even when myosin activity has been experimentally perturbed. In contrast, the basal closure of the cellularization furrows and the first cytokinesis after cellularization are highly dependent on myosin. Strikingly, when ingression of the cellularization furrow is experimentally inhibited by colchicine treatment, basal closure still occurs at the appropriate time, suggesting that it is regulated independently of earlier cellularization events. We have also identified a previously unrecognized reservoir of particulate myosin that is recruited basally into the invaginating furrow in a microfilament-independent and microtubule-dependent manner. We suggest that cellularization can be divided into two distinct processes: furrow ingression, driven by microtubule mediated vesicle delivery, and basal closure, which is mediated by actin/myosin based constriction. PMID:14657248

  1. Myosin II Dynamics during Embryo Morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasza, Karen

    2013-03-01

    During embryonic morphogenesis, the myosin II motor protein generates forces that help to shape tissues, organs, and the overall body form. In one dramatic example in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, the epithelial tissue that will give rise to the body of the adult animal elongates more than two-fold along the head-to-tail axis in less than an hour. This elongation is accomplished primarily through directional rearrangements of cells within the plane of the tissue. Just prior to elongation, polarized assemblies of myosin II accumulate perpendicular to the elongation axis. The contractile forces generated by myosin activity orient cell movements along a common axis, promoting local cell rearrangements that contribute to global tissue elongation. The molecular and mechanical mechanisms by which myosin drives this massive change in embryo shape are poorly understood. To investigate these mechanisms, we generated a collection of transgenic flies expressing variants of myosin II with altered motor function and regulation. We found that variants that are predicted to have increased myosin activity cause defects in tissue elongation. Using biophysical approaches, we found that these myosin variants also have decreased turnover dynamics within cells. To explore the mechanisms by which molecular-level myosin dynamics are translated into tissue-level elongation, we are using time-lapse confocal imaging to observe cell movements in embryos with altered myosin activity. We are utilizing computational approaches to quantify the dynamics and directionality of myosin localization and cell rearrangements. These studies will help elucidate how myosin-generated forces control cell movements within tissues. This work is in collaboration with J. Zallen at the Sloan-Kettering Institute.

  2. Myosin-driven transport network in plants.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Elizabeth G; Peremyslov, Valera V; Turner, Hannah L; Makarova, Kira S; Iranzo, Jaime; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Koonin, Eugene V; Dolja, Valerian V

    2017-02-21

    We investigate the myosin XI-driven transport network in Arabidopsis using protein-protein interaction, subcellular localization, gene knockout, and bioinformatics analyses. The two major groups of nodes in this network are myosins XI and their membrane-anchored receptors (MyoB) that, together, drive endomembrane trafficking and cytoplasmic streaming in the plant cells. The network shows high node connectivity and is dominated by generalists, with a smaller fraction of more specialized myosins and receptors. We show that interaction with myosins and association with motile vesicles are common properties of the MyoB family receptors. We identify previously uncharacterized myosin-binding proteins, putative myosin adaptors that belong to two unrelated families, with four members each (MadA and MadB). Surprisingly, MadA1 localizes to the nucleus and is rapidly transported to the cytoplasm, suggesting the existence of myosin XI-driven nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. In contrast, MadA2 and MadA3, as well as MadB1, partition between the cytosolic pools of motile endomembrane vesicles that colocalize with myosin XI-K and diffuse material that does not. Gene knockout analysis shows that MadB1-4 contribute to polarized root hair growth, phenocopying myosins, whereas MadA1-4 are redundant for this process. Phylogenetic analysis reveals congruent evolutionary histories of the myosin XI, MyoB, MadA, and MadB families. All these gene families emerged in green algae and show concurrent expansions via serial duplication in flowering plants. Thus, the myosin XI transport network increased in complexity and robustness concomitantly with the land colonization by flowering plants and, by inference, could have been a major contributor to this process.

  3. Myosin-driven transport network in plants

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Elizabeth G.; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Turner, Hannah L.; Makarova, Kira S.; Iranzo, Jaime; Mekhedov, Sergei L.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the myosin XI-driven transport network in Arabidopsis using protein–protein interaction, subcellular localization, gene knockout, and bioinformatics analyses. The two major groups of nodes in this network are myosins XI and their membrane-anchored receptors (MyoB) that, together, drive endomembrane trafficking and cytoplasmic streaming in the plant cells. The network shows high node connectivity and is dominated by generalists, with a smaller fraction of more specialized myosins and receptors. We show that interaction with myosins and association with motile vesicles are common properties of the MyoB family receptors. We identify previously uncharacterized myosin-binding proteins, putative myosin adaptors that belong to two unrelated families, with four members each (MadA and MadB). Surprisingly, MadA1 localizes to the nucleus and is rapidly transported to the cytoplasm, suggesting the existence of myosin XI-driven nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. In contrast, MadA2 and MadA3, as well as MadB1, partition between the cytosolic pools of motile endomembrane vesicles that colocalize with myosin XI-K and diffuse material that does not. Gene knockout analysis shows that MadB1–4 contribute to polarized root hair growth, phenocopying myosins, whereas MadA1–4 are redundant for this process. Phylogenetic analysis reveals congruent evolutionary histories of the myosin XI, MyoB, MadA, and MadB families. All these gene families emerged in green algae and show concurrent expansions via serial duplication in flowering plants. Thus, the myosin XI transport network increased in complexity and robustness concomitantly with the land colonization by flowering plants and, by inference, could have been a major contributor to this process. PMID:28096376

  4. Histone acetylation in neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Contestabile, Antonio; Sintoni, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modification of histones is a primary mechanism through which epigenetic regulation of DNA transcription does occur. Among these modifications, regulation of histone acetylation state is an important tool to influence gene expression. Epigenetic regulation of neurodevelopment contributes to the structural and functional shaping of the brain during neurogenesis and continues to impact on neural plasticity lifelong. Alterations of these mechanisms during neurodevelopment may result in later occurrence of neuropsychatric disorders. The present paper reviews and discusses available data on histone modifications, in particular histone acetylation, in neurogenesis considering results obtained in culture systems of neural progenitors as well as in in vivo studies. Possible teratogenic effects of altered histone acetylation state during development are also considered. The use during pregnancy of drugs such as valproic acid, which acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, may result during postnatal development in autistic-like symptoms. The effect of gestational administration of the drug has been, therefore, tested on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in animals showing behavioral impairment as a consequence of the drug administration at a specific stage of pregnancy. These experimental results show that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is not quantitatively altered by gestational valproic acid administration. Future steps and goals of research on the role and mechanisms of histone acetylation in neurodevelopment are briefly discussed.

  5. Shaking the Myosin Family Tree Biochemical kinetics defines four types of myosin motor

    PubMed Central

    Bloemink, Marieke J; Geeves, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Although all myosin motors follow the same basic cross-bridge cycle, they display a large variety in the rates of transition between different states in the cycle, allowing each myosin to be finely tuned for a specific task. Traditionally, myosins have been classified by sequence analysis into a large number of sub-families (~35). Here we use a different method to classify the myosin family members which is based on biochemical and mechanical properties. The key properties that define the type of mechanical properties of the motor are duty ratio (defined as the fraction of the time myosin remains attached to actin during each cycle), thermodynamic coupling of actin and nucleotide binding to myosin and the degree of strain-sensitivity of the ADP release step. Based on these properties we propose to classify myosins into four different groups: (I) fast movers, (II) slow/efficient movers, (III) load-bearers and (IV) gates. PMID:22001381

  6. Final report on the safety assessment of acetyl triethyl citrate, acetyl tributyl citrate, acetyl trihexyl citrate, and acetyl trioctyl citrate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur

    2002-01-01

    Acetyl Triethyl Citrate, Acetyl Tributyl Citrate, Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate, and Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate all function as plasticizers in cosmetics. Additionally, the Trihexyl and Trioctyl forms are described as skin-conditioning agents-emollients, although there are currently no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate or Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate. Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate are used in nail products at concentrations up to 7%. Recognizing that there are no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl or Trioctyl Citrate, if they were to be used in the future, their concentration of use is expected to be no higher than that reported for Acetyl Triethyl and Tributyl Citrate. These ingredients were sufficiently similar in structure that safety test data on one were considered applicable to all. Approximately 99% of orally administered Acetyl Tributyl Citrate is excreted-intermediate metabolites include acetyl citrate, monobutyl citrate, acetyl monobutyl citrate, dibutyl citrate, and acetyl dibutyl citrate. In acute, short-term, subchronic, and chronic feeding studies, these ingredients were relatively nontoxic. Differences from controls were either not statistically significant or not related to any organ toxicity. Ocular exposures produced moderate reactions that cleared by 48 hours after instillation. Dermal application was not toxic in rabbits. In a guinea pig maximization test, Acetyl Triethyl Citrate was a sensitizer whereas Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was not. Limited clinical testing of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was negative for both skin irritation and sensitization. These clinical data were considered more relevant than the guinea pig maximization data, suggesting to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel that none of these ingredients would be a sensitizer. Physiologic effects noted with intravenous delivery of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate or Acetyl Tributyl Citrate include dose-related decreases in blood pressure and

  7. Nuclear actin and myosins in adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Beata; Serebryannyy, Leonid A; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2015-11-01

    Adenovirus serotypes have been shown to cause drastic changes in nuclear organization, including the transcription machinery, during infection. This ability of adenovirus to subvert transcription in the host cell facilitates viral replication. Because nuclear actin and nuclear myosin I, myosin V and myosin VI have been implicated as direct regulators of transcription and important factors in the replication of other viruses, we sought to determine how nuclear actin and myosins are involved in adenovirus infection. We first confirmed reorganization of the host's transcription machinery to viral replication centers. We found that nuclear actin also reorganizes to sites of transcription through the intermediate but not the advanced late phase of viral infection. Furthermore, nuclear myosin I localized with nuclear actin and sites of transcription in viral replication centers. Intriguingly, nuclear myosins V and VI, which also reorganized to viral replication centers, exhibited different localization patterns, suggesting specialized roles for these nuclear myosins. Finally, we assessed the role of actin in adenovirus infection and found both cytoplasmic and nuclear actin likely play roles in adenovirus infection and replication. Together our data suggest the involvement of actin and multiple myosins in the nuclear replication and late viral gene expression of adenovirus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Myosin is involved in postmitotic cell spreading

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated a role for myosin in postmitotic Potoroo tridactylis kidney (PtK2) cell spreading by inhibitor studies, time- lapse video microscopy, and immunofluorescence. We have also determined the spatial organization and polarity of actin filaments in postmitotic spreading cells. We show that butanedione monoxime (BDM), a known inhibitor of muscle myosin II, inhibits nonmuscle myosin II and myosin V adenosine triphosphatases. BDM reversibly inhibits PtK2 postmitotic cell spreading. Listeria motility is not affected by this drug. Electron microscopy studies show that some actin filaments in spreading edges are part of actin bundles that are also found in long, thin, structures that are connected to spreading edges and substrate (retraction fibers), and that 90% of this actin is oriented with barbed ends in the direction of spreading. The remaining actin in spreading edges has a more random orientation and spatial arrangement. Myosin II is associated with actin polymer in spreading cell edges, but not retraction fibers. Myosin II is excluded from lamellipodia that protrude from the cell edge at the end of spreading. We suggest that spreading involves myosin, possibly myosin II. PMID:7559774

  9. Effects of perinatal undernutrition on elimination of immature myosin isoforms in the rat diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Brozanski, B S; Daood, M J; LaFramboise, W A; Watchko, J F; Foley, T P; Butler-Browne, G S; Whalen, R G; Guthrie, R D; Ontell, M

    1991-08-01

    The effect of perinatal undernutrition on the postnatal elimination of immature myosin isoforms in rat diaphragm muscle was examined using electrophoretic and immunocytochemical techniques. Electrophoresis of native myosin showed that neonatal bands were present in diaphragm muscles of both control and undernourished rats on day 4. By day 21, the neonatal bands were diminished in the control diaphragm compared with the diaphragm of the undernourished rats. Neonatal bands persisted on postnatal day 30 in the diaphragm of the undernourished rats but not in the diaphragm of control rats. No significant difference in the time course of elimination of embryonic myosin light chain (LCemb) was observed between the diaphragm muscles of control and undernourished rats with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated embryonic myosin heavy chain (MHCemb) in all myofibers of the diaphragm muscle of both groups at day 4, but this isoform was not detected in either group by day 14. Reactivity with anti-neonatal myosin heavy chain (MHCneo) indicated that rate of elimination of the MHCneo was delayed in the undernourished state as compared with the normal rats (P less than 0.001). Serum triiodothyronine levels were measured at 14, 21, and 30 days and were significantly lower in the undernourished rats compared with age-matched controls. These data demonstrate that the normal postnatal decrease in MHCneo, but not MHCemb or LCemb, is affected by the nutritional state of the animal. We speculate that these alterations in myosin isoform transitions are induced by hypothyroidism associated with undernutrition.

  10. Calcium-induced Mechanical Change in the Neck Domain Alters the Activity of Plant Myosin XI*

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kojima, Hiroaki; Yokota, Etsuo; Nakamori, Rinna; Anson, Michael; Shimmen, Teruo; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Plant myosin XI functions as a motor that generates cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. Although cytoplasmic streaming is known to be regulated by intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the molecular mechanism underlying this control is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of regulation of myosin XI by Ca2+ at the molecular level. Actin filaments were easily detached from myosin XI in an in vitro motility assay at high Ca2+ concentration (pCa 4) concomitant with the detachment of calmodulin light chains from the neck domains. Electron microscopic observations showed that myosin XI at pCa 4 shortened the neck domain by 30%. Single-molecule analysis revealed that the step size of myosin XI at pCa 4 was shortened to 27 nm under low load and to 22 nm under high load compared with 35 nm independent of the load for intact myosin XI. These results indicate that modulation of the mechanical properties of the neck domain is a key factor for achieving the Ca2+-induced regulation of cytoplasmic streaming. PMID:22740687

  11. Primary structure of subfragment-2 from adult chicken cardiac ventricular muscle myosin.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, B

    1993-07-01

    The complete primary structure of the subfragment-2 (S-2) from adult chicken cardiac ventricular muscle myosin has been determined by analysis of peptides derived from digests of S-2 with cyanogen bromide, lysyl endopeptidase, arginyl endopeptidase, and from hydrolysates of CNBr fragments with formic acid. This region composed of 520 amino-acid residues which span the connecting segment between subfragment-1 (S-1) and S-2 to the NH2-terminal portion of light meromyosin (LMM). Comparing this sequence with the partial sequence of the rod from the same chicken ventricular muscle myosin deduced from its nucleotides of cDNA which lacks 64 NH2-terminal amino-acid residues, 14 amino-acid differences and 3 deletion/insertions were recognized. Furthermore, the sequence of S-2 from adult chicken ventricular myosin was compared with corresponding sequences of rat alpha and beta cardiac myosin heavy chains (MHC) and human alpha and beta cardiac MHCs. The results show 83.7%, 82.1%, 83.1% and 82.1% sequence identities, respectively with almost similar degrees of similarities to both alpha- and beta-MHCs. However, sequences of isoform-specific regions in this S-2 from adult chicken ventricular myosin showed clearly a higher homology to those of alpha-MHCs than to beta-MHCs of mammalian cardiac myosins.

  12. Supervillin binding to myosin II and synergism with anillin are required for cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tara C.; Fridy, Peter C.; Li, Yinyin; Basil, Shruti; Arjun, Sneha; Friesen, Ryan M.; Leszyk, John; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P.; Luna, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinesis, the process by which cytoplasm is apportioned between dividing daughter cells, requires coordination of myosin II function, membrane trafficking, and central spindle organization. Most known regulators act during late cytokinesis; a few, including the myosin II–binding proteins anillin and supervillin, act earlier. Anillin's role in scaffolding the membrane cortex with the central spindle is well established, but the mechanism of supervillin action is relatively uncharacterized. We show here that two regions within supervillin affect cell division: residues 831–1281, which bind central spindle proteins, and residues 1–170, which bind the myosin II heavy chain (MHC) and the long form of myosin light-chain kinase. MHC binding is required to rescue supervillin deficiency, and mutagenesis of this site creates a dominant-negative phenotype. Supervillin concentrates activated and total myosin II at the furrow, and simultaneous knockdown of supervillin and anillin additively increases cell division failure. Knockdown of either protein causes mislocalization of the other, and endogenous anillin increases upon supervillin knockdown. Proteomic identification of interaction partners recovered using a high-affinity green fluorescent protein nanobody suggests that supervillin and anillin regulate the myosin II and actin cortical cytoskeletons through separate pathways. We conclude that supervillin and anillin play complementary roles during vertebrate cytokinesis. PMID:24088567

  13. Supervillin couples myosin-dependent contractility to podosomes and enables their turnover

    PubMed Central

    Bhuwania, Ridhirama; Cornfine, Susanne; Fang, Zhiyou; Krüger, Marcus; Luna, Elizabeth J.; Linder, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Podosomes are actin-rich adhesion and invasion structures. Especially in macrophages, podosomes exist in two subpopulations, large precursors at the cell periphery and smaller podosomes (successors) in the cell interior. To date, the mechanisms that differentially regulate these subpopulations are largely unknown. Here, we show that the membrane-associated protein supervillin localizes preferentially to successor podosomes and becomes enriched at precursors immediately before their dissolution. Consistently, podosome numbers are inversely correlated with supervillin protein levels. Using deletion constructs, we find that the myosin II regulatory N-terminus of supervillin [SV(1–174)] is crucial for these effects. Phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC) localizes at supervillin-positive podosomes, and time-lapse analyses show that enrichment of GFP–supervillin at podosomes coincides with their coupling to contractile myosin-IIA-positive cables. We also show that supervillin binds only to activated myosin IIA, and a dysregulated N-terminal construct [SV(1–830)] enhances pMLC levels at podosomes. Thus, preferential recruitment of supervillin to podosome subpopulations might both require and induce actomyosin contractility. Using siRNA and pharmacological inhibition, we demonstrate that supervillin and myosin IIA cooperate to regulate podosome lifetime, podosomal matrix degradation and cell polarization. In sum, we show here that podosome subpopulations differ in their molecular composition and identify supervillin, in cooperation with myosin IIA, as a crucial factor in the regulation of podosome turnover and function. PMID:22344260

  14. How Myosin Generates Force on Actin Filaments.

    PubMed

    Houdusse, Anne; Sweeney, H Lee

    2016-12-01

    How myosin interacts with actin to generate force is a subject of considerable controversy. The major debate centers on understanding at what point in force generation the inorganic phosphate is released with respect to the lever arm swing, or powerstroke. Resolving the controversy is essential for understanding how force is produced as well as the mechanisms underlying disease-causing mutations in myosin. Recent structural insights into the powerstroke have come from a high-resolution structure of myosin in a previously unseen state and from an electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) 3D reconstruction of the actin-myosin-MgADP complex. Here, we argue that seemingly contradictory data from time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies can be reconciled, and we put forward a model for myosin force generation on actin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Motion of subfragment-1 in myosin and its supramolecular complexes: saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D D; Seidel, J C; Hyde, J S; Gergely, J

    1975-01-01

    Molecular dynamics in spin-labeled muscle proteins was studied with a recently developed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, saturation transfer spectroscopy, which is uniquely sensitive to rotational motion in the range of 10(-7)-10(-3) sec. Rotational correlation time (tau2) were determined for a spin label analog of iodoacetamide bound to the subfragment-1 (S-1) region of myosin under a variety of conditions likely to shed light on the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction. Results show that (a) the spin labels are rigidly bound to the isolated S-1 (tau2 = 2 x 10(-7) sec) and can be used to estimate values of tau2 for the S-1 region of the myosin molecule; (b) in solutions of intact myosin, S-1 has considerable mobility relative to the rest of the myosin molecule, the value of tau2 for the S-1 segment of myosin being less than twice that for isolated S-1, while the molecular weights differ by a factor of 4 to 5; (c) in myosin filaments, tau2 increases by a factor of only about 10, suggesting motion of the S-1 regions independent of the backbone of the myosin filament, but slower than that in a single molecule; (d) addition of F-actin to solutions of myosin or S-1 increases tau2 by a factor of nearly 10(3), indicating strong immobilization of S-1 upon binding to actin. Saturation transfer spectroscopy promises to provide an extremely useful tool for the study of the motions of the crossbridges and thin filaments in reconstituted systems and in glycerinated muscle fibers. PMID:168572

  16. Flexibility of myosin attachment to surfaces influences F-actin motion.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, D A; Bourdieu, L; Ott, A; Kinose, F; Libchaber, A

    1995-06-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament sliding movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain (LC2) located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. This method of attachment provides a means of controlling the flexibility and density of myosin on the surface. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these mAbs, and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments was analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform motion of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM mAbs yielded significantly higher velocities (10 microns/s at 30 degrees C) than attachment through anti-LC2 (4-5 microns/s at 30 degrees C). For each antibody, we observed a characteristic value of the myosin density for the onset of F-actin motion and a second critical density for velocity saturation. The specific mode of attachment influences the velocity of actin filaments and the characteristic surface density needed to support movement.

  17. Flexibility of myosin attachment to surfaces influences F-actin motion.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, D A; Bourdieu, L; Ott, A; Kinose, F; Libchaber, A

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament sliding movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain (LC2) located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. This method of attachment provides a means of controlling the flexibility and density of myosin on the surface. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these mAbs, and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments was analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform motion of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM mAbs yielded significantly higher velocities (10 microns/s at 30 degrees C) than attachment through anti-LC2 (4-5 microns/s at 30 degrees C). For each antibody, we observed a characteristic value of the myosin density for the onset of F-actin motion and a second critical density for velocity saturation. The specific mode of attachment influences the velocity of actin filaments and the characteristic surface density needed to support movement. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 8 PMID:7544167

  18. Head-head Interaction Characterizes the Relaxed State of Limulus Muscle Myosin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fa-Qing; Craig, Roger; Woodhead, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of muscle contraction via the myosin filaments occurs in vertebrate smooth and many invertebrate striated muscles. Studies of unphosphorylated vertebrate smooth muscle myosin suggest that activity is switched off through an intramolecular interaction between the actin-binding region of one head and the converter and essential light chains of the other, inhibiting ATPase activity and actin interaction. The same interaction (and additional interaction with the tail) is seen in three-dimensional reconstructions of relaxed, native myosin filaments from tarantula striated muscle, suggesting that such interactions are likely to underlie the off-state of myosin across a wide spectrum of the animal kingdom. We have tested this hypothesis by carrying out cryo-electron microscopy and 3D image reconstruction of myosin filaments from horseshoe crab (Limulus) muscle. The same head-head and head-tail interactions seen in tarantula are also seen in Limulus, supporting the hypothesis. Other data suggest that this motif may underlie the relaxed state of myosin II in all species (including myosin II in nonmuscle cells), with the possible exception of insect flight muscle. The molecular organization of the myosin tails in the backbone of muscle thick filaments is unknown, and may differ between species. X-ray diffraction data support a general model for crustaceans in which tails associate together to form 4 nm diameter subfilaments, with these subfilaments assembling together to form the backbone. This model is supported by direct observation of 4 nm diameter, elongated strands in the tarantula reconstruction, suggesting that it might be a general structure across the arthropods. We observe a similar backbone organization in the Limulus reconstruction, supporting the general existence of such subfilaments. PMID:18976661

  19. Ankyrin domain of myosin 16 influences motor function and decreases protein phosphatase catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kengyel, András; Bécsi, Bálint; Kónya, Zoltán; Sellers, James R; Erdődi, Ferenc; Nyitrai, Miklós

    2015-05-01

    The unconventional myosin 16 (Myo16), which may have a role in regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation, can be found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It has a unique, eight ankyrin repeat containing pre-motor domain, the so-called ankyrin domain (My16Ank). Ankyrin repeats are present in several other proteins, e.g., in the regulatory subunit (MYPT1) of the myosin phosphatase holoenzyme, which binds to the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP1c). My16Ank shows sequence similarity to MYPT1. In this work, the interactions of recombinant and isolated My16Ank were examined in vitro. To test the effects of My16Ank on myosin motor function, we used skeletal muscle myosin or nonmuscle myosin 2B. The results showed that My16Ank bound to skeletal muscle myosin (K D ≈ 2.4 µM) and the actin-activated ATPase activity of heavy meromyosin (HMM) was increased in the presence of My16Ank, suggesting that the ankyrin domain can modulate myosin motor activity. My16Ank showed no direct interaction with either globular or filamentous actin. We found, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding technique, that My16Ank bound to PP1cα (K D ≈ 540 nM) and also to PP1cδ (K D ≈ 600 nM) and decreased its phosphatase activity towards the phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain. Our results suggest that one function of the ankyrin domain is probably to regulate the function of Myo16. It may influence the motor activity, and in complex with the PP1c isoforms, it can play an important role in the targeted dephosphorylation of certain, as yet unidentified, intracellular proteins.

  20. The role of the myosin ATPase activity in adaptive thermogenesis by skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Roger

    2011-03-01

    Resting skeletal muscle is a major contributor to adaptive thermogenesis, i.e., the thermogenesis that changes in response to exposure to cold or to overfeeding. The identification of the "furnace" that is responsible for increased heat generation in resting muscle has been the subject of a number of investigations. A new state of myosin, the super relaxed state (SRX), with a very slow ATP turnover rate has recently been observed in skeletal muscle (Stewart et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:430-435, 2010). Inhibition of the myosin ATPase activity in the SRX was suggested to be caused by binding of the myosin head to the core of the thick filament in a structural motif identified earlier by electron microscopy. To be compatible with the basal metabolic rate observed in vivo for resting muscle, most myosin heads would have to be in the SRX. Modulation of the population of this state, relative to the normal relaxed state, was proposed to be a major contributor to adaptive thermogenesis in resting muscle. Transfer of only 20% of myosin heads from the SRX into the normal relaxed state would cause muscle thermogenesis to double. Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain was shown to transfer myosin heads from the SRX into the relaxed state, which would increase thermogenesis. In particular, thermogenesis by myosin has been proposed to play a role in the dissipation of calories during overfeeding. Up-regulation of muscle thermogenesis by pharmaceuticals that target the SRX would provide new approaches to the treatment of obesity or high blood sugar levels.

  1. alphaB-crystallin maintains skeletal muscle myosin enzymatic activity and prevents its aggregation under heat-shock stress.

    PubMed

    Melkani, Girish C; Cammarato, Anthony; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2006-05-05

    Here, we provide functional and direct structural evidence that alphaB-crystallin, a member of the small heat-shock protein family, suppresses thermal unfolding and aggregation of the myosin II molecular motor. Chicken skeletal muscle myosin was thermally unfolded at heat-shock temperature (43 degrees C) in the absence and in the presence of alphaB-crystallin. The ATPase activity of myosin at 25 degrees C was used as a parameter to monitor its unfolding. Myosin retained only 65% and 8% of its ATPase activity when incubated at heat-shock temperature for 15 min and 30 min, respectively. However, 84% and 58% of the myosin ATPase activity was maintained when it was incubated with alphaB-crystallin under the same conditions. Furthermore, actin-stimulated ATPase activity of myosin was reduced by approximately 90%, when myosin was thermally unfolded at 43 degrees C for 30 min, but was reduced by only approximately 42% when it was incubated with alphaB-crystallin under the same conditions. Light-scattering assays and bound thioflavin T fluorescence indicated that myosin aggregates when incubated at 43 degrees C for 30 min, while alphaB-crystallin suppressed this thermal aggregation. Photo-labeled bis-ANS alphaB-crystallin fluorescence studies confirmed the transient interaction of alphaB-crystallin with myosin. These findings were further supported by electron microscopy of rotary shadowed molecules. This revealed that approximately 94% of myosin molecules formed inter and intra-molecular aggregates when incubated at 43 degrees C for 30 min. alphaB-Crystallin, however, protected approximately 48% of the myosin molecules from thermal aggregation, with protected myosin appearing identical to unheated molecules. These results are the first to show that alphaB-crystallin maintains myosin enzymatic activity and prevents the aggregation of the motor under heat-shock conditions. Thus, alphaB-crystallin may be critical for nascent myosin folding, promoting myofibrillogenesis

  2. Physiological signalling to myosin phosphatase targeting subunit‐1 phosphorylation in ileal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ning; Chang, Audrey N.; He, Weiqi; Chen, Cai‐Ping; Qiao, Yan‐Ning; Zhu, Minsheng; Kamm, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The extent of myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation (RLC) necessary for smooth muscle contraction depends on the respective activities of Ca2+/calmodulin‐dependent myosin light chain kinase and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), which contains a regulatory subunit MYPT1 bound to the phosphatase catalytic subunit and myosin.MYPT1 showed significant constitutive T696 and T853 phosphorylation, which is predicted to inhibit MLCP activity in isolated ileal smooth muscle tissues, with additional phosphorylation upon pharmacological treatment with the muscarinic agonist carbachol.Electrical field stimulation (EFS), which releases ACh from nerves, increased force and RLC phosphorylation but not MYPT1 T696 or T853 phosphorylation.The conditional knockout of MYPT1 or the knockin mutation T853A in mice had no effect on the frequency‐maximal force responses to EFS in isolated ileal tissues.Physiological RLC phosphorylation and force development in ileal smooth muscle depend on myosin light chain kinase and MLCP activities without changes in constitutive MYPT1 phosphorylation. Abstract Smooth muscle contraction initiated by myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation is dependent on the relative activities of Ca2+/calmodulin‐dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). We have investigated the physiological role of the MLCP regulatory subunit MYPT1 in ileal smooth muscle in adult mice with (1) smooth muscle‐specific deletion of MYPT1; (2) non‐phosphorylatable MYPT1 containing a T853A knockin mutation; and (3) measurements of force and protein phosphorylation responses to cholinergic neurostimulation initiated by electric field stimulation. Isolated MYPT1‐deficient tissues from MYPT1SM−/− mice contracted and relaxed rapidly with moderate differences in sustained responses to KCl and carbachol treatments and washouts, respectively. Similarly, measurements of regulatory proteins responsible for

  3. Defocused orientation and position imaging (DOPI) of myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, Erdal; Enderlein, Joerg; Syed, Sheyum; McKinney, Sean A.; Petschek, Rolfe G.; Ha, Taekjip; Goldman, Yale E.; Selvin, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    The centroid of a fluorophore can be determined within ≈1.5-nm accuracy from its focused image through fluorescence imaging with one-nanometer accuracy (FIONA). If, instead, the sample is moved away from the focus, the point-spread-function depends on both the position and 3D orientation of the fluorophore, which can be calculated by defocused orientation and position imaging (DOPI). DOPI does not always yield position accurately, but it is possible to switch back and forth between focused and defocused imaging, thereby getting the centroid and the orientation with precision. We have measured the 3D orientation and stepping behavior of single bifunctional rhodamine probes attached to one of the calmodulins of the light-chain domain (LCD) of myosin V as myosin V moves along actin. Concomitant with large and small steps, the LCD rotates and then dwells in the leading and trailing position, respectively. The probe angle relative to the barbed end of the actin (β) averaged 128° while the LCD was in the leading state and 57° in the trailing state. The angular difference of 71° represents rotation of LCD around the bound motor domain and is consistent with a 37-nm forward step size of myosin V. When β changes, the probe rotates ±27° azimuthally around actin and then rotates back again on the next step. Our results remove degeneracy in angles and the appearance of nontilting lever arms that were reported. PMID:16614073

  4. Reversible association of myosin with the platelet cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachmias, Vivianne T.; Kavaler, Joshua; Jacubowitz, Sam

    1985-01-01

    Platelets circulating in the human blood stream are smooth disk-shaped structures. The disks change within seconds of exposure to ADP or thrombin to irregular spheres bearing filopodia and pseudopodia. It is well-established that platelets also change shape (although more slowly) when chilled to 5°C1-5 and revert to disks on rewarming1,3. This cold-induced shape change may be due to the depolymerization of the submembranous microtubule ring. However, we found that chilling in the presence of Taxol, which stabilizes the microtubules, still results in shape change. Chilled platelets show an increase in the amount of myosin in the Triton-X insoluble residue or `cytoskeleton'6-9 which is correlated in time both with phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and with the induced shape change. We suggest here that the slow cold-induced change from disks to spheres is due primarily to a gradual activation of myosin.

  5. Cross-reactivity of termite myosin; a potential allergen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myosin and myosin isoforms are common food allergens in crustaceans; such as, shrimp, lobster, and crab. Allergy to Shellfish is a prevalent and potentially long lasting disorder that can severely affect health and quality of life. Myosin and myosin isoforms of dust mites and cockroaches are simil...

  6. [Electrophoresis of native cardiac myosin in Anura amphibians].

    PubMed

    Dutartre, P; Mougin, D; Bride, M

    1983-01-01

    Electrophoresis in non dissociating conditions of native cardiac myosin was adapted to the study of Amphibian myosin. Utilization of potassium ion has allowed to obtain a good separation of myosin isoenzymes. An evolution of isoenzymic composition of cardiac myosin during metamorphosis and aging in Xenopus laevis (Daudin) was observed.

  7. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chii J.; Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J.; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  8. Native myosin from adult rabbit skeletal muscle: isoenzymes and states of aggregation.

    PubMed

    Morel, J E; D'hahan, N; Taouil, K; Francin, M; Aguilar, A; Dalbiez, J P; Merah, Z; Grussaute, H; Hilbert, B; Ollagnon, F; Selva, G; Piot, F

    1998-04-21

    The globular heads of skeletal muscle myosin have been shown to exist as isoenzymes S1 (A1) and S1 (A2), and there are also isoforms of the heavy chains. Using capillary electrophoresis, we found two dominant isoenzymes of the whole native myosin molecule, in agreement with what has previously been found by various techniques for native and nondenatured myosin from adult rabbits. Findings about possible states of aggregation of myosin and its heads are contradictory. By analytical ultracentrifugation, we confirmed the existence of a tail-tail dimer. By laser light scattering, we found a head-head dimer in the presence of MgATP. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with analytical ultracentrifugation and laser light scattering led us to refine these results. We found tail-tail dimers in a conventional buffer. We found tail-tail and head-head dimers in the presence of 0.5 mM MgATP and pure head-head dimers in the presence of 6 mM MgATP. All the dimers were homodimers. Naming the dominant isoenzymes of myosin a and b, we observed tail-tail dimers with isoenzyme a (TaTa) and with isoenzyme b (TbTb) and also head-head dimers with isoenzyme a (HaHa) and with isoenzyme b (HbHb).

  9. cAPK-phosphorylation controls the interaction of the regulatory domain of cardiac myosin binding protein C with myosin-S2 in an on-off fashion.

    PubMed

    Gruen, M; Prinz, H; Gautel, M

    1999-06-25

    Myosin binding protein C is a protein of the myosin filaments of striated muscle which is expressed in isoforms specific for cardiac and skeletal muscle. The cardiac isoform is phosphorylated rapidly upon adrenergic stimulation of myocardium by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and together with the phosphorylation of troponin-I and phospholamban contributes to the positive inotropy that results from adrenergic stimulation of the heart. Cardiac myosin binding protein C is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase on three sites in a myosin binding protein C specific N-terminal domain which binds to myosin-S2. This interaction with myosin close to the motor domain is likely to mediate the regulatory function of the protein. Cardiac myosin binding protein C is a common target gene of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and most mutations encode N-terminal subfragments of myosin binding protein C. The understanding of the signalling interactions of the N-terminal region is therefore important for understanding the pathophysiology of myosin binding protein C associated cardiomyopathy. We demonstrate here by cosedimentation assays and isothermal titration calorimetry that the myosin-S2 binding properties of the myosin binding protein C motif are abolished by cAMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated tris-phosphorylation, decreasing the S2 affinity from a Kd of approximately 5 microM to undetectable levels. We show that the slow and fast skeletal muscle isoforms are no cAMP-dependent protein kinase substrates and that the S2 interaction of these myosin binding protein C isoforms is therefore constitutively on. The regulation of cardiac contractility by myosin binding protein C therefore appears to be a 'brake-off' mechanism that will free a specific subset of myosin heads from sterical constraints imposed by the binding to the myosin binding protein C motif.

  10. Nucleosome acetylation sequencing to study the establishment of chromatin acetylation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chitvan; Blacketer, Melissa J; Shogren-Knaak, Michael A

    2014-07-15

    The establishment of posttranslational chromatin modifications is a major mechanism for regulating how genomic DNA is utilized. However, current in vitro chromatin assays do not monitor histone modifications at individual nucleosomes. Here we describe a strategy, nucleosome acetylation sequencing, that allows us to read the amount of modification at each nucleosome. In this approach, a bead-bound trinucleosome substrate is enzymatically acetylated with radiolabeled acetyl CoA by the SAGA complex from Saccharomyces cerevisae. The product is digested by restriction enzymes that cut at unique sites between the nucleosomes and then counted to quantify the extent of acetylation at each nucleosomal site. We find that we can sensitively, specifically, and reproducibly follow enzyme-mediated nucleosome acetylation. Applying this strategy, when acetylation proceeds extensively, its distribution across nucleosomes is relatively uniform. However, when substrates are used that contain nucleosomes mutated at the major sites of SAGA-mediated acetylation, or that are studied under initial rate conditions, changes in the acetylation distribution can be observed. Nucleosome acetylation sequencing should be applicable to analyzing a wide range of modifications. Additionally, because our trinucleosomes synthesis strategy is highly modular and efficient, it can be used to generate nucleosomal systems in which nucleosome composition differs across the array.

  11. STAT5 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Kosan, Christian; Ginter, Torsten; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2013-01-01

    The cytokine-inducible transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A and 5B (STAT5A and STAT5B) are important for the proper development of multicellular eukaryotes. Disturbed signaling cascades evoking uncontrolled expression of STAT5 target genes are associated with cancer and immunological failure. Here, we summarize how STAT5 acetylation is integrated into posttranslational modification networks within cells. Moreover, we focus on how inhibitors of deacetylases and tyrosine kinases can correct leukemogenic signaling nodes involving STAT5. Such small molecules can be exploited in the fight against neoplastic diseases and immunological disorders. PMID:24416653

  12. Histone acetylation in insect chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Allfrey, V G; Pogo, B G; Littau, V C; Gershey, E L; Mirsky, A E

    1968-01-19

    Acetylation of histones takes place along the salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus thummi when RNA synthesis is active. It can be observed but not measured quantitatively by autoradiography of chromosome squashes. The "fixatives" commonly used in preparing squashes of insect chromosomes preferentially extract the highly acetylated "arginine-rich" histone fractions; the use of such fixatives may explain the reported absence of histone acetylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

  13. Characterization of Amoeba proteus myosin VI immunoanalog.

    PubMed

    Dominik, Magdalena; Kłopocka, Wanda; Pomorski, Paweł; Kocik, Elzbieta; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2005-07-01

    Amoeba proteus, the highly motile free-living unicellular organism, has been widely used as a model to study cell motility. However, molecular mechanisms underlying its unique locomotion and intracellular actin-based-only trafficking remain poorly understood. A search for myosin motors responsible for vesicular transport in these giant cells resulted in detection of 130-kDa protein interacting with several polyclonal antibodies against different tail regions of human and chicken myosin VI. This protein was binding to actin in the ATP-dependent manner, and immunoprecipitated with anti-myosin VI antibodies. In order to characterize its possible functions in vivo, its cellular distribution and colocalization with actin filaments and dynamin II during migration and pinocytosis were examined. In migrating amoebae, myosin VI immunoanalog localized to vesicular structures, particularly within the perinuclear and sub-plasma membrane areas, and colocalized with dynamin II immunoanalog and actin filaments. The colocalization was even more evident in pinocytotic cells as proteins concentrated within pinocytotic pseudopodia. Moreover, dynamin II and myosin VI immunoanalogs cosedimented with actin filaments, and were found on the same isolated vesicles. Blocking endogenous myosin VI immunoanalog with anti-myosin VI antibodies inhibited the rate of pseudopodia protrusion (about 19% decrease) and uroidal retraction (about 28% decrease) but did not affect cell morphology and the manner of cell migration. Treatment with anti-human dynamin II antibodies led to changes in directionality of amebae migration and affected the rate of only uroidal translocation (about 30% inhibition). These results indicate that myosin VI immunoanalog is expressed in protist Amoeba proteus and may be involved in vesicle translocation and cell locomotion.

  14. Single myosin lever arm orientation in a muscle fiber detected with photoactivatable GFP.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Li, Jinhui; Ajtai, Katalin

    2009-02-03

    Myosin 2 is the molecular motor in muscle. It binds actin and executes a power stroke by rotating its lever arm through an angle of approximately 70 degrees to translate actin against resistive force. Myosin 2 has evolved to function optimally under crowded conditions where rates and equilibria of macromolecular reactions undergo major shifts relative to those measured in dilute solution. Hence, an important research objective is to detect in situ the lever arm orientation. Single-molecule measurements are preferred because they clarify ambiguities that are unavoidable with ensemble measurements; however, detecting single molecules in the condensed tissue medium where the myosin concentration exceeds 100 muM is challenging. A myosin light chain (MLC) tagged with photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PAGFP) was constructed. The recombinant MLC physically and functionally replaced native MLC on the myosin lever arm in a permeabilized skeletal muscle fiber. Probe illumination volume was minimized using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, and PAGFP was sparsely photoactivated such that polarized fluorescence identified a single probe orientation. Several physiological states of the muscle fiber were characterized, revealing two distinct orientation populations in all states called straight and bent conformations. Conformation occupancy probability varies among fiber states with rigor and isometric contraction at extremes where straight and bent conformations predominate, respectively. Comparison to previous work on single rigor cross-bridges at the A-band periphery where the myosin concentration is low suggests molecular crowding in the A-band promotes occupancy of the straight myosin conformation [Burghardt, T. P., et al. (2007) Biophys. J. 93, 2226]. The latter may have a role in contraction because it provides additional free energy favoring completion of the cross-bridge power stroke.

  15. Slow myosin ATP turnover in the super-relaxed state in tarantula muscle.

    PubMed

    Naber, Nariman; Cooke, Roger; Pate, Edward

    2011-09-02

    We measured the nucleotide turnover rate of myosin in tarantula leg muscle fibers by observing single turnovers of the fluorescent nucleotide analog 2'-/3'-O-(N'-methylanthraniloyl)adenosine-5'-O-triphosphate, as monitored by the decrease in fluorescence when 2'-/3'-O-(N'-methylanthraniloyl)adenosine-5'-O-triphosphate (mantATP) is replaced by ATP in a chase experiment. We find a multiexponential process with approximately two-thirds of the myosin showing a very slow nucleotide turnover time constant (∼30 min). This slow-turnover state is termed the super-relaxed state (SRX). If fibers are incubated in 2'-/3'-O-(N'-methylanthraniloyl)adenosine-5'-O-diphosphate and chased with ADP, the SRX is not seen, indicating that trinucleotide-relaxed myosins are responsible for the SRX. Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain eliminates the fraction of myosin with a very long lifetime. The data imply that the very long-lived SRX in tarantula fibers is a highly novel adaptation for energy conservation in an animal that spends extremely long periods of time in a quiescent state employing a lie-in-wait hunting strategy. The presence of the SRX measured here correlates well with the binding of myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the "interacting-heads motif," observed previously by electron microscopy. Both the structural array and the long-lived SRX require relaxed filaments or relaxed fibers, both are lost upon myosin phosphorylation, and both appear to be more stable in tarantula than in vertebrate skeletal or vertebrate cardiac preparations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Myosin filament structure in vertebrate smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The in vivo structure of the myosin filaments in vertebrate smooth muscle is unknown. Evidence from purified smooth muscle myosin and from some studies of intact smooth muscle suggests that they may have a nonhelical, side-polar arrangement of crossbridges. However, the bipolar, helical structure characteristic of myosin filaments in striated muscle has not been disproved for smooth muscle. We have used EM to investigate this question in a functionally diverse group of smooth muscles (from the vascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and visual systems) from mammalian, amphibian, and avian species. Intact muscle under physiological conditions, rapidly frozen and then freeze substituted, shows many myosin filaments with a square backbone in transverse profile. Transverse sections of fixed, chemically skinned muscles also show square backbones and, in addition, reveal projections (crossbridges) on only two opposite sides of the square. Filaments gently isolated from skinned smooth muscles and observed by negative staining show crossbridges with a 14.5-nm repeat projecting in opposite directions on opposite sides of the filament. Such filaments subjected to low ionic strength conditions show bare filament ends and an antiparallel arrangement of myosin tails along the length of the filament. All of these observations are consistent with a side-polar structure and argue against a bipolar, helical crossbridge arrangement. We conclude that myosin filaments in all smooth muscles, regardless of function, are likely to be side-polar. Such a structure could be an important factor in the ability of smooth muscles to contract by large amounts. PMID:8698822

  17. Myosin isoenzymes in fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscles of normal and dystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, R B; Hoh, J F

    1983-10-01

    An analysis of the native myosin isoenzyme composition, myosin light-chain distribution and histochemical profile of fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscles of normal and dystrophic (129 REJ dy/dy) mice has been performed, and the results correlated with the known contractile abnormalities of murine dystrophic muscles. Normal mouse slow-twitch soleus contained two isomyosins (slow myosin, SM and intermediate myosin, IM) which were electrophoretically distinct from the three major isomyosins (FM1, FM2, FM3) of fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (e.d.l.) muscle. The calcium-activated ATPase activities of FM1, FM2, FM3 and IM at pH 9.2 were each much higher than that of SM, and this difference is reflected in the histochemical profile of muscle, as demonstrated with the myofibrillar ATPase reaction at alkaline pH. E.d.l. Type II fibres retained myofibrillar ATPase activity following pre-incubation of histochemical sections at pH 4.6, and were therefore classified Type IIB, whereas soleus Type II fibres did not, and were classified Type IIA. It was concluded that Type I (slow) fibres contain SM, Type IIA (intermediate) fibres contain IM, and Type IIB (fast) fibres contain FM1-FM3. Each electrophoretically distinct myosin contained a different combination of the five skeletal myosin light chains (LCs). Thus different normal muscles, which differed in their isomyosin profiles, differed also in their light-chain composition. Analysis of the distribution of native myosins (FM1, FM2, FM3, IM, SM, in order of decreasing gel migration rate) in dystrophic muscles revealed increased proportions of the slower-migrating forms, when compared with the distribution in the corresponding normal muscles. The shift in isomyosin distribution would explain the known decrease in the proportion of myosin light chain (LCf3) in murine dystrophic muscle. The abnormal isomyosin distribution in the dystrophic muscle is correlated with its altered histochemical characteristics, and with well

  18. Functional adaptation between yeast actin and its cognate myosin motors.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Allingham, John S; Rubenstein, Peter A; Lord, Matthew

    2011-09-02

    We employed budding yeast and skeletal muscle actin to examine the contribution of the actin isoform to myosin motor function. While yeast and muscle actin are highly homologous, they exhibit different charge density at their N termini (a proposed myosin-binding interface). Muscle myosin-II actin-activated ATPase activity is significantly higher with muscle versus yeast actin. Whether this reflects inefficiency in the ability of yeast actin to activate myosin is not known. Here we optimized the isolation of two yeast myosins to assess actin function in a homogenous system. Yeast myosin-II (Myo1p) and myosin-V (Myo2p) accommodate the reduced N-terminal charge density of yeast actin, showing greater activity with yeast over muscle actin. Increasing the number of negative charges at the N terminus of yeast actin from two to four (as in muscle) had little effect on yeast myosin activity, while other substitutions of charged residues at the myosin interface of yeast actin reduced activity. Thus, yeast actin functions most effectively with its native myosins, which in part relies on associations mediated by its outer domain. Compared with yeast myosin-II and myosin-V, muscle myosin-II activity was very sensitive to salt. Collectively, our findings suggest differing degrees of reliance on electrostatic interactions during weak actomyosin binding in yeast versus muscle. Our study also highlights the importance of native actin isoforms when considering the function of myosins.

  19. Heat-induced formation of myosin oligomer-soluble filament complex in high-salt solution.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masato; Takai, Eisuke; Ejima, Daisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    Heat-induced aggregation of myosin into an elastic gel plays an important role in the water-holding capacity and texture of meat products. Here, we investigated thermal aggregation of porcine myosin in high-salt solution over a wide temperature range by dynamic light scattering experiments. The myosin samples were readily dissolved in 1.0 M NaCl at 25 °C followed by dilution into various salt concentrations. The diluted solutions consistently contained both myosin monomers and soluble filaments. The filament size decreased with increasing salt concentration and temperature. High temperatures above Tm led to at least partial dissociation of soluble filaments and thermal unfolding, resulting in the formation of soluble oligomers and binding to the persistently present soluble filaments. Such a complex formation between the oligomers and filaments has never been observed. Our results provide new insight into the heat-induced myosin gelation in high-salt solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding cardiomyopathy phenotypes based on the functional impact of mutations in the myosin motor.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeffrey R; Leinwand, Leslie; Warshaw, David M

    2012-07-20

    Hypertrophic (HCM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathies are inherited diseases with a high incidence of death due to electric abnormalities or outflow tract obstruction. In many of the families afflicted with either disease, causative mutations have been identified in various sarcomeric proteins. In this review, we focus on mutations in the cardiac muscle molecular motor, myosin, and its associated light chains. Despite the >300 identified mutations, there is still no clear understanding of how these mutations within the same myosin molecule can lead to the dramatically different clinical phenotypes associated with HCM and DCM. Localizing mutations within myosin's molecular structure provides insight into the potential consequence of these perturbations to key functional domains of the motor. Review of biochemical and biophysical data that characterize the functional capacities of these mutant myosins suggests that mutant myosins with enhanced contractility lead to HCM, whereas those displaying reduced contractility lead to DCM. With gain and loss of function potentially being the primary consequence of a specific mutation, how these functional changes trigger the hypertrophic response and lead to the distinct HCM and DCM phenotypes will be the future investigative challenge.

  1. Purification of a protein phosphatase from Acanthamoeba that dephosphorylates and activates myosin II.

    PubMed

    McClure, J A; Korn, E D

    1983-12-10

    The actin-activated ATPase activity of myosin II from Acanthamoeba castellanii is inhibited by phosphorylation of 3 serine residues near the carboxyl end of the heavy chain of the molecule. We have purified a protein phosphatase from Acanthamoeba using myosin II as a substrate. This phosphatase has a molecular weight of 39,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and an isoelectric point in urea of 5.2. The enzyme also is active against other phosphoserine protein substrates such as turkey gizzard smooth muscle myosin light chain, but not against a synthetic phosphotyrosine protein substrate. It does not hydrolyze ATP or p-nitrophenol phosphate. No effector has been found to increase substantially the activity of the enzyme as isolated, but it is inhibited by ATP, pyrophosphate, and NaF. This inhibition is reduced in the presence of MnCl2. The Mg2+-dependent actin-activated ATPase of myosin II is activated by dephosphorylation of phosphorylated myosin II by the phosphatase. Its broad substrate specificity, molecular weight, and response to protein phosphatase inhibitors suggest that the Acanthamoeba protein phosphatase is a type 2A phosphatase (Cohen, P. (1982) Nature (Lond.) 206, 613-620).

  2. Detailed tuning of structure and intramolecular communication are dispensable for processive motion of myosin VI.

    PubMed

    Elting, Mary Williard; Bryant, Zev; Liao, Jung-Chi; Spudich, James A

    2011-01-19

    Dimeric myosin VI moves processively hand-over-hand along actin filaments. We have characterized the mechanism of this processive motion by measuring the impact of structural and chemical perturbations on single-molecule processivity. Processivity is maintained despite major alterations in lever arm structure, including replacement of light chain binding regions and elimination of the medial tail. We present kinetic models that can explain the ATP concentration-dependent processivities of myosin VI constructs containing either native or artificial lever arms. We conclude that detailed tuning of structure and intramolecular communication are dispensable for processive motion, and further show theoretically that one proposed type of nucleotide gating can be detrimental rather than beneficial for myosin processivity. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-04-15

    Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression.

  4. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression. PMID:26940917

  5. Human myosin-Vc is a novel class V myosin expressed in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Olga C; Cheney, Richard E

    2002-03-01

    Class V myosins are one of the most ancient and widely distributed groups of the myosin superfamily and are hypothesized to function as motors for actin-dependent organelle transport. We report the discovery and initial characterization of a novel member of this family, human myosin-Vc (Myo5c). The Myo5c protein sequence shares approximately 50% overall identity with the two other class V myosins in vertebrates, myosin-Va (Myo5a) and myosin-Vb (Myo5b). Systematic analysis of the mRNA and protein distribution of these myosins indicates that Myo5a is most abundant in brain, whereas Myo5b and Myo5c are expressed chiefly in non-neuronal tissues. Myo5c is particularly abundant in epithelial and glandular tissues including pancreas, prostate, mammary, stomach, colon and lung. Immunolocalization in colon and exocrine pancreas indicates that Myo5c is expressed chiefly in epithelial cells. A dominant negative approach using a GFP-Myo5c tail construct in HeLa cells reveals that the Myo5c tail selectively colocalizes with and perturbs a membrane compartment containing the transferrin receptor and rab8. Transferrin also accumulates in this compartment, suggesting that Myo5c is involved in transferrin trafficking. As a class V myosin of epithelial cells, Myo5c is likely to power actin-based membrane trafficking in many physiologically crucial tissues of the human body.

  6. PRIMARY PEPTIDE SEQUENCES FROM SQUID MUSCLE AND OPTIC LOBE MYOSIN IIs: A STRATEGY TO IDENTIFY AN ORGANELLE MYOSIN

    PubMed Central

    MEDEIROS, NELSON A.; REESE, THOMAS S.; JAFFE, HOWARD; DEGIORGIS, JOSEPH A.; BEARER, ELAINE L.

    2013-01-01

    The squid giant axon provides an excellent model system for the study of actin-based organelle transport likely to be mediated by myosins, but the identification of these motors has proven to be difficult. Here the authors purified and obtained primary peptide sequence of squid muscle myosin as a first step in a strategy designed to identify myosins in the squid nervous system. Limited digestion yielded fourteen peptides derived from the muscle myosin which possess high amino acid sequence identities to myosin II from scallop (60–95%) and chick pectoralis muscle (31–83%). Antibodies generated to this purified muscle myosin were used to isolate a potential myosin from squid optic lobe which yielded 11 peptide fragments. Sequences from six of these fragments identified this protein as a myosin II. The other five sequences matched myosin II (50–60%, identities), and some also matched unconventional myosins (33–50%). A single band that has a molecular weight similar to the myosin purified from optic lobe copurifies with axoplasmic organelles, and, like the optic lobe myosin, this band is also recognized by the antibodies raised against squid muscle myosin II. Hence, this strategy provides an approach to the identification of a myosin associated with motile axoplasmic organelles. PMID:9878103

  7. Acetylation of Cavin-1 Promotes Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shui-Rong; Guo, Liang; Wang, Xu; Liu, Yang; Peng, Wan-Qiu; Liu, Yuan; Wei, Xiang-Bo; Dou, Xin; Ding, Meng; Lei, Qun-Ying; Qian, Shu-Wen; Li, Xi; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2017-08-15

    White adipose tissue (WAT) serves as a reversible energy storage depot in the form of lipids in response to nutritional status. Cavin-1, an essential component in the biogenesis of caveolae, is a positive regulator of lipolysis in adipocytes. However, molecular mechanisms of cavin-1 in the modulation of lipolysis remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that cavin-1 was acetylated at lysines 291, 293, and 298 (3K), which were under nutritional regulation in WAT. We further identified GCN5 as the acetyltransferase and Sirt1 as the deacetylase of cavin-1. Acetylation-mimetic 3Q mutants of cavin-1 augmented fat mobilization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and zebrafish. Mechanistically, acetylated cavin-1 preferentially interacted with hormone-sensitive lipase and recruited it to the caveolae, thereby promoting lipolysis. Our findings shed light on the essential role of cavin-1 in regulating lipolysis in an acetylation-dependent manner in WAT. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Stimulation of cortical myosin phosphorylation by p114RhoGEF drives cell migration and tumor cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Terry, Stephen J; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Zihni, Ceniz; Harris, Andrew R; Bailly, Maryse; Charras, Guillaume T; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Actinomyosin activity is an important driver of cell locomotion and has been shown to promote collective cell migration of epithelial sheets as well as single cell migration and tumor cell invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of cortical myosin to stimulate single cell movement, and the relationship between the mechanisms that drive single cell locomotion and those that mediate collective cell migration of epithelial sheets are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that p114RhoGEF, an activator of RhoA that associates with non-muscle myosin IIA, regulates collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and tumor cell invasion. Depletion of p114RhoGEF resulted in specific spatial inhibition of myosin activation at cell-cell contacts in migrating epithelial sheets and the cortex of migrating single cells, but only affected double and not single phosphorylation of myosin light chain. In agreement, overall elasticity and contractility of the cells, processes that rely on persistent and more constant forces, were not affected, suggesting that p114RhoGEF mediates process-specific myosin activation. Locomotion was p114RhoGEF-dependent on Matrigel, which favors more roundish cells and amoeboid-like actinomyosin-driven movement, but not on fibronectin, which stimulates flatter cells and lamellipodia-driven, mesenchymal-like migration. Accordingly, depletion of p114RhoGEF led to reduced RhoA, but increased Rac activity. Invasion of 3D matrices was p114RhoGEF-dependent under conditions that do not require metalloproteinase activity, supporting a role of p114RhoGEF in myosin-dependent, amoeboid-like locomotion. Our data demonstrate that p114RhoGEF drives cortical myosin activation by stimulating myosin light chain double phosphorylation and, thereby, collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and amoeboid-like motility of tumor cells.

  9. Stimulation of Cortical Myosin Phosphorylation by p114RhoGEF Drives Cell Migration and Tumor Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zihni, Ceniz; Harris, Andrew R.; Bailly, Maryse; Charras, Guillaume T.; Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Actinomyosin activity is an important driver of cell locomotion and has been shown to promote collective cell migration of epithelial sheets as well as single cell migration and tumor cell invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of cortical myosin to stimulate single cell movement, and the relationship between the mechanisms that drive single cell locomotion and those that mediate collective cell migration of epithelial sheets are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that p114RhoGEF, an activator of RhoA that associates with non-muscle myosin IIA, regulates collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and tumor cell invasion. Depletion of p114RhoGEF resulted in specific spatial inhibition of myosin activation at cell-cell contacts in migrating epithelial sheets and the cortex of migrating single cells, but only affected double and not single phosphorylation of myosin light chain. In agreement, overall elasticity and contractility of the cells, processes that rely on persistent and more constant forces, were not affected, suggesting that p114RhoGEF mediates process-specific myosin activation. Locomotion was p114RhoGEF-dependent on Matrigel, which favors more roundish cells and amoeboid-like actinomyosin-driven movement, but not on fibronectin, which stimulates flatter cells and lamellipodia-driven, mesenchymal-like migration. Accordingly, depletion of p114RhoGEF led to reduced RhoA, but increased Rac activity. Invasion of 3D matrices was p114RhoGEF-dependent under conditions that do not require metalloproteinase activity, supporting a role of p114RhoGEF in myosin-dependent, amoeboid-like locomotion. Our data demonstrate that p114RhoGEF drives cortical myosin activation by stimulating myosin light chain double phosphorylation and, thereby, collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and amoeboid-like motility of tumor cells. PMID:23185572

  10. Primary structure of myosin from the striated adductor muscle of the Atlantic scallop, Pecten maximus, and expression of the regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Janes, D P; Patel, H; Chantler, P D

    2000-01-01

    We have determined the complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences of the heavy chain, regulatory light chain and essential light chain which constitute the molecular structure of myosin from the striated adductor muscle of the scallop, Pecten maximus. The deduced amino acid sequences of P. maximus regulatory light chain, essential light chain and heavy chain comprise 156, 156 and 1940 amino acids, respectively. These myosin peptide sequences, obtained from the most common of the eastern Atlantic scallops, are compared with those from three other molluscan myosins: the striated adductor muscles of Argopecten irradians and Placopecten magellanicus, and myosin from the siphon retractor muscle of the squid, Loligo pealei. The Pecten heavy chain sequence resembles those of the other two scallop sequences to a much greater extent as compared with the squid sequence, amino acid identities being 97.5% (A. irradians), 95.6% (P. magellanicus) and 73.6% (L. pealei), respectively. Myosin heavy chain residues that are known to be important for regulation are conserved in Pecten maximus. Using these Pecten sequences, we have overexpressed the regulatory light chain, and a combination of essential light chain and myosin heavy chain fragment, separately, in E. coli BL21 (DE3) prior to recombination, thereby producing Pecten regulatory domains without recourse to proteolytic digestion. The expressed regulatory domain was shown to undergo a calcium-dependent increase (approximately 7%) in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence with a mid-point at a pCa of 6.6.

  11. Random myosin loss along thick-filaments increases myosin attachment time and the proportion of bound myosin heads to mitigate force decline in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; McNabb, Mark; Palmer, Bradley M.; Toth, Michael J.; Miller, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished skeletal muscle performance with aging, disuse, and disease may be partially attributed to the loss of myofilament proteins. Several laboratories have found a disproportionate loss of myosin protein content relative to other myofilament proteins, but due to methodological limitations, the structural manifestation of this protein loss is unknown. To investigate how variations in myosin content affect ensemble cross-bridge behavior and force production we simulated muscle contraction in the half-sarcomere as myosin was removed either i) uniformly, from the Z-line end of thick-filaments, or ii) randomly, along the length of thick-filaments. Uniform myosin removal decreased force production, showing a slightly steeper force-to-myosin content relationship than the 1:1 relationship that would be expected from the loss of cross-bridges. Random myosin removal also decreased force production, but this decrease was less than observed with uniform myosin loss, largely due to increased myosin attachment time (ton) and fractional cross-bridge binding with random myosin loss. These findings support our prior observations that prolonged ton may augment force production in single fibers with randomly reduced myosin content from chronic heart failure patients. These simulation also illustrate that the pattern of myosin loss along thick-filaments influences ensemble cross-bridge behavior and maintenance of force throughout the sarcomere. PMID:24486373

  12. Random myosin loss along thick-filaments increases myosin attachment time and the proportion of bound myosin heads to mitigate force decline in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Bertrand C W; McNabb, Mark; Palmer, Bradley M; Toth, Michael J; Miller, Mark S

    2014-06-15

    Diminished skeletal muscle performance with aging, disuse, and disease may be partially attributed to the loss of myofilament proteins. Several laboratories have found a disproportionate loss of myosin protein content relative to other myofilament proteins, but due to methodological limitations, the structural manifestation of this protein loss is unknown. To investigate how variations in myosin content affect ensemble cross-bridge behavior and force production we simulated muscle contraction in the half-sarcomere as myosin was removed either (i) uniformly, from the Z-line end of thick-filaments, or (ii) randomly, along the length of thick-filaments. Uniform myosin removal decreased force production, showing a slightly steeper force-to-myosin content relationship than the 1:1 relationship that would be expected from the loss of cross-bridges. Random myosin removal also decreased force production, but this decrease was less than observed with uniform myosin loss, largely due to increased myosin attachment time (ton) and fractional cross-bridge binding with random myosin loss. These findings support our prior observations that prolonged ton may augment force production in single fibers with randomly reduced myosin content from chronic heart failure patients. These simulations also illustrate that the pattern of myosin loss along thick-filaments influences ensemble cross-bridge behavior and maintenance of force throughout the sarcomere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An electromechanical model of myosin molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tadashi

    2003-12-21

    There is a long-running debate on the working mechanism of myosin molecular motors, which, by interacting with actin filaments, convert the chemical energy of ATP into a variety of mechanical work. After the development of technologies for observing and manipulating individual working molecules, experimental results negating the widely accepted 'lever-arm hypothesis' have been reported. In this paper, based on the experimental results so far accumulated, an alternative hypothesis is proposed, in which motor molecules are modelled as electromechanical components that interact with each other through electrostatic force. Electrostatic attractive force between myosin and actin is assumed to cause a conformational change in the myosin head during the attachment process. An elastic energy resulting from the conformational change then produces the power stroke. The energy released at the ATP hydrolysis is mainly used to detach the myosin head from actin filaments. The mechanism presented in this paper is compatible with the experimental results contradictory to the previous theories. It also explains the behavior of myosins V and VI, which are engaged in cellular transport and move processively along actin filaments.

  14. Structure and interactions of myosin-binding protein C domain C0: cardiac-specific regulation of myosin at its neck?

    PubMed

    Ratti, Joyce; Rostkova, Elena; Gautel, Mathias; Pfuhl, Mark

    2011-04-08

    Myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) is a multidomain protein present in the thick filaments of striated muscles and is involved in both sarcomere formation and contraction regulation. The latter function is believed to be located at the N terminus, which is close to the motor domain of myosin. The cardiac isoform of MyBP-C is linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Here, we use NMR spectroscopy and biophysical and biochemical assays to study the three-dimensional structure and interactions of the cardiac-specific Ig-like domain C0, a part of cardiac MyBP-C of which little is known. The structure confirmed that C0 is a member of the IgI class of proteins, showing many of the characteristic features of this fold. Moreover, we identify a novel interaction between C0 and the regulatory light chain of myosin, thus placing the N terminus of the protein in proximity to the motor domain of myosin. This novel interaction is disrupted by several cardiomyopathy-linked mutations in the MYBPC3 gene. These results provide new insights into how cardiac MyBP-C incorporates in the sarcomere and how it can contribute to the regulation of muscle contraction.

  15. Structure of the Rigor Actin-Tropomyosin-Myosin Complex

    PubMed Central

    Behrmann, Elmar; Müller, Mirco; Penczek, Pawel A.; Mannherz, Hans Georg; Manstein, Dietmar J.; Raunser, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of myosin with actin filaments is the central feature of muscle contraction and cargo movement along actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. Myosin converts the chemical energy stored in ATP into force and movement along actin filaments. Myosin binding to actin induces conformational changes that are coupled to the nucleotide-binding pocket and amplified by a specialized region of the motor domain for efficient force generation. Tropomyosin plays a key role in regulating the productive interaction between myosins and actin. Here, we report the 8 Å resolution structure of the actin-tropomyosin-myosin complex determined by cryo electron microscopy. The pseudo-atomic model of the complex obtained from fitting crystal structures into the map defines the large actin-myosin-tropomyosin interface and the molecular interactions between the proteins in detail and allows us to propose a structural model for tropomyosin dependent myosin binding to actin and actin-induced nucleotide release from myosin. PMID:22817895

  16. [Clinical relevance of myosin isoforms in the diaphragm].

    PubMed

    Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    2000-06-01

    The diaphragm as a striated muscle is characterized by the repetition of a single element arranged in series: the sarcomere containing two kinds of myofilaments: a thick one constituted by the myosin, and a thin one primarily composed of actin. The myosin molecule consists of two heads where two myosin heavy chains (MHC) are fixed, a flexible hinge with two light (MLC) chains, and long rod-shaped tails. The diaphragm contains 4 MHC isoforms (MHC-slow, MHC-2A, MHC-2B, MHC-2X) and 6 MLC isoforms (MLC-1f, MLC-3f, MLC-1sa, MLC-1sb, MLC-2f, MLC-2s/v). In humans, the diaphragm contains mainly fibers expressing the isoforms MHC-slow, MHC-2A, and MLC-2f, MLC-2s et MLC-1f. For the mechanical properties of the different isoforms, there is a gradient from the MHC-slow to the MHC-2A, MHC-2B and MHC-2X/2B. According to the circumstances, the diaphragm will adapt towards a slow profile (COPD, cardiac failure and in animals: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, denervation-1 week, age-female, corticosteroids, chronic stimulation), or a fast profile (in animals: chronic hypoxia, denervation-2 weeks, age-males) or a more oxidative profile (in animals: cachexia, obesity). The reasons why the diaphragm adapts towards a slower or a faster muscle are not known. In fact, for a given pathological situation, several factors are able to influence the fiber composition of the diaphragm. Therefore, the net result of the influence of these different factors in terms of MHC and MLC diaphragm adaptation is difficult to predict.

  17. Single Myosin Cross-Bridge Orientation in Cardiac Papillary Muscle Detects Lever-Arm Shear Strain in Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Josephson, Matthew P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley–Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons (1971) Nature 233, 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution. PMID:21819137

  18. Single myosin cross-bridge orientation in cardiac papillary muscle detects lever-arm shear strain in transduction.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Josephson, Matthew P; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-09-13

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light