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Sample records for acetylcholine ach plays

  1. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol.

  2. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs)

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Nikita; Paul, Blessy; Ragnarsson, Lotten; Lewis, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP). AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies. PMID:27304486

  3. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a comparison of the nAChRs of Caenorhabditis elegans and parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Joyner, Michelle; O'Connor, Vincent; Walker, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a key role in the normal physiology of nematodes and provide an established target site for anthelmintics. The free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, has a large number of nAChR subunit genes in its genome and so provides an experimental model for testing novel anthelmintics which act at these sites. However, many parasitic nematodes lack specific genes present in C. elegans, and so care is required in extrapolating from studies using C. elegans to the situation in other nematodes. In this review the properties of C. elegans nAChRs are reviewed and compared to those of parasitic nematodes. This forms the basis for a discussion of the possible subunit composition of nAChRs from different species of parasitic nematodes. Currently our knowledge on this is largely based on studies using heterologous expression and pharmacological analysis of receptor subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes. It is concluded that more information is required regarding the subunit composition and pharmacology of endogenous nAChRs in parasitic nematodes. PMID:23500392

  4. Functional Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Generated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Tommy S; Alvarez, Frances J D; Reinert, Nathan J; Liu, Chuang; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Kunhong; Zhang, Peijun; Tang, Pei

    2016-08-26

    Human Cys-loop receptors are important therapeutic targets. High-resolution structures are essential for rational drug design, but only a few are available due to difficulties in obtaining sufficient quantities of protein suitable for structural studies. Although expression of proteins in E. coli offers advantages of high yield, low cost, and fast turnover, this approach has not been thoroughly explored for full-length human Cys-loop receptors because of the conventional wisdom that E. coli lacks the specific chaperones and post-translational modifications potentially required for expression of human Cys-loop receptors. Here we report the successful production of full-length wild type human α7nAChR from E. coli Chemically induced chaperones promote high expression levels of well-folded proteins. The choice of detergents, lipids, and ligands during purification determines the final protein quality. The purified α7nAChR not only forms pentamers as imaged by negative-stain electron microscopy, but also retains pharmacological characteristics of native α7nAChR, including binding to bungarotoxin and positive allosteric modulators specific to α7nAChR. Moreover, the purified α7nAChR injected into Xenopus oocytes can be activated by acetylcholine, choline, and nicotine, inhibited by the channel blockers QX-222 and phencyclidine, and potentiated by the α7nAChR specific modulators PNU-120596 and TQS. The successful generation of functional human α7nAChR from E. coli opens a new avenue for producing mammalian Cys-loop receptors to facilitate structure-based rational drug design. PMID:27385587

  5. Photolabeling a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) with an (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR-Selective Positive Allosteric Modulator.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Deba, Farah; Wang, Ze-Jun; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2016-05-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) have potential clinical applications in the treatment of nicotine dependence and many neuropsychiatric conditions associated with decreased brain cholinergic activity, and 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrrazol-4-yl)isoxazole (CMPI) has been identified as a PAM selective for neuronal nAChRs containing theα4 subunit. In this report, we compare CMPI interactions with low-sensitivity (α4)3(β2)2 and high-sensitivity (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs, and with muscle-type nAChRs. In addition, we use the intrinsic reactivity of [(3)H]CMPI upon photolysis at 312 nm to identify its binding sites inTorpedonAChRs. Recording fromXenopusoocytes, we found that CMPI potentiated maximally the responses of (α4)3(β2)2nAChR to 10μM ACh (EC10) by 400% and with anEC50of ∼1µM. CMPI produced a left shift of the ACh concentration-response curve without altering ACh efficacy. In contrast, CMPI inhibited (∼35% at 10µM) ACh responses of (α4)2(β2)3nAChRs and fully inhibited human muscle andTorpedonAChRs with IC50values of ∼0.5µM. Upon irradiation at 312 nm, [(3)H]CMPI photoincorporated into eachTorpedo[(α1)2β1γδ] nAChR subunit. Sequencing of peptide fragments isolated from [(3)H]CMPI-photolabeled nAChR subunits established photolabeling of amino acids contributing to the ACh binding sites (αTyr(190),αTyr(198),γTrp(55),γTyr(111),γTyr(117),δTrp(57)) that was fully inhibitable by agonist and lower-efficiency, state-dependent [(3)H]CMPI photolabeling within the ion channel. Our results establish that CMPI is a potent potentiator of nAChRs containing anα4:α4 subunit interface, and that its intrinsic photoreactivy makes it of potential use to identify its binding sites in the (α4)3(β2)2nAChR. PMID:26976945

  6. The regulation of hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) after a protracted treatment with selective or nonselective nAChR agonists.

    PubMed

    Auta, J; Longone, P; Guidotti, A; Costa, E

    1999-01-01

    In rats, 1 mg/kg twice daily for 10 d of nicotine, a nonselective agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), fails to change alpha4 and beta2 nAChR subunit mRNA but significantly decreased alpha7 nAChR subunit mRNA and protein expression, which is associated with a 35-40% decrease in the number of 125I-alpha-Bgtx binding sites in hippocampus. In addition, this schedule of nicotine treatment produced a 40% increase in the number of high- (K(D) 1 nM), but decreased by 25% the number of low-affinity (K(D) 30 nM) binding sites for 3H-epibatidine in hippocampus. In contrast, repeated treatment with lobeline (2.7 mg/kg twice daily for 10 d), which selectively binds to high-affinity binding nAChRs, fails to change the expression of high- or low-affinity nAChRs. These data suggest that a simultaneous upregulation of high-affinity nAChRs and downregulation of low-affinity nAChRs is elicited by ligands that can bind to both low- and high-affinity nAChRs, but not by selective agonists of high-affinity nAChRs. One might infer that in hippocampus, high- and low-affinity nAChRs may be located in the same cells. When these two receptor types are stimulated simultaneously by nonselective ligands for high- and low-affinity nAChRs, they interact, bringing about an increase in binding site density of the high-affinity nAChRs.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of cellular prion protein (PrPC) is related with activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR)-mediated autophagy flux.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-09-22

    Activation of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) is regulated by prion protein (PrPC) expression and has a neuroprotective effect by modulating autophagic flux. In this study, we hypothesized that PrPC may regulate α7nAchR activation and that may prevent prion-related neurodegenerative diseases by regulating autophagic flux. PrP(106-126) treatment decreased α7nAchR expression and activation of autophagic flux. In addition, the α7nAchR activator PNU-282987 enhanced autophagic flux and protected neuron cells against PrP(106-126)-induced apoptosis. However, activation of autophagy and the protective effects of PNU-282987 were inhibited in PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells. In addition, PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells showed decreased α7nAchR expression levels. Adenoviral overexpression of PrPC in PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells resulted in activation of autophagic flux and inhibition of prion peptide-mediated cell death via α7nAchR activation. This is the first report demonstrating that activation of α7nAchR-mediated autophagic flux is regulated by PrPC, and that activation of α7nAchR regulated by PrPC expression may play a pivotal role in protection of neuron cells against prion peptide-induced neuron cell death by autophagy. These results suggest that α7nAchR-mediated autophagic flux may be involved in the pathogenesis of prion-related diseases and may be a therapeutic target for prion-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of cellular prion protein (PrPC) is related with activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR)-mediated autophagy flux.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-09-22

    Activation of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) is regulated by prion protein (PrPC) expression and has a neuroprotective effect by modulating autophagic flux. In this study, we hypothesized that PrPC may regulate α7nAchR activation and that may prevent prion-related neurodegenerative diseases by regulating autophagic flux. PrP(106-126) treatment decreased α7nAchR expression and activation of autophagic flux. In addition, the α7nAchR activator PNU-282987 enhanced autophagic flux and protected neuron cells against PrP(106-126)-induced apoptosis. However, activation of autophagy and the protective effects of PNU-282987 were inhibited in PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells. In addition, PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells showed decreased α7nAchR expression levels. Adenoviral overexpression of PrPC in PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells resulted in activation of autophagic flux and inhibition of prion peptide-mediated cell death via α7nAchR activation. This is the first report demonstrating that activation of α7nAchR-mediated autophagic flux is regulated by PrPC, and that activation of α7nAchR regulated by PrPC expression may play a pivotal role in protection of neuron cells against prion peptide-induced neuron cell death by autophagy. These results suggest that α7nAchR-mediated autophagic flux may be involved in the pathogenesis of prion-related diseases and may be a therapeutic target for prion-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26295309

  9. Selective activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7) inhibits muscular degeneration in mdx dystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Paulo Emílio Correa; Gandía, Luís; de Pascual, Ricardo; Nanclares, Carmen; Colmena, Inés; Santos, Wilson C; Lagrota-Candido, Jussara; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2014-07-21

    Amount evidence indicates that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7) activation reduces production of inflammatory mediators. This work aimed to verify the influence of endogenous nAChRα7 activation on the regulation of full-blown muscular inflammation in mdx mouse with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We used mdx mice with 3 weeks-old at the height myonecrosis, and C57 nAChRα7(+/+) wild-type and nAChRα7(-/-) knockout mice with muscular injury induced with 60µL 0.5% bupivacaine (bp) in the gastrocnemius muscle. Pharmacological treatment included selective nAChRα7 agonist PNU282987 (0.3mg/kg and 1.0mg/kg) and the antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA at 1.0mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally for 7 days. Selective nAChRα7 activation of mdx mice with PNU282987 reduced circulating levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, a marker of cell death by necrosis) and the area of perivascular inflammatory infiltrate, and production of inflammatory mediators TNFα and metalloprotease MMP-9 activity. Conversely, PNU282987 treatment increased MMP-2 activity, an indication of muscular tissue remodeling associated with regeneration, in both mdx mice and WTα7 mice with bp-induced muscular lesion. Treatment with PNU282987 had no effect on α7KO, and MLA abolished the nAChRα7 agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effect in both mdx and WT. In conclusion, nAChRα7 activation inhibits muscular inflammation and activates tissue remodeling by increasing muscular regeneration. These effects were not accompanied with fibrosis and/or deposition of non-functional collagen. The nAChRα7 activation may be considered as a potential target for pharmacological strategies to reduce inflammation and activate mechanisms of muscular regeneration. PMID:24833065

  10. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at zebrafish red and white muscle show different properties during development.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kazi T; Ali, Declan W

    2016-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly expressed at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where they are required for muscle activation. Understanding the factors that underlie NMJ development is critical for a full understanding of muscle function. In this study we performed whole cell and outside-out patch clamp recordings, and single-cell RT-qPCR from zebrafish red and white muscle to examine the properties of nAChRs during the first 5 days of development. In red fibers miniature endplate currents (mEPCs) exhibit single exponential time courses at 1.5 days postfertilization (dpf) and double exponential time courses from 2 dpf onwards. In white fibers, mEPCs decay relatively slowly, with a single exponential component at 1.5 dpf. By 2 and 3 dpf, mEPC kinetics speed up, and decay with a double exponential component, and by 4 dpf the exponential decay reverts back to a single component. Single channel recordings confirm the presence of two main conductance classes of nAChRs (∼45 pS and ∼65 pS) in red fibers with multiple time courses. Two main conductance classes are also present in white fibers (∼55 pS and ∼73 pS), but they exhibit shorter mean open times by 5 dpf compared with red muscle. RT-qPCR of mRNA for nicotinic receptor subunits supports a switch from γ to ε subunits in white fibers but not in red. Our findings provide a developmental profile of mEPC properties from red and white fibers in embryonic and larval zebrafish, and reveal previously unknown differences between the NMJs of these muscle fibers.© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 916-936, 2016.

  11. Association between Anti-Ganglionic Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (gAChR) Antibodies and HLA-DRB1 Alleles in the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Migita, Kiyoshi; Higuchi, Osamu; Mukaino, Akihiro; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Komori, Atsumasa; Nakamura, Minoru; Hashimoto, Satoru; Nagaoka, Shinya; Abiru, Seigo; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hidenori; Kawakami, Atsushi; Yasunami, Michio; Nakane, Shunya

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Anti-ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR) antibodies are observed in autoimmune diseases, as well as in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. However, the genetic background of anti-gAChR antibodies is unclear. Here, we investigated HLA alleles in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients with or without anti-gAChR antibodies. Methodology/Principal Findings Genomic DNA from 260 patients with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) were genotyped for HLA-A, B, DRB1, and DQB1 loci. Anti-gAChR antibodies in the sera form AIH patients were measured using the luciferase immunoprecipitation system, and examined allelic association in patients with or without anti-gAChR antibodies. Methodology/ Methods We detected anti-α3 or -β4 gAChR antibodies in 11.5% (30/260) of patients with AIH. Among AIH patients there was no significant association between HLA-A, B DQB1 alleles and the positivity for anti-gAChR antibodies. Whereas the HLA-DRB1*0403 allele showed a significantly increased frequency in AIH patients with anti-gAChR antibodies compared with those without anti-gAChR antibodies. Conclusions/Significance The frequency of the HLA-DRB1*0403 allele differed among Japanese patients with AIH according to the presence or absence of anti-gAChR antibodies. Our findings suggest that particular HLA class II molecules might control the development of anti-gAChR antibodies in the autoimmune response to gAChR. PMID:26807576

  12. Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Clustering Is Regulated Both by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK3β)-dependent Phosphorylation and the Level of CLIP-associated Protein 2 (CLASP2) Mediating the Capture of Microtubule Plus-ends*

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sreya; Sladecek, Stefan; Pemble, Hayley; Wittmann, Torsten; Slotman, Johan A.; van Cappellen, Wiggert; Brenner, Hans-Rudolf; Galjart, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The postsynaptic apparatus of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) traps and anchors acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at high density at the synapse. We have previously shown that microtubule (MT) capture by CLASP2, a MT plus-end-tracking protein (+TIP), increases the size and receptor density of AChR clusters at the NMJ through the delivery of AChRs and that this is regulated by a pathway involving neuronal agrin and several postsynaptic kinases, including GSK3. Phosphorylation by GSK3 has been shown to cause CLASP2 dissociation from MT ends, and nine potential phosphorylation sites for GSK3 have been mapped on CLASP2. How CLASP2 phosphorylation regulates MT capture at the NMJ and how this controls the size of AChR clusters are not yet understood. To examine this, we used myotubes cultured on agrin patches that induce AChR clustering in a two-dimensional manner. We show that expression of a CLASP2 mutant, in which the nine GSK3 target serines are mutated to alanine (CLASP2–9XS/9XA) and are resistant to GSK3β-dependent phosphorylation, promotes MT capture at clusters and increases AChR cluster size, compared with myotubes that express similar levels of wild type CLASP2 or that are noninfected. Conversely, myotubes expressing a phosphomimetic form of CLASP2 (CLASP2–8XS/D) show enrichment of immobile mutant CLASP2 in clusters, but MT capture and AChR cluster size are reduced. Taken together, our data suggest that both GSK3β-dependent phosphorylation and the level of CLASP2 play a role in the maintenance of AChR cluster size through the regulated capture and release of MT plus-ends. PMID:25231989

  13. Conotoxin Interactions with α9α10-nAChRs: Is the α9α10-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor an Important Therapeutic Target for Pain Management?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Sarasa A.; Christie, MacDonald J.

    2015-01-01

    The α9α10-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated in pain and has been proposed to be a novel target for analgesics. However, the evidence to support the involvement of the α9α10-nAChR in pain is conflicted. This receptor was first implicated in pain with the characterisation of conotoxin Vc1.1, which is highly selective for α9α10-nAChRs and is an efficacious analgesic in chronic pain models with restorative capacities and no reported side effects. Numerous other analgesic conotoxin and non-conotoxin molecules have been subsequently characterised that also inhibit α9α10-nAChRs. However, there is evidence that α9α10-nAChR inhibition is neither necessary nor sufficient for analgesia. α9α10-nAChR-inhibiting analogues of Vc1.1 have no analgesic effects. Genetically-modified α9-nAChR knockout mice have a phenotype that is markedly different from the analgesic profile of Vc1.1 and similar conotoxins, suggesting that the conotoxin effects are largely independent of α9α10-nAChRs. Furthermore, an alternative mechanism of analgesia by Vc1.1 and other similar conotoxins involving non-canonical coupling of GABAB receptors to voltage-gated calcium channels is known. Additional incongruities regarding α9α10-nAChRs in analgesia are discussed. A more comprehensive characterisation of the role of α9α10-nAChRs in pain is crucial for understanding the analgesic action of conotoxins and for improved drug design. PMID:26426047

  14. Biochemical and functional properties of distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the superior cervical ganglion of mice with targeted deletions of nAChR subunit genes.

    PubMed

    David, Reinhard; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna; Simeone, Xenia; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Papke, Roger L; McIntosh, J M; Huck, Sigismund; Scholze, Petra

    2010-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic transmission in ganglia of the autonomic nervous system. Here, we determined the subunit composition of hetero-pentameric nAChRs in the mouse superior cervical ganglion (SCG), the function of distinct receptors (obtained by deletions of nAChR subunit genes) and mechanisms at the level of nAChRs that might compensate for the loss of subunits. As shown by immunoprecipitation and Western blots, wild-type (WT) mice expressed: alpha 3 beta 4 (55%), alpha 3 beta 4 alpha 5 (24%) and alpha 3 beta 4 beta 2 (21%) nAChRs. nAChRs in beta 4 knockout (KO) mice were reduced to < 15% of controls and no longer contained the alpha 5 subunit. Compound action potentials, recorded from the postganglionic (internal carotid) nerve and induced by preganglionic nerve stimulation, did not differ between alpha 5 beta 4 KO and WT mice, suggesting that the reduced number of receptors in the KO mice did not impair transganglionic transmission. Deletions of alpha 5 or beta2 did not affect the overall number of receptors and we found no evidence that the two subunits substitute for each other. In addition, dual KOs allowed us to study the functional properties of distinct alpha 3 beta4 and alpha 3 beta 2 receptors that have previously only been investigated in heterologous expression systems. The two receptors strikingly differed in the decay of macroscopic currents, the efficacy of cytisine, and their responses to the alpha-conotoxins AuIB and MII. Our data, based on biochemical and functional experiments and several mouse KO models, clarify and significantly extend previous observations on the function of nAChRs in heterologous systems and the SCG. PMID:20377613

  15. Activation of the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAchR) reverses referred mechanical hyperalgesia induced by colonic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Costa, Robson; Motta, Emerson M; Manjavachi, Marianne N; Cola, Maíra; Calixto, João B

    2012-10-01

    In the current study, we investigated the effect of the activation of the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAchR) on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and referred mechanical hyperalgesia in mice. Colitis was induced in CD1 male mice through the intake of 4% DSS in tap water for 7 days. Control mice received unadulterated water. Referred mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated for 7 days after the beginning of 4% DSS intake. Referred mechanical hyperalgesia started within 1 day after beginning DSS drinking, peaked at 3 days and persisted for 7 days. This time course profile perfectly matched with the appearance of signs of colitis. Both acute and chronic oral treatments with nicotine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, p.o.) were effective in inhibiting the established referred mechanical hyperalgesia. The antinociceptive effect of nicotine was completely abrogated by cotreatment with the selective α7 nAchR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) (1.0 mg/kg). Consistent with these results, i.p. treatment with the selective α7 nAchR agonist PNU 282987 (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) reduced referred mechanical hyperalgesia at all periods of evaluation. Despite their antinociceptive effects, nicotinic agonists did not affect DSS-induced colonic damage or inflammation. Taken together, the data generated in the present study show the potential relevance of using α7 nAchR agonists to treat referred pain and discomfort associated with inflammatory bowel diseases.

  16. Non-neuronal release of ACh plays a key role in secretory response to luminal propionate in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Takaji; Inoue, Ryo; Matsumoto, Megumi; Yajima, Masako

    2011-02-15

    Colonic chloride secretion is induced by chemical stimuli via the enteric nervous reflex. We have previously demonstrated that propionate stimulates chloride secretion via sensory and cholinergic systems of the mucosa in rat distal colon. In this study, we demonstrate non-neuronal release of ACh in the secretory response to propionate using an Ussing chamber. Mucosa preparations from the colon, not including the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, were used. Luminal addition of propionate and serosal addition of ACh caused biphasic changes in short-circuit current (Isc). TTX (1 μm) had no effects, while atropine (10 μm) significantly inhibited the Isc response to propionate and abolished that to ACh. In response to luminal propionate stimulation, ACh was released into the serosal fluid. A linear relationship was observed between the maximal increase in Isc and the amounts of ACh released 5 min after propionate stimulation. This ACh release induced by propionate was not affected by atropine and bumetanide, although both drugs significantly reduced the Isc responses to propionate. Luminal addition of 3-chloropropionate, an inactive analogue of propionate, abolished both ACh release and Isc response produced by propionate. RT-PCR analysis indicated that isolated crypt cells from the distal colon expressed an enzyme of ACh synthesis (ChAT) and transporters of organic cation (OCTs), but not neuronal CHT1 and VAChT. The isolated crypt cells contained comparable amounts of ACh to the residual muscle tissues including nerve plexuses. In conclusion, the non-neuronal release of ACh from colonocytes coupled with propionate stimulation plays a key role in chloride secretion, via the paracrine action of ACh on muscarinic receptors of colonocytes.

  17. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Machaalani, R.; Ghazavi, E.; Hinton, T.; Waters, K.A.; Hennessy, A.

    2014-05-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta.

  18. Investigation of Acetylcholine Receptor Diversity in a Nematode Parasite Leads to Characterization of Tribendimidine- and Derquantel-Sensitive nAChRs

    PubMed Central

    Neveu, Cedric; Cabaret, Jacques; Cortet, Jacques; Peineau, Nicolas; Abongwa, Melanie; Courtot, Elise; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of parasitic nematodes are required for body movement and are targets of important “classical” anthelmintics like levamisole and pyrantel, as well as “novel” anthelmintics like tribendimidine and derquantel. Four biophysical subtypes of nAChR have been observed electrophysiologically in body muscle of the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum, but their molecular basis was not understood. Additionally, loss of one of these subtypes (G 35 pS) was found to be associated with levamisole resistance. In the present study, we identified and expressed in Xenopus oocytes, four O. dentatum nAChR subunit genes, Ode-unc-38, Ode-unc-63, Ode-unc-29 and Ode-acr-8, to explore the origin of the receptor diversity. When different combinations of subunits were injected in Xenopus oocytes, we reconstituted and characterized four pharmacologically different types of nAChRs with different sensitivities to the cholinergic anthelmintics. Moreover, we demonstrate that the receptor diversity may be affected by the stoichiometric arrangement of the subunits. We show, for the first time, different combinations of subunits from a parasitic nematode that make up receptors sensitive to tribendimidine and derquantel. In addition, we report that the recombinant levamisole-sensitive receptor made up of Ode-UNC-29, Ode-UNC-63, Ode-UNC-38 and Ode-ACR-8 subunits has the same single-channel conductance, 35 pS and 2.4 ms mean open-time properties, as the levamisole-AChR (G35) subtype previously identified in vivo. These data highlight the flexible arrangements of the receptor subunits and their effects on sensitivity and resistance to the cholinergic anthelmintics; pyrantel, tribendimidine and/or derquantel may still be effective on levamisole-resistant worms. PMID:24497826

  19. Effect of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 1 (nAChRα1) peptides on rabies virus infection in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Saxena, Shikha; Bisht, Deepika; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Manjunatha Reddy, G B; Singh, Rajendra; Singh, R P; Kumar, Satish

    2016-06-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) is neurotropic and causes acute progressive encephalitis. Herein, we report the interaction of nAChRα1-subunit peptides with RABV and the effect of these peptides on RABV infection in cultured neuronal cells. Peptide sequences derived from torpedo, bovine, human and rats were synthesized and studied for their interactions with RABV using virus capture ELISA and peptide immunofluorescence. The results showed specific binding of the nAChRα1-subunit peptides to the RABV. In the virus adsorption assay, these peptides were found to inhibit the attachment of the RABV to the neuronal cells. The nAChRα1-subunit peptides inhibited the RABV infection and reduced viral gene expression in the cultured neuroblastoma (N2A) cells. Torpedo peptide sequence (T-32) had highest antiviral effect (IC50=14±3.01μM) compared to the other peptides studied. The results of the study indicated that nAChRα1-subunit peptides may act as receptor decoy molecules and inhibit the binding of virus to the native host cell receptors and hence may reduce viral infection. PMID:26656837

  20. Rodent habenulo-interpeduncular pathway expresses a large variety of uncommon nAChR subtypes, but only the α3β4* and α3β3β4* subtypes mediate acetylcholine release

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Sharon R.; Moretti, Milena; Zoli, Michele; Marks, Michael J.; Zanardi, Alessio; Pucci, Luca; Clementi, Francesco; Gotti, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) present in the habenulo-interpeduncular (Hb-IPn) system can modulate the reinforcing effect of addictive drugs and the anxiolytic effect of nicotine. Hb and IPn neurons express mRNAs for most nAChR subunits thus making it difficult to establish the subunit composition of functional receptors. We used immunoprecipitation and immunopurification studies performed in rat, and wildtype (+/+) and β2 knockout (−/−) mice to establish that the Hb and IPn contain significant β2* and β4* populations of nAChR receptors (each of which is heterogeneous). The β4* nAChR are more highly expressed in the IPn. We also identified novel native subtypes (α2β2*, α4β3β2*α3β3β4*, α6β3β4*). Our studies on IPn synaptosomes obtained from +/+ and α2, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2, β3 and β4−/− mice, show that only the α3β4 and α3β3β4 subtypes facilitate acetylcholine (ACh) release. Ligand binding, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting studies in β3−/− mice showed that in the IPn of these mice there is a concomitant reduction of ACh release and α3β4* receptors, while the receptor number remains the same in the Hb. We suggest that in habenular cholinergic neurons the β3 subunit may be important for transporting the α3β4* subtype from the medial habenula (MHb) to the IPn. Overall, these studies highlight the presence of a wealth of uncommon nAChR subtypes in the Hb-IPn system and identify α3β4 and α3β3β4, transported from the Hb and highly enriched in the IPn, as the subtypes modulating ACh release in the IPn. PMID:19228980

  1. Acetylcholine as a signaling system to environmental stimuli in plants. III. Asymmetric solute distribution controlled by ACh in gravistimulated maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Momonoki, Y S; Hineno, C; Noguchi, K

    1998-01-01

    Asymmetric distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has previously been demonstrated to occur in the lower side of the gravity-stimulated maize shoot. The localization of immunoreacted IAA-inositol synthase, AChE and safranin was detected in selected organs of gravistimulated dark grown maize seedlings using a light microscope. Immunoreacted IAA-inositol synthase was asymmetrically distributed in the lower side of the stele of coleoptile node and mesocotyl in maize seedlings placed horizontally. The positive AChE spots in the coleoptile node and mesocotyl were apparently localized in the lower half of the gravistimulated seedlings. Safranin was also asymmetrically distributed in the lower half of the endodermis and stele cells of coleoptile node and mesocotyl. Namely, transport of safranin in the upper half of the coleoptile node and mesocotyl was blocked by gravistimulation. Furthermore, the asymmetric distribution of immunoreacted IAA-inositol synthase was inhibited by neostigmine bromide, AChE inhibitor. These results show that an asymmetric environmental stimulus induces changes in AChE activity, affecting IAA-inositol synthase localization and safranin transport. PMID:12162322

  2. A selective molecularly imprinted polymer for immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE): an active enzyme targeted and efficient method.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Gökhan; Doğaç, Yasemin İspirli; Teke, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we immobilized acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme onto acetylcholine removed imprinted polymer and acetylcholine containing polymer. First, the polymers were produced with acetylcholine, substrate of AChE, by dispersion polymerization. Then, the enzyme was immobilized onto the polymers by using two different methods: In the first method (method A), acetylcholine was removed from the polymer, and then AChE was immobilized onto this polymer (acetylcholine removed imprinted polymer). In the second method (method B), AChE was immobilized onto acetylcholine containing polymer by affinity. In method A, enzyme-specific species (binding sites) occurred by removing acetylcholine from the polymer. The immobilized AChE reached 240% relative specific activity comparison with free AChE because the active enzyme molecules bounded onto the polymer. Transmission electron microscopy results were taken before and after immobilization of AChE for the assessment of morphological structure of polymer. Also, the experiments, which include optimum temperature (25-65 °C), optimum pH (3-10), thermal stability (4-70 °C), kinetic parameters, operational stability and reusability, were performed to determine the characteristic of the immobilized AChE.

  3. Effect of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChR located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The...

  4. The 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold for subtype selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands. Part 1: the influence of different hydrogen bond acceptor systems on alkyl and (hetero)aryl substituents.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Christoph; Tomassoli, Isabelle; Munoz, Lenka; Stokes, Clare; Papke, Roger L; Gündisch, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    3,7-Diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane is a naturally occurring scaffold interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). When one nitrogen of the 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold was implemented in a carboxamide motif displaying a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) functionality, compounds with higher affinities and subtype selectivity for α4β2(∗) were obtained. The nature of the HBA system (carboxamide, sulfonamide, urea) had a strong impact on nAChR interaction. High affinity ligands for α4β2(∗) possessed small alkyl chains, small un-substituted hetero-aryl groups or para-substituted phenyl ring systems along with a carboxamide group. Electrophysiological responses of selected 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane derivatives to Xenopus oocytes expressing various nAChR subtypes showed diverse activation profiles. Compounds with strongest agonistic profiles were obtained with small alkyl groups whereas a shift to partial agonism/antagonism was observed for aryl substituents. PMID:24156938

  5. α4β2 nicotinic receptors play a role in the nAChR-mediated decline in L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    Quik, Maryka; Campos, Carla; Bordia, Tanuja; Strachan, Jon-Paul; Zhang, Jenny; McIntosh, J. Michael; Letchworth, Sharon; Jordan, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    L-dopa-induced dyskinesias are a serious long-term side effect of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease for which there are few treatment options. Our previous studies showed that nicotine decreased L-dopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs). Subsequent work with knockout mice demonstrated that α6β2* nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) play a key role. The present experiments were done to determine if α4β2* nAChRs are also involved in L-dopa-induced dyskinesias. To approach this, we took advantage of the finding that α6β2* nAChRs are predominantly present on striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals, while a significant population of α4β2* nAChRs are located on other neurons. Thus, a severe dopaminergic lesion would cause a major loss in α6β2*, but not α4β2* nAChRs. Experiments were therefore done in which rats were unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine, at a dose that lead to severe nigrostriatal damage. The dopamine transporter, a dopamine nerve terminal marker, was decreased by >99%. This lesion also decreased striatal α6β2* nAChRs by 97%, while α4β2* nAChRs were reduced by only 12% compared to control. A series of β2* nAChR compounds, including TC-2696, TI-10165, TC-8831, TC-10600 and sazetidine reduced L-dopa-induced AIMs in these rats by 23–32%. TC-2696, TI-10165, TC-8831 were also tested for parkinsonism, with no effect on this behavior. Tolerance did not develop with up to 3 months of treatment. Since α4a5β2 nAChRs are also predominantly on striatal dopamine terminals, these data suggest that drugs targeting α4β2 nAChRs may reduce L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in late stage Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23583932

  6. Heterogeneity of endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine in canine femoral arteries and veins. Separation of the role played by endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Rubanyi, G M; Vanhoutte, P M

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether heterogeneity in endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine between canine blood vessels of different anatomical origin reflects variations in endothelial function or in responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle cells. Experiments were conducted in a bioassay system, where segments of femoral artery or vein with endothelium were perfused intraluminally and the perfusate used to superfuse rings of femoral arteries or veins without endothelium. Indomethacin was present in all experiments to prevent the synthesis of prostanoids. The blood vessels were contracted by phenylephrine. Measurement of wall tension in both the perfused segment and bioassay ring allowed simultaneous detection of endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s) released abluminally (segment) and intraluminally (ring). Intraluminal infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) induced relaxations in the perfused artery but not in vein segments. During arterial superfusion ACh induced relaxation in femoral arterial rings but contraction in venous rings. After treatment with atropine the arterial perfusate evoked relaxations in venous rings. Infusion of ACh through the femoral vein evoked only moderate relaxations in arterial rings. These data demonstrate that depressed endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh in femoral veins compared to femoral arteries is due to a masking effect of the direct stimulating action of ACh and decreased release of the same mediator or the release of a different relaxing factor from venous endothelium.

  7. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  8. The Oncogenic Functions of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels that are expressed in the cell membrane of all mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Recent findings suggest that nAChRs not only mediate nicotine addiction in the brain but also contribute to the development and progression of cancers directly induced by nicotine and its derived carcinogenic nitrosamines whereas deregulation of the nAChRs is observed in many cancers, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate that SNPs nAChRs associate with risks of lung cancers and nicotine addiction. Emerging evidences suggest nAChRs are posited at the central regulatory loops of numerous cell growth and prosurvival signal pathways and also mediate the synthesis and release of stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters induced by their agonists. Thus nAChRs mediated cell signaling plays an important role in stimulating the growth and angiogenic and neurogenic factors and mediating oncogenic signal transduction during cancer development in a cell type specific manner. In this review, we provide an integrated view of nAChRs signaling in cancer, heightening on the oncogenic properties of nAChRs that may be targeted for cancer treatment. PMID:26981122

  9. The Oncogenic Functions of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels that are expressed in the cell membrane of all mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Recent findings suggest that nAChRs not only mediate nicotine addiction in the brain but also contribute to the development and progression of cancers directly induced by nicotine and its derived carcinogenic nitrosamines whereas deregulation of the nAChRs is observed in many cancers, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate that SNPs nAChRs associate with risks of lung cancers and nicotine addiction. Emerging evidences suggest nAChRs are posited at the central regulatory loops of numerous cell growth and prosurvival signal pathways and also mediate the synthesis and release of stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters induced by their agonists. Thus nAChRs mediated cell signaling plays an important role in stimulating the growth and angiogenic and neurogenic factors and mediating oncogenic signal transduction during cancer development in a cell type specific manner. In this review, we provide an integrated view of nAChRs signaling in cancer, heightening on the oncogenic properties of nAChRs that may be targeted for cancer treatment. PMID:26981122

  10. Role of mouse cerebellar nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α(4)β(2)- and α(7) subtypes in the behavioral cross-tolerance between nicotine and ethanol-induced ataxia.

    PubMed

    Taslim, Najla; Soderstrom, Ken; Dar, M Saeed

    2011-03-01

    We have demonstrated that nicotine attenuated ethanol-induced ataxia via nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor (nAChR) subtypes α(4)β(2) and α(7). In the present study, ethanol (2g/kg; i.p.)-induced ataxia was assessed by Rotorod performance following repeated intracerebellar infusion of α(4)β(2)- and α(7)-selective agonists. Localization of α(4)β(2) and α(7) nAChRs was confirmed immunohistochemically. Cerebellar NO(x) (nitrite+nitrate) was determined flurometrically. Repeated intracerebellar microinfusion of the α(4)β(2)-selective agonist, RJR-2403 (for 1, 2, 3, 5 or 7 days) or the α(7)-selective agonist, PNU-282987 (1, 2, 3 or 5 days), dose-dependently attenuated ethanol-induced ataxia. These results suggest the development of cross-tolerance between ethanol-induced ataxia and α(4)β(2) and α(7) nAChR agonists. With RJR-2403, the cross-tolerance was maximal after a 5-day treatment and lasted 48h. Cross-tolerance was maximal after a 1-day treatment with PNU-282987 and lasted 72h. Pretreatment with α(4)β(2)- and α(7)-selective antagonists, dihydro-β-erythroidine and methyllycaconitine, respectively, prevented the development of cross-tolerance confirming α(4)β(2) and α(7) involvement. Repeated agonist infusions elevated cerebellar NO(x) 16h after the last treatment while acute ethanol exposure decreased it. Pretreatment with repeated RJR-2403 or PNU-282987 reversed ethanol-induced decrease in NOx. The NO(x) data suggests the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP signaling pathway in the cross-tolerance that develops between α(4)β(2)- and α(7)-selective agonists and ethanol ataxia. Both α(4)β(2) and α(7) subtypes exhibited high immunoreactivity in Purkinje but sparse expression in molecular and granular cell layers. Our results support a role for α(4)β(2) and α(7) nAChR subtypes in the development of cross-tolerance between nicotine and ethanol with the NO signaling pathway as a potential mechanism.

  11. Spatial and intracellular relationships between the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the prefrontal cortex of rat and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Aine M.; Zhou, Ping; Milner, Teresa A.; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2009-01-01

    The alpha-7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is expressed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region where these receptors are implicated in cognitive function and in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Activation of this receptor is dependent on release of acetylcholine (ACh) from axon terminals that contain the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Since rat and mouse models are widely used for studies of specific abnormalities in schizophrenia, we sought to determine the subcellular location of the α7nAChR with respect to VAChT storage vesicles in axon terminals in the PFC in both species. For this, we used dual electron microscopic immunogold and immunoperoxidase labeling of antisera raised against the α7nAChR and VAChT. In both species, the α7nAChR-immunoreactivity (-ir) was principally identified within dendrites and dendritic spines, receptive to axon terminals forming asymmetric excitatory-type synapses, but lacking detectable α7nAChR or VAChT-ir. Quantitative analysis of the rat PFC revealed that of α7nAChR labeled neuronal profiles, 65% (299/463) were postsynaptic structures (dendrites and dendritic spine) and only 22% (104/463) were axon terminals or small unmyelinated axons. In contrast, VAChT was principally localized to varicose vesicle-filled axonal profiles, without recognized synaptic specializations (n = 240). Of the α7nAChR-labeled axons, 47% (37/79) also contained VAChT, suggesting that ACh release is autoregulated through the presynaptic α7nAChR. The VAChT-labeled terminals rarely formed synapses, but frequently apposed α7nAChR-containing neuronal profiles. These results suggest that in rodent PFC, the α7nAChR plays a major role in modulation of the postsynaptic excitation in spiny dendrites in contact with VAChT containing axons. PMID:19374941

  12. Nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induce cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human gastric cancer cells: Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Vivian Yvonne; Jin, H.C.; Ng, Enders K.O.; Yu Jun; Leung, W.K.; Cho, C.H.; Sung, J.J.Y.

    2008-12-01

    Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associates with cigarette smoke exposure in many malignancies. Nicotine and its derivative, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are the two important components in cigarette smoke that contributes to cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which nicotine or NNK promotes gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We found that nicotine and NNK significantly enhanced cell proliferation in AGS cells that expressed both alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7 nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Treatment of cells with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX, {alpha}7nAChR antagonist) or propranolol ({beta}-adrenergic receptor antagonist) blocked NNK-induced COX-2/PGE{sub 2} and cell proliferation, while nicotine-mediated cell growth and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} induction can only be suppressed by propranolol, but not {alpha}-BTX. Moreover, in contrast to the dependence of growth promoting effect of nicotine on Erk activation, inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) repressed NNK-induced COX-2 upregulation and resulted in suppression of cell growth. In addition, nicotine and NNK mediated COX-2 induction via different receptors to modulate several G1/S transition regulatory proteins and promote gastric cancer cell growth. Selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) caused G1 arrest and abrogated nicotine/NNK-induced cell proliferation. Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 and other G1 regulatory proteins are reversed by blockade of COX-2. These results pointed to the importance of adrenergic and nicotinic receptors in gastric tumor growth through MAPK/COX-2 activation, which may perhaps provide a chemoprevention strategy for cigarette smoke-related gastric carcinogenesis.

  13. AChE inhibition: one dominant factor for swimming behavior changes of Daphnia magna under DDVP exposure.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zongming; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xiaoguang; Qi, Pingping; Zhang, Biao; Zeng, Yang; Fu, Rongshu; Miao, Mingsheng

    2015-02-01

    As a key enzyme that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses of both vertebrates and invertebrates, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is strongly inhibited by organophosphates. AChE inhibition may induce the decrease of swimming ability. According to previous research, swimming behavior of different aquatic organisms could be affected by different chemicals, and there is a shortage of research on direct correlation analysis between swimming behavior and biochemical indicators. Therefore, swimming behavior and whole-body AChE activity of Daphnia magna under dichlorvos (DDVP) exposure were identified in order to clarify the relationship between behavioral responses and AChE inhibition in this study. In the beginning, AChE activity was similar in all treatments with the control. During all exposures, the tendency of AChE activity inhibition was the same as the behavioral responses of D. magna. The AChE activity of individuals without movement would decrease to about zero in several minutes. The correlation analysis between swimming behavior of D. magna and AChE activity showed that the stepwise behavioral response was mainly decided by AChE activity. All of these results suggested that the toxicity characteristics of DDVP as an inhibitor of AChE on the swimming behavior of organisms were the same, and the AChE activity inhibition could induce loss of the nerve conduction ability, causing hyperactivity, loss of coordination, convulsions, paralysis and other kinds of behavioral changes, which was illustrated by the stepwise behavioral responses under different environmental stresses.

  14. Discovery of Highly Potent and Selective α4β2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Partial Agonists Containing an Isoxazolylpyridine Ether Scaffold that Demonstrate Antidepressant-like Activity. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Fang; Eaton, J. Brek; Fedolak, Allison; Zhang, Han-Kun; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Lukas, Ronald J.; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    In our continued efforts to develop α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists as novel antidepressants having a unique mechanism of action, structure activity relationship (SAR) exploration of certain isoxazolylpyridine ethers is presented. In particular, modifications to both the azetidine ring present in the starting structure 4 and its metabolically liable hydroxyl side chain substituent have been explored to improve compound druggability. The pharmacological characterization of all new compounds has been carried out using [3H]epibatidine binding studies together with functional assays based on 86Rb+ ion flux measurements. We found that the deletion of the metabolically liable hydroxyl group or its replacement by a fluoromethyl group not only maintained potency and selectivity, but also resulted in compounds showing antidepressant-like properties in the mouse forced swim test. These isoxazolylpyridine ethers appear to represent promising lead candidates in the design of innovative chemical tools containing reporter groups for imaging purposes and of possible therapeutics. PMID:23092294

  15. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors controlling attention: behavior, circuits and sensitivity to disruption by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Poorthuis, Rogier B; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2013-10-15

    Attention is a central cognitive function that enables long-term engagement in a task and suppression of irrelevant information to obtain future goals. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the main link in integrating emotional and motivational state of an animal to regulate top-down attentional processes. Acetylcholine modulates PFC neuronal networks by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to support attention. However, how neuronal activity changes in the PFC during attention and which nAChR subtypes mediate this is only rudimentarily understood, but progress is being made. Recently, exciting new insights were obtained in the dynamics of cholinergic signaling in the PFC and modes of acetylcholine transmission via nAChRs in the cortex. In addition, mechanisms are uncovered on how the PFC circuitry is regulated by nAChRs. Novel studies show that endogenous activation of nAChRs in the PFC plays a central role in controlling attention. Here, we review current insights into how different subtypes of nAChRs expressed by distinct types of neurons in the PFC circuitry shape attention. In addition we discuss the impact of nicotine on the cholinergic system and prefrontal cortical circuits. Low concentrations of nicotine, as experienced by smokers, interfere with cholinergic signaling. In the long-term exposure to nicotine during adolescence leads to maladaptive adaptations of the PFC circuitry, which ultimately leads to a decrement in attention performance, again emphasizing the importance of nAChRs in attention.

  16. Natural AChE Inhibitors from Plants and their Contribution to Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Ana Paula; Faraoni, María Belén; Castro, María Julia; Alza, Natalia Paola; Cavallaro, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    As acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are an important therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer’s disease, efforts are being made in search of new molecules with anti-AChE activity. The fact that naturally-occurring compounds from plants are considered to be a potential source of new inhibitors has led to the discovery of an important number of secondary metabolites and plant extracts with the ability of inhibiting the enzyme AChE, which, according to the cholinergic hypothesis, increases the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain, thus improving cholinergic functions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and alleviating the symptoms of this neurological disorder. This review summarizes a total of 128 studies which correspond to the most relevant research work published during 2006-2012 (1st semester) on plant-derived compounds, plant extracts and essential oils found to elicit AChE inhibition. PMID:24381530

  17. Allosteric modifiers of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: new methods, new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Moaddel, Ruin; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Wainer, Irving W

    2007-09-01

    Allosteric, non-competitive inhibitors (NCIs) of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been shown to produce a wide variety of clinically relevant responses. Many of the observed effects are desired as the nAChR is the therapeutic target, while others are undesired consequences due to off-target binding at the nAChR. Thus, the determination of whether or not a lead drug candidate is an NCI should play an important role in drug discovery programs. However, the current experimental techniques used to identify NCIs are challenging, expensive, and time consuming. This review focuses on an alternative approach to the investigation of interactions between test compounds and nAChRs based upon liquid chromatographic stationary phases containing cellular fragments from cell lines expressing nAChRs. The development and validation of these phases as well as their use in drug discovery and pharmacophore modeling are discussed. PMID:17238157

  18. A motif present in the main cytoplasmic loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and catalases.

    PubMed

    Morgado-Valle, C; García-Colunga, J; Miledi, R; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    2001-05-01

    A motif containing five conserved amino acids (RXPXTH(X)14P) was detected in 111 proteins, including 82 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and 20 catalases. To explore possible functional roles of this motif in nAChRs two approaches were used: first, the motif sequences in nAChR subunits and catalases were analysed and compared; and, second, deletions in the rat alpha2 and beta4 nAChR subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes were analysed. Compared to the three-dimensional structure of bovine hepatic catalase, structural coincidences were found in the motif of catalases and nAChRs. On the other hand, partial deletions of the motif in the alpha2 or beta4 subunits and injection of the mutants into oocytes was followed by a very weak expression of functional nAChRs; oocytes injected with alpha2 and beta4 subunits in which the entire motif had been deleted failed to elicit any acetylcholine currents. The results suggest that the motif may play a role in the activation of nAChRs. PMID:11370971

  19. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods.

    PubMed

    Collin, Caitlin; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto; de Valdivia, Ernesto Gonzalez; Li, Shizhong; Reisenberger, Julia; Carlsen, Eva M M; Khan, Zaid; Hansen, Niels O; Puhm, Florian; Søndergaard, Leif; Niemiec, Justyna; Heninger, Magdalena; Ren, Guilin R; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2013-09-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play a central role in the mammalian nervous system. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine, and blocked by a variety of antagonists. Mammals have five mAChRs (m1-m5). In this study, we cloned two structurally related GPCRs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which, after expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, proved to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. One mAChR (the A-type; encoded by gene CG4356) is activated by acetylcholine (EC50, 5 × 10(-8) M) and muscarine (EC50, 6 × 10(-8) M) and blocked by the classical mAChR antagonists atropine, scopolamine, and 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB), while the other (the B-type; encoded by gene CG7918) is also activated by acetylcholine, but has a 1,000-fold lower sensitivity to muscarine, and is not blocked by the antagonists. A- and B-type mAChRs were also cloned and functionally characterized from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Recently, Haga et al. (Nature 2012, 482: 547-551) published the crystal structure of the human m2 mAChR, revealing 14 amino acid residues forming the binding pocket for QNB. These residues are identical between the human m2 and the D. melanogaster and T. castaneum A-type mAChRs, while many of them are different between the human m2 and the B-type receptors. Using bioinformatics, one orthologue of the A-type and one of the B-type mAChRs could also be found in all other arthropods with a sequenced genome. Protostomes, such as arthropods, and deuterostomes, such as mammals and other vertebrates, belong to two evolutionarily distinct lineages of animal evolution that split about 700 million years ago. We found that animals that originated before this split, such as cnidarians (Hydra), had two A-type mAChRs. From these data we propose a model for the evolution of mAChRs.

  20. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and cancer

    PubMed Central

    DANG, NINGNING; MENG, XIANGUANG; SONG, HAIYAN

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine, the primary addictive constituent of cigarettes, is believed to contribute to cancer promotion and progression through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are membrane ligand-gated cation channels. nAChRs activation can be triggered by the neurotransmitter Ach, or certain other biological compounds, such as nicotine. In recent years, genome-wide association studies have indicated that allelic variation in the α5-α3-β4 nAChR cluster on chromosome 15q24-15q25.1 is associated with lung cancer risk. The role of nAChRs in other types of cancer has also been reported. The present review highlights the role of nAChRs in types of human cancer. PMID:27123240

  1. Real Time Ligand-Induced Motion Mappings of AChBP and nAChR Using X-ray Single Molecule Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasuhito; Nishino, Yuri; Kobayashi, Suzuko; Shimoyama, Yoshiko; Cai, Weiyan; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato; Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto; Miyazawa, Atsuo; Kubo, Tai; Sasaki, Yuji C.

    2014-01-01

    We observed the dynamic three-dimensional (3D) single molecule behaviour of acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) using a single molecule tracking technique, diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) with atomic scale and 100 μs time resolution. We found that the combined tilting and twisting motions of the proteins were enhanced upon acetylcholine (ACh) binding. We present the internal motion maps of AChBP and nAChR in the presence of either ACh or α-bungarotoxin (αBtx), with views from two rotational axes. Our findings indicate that specific motion patterns represented as biaxial angular motion maps are associated with channel function in real time and on an atomic scale. PMID:25223459

  2. Structural dynamics of the alpha-neurotoxin-acetylcholine-binding protein complex: hydrodynamic and fluorescence anisotropy decay analyses.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Ryan E; Johnson, David A; Shi, Jianxin; Hansen, Scott B; Taylor, Palmer

    2005-12-20

    The three-fingered alpha-neurotoxins have played a pivotal role in elucidating the structure and function of the muscle-type and neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To advance our understanding of the alpha-neurotoxin-nAChR interaction, we examined the flexibility of alpha-neurotoxin bound to the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP), which shares structural similarity and sequence identities with the extracellular domain of nAChRs. Because the crystal structure of five alpha-cobratoxin molecules bound to AChBP shows the toxins projecting radially like propeller "blades" from the perimeter of the donut-shaped AChBP, the toxin molecules should increase the frictional resistance and thereby alter the hydrodynamic properties of the complex. alpha-Bungarotoxin binding had little effect on the frictional coefficients of AChBP measured by analytical ultracentrifugation, suggesting that the bound toxins are flexible. To support this conclusion, we measured the anisotropy decay of four site-specifically labeled alpha-cobratoxins (conjugated at positions Lys(23), Lys(35), Lys(49), and Lys(69)) bound to AChBP and free in solution and compared their anisotropy decay properties with fluorescently labeled cysteine mutants of AChBP. The results indicated that the core of the toxin molecule is relatively flexible when bound to AChBP. When hydrodynamic and anisotropy decay analyses are taken together, they establish that only one face of the second loop of the alpha-neurotoxin is immobilized significantly by its binding. The results indicate that bound alpha-neurotoxin is not rigidly oriented on the surface of AChBP but rather exhibits segmental motion by virtue of flexibility in its fingerlike structure.

  3. Residues Responsible for the Selectivity of α-Conotoxins for Ac-AChBP or nAChRs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bo; Xiang, Shihua; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are targets for developing new drugs to treat severe pain, nicotine addiction, Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, etc. α-Conotoxins are biologically and chemically diverse. With 12–19 residues and two disulfides, they can be specifically selected for different nAChRs. Acetylcholine-binding proteins from Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP) are homologous to the ligand-binding domains of nAChRs and pharmacologically similar. X-ray structures of the α-conotoxin in complex with Ac-AChBP in addition to computer modeling have helped to determine the binding site of the important residues of α-conotoxin and its affinity for nAChR subtypes. Here, we present the various α-conotoxin residues that are selective for Ac-AChBP or nAChRs by comparing the structures of α-conotoxins in complex with Ac-AChBP and by modeling α-conotoxins in complex with nAChRs. The knowledge of these binding sites will assist in the discovery and design of more potent and selective α-conotoxins as drug leads. PMID:27727162

  4. A role for the CaM Kinase II related anchoring protein (αkap) in maintaining the stability of nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mouslim, Chakib; Aittaleb, Mohamed; Hume, Richard I.; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    αkap, a muscle specific anchoring protein encoded within the Camk2a gene is thought to play a role in targeting multiple calcium/calmodulin kinase II isoforms to specific subcellular locations. Here we demonstrate a novel function of αkap in stabilizing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR). Knockdown of αkap expression with shRNA significantly enhanced the degradation of AChR α-subunits (AChRα), leading to fewer and smaller AChR clusters on the surface of differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Mutagenesis and biochemical studies in HEK293T cells revealed that αkap promoted AChRα stability by a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism. In the absence of αkap, AChRα was heavily ubiquitinated and the number of AChRα was increased by proteasome inhibitors. However, in the presence of αkap, AChRα was less ubiquitinated and proteasome inhibitors had almost no effect on AChRα accumulation. The major sites of AChRα ubiquitination reside within the large intracellular loop and mutations of critical lysine residues in this loop to arginine increased AChRα stability in the absence of αkap. These results provide an unexpected mechanism by which αkap controls receptor trafficking onto the surface of muscle cells, and thus the maintenance of postsynaptic receptor density and synaptic function. PMID:22496563

  5. Acetylcholine and muscarinic receptor function in cerebral cortex of diabetic young and old male Wistar rats and the role of muscarinic receptors in calcium release from pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Savitha, Balakrishnan; Joseph, Binoy; Peeyush Kumar, T; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-01

    We investigated acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine and muscarinic M1, M3 receptors kinetics in the cerebral cortex of young and old streptozotocin induced and insulin treated diabetic rats. The role of muscarinic receptors in intracellular calcium release from pancreatic islets was studied in vitro. Wistar rats of 7 and 90-weeks old were used. All studies were done in cerebral cortex. AChE assay was done by spectrophotometric method. Radioreceptor binding assays were done for Acetylcholine, Muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors using specific ligands. Calcium imaging was done using fluo4-AM in pancreatic cells. Ninety-weeks old control rats showed significantly decreased Vmax and increased Km for AChE compared to 7-weeks old control rats. An increased Vmax observed in both 7 and 90-weeks old diabetic groups with significant decrease in Km. Scatchard analysis using specific agonists showed significant decrease in the B (max) and K (d) of acetylcholine and muscarinic M1 receptors in 90-weeks old control rats compared to 7-weeks old control. Binding studies for M3 receptors showed no significant change compared to 7-weeks old control. Acetylcholine, muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor number significantly increased in 90-weeks old diabetic rat groups compared to their respective controls. Insulin treatment significantly reversed the binding parameters to near control compared to diabetic group. In vitro studies showed that acetylcholine through muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors' stimulated calcium release from the pancreatic islets. Thus our studies suggest that Insulin signaling play an important part in differentially regulating pancreatic cholinergic activity, and the diabetes mediated cortical dysfunctions with age.

  6. AChE for DNA degradation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Osuna, María; Yuste, Victor J

    2015-06-01

    DNA hydrolysis is a biochemical process often associated with different forms of cell death, including apoptosis. In a recent paper published in Cell Discovery, Du et al. report that synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) shows an unexpected enzymatic activity as DNase switched on after cytotoxic insults. PMID:25930710

  7. Roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β subunits in function of human α4-containing nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Qiang; Yu, Kewei; Hu, Jun; Kuo, Yen-Ping; Segerberg, Marsha; St John, Paul A; Lukas, Ronald J

    2006-01-01

    Naturally expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) containing α4 subunits (α4*-nAChR) in combination with β2 subunits (α4β2-nAChR) are among the most abundant, high-affinity nicotine binding sites in the mammalian brain. β4 subunits are also richly expressed and colocalize with α4 subunits in several brain regions implicated in behavioural responses to nicotine and nicotine dependence. Thus, α4β4-nAChR also may exist and play important functional roles. In this study, properties were determined of human α4β2- and α4β4-nAChR heterologously expressed de novo in human SH-EP1 epithelial cells. Whole-cell currents mediated via human α4β4-nAChR have ∼4-fold higher amplitude than those mediated via human α4β2-nAChR and exhibit much slower acute desensitization and functional rundown. Nicotinic agonists induce peak whole-cell current responses typically with higher functional potency at α4β4-nAChR than at α4β2-nAChR. Cytisine and lobeline serve as full agonists at α4β4-nAChR but are only partial agonists at α4β2-nAChR. However, nicotinic antagonists, except hexamethonium, have comparable affinities for functional α4β2- and α4β4-nAChR. Whole-cell current responses show stronger inward rectification for α4β2-nAChR than for α4β4-nAChR at a positive holding potential. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that human nAChR β2 or β4 subunits can combine with α4 subunits to generate two forms of α4*-nAChR with distinctive physiological and pharmacological features. Diversity in α4*-nAChR is of potential relevance to nervous system function, disease, and nicotine dependence. PMID:16825297

  8. Contribution of α4β2 nAChR in nicotine-induced intracellular calcium response and excitability of MSDB neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangang; Wang, Yali; Wang, Yang; Wang, Ran; Zhang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Chengbiao

    2014-12-10

    The neurons of medial septal diagonal band of broca (MSDB) project to hippocampus and play an important role in MSDB-hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and network oscillation. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, α4β2 and α7 nAChRs, are expressed in MSDB neurons and permeable to calcium ions, which may modulate the function of MSDB neurons. The aims of this study are to determine the roles of selective nAChR activation on the calcium responses and membrane currents in MSDB neurons. Our results showed that nicotine increased calcium responses in the majority of MSDB neurons, pre-treatment of MSDB slices with a α4β2 nAChR antagonist, DhβE but not a α7 nAChR antagonist, MLA prevented nicotine-induced calcium responses. The whole cell patch clamp recordings showed that nicotine-induced inward current and acetylcholine (ACh) induced-firing activity can be largely reduced or prevented by DhβE in MSDB neurons. Surprisingly, post-treatment of α4β2 or α7 nAChR antagonists failed to block nicotine׳s role, they increased calcium responses instead. Application of calcium chelator EGTA reduced calcium responses in all neurons tested. These results suggest that there was a subtype specific modulation of nAChRs on calcium signaling and membrane currents in MSDB neurons and nAChR antagonists were also able to induce calcium responses involving a distinct mechanism.

  9. Acetylcholine is released from taste cells, enhancing taste signalling

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), a candidate neurotransmitter that has been implicated in taste buds, elicits calcium mobilization in Receptor (Type II) taste cells. Using RT-PCR analysis and pharmacological interventions, we demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 mediates these actions. Applying ACh enhanced both taste-evoked Ca2+ responses and taste-evoked afferent neurotransmitter (ATP) secretion from taste Receptor cells. Blocking muscarinic receptors depressed taste-evoked responses in Receptor cells, suggesting that ACh is normally released from taste cells during taste stimulation. ACh biosensors confirmed that, indeed, taste Receptor cells secrete acetylcholine during gustatory stimulation. Genetic deletion of muscarinic receptors resulted in significantly diminished ATP secretion from taste buds. The data demonstrate a new role for acetylcholine as a taste bud transmitter. Our results imply specifically that ACh is an autocrine transmitter secreted by taste Receptor cells during gustatory stimulation, enhancing taste-evoked responses and afferent transmitter secretion. PMID:22570381

  10. Acetylcholine is released from taste cells, enhancing taste signalling.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), a candidate neurotransmitter that has been implicated in taste buds, elicits calcium mobilization in Receptor (Type II) taste cells. Using RT-PCR analysis and pharmacological interventions, we demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 mediates these actions. Applying ACh enhanced both taste-evoked Ca2+ responses and taste-evoked afferent neurotransmitter (ATP) secretion from taste Receptor cells. Blocking muscarinic receptors depressed taste-evoked responses in Receptor cells, suggesting that ACh is normally released from taste cells during taste stimulation. ACh biosensors confirmed that, indeed, taste Receptor cells secrete acetylcholine during gustatory stimulation. Genetic deletion of muscarinic receptors resulted in significantly diminished ATP secretion from taste buds. The data demonstrate a new role for acetylcholine as a taste bud transmitter. Our results imply specifically that ACh is an autocrine transmitter secreted by taste Receptor cells during gustatory stimulation, enhancing taste-evoked responses and afferent transmitter secretion.

  11. Stabilization of acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular synapse: the role of the nerve.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, D A; Drachman, D B; Drachman, R J; Stanley, E F

    1992-05-29

    The majority of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at innervated neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are stable, with half-lives averaging about 11 days in rodent muscles. In addition to the stable AChRs, approximately 18% of AChRs at these innervated junctions are rapidly turned over (RTOs), with half lives of less than 24 h. We have postulated that RTOs may be precursors of stable AChRs, and that the motor nerve may influence their stabilization. This hypothesis was tested by: (i) labeling AChRs in mouse sternomastoid (SM) muscles with 125I-alpha-BuTx; (ii) denervating one SM muscle in each mouse, and (iii) following the fate of the labeled AChRs through a 5-day period when RTOs were either stabilized or degraded. The hypothesis predicts that denervation should preclude stabilization of RTOs, resulting in a deficit of stable AChRs in denervated muscles. The results showed a highly significant (P less than 0.002) deficit of stable AChRs in denervated as compared with innervated muscles. Control experiments excluded the possibility that this deficit could be attributed to independent accelerated degradation of either RTOs or pre-existing stable AChRs. The observed deficit was quantitatively consistent with the deficit predicted by a mathematical model based on interruption of stabilization following denervation. We conclude that: (i) the observed deficit after denervation of NMJs is due to failure of stabilization of pre-existing RTOs; (ii) RTOs at normally innervated NMJs are precursors of stable AChRs; (iii) stabilization occurs after the insertion of AChRs at NMJs, and (iv) motor nerves play a key role in stabilization of RTOs. The concept of receptor stabilization has important implications for understanding the biology of the neuromuscular junction and post-synaptic plasticity.

  12. Role and mechanisms of action of acetylcholine in the regulation of rat cholangiocyte secretory functions.

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, D; Alpini, G; Jezequel, A M; Bassotti, C; Francia, C; Fraioli, F; Romeo, R; Marucci, L; Le Sage, G; Glaser, S S; Benedetti, A

    1997-01-01

    We investigated, in isolated bile duct units (IBDU) and cholangiocytes isolated from normal rat liver, the occurrence of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, and the role and mechanisms of ACh in the regulation of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity. The Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity was evaluated measuring changes in intracellular pH induced by acute Cl- removal/readmission. M3 subtype ACh receptors were detected in IBDU and isolated cholangiocytes by immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy, and reverse transcriptase PCR. M1 subtype ACh receptor mRNA was not detected by reverse transcriptase PCR and M2 subtype was negative by immunofluorescence. ACh (10 microM) showed no effect on the basal activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. When IBDU were exposed to ACh plus secretin, ACh significantly (P < 0.03) increased the maximal rate of alkalinization after Cl- removal and the maximal rate of recovery after Cl- readmission compared with secretin alone (50 nM), indicating that ACh potentiates the stimulatory effect of secretin on the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity. This effect of ACh was blocked by the M3 ACh receptor antagonist, 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-(2-chloroethyl)-piperidine (40 nM), by the intracellular Ca2+ chelator, 1,2-bis (2-Aminophenoxy)- ethane-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethylester (50 microM), but not by the protein kinase C antagonist, staurosporine (0.1 microM). Intracellular cAMP levels, in isolated rat cholangiocytes, were unaffected by ACh alone, but were markedly higher after exposure to secretin plus ACh compared with secretin alone (P < 0.01). The ACh-induced potentiation of the secretin effect on both intracellular cAMP levels and the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity was individually abolished by two calcineurin inhibitors, FK-506 and cyclosporin A (100 nM). Conclusions: M3 ACh receptors are markedly and diffusively represented in rat cholangiocytes. ACh did not influence the basal activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, but enhanced the stimulation by

  13. Sesquiterpenes and a monoterpenoid with acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; He, Xuan-Hui; Yuan, Rong; Wei, Ben-Jun; Chen, Zhong; Dong, Jun-Xing; Wang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor (AchEI) is the most extensive in all anti-dementia drugs. The extracts and isolated compounds from the Valeriana genus have shown anti-dementia bioactivity. Four new sesquiterpenoids (1-4) and a new monoterpenoid (5) were isolated from the root of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity of isolates was evaluated by modified Ellman method in vitro. Learning and memory ability of compound 4 on mice was evaluated by the Morris water maze. The contents of acetylcholine (Ach), acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) and AchE in mice brains were determined by colorimetry. The results showed IC50 of compound 4 was 0.161 μM in vitro. Compared with the normal group, the learning and memory ability of mice and the contents of Ach and ChAT decreased in model group mice (P<0.01), while the AchE increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, Ach and ChAT in the positive control group, the high-dose group and the medium-dose group increased (P<0.01), while the AchE decreased (P<0.01). Compound 4 can improve the learning and memory abilities of APPswe/PSΔE9 double-transgenic mice, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of the relative enzyme in the cholinergic system. PMID:26976216

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are required for nociception

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emiliano; Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Husson, Steven J.; Steuer-Costa, Wagner; Gottschalk, Alexander; Schafer, William R.; Treinin, Millet

    2014-01-01

    Polymodal nociceptors sense and integrate information on injurious mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. Chemical signals either activate nociceptors or modulate their responses to other stimuli. One chemical known to activate or modulate responses of nociceptors is acetylcholine (ACh). Across evolution nociceptors express subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family, a family of ACh-gated ion channels. The roles of ACh and nAChRs in nociceptor function are, however, poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans polymodal nociceptors, PVD, express nAChR subunits on their sensory arbor. Here we show that mutations reducing ACh synthesis and mutations in nAChR subunits lead to defects in PVD function and morphology. A likely cause for these defects is a reduction in cytosolic calcium measured in ACh and nAChR mutants. Indeed, overexpression of a calcium pump in PVD mimics defects in PVD function and morphology found in nAChR mutants. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a central role for nAChRs and ACh in nociceptor function and suggest that calcium permeating via nAChRs facilitates activity of several signaling pathways within this neuron. PMID:24518198

  15. Acetylcholine-Binding Protein in the Hemolymph of the Planorbid Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Is a Pentagonal Dodecahedron (60 Subunits)

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanopoulos, Katharina; Braukmann, Sandra; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Tenzer, Stefan; Markl, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) play important neurophysiological roles and are of considerable medical relevance. They have been studied extensively, greatly facilitated by the gastropod acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBP) which represent soluble structural and functional homologues of the ligand-binding domain of nAChR. All these proteins are ring-like pentamers. Here we report that AChBP exists in the hemolymph of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata (vector of the schistosomiasis parasite) as a regular pentagonal dodecahedron, 22 nm in diameter (12 pentamers, 60 active sites). We sequenced and recombinantly expressed two ∼25 kDa polypeptides (BgAChBP1 and BgAChBP2) with a specific active site, N-glycan site and disulfide bridge variation. We also provide the exon/intron structures. Recombinant BgAChBP1 formed pentamers and dodecahedra, recombinant BgAChBP2 formed pentamers and probably disulfide-bridged di-pentamers, but not dodecahedra. Three-dimensional electron cryo-microscopy (3D-EM) yielded a 3D reconstruction of the dodecahedron with a resolution of 6 Å. Homology models of the pentamers docked to the 6 Å structure revealed opportunities for chemical bonding at the inter-pentamer interfaces. Definition of the ligand-binding pocket and the gating C-loop in the 6 Å structure suggests that 3D-EM might lead to the identification of functional states in the BgAChBP dodecahedron. PMID:22916297

  16. Frizzled-9 impairs acetylcholine receptor clustering in skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Avilés, Evelyn C.; Pinto, Cristina; Hanna, Patricia; Ojeda, Jorge; Pérez, Viviana; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V.; Zamorano, Pedro; Albistur, Miguel; Sandoval, Daniel; Henríquez, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative evidence indicates that Wnt pathways play crucial and diverse roles to assemble the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a peripheral synapse characterized by the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) on postsynaptic densities. The molecular determinants of Wnt effects at the NMJ are still to be fully elucidated. We report here that the Wnt receptor Frizzled-9 (Fzd9) is expressed in developing skeletal muscles during NMJ synaptogenesis. In cultured myotubes, gain- and loss-of-function experiments revealed that Fzd9-mediated signaling impairs the AChR-clustering activity of agrin, an organizer of postsynaptic differentiation. Overexpression of Fzd9 induced the cytosolic accumulation of β-catenin, a key regulator of Wnt signaling. Consistently, Fzd9 and β-catenin localize in the postsynaptic domain of embryonic NMJs in vivo. Our findings represent the first evidence pointing to a crucial role of a Fzd-mediated, β-catenin-dependent signaling on the assembly of the vertebrate NMJ. PMID:24860427

  17. The immunomodulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaowei; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Mengqiang; Shi, Shaoying; Wang, Zhen; Song, Linsheng

    2015-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), the best-studied ionotropic neuron receptor protein, is a key player in neuronal communication, and it has been reported to play an important role in immunomodulation of vertebrates. Although nAChRs have also been identified in most invertebrates, the knowledge about their immunomodulation is still limited. In the present study, two scallop nAChR genes were identified from Chlamys farreri (designed as CfnAChR1 and CfnAChR2), which encoded 384 and 443 amino acids, respectively. The conserved disulfide-linked cystines, ion selectivity residues and the hydrophobic gating residues (L251, V255 and V259) were identified in CfnAChR1 and CfnAChR2. The immunoreactivities of CfnAChR1 and CfnAChR2 were observed in all the tested scallop tissues, including adductor muscle, mantle, gill, hepatopancreas, kidney and gonad. After LPS (0.5 mg mL(-1)) stimulation, the expression of CfnAChR1 mRNA in haemocytes increased significantly by 9.83-fold (P < 0.05) and 12.93-fold (P < 0.05) at 3 h and 24 h, respectively. While the expression level of CfnAChR2 mRNA increased 43.94% at 12 h after LPS stimulation (P < 0.05). After TNF-α (50 ng mL(-1)) stimulation, the expression levels of CfnAChR1 and CfnAChR2 both increased significantly at 1 h, which were 21.33-fold (P < 0.05) and 2.44-fold (P < 0.05) of that in the PBS group, respectively. The results collectively indicated that the cholinergic nervous system in scallops could be activated by immune stimulations through CfnAChR1 and CfnAChR2, which function as the links between the cholinergic nervous system and immune system.

  18. The immunomodulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaowei; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Mengqiang; Shi, Shaoying; Wang, Zhen; Song, Linsheng

    2015-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), the best-studied ionotropic neuron receptor protein, is a key player in neuronal communication, and it has been reported to play an important role in immunomodulation of vertebrates. Although nAChRs have also been identified in most invertebrates, the knowledge about their immunomodulation is still limited. In the present study, two scallop nAChR genes were identified from Chlamys farreri (designed as CfnAChR1 and CfnAChR2), which encoded 384 and 443 amino acids, respectively. The conserved disulfide-linked cystines, ion selectivity residues and the hydrophobic gating residues (L251, V255 and V259) were identified in CfnAChR1 and CfnAChR2. The immunoreactivities of CfnAChR1 and CfnAChR2 were observed in all the tested scallop tissues, including adductor muscle, mantle, gill, hepatopancreas, kidney and gonad. After LPS (0.5 mg mL(-1)) stimulation, the expression of CfnAChR1 mRNA in haemocytes increased significantly by 9.83-fold (P < 0.05) and 12.93-fold (P < 0.05) at 3 h and 24 h, respectively. While the expression level of CfnAChR2 mRNA increased 43.94% at 12 h after LPS stimulation (P < 0.05). After TNF-α (50 ng mL(-1)) stimulation, the expression levels of CfnAChR1 and CfnAChR2 both increased significantly at 1 h, which were 21.33-fold (P < 0.05) and 2.44-fold (P < 0.05) of that in the PBS group, respectively. The results collectively indicated that the cholinergic nervous system in scallops could be activated by immune stimulations through CfnAChR1 and CfnAChR2, which function as the links between the cholinergic nervous system and immune system. PMID:26455648

  19. Endogenous Acetylcholine Controls the Severity of Polymicrobial Sepsisassociated Inflammatory Response in Mice.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Flávio Almeida; Fagundes, Caio Tavares; Miranda, Aline Silva; Costa, Vivian Vasconceios; Resende, Livia; Gloria de Souza, Danielle da; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Maximo Prado, Marco Antonio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is the main mediator associated with the anti-inflammatory cholinergic pathway. ACh plays an inhibitory role in several inflammatory conditions. Sepsis is a severe clinical syndrome characterized by bacterial dissemination and overproduction of inflammatory mediators. The aim of the current study was to investigate the participation of endogenous ACh in the modulation of inflammatory response induced by a model of polymicrobial sepsis. Wild type (WT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter knockdown (VAChT(KD)) mice were exposed to cecal ligation and perforation- induced sepsis. Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and bacterial growth in peritoneal cavity and serum, and neutrophil recruitment into peritoneal cavity were assessed. The concentration of TNF-α in both compartments was higher in VAChT(KD) in comparison with WT mice. VAChT(KD) mice presented elevated burden of bacteria in peritoneum and blood, and impairment of neutrophil migration to peritoneal cavity. This phenotype was reversed by treatment with nicotine salt. These findings suggest that endogenous ACh plays a major role in the control of sepsis-associated inflammatory response.

  20. Critical metabolic roles of β-cell M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    de Azua, Inigo Ruiz; Gautam, Dinesh; Jain, Shalini; Guettier, Jean-Marc; Wess, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs; M1–M5) regulate the activity of an extraordinarily large number of important physiological processes. We and others previously demonstrated that pancreatic β-cells are endowed with M3 mAChRs which are linked to G proteins of the Gq family. The activation of these receptors by ACh or other muscarinic agonists leads to the augmentation of glucose-induced insulin release via multiple mechanisms. Interestingly, in humans, ACh acting on human β-cell mAChRs is released from adjacent α-cells which express both choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (vAChT), indicative of the presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in human pancreatic islets. In order to shed light on the physiological roles of β-cell M3 receptors, we recently generated and analyzed various mutant mouse models. Specifically, we carried out studies with mice which overexpressed M3 receptors or mutant M3 receptors in pancreatic β-cells or which selectively lacked M3 receptors or M3-receptor-associated proteins in pancreatic β-cells. Our findings indicate that β-cell M3 receptors play a key role in maintaining proper insulin release and whole body glucose homeostasis and that strategies aimed at enhancing signaling through β-cell M3 receptors may prove useful to improve β-cell function for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). PMID:22525375

  1. Identification of petrogenic produced water components as acetylcholine esterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Froment, Jean; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Bråte, Inger Lise N; Brooks, Steven J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-08-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) was applied to identify acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors in produced water. Common produced water components from oil production activities, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and naphthenic acids were tested for AChE inhibition using a simple mixture of PAHs and naphthenic acids. Produced water samples collected from two offshore platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea were extracted by solid phase extraction and fractionated by open-column liquid solid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) before being tested using a high-throughput and automated AChE assay. The HPLC fractions causing the strongest AChE inhibition were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HR-ToF-MS). Butylated hydroxytoluene and 4-phenyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene were identified as two produced water components capable of inhibiting AChE at low concentrations. In order to assess the potential presence of such compounds discharged into aquatic ecosystems, AChE activity in fish tissues was measured. Saithe (Pollachius virens) caught near two offshore platforms showed lower enzymatic activity than those collected from a reference location. Target analysis of saithe did not detected the presence of these two putative AChE inhibitors and suggest that additional compounds such as PAHs, naphthenic acids and yet un-identified compounds may also contribute to the purported AChE inhibition observed in saithe. PMID:27176761

  2. Mechanisms of acetylcholine receptor loss in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Drachman, D B; Adams, R N; Stanley, E F; Pestronk, A

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental abnormality affecting the neuromuscular junctions of myasthenic patients is a reduction of available AChRs, due to an autoimmune attack directed against the receptors. Antibodies to AChR are present in most patients, and there is evidence that they have a predominant pathogenic role in the disease, aided by complement. The mechanism of antibody action involves acceleration of the rate of degradation of AChRs, attributable to cross-linking of the receptors. In addition, antibodies may block AChRs, and may participate in producing destructive changes, perhaps in conjunction with complement. The possibility that cell-mediated mechanisms may play a role in the autoimmune responses of some myasthenic patients remains to be explored. Although the target of the autoimmune attack in myasthenic patients is probably always the acetylcholine receptors, it is not yet clear which of these immune mechanisms are most important. It is likely that the relative role of each mechanism varies from patient to patient. One of the goals of future research will be to identify the relative importance of each of these mechanisms in the individual patient, and to tailor specific immunotherapeutic measures to the abnormalities found. PMID:6249894

  3. Orthosteric and Allosteric Ligands of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Tasnim S.; Jayakar, Selwyn S.; Hamouda, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction, the result of tobacco use, leads to over six million premature deaths world-wide per year, a number that is expected to increase by a third within the next two decades. While more than half of smokers want and attempt to quit, only a small percentage of smokers are able to quit without pharmacological interventions. Therefore, over the past decades, researchers in academia and the pharmaceutical industry have focused their attention on the development of more effective smoking cessation therapies, which is now a growing 1.9 billion dollar market. Because the role of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in nicotine addiction is well established, nAChR based therapeutics remain the leading strategy for smoking cessation. However, the development of neuronal nAChR drugs that are selective for a nAChR subpopulation is challenging, and only few neuronal nAChR drugs are clinically available. Among the many neuronal nAChR subtypes that have been identified in the brain, the α4β2 subtype is the most abundant and plays a critical role in nicotine addiction. Here, we review the role of neuronal nAChRs, especially the α4β2 subtype, in the development and treatment of nicotine addiction. We also compare available smoking cessation medications and other nAChR orthosteric and allosteric ligands that have been developed with emphasis on the difficulties faced in the development of clinically useful compounds with high nAChR subtype selectivity. PMID:26635524

  4. Effect of α₇ nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Lima, Flavia G; Green, Benedict T; Gardner, Dale R

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline.

  5. The therapeutic potential of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for pain control.

    PubMed

    Decker, M W; Meyer, M D; Sullivan, J P

    2001-10-01

    Due to the limitations of currently available analgesics, a number of novel alternatives are currently under investigation, including neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists. During the 1990s, the discovery of the antinociceptive properties of the potent nAChR agonist epibatidine in rodents sparked interest in the analgesic potential of this class of compounds. Although epibatidine also has several mechanism-related toxicities, the identification of considerable nAChR diversity suggested that the toxicities and therapeutic actions of the compound might be mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. Consistent with this view, a number of novel nAChR agonists with antinociceptive activity and improved safety profiles in preclinical models have now been identified, including A-85380, ABT-594, DBO-83, SIB-1663 and RJR-2403. Of these, ABT-594 is the most advanced and is currently in Phase II clinical evaluation. Nicotinically-mediated antinociception has been demonstrated in a variety of rodent pain models and is likely mediated by the activation of descending inhibitory pathways originating in the brainstem with the predominant high-affinity nicotine site in brain, the alpha4beta2 subtype, playing a critical role. Thus, preclinical findings suggest that nAChR agonists have the potential to be highly efficacious treatments in a variety of pain states. However, clinical proof-of-principle studies will be required to determine if nAChR agonists are active in pathological pain.

  6. Identification and Characterization of a G Protein-binding Cluster in α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    King, Justin R.; Nordman, Jacob C.; Bridges, Samuel P.; Lin, Ming-Kuan; Kabbani, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in synaptic transmission and inflammation. In response to ligands, this receptor channel opens to conduct cations into the cell but desensitizes rapidly. In recent studies we show that α7 nAChRs bind signaling proteins such as heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins). Here, we demonstrate that direct coupling of α7 nAChRs to G proteins enables a downstream calcium signaling response that can persist beyond the expected time course of channel activation. This process depends on a G protein-binding cluster (GPBC) in the M3-M4 loop of the receptor. A mutation of the GPBC in the α7 nAChR (α7345–348A) abolishes interaction with Gαq as well as Gβγ while having no effect on receptor synthesis, cell-surface trafficking, or α-bungarotoxin binding. Expression of α7345–348A, however, did significantly attenuate the α7 nAChR-induced Gαq calcium signaling response as evidenced by a decrease in PLC-β activation and IP3R-mediated calcium store release in the presence of the α7 selective agonist choline. Taken together, the data provides new evidence for the existence of a GPBC in nAChRs serving to promote intracellular signaling. PMID:26088141

  7. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition aggravates fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Kaai; Ando, Midori; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Although fasting induces hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in both rodents and humans, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Because parasympathetic nervous system activity tends to attenuate the secretion of very-low-density-lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) and increase TG stores in the liver, and serum cholinesterase activity is elevated in fatty liver disease, the inhibition of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may have some influence on hepatic lipid metabolism. To assess the influence of AChE inhibition on lipid metabolism, the effect of physostigmine, an AChE inhibitor, on fasting-induced increase in liver TG was investigated in mice. In comparison with ad libitum-fed mice, 30 h fasting increased liver TG accumulation accompanied by a downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and liver-fatty acid binding-protein (L-FABP). Physostigmine promoted the 30 h fasting-induced increase in liver TG levels in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant fall in plasma insulin levels, without a fall in plasma TG. Furthermore, physostigmine significantly attenuated the fasting-induced decrease of both mRNA and protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP, and increased IRS-2 protein levels in the liver. The muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine blocked these effects of physostigmine on liver TG, serum insulin, and hepatic protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP. These results demonstrate that AChE inhibition facilitated fasting-induced TG accumulation with up regulation of the hepatic L-FABP and SREBP-1 in mice, at least in part via the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our studies highlight the crucial role of parasympathetic regulation in fasting-induced TG accumulation, and may be an important source of information on the mechanism of hepatic disorders of lipid metabolism. PMID:25383314

  8. Phosphocholine – an agonist of metabotropic but not of ionotropic functions of α9-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Richter, K.; Mathes, V.; Fronius, M.; Althaus, M.; Hecker, A.; Krasteva-Christ, G.; Padberg, W.; Hone, A. J.; McIntosh, J. M.; Zakrzewicz, A.; Grau, V.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that phosphocholine and phosphocholine-modified macromolecules efficiently inhibit ATP-dependent release of interleukin-1β from human and murine monocytes by a mechanism involving nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Interleukin-1β is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine of innate immunity that plays pivotal roles in host defence. Control of interleukin-1β release is vital as excessively high systemic levels cause life threatening inflammatory diseases. In spite of its structural similarity to acetylcholine, there are no other reports on interactions of phosphocholine with nAChR. In this study, we demonstrate that phosphocholine inhibits ion-channel function of ATP receptor P2X7 in monocytic cells via nAChR containing α9 and α10 subunits. In stark contrast to choline, phosphocholine does not evoke ion current responses in Xenopus laevis oocytes, which heterologously express functional homomeric nAChR composed of α9 subunits or heteromeric receptors containing α9 and α10 subunits. Preincubation of these oocytes with phosphocholine, however, attenuated choline-induced ion current changes, suggesting that phosphocholine may act as a silent agonist. We conclude that phophocholine activates immuno-modulatory nAChR expressed by monocytes but does not stimulate canonical ionotropic receptor functions. PMID:27349288

  9. Phosphocholine - an agonist of metabotropic but not of ionotropic functions of α9-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Richter, K; Mathes, V; Fronius, M; Althaus, M; Hecker, A; Krasteva-Christ, G; Padberg, W; Hone, A J; McIntosh, J M; Zakrzewicz, A; Grau, V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that phosphocholine and phosphocholine-modified macromolecules efficiently inhibit ATP-dependent release of interleukin-1β from human and murine monocytes by a mechanism involving nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Interleukin-1β is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine of innate immunity that plays pivotal roles in host defence. Control of interleukin-1β release is vital as excessively high systemic levels cause life threatening inflammatory diseases. In spite of its structural similarity to acetylcholine, there are no other reports on interactions of phosphocholine with nAChR. In this study, we demonstrate that phosphocholine inhibits ion-channel function of ATP receptor P2X7 in monocytic cells via nAChR containing α9 and α10 subunits. In stark contrast to choline, phosphocholine does not evoke ion current responses in Xenopus laevis oocytes, which heterologously express functional homomeric nAChR composed of α9 subunits or heteromeric receptors containing α9 and α10 subunits. Preincubation of these oocytes with phosphocholine, however, attenuated choline-induced ion current changes, suggesting that phosphocholine may act as a silent agonist. We conclude that phophocholine activates immuno-modulatory nAChR expressed by monocytes but does not stimulate canonical ionotropic receptor functions. PMID:27349288

  10. Clitoria ternatea root extract enhances acetylcholine content in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Nalini, K; Rao, M S; Srinivasan, K K

    2002-12-01

    Treatment with 100 mg/kg of Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract (CTR), for 30 days in neonatal and young adult age groups of rat, significantly increased acetylcholine (ACh) content in their hippocampi as compared to age matched controls. Increase in ACh content in their hippocampus may be the neurochemical basis for their improved learning and memory. PMID:12490229

  11. A hydrosoluble triphenylene that preferentially binds acetylcholine, epibatidine, and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Givelet, Cécile; Buffeteau, Thierry; Arnaud-Neu, Françoise; Hubscher-Bruder, Véronique; Bibal, Brigitte

    2009-07-17

    Synthesis and binding properties of a new hydrosoluble triphenylene 1b are reported. Selective recognition of acetylcholine (ACh) against other aliphatic ammoniums is achieved by this flat receptor, which also forms complexes with epibatidine and nicotine. Ionic pairing and hydrophobic effects between host 1b and ACh are studied by infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  13. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  14. AGE-RELATED EFFECTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS ON ACETYLCHOLINE RELEASE IN RAT BRAIN. (R825811)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus insecticide that elicits toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Young animals are markedly more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of CPF. We evaluated acetylcholine (ACh) release and its muscarinic recept...

  15. Nicotine Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Regulating α5-nAChR/AKT Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongqiao; Zhang, Huilin; Zhang, Xiuping; Xiao, Dongjie; Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer incidence demonstrates a strong etiologic association with smoking. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, is a survival agonist that inhibits apoptosis induced by certain chemotherapeutic agents, but the precise mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAChR) is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, no information has been available about whether nicotine also affects proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through regulation of α5-nAChR. To evaluate the hypothesis that α5-nAChR may play a role in gastric cancer, we investigated its expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of α5-nAChR increased in gastric cancer tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissues. In view of the results, we proceeded to investigate whether nicotine inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis via regulating α5-nAChR in gastric cancer cell. The results showed that nicotine significantly promoted cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner through α5-nAChR activation in human gastric cells. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Silence of α5-nAChR ablated the protective effects of nicotine. However, when co-administrating LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT pathway, an increased apoptosis was observed. This effect correlated with the induction of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin and Caspase-3 by nicotine in gastric cell lines. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine might negatively impact the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs and that α5-nAChR/AKT signaling plays a key role in the anti-apoptotic activity of nicotine induced by cisplatin. PMID:26909550

  16. Nicotine Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Regulating α5-nAChR/AKT Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanfei; Sun, Haiji; Wu, Hongqiao; Zhang, Huilin; Zhang, Xiuping; Xiao, Dongjie; Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer incidence demonstrates a strong etiologic association with smoking. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, is a survival agonist that inhibits apoptosis induced by certain chemotherapeutic agents, but the precise mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAChR) is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, no information has been available about whether nicotine also affects proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through regulation of α5-nAChR. To evaluate the hypothesis that α5-nAChR may play a role in gastric cancer, we investigated its expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of α5-nAChR increased in gastric cancer tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissues. In view of the results, we proceeded to investigate whether nicotine inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis via regulating α5-nAChR in gastric cancer cell. The results showed that nicotine significantly promoted cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner through α5-nAChR activation in human gastric cells. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Silence of α5-nAChR ablated the protective effects of nicotine. However, when co-administrating LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT pathway, an increased apoptosis was observed. This effect correlated with the induction of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin and Caspase-3 by nicotine in gastric cell lines. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine might negatively impact the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs and that α5-nAChR/AKT signaling plays a key role in the anti-apoptotic activity of nicotine induced by cisplatin. PMID:26909550

  17. Nicotine Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Regulating α5-nAChR/AKT Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanfei; Sun, Haiji; Wu, Hongqiao; Zhang, Huilin; Zhang, Xiuping; Xiao, Dongjie; Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer incidence demonstrates a strong etiologic association with smoking. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, is a survival agonist that inhibits apoptosis induced by certain chemotherapeutic agents, but the precise mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAChR) is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, no information has been available about whether nicotine also affects proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through regulation of α5-nAChR. To evaluate the hypothesis that α5-nAChR may play a role in gastric cancer, we investigated its expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of α5-nAChR increased in gastric cancer tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissues. In view of the results, we proceeded to investigate whether nicotine inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis via regulating α5-nAChR in gastric cancer cell. The results showed that nicotine significantly promoted cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner through α5-nAChR activation in human gastric cells. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Silence of α5-nAChR ablated the protective effects of nicotine. However, when co-administrating LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT pathway, an increased apoptosis was observed. This effect correlated with the induction of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin and Caspase-3 by nicotine in gastric cell lines. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine might negatively impact the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs and that α5-nAChR/AKT signaling plays a key role in the anti-apoptotic activity of nicotine induced by cisplatin.

  18. Functional properties of homomeric, human alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors heterologously expressed in the SH-EP1 human epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingke; Kuo, Yen-Ping; George, Andrew A; Peng, Jian-Hong; Purandare, Madhuri Singh; Schroeder, Katherine M; Lukas, Ronald J; Wu, Jie

    2003-06-01

    alpha 7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha 7-nAChRs) are broadly distributed in the central nervous system, where they play important roles in chemical and electrical signaling, and perhaps in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal death/survival. To help elucidate their normal and pathophysiological roles, we have heterologously expressed human alpha 7-nAChR in transfected SH-EP1 human epithelial cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate expression of human alpha 7 subunits as messenger RNA. Patch-clamp recordings exploiting a novel strategy to prevent functional rundown of whole-cell peak current responses to repeated acute challenges with nicotinic agonists show successful expression of functional alpha 7-nAChR that mediate inward currents characterized by rapid phases of activation and inactivation. Concentration-response curves show that nicotine, acetylcholine, and choline are efficacious agonists at human alpha 7-nAChRs. Current-voltage relationships show inward rectification for agonist-induced currents. Human alpha 7-nAChRs exhibit some sensitivity to alpha 7-nAChR antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin (Bgt) or methyllycaconitine (MLA) when applied coincidentally with agonist, but much higher affinity block occurs when cells and alpha 7-nAChRs are pre-exposed to antagonists for 2 min before challenge with agonist. Both Bgt and MLA are competitive inhibitors of alpha 7-nAChR function. Whole-cell current peak amplitudes and half-times for inactivation of alpha 7-nAChR functional responses to nicotine are dramatically reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggestive of high Ca2+ permeability of the alpha 7-nAChR channel. Thus, heterologously expressed human alpha 7-nAChR in mammalian cells have properties of native alpha 7-nAChR or of alpha 7-nAChR heterologously expressed in other systems and serve as excellent models for studies of molecular bases of alpha 7-nACh

  19. Inducibility of human atrial fibrillation in an in silico model reflecting local acetylcholine distribution and concentration.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Minki; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Shim, Eun Bo

    2016-01-01

    Vagal nerve activity has been known to play a crucial role in the induction and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unclear how the distribution and concentration of local acetylcholine (ACh) promotes AF. In this study, we investigated the effect of the spatial distribution and concentration of ACh on fibrillation patterns in an in silico human atrial model. A human atrial action potential model with an ACh-dependent K(+) current (IKAch) was used to examine the effect of vagal activation. A simulation of cardiac wave dynamics was performed in a realistic 3D model of the atrium. A model of the ganglionated plexus (GP) and nerve was developed based on the "octopus hypothesis". The pattern of cardiac wave dynamics was examined by applying vagal activation to the GP areas or randomly. AF inducibility in the octopus hypothesis-based GP and nerve model was tested. The effect of the ACh concentration level was also examined. In the single cell simulation, an increase in the ACh concentration shortened APD90 and increased the maximal slope of the restitution curve. In the 3D simulation, a random distribution of vagal activation promoted wavebreaks while ACh secretion limited to the GP areas did not induce a noticeable change in wave dynamics. The octopus hypothesis-based model of the GP and nerve exhibited AF inducibility at higher ACh concentrations. In conclusion, a 3D in silico model of the GP and parasympathetic nerve based on the octopus model exhibited higher AF inducibility with higher ACh concentrations. PMID:26807030

  20. Enhanced synthesis and release of dopamine in transgenic mice with gain-of-function α6* nAChRs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexiang; Lee, Jang-Won; Oh, Gyeon; Grady, Sharon R.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Brunzell, Darlene H.; Cannon, Jason R.; Drenan, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    α6β2* nAChRs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to nucleus accumbens (NAc) pathway are implicated in the response to nicotine, and recent work suggests these receptors play a role in the rewarding action of ethanol. Here, we studied mice expressing gain-of-function α6β2* nAChRs (α6L9’S mice) that are hypersensitive to nicotine and endogenous acetylcholine (ACh). Evoked extracellular dopamine (DA) levels were enhanced in α6L9’S NAc slices compared to control, non-transgenic (nonTg) slices. Extracellular DA levels in both nonTg and α6L9’S slices were further enhanced in the presence of GBR12909, suggesting intact DA transporter function in both mouse strains. Ongoing α6β2* nAChR activation by ACh plays a role in enhancing DA levels, as α-conotoxin MII completely abolished evoked DA release in α6L9’S slices and decreased spontaneous DA release from striatal synaptosomes. In HPLC experiments, α6L9’S NAc tissue contained significantly more DA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) compared to nonTg NAc tissue. Serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine (NE) were unchanged in α6L9’S compared to nonTg tissue. Western blot analysis revealed increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression in α6L9’S NAc. Overall, these results show that enhanced α6β2* nAChR activity in NAc can stimulate DA production and lead to increased extracellular DA levels. PMID:24266758

  1. Differential Effects of Quercetin and Quercetin Glycosides on Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Ion Currents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Mok; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid usually found in fruits and vegetables. Aside from its antioxidative effects, quercetin, like other flavonoids, has a various neuropharmacological actions. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Rham1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Rutin), and quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside (Rham2) are mono-, di-, and tri-glycosylated forms of quercetin, respectively. In a previous study, we showed that quercetin can enhance α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)-mediated ion currents. However, the role of the carbohydrates attached to quercetin in the regulation of α7 nAChR channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin glycosides on the acetylcholine induced peak inward current (IACh) in Xenopus oocytes expressing the α7 nAChR. IACh was measured with a two-electrode voltage clamp technique. In oocytes injected with α7 nAChR copy RNA, quercetin enhanced IACh, whereas quercetin glycosides inhibited IACh. Quercetin glycosides mediated an inhibition of IACh, which increased when they were pre-applied and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent. The order of IACh inhibition by quercetin glycosides was Rutin≥Rham1>Rham2. Quercetin glycosides-mediated IACh enhancement was not affected by ACh concentration and appeared voltage-independent. Furthermore, quercetin-mediated IACh inhibition can be attenuated when quercetin is co-applied with Rham1 and Rutin, indicating that quercetin glycosides could interfere with quercetin-mediated α7 nAChR regulation and that the number of carbohydrates in the quercetin glycoside plays a key role in the interruption of quercetin action. These results show that quercetin and quercetin glycosides regulate the α7 nAChR in a differential manner. PMID:27098860

  2. Avarol derivatives as competitive AChE inhibitors, non hepatotoxic and neuroprotective agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; García-Font, Nuria; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Pejin, Boris; Iodice, Carmine; Cañadas, Sixta; Marco-Contelles, José; Oset-Gasque, María Jesús

    2016-10-21

    Avarol is a marine sesquiterpenoid hydroquinone, previously isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea avara Schmidt (Dictyoceratida), with antiinflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antiplatelet, anti-HIV, and antipsoriatic effects. Recent findings indicate that some thio-avarol derivatives exhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The multiple pharmacological properties of avarol, thio-avarol and/or their derivatives prompted us to continue the in vitro screening, focusing on their AChE inhibitory and neuroprotective effects. Due to the complex nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a renewed search for new, non hepatotoxic anticholinesterasic compounds. This paper describes the synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of avarol-3'-thiosalicylate (TAVA) and thiosalycil-prenyl-hydroquinones (TPHs), as non hepatotoxic anticholinesterasic agents, showing a good neuroprotective effect on the decreased viability of SHSY5Y human neuroblastoma cells induced by oligomycin A/rotenone and okadaic acid. A molecular modeling study was also undertaken on the most promising molecules within the series to elucidate their AChE binding modes and in particular the role played by the carboxylate group in enzyme inhibition. Among them, TPH4, bearing a geranylgeraniol substituent, is the most significant Electrophorus electricus AChE (EeAChE) inhibitor (IC50 = 6.77 ± 0.24 μM), also endowed with a moderate serum horse butyrylcholinesterase (eqBuChE) inhibitory activity, being also the least hepatotoxic and the best neuroprotective compound of the series. Thus, TPHs represents a new family of synthetic compounds, chemically related to the natural compound avarol, which has been discovered for the potential treatment of AD. Findings prove the relevance of TPHs as a new possible generation of competitive AChE inhibitors pointing out the importance of the salycilic substituents on the hydroquinone ring. Since these compounds do not belong to the class of

  3. Avarol derivatives as competitive AChE inhibitors, non hepatotoxic and neuroprotective agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; García-Font, Nuria; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Pejin, Boris; Iodice, Carmine; Cañadas, Sixta; Marco-Contelles, José; Oset-Gasque, María Jesús

    2016-10-21

    Avarol is a marine sesquiterpenoid hydroquinone, previously isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea avara Schmidt (Dictyoceratida), with antiinflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antiplatelet, anti-HIV, and antipsoriatic effects. Recent findings indicate that some thio-avarol derivatives exhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The multiple pharmacological properties of avarol, thio-avarol and/or their derivatives prompted us to continue the in vitro screening, focusing on their AChE inhibitory and neuroprotective effects. Due to the complex nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a renewed search for new, non hepatotoxic anticholinesterasic compounds. This paper describes the synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of avarol-3'-thiosalicylate (TAVA) and thiosalycil-prenyl-hydroquinones (TPHs), as non hepatotoxic anticholinesterasic agents, showing a good neuroprotective effect on the decreased viability of SHSY5Y human neuroblastoma cells induced by oligomycin A/rotenone and okadaic acid. A molecular modeling study was also undertaken on the most promising molecules within the series to elucidate their AChE binding modes and in particular the role played by the carboxylate group in enzyme inhibition. Among them, TPH4, bearing a geranylgeraniol substituent, is the most significant Electrophorus electricus AChE (EeAChE) inhibitor (IC50 = 6.77 ± 0.24 μM), also endowed with a moderate serum horse butyrylcholinesterase (eqBuChE) inhibitory activity, being also the least hepatotoxic and the best neuroprotective compound of the series. Thus, TPHs represents a new family of synthetic compounds, chemically related to the natural compound avarol, which has been discovered for the potential treatment of AD. Findings prove the relevance of TPHs as a new possible generation of competitive AChE inhibitors pointing out the importance of the salycilic substituents on the hydroquinone ring. Since these compounds do not belong to the class of

  4. Crosslinking-induced endocytosis of acetylcholine receptors by quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Wai; Zhang, Hailong; Geng, Lin; Peng, H Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  5. Crosslinking-Induced Endocytosis of Acetylcholine Receptors by Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lin; Peng, H. Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  6. Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…

  7. Targeting of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and the Use of Auditory Sensory Gating as a Translational Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the α7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) plays a key role in inflammatory processes, thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Preclinical and clinical studies showed that the diminished suppression of P50 auditory evoked potentials in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with a decreased density of α7 nAChRs in the brain. This points to a role for auditory sensory gating (P50) as a translational biomarker. A number of agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for α7 nAChR promoted beneficial effects in animal models with sensory gating and cognitive deficits. Additionally, several clinical studies showed that α7 nAChR agonists could improve suppression in auditory P50 evoked potentials, as well as cognitive deficits, and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Taken together, α7 nAChR presents as an extremely attractive therapeutic target for schizophrenia. In this article, the author discusses recent findings on α7 nAChR agonists such as DMXB-A, RG3487, TC-5619, tropisetron, EVP-6124 (encenicline), ABT-126, AQW051 and α7 nAChR PAMs such as JNJ-39393406, PNU-120596 and AVL-3288 (also known as UCI-4083), and their potential as therapeutic drugs for neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. PMID:26044974

  8. Targeting of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and the Use of Auditory Sensory Gating as a Translational Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the α7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) plays a key role in inflammatory processes, thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Preclinical and clinical studies showed that the diminished suppression of P50 auditory evoked potentials in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with a decreased density of α7 nAChRs in the brain. This points to a role for auditory sensory gating (P50) as a translational biomarker. A number of agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for α7 nAChR promoted beneficial effects in animal models with sensory gating and cognitive deficits. Additionally, several clinical studies showed that α7 nAChR agonists could improve suppression in auditory P50 evoked potentials, as well as cognitive deficits, and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Taken together, α7 nAChR presents as an extremely attractive therapeutic target for schizophrenia. In this article, the author discusses recent findings on α7 nAChR agonists such as DMXB-A, RG3487, TC-5619, tropisetron, EVP-6124 (encenicline), ABT-126, AQW051 and α7 nAChR PAMs such as JNJ-39393406, PNU- 120596 and AVL-3288 (also known as UCI-4083), and their potential as therapeutic drugs for neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia.

  9. The Role of Acetylcholine in Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark J; Adinoff, Bryon

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system cholinergic neurons arise from several discrete sources, project to multiple brain regions, and exert specific effects on reward, learning, and memory. These processes are critical for the development and persistence of addictive disorders. Although other neurotransmitters, including dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin, have been the primary focus of drug research to date, a growing preclinical literature reveals a critical role of acetylcholine (ACh) in the experience and progression of drug use. This review will present and integrate the findings regarding the role of ACh in drug dependence, with a primary focus on cocaine and the muscarinic ACh system. Mesostriatal ACh appears to mediate reinforcement through its effect on reward, satiation, and aversion, and chronic cocaine administration produces neuroadaptive changes in the striatum. ACh is further involved in the acquisition of conditional associations that underlie cocaine self-administration and context-dependent sensitization, the acquisition of associations in conditioned learning, and drug procurement through its effects on arousal and attention. Long-term cocaine use may induce neuronal alterations in the brain that affect the ACh system and impair executive function, possibly contributing to the disruptions in decision making that characterize this population. These primarily preclinical studies suggest that ACh exerts a myriad of effects on the addictive process and that persistent changes to the ACh system following chronic drug use may exacerbate the risk of relapse during recovery. Ultimately, ACh modulation may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment interventions in cocaine-addicted subjects. However, the complicated neurocircuitry of the cholinergic system, the multiple ACh receptor subtypes, the confluence of excitatory and inhibitory ACh inputs, and the unique properties of the striatal cholinergic interneurons suggest that a precise target of cholinergic

  10. Deletion of the Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Gene Improves Cognitive Deficits and Synaptic Pathology in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dziewczapolski, Gustavo; Glogowski, Carolina M.; Masliah, Eliezer; Heinemann, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenic peptide amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42) binds to the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) with high affinity and the α7nAChR and Aβ1-42 are both found co-localized in neuritic plaques of human brains with AD. Moreover, the intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ1-42 was shown to be facilitated by its high-affinity binding to the α7nAChR and α7nAChR activation mediates Aβ-induced tau protein phosphorylation. To test the hypothesis that α7nAChRs are involved in AD pathogenesis, we used a transgenic mouse model of AD over-expressing a mutated form of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and lacking the α7nAChR gene (APPα7KO). We have shown that, despite the presence of high amounts of APP and amyloid deposits, deleting the α7nAChR subunit in the mouse model of AD leads to a protection from the dysfunction in synaptic integrity (pathology and plasticity) and learning and memory behavior. Specifically, APPα7KO mice express APP and Aβ at similar levels to APP mice and yet they were able to solve a cognitive challenge such as the Morris water maze test significantly better than APP, with performances comparable to control groups. Moreover, deleting the α7nAChR subunit protected the brain from loss of the synaptic markers, synaptophysin and MAP2, reduced the gliosis, and preserved the capacity to elicit LTP otherwise deficient in APP mice. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the α7nAChR plays a role in AD and suggests that interrupting α7nAChR function could be beneficial in the treatment of AD. PMID:19587288

  11. Expression of cloned α6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are ACh-gated ion channels formed from five homologous subunits in subtypes defined by their subunit composition and stoichiometry. Some subtypes readily produce functional AChRs in Xenopus oocytes and transfected cell lines. α6β2β3* AChRs (subtypes formed from these subunits and perhaps others) are not easily expressed. This may be because the types of neurons in which they are expressed (typically dopaminergic neurons) have unique chaperones for assembling α6β2β3* AChRs, especially in the presence of the other AChR subtypes. Because these relatively minor brain AChR subtypes are of major importance in addiction to nicotine, it is important for drug development as well as investigation of their functional properties to be able to efficiently express human α6β2β3* AChRs. We review the issues and progress in expressing α6* AChRs. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'.

  12. Kinetic evidence that desensitized nAChR may promote transitions of active nAChR to desensitized states during sustained exposure to agonists in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Manthey, Arthur A

    2006-06-01

    During prolonged exposure of postjunctional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) of skeletal muscle to acetylcholine (ACh), agonist-activated nAChR (nAChRa) gradually fall into a refractory "desensitized" state (nAChRd), which no longer supports the high-conductance channel openings characteristic of the initially active nAChRa. In the present study, the possibility was examined that nAChRd, rather than simply constituting a passive "trap" for nAChRa, may actively promote further conversions of nAChRa to nAChRd in a formally autocatalytic manner. Single-ion whole-cell voltage-clamp currents (Na+ and Li+ in separate trials) were measured using two KCl-filled capillary electrodes (5-10 MOmega) implanted at the postjunctional locus of single frog skeletal muscle fibers (Rana pipiens) equilibrated in 30 mM K+ bath media to eliminate mechanical responses. Various nAChR agonists (carbamylcholine, acetylcholine, suberyldicholine) at different concentrations were delivered focally by positive pressure microjet. It was found that the decline of postmaximal agonist-induced currents under these different conditions (driven by the growth of the subpool of nAChRd) consistently followed an autocatalytic logistic rule modified for population growth of fixed units in a planar array: [Formula: see text] (where y represents the remaining agonist-induced current at time t, A=initial maximum current, and n is a constant). Some further experimental features that might result from a self-promoting growth of nAChRd were also tested, namely, (1) the effect of increased nAChRa and (2) the effect of increased nAChRd. Increase in agonist concentration of the superfusate, by increasing the planar density of active nAChRa at the outset, should enhance the probability of autocatalytic interactions with emerging nAChRd, hence, the rate of decline of agonist-induced current, and this was a consistent finding under all conditions tested. Raising the initial level of desensitized nAChRd by

  13. Absence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit amplifies inflammation and accelerates onset of fibrosis: an inflammatory kidney model

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Luan D.; Trostel, Jessica; Garcia, Gabriela E.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is regulated by endogenous mechanisms, including anti-inflammatory cytokines, adenosine, and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit (α7nAChR). We investigated the role of α7nAChR in protection against the progression of tissue injury in a model of severe, macrophage-mediated, cytokine-dependent anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis (GN), in α7nAChR-deficient (α7−/−) mice . At d 7 after the injection of anti-GBM antibody, kidneys from α7−/− mice displayed severe glomeruli (P < 0.0001) and tubulointerstitial lesions (P < 0.001) compared to kidneys from WT mice. An important finding was the presence of severe glomerulosclerosis in α7−/− mice in this early phase of the disease. Kidneys of α7−/− mice showed greater accumulation of inflammatory cells and higher expression of chemokines and cytokines than did those of WT mice. In addition, in α7−/− fibrotic kidneys, the expression of fibrin, collagen, TGF-β, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 increased, and the expression of TIMP3 declined. The increase in counterregulatory responses to inflammation in α7−/− nephritic kidneys did not compensate for the lack of α7nAChR. These findings indicate that α7nAChR plays a key role in regulating the inflammatory response in anti-GBM GN and that disruption of the endogenous protective α7nAChR amplifies inflammation to accelerate kidney damage and fibrosis.—Truong, L. D., Trostel. J., Garcia, G. E. Absence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit amplifies inflammation and accelerates onset of fibrosis: an inflammatory kidney model. PMID:25985801

  14. Acetylcholinesterase liquid crystal biosensor based on modulated growth of gold nanoparticles for amplified detection of acetylcholine and inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shuzhen; Qiao, Yanan; Han, Wenting; Xie, Zhaoxia; Wu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2012-01-01

    A novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) liquid crystal (LC) biosensor based on enzymatic growth of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) has been developed for amplified detection of acetylcholine (ACh) and AChE inhibitor. In this method, AChE mediates the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATCl) to form thiocholine, and the latter further reduces AuCl(4)(-) to Au NPs without Au nanoseeds. This process, termed biometallization, leads to a great enhancement in the optical signal of the LC biosensor due to the large size of Au NPs, which can greatly disrupt the orientational arrangement of LCs. On the other hand, the hydrolysis of ATCl is inhibited in the presence of ACh or organophosphate pesticides (OPs, a AChE inhibitor), which will decrease the catalytic growth of Au NPs and, as a result, reduce the orientational response of LCs. On the basis of such an inhibition mechanism, the AChE LC biosensor can be used as an effective way to realize the detection of ACh and AChE inhibitors. The results showed that the AChE LC biosensor was highly sensitive to ACh with a detection limit of 15 μmol/L and OPs with a detection limit of 0.3 nmol/L. This study provides a simple and sensitive AChE LC biosensing approach and offers effective signal enhanced strategies for the development of enzyme LC biosensors. PMID:22148672

  15. Morphine Increases Acetylcholine Release in the Trigeminal Nuclear Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhenghong; Bowman, Heather R.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The trigeminal nuclear complex (V) contains cholinergic neurons and includes the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (PSTN) which receives sensory input from the face and jaw, and the trigeminal motor nucleus (MoV) which innervates the muscles of mastication. Pain associated with pathologies of V is often managed with opioids but no studies have characterized the effect of opioids on acetylcholine (ACh) release in PSTN and MoV. Opioids can increase or decrease ACh release in brainstem nuclei. Therefore, the present experiments tested the 2-tailed hypothesis that microdialysis delivery of opioids to the PSTN and MoV significantly alters ACh release. Design: Using a within-subjects design and isoflurane-anesthetized Wistar rats (n = 53), ACh release in PSTN during microdialysis with Ringer's solution (control) was compared to ACh release during dialysis delivery of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin, muscarinic agonist bethanechol, opioid agonist morphine, mu opioid agonist DAMGO, antagonists for mu (naloxone) and kappa (nor-binaltorphimine; nor-BNI) opioid receptors, and GABAA antagonist bicuculline. Measurements and Results: Tetrodotoxin decreased ACh, confirming action potential-dependent ACh release. Bethanechol and morphine caused a concentration-dependent increase in PSTN ACh release. The morphine-induced increase in ACh release was blocked by nor-BNI but not by naloxone. Bicuculline delivered to the PSTN also increased ACh release. ACh release in the MoV was increased by morphine, and this increase was not blocked by naloxone or nor-BNI. Conclusions: These data comprise the first direct measures of ACh release in PSTN and MoV and suggest synaptic disinhibition as one possible mechanism by which morphine increases ACh release in the trigeminal nuclei. Citation: Zhu Z; Bowman HR; Baghdoyan HA; Lydic R. Morphine increases acetylcholine release in the trigeminal nuclear complex. SLEEP 2008;31(12):1629–1637. PMID:19090318

  16. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew K; Raymond-Delpech, Valerie; Thany, Steeve H; Gauthier, Monique; Sattelle, David B

    2006-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission and play roles in many cognitive processes. They are under intense research as potential targets of drugs used to treat neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Invertebrate nAChRs are targets of anthelmintics as well as a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is one of the most beneficial insects worldwide, playing an important role in crop pollination, and is also a valuable model system for studies on social interaction, sensory processing, learning, and memory. We have used the A. mellifera genome information to characterize the complete honey bee nAChR gene family. Comparison with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae shows that the honey bee possesses the largest family of insect nAChR subunits to date (11 members). As with Drosophila and Anopheles, alternative splicing of conserved exons increases receptor diversity. Also, we show that in one honey bee nAChR subunit, six adenosine residues are targeted for RNA A-to-I editing, two of which are evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster and Heliothis virescens orthologs, and that the extent of editing increases as the honey bee lifecycle progresses, serving to maximize receptor diversity at the adult stage. These findings on Apis mellifera enhance our understanding of nAChR functional genomics and provide a useful basis for the development of improved insecticides that spare a major beneficial insect species.

  17. In vitro proliferative responses and antibody titers specific to human acetylcholine receptor synthetic peptides in patients with myasthenia gravis and relation to HLA class II genes.

    PubMed Central

    Brocke, S; Brautbar, C; Steinman, L; Abramsky, O; Rothbard, J; Neumann, D; Fuchs, S; Mozes, E

    1988-01-01

    To investigate which parts of the acetylcholine receptor are involved in the initiation and development of myasthenia gravis (MG), peptides representing different sequences of the human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit were synthesized. These peptides were tested for their ability to stimulate T cells of myasthenic patients and healthy control patients in proliferation assays and to bind to sera antibodies. Three of eight peptides discriminated significantly between the two groups in the proliferation assay, as well as in their ability to bind to serum antibodies. HLA-DR3 and DR5 were associated with proliferative responses to specific AChR peptides in the group of myasthenics. Acetylcholine receptor epitopes that might play a specific role in myasthenia gravis thus were demonstrated. PMID:2461962

  18. Functional expression of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and rat periodontal tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Ying-Feng; Wang, Qing-Yu; Tsuruoka, Morito; Ohta, Kazumasa; Wu, Sheng-Xi; Yakushiji, Masashi; Inoue, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor associated with chronic periodontitis, but the mechanisms that underlie this relationship are largely unknown. Recent reports proposed that nicotine plays an important role in tobacco-related morbidity by acting through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by non-neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alpha 7 nAChR was expressed in periodontal tissues and whether it functions by regulating IL-1 beta in the process of periodontitis. In vitro, human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cultured with 10(-12) M of nicotine and/or 10(-9) M of alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Btx), a alpha 7 nAChR antagonist. The expression of alpha 7 nAChR and IL-1 beta in PDL cells and the effects of nicotine/alpha-Btx administration on their expression were explored. In vivo, an experimental periodontitis rat model was established, and the effects of nicotine/alpha-Btx administration on expression of alpha 7 nAChR and development of periodontitis were evaluated. We found that alpha 7 nAChR was present in human PDL cells and rat periodontal tissues. The expressions of alpha 7 nAChR and IL-1 beta were significantly increased by nicotine administration, whereas alpha-Btx treatment partially suppressed these effects. This study was the first to demonstrate the functional expression of alpha 7 nAChR in human PDL cells and rat periodontal tissues. Our results may be pertinent to a better understanding of the relationships among smoking, nicotine, and periodontitis.

  19. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, Sybren F; Mansvelder, Huibert D; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-10-15

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are found in most brain regions, many studies on addiction have focused on the mesolimbic system and its reported behavioral correlates such as reward processing and reinforcement learning. Profound modulatory cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmentum to dopaminergic midbrain nuclei as well as local cholinergic interneuron projections to dopamine neuron axons in the striatum may play a major role in the effects of nicotine. Moreover, an indirect mesocorticolimbic feedback loop involving the medial prefrontal cortex may be involved in behavioral characteristics of nicotine addiction. Therefore, this review will highlight current understanding of the effects of nicotine on the function of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine projections in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. PMID:26208783

  20. Effects of 4-aminopyridine on acetylcholine output from the cerebral cortex of the rat in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Casamenti, Fiorella; Corradetti, R.; Löffelholz, K.; Mantovani, P.; Pepeu, G.

    1982-01-01

    1 The effects of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) on the output of acetylcholine (ACh) from the cerebral cortex were investigated in unanaesthetized freely moving rats and in anaesthetized rats by means of the `cup technique'. ACh was determined by bioassay on the dorsal muscle of the leech. 2 In unanaesthetized rats intraperitoneal injection of 4AP (3 mg/kg) had no effect on the cortical output of ACh. 3 After injection of morphine (10 mg/kg s.c.), which depressed the spontaneous output of ACh, 4AP increased the cortical output to a level significantly higher than that determined before morphine injection. 4 In rats anaesthetized with either urethane or pentobarbitone, drugs known to decrease cortical output of ACh, 4AP (i.v. or i.p.) elicited a significant increase in the output of ACh. The time-courses of the 4AP-induced effects were different depending on the anaesthetic drug used: an immediate increase slowly fading in urethane anaesthesia and a gradual increase after delayed onset in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats. 5 In some urethane-anaesthetized rats, respiratory frequency was kept constant (tracheotomy, connection to respirator, bilateral vagotomy) and prazosin (1 mg/kg i.v.) was administered to reduce the 4AP-induced increase of blood pressure. Cortical output of ACh was not related to changes in blood pressure. Moreover, the 4AP-induced increase in cortical ACh output was not related to changes in respiratory frequency. 6 In summary systemic administration of 4AP in subconvulsive doses (1 and 3 mg/kg) increased cortical output of ACh in rats anaesthetized with urethane or pentobarbitone or after injection of morphine, but not in untreated freely moving rats. It is suggested that the anaesthetic agents and morphine may cause an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory central pathways, and that this imbalance may play a role in their depressant effect on cortical output of ACh and/or in the 4AP-induced facilitation described in this paper. PMID:7104518

  1. Effect of oxotremorine, physostigmine, and scopolamine on brain acetylcholine synthesis: a study using HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, N.; Beley, A. )

    1990-11-01

    The synthesis rate of brain acetylcholine (ACh) was estimated in mice following i.v. administration of ({sup 3}H)choline (Ch). The measurements were performed 1 min after the tracer injection, using the ({sup 3}H)ACh/({sup 3}H)Ch specific radioactivity ratio as an index of ACh synthesis rate. Endogenous and labeled Ch and ACh were quantified using HPLC methodology. Oxotremorine and physostigmine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the steady state concentration of brain ACh by + 130% and 84%, respectively and of Ch by + 60% (oxotremorine); they decreased ACh synthesis by 62 and 55%, respectively. By contrast, scopolamine (0.7 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the cerebral content of Ch by - 26% and of ACh by - 23% without enhancing the synthesis of ACh. The results show the utility of HPLC methodology in the investigation of ACh turnover.

  2. Differential Cytokine Changes in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis with Antibodies against AChR and MuSK

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Vuslat; Oflazer, Piraye; Aysal, Fikret; Durmus, Hacer; Poulas, Kostas; Yentur, Sibel P.; Gulsen-Parman, Yesim; Tzartos, Socrates; Marx, Alexander; Tuzun, Erdem; Deymeer, Feza; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular transmission failure in myasthenia gravis (MG) is most commonly elicited by autoantibodies (ab) to the acetylcholine receptor or the muscle-specific kinase, constituting AChR-MG and MuSK-MG. It is controversial whether these MG subtypes arise through different T helper (Th) 1, Th2 or Th17 polarized immune reactions and how these reactions are blunted by immunosuppression. To address these questions, plasma levels of cytokines related to various Th subtypes were determined in patients with AChR-MG, MuSK-MG and healthy controls (CON). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were activated in vitro by anti-CD3, and cytokines were quantified in supernatants. In purified blood CD4+ T cells, RNA of various cytokines, Th subtype specific transcription factors and the co-stimulatory molecule, CD40L, were quantified by qRT-PCR. Plasma levels of Th1, Th2 and Th17 related cytokines were overall not significantly different between MG subtypes and CON. By contrast, in vitro stimulated PBMC from MuSK-MG but not AChR-MG patients showed significantly increased secretion of the Th1, Th17 and T follicular helper cell related cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21. Stimulated expression of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 was not significantly different. At the RNA level, expression of CD40L by CD4+ T cells was reduced in both AChR-MG and MuSK-MG patients while expression of Th subset related cytokines and transcription factors were normal. Immunosuppression treatment had two effects: First, it reduced levels of IL12p40 in the plasma of AChR-MG and MuSK-MG patients, leaving other cytokine levels unchanged; second, it reduced spontaneous secretion of IFN-γ and increased secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 by cultured PBMC from AChR-MG, but not MuSK-MG patients. We conclude that Th1 and Th17 immune reactions play a role in MuSK-MG. Immunosuppression attenuates the Th1 response in AChR-MG and MuSK-MG, but otherwise modulates immune responses in AChR-MG and MuSK-MG patients

  3. Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine: The Missing Link Between Sepsis, Cancer, and Delirium?

    PubMed Central

    Sfera, Adonis; Cummings, Michael; Osorio, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between living organisms and the environment requires a balancing act between genomic and epigenomic forces. Inflammation and cellular proliferation are kept in check by the genes, which code for their components and the microRNAs, which are capable of silencing the transcription of these genes. Acetylcholine (ACh) may play a unique role in the maintenance of this equilibrium, as the epigenomic inhibition of the gene coding for nicotinic receptors, and disinhibits the gene causing anergia in immune cells. We hypothesize that age-induced ACh deficiency is the result of an epigenomic dysfunction of microRNA-6775 (miR-6775), which silences the transcription of CHRNA7 gene [coding for alpha 7 nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs)]. When silenced, this gene induces decreased expression of alpha 7 nAChRs, which may predispose elderly individuals to inflammation, neuroinflammation, and delirium. We hypothesize further that miR-6775-induced hypocholinergia augments the expression of RNF 128, the gene related to anergy in lymphocytes (GRAIL). This gene favors regulatory T cells (Tregs), promoters of immunologic tolerance, which may predispose to both cancer and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. PMID:26347869

  4. Administration of nicotine to adolescent rats evokes regionally selective upregulation of CNS alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Cousins, Mandy M; Seidler, Frederic J

    2004-12-24

    Alpha 7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a role in axonogenesis, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity, and are therefore targets for developmental neurotoxicants. We administered nicotine to adolescent rats and evaluated the effects on alpha 7 nAChRs in the striatum, brainstem and cerebellum. During the period of nicotine administration (30-47.5 days of age), nicotine elicited alpha 7 nAChR upregulation with a regional hierarchy of striatum>brainstem>cerebellum. Values returned to normal or became slightly subnormal almost immediately after the cessation of treatment (50 days of age) with no further changes through 75 days of age. The temporal and regional patterns of the effects on alpha 7 nAChRs were distinct from those reported earlier for the alpha 4 beta 2 subtype, and neither adult nor fetal/neonatal administration upregulates the alpha 7 subtype in the striatum. Targeting of the striatum is thus unique to nicotine exposure during adolescence and parallels earlier work showing regionally selective effects of this treatment on synaptic signaling. We obtained preliminary evidence for nicotine-induced oxidative stress as a potential contributory mechanism. The present findings reinforce the concept of biologically distinct effects of nicotine in the adolescent brain and provide evidence for a mechanistic involvement of alpha 7 nAChRs in its unique effects during this developmental period.

  5. Synthesis of the signal molecule acetylcholine during the developmental cycle of Paramecium primaurelia (Protista, Ciliophora) and its possible function in conjugation.

    PubMed

    Delmonte Corrado, M U; Politi, H; Ognibene, M; Angelini, C; Trielli, F; Ballarini, P; Falugi, C

    2001-06-01

    We recently discovered, in mating-competent Paramecium primaurelia, the presence of functionally related molecules of the cholinergic system: the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), both its nicotinic and muscarinic receptors and its lytic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Our results on the inhibition of mating-cell pairing in vivo in mating-competent cells treated with cholinomimetic drugs support the hypothesis that the cholinergic system plays a role in cell-to-cell adhesion. To investigate the possible function of the signal molecule ACh in conjugation in P. primaurelia, we attempted to detect the intracellular sites of ACh synthesis by localizing the ACh biosynthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Using immunocytochemical and histochemical methods, we have demonstrated the presence and activity of ChAT principally on the surface membrane of mating-competent cells and of mature but non-mating-competent cells. No evidence for ChAT activity was found in immature cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands, ranging in molecular mass from 42 to 133 kDa, as reported for ChAT isolated from higher organisms. In vivo experiments showed that inhibition of ChAT activity by Congo Red, known to be a potent competitive inhibitor of acetyl coenzyme A, did not affect mating-cell pairing. Conversely, inhibition of AChE with BW 284c51 or eserine, which block enzyme activity by reacting with a specific serine within the catalytic centre, significantly inhibited mating-cell pairing. Our results suggest that ACh has a negative modulating effect on conjugation in P. primaurelia. PMID:11441032

  6. Clinical Features of Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy and the Detection of Subunit-Specific Autoantibodies to the Ganglionic Acetylcholine Receptor in Japanese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Michiaki; Kanda, Takashi; Murata, Kenya; Suzuki, Takashi; Kurono, Hiroko; Kunimoto, Masanari; Kaida, Ken-ichi; Mukaino, Akihiro; Sakai, Waka; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is a rare acquired channelopathy that is characterized by pandysautonomia, in which autoantibodies to ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (gAChR) may play a central role. Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays have been used for the sensitive detection of autoantibodies to gAChR in the serum of patients with AAG. Here, we developed luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) to diagnose AAG based on IgGs to both the α3 and β4 gAChR subunits in patient serum. We reviewed the serological and clinical data of 50 Japanese patients who were diagnosed with AAG. With the LIPS testing, we detected anti-α3 and -β4 gAChR antibodies in 48% (24/50) of the patients. A gradual mode of onset was more common in the seropositive group than in the seronegative group. Patients with AAG frequently have orthostatic hypotension and upper and lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms, with or without anti-gAChR. The occurrence of autonomic symptoms was not significantly different between the seropositive and seronegative group, with the exception of achalasia in three patients from the seropositive group. In addition, we found a significant overrepresentation of autoimmune diseases in the seropositive group and endocrinological abnormalities as an occasional complication of AAG. Our results demonstrated that the LIPS assay was a useful novel tool for detecting autoantibodies against gAChR in patients with AAG. PMID:25790156

  7. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I.; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M.

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila. PMID:26380118

  8. Nicotinic ACh receptors as therapeutic targets in CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Dineley, Kelly T; Pandya, Anshul A; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2015-02-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can regulate neuronal excitability by acting on the cys-loop cation-conducting ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) channels. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS), being expressed on neurons and non-neuronal cells, where they participate in a variety of physiological responses such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and cognitive functions. In the mammalian brain, nine different subunits have been found thus far, which assemble into pentameric complexes with much subunit diversity; however, the α7 and α4β2 subtypes predominate in the CNS. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Here we will briefly discuss the functional makeup and expression of the nAChRs in mammalian brain, and their role as targets in neurodegenerative diseases (in particular Alzheimer's disease, AD), neurodevelopmental disorders (in particular autism and schizophrenia), and neuropathic pain.

  9. Procaine rapidly inactivates acetylcholine receptors from Torpedo and competes with agonist for inhibition sites

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S.A.; Miller, K.W. )

    1989-02-21

    The relationship between the high-affinity procaine channel inhibition site and the agonist self-inhibition site on acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) from Torpedo electroplaque was investigated by using rapid {sup 86}Rb{sup +} quenched-flux assays at 4 {degree}C in native AChR-rich vesicles on which 50-60% of ACh activation sites were blocked with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX). In the presence of channel-activating acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations alone, AChR undergoes one phase of inactivation in under a second. Addition of procaine produces two-phase inactivation similar to that seen with self-inhibiting ACh concentrations rapid inactivation complete in 30-75 ms is followed by fast desensitization at the same k{sub d} observed without procaine. The dependence of k{sub r} on (procaine) is consistent with a bimolecular association between procaine and its AChR site. Inhibition of AChR function by mixtures of procaine plus self-inhibiting concentrations of ACh or suberyldicholine was studied by reducing the level of {alpha}-BTX block in vesicles. The data support a mechanism where procaine binds preferentially to the open-channel AChR state, since no procaine-induced inactivation is observed without agonist and k{sub r}'s dependence on (ACh) in channel-activating range closely parallels that of {sup 86}Rb{sup +} flux response to ACh.

  10. From crystal structure of α-conotoxin GIC in complex with Ac-AChBP to molecular determinants of its high selectivity for α3β2 nAChR

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bo; Xu, Manyu; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yong; Liu, Xi; Zhangsun, Dongting; Hu, Yuanyan; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Wang, Xinquan; Luo, Sulan

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine binding proteins (AChBPs) are unique spatial homologs of the ligand-binding domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and they reproduce some pharmacological properties of nAChRs. X-ray crystal structures of AСhBP in complex with α-conotoxins provide important insights into the interactions of α-conotoxins with distinct nAChR subtypes. Although considerable efforts have been made to understand why α-conotoxin GIC is strongly selective for α3β2 nAChR, this question has not yet been solved. Here we present the structure of α-conotoxin GIC in complex with Aplysia californica AChBP (Ac-AChBP) at a resolution of 2.1 Å. Based on this co-crystal structure complemented with molecular docking data, we suggest the key residues of GIC in determining its high affinity and selectivity for human α3β2 vs α3β4 nAChRs. These suggestions were checked by radioligand and electrophysiology experiments, which confirmed the functional role of detected contacts for GIC interactions with Ac-AChBP and α3β2 nAChR subtypes. While GIC elements responsible for its high affinity binding with Ac-AChBP and α3β2 nAChR were identified, our study also showed the limitations of computer modelling in extending the data from the X-ray structures of the AChBP complexes to all nAChR subtypes. PMID:26925840

  11. Septohippocampal Acetylcholine: Involved in but Not Necessary for Learning and Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Marise B.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) has been accorded an important role in supporting learning and memory processes in the hippocampus. Cholinergic activity in the hippocampus is correlated with memory, and restoration of ACh in the hippocampus after disruption of the septohippocampal pathway is sufficient to rescue memory. However, selective…

  12. An unusual beta-spectrin associated with clustered acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) in the postsynaptic membrane is an early event in the formation of the neuromuscular junction. The mechanism of clustering is still unknown, but is generally believed to be mediated by the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. We have identified an unusual isoform of beta-spectrin which colocalizes with AChR in AChR clusters isolated from rat myotubes in vitro. A related antigen is present postsynaptically at the neuromuscular junction of the rat. Immunoprecipitation, peptide mapping and immunofluorescence show that the beta-spectrin in AChR clusters resembles but is distinct from the beta-spectrin of human erythrocytes. alpha-Spectrin appears to be absent from AChR clusters. Semiquantitative immunofluorescence techniques indicate that there are from two to seven beta-spectrin molecules present for every clustered AChR, the higher values being obtained from rapidly prepared clusters, the lower values from clusters that require several minutes or more for isolation. Upon incubation of isolated AChR clusters for 1 h at room temperature, beta-spectrin is slowly depleted and the AChR redistribute into microaggregates. The beta-spectrin that remains associated with the myotube membrane is concentrated at these microaggregates. beta- Spectrin is quantitatively lost from clusters upon digestion with chymotrypsin, which causes AChR to redistribute in the plane of the membrane. These results suggest that AChR in clusters is closely linked to an unusual isoform of beta-spectrin. PMID:2645300

  13. Acetylcholine receptor and behavioral deficits in mice lacking apolipoprotein E

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jessica A; Benice, Theodore S; Van Meer, Peter; Park, Byung S; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in the risk to develop sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since impaired central acetylcholine (ACh) function is a hallmark of AD, apoE may influence ACh function by modulating muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). To test this hypothesis, mAChR binding was measured in mice lacking apoE and wild type C57BL/6J mice. Mice were also tested on the pre-pulse inhibition, delay eyeblink classical conditioning, and 5-choice serial reaction time tasks, which are all modulated by ACh transmission. Mice were also given scopolamine to challenge central mAChR function. Compared to wild type mice, mice lacking apoE had reduced number of cortical and hippocampal mAChRs. Scopolamine had a small effect on delay eyeblink classical conditioning in wild type mice but a large effect in mice lacking apoE. Mice lacking apoE were also unable to acquire performance on the 5-choice serial reaction time task. These results support a role for apoE in ACh function and suggest that modulation of cortical and hippocampal mAChRs might contribute to genotype differences in scopolamine sensitivity and task acquisition. Impaired apoE functioning may result in cholinergic deficits that contribute to the cognitive impairments seen in AD. PMID:19178986

  14. [Effect of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase on the activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh, 1 microM) stimulates activity of the contractile vacuole of proteus. The effect of ACh is not mimicked by its analogs which are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), i. e., carbacholine and 5-methylfurmethide. The effect of ACh is not sensitive to the blocking action of M-cholinolytics, atropine and mytolone, but is suppressed by N-cholinolytic, tubocurarine. The inhibitors of AChE, eserine (0.01 microM) and armine (0.1 microM), suppress the effect of ACh on amoeba contractile vacuole. ACh does not affect activation of contractile vacuole induced by arginine-vasopressin (1 microM), but it blocks such effect of opiate receptors agonist, dynorphin A1-13 (0.01 microM). This effect of ACh is also suppressed by the inhibitors of AChE. These results suggest that, in the above-described effects of ACh, AChE acts not as an antagonist, but rather as a synergist.

  15. Turnover of acetylcholine receptors: Mechanisms of regulation. Final report, 1 August 1985-30 November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Drachman, D.B.

    1990-12-31

    The synthesis, insertion and degradation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) of skeletal muscle cells as closely regulated both by the muscle cells and by the motor nerves that supply them. The goal of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation of the AChRs, both at the neuromuscular junctional and at extrajunctional regions. The results of our studies on junctional AChRs have shown that: Both stable and rapidly turned over (RTO) AChRs are present at normally innervated neuromuscular junctions` Synthesis and insertion of AChRs at neuromuscular junctions occurs rapidly, at a rate consistent with the rapid rate of turnover of RTOs. RTOs serve as precursors of stable AChRs. Acetylcholine receptors, RA5 Neuromuscular junctions, Motor nerves.

  16. Mood and anxiety regulation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: A potential pathway to modulate aggression and related behavioral states.

    PubMed

    Picciotto, Marina R; Lewis, Alan S; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Mineur, Yann S

    2015-09-01

    The co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders is striking. Preclinical and clinical studies of nicotinic effects on mood, anxiety, aggression, and related behaviors, such as irritability and agitation, suggest that smokers may use the nicotine in tobacco products as an attempt to self-medicate symptoms of affective disorders. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in circuits regulating mood and anxiety is beginning to be elucidated in animal models, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on aggression-related behavioral states (ARBS) are still not understood. Clinical trials of nicotine or nicotinic medications for neurological and psychiatric disorders have often found effects of nicotinic medications on ARBS, but few trials have studied these outcomes systematically. Similarly, the increase in ARBS resulting from smoking cessation can be resolved by nicotinic agents, but the effects of nicotinic medications on these types of mental states and behaviors in non-smokers are less well understood. Here we review the literature on the role of nAChRs in regulating mood and anxiety, and subsequently on the closely related construct of ARBS. We suggest avenues for future study to identify how nAChRs and nicotinic agents may play a role in these clinically important areas. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25582289

  17. Mood and anxiety regulation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: A potential pathway to modulate aggression and related behavioral states.

    PubMed

    Picciotto, Marina R; Lewis, Alan S; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Mineur, Yann S

    2015-09-01

    The co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders is striking. Preclinical and clinical studies of nicotinic effects on mood, anxiety, aggression, and related behaviors, such as irritability and agitation, suggest that smokers may use the nicotine in tobacco products as an attempt to self-medicate symptoms of affective disorders. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in circuits regulating mood and anxiety is beginning to be elucidated in animal models, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on aggression-related behavioral states (ARBS) are still not understood. Clinical trials of nicotine or nicotinic medications for neurological and psychiatric disorders have often found effects of nicotinic medications on ARBS, but few trials have studied these outcomes systematically. Similarly, the increase in ARBS resulting from smoking cessation can be resolved by nicotinic agents, but the effects of nicotinic medications on these types of mental states and behaviors in non-smokers are less well understood. Here we review the literature on the role of nAChRs in regulating mood and anxiety, and subsequently on the closely related construct of ARBS. We suggest avenues for future study to identify how nAChRs and nicotinic agents may play a role in these clinically important areas. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'.

  18. Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    Designing a game with a serious purpose involves considering the worlds of Reality and Meaning yet it is undeniably impossible to create a game without a third world, one that is specifically concerned with what makes a game a game: the play elements. This third world, the world of people like designers and artists, and disciplines as computer science and game design, I call the world of Play and this level is devoted to it. The level starts off with some of the misperceptions people have of play. Unlike some may think, we play all the time, even when we grow old—this was also very noticeable in designing the game Levee Patroller as the team exhibited very playful behavior at many occasions. From there, I go into the aspects that characterize this world. The first concerns the goal of the game. This relates to the objectives people have to achieve within the game. This is constituted by the second aspect: the gameplay. Taking actions and facing challenges is subsequently constituted by a gameworld, which concerns the third aspect. And all of it is not possible without the fourth and final aspect, the type of technology that creates and facilitates the game. The four aspects together make up a “game concept” and from this world such a concept can be judged on the basis of three closely interrelated criteria: engagement, immersion, and fun.

  19. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on motor coordination in mice treated with methyllcaconitine and anabasine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adverse effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Research has indicated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice with more a7 nAChR requi...

  20. α7nAchR/NMDAR coupling affects NMDAR function and object recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Shupeng; Nai, Qiang; Lipina, Tatiana V; Roder, John C; Liu, Fang

    2013-12-20

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) and NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) are both ligand-gated ion channels permeable to Ca2+ and Na+. Previous studies have demonstrated functional modulation of NMDARs by nAchRs, although the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We have previously reported that α7nAchR forms a protein complex with the NMDAR through a protein-protein interaction. We also developed an interfering peptide that is able to disrupt the α7nAchR-NMDAR complex and blocks cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking in rat models of relapse. In the present study, we investigated whether the α7nAchR-NMDAR interaction is responsible for the functional modulation of NMDAR by α7nAchR using both electrophysiological and behavioral tests. We have found that activation of α7nAchR upregulates NMDAR-mediated whole cell currents and LTP of mEPSC in cultured hippocampal neurons, which can be abolished by the interfering peptide that disrupts the α7nAchR-NMDAR interaction. Moreover, administration of the interfering peptide in mice impairs novel object recognition but not Morris water maze performance. Our results suggest that α7nAchR/NMDAR coupling may selectively affect some aspects of learning and memory.

  1. Clinical application of clustered-AChR for the detection of SNMG

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guang; Wang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiutian; Guan, Yangtai; Jiang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoantibody-mediated disease of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). However, accumulating evidence has indicated that MG patients whose serum anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies are not detectable (serumnegative MG; SNMG) in routine assays share similar clinical features with anti-AChR antibody-positive MG patients. We hypothesized that SNMG patients would have low-affinity antibodies to AChRs that would not be detectable using traditional methods but that might be detected by binding to AChR on the cell membrane, particularly if they were clustered at the high density observed at the NMJ. We expressed AChR subunits with the clustering protein rapsyn (an AChR-associated protein at the synapse) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, and we tested the binding of the antibodies using immunofluorescence. With this approach, AChR antibodies to rapsyn-clustered AChR could be detected in the sera from 45.83% (11/24) of SNMG patients, as confirmed with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). This was the first application in China of cell-based AChR antibody detection. More importantly, this sensitive (and specific) approach could significantly increase the diagnosis rate of SNMG. PMID:26068604

  2. Caffeine potentiates the enhancement by choline of striatal acetylcholine release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. A.; Ulus, I. H.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of peripherally administered caffeine (50 mg/kg), choline (30, 60, or 120 mg/kg) or combinations of both drugs on the spontaneous release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the corpus striatum of anesthetized rats using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine alone or choline in the 30 or 60 mg/kg dose failed to increase ACh in microdialysis samples; the 120 mg/kg choline dose significantly enhanced ACh during the 80 min following drug administration. Coadministration of caffeine with choline significantly increased ACh release after each of the choline doses tested. Peak microdialysate levels with the 120 mg/kg dose were increased 112% when caffeine was additionally administered, as compared with 54% without caffeine. These results indicate that choline administration can enhance spontaneous ACh release from neurons, and that caffeine, a drug known to block adenosine receptors on these neurons, can amplify the choline effect.

  3. Changes in Acetylcholine Extracellular Levels during Cognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepeu, Giancarlo; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the changes in neurotransmitter extracellular levels in discrete brain areas is considered a tool for identifying the neuronal systems involved in specific behavioral responses or cognitive processes. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the first neurotransmitter whose diffusion from the central nervous system was investigated and whose extracellular…

  4. Intracoronary Acetylcholine Provocation Testing for Assessment of Coronary Vasomotor Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peter; Athanasiadis, Anastasios; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Intracoronary acetylcholine provocation testing (ACH-test) is an established method for assessment of epicardial coronary artery spasm in the catheterization laboratory which was introduced more than 30 years ago. Due to the short half-life of acetylcholine it can only be applied directly into the coronary arteries. Several studies have demonstrated the safety and clinical usefulness of this test. However, acetylcholine testing is only rarely applied in the U.S. or Europe. Nevertheless, it has been shown that 62% of Caucasian patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronary arteries on coronary angiography suffer from coronary vasomotor disorders that can be diagnosed with acetylcholine testing. In recent years it has been appreciated that the ACH-test not only assesses the presence of epicardial spasm but that it can also be useful for the detection of coronary microvascular spam. In such cases no epicardial spasm is seen after injection of acetylcholine but ischemic ECG shifts are present together with a reproduction of the patient's symptoms during the test. This article describes the experience with the ACH-test and its implementation in daily clinical routine. PMID:27583694

  5. Maintenance of constant blood acetylcholine content before and after feeding in young chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Mori, Y; Tominaga, T; Hayasaka, I; Kawashima, K

    1997-05-01

    We have shown that acetylcholine (ACh) is present in the blood of various species of mammals using a specific, sensitive radioimmunoassay. In the present study, the effect on blood and plasma ACh levels of feeding after overnight fasting was studied in one male and five female 4- to 7-year-old chimpanzees. The mean basal ACh concentrations of the blood and plasma were 3143 +/- 380 and 184 +/- 10 pg/ml (+/-SEM, n = 6), respectively. Feeding each chimpanzee 500 g boiled sweet potatoes as breakfast at 1000 h and tap water given ad libitum did not affect the ACh content of the blood and plasma, and constant values of the blood and plasma ACh contents were observed for 4 h after the feeding. Hematocrit and plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were also insensitive to feeding. No correlation was observed between plasma AChE activity and either blood or plasma ACh content. The results of the present study indicate that the blood ACh of chimpanzees is distributed mainly in the blood cell fraction, and that the blood ACh content is not regulated directly by cholinergic nerve activity or by plasma AChE activity.

  6. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and its prokaryotic homologues: Structure, conformational transitions & allosteric modulation.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Marco; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) play a central role in intercellular communications in the nervous system by converting the binding of a chemical messenger - a neurotransmitter - into an ion flux through the postsynaptic membrane. Here, we present an overview of the most recent advances on the signal transduction mechanism boosted by X-ray crystallography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic homologues of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in conjunction with time-resolved analyses based on single-channel electrophysiology and Molecular Dynamics simulations. The available data consistently point to a global mechanism of gating that involves a large reorganization of the receptor mediated by two distinct quaternary transitions: a global twisting and a radial expansion/contraction of the extracellular domain. These transitions profoundly modify the organization of the interface between subunits, which host several sites for orthosteric and allosteric modulatory ligands. The same mechanism may thus mediate both positive and negative allosteric modulations of pLGICs ligand binding at topographically distinct sites. The emerging picture of signal transduction is expected to pave the way to new pharmacological strategies for the development of allosteric modulators of nAChR and pLGICs in general. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'.

  7. A first principle study on the interaction between acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine, and also rivastigmine in alzheimer's disease case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoirunisa, V.; Rusydi, F.; Kasai, H.; Gandaryus, A. G.; Dipojono, H. K.

    2016-08-01

    The catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) relates to the symptom progress in Alzheimer's disease. Interaction of AChE with rivastigmine (from the medicine) can reduce its catalytic activity toward acetylcholine to decelerate the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This research attempts to study the interaction between AChE and rivastigmine, and also acetylcholine (without the presence of rivastigmine) using density functional theory by simplifying the reaction occurs in the active site, which is assumed to be C2H5OH, C3N2H3(Ch3), and CH3COO-. The results suggest that AChE interacts easier with acetylcholine than with rivastigmine, which implies that the medicine does not effectively reduce the catalytic activity of AChE. At this stage, no experimental data is available to be compared with the calculation results. Nonetheless, this study has shown a good prospect to understand the AChE-substrate interaction using a first-principles calculation.

  8. Genetic knockout of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene alters hippocampal long-term potentiation in a background strain-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Freund, Ronald K; Graw, Sharon; Choo, Kevin S; Stevens, Karen E; Leonard, Sherry; Dell'Acqua, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Reduced α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function is linked to impaired hippocampal-dependent sensory processing and learning and memory in schizophrenia. While knockout of the Chrna7 gene encoding the α7nAChR on a C57/Bl6 background results in changes in cognitive measures, prior studies found little impact on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in these mice. However, schizophrenia is a multi-genic disorder where complex interactions between specific genetic mutations and overall genetic background may play a prominent role in determining phenotypic penetrance. Thus, we compared the consequences of knocking out the α7nAChR on synaptic plasticity in C57/Bl6 and C3H mice, which differ in their basal α7nAChR expression levels. Homozygous α7 deletion in C3H mice, which normally express higher α7nAChR levels, resulted in impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses, while C3H α7 heterozygous mice maintained robust LTP. In contrast, homozygous α7 deletion in C57 mice, which normally express lower α7nAChR levels, did not alter LTP, as had been previously reported for this strain. Thus, the threshold of Chrna7 expression required for LTP may be different in the two strains. Measurements of auditory gating, a hippocampal-dependent behavioral paradigm used to identify schizophrenia-associated sensory processing deficits, was abnormal in C3H α7 knockout mice confirming that auditory gating also requires α7nAChR expression. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic background on the regulation of synaptic plasticity and could be relevant for understanding genetic and cognitive heterogeneity in human studies of α7nAChR dysfunction in mental disorders.

  9. AChR-specific immunosuppressive therapy of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-10-15

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by muscle fatigability. In most cases, it is mediated by autoantibodies targeting muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction. Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) is an animal model for MG, which is usually induced by immunization with AChR purified from fish electric organ. Pathological autoantibodies to AChRs are directed at the extracellular surface, especially the main immunogenic region (MIR). Current treatments for MG can help many but not all patients. Antigen-specific immunosuppressive therapy for MG that specifically suppresses the autoimmune response without affecting the entire immune system and avoids side effects of general immunosuppression is currently unavailable. Early attempts at antigen-specific immunosuppression for EAMG using AChR extracellular domain sequences that form epitopes for pathological autoantibodies risked provoking autoimmunity rather than suppressing it. We discovered a novel approach to specific immunosuppression of EAMG with a therapeutic vaccine consisting of bacterially-expressed human AChR cytoplasmic domains, which has the potential to specifically suppress MG without danger of causing exacerbation. This approach prevents development of chronic EAMG when initiated immediately after the acute phase of EAMG, and rapidly reverses established chronic EAMG when started during the chronic phase of EAMG. Successfully treated rats exhibited long-term resistance to re-induction of EAMG. In this review we also discuss the current understanding of the mechanisms by which the therapy works. Vaccination with AChR cytoplasmic domains in adjuvant is promising as a safe, antigen-specific, potent, effective, rapidly acting, and long lasting approach to therapy of MG.

  10. Role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease pathology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Sylvia; Maskos, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the major form of senile dementia, characterized by neuronal loss, extracellular deposits, and neurofibrillary tangles. It is accompanied by a loss of cholinergic tone, and acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the cognitive decline observed in AD. Current medication is restricted to enhancing cholinergic signalling for symptomatic treatment of AD patients. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family (nAChR) and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family (mAChR) are the target of ACh in the brain. Both families of receptors are affected in AD. It was demonstrated that amyloid beta (Aβ) interacts with nAChRs. Here we discuss how Aβ activates or inhibits nAChRs, and how this interaction contributes to AD pathology. We will discuss the potential role of nAChRs as therapeutic targets. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25514383

  11. Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

  12. Altered isotope charge distribution of acetylcholine neurotransmitter and Myasthenia Gravis.

    PubMed

    Bayri, A; Unal, S; Altin, S; Bulut, F; Dayanc, B E

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a central neurotransmitter that is used for signal transmission among neurons. For signal transmission in neurons, a neurotransmitter must bind to its receptor in order to produce an action potential. It is known that in Myasthenia Gravis (MG) cases, autoantibodies could block this binding. In the future, the treatment of MG could be achieved via modulation of molecular interaction between ACh and acetylcholine receptor (AChR). This study suggests that if an atom on a ligand (i.e. a neurotransmitter) is replaced with its isotope, it may cause charge redistribution such as that the binding between ligand and its receptor may be improved. Hence suggesting that with replacement of atoms with their isotopes in any biologically important ligand could alter its affinity towards its corresponding receptor, which would have a wide array of applications in medicine.

  13. Effect of α{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Kevin D.; Green, Benedict T.; Gardner, Dale R.

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ► Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ► These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ► There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.

  14. Acetylcholine: future research and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Van der Zee, E A; Platt, B; Riedel, G

    2011-08-10

    Ever since the initial description of chemical transmission in the early part of the 20th century and the identification of acetylcholine (ACh) as the first such transmitter, interests grew to define the multiple facets of its functions. This multitude is only partially covered here, but even in the areas preselected for this special issue, research on the cholinergic system is still thriving. Notwithstanding an impressive amount of knowledge that has been accumulated, partly triggered by the cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD [1]), the different reviews in this issue not only summarise our current state of the art, they also highlight that this field has still large potential for future development. Taken from these reviews, we here pinpoint several topics fit for future attention.

  15. Specificity of g protein-coupled receptor kinase 6-mediated phosphorylation and regulation of single-cell m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Willets, Jonathon M; Mistry, Rajendra; Nahorski, Stefan R; Challiss, R A John

    2003-11-01

    Previously we have shown that G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 6 plays a major role in the regulation of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 mAChR) in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. However, 30-fold overexpression of the catalytically inactive, dominant-negative K215RGRK6 produced only a 50% suppression of M3 mAChR phosphorylation and desensitization. Here, we have attempted to determine whether other endogenous kinases play a role in the regulation of M3 mAChR signaling. In contrast to the clear attenuating effect of K215RGRK6 expression on M3 mAChR regulation, dominant-negative forms of GRKs (K220RGRK2, K220RGRK3, K215RGRK5) and casein kinase 1alpha (K46RCK1alpha) were without effect. In addition, inhibition of a variety of second-messenger-regulated kinases and the tyrosine kinase Src also had no effect upon agonist-stimulated M3 mAChR regulation. To investigate further the desensitization process we have followed changes in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in single SHSY5Y cells using the pleckstrin homology domain of PLCdelta1 tagged with green fluorescent protein (eGFP-PHPLCdelta1). Stimulation of cells with approximate EC50 concentrations of agonist before and after a desensitizing period of agonist exposure resulted in a marked attenuation of the latter response. Altered GRK6 activity, through overexpression of wild-type GRK6 or K215RGRK6, enhanced or reduced the degree of M3 mAChR desensitization, respectively. Taken together, our data indicate that M3 mAChR desensitization is mediated by GRK6 in human SH-SY5Y cells, and we show that receptor desensitization of phospholipase C signaling can be monitored in 'real-time' in single, living cells. PMID:14573754

  16. Vascular effects of acetylcholine in the perfused rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, P.D.; Gillis, C.N.

    1986-03-05

    Acetylcholine (ACh) relaxes large, isolated arteries by releasing an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). The authors decided to determine if ACh releases EDRF in rabbit lungs (RL) perfused in situ and if chemical injury with tetradecanoyl phorbol myristate acetate (TPA) could modify EDRF release in RL and in rabbit pulmonary arteries (RPA) in vitro. RL were perfused at 15 ml/min with Krebs-dextran solution. 1 ..mu..M ACh infusion raised perfusion pressure (P) in RL that was blocked by 30 ..mu..M indomethacin (IND) in the perfusate. However, when IND-treated RL were perfused with the stable endoperoxide analog, U46619 (2-6nM) to increase P, ACh infusion (0.01-1.0 ..mu..M) consistently decreased elevated P. The vasodilator response to infusion of 1 ..mu..M ACh was acutely antagonized by infusion of either 20 ..mu..M quinacrine (Q) or 10 ..mu..M Fe/sup + +/-hemoglobin (Hb). ACh did not decrease P in IND-treated RL pre-equilibrated with Q or Hb. TPA (10 nM) antagonized ACh-reduction of P and the ACh-induced relaxation of isolated RPA. The TPA antagonism of ACh-relaxation of RPA was prevented by catalase (300 U/ml). From these results they conclude that: 1) ACh-induced vasoconstriction in RL depends on cyclooxygenase product(s). 2) IND unmasks ACh-induced vasodilatation in RL that is inhibited by Q and by Hb suggesting that the effect is mediated by EDRF. 3) TPA inhibits ACh-induced vasodilatation and relaxation of RPA via the release of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or a related oxidant that injures the endothelium.

  17. Protein kinase C-mediated changes in synaptic efficacy at the neuromuscular junction in vitro: the role of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Lanuza, M A; Li, M X; Jia, M; Kim, S; Davenport, R; Dunlap, V; Nelson, P G

    2000-09-15

    Activation of a mouse in vitro neuromuscular synapse produces a reduction in synaptic efficacy which is greater for nonactivated than for activated inputs to the myotubes. This has been shown to require thrombin and thrombin receptor activation and to involve a protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated step. We show in the present work that phorbol ester activation of PKC produces physiological loss of synapses in a time- and dose-related manner. We observe, using quantitative imaging methods, a parallel loss of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) from synaptically functional neurite-associated receptor aggregates in nerve-muscle cocultures. Biochemical measurements of total AChR show that PKC activation reduces both AChR stability (increases receptor loss) and receptor insertion into the surface membrane. Taken together, the data suggest that PKC activation decreases the stability of AChR aggregates in the muscle surface membrane. We conclude that PKC plays a crucial role in activity-dependent synapse reduction and does so, at least in part, by altering AChR stability. PMID:10972958

  18. alpha 7-type acetylcholine receptor localization and its modulation by nicotine and cholesterol in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peña, Victoria B Ayala; Bonini, Ida C; Antollini, Silvia S; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2011-11-01

    The neuronal-type α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7AChR) is also found in various non-neural tissues, including vascular endothelium, where its peculiar ionotropic properties (high Ca(2+) permeability) and its supervening Ca(2+) -mediated intracellular cascades may play important roles in physiology (angiogenesis) and pathology (inflammation and atherogenesis). Changes in molecular (up-regulation, affinity, and conformational states) and cellular (distribution, association with membranes) properties of the α7AChR related to angiogenesis (wound-repair cell migration) and atherogenesis (alterations in cholesterol content) were studied in living endothelial cells, with the aim of determining whether such changes constitute early markers of inflammatory response. The combination of pharmacological, biochemical, and fluorescence microscopy tools showed that α7AChRs in rat arterial endothelial (RAEC) and human venous endothelial (HUVEC) cells occur at extremely low expression levels (∼50 fmol/mg protein) but undergo agonist-induced up-regulation at relatively high nicotine concentrations (∼300-fold with 50 µM ligand), increasing their cell-surface exposure. When analyzed in terms of cold Triton X-100 solubility and subcellular distribution, α7AChRs occur in the "non-raft" subcellular membrane fractions. Acute cholesterol depletion reduced not only cholesterol levels but also the number of cell-surface α7AChRs. Nicotine exposure markedly stimulated cell migration and accelerated wound repair, which drastically diminished in cells deprived of the sterol. The angiogenic effect of nicotine appears to be synergistic with cholesterol content. Finally, the apparent K(D) of α7AChRs for the open-channel blocker crystal violet was found to be ∼600-fold lower in receptor-enriched membranes obtained from up-regulated HUVEC.

  19. Extracts and constituents of Leontopodium alpinum enhance cholinergic transmission: Brain ACh increasing and memory improving properties

    PubMed Central

    Hornick, Ariane; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Vo, Nguyen Phung; Prast, Helmut; Stuppner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Leontopodium alpinum (‘Edelweiss’) was phytochemically investigated for constituents that might enhance cholinergic neurotransmission. The potency to increase synaptic availability of acetylcholine (ACh) in rat brain served as key property for the bioguided isolation of cholinergically active compounds using different chromatographic techniques. The dichlormethane (DCM) extract of the root, fractions and isolated constituents were injected i.c.v. and the effect on brain ACh was detected via the push–pull technique. The DCM extract enhanced extracellular ACh concentration in rat brain and inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro. The extracellular level of brain ACh was significantly increased by the isolated sesquiterpenes, isocomene and 14-acetoxyisocomene, while silphiperfolene acetate and silphinene caused a small increasing tendency. Only silphiperfolene acetate showed in vitro AChE inhibitory activity, thus suggesting the other sesquiterpenes to stimulate cholinergic transmission by an alternative mechanism of action. Isocomene was further investigated with behavioural tasks in mice. It restored object recognition in scopolamine-impaired mice and showed nootropic effects in the T-maze alternation task in normal and scopolamine-treated mice. Additionally, this sesquiterpene reduced locomotor activity of untreated mice in the open field task, while the activity induced by scopolamine was abolished. The enhancement of synaptic availability of ACh, the promotion of alternation, and the amelioration of scopolamine-induced deficit are in accordance with a substance that amplifies cholinergic transmission. Whether the mechanism of action is inhibition of AChE or another pro-cholinergic property remains to be elucidated. Taken together, isocomene and related constituents of L. alpinum deserve further interest as potential antidementia agents in brain diseases associated with cholinergic deficits. PMID:18541221

  20. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Nichols, Weston A; Moaddel, Ruin; Xiao, Cheng; Lester, Henry A

    2016-03-01

    Upregulation of β2 subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is implicated in several aspects of nicotine addiction, and menthol cigarette smokers tend to upregulate β2* nAChRs more than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. We investigated the effect of long-term menthol alone on midbrain neurons containing nAChRs. In midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mice containing fluorescent nAChR subunits, menthol alone increased the number of α4 and α6 nAChR subunits, but this upregulation did not occur in midbrain GABAergic neurons. Thus, chronic menthol produces a cell-type-selective upregulation of α4* nAChRs, complementing that of chronic nicotine alone, which upregulates α4 subunit-containing (α4*) nAChRs in GABAergic but not DA neurons. In mouse brain slices and cultured midbrain neurons, menthol reduced DA neuron firing frequency and altered DA neuron excitability following nAChR activation. Furthermore, menthol exposure before nicotine abolished nicotine reward-related behavior in mice. In neuroblastoma cells transfected with fluorescent nAChR subunits, exposure to 500 nm menthol alone also increased nAChR number and favored the formation of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs; this contrasts with the action of nicotine itself, which favors (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs. Menthol alone also increases the number of α6β2 receptors that exclude the β3 subunit. Thus, menthol stabilizes lower-sensitivity α4* and α6 subunit-containing nAChRs, possibly by acting as a chemical chaperone. The abolition of nicotine reward-related behavior may be mediated through menthol's ability to stabilize lower-sensitivity nAChRs and alter DA neuron excitability. We conclude that menthol is more than a tobacco flavorant: administered alone chronically, it alters midbrain DA neurons of the nicotine reward-related pathway.

  1. Remarkably increased resistin levels in anti-AChR antibody-positive myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Qi; Wang, Rong; Li, Ting; Li, Xin; Qi, Yuan; Wang, Jing; Yang, Li

    2015-06-15

    Resistin is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To investigate serum resistin levels in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and determine if there are associations between resistin levels and disease severity, we measured serum resistin levels in 102 patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive MG (AChR-MG). We further analyzed associations between serum resistin levels and clinical variables in patients with MG. Our findings demonstrate that serum resistin levels are elevated in patients with AChR-generalized MG and AChR-MG with thymoma and are correlated with disease severity. Resistin has potential as a useful serum biomarker for inflammation in AChR-MG.

  2. Effects of two oxadiazolidinones on cholinesterases and acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Bakry, N.; Lockyer, S.; Sherby, S.; Eldefrawi, A.; Eldefrawi, M.

    1986-03-05

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) by 3-(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-benzofuran-'7-yl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(/sup 3/H)-one (DBOX) and 3-(2-methoxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(/sup 3/H)-one (MPOX) was measured by the Ellmann spectrophotometric method. Inhibition was quasi first order and irreversible. DBOX was 2-3 orders of magnitude more potent than MPOX. Housefly brain AChE and horse serum BuChE were more sensitive than AChEs of red blood cells or eel and Torpedo electric organs. It is suggested that the nonesteratic oxadiazolidinones are activated to carbanillates on the surface of the enzyme and produce a carbanillated enzyme which ages rapidly. Carbamate anticholinesterases protected AChE against carbanillation as they did against phosphorylation. At higher concentrations, the two oxadiazolidinones also affected binding of (/sup 125/I) ..cap alpha.. bungarotoxin and (/sup 3/H)perhydrohistrionicotoxin to Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, but did not affect binding of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate to rat brain muscarinic receptors.

  3. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a therapeutic target in the structure era.

    PubMed

    Taly, Antoine; Charon, Sebastien

    2012-05-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand-gated ion channels involved in cognitive processes and are associated with brain disorders which makes them interesting drug targets. This article presents a general overview of the receptor to introduce the α7 nAChR as a drug target. The advances in understanding of the structure/function properties of the nAChR produced during the last decade are detailed as they are crucial for rational drug design. The allosteric properties of the nAChR will also be described because they also have important consequences for drug design.

  4. Central loop of non-conventional toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia is important for interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Kasheverov, Igor E; Chugunov, Anton O; Kulbatskii, Dmitrii S; Myshkin, Mikhail Yu; Utkin, Yuri N; Efremov, Roman G; Tsetlin, Victor I; Arseniev, Alexander S; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Dolgikh, Dmitry A

    2016-09-01

    'Three-finger' toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia interacts with nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and mAChRs). Mutagenesis and competition experiments with (125)I-α-bungarotoxin revealed that Arg31 and Arg32 residues from the WTX loop II are important for binding to Torpedo californica and human α7 nAChRs. Computer modeling suggested that loop II occupies the orthosteric binding site at α7 nAChR. The similar toxin interface was previously described as a major determinant of allosteric interactions with mAChRs. PMID:27343701

  5. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the acute toxicosis of methyllycaconitine in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adverse physiological effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to its competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research demonstrated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice...

  6. Pharmacological stress is required for the anti-alcohol effect of the α3β4* nAChR partial agonist AT-1001.

    PubMed

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Brunori, Gloria; Gaiolini, Kelly A; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Toll, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often taken together. The mechanisms underlying this frequent co-abuse are not well known. Genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α3 and β4 subunits play a role in alcohol as well as nicotine addiction. AT-1001 is a high affinity α3β4 nAChR partial agonist recently found to block nicotine self-administration and relapse-like behavior in rats. Here, to study the involvement of α3β4 nAChRs in the mechanisms that regulate alcohol abuse we evaluated the effects of AT-1001 on alcohol taking and seeking in Sprague-Dawley rats. AT-1001 reduced operant alcohol self-administration at the highest dose examined (3.0 mg/kg), an effect also observed for food self-administration. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg AT-1001, which had no effect on alcohol or food self-administration, essentially eliminated reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by yohimbine (0.625 mg/kg) whereas, reinstatement induced by alcohol-associated cues was not altered, nor did AT-1001 induce reinstatement of extinguished self-administration on its own. Finally, AT-1001 showed an anxiolytic activity when measured in the presence or absence of yohimbine stress in the elevated plus maze paradigm. Together, these observations do not support a specific involvement of the α3β4 nAChR in mediating alcohol reward or cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking but rather indicate that the α3β4 nAChR partial agonism may constitute an attractive approach for treating alcohol use disorders exacerbated by elevated stress response.

  7. Galantamine-induced amyloid-{beta} clearance mediated via stimulation of microglial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Takata, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Saeki, Mana; Terada, Maki; Kagitani, Sachiko; Kitamura, Risa; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Maelicke, Alfred; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shimohama, Shun

    2010-12-17

    Reduction of brain amyloid-β (Aβ) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer disease (AD), and microglial Aβ phagocytosis is noted as an Aβ clearance system in brains. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for symptomatic treatment of AD. Galantamine also acts as an allosterically potentiating ligand (APL) for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). APL-binding site is located close to but distinct from that for acetylcholine on nAChRs, and FK1 antibody specifically binds to the APL-binding site without interfering with the acetylcholine-binding site. We found that in human AD brain, microglia accumulated on Aβ deposits and expressed α7 nAChRs including the APL-binding site recognized with FK1 antibody. Treatment of rat microglia with galantamine significantly enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis, and acetylcholine competitive antagonists as well as FK1 antibody inhibited the enhancement. Thus, the galantamine-enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis required the combined actions of an acetylcholine competitive agonist and the APL for nAChRs. Indeed, depletion of choline, an acetylcholine-competitive α7 nAChR agonist, from the culture medium impeded the enhancement. Similarly, Ca(2+) depletion or inhibition of the calmodulin-dependent pathways for the actin reorganization abolished the enhancement. These results suggest that galantamine sensitizes microglial α7 nAChRs to choline and induces Ca(2+) influx into microglia. The Ca(2+)-induced intracellular signaling cascades may then stimulate Aβ phagocytosis through the actin reorganization. We further demonstrated that galantamine treatment facilitated Aβ clearance in brains of rodent AD models. In conclusion, we propose a further advantage of galantamine in clinical AD treatment and microglial nAChRs as a new therapeutic target. PMID:20947502

  8. The 15q13.3 deletion syndrome: Deficient α(7)-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephen I; Burket, Jessica A; Benson, Andrew D; Urbano, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has led to the identification of microdeletions of the proximal region of chromosome 15q between breakpoints (BP) 3 or BP4 and BP5 encompassing CHRNA7, the gene encoding the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) subunit. Phenotypic manifestations of persons with these microdeletions are variable and some heterozygous carriers are seemingly unaffected, consistent with their variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Nonetheless, the 15q13.3 deletion syndrome is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, including idiopathic generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia. Haploinsufficient expression of CHRNA7 in this syndrome has highlighted important roles the α7nAChR plays in the developing brain and normal processes of attention, cognition, memory and behavior throughout life. Importantly, the existence of the 15q13.3 deletion syndrome contributes to an emerging literature supporting clinical trials therapeutically targeting the α7nAChR in disorders such as ASDs and schizophrenia, including the larger population of patients with no evidence of haploinsufficient expression of CHRNA7. Translational clinical trials will be facilitated by the existence of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the α7nAChR that act at sites on the receptor distinct from the orthosteric site that binds acetylcholine and choline, the receptor's endogenous ligands. PAMs lack intrinsic efficacy by themselves, but act where and when the endogenous ligands are released in response to relevant social and cognitive provocations to increase the likelihood they will result in α7nAChR ion channel activation.

  9. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in human airway correlates with lung function.

    PubMed

    Lam, David Chi-Leung; Luo, Susan Yang; Fu, Kin-Hang; Lui, Macy Mei-Sze; Chan, Koon-Ho; Wistuba, Ignacio Ivans; Gao, Boning; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Ip, Mary Sau-Man; Minna, John Dorrance

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine and its derivatives, by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on bronchial epithelial cells, can regulate cellular signaling and inflammatory processes. Delineation of nAChR subtypes and their responses to nicotine stimulation in bronchial epithelium may provide information for therapeutic targeting in smoking-related inflammation in the airway. Expression of nAChR subunit genes in 60 bronchial epithelial biopsies and immunohistochemical staining for the subcellular locations of nAChR subunit expression were evaluated. Seven human bronchial epithelial cell lines (HBECs) were exposed to nicotine in vitro for their response in nAChR subunit gene expression to nicotine exposure and removal. The relative normalized amount of expression of nAChR α4, α5, and α7 and immunohistochemical staining intensity of nAChR α4, α5, and β3 expression showed significant correlation with lung function parameters. Nicotine stimulation in HBECs resulted in transient increase in the levels of nAChR α5 and α6 but more sustained increase in nAChR α7 expression. nAChR expression in bronchial epithelium was found to correlate with lung function. Nicotine exposure in HBECs resulted in both short and longer term responses in nAChR subunit gene expression. These results gave insight into the potential of targeting nAChRs for therapy in smoking-related inflammation in the airway. PMID:26608528

  10. Muscarinic and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists and Allosteric Modulators for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carrie K; Byun, Nellie; Bubser, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) are emerging as important targets for the development of novel treatments for the symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Preclinical and early proof-of-concept clinical studies have provided strong evidence that activators of specific mAChR (M1 and M4) and nAChR (α7 and α2β4) subtypes are effective in animal models of antipsychotic-like activity and/or cognitive enhancement, and in the treatment of positive and cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. While early attempts to develop selective mAChR and nAChR agonists provided important preliminary findings, these compounds have ultimately failed in clinical development due to a lack of true subtype selectivity and subsequent dose-limiting adverse effects. In recent years, there have been major advances in the discovery of highly selective activators for the different mAChR and nAChR subtypes with suitable properties for optimization as potential candidates for clinical trials. One novel strategy has been to identify ligands that activate a specific receptor subtype through actions at sites that are distinct from the highly conserved ACh-binding site, termed allosteric sites. These allosteric activators, both allosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators, of mAChR and nAChR subtypes demonstrate unique mechanisms of action and high selectivity in vivo, and may provide innovative treatment strategies for schizophrenia. PMID:21956443

  11. Acetylcholine receptors in the human retina

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, J.B.; Hollyfield, J.G.

    1985-11-01

    Evidence for a population of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in the human retina is presented. The authors have used the irreversible ligand TH-propylbenzilylcholine mustard (TH-PrBCM) to label muscarinic receptors. TH- or SVI-alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTx) was used to label putative nicotinic receptors. Muscarinic receptors are apparently present in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Autoradiographic grain densities are reduced in the presence of saturating concentrations of atropine, quinuclidinyl benzilate or scopolamine; this indicates that TH-PrBCM binding is specific for a population of muscarinic receptors in the human retina. Binding sites for radiolabeled alpha-BTx are found predominantly in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Grain densities are reduced in the presence of d-tubocurarine, indicating that alpha-BTx may bind to a pharmacologically relevant nicotinic ACh receptor. This study provides evidence for cholinergic neurotransmission in the human retina.

  12. Conotoxins Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Lebbe, Eline K. M.; Peigneur, Steve; Wijesekara, Isuru; Tytgat, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Marine snails of the genus Conus are a large family of predatory gastropods with an unparalleled molecular diversity of pharmacologically active compounds in their venom. Cone snail venom comprises of a rich and diverse cocktail of peptide toxins which act on a wide variety of ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium- (NaV), potassium- (KV), and calcium- (CaV) channels as well as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which are classified as ligand-gated ion channels. The mode of action of several conotoxins has been the subject of investigation, while for many others this remains unknown. This review aims to give an overview of the knowledge we have today on the molecular pharmacology of conotoxins specifically interacting with nAChRs along with the structure–function relationship data. PMID:24857959

  13. Atomic interactions of neonicotinoid agonists with AChBP: Molecular recognition of the distinctive electronegative pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect

    Talley, Todd T.; Harel, Michal; Hibbs, Ryan E.; Radi, Zoran; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E.; Taylor, Palmer

    2008-07-28

    Acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) from mollusks are suitable structural and functional surrogates of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors when combined with transmembrane spans of the nicotinic receptor. These proteins assemble as a pentamer with identical ACh binding sites at the subunit interfaces and show ligand specificities resembling those of the nicotinic receptor for agonists and antagonists. A subset of ligands, termed the neonicotinoids, exhibit specificity for insect nicotinic receptors and selective toxicity as insecticides. AChBPs are of neither mammalian nor insect origin and exhibit a distinctive pattern of selectivity for the neonicotinoid ligands. We define here the binding orientation and determinants of differential molecular recognition for the neonicotinoids and classical nicotinoids by estimates of kinetic and equilibrium binding parameters and crystallographic analysis. Neonicotinoid complex formation is rapid and accompanied by quenching of the AChBP tryptophan fluorescence. Comparisons of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiacloprid in the binding site from Aplysia californica AChBP at 2.48 and 1.94 {angstrom} in resolution reveal a single conformation of the bound ligands with four of the five sites occupied in the pentameric crystal structure. The neonicotinoid electronegative pharmacophore is nestled in an inverted direction compared with the nicotinoid cationic functionality at the subunit interfacial binding pocket. Characteristic of several agonists, loop C largely envelops the ligand, positioning aromatic side chains to interact optimally with conjugated and hydrophobic regions of the neonicotinoid. This template defines the association of interacting amino acids and their energetic contributions to the distinctive interactions of neonicotinoids.

  14. Serotoninergic dorsal raphe neurons possess functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Charles, Luis; Hernandez-Lopez, Salvador; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Bargas, José; Garduño, Julieta; Frías-Dominguez, Carmen; Drucker-Colin, René; Mihailescu, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Very few neurons in the telencephalon have been shown to express functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), among them, the noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons. However, there is no evidence for postsynaptic nAChRs on serotonergic neurons. In this study, we asked if functional nAChRs are present in serotonergic (5-HT) and nonserotonergic (non-5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In rat midbrain slices, field stimulation at the tegmental pedunculopontine (PPT) nucleus evoked postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) with different components in DRN neurons. After blocking the glutamatergic and GABAergic components, the remaining eEPSCs were blocked by mecamylamine and reduced by either the selective alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) or the selective alpha4beta2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-beta-eritroidine (DHbetaE). Simultaneous addition of MLA and DHbetaE blocked all eEPSCs. Integrity of the PPT-DRN pathway was assessed by both anterograde biocytin tracing and antidromic stimulation from the DRN. Inward currents evoked by the direct application of acetylcholine (ACh), in the presence of atropine and tetrodotoxin, consisted of two kinetically different currents: one was blocked by MLA and the other by DHbetaE; in both 5-HT and non-5-HT DR neurons. Analysis of spontaneous (sEPSCs) and evoked (eEPSCs) synaptic events led to the conclusion that nAChRs were located at the postsynaptic membrane. The possible implications of these newly described nAChRs in various physiological processes and behavioral events, such as the wake-sleep cycle, are discussed. PMID:18512214

  15. Extrasynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Neuronal Cell Bodies Regulate Presynaptic Function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jason P.; Staab, Trisha A.; Wang, Han; Mazzasette, Chiara; Butte, Zara

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a potent neuromodulator in the brain, and its effects on cognition and memory formation are largely performed through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). mAChRs are often preferentially distributed on specialized membrane regions in neurons, but the significance of mAChR localization in modulating neuronal function is not known. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the M1/M3/M5 family of mAChRs, gar-3, is expressed in cholinergic motor neurons, and GAR-3-GFP fusion proteins localize to cell bodies where they are enriched at extrasynaptic regions that are in contact with the basal lamina. The GAR-3 N-terminal extracellular domain is necessary and sufficient for this asymmetric distribution, and mutation of a predicted N-linked glycosylation site within the N-terminus disrupts GAR-3-GFP localization. In transgenic animals expressing GAR-3 variants that are no longer asymmetrically localized, synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions is impaired and there is a reduction in the abundance of the presynaptic protein sphingosine kinase at release sites. Finally, GAR-3 can be activated by endogenously produced ACh released from neurons that do not directly contact cholinergic motor neurons. Together, our results suggest that humoral activation of asymmetrically localized mAChRs by ACh is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which ACh modulates neuronal function. PMID:23986249

  16. Impact of acetylcholine and nicotine on human osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ternes, Sebastian; Trinkaus, Katja; Bergen, Ivonne; Knaack, Sven; Gelinsky, Michael; Kilian, Olaf; Heiss, Christian; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies showed that the non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS) is taking part in bone metabolism. Most studies investigated its role in osteoblasts, but up to now, the involvement of the NNCS in human osteoclastogenesis remains relatively unclear. Thus, aim of the present study was to determine whether the application of acetylcholine (ACh, 10(−4) M), nicotine (10(−6) M), mineralized collagen membranes or brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 40 ng/mL) influences the mRNA regulation of molecular components of the NNCS and the neurotrophin family during osteoclastogenesis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the blood of young healthy donors (n = 8) and incubated with bone fragments and osteoclast differentiation media for 21 days. All the results are based on the measurement of RNA. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated a down-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit α2 and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) M3by osteoclastogenesis while BDNF mRNA expression was not regulated. Application of ACh, nicotine, BDNF or collagen membranes did not affect osteoclastic differentiation.No regulation was detected for nAChR subunit α7, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB), and cholineacetyl transferase (ChAT). Taken together, we assume that the transcriptional level of osteoclastogenesis of healthy young humans is not regulated by BDNF, ACh, and nicotine. Thus, these drugs do not seem to worsen bone degradation and might therefore be suitable as modulators of bone substitution materials if having a positive effect on bone formation.

  17. Identification and Functional Characterization of a Novel Acetylcholine-binding Protein from the Marine Annelid Capitella teleta

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, T.; Petrovich,; Mercier, K; DeRose, E; Cuneo, M; Williams, J; Johnson, K; Lamb, P; London, R; Yakel, J

    2010-01-01

    We identified a homologue of the molluscan acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) in the marine polychaete Capitella teleta, from the annelid phylum. The amino acid sequence of C. teleta AChBP (ct-AChBP) is 21-30% identical with those of known molluscan AChBPs. Sequence alignments indicate that ct-AChBP has a shortened Cys loop compared to other Cys loop receptors, and a variation on a conserved Cys loop triad, which is associated with ligand binding in other AChBPs and nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) {alpha} subunits. Within the D loop of ct-AChBP, a conserved aromatic residue (Tyr or Trp) in nAChRs and molluscan AChBPs, which has been implicated directly in ligand binding, is substituted with an isoleucine. Mass spectrometry results indicate that Asn122 and Asn216 of ct-AChBP are glycosylated when expressed using HEK293 cells. Small-angle X-ray scattering data suggest that the overall shape of ct-AChBP in the apo or unliganded state is similar to that of homologues with known pentameric crystal structures. NMR experiments show that acetylcholine, nicotine, and {alpha}-bungarotoxin bind to ct-AChBP with high affinity, with KD values of 28.7 {micro}M, 209 nM, and 110 nM, respectively. Choline bound with a lower affinity (K{sub D} = 163 {micro}M). Our finding of a functional AChBP in a marine annelid demonstrates that AChBPs may exhibit variations in hallmark motifs such as ligand-binding residues and Cys loop length and shows conclusively that this neurotransmitter binding protein is not limited to the phylum Mollusca.

  18. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brandon J.; Wall, Teagan R.; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Nichols, Weston A.; Moaddel, Ruin; Xiao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Upregulation of β2 subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is implicated in several aspects of nicotine addiction, and menthol cigarette smokers tend to upregulate β2* nAChRs more than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. We investigated the effect of long-term menthol alone on midbrain neurons containing nAChRs. In midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mice containing fluorescent nAChR subunits, menthol alone increased the number of α4 and α6 nAChR subunits, but this upregulation did not occur in midbrain GABAergic neurons. Thus, chronic menthol produces a cell-type-selective upregulation of α4* nAChRs, complementing that of chronic nicotine alone, which upregulates α4 subunit-containing (α4*) nAChRs in GABAergic but not DA neurons. In mouse brain slices and cultured midbrain neurons, menthol reduced DA neuron firing frequency and altered DA neuron excitability following nAChR activation. Furthermore, menthol exposure before nicotine abolished nicotine reward-related behavior in mice. In neuroblastoma cells transfected with fluorescent nAChR subunits, exposure to 500 nm menthol alone also increased nAChR number and favored the formation of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs; this contrasts with the action of nicotine itself, which favors (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs. Menthol alone also increases the number of α6β2 receptors that exclude the β3 subunit. Thus, menthol stabilizes lower-sensitivity α4* and α6 subunit-containing nAChRs, possibly by acting as a chemical chaperone. The abolition of nicotine reward-related behavior may be mediated through menthol's ability to stabilize lower-sensitivity nAChRs and alter DA neuron excitability. We conclude that menthol is more than a tobacco flavorant: administered alone chronically, it alters midbrain DA neurons of the nicotine reward-related pathway. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Menthol, the most popular flavorant for tobacco products, has been considered simply a benign flavor additive. However, as we show here

  19. Capacitative Ca2+ entry is involved in regulating soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) release mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Sinkyu; Jung, Ji-Eun; Roh, Eun-Jihn; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of phospholipase C-linked G-protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors, increases the release of the soluble form of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) by alpha-secretase cleavage. In this study, we examined the involvement of capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) in the regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR)-dependent sAPPalpha release in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells expressing abundant M3 mAChRs. The sAPPalpha release stimulated by mAChR activation was abolished by EGTA, an extracellular Ca2+ chelator, which abolished mAChR-mediated Ca2+ influx without affecting Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. However, mAChR-mediated sAPPalpha release was not inhibited by thapsigargin, which increases basal [Ca2+]i by depletion of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. While these results indicate that the mAChR-mediated increase in sAPPalpha release is regulated largely by Ca2+ influx rather than by Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores, we further investigated the Ca2+ entry mechanisms regulating this phenomenon. CCE inhibitors such as Gd3+, SKF96365, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB), dose dependently reduced both Ca2+ influx and sAPPalpha release stimulated by mAChR activation, whereas inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, or Na+-pumps was without effect. These results indicate that CCE plays an important role in the mAChR-mediated release of sAPPalpha. PMID:16524374

  20. An essential role of acetylcholine-glutamate synergy at habenular synapses in nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Frahm, Silke; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Görlich, Andreas; Zander, Johannes-Friedrich; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Ibañez-Tallon, Ines

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of interest has been focused recently on the habenula and its critical role in aversion, negative-reward and drug dependence. Using a conditional mouse model of the ACh-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (Chat), we report that local elimination of acetylcholine (ACh) in medial habenula (MHb) neurons alters glutamate corelease and presynaptic facilitation. Electron microscopy and immuno-isolation analyses revealed colocalization of ACh and glutamate vesicular transporters in synaptic vesicles (SVs) in the central IPN. Glutamate reuptake in SVs prepared from the IPN was increased by ACh, indicating vesicular synergy. Mice lacking CHAT in habenular neurons were insensitive to nicotine-conditioned reward and withdrawal. These data demonstrate that ACh controls the quantal size and release frequency of glutamate at habenular synapses, and suggest that the synergistic functions of ACh and glutamate may be generally important for modulation of cholinergic circuit function and behavior.

  1. Ionophoretically applied acetylcholine and vagal stimulation in the arrested sinus venosus of the toad, Bufo marinus.

    PubMed Central

    Bramich, N J; Brock, J A; Edwards, F R; Hirst, G D

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of acetylcholine (ACh), applied by ionophoresis, on the isolated arrested sinus venosus of the toad, Bufo marinus, were examined. 2. At each position where ACh was applied across the surface of sinus venosus preparations, a hyperpolarization was produced. These responses were abolished by hyoscine, indicating that muscarinic cholinoceptors are widely distributed over the surface of these muscle cells. 3. Vagal stimulation produced hyperpolarizations which were mimicked, to some extent, by ionophoretically applied ACh. 4. The responses to ionophoretically applied ACh were abolished by adding barium ions to the perfusion fluid, whereas responses to vagal stimulation persisted. 5. The responses to ionophoretically applied ACh were consistently slower than those to vagal stimulation. It is argued that the pathways activated by neural and applied ACh have different kinetics of activation. PMID:7965847

  2. Modal gating of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vij, Ridhima

    Many ion channels exhibit multiple patterns of kinetic activity in single-channel currents. This behavior is rare in WT mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), where A2C↔A2O gating events are well-described by single exponentials. Also, single-channel open probability (PO) is essentially homogeneous at a given agonist concentration in the WT receptors. Here I report that perturbations of almost all the residues in loop C (alpha188-alpha199, at the agonist binding site) generate heterogeneity in PO ('modes'). Such unsettled activity was apparent with an alanine substitution at all positions in loop C (except alphaY190 and alphaY198) and with different side chain substitutions at alphaP197 for both adult- and fetal-type AChRs. I used single channel electrophysiology along with site-directed mutagenesis to study modal gating in AChRs consequent to mutations/deletions in loop C. The multiple patterns of kinetic activity arose from the difference in agonist affinity rather than in intrinsic AChR gating. Out of the four different agonists used to study the modal behavior, acetylcholine (ACh) showed a higher degree of kinetic heterogeneity compared to others. The time constant for switching between modes was long (~mins), suggesting that they arise from alternative, stable protein conformations. By studying AChRs having only 1 functional binding site, I attempted to find the source of the affinity difference, which was traced mainly to the alphadelta agonist site. Affinity at the neurotransmitter binding site is mainly determined by a core of five aromatic residues (alphaY93, alphaW149, alphaY190, alphaY198 and deltaW57). Phenylalanine substitutions at all aromatic residues except alphaY93 resulted in elimination of modes. Modes were also eliminated by alanine mutation at deltaW57 on the complementary side but not at other aromatics. Also, by substituting four gamma subunit residues into the delta subunit on the complementary beta sheet, I found that

  3. A correlative review of acetylcholine synthesis in relation to histopathology of the human syncytiotrophoblast.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, M

    1986-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is localized in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the human placental villous tissue. An attempt was made to correlate the ACh synthesis in different pathological placentas with the histopathology of the syncytiotrophoblast available in the literature. The ACh synthesis was estimated by 'in vitro' incubation of the placental tissue. Full-term (36-38 weeks) vaginally delivered pathological placentas and hydatid moles (28 weeks) were compared with normal placentas of the same age. The results suggested that: ACh synthesis is normal in states with normal syncytiotrophoblast (e.g., healthy greater than 42 week placenta, placenta praevia, twins, and hydramnios); high ACh synthesis is correlated with hormonal and immunological changes (e.g., diabetes mellitus and Rh-incompatibility); low levels of ACh synthesis occur in states with moderate syncytial degeneration (e.g., nephrotic syndrome and essential hypertension); very poor ACh synthesis occurs when syncytial degeneration is advanced (e.g., preeclampsia, eclampsia, intra-uterine death of fetus, vesicles of hydatid mole and placental tissue infarcts); and ACh synthesis is nil in material that is completely devoid of syncytiotrophoblast (e.g., placental tissue-like material, which rarely appears in between the vesicles of hydatid moles). In essence, the degree of reduction in ACh synthesis seems to correlate with the state of the syncytiotrophoblast in various pathological conditions; and ACh synthesis is greatly reduced during syncytial degeneration. It is concluded that the capacity of the placenta to synthesize ACh reflects the state of the syncytiotrophoblast. PMID:3799152

  4. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns.

  5. Study of the Peripheral Nerve Fibers Myelin Structure Changes during Activation of Schwann Cell Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Verdiyan, Ekaterina E.; Allakhverdiev, Elvin S.; Maksimov, Georgy V.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we consider a new type of mechanism by which neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) regulates the properties of peripheral nerve fibers myelin. Our data show the importance of the relationship between the changes in the number of Schwann cell (SC) acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and the axon excitation (different intervals between action potentials (APs)). Using Raman spectroscopy, an effect of activation of SC AChRs on the myelin membrane fluidity was investigated. It was found, that ACh stimulates an increase in lipid ordering degree of the myelin lipids, thus providing evidence for specific role of the “axon-SC” interactions at the axon excitation. It was proposed, that during the axon excitation, the SC membrane K+- depolarization and the Ca2+—influx led to phospholipase activation or exocytosis of intracellular membrane vesicles and myelin structure reorganization. PMID:27455410

  6. (/sup 14/C)chloroacetylcholine as an advantageous affinity label of the acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, D.M.; Sin-Ren, A.C.; Waser, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The alkylating agent (/sup 14/C)chloroacetylcholine perchlorate ((/sup 14/C) ClACh) was synthesized and used for affinity labelling of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata. Solubilized and affinity-purified receptor proteins were reduced and alkylated according to the bromoacetylcholine-method. Covalent binding of (/sup 14/C) ClACh to the cholinergic receptor proved to be specific and saturable, and occurred exclusively to the alpha-subunit. Halogen substitution of acetylcholine by chlorine and insertion of a /sup 14/C-isotope instead of the widely used /sup 3/H resulted in favorable properties of the affinity label.

  7. Does acetylcholine released within the C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) tonically maintain arterial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Arneric, S.P.; Giuliano, R.; Ernsberger, P.; Underwood, M.D.; Reis, D.J.

    1986-03-05

    The RVL, which contains C1 epinephrine neurons (C1 area), plays a major role in the maintenance and reflex control of arterial pressure (AP). Muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the C1 area is sympathoexcitatory. They sought to determine whether the C1 area of rat: (1) contains choline acetyltransferase (ChAT); (2) releases acetylcholine (ACh); and (3) has ACh receptors. ChAT was immunocytochemically localized to neurons in the C1 area. ChAT activity (pmol/mg prot./40 min; N=5) varied 10-fold over 19 regions microdissected from medulla; it was highest in the hypoglossal and vagal nuclei (203 +/- 63), lowest in the pyramidal tract (19 +/- 4) and moderate in the C1 area (96 +/- 12). Muscarinic binding sites labeled by /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzylate (2 nM) and identified autoradiographically had a similar distribution. Release of /sup 3/H-ACh from (1.0 x 0.5 mm) punches of the C1 area was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent and graded with respect to the depolarization stimulus (5-55 mM K/sup +/). Bilateral microinjection of atropine sulfate (5.0 nmol/100nl) into the C1 area of urethane anesthetized rats, but not adjacent raphen., lowered MAP (mmHg: - 38 +/- 7; N=7). They conclude that the C1 area contains muscarinic cholinergic receptors and that local neurons synthesize, store and release substantial amounts of ACh. ACh released within the C1 area may participate in the tonic maintenance of resting AP.

  8. mAChRs activation induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition on lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a mechanism in the progression of airway diseases and cancer. Here, we explored the role of acetylcholine (ACh) and the pathway involved in the process of EMT, as well as the effects of mAChRs antagonist. Methods Human lung epithelial cells were stimulated with carbachol, an analogue of ACh, and epithelial and mesenchymal marker proteins were evaluated using western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Results Decreased E-cadherin expression and increased vimentin and α-SMA expression induced by TGF-β1 in alveolar epithelial cell (A549) were significantly abrogated by the non-selective mAChR antagonist atropine and enhanced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. An EMT event also occurred in response to physostigmine alone. Furthermore, ChAT express and ACh release by A549 cells were enhanced by TGF-β1. Interestingly, ACh analogue carbachol also induced EMT in A549 cells as well as in bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, the induction of carbachol was abrogated by selective antagonist of M1 (pirenzepine) and M3 (4-DAMP) mAChRs, but not by M2 (methoctramine) antagonist. Moreover, carbachol induced TGF-β1 production from A549 cells concomitantly with the EMT process. Carbachol-induced EMT occurred through phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and ERK, which was inhibited by pirenzepine and 4-DAMP. Conclusions Our findings for the first time indicated that mAChR activation, perhaps via M1 and M3 mAChR, induced lung epithelial cells to undergo EMT and provided insights into novel therapeutic strategies for airway diseases in which lung remodeling occurs. PMID:24678619

  9. Label-Free Acetylcholine Image Sensor Based on Charge Transfer Technology for Biological Phenomenon Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaga, Shoko; Tamai, Yui; Okumura, Koichi; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2012-02-01

    A 32 ×32 charge-transfer enzyme-type acetylcholine (ACh) image sensor array was produced for label-free tracking of images of ACh distribution and its performance in repeatable measurements without enzyme deactivation was examined. The proposed sensor was based on a charge-transfer-type pH image sensor, which was modified using an enzyme membrane (acetylcholine esterase, AChE) for each pixel. The ACh image sensor detected hydrogen ions generated by the ACh-AChE reaction. A polyion complex membrane composed of poly(L-lysine) and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) was used to immobilize the enzyme on the sensor. The improved uniformity and adhesion of the polyion complex membrane were evaluated in this study. As a result, temporal and spatial fluctuations of the ACh image sensor were successfully minimized using this approach. The sensitivity of the sensor was 4.2 mV/mM, and its detection limit was 20 µM. In five repeated measurements, the repeatability was 8.8%.

  10. Activation of endplate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of a small molecule made in one cell with a large receptor made in another is the signature event of cell signaling. Understanding the structure and energy changes associated with agonist activation is important for engineering drugs, receptors and synapses. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ∼300kD ion channel that binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and other cholinergic agonists to elicit electrical responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This mini-review is in two sections. First, general concepts of skeletal muscle AChR operation are discussed in terms of energy landscapes for conformational change. Second, adult vs. fetal AChRs are compared with regard to interaction energies between ACh and agonist-site side chains, measured by single-channel electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations. The five aromatic residues that form the core of each agonist binding site can be divided into two working groups, a triad (led by αY190) that behaves similarly at all sites and a coupled pair (led by γW55) that has a large influence on affinity only in fetal AChRs. Each endplate AChR has 5 homologous subunits, two of α(1) and one each of β, δ, and either γ (fetal) or ϵ (adult). These nicotinic AChRs have only 2 functional agonist binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αγ or αϵ subunit interfaces. The receptor undergoes a reversible, global isomerization between structures called C and O. The C shape does not conduct ions and has a relatively low affinity for ACh, whereas O conducts cations and has a higher affinity. When both agonist sites are empty (filled only with water) the probability of taking on the O conformation (PO) is low, <10(-6). When ACh molecules occupy the agonist sites the C→O opening rate constant and C↔O gating equilibrium constant increase dramatically. Following a pulse of ACh at the nerve-muscle synapse, the endplate current rises rapidly

  11. The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype mediates nicotine protection against NMDA excitotoxicity in primary hippocampal cultures through a Ca(2+) dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dajas-Bailador, F A; Lima, P A; Wonnacott, S

    2000-10-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) have been suggested to play a role in a variety of modulatory and regulatory processes, including neuroprotection. Here we have characterized the neuroprotective effects of nicotine against an excitotoxic insult in primary hippocampal cultures. Exposure of hippocampal neurons to 200 microM NMDA for 1 h decreased cell viability by 25+/-5%, an effect blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists. Nicotine (10 microM) counteracted the NMDA-induced cell death when co-incubated with NMDA or when present subsequent to the NMDA treatment. Nicotine protection was prevented by 1 microM MLA, confirming that it was mediated by nAChR, and by 1 microM alpha-bungarotoxin, demonstrating that the alpha7 nAChR subtype was responsible. Both the NMDA evoked neurotoxicity and nicotine neuroprotection were Ca(2+)-dependent. In Fura-2-loaded hippocampal neurons, nicotine (10 microM) and NMDA (200 microM) acutely increased intracellular resting Ca(2+) from 70 nM to 200 and 500 nM, respectively. Responses to NMDA were unaffected by the presence of nicotine. (45)Ca(2+) uptake after a 1 h exposure to nicotine or NMDA also demonstrated quantitative differences between the two drugs. This study demonstrates that the alpha7 subtype of nAChR can support neuronal survival after an excitotoxic stimulus, through a Ca(2+) dependent mechanism that operates downstream of NMDA receptor activation.

  12. Infiltration of CCR2+Ly6Chigh Proinflammatory Monocytes and Neutrophils into the Central Nervous System Is Modulated by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; St-Pierre, Stéphanie; Roy, Patrick; Morley, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid cells, including proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, have important roles in the pathology of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). These cells infiltrate the CNS in the early stages of disease development and contribute to the inflammatory response that is associated with symptom severity. It is thus crucial to identify and understand new mechanisms that can regulate the CNS infiltration of proinflammatory myeloid cells. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been increasingly studied for their immune-regulatory properties. In this study, we assessed the ability of nicotine, an nAChR ligand, to modulate proinflammatory myeloid cell numbers within the bone marrow, spleen, blood, and CNS of EAE mice. We found that nicotine significantly inhibits the infiltration of proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils into the CNS at time points where these cells are known to play critical roles in disease pathology. In contrast, nicotine does not affect the expansion of other monocytes. We also show that nicotine exerts these effects by acting on α7 and α9 nAChR subtypes. Finally, mRNA transcript levels for CCL2 and CXCL2, chemokines involved in the chemotaxis of proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, respectively, are reduced in the brain of nicotine-treated EAE mice before the massive infiltration of these cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence that nAChRs can regulate proinflammatory cell infiltration into the CNS, which could be of significant value for the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:26810225

  13. Monkey adrenal chromaffin cells express α6β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vivanco, Alicia; Hone, Arik J; Scadden, Mick L; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; McIntosh, J Michael; Albillos, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta) also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs.

  14. Monkey Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Express α6β4* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Scadden, Mick´l; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; McIntosh, J. Michael; Albillos, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta) also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs. PMID:24727685

  15. Distinct effects of ventral tegmental area NMDA and acetylcholine receptor blockade on conditioned reinforcement produced by food-associated cues.

    PubMed

    Wickham, R J; Solecki, W B; Nunes, E J; Addy, N A

    2015-08-20

    Stimuli paired with rewards acquire reinforcing properties to promote reward-seeking behavior. Previous work supports the role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in mediating conditioned reinforcement elicited by drug-associated cues. However, it is not known whether these cholinergic mechanisms are specific to drug-associated cues or whether VTA cholinergic mechanisms also underlie the ability of cues paired with natural rewards to act as conditioned reinforcers. Burst firing of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons and the subsequent phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in cue-mediated behavior and in the ability of cues to acquire reinforcing properties. In the VTA, both AChRs and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) regulate DA burst firing and phasic DA release. Here, we tested the role of VTA nAChRs, muscarinic AChRs (mAChRs), and NMDARs in the conditioned reinforcement elicited by a food-associated, natural reward cue. Subjects received 10 consecutive days of Pavlovian conditioning training where lever extension served as a predictive cue for food availability. On day 11, rats received bilateral VTA infusion of saline, AP-5 (0.1 or 1μg), mecamylamine (MEC: 3 or 30μg) or scopolamine (SCOP: 3 or 66.7μg) immediately prior to the conditioned reinforcement test. During the test, nosepoking into the active (conditioned reinforced, CR) noseport produced a lever cue while nosepoking on the inactive (non-conditioned reinforced, NCR) noseport had no consequence. AP-5 robustly attenuated conditioned reinforcement and blocked discrimination between CR and NCR noseports at the 1-μg dose. MEC infusion decreased responding for both CR and NCR while 66.7-μg SCOP disrupted the subject's ability to discriminate between CR and NCR. Together, our data suggest that VTA NMDARs and mAChRs, but not nAChRs, play a role in the ability of natural reward-associated cues to act as conditioned reinforcers.

  16. Distinct effects of ventral tegmental area NMDA and acetylcholine receptor blockade on conditioned reinforcement produced by food-associated cues.

    PubMed

    Wickham, R J; Solecki, W B; Nunes, E J; Addy, N A

    2015-08-20

    Stimuli paired with rewards acquire reinforcing properties to promote reward-seeking behavior. Previous work supports the role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in mediating conditioned reinforcement elicited by drug-associated cues. However, it is not known whether these cholinergic mechanisms are specific to drug-associated cues or whether VTA cholinergic mechanisms also underlie the ability of cues paired with natural rewards to act as conditioned reinforcers. Burst firing of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons and the subsequent phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in cue-mediated behavior and in the ability of cues to acquire reinforcing properties. In the VTA, both AChRs and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) regulate DA burst firing and phasic DA release. Here, we tested the role of VTA nAChRs, muscarinic AChRs (mAChRs), and NMDARs in the conditioned reinforcement elicited by a food-associated, natural reward cue. Subjects received 10 consecutive days of Pavlovian conditioning training where lever extension served as a predictive cue for food availability. On day 11, rats received bilateral VTA infusion of saline, AP-5 (0.1 or 1μg), mecamylamine (MEC: 3 or 30μg) or scopolamine (SCOP: 3 or 66.7μg) immediately prior to the conditioned reinforcement test. During the test, nosepoking into the active (conditioned reinforced, CR) noseport produced a lever cue while nosepoking on the inactive (non-conditioned reinforced, NCR) noseport had no consequence. AP-5 robustly attenuated conditioned reinforcement and blocked discrimination between CR and NCR noseports at the 1-μg dose. MEC infusion decreased responding for both CR and NCR while 66.7-μg SCOP disrupted the subject's ability to discriminate between CR and NCR. Together, our data suggest that VTA NMDARs and mAChRs, but not nAChRs, play a role in the ability of natural reward-associated cues to act as conditioned reinforcers. PMID

  17. Characterization of [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding to alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain from rat, monkey, and human.

    PubMed

    Tanibuchi, Yuko; Wu, Jin; Toyohara, Jun; Fujita, Yuko; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-08-12

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the alpha7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) plays a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Currently, there are no suitable small molecule radioligands for alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, although [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin has been widely used as a radioligand for alpha7 nAChRs. In the present study, we characterized a new radioligand, 4-[(3)H]methylphenyl 2,5-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-2-carboxylate ([(3)H]CHIBA-1001), a derivative of the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist SSR180711, in brain membranes from rat, monkey, and human. Scatchard analysis revealed an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 193.4nM in rat brain membranes at 4 degrees C, and the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) was 346.2fmol/mg protein. The order of drugs for the inhibition of [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding to rat brain membranes is SSR180711>A-844606>MG624>epibatidine>DMAB>A-582941, suggesting a similarity of alpha7 nAChR pharmacological profiles. In contrast, alpha-bungarotoxin, MLA, and nicotine were found to be very weak. The distribution of [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding to crude membranes from dissected regions of rat, monkey, and human brain was different from that of [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding, suggesting that [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding sites may not be identical to [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding in the brain. In summary, [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 would be a useful radioligand for alpha7 nAChRs in the brains of rodents, non-human primates, and humans. PMID:20537987

  18. Molecular recognition of thiaclopride by Aplysia californica AChBP: new insights from a computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Alamiddine, Zakaria; Selvam, Balaji; Cerón-Carrasco, José P; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Thany, Steeve H; Laurent, Adèle D; Graton, Jérôme; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-12-01

    The binding of thiaclopride (THI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, with Aplysia californica acetylcholine binding protein (Ac-AChBP), the surrogate of the extracellular domain of insects nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, has been studied with a QM/QM' hybrid methodology using the ONIOM approach (M06-2X/6-311G(d):PM6). The contributions of Ac-AChBP key residues for THI binding are accurately quantified from a structural and energetic point of view. The importance of water mediated hydrogen-bond (H-bond) interactions involving two water molecules and Tyr55 and Ser189 residues in the vicinity of the THI nitrile group, is specially highlighted. A larger stabilization energy is obtained with the THI-Ac-AChBP complex compared to imidacloprid (IMI), the forerunner of neonicotinoid insecticides. Pairwise interaction energy calculations rationalize this result with, in particular, a significantly more important contribution of the pivotal aromatic residues Trp147 and Tyr188 with THI through CH···π/CH···O and π-π stacking interactions, respectively. These trends are confirmed through a complementary non-covalent interaction (NCI) analysis of selected THI-Ac-AChBP amino acid pairs. PMID:26589615

  19. Mood and anxiety regulation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a potential pathway to modulate aggression and related behavioral states

    PubMed Central

    Picciotto, Marina R.; Lewis, Alan S.; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I.; Mineur, Yann S.

    2015-01-01

    The co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders is striking. Preclinical and clinical studies of nicotinic effects on mood, anxiety, aggression, and related behaviors, such as irritability and agitation, suggest that smokers may use the nicotine in tobacco products as an attempt to self-medicate symptoms of affective disorders. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in circuits regulating mood and anxiety are beginning to be elucidated in animal models, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on aggression-related behavioral states (ARBS) are still not understood. Clinical trials of nicotine or nicotinic medications for neurological and psychiatric disorders have often found effects of nicotinic medications on ARBS, but few trials have studied these outcomes systematically. Similarly, the increase in ARBS resulting from smoking cessation can be resolved by nicotinic agents, but the effects of nicotinic medications on these types of mental states and behaviors in non-smokers are less well understood. Here we review the literature on the role of nAChRs in regulating mood and anxiety, and subsequently on the closely related construct of ARBS. We suggest avenues for future study to identify how nAChRs and nicotinic agents may play a role in these clinically important areas. PMID:25582289

  20. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Tangsucharit, Panot; Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takayama, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol) produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol) disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist) plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist), but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist). These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation.

  1. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint.

  2. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  3. Acetylcholine is an autocrine or paracrine hormone synthesized and secreted by airway bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Proskocil, Becky J; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Jia, Yibing; Savchenko, Valentina; Blakely, Randy D; Lindstrom, Jon; Spindel, Eliot R

    2004-05-01

    The role of acetylcholine (ACh) as a key neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system is well established. However, the role of ACh may be broader because ACh may also function as an autocrine or paracrine signaling molecule in a variety of nonneuronal tissues. To begin to establish ACh of nonneuronal origin as a paracrine hormone in lung, we have examined neonatal and adult monkey bronchial epithelium for the components involved in nicotinic cholinergic signaling. Using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, we have demonstrated in lung bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) expression of choline acetyltransferase, the vesicular ACh transporter, the choline high-affinity transporter, alpha7, alpha4, and beta2 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) subunits, and the nAChR accessory protein lynx1. Confocal microscopy demonstrates that these factors are expressed in epithelial cells and are clearly distinct from neighboring nerve fibers. Confirmation of RNA identity has been confirmed by partial sequence analysis of PCR products and by cDNA cloning. Primary culture of BECs confirms the synthesis and secretion of ACh and the activity of cholinesterases. Thus, ACh meets all the criteria for an autocrine/paracrine hormone in lung bronchial epithelium. The nonneuronal cholinergic signaling pathway in lung provides a potentially important target for cholinergic drugs. This pathway may also explain some of the effects of nicotine on fetal development and also provides additional mechanisms by which smoking affects lung cancer growth and development. PMID:14764638

  4. Acetylcholine receptors enable the transport of rapsyn from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jee-Young; Ikeda, Hiromi; Ikenaga, Takanori; Ono, Fumihito

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at nerve terminals is critical for signal transmission at the neuromuscular junction, and rapsyn is essential for this process. Previous studies suggest that AChRs might direct rapsyn self-clusters to the synapse. In vivo experiments with fluorescently tagged AChR or rapsyn in zebrafish larvae revealed that rapsyn self-clusters separate from AChRs did not exist before synapse formation. Examination of rapsyn in the AChR-less mutant sofa potato revealed that rapsyn in the absence of AChR was localized in the Golgi complex. Expression of muscle-type AChR in sofa potato restored synaptic clustering of rapsyn, while neuronal type AChR had no effect. To determine if this requirement of protein interaction is reciprocal, we examined the mutant twitch once, which has a missense mutation in rapsyn. While the AChRs distributed non-synaptically on the plasma membrane in twitch once, mutant rapsyn was retained in the Golgi complex. We conclude that AChRs enable the transport of rapsyn from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane through a molecule-specific interaction. PMID:22623681

  5. Recycling of Acetylcholine Receptors at Ectopic Postsynaptic Clusters Induced by Exogenous Agrin in Living Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Hans Rudolf; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    During the development of the neuromuscular junction, motor axons induce the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and increase their metabolic stability in the muscle membrane. Here, we asked whether the synaptic organizer agrin might regulate the metabolic stability and density of AChRs by promoting the recycling of internalized AChRs, which would otherwise be destined for degradation, into synaptic sites. We show that at nerve-free AChR clusters induced by agrin in extrasynaptic membrane, internalized AChRs are driven back into the ectopic synaptic clusters where they intermingle with pre-existing and new receptors. The extent of AChR recycling depended on the strength of the agrin stimulus, but not on the development of junctional folds, another hallmark of mature postsynaptic membranes. In chronically denervated muscles, in which both AChR stability and recycling are significantly decreased by muscle inactivity, agrin maintained the amount of recycled AChRs at agrin-induced clusters at a level similar to that at denervated original endplates. In contrast, AChRs did not recycle at agrin-induced clusters in C2C12 or primary myotubes. Thus, in muscles in vivo, but not in cultured myotubes, neural agrin promotes the recycling of AChRs and thereby increases their metabolic stability. PMID:25093969

  6. Cocaine inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influences dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Zhang, Lifen; Zhou, Fuwen; Gong, Suzhen; Gu, Howard; De Biasi, Mariella; Zhou, Fu-Ming; Dani, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) potently regulate dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and alter cocaine's ability to reinforce behaviors. Since cocaine is a weak nAChR inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine may alter DA release by inhibiting the nAChRs in DA terminals in the striatum and thus contribute to cocaine's reinforcing properties primarily associated with the inhibition of DA transporters. We found that biologically relevant concentrations of cocaine can mildly inhibit nAChR-mediated currents in midbrain DA neurons and consequently alter DA release in the dorsal and ventral striatum. At very high concentrations, cocaine also inhibits voltage-gated Na channels in DA neurons. Furthermore, our results show that partial inhibition of nAChRs by cocaine reduces evoked DA release. This diminution of DA release via nAChR inhibition more strongly influences release evoked at low or tonic stimulation frequencies than at higher (phasic) stimulation frequencies, particularly in the dorsolateral striatum. This cocaine-induced shift favoring phasic DA release may contribute to the enhanced saliency and motivational value of cocaine-associated memories and behaviors. PMID:25237305

  7. Cocaine inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influences dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Zhang, Lifen; Zhou, Fuwen; Gong, Suzhen; Gu, Howard; De Biasi, Mariella; Zhou, Fu-Ming; Dani, John A

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) potently regulate dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and alter cocaine's ability to reinforce behaviors. Since cocaine is a weak nAChR inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine may alter DA release by inhibiting the nAChRs in DA terminals in the striatum and thus contribute to cocaine's reinforcing properties primarily associated with the inhibition of DA transporters. We found that biologically relevant concentrations of cocaine can mildly inhibit nAChR-mediated currents in midbrain DA neurons and consequently alter DA release in the dorsal and ventral striatum. At very high concentrations, cocaine also inhibits voltage-gated Na channels in DA neurons. Furthermore, our results show that partial inhibition of nAChRs by cocaine reduces evoked DA release. This diminution of DA release via nAChR inhibition more strongly influences release evoked at low or tonic stimulation frequencies than at higher (phasic) stimulation frequencies, particularly in the dorsolateral striatum. This cocaine-induced shift favoring phasic DA release may contribute to the enhanced saliency and motivational value of cocaine-associated memories and behaviors. PMID:25237305

  8. [Mechanisms of contractile action of acetylcholine on hepatic veins].

    PubMed

    Ianchuk, P I; Prykhod'ko, T P; Pasichnichenko, O M; Tieriekhov, A A; Tsybenko, V O

    2011-01-01

    In acute experiments on anesthetized rats, acetylcholine (Ach) constricts hepatic venous vessels, causing blood mobilization from the liver, and dilates the sphincters of hepatic veins at the exit from this organ, contributing to the intensification of the outflow of blood deposited in the liver. Vasoconstrictor reactions of capacitive vessels of the liver to Ach are realized through M-cholinoreceptors on endotheliocytes with further involvement of messenger, possibly noradrenaline, which activates alpha-adrenoreceptors on smooth muscle cells (SMC) of capasitive vessels. Dilation of Hv sphincters is carried out due to Ach-induced release of messenger in the vessel wall, probably adrenaline, which in turn activates beta-adrenoreceptors on SMC of the Hv. It is possible, that in such reaction partially involved NO.

  9. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands; a patent review (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Gündisch, Daniela; Eibl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), pentameric ligand-gated cation channels, are potential targets for the development of therapeutics for a variety of disease states. Areas covered This article is reviewing recent advances in the development of small molecule ligands for diverse nAChR subtypes and is a continuation of an earlier review in this journal. Expert opinion The development of nAChR ligands with preference for α4β2 or α7 subtypes for the treatment of CNS disorders are in the most advanced developmental stage. In addition, there is a fast growing interest to generate so-called PAMs, positive allosteric modulators, to influence the channels’ functionalities. PMID:22098319

  10. Phasic acetylcholine release and the volume transmission hypothesis: time to move on

    PubMed Central

    Sarter, Martin; Parikh, Vinay; Howe, W. Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Traditional descriptions of the cortical cholinergic input system focused on the diffuse organization of cholinergic projections and the hypothesis that slowly changing levels of extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) mediate different arousal states. The ability of ACh to reach the extrasynaptic space (volume neurotransmission), as opposed to remaining confined to the synaptic cleft (wired neurotransmission), has been considered an integral component of this conceptualization. Recent studies demonstrated that phasic release of ACh, at the scale of seconds, mediates precisely defined cognitive operations. This characteristic of cholinergic neurotransmission is proposed to be of primary importance for understanding cholinergic function and developing treatments for cognitive disorders that result from abnormal cholinergic neurotransmission. PMID:19377503

  11. High affinity α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands AT-1001 and AT-1012 attenuate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Khroyan, Taline V; Yasuda, Dennis; Toll, Lawrence; Polgar, Willma E; Zaveri, Nurulain T

    2015-10-15

    Cholinergic signaling via the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic circuitry is involved in the rewarding effects of abused drugs such as cocaine and opioids. In mouse studies, nonselective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine blocks cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and behavioral sensitization. Among subtype-selective nAChR antagonists, the β2-selective antagonist dihydrobetaerythroidine and α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA), but not MLA alone prevent behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Since the role of the α3β4 nAChR subtype in the rewarding and behavioral effects of cocaine is unknown, the present study investigated the effect of two potent and selective α3β4 nAChR ligands, AT-1001 and AT-1012, on the acquisition of cocaine-induced CPP and behavioral sensitization in mice. At 5-30mg/kg, cocaine produced robust CPP, whereas behavioral sensitization of locomotor activity was only observed at the higher doses (20-30mg/kg). Pretreatment with AT-1001 (1-10mg/kg) or AT-1012 (3-10mg/kg) blocked CPP induced by 5mg/kg cocaine, but not by 30mg/kg cocaine. Lower doses of AT-1001 (0.3-1mg/kg) and AT-1012 (1-3mg/kg) did not affect the increase in locomotor activity induced by 5 or 30mg/kg cocaine. But AT-1001, at these doses, blocked locomotor sensitization induced by 30mg/kg cocaine. These results indicate that the α3β4 nAChR play a role in the rewarding and behavioral effects of cocaine, and that selective α3β4 nAChR ligands can attenuate cocaine-induced behavioral phenomena. Since the selective α3β4 nAChR functional antagonist AT-1001 has also been shown to block nicotine self-administration in rats, the present results suggest that α3β4 nAChRs may be a target for the treatment of cocaine addiction as well as for cocaine-nicotine comorbid addiction.

  12. Highly Selective and Sensitive Detection of Acetylcholine Using Receptor-Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shihong; Kim, Byeongju; Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Park, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Byung Yang; Park, Tai Hyun; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-03-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter in a human central nervous system and is related to various neural functions such as memory, learning and muscle contractions. Dysfunctional ACh regulations in a brain can induce several neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and myasthenia gravis. In researching such diseases, it is important to measure the concentration of ACh in the extracellular fluid of the brain. Herein, we developed a highly sensitive and selective ACh sensor based on single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistors (swCNT-FETs). In our work, M1 mAChR protein, an ACh receptor, was expressed in E.coli and coated on swCNT-FETs with lipid membranes. Here, the binding of ACh onto the receptors could be detected by monitoring the change of electrical currents in the underlying swCNT-FETs, allowing the real-time detection of ACh at a 100 pM concentration. Furthermore, our sensor could selectively detect ACh from other neurotransmitters. This is the first report of the real-time sensing of ACh utilizing specific binding between the ACh and M1 mAChR, and it may lead to breakthroughs in various biomedical applications such as drug screening and disease diagnosis.

  13. Muscarinic M(3) facilitation of acetylcholine release from rat myenteric neurons depends on adenosine outflow leading to activation of excitatory A(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Vieira, C; Duarte-Araújo, M; Adães, S; Magalhães-Cardoso, T; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2009-10-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the myenteric plexus, and it regulates its own release acting via muscarinic autoreceptors. Adenosine released from stimulated myenteric neurons modulates ACh release preferentially via facilitatory A(2A) receptors. In this study, we investigated how muscarinic and adenosine receptors interplay to regulate ACh from the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Blockade of the muscarinic M(2) receptor with 11-[[2-1[(diethylamino) methyl-1-piperidinyl]- acetyl

  14. Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Rosemond, Erica; Green, Hillary F.; Liu, Tong; Chae, Pil Seok; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2012-03-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate. Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences. We describe here the structure of the G{sub q/11}-coupled M3 mAChR ('M3 receptor', from rat) bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify the binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the G{sub i/o}-coupled M2 receptor, offers possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows a structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and provide additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors.

  15. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    PubMed

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-01

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  16. Autocrine activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors contributes to Ca2+ spikes in mouse myotubes during myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Elena; Bernareggi, Annalisa; Grandolfo, Micaela; Mozzetta, Chiara; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Ruzzier, Fabio; Lorenzon, Paola

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) channel activity controls myoblast fusion into myotubes during myogenesis. In this study we explored the possible role of nAChR channels after cell fusion in a murine cell model. Using videoimaging techniques we showed that embryonic muscle nAChR channel openings contribute to the spontaneous transients of intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and to twitches characteristic of developing myotubes before innervation. Moreover, we observed a choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the myotubes and we detected an acetylcholine-like compound in the extracellular solution. Therefore, we suggest that the autocrine activation of nAChR channels gives rise to [Ca2+]i spikes and contractions. Spontaneous openings of the nAChR channels may be an alternative, although less efficient, mechanism. We report also that blocking the nAChRs causes a significant reduction in cell survival, detectable as a decreased number of myotubes in culture. This led us to hypothesize a possible functional role for the autocrine activation of the nAChRs. By triggering mechanical activity, such activation could represent a strategy to ensure the trophism of myotubes in the absence of nerves. PMID:16037088

  17. Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Dando, Robin; Huang, Y Anthony; Berggren, Per-Olof; Roper, Stephen D; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2012-05-03

    Neurons, sensory cells and endocrine cells secrete neurotransmitters and hormones to communicate with other cells and to coordinate organ and system function. Validation that a substance is used as an extracellular signaling molecule by a given cell requires a direct demonstration of its secretion. In this protocol we describe the use of biosensor cells to detect neurotransmitter release from endocrine cells in real-time. Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor M3 were used as ACh biosensors to record ACh release from human pancreatic islets. We show how ACh biosensors loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator Fura-2 and pressed against isolated human pancreatic islets allow the detection of ACh release. The biosensor approach is simple; the Ca(2+) signal generated in the biosensor cell reflects the presence (release) of a neurotransmitter. The technique is versatile because biosensor cells expressing a variety of receptors can be used in many applications. The protocol takes ∼3 h.

  18. Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Dando, Robin; Huang, Y Anthony; Berggren, Per-Olof; Roper, Stephen D; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Neurons, sensory cells and endocrine cells secrete neurotransmitters and hormones to communicate with other cells and to coordinate organ and system function. Validation that a substance is used as an extracellular signaling molecule by a given cell requires a direct demonstration of its secretion. In this protocol we describe the use of biosensor cells to detect neurotransmitter release from endocrine cells in real-time. Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor M3 were used as ACh biosensors to record ACh release from human pancreatic islets. We show how ACh biosensors loaded with the Ca2+ indicator Fura-2 and pressed against isolated human pancreatic islets allow the detection of ACh release. The biosensor approach is simple; the Ca2+ signal generated in the biosensor cell reflects the presence (release) of a neurotransmitter. The technique is versatile because biosensor cells expressing a variety of receptors can be used in many applications. The protocol takes ~3 h. PMID:22555241

  19. AzoCholine Enables Optical Control of Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Damijonaitis, Arunas; Broichhagen, Johannes; Urushima, Tatsuya; Hüll, Katharina; Nagpal, Jatin; Laprell, Laura; Schönberger, Matthias; Woodmansee, David H; Rafiq, Amir; Sumser, Martin P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Gottschalk, Alexander; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-05-20

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are essential for cellular communication in higher organisms. Even though a vast pharmacological toolset to study cholinergic systems has been developed, control of endogenous neuronal nAChRs with high spatiotemporal precision has been lacking. To address this issue, we have generated photoswitchable nAChR agonists and re-evaluated the known photochromic ligand, BisQ. Using electrophysiology, we found that one of our new compounds, AzoCholine, is an excellent photoswitchable agonist for neuronal α7 nAChRs, whereas BisQ was confirmed to be an agonist for the muscle-type nAChR. AzoCholine could be used to modulate cholinergic activity in a brain slice and in dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we demonstrate light-dependent perturbation of behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:25741856

  20. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2): Spatial Structure and Pharmacology of Interactions with Different Types of Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shulepko, M. A.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Bychkov, M. L.; Paramonov, A. S.; Chugunov, A. O.; Kulbatskii, D. S.; Arvaniti, M.; Dolejsi, Eva; Schaer, T.; Arseniev, A. S.; Efremov, R. G.; Thomsen, M. S.; Dolezal, V.; Bertrand, D.; Dolgikh, D. A.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we describe the structure and pharmacology of a recombinant analogue of SLURP-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a ‘three-finger’ fold of SLURP-2 with a conserved β-structural core and three protruding loops. Affinity purification using cortical extracts revealed that SLURP-2 could interact with the α3, α4, α5, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits, revealing its broader pharmacological profile. SLURP-2 inhibits acetylcholine-evoked currents at α4β2 and α3β2-nAChRs (IC50 ~0.17 and >3 μM, respectively) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, at α7-nAChRs, SLURP-2 significantly enhances acetylcholine-evoked currents at concentrations <1 μM but induces inhibition at higher concentrations. SLURP-2 allosterically interacts with human M1 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) that are overexpressed in CHO cells. SLURP-2 was found to promote the proliferation of human oral keratinocytes via interactions with α3β2-nAChRs, while it inhibited cell growth via α7-nAChRs. SLURP-2/mAChRs interactions are also probably involved in the control of keratinocyte growth. Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the ‘classical’ orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs. PMID:27485575

  1. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2): Spatial Structure and Pharmacology of Interactions with Different Types of Acetylcholine Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shulepko, M. A.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Bychkov, M. L.; Paramonov, A. S.; Chugunov, A. O.; Kulbatskii, D. S.; Arvaniti, M.; Dolejsi, Eva; Schaer, T.; Arseniev, A. S.; Efremov, R. G.; Thomsen, M. S.; Dolezal, V.; Bertrand, D.; Dolgikh, D. A.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2016-08-01

    Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we describe the structure and pharmacology of a recombinant analogue of SLURP-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a ‘three-finger’ fold of SLURP-2 with a conserved β-structural core and three protruding loops. Affinity purification using cortical extracts revealed that SLURP-2 could interact with the α3, α4, α5, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits, revealing its broader pharmacological profile. SLURP-2 inhibits acetylcholine-evoked currents at α4β2 and α3β2-nAChRs (IC50 ~0.17 and >3 μM, respectively) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, at α7-nAChRs, SLURP-2 significantly enhances acetylcholine-evoked currents at concentrations <1 μM but induces inhibition at higher concentrations. SLURP-2 allosterically interacts with human M1 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) that are overexpressed in CHO cells. SLURP-2 was found to promote the proliferation of human oral keratinocytes via interactions with α3β2-nAChRs, while it inhibited cell growth via α7-nAChRs. SLURP-2/mAChRs interactions are also probably involved in the control of keratinocyte growth. Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the ‘classical’ orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs.

  2. Rapid synthesis of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, D A; Drachman, D B; Pestronk, A

    1988-10-11

    The rate of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) degradation in mature, innervated mammalian neuromuscular junctions has recently been shown to be biphasic; up to 20% are rapidly turned over (RTOs; half life less than 1 day) whereas the remainder are lost more slowly ('stable' AChRs; half life 10-12 days). In order to maintain normal junctional receptor density, synthesis and insertion of AChRs should presumably be sufficiently rapid to replace both the RTOs and the stable receptors. We have tested this prediction by blocking pre-existing AChRs in the mouse sternomastoid muscle with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BuTx), and monitoring the subsequent appearance of 'new' junctional AChRs at intervals of 3 h to 20 days by labeling them with 125I-alpha-BuTx. The results show that new receptors were initially inserted rapidly (16% at 24 h and 28% at 48 h). The rate of increase of 'new' 125I-alpha-BuTx binding sites gradually slowed down during the remainder of the time period studied. Control observations excluded possible artifacts of the experimental procedure including incomplete blockade of AChRs, dissociation of toxin-receptor complexes, or experimentally induced alteration of receptor synthesis. The present demonstration of rapid synthesis and incorporation of AChRs at innervated neuromuscular junctions provides support for the concept of a subpopulation of rapidly turned over AChRs. The RTOs may serve as precursors for the larger population of stable receptors and have an important role in the metabolism of the neuromuscular synapse.

  3. Anterior Thalamic Lesions Alter Both Hippocampal-Dependent Behavior and Hippocampal Acetylcholine Release in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Lisa M.; Hall, Joseph M.; Vetreno, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are important for learning and memory as damage to this region produces a persistent amnestic syndrome. Dense connections between the ATN and the hippocampus exist, and importantly, damage to the ATN can impair hippocampal functioning. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key neurotransmitter in the hippocampus, and in vivo…

  4. Functional analysis of Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in multiple activation states by SSM-based electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Niessen, K V; Muschik, S; Langguth, F; Rappenglück, S; Seeger, T; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2016-04-15

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPC), i.e. nerve agents or pesticides, are highly toxic due to their strong inhibition potency against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Inhibited AChE results in accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and thus the desensitisation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the postsynaptic membrane is provoked. Direct targeting of nAChR to reduce receptor desensitisation might be an alternative therapeutic approach. For drug discovery, functional properties of potent therapeutic candidates need to be investigated in addition to affinity properties. Solid supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology is useful for functional characterisation of ligand-gated ion channels like nAChRs, as charge translocations via capacitive coupling of the supporting membrane can be measured. By varying the agonist (carbamoylcholine) concentration, different functional states of the nAChR were initiated. Using plasma membrane preparations obtained from Torpedo californica electric organ, functional properties of selected nAChR ligands and non-oxime bispyridinium compounds were investigated. Depending on overall-size, the bispyridinium compounds enhanced or inhibited cholinergic signals induced by 100 μM carbamoylcholine. Applying excessive concentrations of the agonist carbamoylcholine provoked desensitisation of the nAChRs, whereas addition of bispyridinium compounds bearing short alkyl linkers exhibited functional recovery of previously desensitised nAChRs. The results suggest that these non-oxime bispyridinium compounds possibly interacted with nAChR subtypes in a manner of a positive allosteric modulator (PAM). The described newly developed functional assay is a valuable tool for the assessment of functional properties of potential compounds such as nAChR modulating ligands, which might be a promising approach in the therapeutically treatment of OPC-poisonings. PMID:26851639

  5. Concomitant alpha7 and beta2 nicotinic AChR subunit deficiency leads to impaired energy homeostasis and increased physical activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Somm, Emmanuel; Guérardel, Audrey; Maouche, Kamel; Toulotte, Audrey; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Maskos, Uwe; Hüppi, Petra S; Schwitzgebel, Valérie M

    2014-05-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated cation channels well characterized in neuronal signal transmission. Moreover, recent studies have revealed nAChR expression in nonneuronal cell types throughout the body, including tissues involved in metabolism. In the present study, we screen gene expression of nAChR subunits in pancreatic islets and adipose tissues. Mice pancreatic islets present predominant expression of α7 and β2 nAChR subunits but at a lower level than in central structures. Characterization of glucose and energy homeostasis in α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice revealed no major defect in insulin secretion and sensitivity but decreased glycemia apparently unrelated to gluconeogenesis or glycogenolysis. α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice presented an increase in lean and bone body mass and a decrease in fat storage with normal body weight. These observations were associated with elevated spontaneous physical activity in α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice, mainly due to elevation in fine vertical (rearing) activity while their horizontal (ambulatory) activity remained unchanged. In contrast to α7nAChR(-/-) mice presenting glucose intolerance and insulin resistance associated to excessive inflammation of adipose tissue, the present metabolic phenotyping of α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice revealed a metabolic improvement possibly linked to the increase in spontaneous physical activity related to central β2nAChR deficiency.

  6. A threshold model for opposing actions of acetylcholine on reward behavior: Molecular mechanisms and implications for treatment of substance abuse disorders.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The cholinergic system plays important roles in both learning and addiction. Medications that modify cholinergic tone can have pronounced effects on behaviors reinforced by natural and drug reinforcers. Importantly, enhancing the action of acetylcholine (ACh) in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system can either augment or diminish these behaviors. A threshold model is presented that can explain these seemingly contradictory results. Relatively low levels of ACh rise above a lower threshold, facilitating behaviors supported by drugs or natural reinforcers. Further increases in cholinergic tone that rise above a second upper threshold oppose the same behaviors. Accordingly, cholinesterase inhibitors, or agonists for nicotinic or muscarinic receptors, each have the potential to produce biphasic effects on reward behaviors. Pretreatment with either nicotinic or muscarinic antagonists can block drug- or food- reinforced behavior by maintaining cholinergic tone below its lower threshold. Potential threshold mediators include desensitization of nicotinic receptors and biphasic effects of ACh on the firing of medium spiny neurons. Nicotinic receptors with high- and low- affinity appear to play greater roles in reward enhancement and inhibition, respectively. Cholinergic inhibition of natural and drug rewards may serve as mediators of previously described opponent processes. Future studies should evaluate cholinergic agents across a broader range of doses, and include a variety of reinforced behaviors. PMID:27316344

  7. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets.

  8. Effects of dichlorobenzene on acetylcholine receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ren-Ming; Chiung, Yin-Mei; Pan, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jenn-Hwa; Liu, Pei-Shan

    2008-11-20

    para-Dichlorobenzene (DCB), a deodorant and an industrial chemical, is a highly volatile compound and is known to be an indoor air contaminant. Because of its widespread use and volatility, the toxicity of DCB presents a concern to industrial workers and public. Some toxic aspects of DCB have already been focused but its effects on neuronal signal transduction have been hitherto unknown. The effects of DCB on the cytosolic calcium homeostasis are investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in this study. DCB, above 200 microM, was found to induce a rise in cytosolic calcium concentration that could not be counteracted by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonists but was partially inhibited by thapsigargin. To understand the actions of DCB on the acetylcholine receptors, we investigated its effects on the changes of cytosolic calcium concentration following nicotinic AChR stimulation with epibatidine and muscarinic AChR stimulation with methacholine in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. DCB inhibited the cytosolic calcium concentration rise induced by epibatidine and methacholine with respective IC(50)s of 34 and 294 microM. The inhibitions of DCB were not the same as thapsigargin's inhibition. In the electrophysiological observations, DCB blocked the influx currents induced by epibatidine. Our findings suggest that DCB interferes with the functional activities of AChR, including its coupling influx currents and cytosolic calcium elevations.

  9. Regulation of acetylcholine release by intracellular acidification of developing motoneurons in Xenopus cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Hwa; Wu, Mei-Lin; Fu, Wen-Mei

    1998-01-01

    The effects of intracellular pH changes on the acetylcholine (ACh) release and cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration at developing neuromuscular synapses were studied in Xenopus nerve-muscle co-cultures. Spontaneous and evoked ACh release of motoneurons was monitored by using whole-cell voltage-clamped myocytes. Intracellular alkalinization with 15 mm NH4Cl slightly reduced the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs). However, cytosolic acidification following withdrawal of extracellular NH4Cl caused a marked and transient increase in spontaneous ACh release. Another method of cytosolic acidification was used in which NaCl in Ringer solution was replaced with weak organic acids. The increase in spontaneous ACh release paralleled the level of intracellular acidification resulting from addition of these organic acids. Acetate and propionate but not isethionate, methylsulphate and glucuronate, caused an increase in intracellular pH and a marked increase in spontaneous ACh release. Impulse-evoked ACh release was slightly augmented by intracellular alkalinization and inhibited by cytosolic acidification. Cytosolic acidification was accompanied by an elevation in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), resulting from both external Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. In contrast, the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by high K+ was inhibited by cytosolic acidification. We conclude that cytosolic acidification regulates spontaneous and evoked ACh release differentially in Xenopus motoneurons, increasing spontaneous ACh release but inhibiting evoked ACh release. PMID:9490814

  10. Mathematical model of dependence of heart rate on tissue concentration of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Dexter, F; Saidel, G M; Levy, M N; Rudy, Y

    1989-02-01

    The change in sinus period elicited by vagal stimulation depends on the rate of acetylcholine (ACh) release from the nerve endings, the rate of ACh degradation in the nodal tissue, and the responsiveness of the sinus node to ACh. Vagal stimulation in anesthetized dogs prolonged sinus period. After cessation of vagal stimulation, the sinus period returned to the prestimulation period. We developed a mathematical model to analyze the dynamics of ACh degradation in the neuroeffector junction and the dependence of sinus period on the concentration of ACh. From the in vitro reaction kinetics of acetylcholinesterase, we derived an analytical expression for the rate of ACh degradation in the intact animal. Our model represents the electrical behavior of the sinus node by the electrical activity of one pacemaker cell with six membrane ionic currents. This model predicts the decline in sinus period of the intact anesthetized dog as acetylcholinesterase degrades ACh in the neuroeffector junction. The half-life of ACh after cessation of vagal stimulation was estimated to be 2.7 s. We conclude that following termination of vagal stimulation, the sinus node of the intact animal responds to ACh as if the sinus node were one oscillator.

  11. Nicotine activates cell-signaling pathways through muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Diane L; Liu, Xuwan; Hopkins, Toni M; Swick, Michelle C; Dhir, Rajiv; Siegfried, Jill M

    2007-01-01

    gefitinib showed a significant increase in the number of surviving cells compared to gefitinib alone. These data indicate that the muscle-type nAChR, rather than the alpha7 type, is highly expressed in NSCLC and leads to downstream activation of the p44/42 MAPK pathway. Neuronal-type receptors are also present and functional, as evidenced by antagonist studies, although, the expression levels are lower than muscle-type nAChR. They also lead to downstream activation of MAPK and Akt. Nicotine may play a role in regulating survival of NSCLC cells and endogenous acetylcholine released locally in the lung and/or chronic nicotine exposure might play a role in NSCLC development. In addition, exposure of NSCLC patients to nicotine through use of nicotine replacement products or use of tobacco products may alter the efficacy of therapy with EGFR inhibitors.

  12. Dysfunctional Presynaptic M2 Receptors in the Presence of Chronically High Acetylcholine Levels: Data from the PRiMA Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Franziska; Krejci, Eric; Zimmermann, Martina; Klein, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The muscarinic M2 receptor (M2R) acts as a negative feedback regulator in central cholinergic systems. Activation of the M2 receptor limits acetylcholine (ACh) release, especially when ACh levels are increased because acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is acutely inhibited. Chronically high ACh levels in the extracellular space, however, were reported to down-regulate M2R to various degrees. In the present study, we used the PRiMA knockout mouse which develops severely reduced AChE activity postnatally to investigate ACh release, and we used microdialysis to investigate whether the function of M2R to reduce ACh release in vivo was impaired in adult PRiMA knockout mice. We first show that striatal and hippocampal ACh levels, while strongly increased, still respond to AChE inhibitors. Infusion or injection of oxotremorine, a muscarinic M2 agonist, reduced ACh levels in wild-type mice but did not significantly affect ACh levels in PRiMA knockout mice or in wild-type mice in which ACh levels were artificially increased by infusion of neostigmine. Scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, increased ACh levels in wild-type mice receiving neostigmine, but not in wild-type mice or in PRiMA knockout mice. These results demonstrate that M2R are dysfunctional and do not affect ACh levels in PRiMA knockout mice, likely because of down-regulation and/or loss of receptor-effector coupling. Remarkably, this loss of function does not affect cognitive functions in PRiMA knockout mice. Our results are discussed in the context of AChE inhibitor therapy as used in dementia. PMID:26506622

  13. α5-nAChR modulates nicotine-induced cell migration and invasion in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiji; Ma, Xiaoli

    2015-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor in the development of human lung cancer. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, not only contributes to carcinogenesis but also promotes tumor metastasis. By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and migration of non-small cell lung cancer. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether nicotine promotes the migration and invasion through activation of α5-nAChR in lung cancer. In the present study, A549 cell was exposed to 1μN nicotine for 8, 24 or 48h. Wound-healing assay and transwell assay were used to evaluate the capability of A549 cell migration and cell invasion, respectively. Silencing of α5-nAChR was done by siRNA. Western blotting and PCR were used to detect α5-nAChR expression. Nicotine can induce activation of α5-nAChR in association with increased migration and invasion of human lung cancer A549 cell. Treatment of cells with α5-nAChR specific siRNA blocks nicotine-stimulated activation of α5-nAChR and suppresses A549 cell migration and invasion. Reduction of α5-nAChR resulted in upregulation of E-cadherin, consistent with E-cadherin being inhibitive of cancer cell invasion. These findings suggest that nicotine-induced migration and invasion may occur in a mechanism through activation of α5-nAChR, which can contribute to metastasis or development of human lung cancer.

  14. In vivo blockade of acetylcholinesterase increases intraovarian acetylcholine and enhances follicular development and fertility in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Blohberger, Jan; Tiszavari, Michelle; Mayerhofer, Artur; Lara, Hernan E.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles are regulated by systemic and local factors, which may include acetylcholine (ACh). Granulosa cells (GCs) of growing follicles and luteal cells produce ACh and in cultured GCs it exerts trophic actions via muscarinic receptors. However, such actions were not studied in vivo. After having established that rat ovarian GCs and luteal cells express the ACh-metabolizing enzyme ACh esterase (AChE), we examined the consequences of local application of an AChE inhibitor, huperzine A (HupA), by osmotic minipump delivery into the ovarian bursa of hemiovariectomized rats. Saline was used in the control group. Local delivery of HupA for 4 weeks increased ovarian ACh content. Estrus cyclicity was not changed indicating a locally restricted range of HupA action. The number of primordial and primary follicles was unaffected, but small secondary follicles significantly increased in the HupA group. Furthermore, a significant increase in the number of corpora lutea suggested increased ovulatory events. In support, as shown upon mating, HupA-treated females had significantly increased implantation sites and more pups. Thus the data are in support of a trophic role of ACh in follicular development and ovulation and point to an important role of ACh in female fertility. PMID:27440195

  15. Suitability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor 3 Antibodies for Immune Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Frank R.; Raghavan, Badrinarayanan; Paddenberg, Renate; Kummer, Wolfgang; Tumala, Susanne; Lochnit, Günter; Gieler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence reveals a crucial role for acetylcholine and its receptors in the regulation of inflammation, particularly of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (Chrna7) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (Chrm3). Immunohistochemistry is a key tool for their cellular localization in functional tissues. We evaluated nine different commercially available antibodies on back skin tissue from wild-type (Wt) and gene-deficient (KO) mice. In the immunohistochemical analysis, we focused on key AChR-ligand sensitive skin cells (mast cells, nerve fibers and keratinocytes). All five antibodies tested for Chrm3 and the first three Chrna7 antibodies stained positive in both Wt and respective KO skin. With the 4th antibody (ab23832) nerve fibers were unlabeled in the KO mice. By western blot analysis, this antibody detected bands in both Wt and Chrna7 KO skin and brain. qRT-PCR revealed mRNA amplification with a primer set for the undeleted region in both Wt and KO mice, but none with a primer set for the deleted region in KO mice. By 2D electrophoresis, we found β-actin and β-enolase cross reactivity, which was confirmed by double immunolabeling. In view of the present results, the tested antibodies are not suitable for immunolocalization in skin and suggest thorough control of antibody specificity is required if histomorphometry is intended. PMID:25673288

  16. Menthol Binding and Inhibition of α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C.; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C.; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca2+-free bathing solution containing Ba2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner. PMID:23935840

  17. Looking below the surface of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Clare; Treinin, Millet; Papke, Roger L

    2015-08-01

    The amino acid sequences of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) from diverse species can be compared across extracellular, transmembrane, and intracellular domains. The intracellular domains are most divergent among subtypes, yet relatively consistent among species. The diversity indicates that each nAChR subtype has a unique language for communication with its host cell. The conservation across species also suggests that the intracellular domains have defining functional roles for each subtype. Secondary structure prediction indicates two relatively conserved alpha helices within the intracellular domains of all nAChRs. Among all subtypes, the intracellular domain of α7 nAChR is one of the most well conserved, and α7 nAChRs have effects in non-neuronal cells independent of generating ion currents, making it likely that the α7 intracellular domain directly mediates signal transduction. There are potential phosphorylation and protein-binding sites in the α7 intracellular domain, which are conserved and may be the basis for α7-mediated signal transduction.

  18. Expression of human AChR extracellular domain mutants with improved characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Zisimopoulou, Paraskevi; Giastas, Petros; Bitzopoulou, Kalliopi; Evangelakou, Panagiota; Sideri, Anastasia; Tzartos, Socrates J

    2014-02-01

    The muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has a central role in neuromuscular transmission, and is the major target in the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis (MG). We created mutants of the extracellular domains (ECDs) of the human α1, β1, δ and ε AChR subunits, whereby their Cys-loop was exchanged for that of the acetylcholine binding protein. The mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and had improved solubility resulting in 2- to 43-fold higher expression yields compared to the wild type. An additional mutant was created for the α1 ECD restoring its glycosylation site within the Cys-loop and its α-bungarotoxin binding ability. Furthermore, we constructed dimeric and pentameric concatamers of the mutant ECDs. All concatamers were successfully expressed as soluble secreted proteins, although the pentamers had about 10-fold lower expression than the dimers and were more susceptible to fragmentation. Initial crystallizations with the mutant ECDs were promising, and we reproducibly obtained crystals of the β1 ECD, diffracting at ~12 Å. Further optimization is underway to obtain crystals suitable for high resolution crystallography. The proteins described herein are useful tools in structural studies of the human muscle AChR and can be used in applications requiring high yields such as therapeutic adsorbents for MG autoantibodies. PMID:24246999

  19. Benzodiazepine Site Agonists Differentially Alter Acetylcholine Release in Rat Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Viviane S.; Mitchell, Melinda F.; Firn, Kelsie A.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Background Agonist binding at the benzodiazepine site of γ-aminobutric acid type A receptors diminishes anxiety and insomnia by actions in the amygdala. The neurochemical effects of benzodiazepine-site agonists remain incompletely understood. Cholinergic neurotransmission modulates amygdala function, and in this study we tested the hypothesis that benzodiazepine-site agonists alter acetylcholine (ACh) release in the amygdala. Methods Microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography quantified ACh release in the amygdala of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=33). ACh was measured before and after IV administration (3 mg/kg) of midazolam or eszopiclone, with and without anesthesia. ACh in isoflurane-anesthetized rats during dialysis with Ringer’s solution(control) was compared to ACh release during dialysis with Ringer’s solution containing (100 μM) midazolam, diazepam, eszopiclone, or zolpidem. Results In unanesthetized rats, ACh in the amygdala was decreased by IV midazolam (−51.1%; P=0.0029; 95% CI= −73.0% to −29.2%) and eszopiclone (−39.6%; P=0.0222; 95% CI= −69.8% to −9.3%). In anesthetized rats, ACh in the amygdala was decreased by IV administration of midazolam (−46.2%; P=0.0041; 95% CI= −67.9% to −24.5%) and eszopiclone (−34.0%; P=0.0009; 95% CI= −44.7% to −23.3%), and increased by amygdala delivery of diazepam (43.2%; P=0.0434; 95% CI= 2.1% to 84.3%), and eszopiclone (222.2%; P=0.0159; 95% CI= 68.5% to 375.8%). Conclusions ACh release in the amygdala was decreased by IV delivery of midazolam and eszopiclone. Dialysis delivery directly into the amygdala caused either increased (eszopiclone and diazepam) or likely no significant change (midazolam and zolpidem) in ACh release. These contrasting effects of delivery route on ACh release support the interpretation that systemically administered midazolam and eszopiclone decrease ACh release in the amygdala by acting on neuronal systems outside of the amygdala. PMID:24842176

  20. Activation of α-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Reduces Ischemic Stroke Injury through Reduction of Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhenying; Shen, Fanxia; He, Yue; Degos, Vincent; Camus, Marine; Maze, Mervyn; Young, William L.; Su, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) has a neuro-protective effect on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR agonist protects brain injury after ischemic stroke through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1) and oxidative stress. C57BL/6 mice were treated with PHA568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR agonist), methyllycaconitine (MLA, nAchR antagonist), or saline immediately and 24 hours after permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery (pMCAO). Behavior test, lesion volume, CD68+, M1 (CD11b+/Iba1+) and M2 (CD206/Iba1+) microglia/macrophages, and phosphorylated p65 component of NF-kB in microglia/macrophages were quantified using histological stained sections. The expression of M1 and M2 marker genes, anti-oxidant genes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase were quantified using real-time RT-PCR. Compared to the saline-treated mice, PHA mice had fewer behavior deficits 3 and 7 days after pMCAO, and smaller lesion volume, fewer CD68+ and M1 macrophages, and more M2 macrophages 3 and 14 days after pMCAO, whereas MLA's effects were mostly the opposite in several analyses. PHA increased anti-oxidant genes and NADPH oxidase expression associated with decreased phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 in microglia/macrophages. Thus, reduction of inflammatory response and oxidative stress play roles in α-7 nAchR neuro-protective effect. PMID:25157794

  1. Natural Compounds Interacting with Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Low-Molecular Weight Ones to Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Vulfius, Catherine; Makarieva, Tatyana; Stonik, Valentin; Zhmak, Maxim; Ivanov, Igor; Kasheverov, Igor; Utkin, Yuri; Tsetlin, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds. PMID:26008231

  2. Natural compounds interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from low-molecular weight ones to peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Vulfius, Catherine; Makarieva, Tatyana; Stonik, Valentin; Zhmak, Maxim; Ivanov, Igor; Kasheverov, Igor; Utkin, Yuri; Tsetlin, Victor

    2015-05-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds. PMID:26008231

  3. Effect of pharmaceuticals exposure on acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and on the expression of AchE gene in the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus koreanus.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Park, Heum Gi; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2013-11-01

    Pharmaceuticals are widely used in human and veterinary medicine. However, they are emerging as a significant contaminant in aquatic environments through wastewater. Due to the persistent and accumulated properties of pharmaceuticals via the food web, their potential harmful effects on aquatic animals are a great concern. In this study, we investigated the effects of six pharmaceuticals: acetaminophen, ATP; atenolol, ATN; carbamazepine, CBZ; oxytetracycline, OTC; sulfamethoxazole, SMX; and trimethoprim, TMP on acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) activity and its transcript expression with chlorpyrifos (as a positive control) in the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus koreanus. ATP, CBZ, and TMP exposure also remarkably inhibited Bk-AChE activity at 100 μg/L (24 h) and 1000 μg/L (12 h and 24 h). ATP, CBZ, and TMP exposure showed a significant decrease in the Bk-AChE mRNA level in a concentration-dependent manner. However, in the case of OTC and SMX, a slight decrease in Bk-AChE mRNA expression was found but only at the highest concentration. The time-course experiments showed that ATP positively induced Bk-AChE mRNA 12 h after exposure at both 100 and 1000 μg/L, while the Bk-AChE mRNA expression was significantly downregulated over 6 to 24 h after exposure to 1000 μg/L of CBZ, OTC, SMX, and TMP. Our findings suggest that Bk-AChE would be a useful biomarker for risk assessment of pharmaceutical compounds as an early signal of their toxicity in aquatic environments. Particularly, ATP, CBZ, and TMP may have a toxic cholinergic effect on rotifer B. koreanus by inhibiting AChE activity. PMID:24028855

  4. Circannual rhythms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the freshwater fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Helman, Renata J; Ferreyroa, Gisele V; dos Santos Afonso, Maria; Salibián, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as a tool to assess responses of organisms exposed to pollutants in toxicity bioassays, as well as in aquatic environmental risk assessment protocols, requires the understanding of the natural fluctuation of the particular biomarker. The aim of this study was to characterize the intrinsic variations of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in tissues of a native freshwater teleost fish to be used as biomarker in toxicity tests, taking into account both seasonal influence and fish size. Specific AChE activity was measured by the method of Ellman et al. (1961) in homogenates of fish anterior section finding a seasonal variability. The highest activity was observed in summer, decreasing significantly below 40% in winter. The annual AChE activity cycle in the anterior section was fitted to a sinusoidal function with a period of 11.2 months. Moreover, an inverse relationship between enzymatic activity and the animal size was established. The results showed that both the fish length and seasonal variability affect AChE activity. AChE activity in fish posterior section showed a similar trend to that in the anterior section, while seasonal variations of the activity in midsection were observed but differences were not statistically significant. In addition, no relationship between AChE and total tissue protein was established in the anterior and posterior sections suggesting that the circannual rhythms observed are AChE-specific responses. Results highlight the importance of considering both the fish size and season variations to reach valid conclusions when AChE activity is employed as neurotoxicity biomarker.

  5. Cholinesterases in development: AChE as a firewall to inhibit cell proliferation and support differentiation.

    PubMed

    Layer, Paul G; Klaczinski, Janine; Salfelder, Anika; Sperling, Laura E; Thangaraj, Gopenath; Tuschl, Corina; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid

    2013-03-25

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a most remarkable protein, not only because it is one of the fastest enzymes in nature, but also since it appears in many molecular forms and is regulated by elaborate genetic networks. AChE is expressed in many tissues during development and in mature organisms, as well as in healthy and diseased states. In search for alternative, "non-classical" functions of cholinesterases (ChEs), AChE could either work within the frame of classic cholinergic systems, but in non-neural tissues ("non-synaptic function"), or act non-enzymatically. Here, we review briefly some of the major ideas and advances of this field, and report on some recent progress from our own experimental work, e.g. that (i) non-neural ChEs have pronounced, predominantly enzymatic effects on early embryonic (limb) development in chick and mouse, that (ii) retinal R28 cells of the rat overexpressing synaptic AChE present a significantly decreased cell proliferation, and that (iii) in developing chick retina ACh-synthesizing and ACh-degrading cells originate from the same postmitotic precursor cells, which later form two locally opposing cell populations. We suggest that such distinct distributions of ChAT(+) vs. AChE(+) cells in the inner half retina provide graded distributions of ACh, which can direct cell differentiation and network formation. Thus, as corroborated by works from many labs, AChE can be considered a highly co-opting protein, which can combine enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions within one molecule. PMID:23047026

  6. The activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by the transmitter.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D B; Spivak, C E

    1985-02-01

    Experimental evidence has been published from isolated guinea pig muscle in vitro, and from direct ligand binding to receptors from T. californica, indicating that two agonist ions react with the nicotinic receptor by exchanging for one magnesium ion. It is the basis of the ion exchange receptor pair model, in which two acetylcholine ions exchange for one magnesium ion in contact with and between a pair of negatively charged receptor groups about 4 A apart. In the resting state the electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged receptor groups and the Mg2+ ion exerts a binding force. This binding force is opposed by the quantum mechanical repulsions of the electron clouds of the charged groups and ions in contact, together with the mutual repulsion of the pair of receptor oxyanions. When the Mg2+ ion is replaced by two acetylcholine ions the quaternary heads of the latter are positioned so that they form two mutually repelling ACh+ receptor group dipoles. As the Mg2+ ion leaves, its rehydration energy contributes to the sum of the electron cloud repulsions and the ACh+ receptor group dipole repulsions, causing the receptor groups to be forced apart activating the receptor macromolecule. The subsequent decrease in ACh+ concentration results in the reestablishment of the resting state. The coulombic electrostatic energy, the Born repulsion energy, the London attraction energy and the oxyanion ACh+ dipole repulsion energies have been calculated and shown to be consistent with the model. The displacement of the Mg2+ by two ACh+ ions makes several hundred kcals of energy available for receptor group separation and receptor activation.

  7. The dual-acting H3 receptor antagonist and AChE inhibitor UW-MD-71 dose-dependently enhances memory retrieval and reverses dizocilpine-induced memory impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadia; Saad, Ali; Nurulain, Syed M; Darras, Fouad H; Decker, Michael; Sadek, Bassem

    2016-01-15

    Both the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) are involved in the regulation of release and metabolism of acetylcholine and several other central neurotransmitters. Therefore, dual-active H3R antagonists and AChE inhibitors (AChEIs) have shown in several studies to hold promise to treat cognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The novel dual-acting H3R antagonist and AChEI 7-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)-1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazoline (UW-MD-71) with excellent selectivity profiles over both the three other HRs as well as the AChE's isoenzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) shows high and balanced in vitro affinities at both H3R and AChE with IC50 of 33.9nM and hH3R antagonism with Ki of 76.2nM, respectively. In the present study, the effects of UW-MD-71 (1.25-5mg/kg, i.p.) on acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval in a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task in male rats were investigated applying donepezil (DOZ) and pitolisant (PIT) as reference drugs. Furthermore, the effects of UW-MD-71 on memory deficits induced by the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine (DIZ) were tested. Our results indicate that administration of UW-MD-71 before the test session dose-dependently increased performance and enhanced procognitive effect on retrieval. However neither pre- nor post-training acute systemic administration of UW-MD-71 facilitated acquisition or consolidation. More importantly, UW-MD-71 (2.5mg/kg, i.p.) ameliorated the DIZ-induced amnesic effects. Furthermore, the procognitive activity of UW-MD-71 in retrieval was completely reversed and partly abrogated in DIZ-induced amnesia when rats were pretreated with the centrally-acting H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL), but not with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR). These results demonstrate the procognitive effects of UW-MD-71 in two in vivo memory models, and are to our knowledge the first demonstration in vivo that a potent dual

  8. Endocannabinoids Mediate Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Adult Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Henry G. S.; Bernabeu, Axel; Lassalle, Olivier; Bouille, Clément; Beurrier, Corinne; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Manzoni, Olivier J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are associated with attention and cognition; however there is evidence that acetylcholine also has a role in PFC dependent learning and memory. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the PFC can induce synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain either opaque or unresolved. We have characterized a form of mAChR mediated long-term depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses of layer 5 principal neurons in the adult medial PFC. This mAChR LTD is induced with the mAChR agonist carbachol and inhibited by selective M1 mAChR antagonists. In contrast to other cortical regions, we find that this M1 mAChR mediated LTD is coupled to endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling. Inhibition of the principal eCB CB1 receptor blocked carbachol induced LTD in both rats and mice. Furthermore, when challenged with a sub-threshold carbachol application, LTD was induced in slices pretreated with the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184, suggesting that the eCB 2-arachidonylglyerol (2-AG) mediates M1 mAChR LTD. Yet, when endogenous acetylcholine was released from local cholinergic afferents in the PFC using optogenetics, it failed to trigger eCB-LTD. However coupling patterned optical and electrical stimulation to generate local synaptic signaling allowed the reliable induction of LTD. The light—electrical pairing induced LTD was M1 mAChR and CB1 receptor mediated. This shows for the first time that connecting excitatory synaptic activity with coincident endogenously released acetylcholine controls synaptic gain via eCB signaling. Together these results shed new light on the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult PFC and expand on the actions of endogenous cholinergic signaling. PMID:26648844

  9. Endocannabinoids Mediate Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Adult Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Martin, Henry G S; Bernabeu, Axel; Lassalle, Olivier; Bouille, Clément; Beurrier, Corinne; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Manzoni, Olivier J

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are associated with attention and cognition; however there is evidence that acetylcholine also has a role in PFC dependent learning and memory. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the PFC can induce synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain either opaque or unresolved. We have characterized a form of mAChR mediated long-term depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses of layer 5 principal neurons in the adult medial PFC. This mAChR LTD is induced with the mAChR agonist carbachol and inhibited by selective M1 mAChR antagonists. In contrast to other cortical regions, we find that this M1 mAChR mediated LTD is coupled to endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling. Inhibition of the principal eCB CB1 receptor blocked carbachol induced LTD in both rats and mice. Furthermore, when challenged with a sub-threshold carbachol application, LTD was induced in slices pretreated with the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184, suggesting that the eCB 2-arachidonylglyerol (2-AG) mediates M1 mAChR LTD. Yet, when endogenous acetylcholine was released from local cholinergic afferents in the PFC using optogenetics, it failed to trigger eCB-LTD. However coupling patterned optical and electrical stimulation to generate local synaptic signaling allowed the reliable induction of LTD. The light-electrical pairing induced LTD was M1 mAChR and CB1 receptor mediated. This shows for the first time that connecting excitatory synaptic activity with coincident endogenously released acetylcholine controls synaptic gain via eCB signaling. Together these results shed new light on the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult PFC and expand on the actions of endogenous cholinergic signaling.

  10. Increases in cholinergic neurotransmission measured by using choline-sensitive microelectrodes: enhanced detection by hydrolysis of acetylcholine on recording sites?

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Chiara; Parikh, Vinay; Ward, Josh.R.; Chiamulera, Christian; Sarter, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated that second-based transient increases in choline concentrations measured by electrodes coated with choline oxidase (ChOx) and the amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide validly indicate the depolarization-dependent release of acetylcholine (ACh) and its hydrolysis by endogenous acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Therefore, choline-sensitive microelectrodes have become valuable tools in neuropharmacological and behavioral research. The present experiments were designed to test the possibility that co-immobilization of ChOx plus AChE on recording sites increases the level of detection for evoked ACh release in the brain. If newly released ACh is not completely hydrolyzed by endogenous AChE and capable of reaching the extracellular space, currents recorded via sites equipped with both enzymes should be greater when compared with sites coated with ChOx only. Pairs of Platinum-recordings sites were coated either with AChE plus ChOx or ChOx alone. Potassium or nicotine-evoked currents were recorded throughout the entire dorsal-ventral extent of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The amplitudes of evoked cholinergic signals did not differ significantly between AChE+ChOx and ChOx-only coated recording sites. Additional experiments controlling for several potential confounds suggested that, in vivo, ACh levels ≥150 fmol were detected by recordings sites featuring dual enzyme coating. Collectively, these results indicate that co-coating of microelectrodes with AChE does not enhance the detection of cholinergic activity in the cortex compared with measurements via recording sites coated only with ChOx. PMID:18346819

  11. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes which selectively couple to phospholipase C: Pharmacological and biochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, M.A.; Fraser, C.M. )

    1990-12-14

    The pharmacological and biochemical properties of rat m1 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells were characterized with ligand binding, affinity labeling and biochemical assays. Both mAChR subtypes display saturable, high affinity binding of (3H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and a rank order of antagonist potency of QNB greater than atropine greater than pirenzepine greater than AF-DX 116. Carbachol displacement of (3H)-QNB binding to the m3 mAChR revealed an approximate 17-fold higher affinity than observed with the m1 mAChR. (3H)-propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PrBCM) labeling of mAChR revealed that m1 and m3 mAChR migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gels with apparent molecular masses of 80,000 and 94,000 daltons, respectively, consistent with the known differences in their molecular sizes. Both m1 and m3 mAChR elicited dose-dependent increases in the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides; however, the maximal increase in total inositol phosphates elicited with the m1 mAChR was approximately 2-fold greater than that observed in cells expressing similar densities of m3 mAChR. Agonist activation of the m1 mAChR also elicited increases in basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP, whereas the m3 mAChR had no effect on intracellular cAMP levels. These data suggest that although m1 and m3 mAChR display a considerable degree of structural homology, they exhibit distinct pharmacological and biochemical properties.

  12. Electrocatalytic Microelectrode Detectors for Choline and Acetylcholine following Separation by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Jhindan; Kirchhoff, Jon R.

    2009-01-01

    Two electrocatalytic enzyme modified microelectrode systems were employed as end-column amperometric detectors of choline (Ch) and acetylcholine (ACh) following separation by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Horseradish peroxidase crosslinked in an Os based redox polymer hydrogel (HRP-Os) was physically adsorbed on Au microelectrodes followed by chemical crosslinking of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChO). An alternative approach utilized the deposition of the transition metal catalyst, Prussian Blue (PB), on Pt microelectrodes as the electrocatalyst. Utilizing butyrylcholine (BuCh) as an internal standard, the HRP-Os/AChE-ChO and PB/AChE-ChO electrodes exhibited excellent linear responses from 2–2000 μM and 10–2000 μM, respectively, for both Ch and ACh. Detection limits of 0.1 μM or 38 amol were determined for the HRP-Os/AChE-ChO electrode. The limit of detection for ACh and Ch at the PB/AChE-ChO electrode was 5 μM or 9.5 fmol. The electrodes were operated at potentials of +0.10 and −0.10 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3M NaCl), respectively, and thus minimized the potential response from oxidizable interferences. In addition, both electrocatalytic electrodes showed good operational stability for more than 70 hours. The enhanced detection capability of the HRP-Os/AChE-ChO and PB/AChE-ChO electrodes in combination with efficient CE separation of Ch and ACh provides a new sensitive and selective strategy for monitoring and quantifying these cholinergic biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:20337384

  13. Steric environment around acetylcholine head groups of bolaamphiphilic nanovesicles influences the release rate of encapsulated compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Avital; Guidotti, Matteo; Shaubi, Eleonora; Popov, Mary; Linder, Charles; Heldman, Eliahu; Grinberg, Sarina

    2014-01-01

    Two bolaamphiphilic compounds with identical acetylcholine (ACh) head groups, but with different lengths of an alkyl chain pendant adjacent to the head group, as well as differences between their hydrophobic skeleton, were investigated for their ability to self-assemble into vesicles that release their encapsulated content upon hydrolysis of their head groups by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). One of these bolaamphiphiles, synthesized from vernolic acid, has an alkyl chain pendant of five methylene groups, while the other, synthesized from oleic acid, has an alkyl chain pendant of eight methylene groups. Both bolaamphiphiles formed stable spherical vesicles with a diameter of about 130 nm. The ACh head groups of both bolaamphiphiles were hydrolyzed by AChE, but the hydrolysis rate was significantly faster for the bolaamphiphile with the shorter aliphatic chain pendant. Likewise, upon exposure to AChE, vesicles made from the bolaamphiphile with the shorter alkyl chain pendant released their encapsulated content faster than vesicles made from the bolaamphiphile with the longer alkyl chain pendant. Our results suggest that the steric environment around the ACh head group of bolaamphiphiles is a major factor affecting the hydrolysis rate of the head groups by AChE. Attaching an alkyl chain to the bolaamphiphile near the ACh head group allows self-assembled vesicles to form with a controlled release rate of the encapsulated materials, whereas shorter alkyl chains enable a faster head group hydrolysis, and consequently faster release, than longer alkyl chains. This principle may be implemented in the design of bolaamphiphiles for the formation of vesicles for drug delivery with desired controlled release rates. PMID:24531296

  14. Actin at receptor-rich domains of isolated acetylcholine receptor clusters.

    PubMed

    Bloch, R J

    1986-04-01

    Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters of cultured rat myotubes, isolated by extraction with saponin (Bloch, R. J., 1984, J. Cell Biol. 99:984-993), contain a polypeptide that co-electrophoreses with purified muscle actins. A monoclonal antibody against actin reacts in immunoblots with this polypeptide and with purified actins. In indirect immunofluorescence, the antibody stains isolated AChR clusters only at AChR domains, strips of membrane within clusters that are rich in receptor. It also stains the postsynaptic region of the neuromuscular junction of adult rat skeletal muscle. Semiquantitative immunofluorescence analyses show that labeling by antiactin of isolated analyses show that labeling by antiactin of isolated AChR clusters is specific and saturable and that it varies linearly with the amount of AChR in the cluster. Filaments of purified gizzard myosin also bind preferentially at AChR-rich regions, and this binding is inhibited by MgATP. These experiments suggest that actin is associated with AChR-rich regions of receptor clusters. Depletion of actin by extraction of isolated clusters at low ionic strength selectively releases the actin-like polypeptide from the preparation. Simultaneously, AChRs redistribute within the plane of the membrane of the isolated clusters. Similarly, brief digestion with chymotrypsin reduces immunofluorescence staining and causes AChR redistribution. Treatments that deplete AChR from clusters in intact cells also reduce immunofluorescent staining for actin in isolated muscle membrane fragments. Upon reversal of these treatments, cluster reformation occurs in regions of the membrane that also stain for actin. I conclude that actin is associated with AChR domains and that changes in this association are accompanied by changes in the organization of isolated AChR clusters.

  15. Evidence for the exclusive expression of functional homomeric α7 nAChRs in hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons in rats.

    PubMed

    Tischkau, Shelley; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Uteshev, Victor V

    2014-03-20

    Hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary (TM) neurons in rats express high densities of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) whose Ca(2+) permeability, kinetic and pharmacological properties are similar to those of heterologous homomeric α7 nAChRs. However, native α7 nAChR subunits can co-assemble with β or α5 nAChR subunits to form functional heteromeric α7-containing α7β or α7α5 nAChRs with kinetics and pharmacology similar to those of α7 homomers. Therefore, although TM nAChRs have been used as an ex vivo model of functional α7 homomers, the molecular makeup of TM nAChRs has not been determined and the expression of functional α7-containing heteromers in TM neurons has not been excluded. To determine the profile of TM nAChR subunit transcripts, we have conducted single-cell qRT-PCR experiments using acutely dissociated TM neurons in rats. TM neurons were found to express transcripts of only principal α3, α6 and α7 nAChR subunits. Transcripts of other known mammalian neuronal subunits (α2, α4-5, α9-10, β2-4) were not detected. In the absence of β and α5 subunits, the expression of functional α7-containing heteromers in TM neurons is highly unlikely because principal α3, α6 and α7 nAChR subunits alone are not known to form functional heteromeric nAChRs. These results support the exclusive expression of native functional α7 homomers in rat TM neurons and introduce these neurons as a unique reliable source of native functional homomeric α7 nAChRs suitable for ex vivo and in vitro pharmacological assays in developing selective α7 nAChR agents.

  16. Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Soni, Neeraj; Wang, Hong; Klein, Anders B; Thiriet, Nathalie; Pinborg, Lars H; Muldoon, Pretal P; Wienecke, Jacob; Imad Damaj, M; Kohlmeier, Kristi A; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Thomsen, Morten S

    2016-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are modulated by regulatory proteins of the Lynx family. Here, we report for the first time a direct interaction of the Lynx protein LY6/PLAUR domain-containing 6 (Lypd6) with nAChRs in human brain extracts, identifying Lypd6 as a novel regulator of nAChR function. Using protein cross-linking and affinity purification from human temporal cortical extracts, we demonstrate that Lypd6 is a synaptically enriched membrane-bound protein that binds to multiple nAChR subtypes in the human brain. Additionally, soluble recombinant Lypd6 protein attenuates nicotine-induced hippocampal inward currents in rat brain slices and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells, suggesting that binding of Lypd6 is sufficient to inhibit nAChR-mediated intracellular signaling. We further show that perinatal nicotine exposure in rats (4 mg/kg/day through minipumps to dams from embryonic day 7 to post-natal day 21) significantly increases Lypd6 protein levels in the hippocampus in adulthood, which did not occur after exposure to nicotine in adulthood only. Our findings suggest that Lypd6 is a versatile inhibitor of cholinergic signaling in the brain, and that Lypd6 is dysregulated by nicotine exposure during early development. Regulatory proteins of the Lynx family modulate the function of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). We report for the first time that the Lynx protein Lypd6 binds to nAChRs in human brain extracts, and that recombinant Lypd6 decreases nicotine-induced ERK phosphorylation and attenuates nicotine-induced hippocampal inward currents. Our findings suggest that Lypd6 is a versatile inhibitor of cholinergic signaling in the brain. PMID:27344019

  17. Circulating antibodies against nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in chagasic patients

    PubMed Central

    GOIN, J C; VENERA, G; BONINO, M BISCOGLIO DE JIMÉNEZ; STERIN-BORDA, L

    1997-01-01

    Human and experimental Chagas' disease causes peripheral nervous system damage involving neuromuscular transmission alterations at the neuromuscular junction. Additionally, autoantibodies directed to peripheral nerves and sarcolemmal proteins of skeletal muscle have been described. In this work, we analyse the ability of serum immunoglobulin factors associated with human chagasic infection to bind the affinity-purified nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from electric organs of Discopyge tschudii and to identify the receptor subunits involved in the interaction. The frequency of serum anti-nAChR reactivity assayed by dot-blot was higher in seropositive chagasic patients than in uninfected subjects. Purified IgG obtained from chagasic patients immunoprecipitated a significantly higher fraction of the solubilized nAChR than normal IgG. Furthermore, immunoblotting assays indicated that α and β are the main subunits involved in the interaction. Chagasic IgG was able to inhibit the binding of α-bungarotoxin to the receptor in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming the contribution of the α-subunit in the autoantibody-receptor interaction. The presence of anti-nAChR antibodies was detected in 73% of chagasic patients with impairment of neuromuscular transmission in conventional electromyographical studies, indicating a strong association between seropositive reactivity against nAChR and electromyographical abnormalities in chagasic patients. The chronic binding of these autoantibodies to the nAChR could induce a decrease in the population of functional nAChRs at the neuromuscular junction and consequently contribute to the electrophysiological neuromuscular alterations described in the course of chronic Chagas' disease. PMID:9367405

  18. Activity of nAChRs Containing α9 Subunits Modulates Synapse Stabilization via Bidirectional Signaling Programs

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Vidya; Taranda, Julián; Elgoyhen, A. Belén; Vetter, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the synaptogenic program for cholinergic synapses of the neuromuscular junction is well known, little is known of the identity or dynamic expression patterns of proteins involved in non-neuromuscular nicotinic synapse development. We have previously demonstrated abnormal presynaptic terminal morphology following loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α9 subunit expression in adult cochleae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes have remained obscure. To better understand synapse formation and the role of cholinergic activity in the synaptogenesis of the inner ear, we exploit the nAChR α9 subunit null mouse. In this mouse, functional acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmission to the hair cells is completely silenced. Results demonstrate a premature, effusive innervation to the synaptic pole of the outer hair cells in α9 null mice coinciding with delayed expression of cell adhesion proteins during the period of effusive contact. Collapse of the ectopic innervation coincides with an age-related hyperexpression pattern in the null mice. In addition, we document changes in expression of presynaptic vesicle recycling/trafficking machinery in the α9 null mice that suggests a bidirectional information flow between the target of the neural innervation (the hair cells) and the presynaptic terminal that is modified by hair cell nAChR activity. Loss of nAChR activity may alter transcriptional activity, as CREB binding protein expression is decreased coincident with the increased expression of N-Cadherin in the adult α9 null mice. Finally, by using mice expressing the nondesensitizing α9 L9′T point mutant nAChR subunit, we show that increased nAChR activity drives synaptic hyperinnervation. PMID:19790106

  19. Luminescent silica nanoparticles for sensing acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Mukhametshina, Alsu R; Fedorenko, Svetlana V; Zueva, Irina V; Petrov, Konstantin A; Masson, Patrick; Nizameev, Irek R; Mustafina, Asiya R; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2016-03-15

    This work highlights the H-function of Tb(III)-doped silica nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of acetic acid as a route to sense acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). The H-function results from H(+)-induced quenching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence due to protonation of Tb(III) complexes located close to silica/water interface. The H-function can be turned on/switched off by the concentration of complexes within core or nanoparticle shell zones, by the silica surface decoration and adsorption of both organic and inorganic cations on silica surface. Results indicate the optimal synthetic procedure for making nanoparticles capable of sensing acetic acid produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The H-function of nanoparticles was determined at various concentrations of ACh and AChE. The measurements show experimental conditions for fitting the H-function to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results confirm that reliable fluorescent monitoring AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of ACh is possible through the H-function properties of Tb(III)-doped silica nanoparticles.

  20. Role of acetylcholine receptors in proliferation and differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Resende, R.R.; Alves, A.S.; Britto, L.R.G; Ulrich, H.

    2008-04-15

    Coordinated proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells is the base for production of appropriate numbers of neurons and glia during neuronal development in order to establish normal brain functions. We have used murine embryonal carcinoma P19 cells as an in vitro model for early differentiation to study participation of nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine (mAChR) receptors in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and their differentiation to neurons. We have previously shown that functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) already expressed in embryonic cells mediate elevations in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) via calcium influx through nAChR channels whereas intracellular stores contribute to nAChR- and mAChR-mediated calcium fluxes in differentiated cells [Resende et al., Cell Calcium 43 (2008) 107-121]. In the present study, we have demonstrated that nicotine provoked inhibition of proliferation in embryonic cells as determined by BrdU labeling. However, in neural progenitor cells nicotine stimulated proliferation which was reversed in the presence of inhibitors of calcium mobilization from intracellular stores, indicating that liberation of intracellular calcium contributed to this proliferation induction. Muscarine induced proliferation stimulation in progenitor cells by activation of G{alpha}{sub q/11}-coupled M{sub 1}, M{sub 3} and M{sub 5} receptors and intracellular calcium stores, whereas G{alpha}{sub i/o}-protein coupled M{sub 2} receptor activity mediated neuronal differentiation.

  1. Luminescent silica nanoparticles for sensing acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Mukhametshina, Alsu R; Fedorenko, Svetlana V; Zueva, Irina V; Petrov, Konstantin A; Masson, Patrick; Nizameev, Irek R; Mustafina, Asiya R; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2016-03-15

    This work highlights the H-function of Tb(III)-doped silica nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of acetic acid as a route to sense acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). The H-function results from H(+)-induced quenching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence due to protonation of Tb(III) complexes located close to silica/water interface. The H-function can be turned on/switched off by the concentration of complexes within core or nanoparticle shell zones, by the silica surface decoration and adsorption of both organic and inorganic cations on silica surface. Results indicate the optimal synthetic procedure for making nanoparticles capable of sensing acetic acid produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The H-function of nanoparticles was determined at various concentrations of ACh and AChE. The measurements show experimental conditions for fitting the H-function to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results confirm that reliable fluorescent monitoring AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of ACh is possible through the H-function properties of Tb(III)-doped silica nanoparticles. PMID:26516688

  2. Mode of action of triflumezopyrim: A novel mesoionic insecticide which inhibits the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Daniel; Benner, Eric A; Schroeder, Mark E; Holyoke, Caleb W; Zhang, Wenming; Pahutski, Thomas F; Leighty, Robert M; Vincent, Daniel R; Hamm, Jason C

    2016-07-01

    Triflumezopyrim, a newly commercialized molecule from DuPont Crop Protection, belongs to the novel class of mesoionic insecticides. This study characterizes the biochemical and physiological action of this novel insecticide. Using membranes from the aphid, Myzus persicae, triflumezopyrim was found to displace (3)H-imidacloprid with a Ki value of 43 nM with competitive binding results indicating that triflumezopyrim binds to the orthosteric site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In voltage clamp studies using dissociated Periplaneta americana neurons, triflumezopyrim inhibits nAChR currents with an IC50 of 0.6 nM. Activation of nAChR currents was minimal and required concentrations ≥100 μM. Xenopus oocytes expressing chimeric nAChRs (Drosophila α2/chick β2) showed similar inhibitory effects from triflumezopyrim. In P. americana neurons, co-application experiments with acetylcholine reveal the inhibitory action of triflumezopyrim to be rapid and prolonged in nature. Such physiological action is distinct from other insecticides in IRAC Group 4 in which the toxicological mode of action is attributed to nAChR agonism. Mesoionic insecticides act via inhibition of the orthosteric binding site of the nAChR despite previous beliefs that such action would translate to poor insect control. Triflumezopyrim is the first commercialized insecticide from this class and provides outstanding control of hoppers, including the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, which is already displaying strong resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid.

  3. END-PLATE ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR: STRUCTURE, MECHANISM, PHARMACOLOGY, AND DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Sine, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The synapse is a localized neurohumoral contact between a neuron and an effector cell and may be considered the quantum of fast intercellular communication. Analogously, the postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor may be considered the quantum of fast chemical to electrical transduction. Our understanding of postsynaptic receptors began to develop about a hundred years ago with the demonstration that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve released acetylcholine and slowed the heart beat. During the past 50 years, advances in understanding postsynaptic receptors increased at a rapid pace, owing largely to studies of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the motor endplate. The endplate AChR belongs to a large superfamily of neurotransmitter receptors, called Cys-loop receptors, and has served as an exemplar receptor for probing fundamental structures and mechanisms that underlie fast synaptic transmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recent studies provide an increasingly detailed picture of the structure of the AChR and the symphony of molecular motions that underpin its remarkably fast and efficient chemoelectrical transduction. PMID:22811427

  4. Natural genetic variability of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in mice: Consequences and confounds.

    PubMed

    Wilking, Jennifer A; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2015-09-01

    Recent human genetic studies have identified genetic variants in multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes that are associated with risk for nicotine dependence and other smoking-related measures. Genetic variability also exists in the nAChR subunit genes in mice. Most studies on mouse nAChR subunit gene variability to date have focused on Chrna4, the gene that encodes the α4 nAChR subunit and Chrna7, the gene that encodes the α7 nAChR subunit. However, genetic variability exists for all nAChR genes in mice. In this review, we will describe what is known about nAChR subunit gene polymorphisms in mice and how it relates to variability in nAChR expression and function in brain. The relationship between nAChR genetic variability in mice and the effects of nicotine on several behavioral and physiological measures also will be discussed. In addition, an overview of the contribution of other genetic variation to nicotine sensitivity in mice will be provided. Finally, the potential for natural genetic variability to confound and/or modify the results of studies that utilize genetically engineered mice will be considered. As an example of the ability of a natural genetic variant to modify the effect of an engineered mutation, data will be presented that demonstrate that the effect of Chrna5 deletion on oral nicotine intake is dependent upon naturally occurring variant alleles of Chrna4. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25498233

  5. Molecular properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    HAGA, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which comprise five subtypes (M1-M5 receptors), are expressed in both the CNS and PNS (particularly the target organs of parasympathetic neurons). M1-M5 receptors are integral membrane proteins with seven transmembrane segments, bind with acetylcholine (ACh) in the extracellular phase, and thereafter interact with and activate GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in the intracellular phase: M1, M3, and M5 receptors interact with Gq-type G proteins, and M2 and M4 receptors with Gi/Go-type G proteins. Activated G proteins initiate a number of intracellular signal transduction systems. Agonist-bound muscarinic receptors are phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases, which initiate their desensitization through uncoupling from G proteins, receptor internalization, and receptor breakdown (down regulation). Recently the crystal structures of M2 and M3 receptors were determined and are expected to contribute to the development of drugs targeted to muscarinic receptors. This paper summarizes the molecular properties of muscarinic receptors with reference to the historical background and bias to studies performed in our laboratories. PMID:23759942

  6. Discovery of potent carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholine esterase inhibitors: novel sulfamoylcarbamates and sulfamides derived from acetophenones.

    PubMed

    Akıncıoğlu, Akın; Akıncıoğlu, Hülya; Gülçin, İlhami; Durdagi, Serdar; Supuran, Claudiu T; Göksu, Süleyman

    2015-07-01

    In this study, several novel sulfamides were synthesized and evaluated for their acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and human carbonic anhydrase I, and II isoenzymes (hCA I and II) inhibition profiles. Reductive amination of methoxyacetophenones was used for the synthesis of amines. Amines were converted to sulfamoylcarbamates with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) in the presence of BnOH. Pd-C catalyzed hydrogenolysis of sulfamoylcarbamates afforded sulfamides. These novel compounds were good inhibitors of the cytosolic hCA I, and hCA II with Ki values in the range of 45.9±8.9-687.5±84.3 pM for hCA I, and 48.80±8.2-672.2±71.9pM for hCA II. The inhibitory effects of the synthesized novel compounds on AChE were also investigated. The Ki values of these compounds were in the range of 4.52±0.61-38.28±6.84pM for AChE. These results show that hCA I, II, and AChE were effectively inhibited by the novel sulfamoylcarbamates 17-21 and sulfamide derivatives 22-26. All investigated compounds were docked within the active sites of the corresponding enzymes revealing the reasons of the effective inhibitory activity. PMID:25921269

  7. Heteromeric α7β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Qiang; Tang, Pei; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Shen, Jianxin; Whiteaker, Paul; Yakel, Jerrel L.

    2016-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is highly expressed in the brain, where it maintains various neuronal functions including (but not limited to) learning and memory. In addition, the protein expression levels of α7 nAChRs are altered in various brain disorders. The classic rule governing α7 nAChR assembly in the mammalian brain was that it was assembled from five α7 subunits to form a homomeric receptor pentamer. However, emerging evidence demonstrates the presence of heteromeric α7 nAChRs in heterologously expressed systems and naturally in brain neurons, where α7 subunits are co-assembled with β2 subunits to form a novel type of α7β2 nAChR. Interestingly, the α7β2 nAChR exhibits distinctive function and pharmacology from traditional homomeric α7 nAChRs. We review recent advances in probing the distribution, function, pharmacology, pathophysiology, and stoichiometry of the heteromeric α7β2 nAChR, which have provided new insights into the understanding of a novel target of cholinergic signaling. PMID:27179601

  8. Identification, characterization, and regulation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Synaptic input to bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and results in secretion of catecholamines. Three probes previously shown to recognize AChRs on neurons were used to identify the AChR on bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture: monoclonal antibody mAb 35, a toxin that blocks receptor function, and the agonist nicotine. Competition for {sup 3}H-nicotine binding was used to measure the affinity of cholinergic ligands, and revealed the pharmacological profile expected for a neuronal-type AChR. At steady state the rate both of receptor insertion into and loss from the plasma membrane is about 3%/hour, resulting in a half-life in the surface of about 24 hours. Exposure to the anti-AChR antibody results in a loss of AChRs from the surface of the cells through a process that has the characteristics of antigenic modulation. The number of AChRs on the surface of the chromaffin cells can also be modulated by agonists and hormones, including glucocotricoids. Catecholamines, three peptides that may be secreted by chromaffin cells, and K{sup +}-induced secretion reduce agonist-induced catecholamine release by decreasing the number of AChRs, providing a mechanism for autoregulation.

  9. Melanin concentrating hormone induces hippocampal acetylcholine release via the medial septum in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi-Hong; Fukuda, Satoru; Minakawa, Yoichi; Yasuda, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Sawamura, Shigehito; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ishii, Noriko

    2013-06-01

    Among various actions of melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), its memory function has been focused in animal studies. Although MCH neurons project to various areas in the brain, one main target site of MCH is hippocampal formation for memory consolidation. Recent immunohistochemical study shows that MCH neurons directly project to the hippocampal formation and may indirectly affect the hippocampus through the medial septum nucleus (MS). It has been reported that sleep is necessary for memory and that hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release is indispensable for memory consolidation. However, there is no report how MCH actually influences the hippocampal ACh effluxes in accordance with the sleep-wake cycle changes. Thus, we investigated the modulatory function of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH on the sleep-wake cycle and ACh release using microdialysis techniques. Icv injection of MCH significantly increased the rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM episode time and the hippocampal, not cortical, ACh effluxes. There was a significant correlation between REM episode time and hippocampal ACh effluxes, but not between REM episode time and cortical ACh effluxes. Microinjection of MCH into the MS increased the hippocampal ACh effluxes with no influence on the REM episode time. It appears that the effect sites of icv MCH for prolongation of REM episode time may be other neuronal areas than the cholinergic neurons in the MS. We conclude that MCH actually increases the hippocampal ACh release at least in part through the MS in rats.

  10. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-lipid interactions: Mechanistic insight and biological function.

    PubMed

    Baenziger, John E; Hénault, Camille M; Therien, J P Daniel; Sun, Jiayin

    2015-09-01

    Membrane lipids are potent modulators of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo. Lipids influence nAChR function by both conformational selection and kinetic mechanisms, stabilizing varying proportions of activatable versus non-activatable conformations, as well as influencing the transitions between these conformational states. Of note, some membranes stabilize an electrically silent uncoupled conformation that binds agonist but does not undergo agonist-induced conformational transitions. The uncoupled nAChR, however, does transition to activatable conformations in relatively thick lipid bilayers, such as those found in lipid rafts. In this review, we discuss current understanding of lipid-nAChR interactions in the context of increasingly available high resolution structural and functional data. These data highlight different sites of lipid action, including the lipid-exposed M4 transmembrane α-helix. Current evidence suggests that lipids alter nAChR function by modulating interactions between M4 and the adjacent transmembrane α-helices, M1 and M3. These interactions have also been implicated in both the folding and trafficking of nAChRs to the cell surface. We review current mechanistic understanding of lipid-nAChR interactions, and highlight potential biological roles for lipid-nAChR interactions in modulating the synaptic response. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. PMID:25791350

  11. Diacylglycerol levels modulate the cellular distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kamerbeek, Constanza B; Mateos, Melina V; Vallés, Ana S; Pediconi, María F; Barrantes, Francisco J; Borroni, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG), a second messenger involved in different cell signaling cascades, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and D (PKD), among other kinases. The present work analyzes the effects resulting from the alteration of DAG levels on neuronal and muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) distribution. We employ CHO-K1/A5 cells, expressing adult muscle-type AChR in a stable manner, and hippocampal neurons, which endogenously express various subtypes of neuronal AChR. CHO-K1/A5 cells treated with dioctanoylglycerol (DOG) for different periods showed augmented AChR cell surface levels at short incubation times (30min-4h) whereas at longer times (18h) the AChR was shifted to intracellular compartments. Similarly, in cultured hippocampal neurons surface AChR levels increased as a result of DOG incubation for 4h. Inhibition of endogenous DAG catabolism produced changes in AChR distribution similar to those induced by DOG treatment. Specific enzyme inhibitors and Western blot assays revealed that DAGs exert their effect on AChR distribution through the modulation of the activity of classical PKC (cPKC), novel PKC (nPKC) and PKD activity.

  12. Neural regulation of MRNA for the alpha-subunit of acetylcholine receptors: Role of neuromuscular transmission. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsky, N.G.; Drachman, D.B.; Pestronk, A.; Shih, P.J.

    1989-12-31

    Levels of mRNA for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits are relatively low in innervated skeletal muscles. Following denervation they rise rapidly, leading to increased AChR synthesis. The mechanism by which motor nerves normally regulate these mRNA levels is not yet known. In order to determine the possible role of synaptic transmission in this process, the authors have compared the effect of blockade of cholinergic ACh transmission with that of surgical denervation. Blockade of quantal ACh transmission was produced by injection of type A botulinum toxin into the soleus muscles of rats.

  13. Effect of tissue-specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor C-547 on α3β4 and αβεδ acetylcholine receptors in COS cells.

    PubMed

    Lindovský, Jiří; Petrov, Konstantin; Krůšek, Jan; Reznik, Vladimir S; Nikolsky, Eugeny E; Vyskočil, František

    2012-08-01

    The C-547 is the most effective muscle and tissue-specific anticholinesterase among alkylammonium derivatives of 6-methyluracil (ADEMS) acting in nanomolar concentrations on locomotor muscles but not on respiratory muscles, smooth muscles and heart and brain acetylcholine esterases (AChE). When applied systematically it could influence peripheral acetylcholine receptors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C-547 on rat α3β4 (ganglionic type) and αβεδ (muscle type) nicotinic receptors expressed in COS cells. Currents evoked by rapid application of acetylcholine or nicotine were recorded in whole-cell mode by electrophysiological patch-clamp technique 2-4 days after cell transfection by plasmids coding the α3β4 or αβεδ combination of receptor subunits. In cells sensitive to acetylcholine, the application of C-547 evoked no responses. When acetylcholine was applied during an already running application of C-547, acetylcholine responses were only inhibited at concentrations higher than 10(-7)M. This inhibition is not voltage-dependent, but is accompanied by an increased rate of desensitization. Thus in both types of receptors, effective doses are approximately 100 times higher than those inhibiting AChE in leg muscles and similar to those inhibiting respiratory diaphragm muscles and external intercostal muscles. These observations show that C-547 can be considered for symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis and other congenital myasthenic syndromes as an inhibitor of AChE in leg muscles at concentrations much lower than those inhibiting muscle and ganglion types of acetylcholine receptors.

  14. Molecular modeling of human pentameric alpha(7) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and its interaction with its agonist and competitive antagonist.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Marimuthu; Rajasekaran, Mohan Babu; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Shanmughavel, Piramanayagam

    2009-04-01

    The nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) is the major class of neurotransmitter receptors that is involved in many neurodegenerative conditions such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The N-terminal region or Ligand Binding Domain (LBD) of nAChR is located at pre- and post-synaptic nervous system, which mediates synaptic transmission. nAChR acts as the drug target for agonist and competitive antagonist molecules that modulate signal transmission at the nerve terminals. Based on Acetylcholine Binding Protein (AChBP) from Lymnea stagnalis as the structural template, the homology modeling approach was carried out to build three dimensional model of the N-terminal region of human alpha(7)nAChR. This theoretical model is an assembly of five alpha(7) subunits with 5 fold axis symmetry, constituting a channel, with the binding pocket present at the interface region of the subunits. alpha-neurotoxin is a potent nAChR competitive antagonist that readily blocks the channel resulting in paralysis. The molecular interaction of alpha-Bungarotoxin, a long chain alpha-neurotoxin from (Bungarus multicinctus) and human alpha(7)nAChR was studied. Agonists such as acetylcholine, nicotine, which are used in a diverse array of biological activities, such as enhancements of cognitive performances, were also docked with the theoretical model of human alpha(7)nAChR. These docked complexes were analyzed further for identifying the crucial residues involved in interaction. These results provide the details of interaction of agonists and competitive antagonists with three dimensional model of the N-terminal region of human alpha(7)nAChR and thereby point to the design of novel lead compounds.

  15. Rare human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit (CHRNA4) variants affect expression and function of high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    McClure-Begley, T D; Papke, R L; Stone, K L; Stokes, C; Levy, A D; Gelernter, J; Xie, P; Lindstrom, J; Picciotto, M R

    2014-03-01

    Nicotine, the primary psychoactive component in tobacco smoke, produces its behavioral effects through interactions with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). α4β2 nAChRs are the most abundant in mammalian brain, and converging evidence shows that this subtype mediates the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine. A number of rare variants in the CHRNA4 gene that encode the α4 nAChR subunit have been identified in human subjects and appear to be underrepresented in a cohort of smokers. We compared three of these variants (α4R336C, α4P451L, and α4R487Q) to the common variant to determine their effects on α4β2 nAChR pharmacology. We examined [(3)H]epibatidine binding, interacting proteins, and phosphorylation of the α4 nAChR subunit with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in HEK 293 cells and voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We observed significant effects of the α4 variants on nAChR expression, subcellular distribution, and sensitivity to nicotine-induced receptor upregulation. Proteomic analysis of immunopurified α4β2 nAChRs incorporating the rare variants identified considerable differences in the intracellular interactomes due to these single amino acid substitutions. Electrophysiological characterization in X. laevis oocytes revealed alterations in the functional parameters of activation by nAChR agonists conferred by these α4 rare variants, as well as shifts in receptor function after incubation with nicotine. Taken together, these experiments suggest that genetic variation at CHRNA4 alters the assembly and expression of human α4β2 nAChRs, resulting in receptors that are more sensitive to nicotine exposure than those assembled with the common α4 variant. The changes in nAChR pharmacology could contribute to differences in responses to smoked nicotine in individuals harboring these rare variants.

  16. Effects of memantine and donepezil on cortical and hippocampal acetylcholine levels and object recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, Jouni; Sarajärvi, Timo; Rasmusson, Doug; Kemppainen, Susanna; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Lehtonen, Marko; Banerjee, Pradeep K; Semba, Kazue; Tanila, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    This preclinical study investigated the ability of memantine (MEM) to stimulate brain acetylcholine (ACh) release, potentially acting synergistically with donepezil (DON, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor). Acute systemic administration of either MEM or DON to anesthetized rats caused dose-dependent increases of ACh levels in neocortex and hippocampus, and the combination of MEM (5 mg/kg) and DON (0.5 mg/kg) produced significantly greater increases than either drug alone. To determine whether ACh release correlated with cognitive improvement, rats with partial fimbria-fornix (FF) lesions were treated with acute or chronic MEM or DON. Acute MEM treatment significantly elevated baseline hippocampal ACh release but did not significantly improve task performance on a delayed non-match-to-sample (DNMS) task, whereas chronic MEM treatment significantly improved DNMS performance but only marginally elevated baseline ACh levels. Acute or chronic treatment with DON (in the presence of neostigmine to allow ACh collection) did not significantly improve DNMS performance or alter ACh release. In order to investigate the effect of adding MEM to ongoing DON therapy, lesioned rats pretreated with DON for 3 weeks were given a single intraperitoneal dose of MEM. MEM significantly elevated baseline hippocampal ACh levels, but did not significantly improve DNMS task scores compared to chronic DON-treated animals. These data indicate that MEM, in addition to acting as an NMDA receptor antagonist, can also augment ACh release; however, in this preclinical model, increased ACh levels did not directly correlate with improved cognitive performance.

  17. Cholinergic activation of the murine trachealis muscle via non-vesicular acetylcholine release involving low-affinity choline transporters.

    PubMed

    Nassenstein, Christina; Wiegand, Silke; Lips, Katrin S; Li, Guanfeng; Klein, Jochen; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    In addition to quantal, vesicular release of acetylcholine (ACh), there is also non-quantal release at the motor endplate which is insufficient to evoke postsynaptic responses unless acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is inhibited. We here addressed potential non-quantal release in the mouse trachea by organ bath experiments and (immuno)histochemical methods. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) of nerve terminals elicited tracheal constriction that is largely due to ACh release. Classical enzyme histochemistry demonstrated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in nerve fibers in the muscle and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in the smooth muscle cells. Acute inhibition of both esterases by eserine significantly raised tracheal tone which was fully sensitive to atropine. This effect was reduced, but not abolished, in AChE, but not in BChE gene-deficient mice. The eserine-induced increase in tracheal tone was unaffected by vesamicol (10(-5)M), an inhibitor of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and by corticosterone (10(-4)M), an inhibitor of organic cation transporters. Hemicholinium-3, in low concentrations an inhibitor of the high-affinity choline transporter-1 (CHT1), completely abrogated the eserine effects when applied in high concentrations (10(-4)M) pointing towards an involvement of low-affinity choline transporters. To evaluate the cellular sources of non-quantal ACh release in the trachea, expression of low-affinity choline transporter-like family (CTL1-5) was evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Even though these transporters were largely abundant in the epithelium, denudation of airway epithelial cells had no effect on eserine-induced tracheal contraction, indicating a non-quantal release of ACh from non-epithelial sources in the airways. These data provide evidence for an epithelium-independent non-vesicular, non-quantal ACh release in the mouse trachea involving low-affinity choline transporters. PMID:26278668

  18. Nanoparticles Ease Aching Joints in Mice

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161188.html Nanoparticles Ease Aching Joints in Mice Treatment might one ... News) -- New research in mice suggests that tiny nanoparticles might one day be a better way to ...

  19. The effects of acetylcholine on the membrane and contractile properties of smooth muscle cells of the rabbit superior mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, H; Suzuki, H

    1978-12-01

    1 Effects of acetylcholine (ACh) on the membrane potential and mechanical properties of rabbit superior mesenteric artery were investigated by the use of microelectrode and isometric tension recording methods. The membrane potential was -62.5 +/- 3.0 mV (s.d.). The maximum slope of the membrane depolarization produced by tenfold increase in [K](0) plotted on a log scale was 48 mV. Excess [K](0) and low [K](0) depolarized the membrane and produced contraction (contracture). The minimum depolarization to produce contraction was 10 mV.2 Low concentrations (10 and 100 ng/ml) of ACh hyperpolarized the membrane. Increased concentrations of ACh (1 and 10 mug/ml) hyperpolarized the membrane further in adult rabbit, while increased concentrations of ACh produced a smaller hyperpolarization in young rabbit. These potential changes produced by ACh in immature and adult rabbits were suppressed by treatment with atropine (0.1 mug/ml).3 ACh (10 ng to 1 mug/ml) consistently generated contraction in Krebs solution. However, ACh relaxed the contraction induced by either K(+) or noradrenaline in the adult rabbit, and it enhanced contraction produced by this treatment in the immature rabbit. In Ca-free EGTA solution, the action of ACh on the mechanical response was markedly suppressed, although high concentrations of ACh still evoked contraction. However, treatment with atropine (1 mug/ml) completely prevented these actions of ACh.4 ACh-induced relaxation during either K(+)-induced or noradrenaline-induced contraction was not caused by the hyperpolarization of the membrane.5 It is concluded that ACh possesses dual actions on smooth muscle cells of the rabbit superior mesenteric artery in Krebs solution, i.e. ACh hyperpolarizes the membrane, while it consistently generates contraction. These ACh actions on the muscle cells were modified by aging.

  20. Theoretical investigation of interaction between the set of ligands and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Prytkova, T. R.; Shmygin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are neuron receptor proteins that provide a transmission of nerve impulse through the synapses. They are composed of a pentametric assembly of five homologous subunits (5 α7 subunits for α7nAChR, for example), oriented around the central pore. These receptors might be found in the chemical synapses of central and peripheral nervous system, and also in the neuromuscular synapses. Transmembrane domain of the one of such receptors constitutes ion channel. The conductive properties of ion channel strongly depend on the receptor conformation changes in the response of binding with some molecule, f.e. acetylcholine. Investigation of interaction between ligands and acetylcholine receptor is important for drug design. In this work we investigate theoretically the interaction between the set of different ligands (such as vanillin, thymoquinone, etc.) and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (primarily with subunit of the α7nAChR) by different methods and packages (AutodockVina, GROMACS, KVAZAR, HARLEM, VMD). We calculate interaction energy between different ligands in the subunit using molecular dynamics. On the base of obtained calculation results and using molecular docking we found an optimal location of different ligands in the subunit.

  1. α7nAChR is expressed in satellite cells at different myogenic status during skeletal muscle wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhi-Ling; Jiang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiao-Yong; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Lin-Lin; Liu, Min; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Meng-Zhou; Guan, Da-Wei

    2015-12-01

    Recent study has reported that α7 nicotine acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is expressed in regenerated multinucleated myotubes. But the distribution of α7nAChR in satellite cells in different myogenic status is unknown. A preliminary study on the dynamic distribution of α7nAChR in satellite cells was performed by double indirect immunofluorescent procedures during skeletal muscle wound healing in rats. An animal model of skeletal muscle contusion was established in 40 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Samples were taken at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 17 and 21 days after injury, respectively (five rats in each posttraumatic interval). Five rats were employed as control. In normal muscle specimens, weak immunoreactivity for α7nAChR was detected in a few satellite cells (considered as quiescent). α7nAChR-positive signals were observed in proliferated and differentiated satellite cells and regenerated multinucleated myotubes in the wounded areas. By morphometric analysis, the average number of α7nAChR+/Pax7+ and α7nAChR+/MyoD+ cells climaxed at 5 days post-injury. The average number of α7nAChR+/myogenin+ cells was significantly increased from 3 to 9 days post-injury as compared with other posttraumatic intervals. The protein level of α7nAChR maximized at 9 days post-injury, which implies that α7nAChR was associated with the satellite cells status. Our observations on expression of α7nAChR in satellite cells from quiescence to myotube formation suggest that α7nAChR may be involved in muscle regeneration by regulating satellite cell status.

  2. Role of α5 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Pharmacological and Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marks, M. J.; Vann, R. E.; Chen, X.; Gamage, T. F.; Warner, J. A.; Damaj, M. I.

    2010-01-01

    Incorporation of the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit can greatly influence nAChR function without altering receptor number. Although few animal studies have assessed the role of the α5 nAChR in nicotine-mediated behaviors, recent evidence suggests an association between polymorphisms in the α5 nAChR gene and nicotine dependence phenotypes in humans. Thus, additional studies are imperative to elucidate the role and function of the α5 nAChR subunit in nicotine dependence. Using α5(−/−) mice, the current study aimed to examine the role of α5 nAChRs in the initial pharmacological effects of nicotine, nicotine reward using the conditioned place preference model, and the discriminative effects of nicotine using a two-lever drug discrimination model. 86Rb+ efflux and 125I-epibatidine binding assays were conducted to examine the effect of α5 nAChR subunit deletion on expression and activity of functional nAChRs. Results show that α5(−/−) mice are less sensitive to the initial effects of nicotine in antinociception, locomotor activity, and hypothermia measures and that the α5 nAChR is involved in nicotine reward. Alternatively, α5(−/−) mice did not differ from wild-type littermates in sensitivity to the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. Furthermore, deletion of the α5 nAChR subunit resulted in a statistically significant decrease in function in the thalamus and hindbrain, but the decreases noted in spinal cord were not statistically significant. Receptor number was unaltered in all areas tested. Taken together, results of the study suggest that α5 nAChRs are involved in nicotine-mediated behaviors relevant to development of nicotine dependence. PMID:20400469

  3. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 regulates cAMP signal within lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Oshikawa, Jin; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Takayuki; Egawa, Masato; Kawabe, Junichi; Umemura, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2003-09-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are made of multiple subunits with diversified functions. The nAChR alpha 7-subunit has a property of high Ca2+ permeability and may have specific functions and localization within the plasma membrane as a signal transduction molecule. In PC-12 cells, fractionation by sucrose gradient centrifugation revealed that nAChR alpha 7 existed in low-density, cholesterol-enriched plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts where flotillin also exists. In contrast, nAChR alpha 5- and beta2-subunits were located in high-density fractions, out of the lipid rafts. Type 6 adenylyl cyclase (AC6), a calcium-inhibitable isoform, was also found in lipid rafts and was coimmunoprecipitated with nAChR alpha 7. Cholesterol depletion from plasma membranes with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin redistributed nAChR alpha 7 and AC6 diffusely within plasma membranes. Nicotine stimulation reduced forskolin-stimulated AC activity by 35%, and this inhibition was negated by either treatment with alpha-bungarotoxin, a specific antagonist of nAChR alpha 7, or cholesterol depletion from plasma membranes. The effect of cholesterol depletion was negated by the addition of cholesterol. These data suggest that nAChR alpha 7 has a specific membrane localization relative to other nAChR subunits and that lipid rafts are necessary to localize nAChR alpha 7 with AC within plasma membranes. In addition, nAChR alpha 7 may regulate the AC activity via Ca2+ within lipid rafts.

  4. Deletion of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors increases amyloid pathology in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Albert A.; Fritz, Jason J.; Wess, Jürgen; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that causes dementia and poses a major public health crisis as the population ages. Aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is strongly implicated as a proximal event in AD pathophysiology, but the neurochemical signals that regulate APP processing in the brain are not completely understood. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) has been shown to affect APP processing and AD pathology, but less is known about the roles of specific mAChR subtypes. In this study, we used M1 mAChR knockout mice (M1KO) to isolate the effects of the M1 mAChR on APP processing in primary neurons and on the development of amyloid pathology in a transgenic mouse model of AD. We demonstrate that the loss of M1 mAChRs increases amyloidogenic APP processing in neurons, as evidenced by decreased agonist-regulated shedding of the neuroprotective APP ectodomain APPsα and increased production of toxic Aβ peptides. Expression of M1 mAChRs on the M1KO background rescued this phenotype, indicating that M1 mAChRs are sufficient to modulate non-amyloidogenic APP processing. In APPSwe/Ind transgenic mice, the loss of M1 mAChRs resulted in increased levels of brain Aβ1-40 and greater accumulation of amyloid plaque pathology. Analysis of APP metabolites in APPSwe/Ind brain tissue indicates that the loss of M1 mAChRs increases amyloidogenic APP processing. These results indicate that the M1 mAChR is an important regulator of amyloidogenesis in the brain and provide strong support for targeting the M1 mAChR as a therapeutic candidate in AD. PMID:20335454

  5. alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on dopaminergic neurons mediate nicotine reward and anxiety relief

    PubMed Central

    McGranahan, Tresa M.; Patzlaff, Natalie E.; Grady, Sharon R.; Heinemann, Stephen F.; Booker, T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine is the primary psychoactive substance in tobacco and it exerts its effects by interaction with various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. One of the major subtypes expressed in brain, the alpha4beta2-nAChR, endogenously modulates neuronal excitability and thereby, modifies certain normal, as well as nicotine-induced, behaviors. Although alpha4-containing nAChRs are widely expressed across the brain, a major focus has been on their roles within midbrain dopaminergic regions involved in drug addition, mental illness and movement control in humans. We developed a unique model system to examine the role of alpha4-nAChRs within dopaminergic neurons by a targeted genetic deletion of the alpha4 subunit from dopaminergic neurons in mice. The loss alpha4 mRNA and alpha4beta2-nAChRs from dopaminergic neurons was confirmed, as well as selective loss of alpha4beta2-nAChR function from dopaminergic but not GABAergic neurons. Two behaviors central to nicotine dependence, reward and anxiety relief, were examined. Alpha4-nAChRs specifically on dopaminergic neurons were demonstrated to be necessary for nicotine reward as measured by nicotine place preference, but not for another drug of addiction, cocaine. Alpha4-nAChRs are necessary for the anxiolytic effects of nicotine in the elevated plus maze and elimination of alpha4-beta2-nAChRs specifically from dopaminergic neurons decreased sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of nicotine. Deletion of alpha4-nAChRs specifically from dopaminergic neurons also increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced locomotor depression, however nicotine-induced hypothermia was unaffected. This is the first work to develop a dopaminergic specific deletion of a nAChR subunit and examine resulting changes in nicotine behaviors. PMID:21795541

  6. Expression of a Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholine receptor-related gene in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, S.C.; Rosenthal, L.S.; Kammermeyer, K.L.; Potter, M.B.; Nelson, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    The authors isolated Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequences with nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology to subunits of vertebrate acetylcholine receptor by hybridization with a Torpedo acetylcholine receptor subunit cDNA probe. Five introns are present in the portion of the Drosophila gene encoding the unprocessed protein and are positionally conserved relative to the human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit gene. The Drosophila genomic clone hybridized to salivary gland polytene chromosome 3L within region 64B and was termed AChR64B. A 3-kilobasae poly(A)-containing transcript complementary to the AChR64B clone was readily detectable by RNA blot hybridizations during midembryogenesis, during metamorphosis, and in newly enclosed adults. AChR64B transcripts were localized to the cellular regions of the central nervous system during embryonic, larval, pupal, and adult stages of development. During metamorphosis, a temporal relationship between the morphogenesis of the optic lobe and expression of AChR64B transcripts was observed.

  7. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate donepezil-induced oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Osamu; Arai, Masaaki; Dateki, Minori; Ogata, Toru; Uchida, Ryuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Takishima, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Failure of myelin development and oligodendrocyte loss results in serious human disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that donepezil, an acetlycholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells without affecting proliferation or cell viability. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase, and MOG, in addition to transcription factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil. Furthermore, luciferase assays confirmed that both MAG and MBP promoters display increased activity upon donepezil-induced oligodendrocytes differentiation, suggesting that donepezil increases myelin gene expression mainly through enhanced transcription. We also found that the increase in the number of oligodendrocytes observed following donepezil treatment was significantly inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine, but not by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine. Moreover, donepezil-induced myelin-related gene expression was suppressed by mecamylamine at both the mRNA and protein level. These results suggest that donepezil stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin-related gene expression via nAChRs in neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. We show that donepezil, a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase and MOG in addition to transcripton factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil

  8. Spintronic characteristics of self-assembled neurotransmitter acetylcholine molecular complexes enable quantum information processing in neural networks and brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulis, Arvydas; Majauskaite, Kristina; Kairys, Visvaldas; Zborowski, Krzysztof; Adhikari, Kapil; Krisciukaitis, Sarunas

    2016-09-01

    Implementation of liquid state quantum information processing based on spatially localized electronic spin in the neurotransmitter stable acetylcholine (ACh) neutral molecular radical is discussed. Using DFT quantum calculations we proved that this molecule possesses stable localized electron spin, which may represent a qubit in quantum information processing. The necessary operating conditions for ACh molecule are formulated in self-assembled dimer and more complex systems. The main quantum mechanical research result of this paper is that the neurotransmitter ACh systems, which were proposed, include the use of quantum molecular spintronics arrays to control the neurotransmission in neural networks.

  9. Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: implications for myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, I; Blakely, B T; Pavlath, G K; Travis, M; Blau, H M

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. We show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. Our results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also to a direct effect on muscle. We propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications. Images PMID:2236023

  10. Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: Implications for myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Blakely, B.T.; Pavlath, G.K.; Travis, M.; Blau, H.M. )

    1990-10-01

    Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. The authors show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. The results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also a direct effect on muscle. They propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications.

  11. Analysis of AchE and LDH in mollusc, Lamellidens marginalis after exposure to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Amanullah, B; Stalin, A; Prabu, P; Dhanapal, S

    2010-07-01

    The enzymes Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and Lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) are used as biological markers in the present study. Enzymes are highly sensitive and used to evaluate the biological effects of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos in freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis. The test organisms were exposed to sub-lethal concentration (5 ppm) of chlorpyrifos for 30 days and allowed to recover for seven days. A distinct reduction of the enzyme AchE (34 +/- 3.3 U l(-1)) was found in the treated hepatopancreas. A significant increase in LDH activity in gill, hepatopancreas and muscle was observed. There was a significant recovery in AchE and LDH in the different tissues, after seven days recovery period.. Hence, the changes in the enzymes are found as the best biomarkering tool to evaluate the effect of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos on the aquatic biota.

  12. Functionality and stability data of detergent purified nAChR from Torpedo using lipidic matrixes and macroscopic electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Morales, Luis F; Colón-Sáez, José O; González-Nieves, Joel E; Quesada-González, Orestes; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2016-03-01

    The presented data provides additional information about the assessment of affinity purified nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) rich membrane solubilized with long chain (16 saturated carbons) lysophospholipid with glycerol headgroup (LFG-16). The assessment of stability and functionality of solubilized membrane protein is a critical step prior to further crystallization trails. One of the key factors for this task is the appropriate choice of a detergent that can support nAChR activity and stability comparable to the crude membranes. The stability of the nAChR-LFG-16 complex incorporated into lipid cubic phase (LCP) was monitored for a period of 30 days by means of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and the functionality was evaluated after its incorporation into Xenopus oocyte by means of the two electrode voltage clamp technique. PMID:26870753

  13. Polyethylene glycol-based homologated ligands for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors☆

    PubMed Central

    Scates, Bradley A.; Lashbrook, Bethany L.; Chastain, Benjamin C.; Tominaga, Kaoru; Elliott, Brandon T.; Theising, Nicholas J.; Baker, Thomas A.; Fitch, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    A homologous series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) monomethyl ethers were conjugated with three ligand series for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Conjugates of acetylaminocholine, the cyclic analog 1-acetyl-4,4-dimethylpiperazinium, and pyridyl ether A-84543 were prepared. Each series was found to retain significant affinity at nicotinic receptors in rat cerebral cortex with tethers of up to six PEG units. Such compounds are hydrophilic ligands which may serve as models for fluorescent/affinity probes and multivalent ligands for nAChR. PMID:19006672

  14. AChE biosensor based on zinc oxide sol-gel for the detection of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ravi; Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Andreescu, Silvana; Stanciu, Lia

    2010-02-28

    Zinc oxide has been used as a matrix for immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and detection of the pesticide paraoxon. The immobilized enzyme retained its enzymatic activity up to three months when stored in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) at 4 degrees C. An amperometric biosensor for the detection of paraoxon was designed. The biosensor detected paraoxon in the range 0.035-1.38 ppm and can be used to detect other AChE inhibiting organophosphate pesticides. PMID:20113735

  15. Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Kem, William R

    2016-07-04

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiperidinyl analog anabaseine, to activate and desensitize peripheral nAChRs expressed in TE-671 and SH-SY5Y cells. Activation-concentration response curves for each alkaloid were obtained in the same multi-well plate. To measure rapid desensitization, cells were first exposed to five potentially-desensitizing concentrations of each alkaloid in log10 molar increments from 10 nM to 100 µM and then to a fixed concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), which alone produces near-maximal activation. The fifty percent desensitization concentration (DC50) was calculated from the alkaloid concentration-ACh response curve. Agonist fast desensitization potency was predicted by the agonist potency measured in the initial response. Anabaseine was a more potent desensitizer than anabasine. Relative to anabaseine, nicotine was more potent to autonomic nAChRs, but less potent to the fetal neuromuscular nAChRs. Our experiments have demonstrated that anabaseine is more effective at desensitizing fetal muscle-type nAChRs than anabasine or nicotine and, thus, it is predicted to be more teratogenic.

  16. Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benedict T.; Lee, Stephen T.; Welch, Kevin D.; Cook, Daniel; Kem, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiperidinyl analog anabaseine, to activate and desensitize peripheral nAChRs expressed in TE-671 and SH-SY5Y cells. Activation-concentration response curves for each alkaloid were obtained in the same multi-well plate. To measure rapid desensitization, cells were first exposed to five potentially-desensitizing concentrations of each alkaloid in log10 molar increments from 10 nM to 100 µM and then to a fixed concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), which alone produces near-maximal activation. The fifty percent desensitization concentration (DC50) was calculated from the alkaloid concentration-ACh response curve. Agonist fast desensitization potency was predicted by the agonist potency measured in the initial response. Anabaseine was a more potent desensitizer than anabasine. Relative to anabaseine, nicotine was more potent to autonomic nAChRs, but less potent to the fetal neuromuscular nAChRs. Our experiments have demonstrated that anabaseine is more effective at desensitizing fetal muscle-type nAChRs than anabasine or nicotine and, thus, it is predicted to be more teratogenic. PMID:27384586

  17. The role of the M4 lipid-sensor in the folding, trafficking, and allosteric modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hénault, Camille M; Sun, Jiayin; Therien, J P Daniel; daCosta, Corrie J B; Carswell, Casey L; Labriola, Jonathan M; Juranka, Peter F; Baenziger, John E

    2015-09-01

    With the availability of high resolution structural data, increasing attention has focused on the mechanisms by which drugs and endogenous compounds allosterically modulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function. Lipids are potent modulators of the nAChR from Torpedo. Membrane lipids influence nAChR function by both conformational selection and kinetic mechanisms, stabilizing varying proportions of pre-existing resting, open, desensitized, and uncoupled conformations, as well as influencing the transitions between these conformational states. Structural and functional data highlight a role for the lipid-exposed M4 transmembrane α-helix of each subunit in lipid sensing, and suggest that lipids influence gating by altering the binding of M4 to the adjacent transmembrane α-helices, M1 and M3. M4 has also been implicated in both the folding and trafficking of nAChRs to the cell surface, as well as in the potentiation of nAChR gating by neurosteroids. Here, we discuss the roles of M4 in the folding, trafficking, and allosteric modulation of nAChRs. We also consider the hypothesis that variable chemistry at the M4-M1/M3 transmembrane α-helical interface in different nAChR subunits governs the capacity for potentiation by activating lipids. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25433148

  18. Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Kem, William R

    2016-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiperidinyl analog anabaseine, to activate and desensitize peripheral nAChRs expressed in TE-671 and SH-SY5Y cells. Activation-concentration response curves for each alkaloid were obtained in the same multi-well plate. To measure rapid desensitization, cells were first exposed to five potentially-desensitizing concentrations of each alkaloid in log10 molar increments from 10 nM to 100 µM and then to a fixed concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), which alone produces near-maximal activation. The fifty percent desensitization concentration (DC50) was calculated from the alkaloid concentration-ACh response curve. Agonist fast desensitization potency was predicted by the agonist potency measured in the initial response. Anabaseine was a more potent desensitizer than anabasine. Relative to anabaseine, nicotine was more potent to autonomic nAChRs, but less potent to the fetal neuromuscular nAChRs. Our experiments have demonstrated that anabaseine is more effective at desensitizing fetal muscle-type nAChRs than anabasine or nicotine and, thus, it is predicted to be more teratogenic. PMID:27384586

  19. Evaluation of benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines as ligands for neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Richard; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Lukas, Ronald J; Sher, Emanuele; Cassels, Bruce K; Bermudez, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Effects of derivatives of coclaurine (C), which mimic the ‘eastern' or the nonquaternary halves of the alkaloids tetrandrine or d-tubocurarine, respectively, both of which are inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACh), were examined on recombinant, human α7, α4β2 and α4β4 nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and clonal cell lines using two-electrode voltage clamping and radioligand binding techniques. In this limited series, Cs have higher affinity and are most potent at α4 subunit-containing-nACh receptors and least potent at homomeric α7 receptors, and this trend is very marked for the N-unsubstituted C and its O,O′-bisbenzyl derivative. 7-O-Benzyl-N-methylcoclaurine (BBCM) and its 12-O-methyl derivative showed the highest affinities and potencies at all three receptor subtypes, and this suggests that lipophilicity at C7 and/or C12 increases potency. Laudanosine and armepavine (A) were noncompetitive and voltage-dependent inhibitors of α7, α4β2 or α4β4 receptors, but the bulkier C7-benzylated 7BNMC (7-O-benzyl-N-methylcoclaurine) and 7B12MNMC (7-O-benzyl-N,12-O-dimethyl coclaurine) were voltage-independent, noncompetitive inhibitors of nACh receptors. Voltage-dependence was also lost on going from A to its N-ethyl analogue. These studies suggest that C derivatives may be useful tools for studies characterising the antagonist and ion channel sites on human α7, α4β2 or α4β4 nACh receptors and for revealing structure–function relationships for nACh receptor antagonists. PMID:15980871

  20. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulators Reduce Sugar Intake.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Masroor; Quik, Maryka; Holgate, Joan; Morgan, Michael; Patkar, Omkar L; Tam, Vincent; Belmer, Arnauld; Bartlett, Selena E

    2016-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption has been shown to contribute directly to weight gain, thus contributing to the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Interestingly, increased sugar consumption has been shown to repeatedly elevate dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain similar to many drugs of abuse. We report that varenicline, an FDA-approved nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist that modulates dopamine in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain, significantly reduces sucrose consumption, especially in a long-term consumption paradigm. Similar results were observed with other nAChR drugs, namely mecamylamine and cytisine. Furthermore, we show that long-term sucrose consumption increases α4β2 * and decreases α6β2* nAChRs in the nucleus accumbens, a key brain region associated with reward. Taken together, our results suggest that nAChR drugs such as varenicline may represent a novel treatment strategy for reducing sugar consumption. PMID:27028298

  1. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates ILC2-dependent airway hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Galle-Treger, Lauriane; Suzuki, Yuzo; Patel, Nisheel; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Aron, Jennifer L.; Maazi, Hadi; Chen, Lin; Akbari, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex and chronic inflammatory disorder that is associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and driven by Th2 cytokine secretion. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and contribute to the development of AHR. Here, we show that ILC2s express the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), which is thought to have an anti-inflammatory role in several inflammatory diseases. We show that engagement of a specific agonist with α7nAChR on ILC2s reduces ILC2 effector function and represses ILC2-dependent AHR, while decreasing expression of ILC2 key transcription factor GATA-3 and critical inflammatory modulator NF-κB, and reducing phosphorylation of upstream kinase IKKα/β. Additionally, the specific α7nAChR agonist reduces cytokine production and AHR in a humanized ILC2 mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that α7nAChR expressed by ILC2s is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ILC2-mediated asthma. PMID:27752043

  2. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulators Reduce Sugar Intake

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, Masroor; Quik, Maryka; Holgate, Joan; Morgan, Michael; Patkar, Omkar L.; Tam, Vincent; Belmer, Arnauld; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2016-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption has been shown to contribute directly to weight gain, thus contributing to the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Interestingly, increased sugar consumption has been shown to repeatedly elevate dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain similar to many drugs of abuse. We report that varenicline, an FDA-approved nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist that modulates dopamine in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain, significantly reduces sucrose consumption, especially in a long-term consumption paradigm. Similar results were observed with other nAChR drugs, namely mecamylamine and cytisine. Furthermore, we show that long-term sucrose consumption increases α4β2 * and decreases α6β2* nAChRs in the nucleus accumbens, a key brain region associated with reward. Taken together, our results suggest that nAChR drugs such as varenicline may represent a novel treatment strategy for reducing sugar consumption. PMID:27028298

  3. Gating Movement of Acetylcholine Receptor Caught by Plunge-Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, Nigel; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor converts transiently to an open-channel form when activated by ACh released into the synaptic cleft. We describe here the conformational change underlying this event, determined by electron microscopy of ACh-sprayed and freeze-trapped postsynaptic membranes. ACh binding to the α subunits triggers a concerted rearrangement in the ligand-binding domain, involving an ~ 1‐Å outward displacement of the extracellular portion of the β subunit where it interacts with the juxtaposed ends of α-helices shaping the narrow membrane-spanning pore. The β-subunit helices tilt outward to accommodate this displacement, destabilising the arrangement of pore-lining helices, which in the closed channel bend inward symmetrically to form a central hydrophobic gate. Straightening and tangential motion of the pore-lining helices effect channel opening by widening the pore asymmetrically and increasing its polarity in the region of the gate. The pore-lining helices of the αγ and δ subunits, by flexing between alternative bent and straight conformations, undergo the greatest movements. This coupled allosteric transition shifts the structure from a tense (closed) state toward a more relaxed (open) state. PMID:22841691

  4. 86Rb+ Efflux Mediated by α4β2*-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors with High and Low Sensitivity to Stimulation by Acetylcholine Display Similar Agonist-Induced Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael J.; Meinerz, Natalie M.; Brown, Robert W. B.; Collins, Allan C.

    2010-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) assembled from α4 and β2 subunits are the most densely expressed subtype in the brain. Concentration-effect curves for agonist activation of α4β2*-nAChR are biphasic. This biphasic agonist sensitivity is ascribed to differences in subunit stoichiometry. The studies described here evaluated desensitization elicited by low concentrations of epibatidine, nicotine, cytisine or methylcarbachol of brain α4β2-nAChR function measured with acetylcholine stimulated 86Rb+ efflux from mouse thalamic synaptosomes. Each agonist elicited concentration-dependent desensitization. The agonists differed in potency. However, IC50 values for each agonist for desensitization of 86Rb+ efflux both with high (EC50≈3 μM) and low (EC50≈ 150 μM) acetylcholine sensitivity were not significantly different. Concentrations required to elicit desensitization were higher that their respective KD values for receptor binding. Even though the two components of α4β2*-nAChR mediated 86Rb+ efflux from mouse brain differ markedly in EC50 values for agonist activation, they are equally sensitive to desensitization by exposure to low agonist concentrations. Mice were also chronically treated with nicotine by continuous infusion of 0, 0.5 or 4.0 mg/kg/hr and desensitization induced by nicotine was evaluated. Consistent with previous results, chronic nicotine treatment increased the density of epibatidine binding sites. Acute exposure to nicotine also elicited concentration-dependent desensitization of both high sensitivity and low sensitivity acetylcholine-stimulated 86Rb+ efflux from cortical and thalamic synaptosomes. Although chronic nicotine treatment reduced maximal 86Rb+ efflux from thalamus, IC50 values in both brain regions were unaffected by chronic nicotine treatment. PMID:20599770

  5. Changes in acetylcholine and noradrenaline sensitivity of chick smooth muscle wholly innervated by sympathetic nerve during development.

    PubMed

    Kuromi, H; Hasegawa, S

    1975-08-01

    Developmental changes in sensitivity of the isolated expansor sedumdariorum muscle of posthatching chicks to noradrenaline (NA), Acetylcholine (ACh) and some other drugs were investigated. This muscle responded to both NA and ACh in early life. The sensitivity to ACh decreased progressively with increasing age and disappeared on day 40 after hatching, however, a corresponding elevation of cholinesterase activity was not observed. The sensitivity to NA remained at the same level during the period of 2-60 days after hatching. The Contractile action of ACh on this muscle was not affected by d-tubocurarine, hexamethonium or phentolamine, but was completely abolished by atropine. These results suggest that there are at least two kinds of responsive sites on the expansor secumdariorum muscle in the new-born chick and that the sites sensitive to ACh degenerate progressively during the developmental processes. The cholinergic sensitive sites of this muscle in the new-born chick may be muscarinic.

  6. Crystal structure of a human neuronal nAChR extracellular domain in pentameric assembly: Ligand-bound α2 homopentamer.

    PubMed

    Kouvatsos, Nikolaos; Giastas, Petros; Chroni-Tzartou, Dafni; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Tzartos, Socrates J

    2016-08-23

    In this study we report the X-ray crystal structure of the extracellular domain (ECD) of the human neuronal α2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit in complex with the agonist epibatidine at 3.2 Å. Interestingly, α2 was crystallized as a pentamer, revealing the intersubunit interactions in a wild type neuronal nAChR ECD and the full ligand binding pocket conferred by two adjacent α subunits. The pentameric assembly presents the conserved structural scaffold observed in homologous proteins, as well as distinctive features, providing unique structural information of the binding site between principal and complementary faces. Structure-guided mutagenesis and electrophysiological data confirmed the presence of the α2(+)/α2(-) binding site on the heteromeric low sensitivity α2β2 nAChR and validated the functional importance of specific residues in α2 and β2 nAChR subunits. Given the pathological importance of the α2 nAChR subunit and the high sequence identity with α4 (78%) and other neuronal nAChR subunits, our findings offer valuable information for modeling several nAChRs and ultimately for structure-based design of subtype specific drugs against the nAChR associated diseases. PMID:27493220

  7. Activation and desensitization of peripheral muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by selected, naturally-occurring pyridine alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscletype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiper...

  8. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. PMID:25951893

  9. Computer modeling of the neurotoxin binding site of acetylcholine receptor spanning residues 185 through 196

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garduno-Juarez, R.; Shibata, M.; Zielinski, T. J.; Rein, R.

    1987-01-01

    A model of the complex between the acetylcholine receptor and the snake neurotoxin, cobratoxin, was built by molecular model building and energy optimization techniques. The experimentally identified functionally important residues of cobratoxin and the dodecapeptide corresponding to the residues 185-196 of acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit were used to build the model. Both cis and trans conformers of cyclic L-cystine portion of the dodecapeptide were examined. Binding residues independently identified on cobratoxin are shown to interact with the dodecapeptide AChR model.

  10. Spontaneous opening of the acetylcholine receptor channel in developing muscle cells from normal and dystrophic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Obregon, A.; Lansman, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    Single-channel activity was recorded from cell-attached patches on skeletal muscle cells isolated from wild-type mice and from mice carrying the dy or mdx mutations. Spontaneous openings of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel (nAChR) were detected in virtually all recordings from either 4v/dy or dyl + myotubes. but only infrequently from wild-type or mdx myotubes. Spontaneous openings were also present in most recordings from undifferentiated myoblasts from all of the mouse strains studied. The biophysical properties of the spontaneous activity were similar to those of the embryonic form of the nAChR in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh). Examination of the single-channel currents evoked by low concentrations of ACh showed a reduced sensitivity to the agonist in the dystrophic dy and mdx myotubes. but not in wild- type myotubes. The results suggest that alterations in nAChR function are associated with the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy in the dy mouse.

  11. Direct Proof of the In Vivo Pathogenic Role of the AChR Autoantibodies from Myasthenia Gravis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Gregory; Lagoumintzis, George; Sideris, Sotirios; Poulas, Konstantinos; Tzartos, Socrates J.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that the autoantibodies (autoAbs) against muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients are the main pathogenic factor in MG; however, this belief has not yet been confirmed with direct observations. Although animals immunized with AChR or injected with anti-AChR monoclonal Abs, or with crude human MG Ig fractions exhibit MG symptoms, the pathogenic role of isolated anti-AChR autoAbs, and, more importantly, the absence of pathogenic factor(s) in the autoAb-depleted MG sera has not yet been shown by in vivo studies. Using recombinant extracellular domains of the human AChR α and β subunits, we have isolated autoAbs from the sera of four MG patients. The ability of these isolated anti-subunit Abs and of the Ab-depleted sera to passively transfer experimental autoimmune MG in Lewis rats was investigated. We found that the isolated anti-subunit Abs were at least as efficient as the corresponding whole sera or whole Ig in causing experimental MG. Abs to both α- and β-subunit were pathogenic although the anti-α-subunit were much more efficient than the anti-β-subunit ones. Interestingly, the autoAb-depleted sera were free of pathogenic activity. The later suggests that the myasthenogenic potency of the studied anti-AChR MG sera is totally due to their anti-AChR autoAbs, and therefore selective elimination of the anti-AChR autoAbs from MG patients may be an efficient therapy for MG. PMID:25259739

  12. Silencing A7-nAChR levels increases the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to ixabepilone treatment.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chao-Chiang; Huang, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Wan-Li; Hung, Chin-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Jia; Wei, Po-Li

    2016-07-01

    Gastric cancer is an important health issue worldwide. Currently, improving the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy drugs is an important goal of cancer research. Alpha-7 nicotine acetylcholine receptor (A7-nAChR) is the key molecule that mediates gastric cancer progression, metastasis, and therapy responses; however, the role of A7-nAChR in the therapeutic efficacy of ixabepilone remains unclear. A7-nAChR expression was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology. The cytotoxicity of ixabepilone was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and ixabepilone-induced apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) apoptotic assay. The expression patterns of anti-apoptotic proteins (AKT, phospho-AKT, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2) and pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad and Bax) were determined by western blot. Our study found that A7-nAChR knockdown (A7-nAChR-KD) AGS cells were more sensitive to ixabepilone administration than scrambled control AGS cells. We found that A7-nAChR knockdown enhanced ixabepilone-induced cell death as evidenced by the increased number of annexin V-positive (apoptotic) cells. After scrambled control and A7-nAChR-KD cells were treated with ixabepilone, we found that pAKT and AKT levels were significantly reduced in both groups of cells. The levels of Bcl-2 and the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 isoform increased dramatically after ixabepilone treatment in scrambled control cells but not in A7-nAChR-KD cells. Bad and Bax levels did not change between the treatment group and vehicle group in both A7-nAChR-KD and scrambled control cells, whereas cleaved PARP levels dramatically increased in ixabepilone-treated A7-nAChR-KD cells. Our results demonstrated that knockdown of A7-nAChR enhanced the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to ixabepilone administration. Thus, the A7-nAChR expression level in patients with gastric cancer may be a good indicator of ixabepilone sensitivity.

  13. Rapid synthesis of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, D.A.; Drachman, D.B.; Pestronk, A.

    1988-12-31

    The rate of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) degradation in mature, innervated mammalian neuromuscular junctions has recently been shown to be biphasic; up to 20% are rapidly turned over whereas the remainder are lost more slowly. In order to maintain normal junctional receptor density, synthesis and insertion of AChRs should presumably be sufficiently rapid to replace both the RTOs and the stable receptors. The authors have tested this prediction by blocking pre-existing AChRs in the mouse sternomastoid muscle with alpha bungarotoxin and monitoring the subsequent appearance of new junctional AChRs at intervals of 3 h to 20 days by labelling them. The results show that new receptors were initially inserted rapidly. The rate of increase of new binding sites gradually slowed down during the remainder of the time period studied. Control observations excluded possible artifacts of the experimental procedure including incomplete blockade of AChRs, dissociation of toxin receptor complexes, or experimentally induced alteration of receptor synthesis. The present demonstration of rapid synthesis and incorporation of AChRs at innervated neuromuscular junctions provides support for the concept of a subpopulation of rapidly turned over AChRs. The RTOs may serve as precursors for the large population of stable receptors and have an important role in the metabolism of the neuromuscular synapse.

  14. Inhibitory action of acetylcholine on the smooth muscle from the lower esophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Velkova, V; Papasova, M; Boev, K; Bonev, A

    1979-01-01

    The effect of acetylcholine (Ach) on smooth-muscle strips isolated along the transversal axis of cat lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is studied. Ach in low concentrations (10(-11)--10(-9) g/ml) causes contraction of the muscle strips. Increase of the concentration to 10(-8) g/ml leads to biphasic effect: contraction with relaxation. Inhibitory response predominates at Ach 10(-6) and 10(-5) g/ml. Atropine (10(-6) M) eliminates the excitatory phase but it has no effect on the second relaxation phase. Propranolol (10(-6), 2 X 10(-6) M) as well as phentolamine turn the inhibitory response to Ach into contraction. Noradrenaline leads to LES contraction while isoprenaline induces relaxation. In smooth-muscle LES strips from cats pretreated with reserpine (1 mg/kg for 3 days), Ach in the concentrations used (10(-5), 10(-6) g/ml) leads to contraction. The changes observed are membrane-dependent -- the contraction is accompanied by depolarization, relaxation by hyperpolarization. The inhibitory effect of Ach on LES smooth muscle is discussed in the light of the hypothesis of Burn and Rand (1960) about the release of noradrenaline under the effect of Ach.

  15. Cortical acetylcholine release is lateralized during asymmetrical slow-wave sleep in northern fur seals.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Jennifer L; Kosenko, Peter O; Lyamin, Oleg I; Kodama, Tohru; Mukhametov, Lev M; Siegel, Jerome M

    2007-10-31

    Fur seals are unique in that they display both bilateral slow-wave sleep (BSWS), as seen in all terrestrial mammals, and slow-wave sleep with interhemispheric electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, resembling the unihemispheric slow waves of cetaceans. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, which is also termed asymmetrical slow wave sleep (ASWS). However, we may begin to understand the expression of ASWS by studying the neurotransmitter systems thought to be involved in the generation and maintenance of sleep-wake states in terrestrial mammals. We examined bilaterally the release of cortical acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter implicated in the regulation of cortical EEG and behavioral arousal, across the sleep-wake cycle in four juvenile northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). In vivo microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection were used to measure cortical ACh levels during polygraphically defined behavioral states. Cortical ACh release was state-dependent, showing maximal release during active waking (AW), similar levels during quiet waking (QW), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and minimal release during BSWS. When compared with BSWS, cortical ACh levels increased approximately 300% during AW, and approximately 200% during QW and REM sleep. During these bilaterally symmetrical EEG states, ACh was synchronously released from both hemispheres. However, during ASWS, ACh release was lateralized with greater release in the hemisphere displaying lower voltage activity, at levels approximating those seen in QW. These findings demonstrate that cortical ACh release is tightly linked to hemispheric EEG activation.

  16. R-spondin 2 promotes acetylcholine receptor clustering at the neuromuscular junction via Lgr5

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Fukudome, Takayasu; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Okuno, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Sobue, Gen; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering is mediated by spinal motor neuron (SMN)-derived agrin and its receptors on the muscle, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Additionally, AChR clustering is mediated by the components of the Wnt pathway. Laser capture microdissection of SMNs revealed that a secreted activator of Wnt signaling, R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), is highly expressed in SMNs. We found that Rspo2 is enriched at the NMJ, and that Rspo2 induces MuSK phosphorylation and AChR clustering. Rspo2 requires Wnt ligands, but not agrin, for promoting AChR clustering in cultured myotubes. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), an Rspo2 receptor, is also accumulated at the NMJ, and is associated with MuSK via LRP4. Lgr5 is required for Rspo2-mediated AChR clustering in myotubes. In Rspo2-knockout mice, the number and density of AChRs at the NMJ are reduced. The Rspo2-knockout diaphragm has an altered ultrastructure with widened synaptic clefts and sparse synaptic vesicles. Frequency of miniature endplate currents is markedly reduced in Rspo2-knockout mice. To conclude, we demonstrate that Rspo2 and its receptor Lgr5 are Wnt-dependent and agrin-independent regulators of AChR clustering at the NMJ. PMID:27328992

  17. R-spondin 2 promotes acetylcholine receptor clustering at the neuromuscular junction via Lgr5.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Fukudome, Takayasu; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Okuno, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Sobue, Gen; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering is mediated by spinal motor neuron (SMN)-derived agrin and its receptors on the muscle, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Additionally, AChR clustering is mediated by the components of the Wnt pathway. Laser capture microdissection of SMNs revealed that a secreted activator of Wnt signaling, R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), is highly expressed in SMNs. We found that Rspo2 is enriched at the NMJ, and that Rspo2 induces MuSK phosphorylation and AChR clustering. Rspo2 requires Wnt ligands, but not agrin, for promoting AChR clustering in cultured myotubes. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), an Rspo2 receptor, is also accumulated at the NMJ, and is associated with MuSK via LRP4. Lgr5 is required for Rspo2-mediated AChR clustering in myotubes. In Rspo2-knockout mice, the number and density of AChRs at the NMJ are reduced. The Rspo2-knockout diaphragm has an altered ultrastructure with widened synaptic clefts and sparse synaptic vesicles. Frequency of miniature endplate currents is markedly reduced in Rspo2-knockout mice. To conclude, we demonstrate that Rspo2 and its receptor Lgr5 are Wnt-dependent and agrin-independent regulators of AChR clustering at the NMJ. PMID:27328992

  18. Immunological studies on the structure and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mammalian muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The specificity of the antibodies in the serum of a patient with myasthenia gravis for a the {alpha}-bungarotoxin binding sites of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) was examined using AChRs in the C2 mouse muscle cell line as a model. The antibodies were shown to be specific for one of the two toxin-binding sites. The effect of the antibodies in this myasthenic serum on the functional response of the receptor to cholinergic agonists was also examined using carbamylcholine-induced {sup 22}Na uptake into C2 myotubes as a measured of the receptor function. Antibodies specific for the {gamma}, {delta}, and {epsilon} subunit, respectively, of mammalian muscle AChRs were developed using subunit-specific synthetic peptides as antigens. Using these antibodies and monoclonal antibodies for other subunits as probes, I have identified four ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, and {delta}) subunits of mammalian muscle AChRs on immunoblots. When AChRs from embryonic, neonatal, normal and denervated adult muscles were compared on immunoblots, the {alpha}, {beta}, and {delta} subunits were identical in all four receptor preparations, with or without endoglycosidase digestion. The spatial and temporal distribution of the {gamma}- and {epsilon}- AChRs in developing and in denervated muscles corresponds to the distribution of AChRs with slow and fast channels, respectively, and that the development changes in the channel properties of the receptor arise from a change in the subunit composition of the receptor, in which the {gamma} is replaced by {epsilon}.

  19. Alpha-galactosidase stimulates acetylcholine receptor aggregation in skeletal muscle cells via PNA-binding carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Parkhomovskiy, N; Martin, P T

    2000-04-21

    Aggregation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in skeletal muscle is an essential step in the formation of the mammalian neuromuscular junction. While proteins that bind to myotube receptors such as agrin and laminin can stimulate AChR aggregation in cultured myotubes, removal of cell surface sialic acids stimulates aggregation in a ligand-independent manner. Here, we show that removal of cell surface alpha-galactosides also stimulates AChR aggregation in the absence of added laminin or agrin. AChR aggregation stimulated by alpha-galactosidase was blocked by peanut agglutinin (PNA), which binds to lactosamine-containing disaccharides, but not by the GalNAc-binding lectin Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA-B4). AChR aggregation stimulated by alpha-galactosidase potentiated AChR clustering induced by either neural agrin or laminin-1 and could be inhibited by muscle agrin. These data suggest that capping of cell surface lactosamines or N-acetyllactosamines with alpha-galactose affects AChR aggregation much as capping with sialic acids does.

  20. Effects of selected muscarinic cholinergic antagonists on [3H]acetylcholine release from rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Pohorecki, R; Head, R; Domino, E F

    1988-01-01

    A number of cholinergic muscarinic (M) agonists and antagonists were studied for their ability to enhance tritiated acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) release from electrically field-stimulated rat hippocampal slices. A Ca++-free medium and carbachol, but not nicotine, inhibited [3H]ACh release. Atropine, methylatropine and dexetimide produced concentration-dependent increases in [3H]ACh release to a maximum of about 50% above control. Aprophen and benactyzine produced a maximal response 25 to 35% above control. The selective M1 antagonist pirenzepine had the least effect on [3H]ACh release. Of the nonspecific M1-M2 antagonists studied, benactyzine produced the least amount of [3H]ACh release. The order of potency of the M antagonists in promoting a 15% increase in [3H]ACh release was aprophen greater than benactyzine greater than methylatropine greater than dexetimide greater than pirenzepine greater than atropine. However, the order of promoting maximal release of [3H]ACh was atropine greater than dexetimide greater than methylatropine greater than aprophen greater than benactyzine greater than pirenzepine. PMID:3335998

  1. A New Role for Attentional Corticopetal Acetylcholine in Cortical Memory Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hiroshi; Kanamaru, Takashi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Tsuda, Ichiro

    2011-09-01

    Although the role of corticopetal acetylcholine (ACh) in higher cognitive functions is increasingly recognized, the questions as (1) how ACh works in attention(s), memory dynamics and cortical state transitions, and also (2) why and how loss of ACh is involved in dysfunctions such as visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies and deficit of attention(s), are not well understood. From the perspective of a dynamical systems viewpoint, we hypothesize that transient ACh released under top-down attention serves to temporarily invoke attractor-like memories, while a background level of ACh reverses this process returning the dynamical nature of the memory structure back to attractor ruins (quasi-attractors). In fact, transient ACh loosens inhibitions of py ramidal neurons (PYRs) by P V+ fas t spiking (FS) i nterneurons, while a baseline ACh recovers inhibitory actions of P V+ FS. Attentional A Ch thus dynamically modifies brain's connectivity. Th e core of this process is in the depression of GABAergic inhibitory currents in PYRs due to muscarinic (probably M2 subtype) presyn aptic effects on GABAergic synapses of PV+ FS neurons

  2. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  3. The fade of the response to acetylcholine at the rabbit isolated sino-atrial node.

    PubMed

    Boyett, M R; Roberts, A

    1987-12-01

    1. The effect of acetylcholine (ACh) on the frequency of spontaneous action potentials, recorded with glass microelectrodes from small preparations of the sino-atrial node of the rabbit, has been investigated. 2. On application of ACh there was a rapid increase in cycle length (the interval between successive action potentials) but then, despite the continued presence of the ACh, cycle length decreased once again; i.e. the response to ACh 'faded' in the presence of ACh. This fade of the chronotropic response to ACh has been characterized. 3. To observe fade it was found to be important to use a fast flow bath in order to increase the ACh concentration at the preparation abruptly. In other words, the response to ACh was sensitive to the rate of increase in the ACh concentration at the tissue. This may explain why in one study of the sino-atrial node of the guinea-pig the authors failed to observe fade. 4. The concentration dependence of fade was studied in two ways: either as the fade in the response with different doses of ACh, or as the decrease in the response to a fixed test dose applied after a variable conditioning dose. Both methods indicated that fade increased with concentration over the range of roughly 10(-7) to 10(-5) M-ACh. 5. The onset of fade, i.e. the decline in cycle length during an exposure to ACh, was monophasic with low doses of ACh and biphasic (with fast and slow phases) with higher doses. The mean half-times of the fast and slow phases of fade were 10 +/- 2 s and 240 +/- 30 s (mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 5). However, in some preparations, rather than a smooth decrease in cycle length, there were discontinuities and cycle length could decrease in a stepwise fashion or even transiently alternate between two distinct states. 6. Time was required for recovery from fade because a response to a test dose applied soon after a conditioning dose was depressed. Recovery was studied by applying test doses at different times after conditioning doses. Recovery

  4. The fade of the response to acetylcholine at the rabbit isolated sino-atrial node.

    PubMed Central

    Boyett, M R; Roberts, A

    1987-01-01

    1. The effect of acetylcholine (ACh) on the frequency of spontaneous action potentials, recorded with glass microelectrodes from small preparations of the sino-atrial node of the rabbit, has been investigated. 2. On application of ACh there was a rapid increase in cycle length (the interval between successive action potentials) but then, despite the continued presence of the ACh, cycle length decreased once again; i.e. the response to ACh 'faded' in the presence of ACh. This fade of the chronotropic response to ACh has been characterized. 3. To observe fade it was found to be important to use a fast flow bath in order to increase the ACh concentration at the preparation abruptly. In other words, the response to ACh was sensitive to the rate of increase in the ACh concentration at the tissue. This may explain why in one study of the sino-atrial node of the guinea-pig the authors failed to observe fade. 4. The concentration dependence of fade was studied in two ways: either as the fade in the response with different doses of ACh, or as the decrease in the response to a fixed test dose applied after a variable conditioning dose. Both methods indicated that fade increased with concentration over the range of roughly 10(-7) to 10(-5) M-ACh. 5. The onset of fade, i.e. the decline in cycle length during an exposure to ACh, was monophasic with low doses of ACh and biphasic (with fast and slow phases) with higher doses. The mean half-times of the fast and slow phases of fade were 10 +/- 2 s and 240 +/- 30 s (mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 5). However, in some preparations, rather than a smooth decrease in cycle length, there were discontinuities and cycle length could decrease in a stepwise fashion or even transiently alternate between two distinct states. 6. Time was required for recovery from fade because a response to a test dose applied soon after a conditioning dose was depressed. Recovery was studied by applying test doses at different times after conditioning doses. Recovery

  5. Physiological and biochemical studies of newly synthesized muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in embryonic chicken heart

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of either chicken embryos in ovo or cultured embryonic chicken cardiac cells in vitro to the muscarinic agonist carbachol results in a 70-90% decrease in the number of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) expressed in cardiac cells. Block of agonist-receptor interactions in ovo with the antagonist atropine or removal of the agonist in vitro results in a gradual increase in mAChR number, reaching the control level in 14 hr. Measurements of physiological sensitivity of atria or cultured cells show that, even after the complete recovery of receptor number, the sensitivity to agonist is reduced. The sensitivity of the mAChR-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase is also decreased at this time. Newly synthesized mAChR which appear following affinity alkylation in cultured cells are also poorly coupled to the stimulation of /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux, indicating that decreased physiological sensitivity is not due to an unknown effect of long-term agonist exposure on general cellular function, but rather reflects an intrinsic property of newly synthesized mAChR. This increase in sensitivity is also not blocked by cycloheximide. The increase in sensitivity of the mAChR-mediated responses is due neither to a lack of expression of newly synthesized mAChR on the surface nor to reduced agonist affinity of the mAChR. The diminished sensitivity and subsequent maturation observed in cells containing newly synthesized receptors is due either to a small change in mAChR, or to a change in an as-yet-undefined component of the mAChR transduction system; this alteration represents a novel locus for modulation of cholinergic signals in the heart.

  6. Presynaptic targeting of alpha4beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is regulated by neurexin-1beta.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Amici, Stephanie A; Ren, Xiao-Qin; McKay, Susan B; Treuil, Magdalen W; Lindstrom, Jon M; Rao, Jayaraman; Anand, Rene

    2009-08-28

    The mechanisms involved in the targeting of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), critical for their functional organization at neuronal synapses, are not well understood. We have identified a novel functional association between alpha4beta2 AChRs and the presynaptic cell adhesion molecule, neurexin-1beta. In non-neuronal tsA 201 cells, recombinant neurexin-1beta and mature alpha4beta2 AChRs form complexes. alpha4beta2 AChRs and neurexin-1beta also coimmunoprecipitate from rat brain lysates. When exogenous alpha4beta2 AChRs and neurexin-1beta are coexpressed in hippocampal neurons, they are robustly targeted to hemi-synapses formed between these neurons and cocultured tsA 201 cells expressing neuroligin-1, a postsynaptic binding partner of neurexin-1beta. The extent of synaptic targeting is significantly reduced in similar experiments using a mutant neurexin-1beta lacking the extracellular domain. Additionally, when alpha4beta2 AChRs, alpha7 AChRs, and neurexin-1beta are coexpressed in the same neuron, only the alpha4beta2 AChR colocalizes with neurexin-1beta at presynaptic terminals. Collectively, these data suggest that neurexin-1beta targets alpha4beta2 AChRs to presynaptic terminals, which mature by trans-synaptic interactions between neurexins and neuroligins. Interestingly, human neurexin-1 gene dysfunctions have been implicated in nicotine dependence and in autism spectrum disorders. Our results provide novel insights as to possible mechanisms by which dysfunctional neurexins, through downstream effects on alpha4beta2 AChRs, may contribute to the etiology of these neurological disorders.

  7. Role of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Serial Feature-Positive Discrimination Task during Eyeblink Conditioning in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Ashrafur; Tanaka, Norifumi; Usui, Koji; Kawahara, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in eyeblink serial feature-positive discrimination learning in mice using the mAChR antagonist. A 2-s light cue was delivered 5 or 6 s before the presentation of a 350-ms tone paired with a 100-ms periorbital electrical shock (cued trial) but not before the tone-alone presentation (non-cued trial). Mice received 30 cued and 30 non-cued trials each day in a random order. We found that saline-injected control mice were successfully discriminating between cued and non-cued trials within a few days of conditioning. The mice responded more frequently to the tone in cued trials than in non-cued trials. Analysis of conditioned response (CR) dynamics revealed that the CR onset latency was shorter in cued trials than in non-cued trials, despite the CR peak amplitude not differing significantly between the two conditions. In contrast, scopolamine-injected mice developed an equal number of CRs with similar temporal patterns irrespective of the presence of the cue during the 7 days of conditioning, indicating in a failure to acquire conditional discrimination. In addition, the scopolamine administration to the control mice after they had successfully acquired discrimination did not impair the conditional discrimination and expression of pre-acquired CR. These results suggest that mAChRs may play a pivotal role in memory formation in the conditional brain state associated with the feature cue; however they are unlikely to be involved in the development of discrimination after conditional memory had formed in the serial feature-positive discrimination task during eyeblink conditioning. PMID:26808980

  8. Role of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Serial Feature-Positive Discrimination Task during Eyeblink Conditioning in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Ashrafur; Tanaka, Norifumi; Usui, Koji; Kawahara, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in eyeblink serial feature-positive discrimination learning in mice using the mAChR antagonist. A 2-s light cue was delivered 5 or 6 s before the presentation of a 350-ms tone paired with a 100-ms periorbital electrical shock (cued trial) but not before the tone-alone presentation (non-cued trial). Mice received 30 cued and 30 non-cued trials each day in a random order. We found that saline-injected control mice were successfully discriminating between cued and non-cued trials within a few days of conditioning. The mice responded more frequently to the tone in cued trials than in non-cued trials. Analysis of conditioned response (CR) dynamics revealed that the CR onset latency was shorter in cued trials than in non-cued trials, despite the CR peak amplitude not differing significantly between the two conditions. In contrast, scopolamine-injected mice developed an equal number of CRs with similar temporal patterns irrespective of the presence of the cue during the 7 days of conditioning, indicating in a failure to acquire conditional discrimination. In addition, the scopolamine administration to the control mice after they had successfully acquired discrimination did not impair the conditional discrimination and expression of pre-acquired CR. These results suggest that mAChRs may play a pivotal role in memory formation in the conditional brain state associated with the feature cue; however they are unlikely to be involved in the development of discrimination after conditional memory had formed in the serial feature-positive discrimination task during eyeblink conditioning. PMID:26808980

  9. Altered GPI modification of insect AChE improves tolerance to organophosphate insecticides.

    PubMed

    Kakani, Evdoxia G; Bon, Suzanne; Massoulié, Jean; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2011-03-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the most destructive and intractable pest of olives. The management of B. oleae has been based on the use of organophosphate (OP) insecticides, a practice that induced resistance. OP-resistance in the olive fly was previously shown to be associated with two mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that, apparently, hinder the entrance of the OP into the active site. The search for additional mutations in the ace gene that encodes AChE revealed a short deletion of three glutamines (Δ3Q) from a stretch of five glutamines, in the C-terminal peptide that is normally cleaved and substituted by a GPI anchor. We verified that AChEs from B. oleae and other Dipterans are actually GPI-anchored, although this is not predicted by the "big-PI" algorithm. The Δ3Q mutation shortens the unusually long hydrophilic spacer that follows the predicted GPI attachment site and may thus improve the efficiency of GPI anchor addition. We expressed the wild type B. oleae AChE, the natural mutant Δ3Q and a constructed mutant lacking all 5 consecutive glutamines (Δ5Q) in COS cells and compared their kinetic properties. All constructs presented identical K(m) and k(cat) values, in agreement with the fact that the mutations did not affect the catalytic domain of the enzyme. In contrast, the mutants produced higher AChE activity, suggesting that a higher proportion of the precursor protein becomes GPI-anchored. An increase in the number of GPI-anchored molecules in the synaptic cleft may reduce the sensitivity to insecticides.

  10. The combination of memantine and galantamine improves cognition in rats: The synergistic role of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Kos, Tomasz; Popik, Piotr

    2016-10-15

    The combination of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) is used as a therapeutic strategy to improve cognition in Alzheimer's disease. Among AChEIs, galantamine, which is also a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), including α7-nAChRs, may be particularly beneficial. The α7-nAChR is involved in interactions between the cholinergic and glutamatergic systems. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of α7-nAChRs in the pro-cognitive effects of this drug combination. To this aim, cognitive performance in rats was assessed using the attentional set shifting task (ASST) and novel object recognition task (NORT). Co-administration of inactive doses of memantine with galantamine facilitated the rats' set-shifting performance and reversed delay-induced deficits in object recognition. These effects were blocked by the α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine, suggesting that the observed cognitive enhancement is α7-nAChR dependent. Moreover, combined administration of memantine with inactive doses of selective α7-nAChRs PAMs, CCMI and PNU-120596, also improved ASST and NORT performance in a methyllycaconitine-dependent manner. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs may underlie the pro-cognitive effects of combining memantine and galantamine. Our results suggest that memantine, when given with enhancers of α7-nAChRs, may represent an effective strategy for cognitive improvement. PMID:27435422

  11. Distribution of acetylcholine-sensitive currents around the rabbit crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Candia, Oscar A; Zamudio, Aldo C; Polikoff, Lee A; Alvarez, Lawrence J

    2002-06-01

    The relative distribution of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors on the surface of the isolated ocular lens of the rabbit was determined from induced changes in translens short-circuit current (I(SC)) and the translenticular resistance (R(t)) at seven delineated, parallel zones from the anterior to the posterior pole. For this, one O-ring (from among several having different diameters) was used to separate two zones in a vertically arranged Ussing-type chamber. Different O-rings separated different zone pairs. Earlier experiments from this laboratory used a conventional divided chamber, which occluded the equatorial surface, to demonstrate that anterior applications of ACh transiently decreased the I(SC) due to an intracellular Ca(2+) release and inhibition of anteriorly located K(+) channels. Measurements obtained with the newly designed zonal arrangement determined that the entire epithelial surface from its anterior-most aspect to the equatorial region responds electrically to ACh exposure, while the posterior-most region does not. Furthermore, lens-mounting positions that resulted in separation of the epithelium so that portions of its surface were present in each hemichamber resulted in inverse current changes upon bilateral ACh addition to the bathing solutions. Reductions in outward cationic current across the anterior surface into the anterior bath upon ACh treatment were accompanied by an increase in translens resistance consistent with a closure of basolateral K(+) channels. Overall, these results suggest that the posterior fiber cells may lack ACh receptors, which are clearly present in the lens epithelium that covers about two-thirds of the rabbit lens surface area, and indicate that an ACh-evoked Ca(2+) signal does not spread throughout the epithelial layer. A functional role for lens acetylcholine receptors remains to be determined. PMID:12126950

  12. Going up in Smoke? A Review of nAChRs-based Treatment Strategies for Improving Cognition in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Boggs, Douglas L.; Carlson, Jon; Cortes-Briones, Jose; Krystal, John H.; D’Souza, D. Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is known to be a core deficit in schizophrenia. Existing treatments for schizophrenia have limited efficacy against cognitive impairment. The ubiquitous use of nicotine in this population is thought to reflect an attempt by patients to self-medicate certain symptoms associated with the illness. Concurrently there is evidence that nicotinic receptors that have lower affinity for nicotine are more important in cognition. Therefore, a number of medications that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been tested or are in development. In this article we summarize the clinical evidence of nAChRs dysfunction in schizophrenia and review clinical studies testing either nicotine or nicotinic medications for the treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Some evidence suggests beneficial effects of nAChRs based treatments for the attentional deficits associated with schizophrenia. Standardized cognitive test batteries have failed to capture consistent improvements from drugs acting at nAChRs. However, more proximal measures of brain function, such as ERPs relevant to information processing impairments in schizophrenia, have shown some benefit. Further work is necessary to conclude that nAChRs based treatments are of clinical utility in the treatment of cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. PMID:24345265

  13. Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Arpiar; Granger, Adam J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter corelease is emerging as a common theme of central neuromodulatory systems. Though corelease of glutamate or GABA with acetylcholine has been reported within the cholinergic system, the full extent is unknown. To explore synaptic signaling of cholinergic forebrain neurons, we activated choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons using channelrhodopsin while recording post-synaptic currents (PSCs) in layer 1 interneurons. Surprisingly, we observed PSCs mediated by GABAA receptors in addition to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Based on PSC latency and pharmacological sensitivity, our results suggest monosynaptic release of both GABA and ACh. Anatomical analysis showed that forebrain cholinergic neurons express the GABA synthetic enzyme Gad2 and the vesicular GABA transporter (Slc32a1). We confirmed the direct release of GABA by knocking out Slc32a1 from cholinergic neurons. Our results identify GABA as an overlooked fast neurotransmitter utilized throughout the forebrain cholinergic system. GABA/ACh corelease may have major implications for modulation of cortical function by cholinergic neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06412.001 PMID:25723967

  14. Heterogeneous Inhibition in Macroscopic Current Responses of Four Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes by Cholesterol Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Báez-Pagán, Carlos A; Del Hoyo-Rivera, Natalie; Quesada, Orestes; Otero-Cruz, José David; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2016-08-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), located in the cell membranes of neurons and muscle cells, mediates the transmission of nerve impulses across cholinergic synapses. In addition, the nAChR is also found in the electric organs of electric rays (e.g., the genus Torpedo). Cholesterol, which is a key lipid for maintaining the correct functionality of membrane proteins, has been found to alter the nAChR function. We were thus interested to probe the changes in the functionality of different nAChRs expressed in a model membrane with modified cholesterol to phospholipid ratios (C/P). In this study, we examined the effect of increasing the C/P ratio in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the neuronal α7, α4β2, muscle-type, and Torpedo californica nAChRs in their macroscopic current responses. Using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique, it was found that the neuronal α7 and Torpedo nAChRs are significantly more sensitive to small increases in C/P than the muscle-type nAChR. The peak current versus C/P profiles during enrichment display different behaviors; α7 and Torpedo nAChRs display a hyperbolic decay with two clear components, whereas muscle-type and α4β2 nAChRs display simple monophasic decays with different slopes. This study clearly illustrates that a physiologically relevant increase in membrane cholesterol concentration produces a remarkable reduction in the macroscopic current responses of the neuronal α7 and Torpedo nAChRs functionality, whereas the muscle nAChR appears to be the most resistant to cholesterol inhibition among all four nAChR subtypes. Overall, the present study demonstrates differential profiles for cholesterol inhibition among the different types of nAChR to physiological cholesterol increments in the plasmatic membrane. This is the first study to report a cross-correlation analysis of cholesterol sensitivity among different nAChR subtypes in a model membrane. PMID:27116687

  15. Skin blood flow responses to the iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in man: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, S J; Shore, A C

    1996-01-01

    1. The mechanisms involved in the human skin blood flow responses to iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACH; delivered using an anodal charge) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP; administered with a cathodal charge) are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate possible contributions of prostaglandin production to the increase in skin blood flow induced following the iontophoresis of ACh and to investigate possible contributions from local sensory nerves to the perfusion responses induced by ACh, SNP and their vehicles. 2. The contribution of prostaglandins to the ACh response was determined in a randomized double-blind study of eight healthy subjects, who were studied on two occasions. Basal responses to ACh were measured before the oral administration of 600 mg soluble aspirin in diluted orange juice (1 occasion or orange juice (1 occasion) and again 30 min after the drink. The contribution of local sensory nerve activation to the responses to ACh and ACh vehicle (8 subjects) and to SNP and SNP vehicle (7 subjects) was assessed. EMLA (5%) (a eutectic mixture of lignocaine and prilocaine) and placebo cream were applied to two separate areas on the forearm in a double-blind randomized manner 2 h before drug responses were measured. In all studies the skin microcirculation responses to iontophoretically applied drug vehicle (1 site) and drug (2 sites) were recorded by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. 3. The increase in forearm skin perfusion (P < 0.001) in response to the iontophoresis of ACh minus the response to ACh vehicle was not significantly different following placebo or aspirin administration. The increase in forearm skin red blood cell flux (P < 0.001) in response to the iontophoresis of ACh minus the response to ACh vehicle was not significantly different at the placebo-compared with the EMLA-treated site. THe small increase in perfusion (P < 0.001) in response to the iontophoresis of ACh vehicle was significantly inhibited at the EMLA

  16. Functional differences between neurotransmitter binding sites of muscle acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Tapan K; Bruhova, Iva; Chakraborty, Srirupa; Gupta, Shaweta; Zheng, Wenjun; Auerbach, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    A muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has two neurotransmitter binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αε (adult) or αγ (fetal) subunit interfaces. We used single-channel electrophysiology to measure the effects of mutations of five conserved aromatic residues at each site with regard to their contribution to the difference in free energy of agonist binding to active versus resting receptors (ΔGB1). The two binding sites behave independently in both adult and fetal AChRs. For four different agonists, including ACh and choline, ΔGB1 is ∼-2 kcal/mol more favorable at αγ compared with at αε and αδ. Only three of the aromatics contribute significantly to ΔGB1 at the adult sites (αY190, αY198, and αW149), but all five do so at αγ (as well as αY93 and γW55). γW55 makes a particularly large contribution only at αγ that is coupled energetically to those contributions of some of the α-subunit aromatics. The hydroxyl and benzene groups of loop C residues αY190 and αY198 behave similarly with regard to ΔGB1 at all three kinds of site. ACh binding energies estimated from molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with experimental values from electrophysiology and suggest that the αγ site is more compact, better organized, and less dynamic than αε and αδ. We speculate that the different sensitivities of the fetal αγ site versus the adult αε and αδ sites to choline and ACh are important for the proper maturation and function of the neuromuscular synapse. PMID:25422413

  17. Strain differences in guinea pigs' bronchial sensitivity to acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Mikami, H; Nishibata, R; Kawamoto, Y; Ino, T

    1990-01-01

    The bronchial sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh) of guinea pigs of various strains was investigated to clarify strain differences. Inbred Strain 2, Strain 13 and JY-1 and non-inbred Hartley strain (two colonies) were used in this experiment. (1) Guinea pigs were exposed to 0.08% ACh aerosol and the time needed to produce falling down (TNPFD) was determined. Mean +/- standard error of TNPFD (n = 14 per group) of animals was 182 +/- 28 sec, 148 +/- 22 sec, 210 +/- 30 sec, 342 +/- 24 sec and 406 +/- 36 sec in Strain 2, Strain 13, JY-1, Hartley (Japan SLC) and Hartley (Hitachi), respectively. There was a significant difference in TNPFD between inbred strains and non-inbred strains (P less than 0.05 or P less than 0.01), indicating that inbred strains had higher sensitivity. (2) Guinea pigs were exposed to 20-5000 micrograms/ml ACh for 2 min. The mean dose threshold as determined by transcutaneous oxygen pressure was 524 micrograms/ml, 424 micrograms/ml, 614 micrograms/ml, 1317 micrograms/ml and 1651 micrograms/ml (n = 14 per group) in Strain 2, Strain 13, JY-1, Hartley (Japan SLC) and Hartley (Hitachi), respectively. Inbred strains showed lower dose thresholds than non-inbred strains. (3) Isolated trachea-lungs of 5 guinea pigs were perfused with 10(-9)-10(-5) g/ml ACh to determine strain differences. Dose response curves of animals of inbred strains shifted to the left (lower concentrations), unlike those of non-inbred strains, suggesting that inbred strains had higher sensitivity to ACh than non-inbred strains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Effects of chronic nicotine treatment on expression of diverse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. I. Dose- and time-dependent effects of nicotine treatment.

    PubMed

    Ke, L; Eisenhour, C M; Bencherif, M; Lukas, R J

    1998-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) exist as a diverse family of physiologically important ligand-gated ion channels active in classic, excitatory neurotransmission and perhaps in more novel forms of neurochemical signaling. Because of their critical functional roles centrally and peripherally, nAChRs are ideal targets for the regulation of nervous system function. nAChRs also are targets of nicotine, which acts acutely like acetylcholine to stimulate nAChR function. Here, we report studies using model cell culture systems testing the general hypothesis that more chronic nicotine exposure has unique effects on nAChRs. Chronic nicotine treatment induces increases in numbers of human muscle-type nAChRs containing alpha-1, beta-1, gamma and delta subunits, a human ganglionic nAChR subtype containing alpha-3 and beta-4 subunits and a human ganglionic nAChR containing alpha-7 subunits in intracellular and (except for alpha-7 nAChRs) in cell surface pools. However, the half-maximal potency with which nicotine has these effects differs across these nAChR subtypes, as do rates and magnitudes of the "nicotine-induced nAChR up-regulation." These changes in nAChR numbers are not attributable to either transient or sustained changes in nAChR subunit mRNA levels. Nicotine exposure more potently, more rapidly, and with nAChR-subtype specificity, induces two phases of losses in functional responsiveness of muscle-type nAChRs and alpha-3 beta-4 nAChRs, including a "persistent inactivation" that is distinct from classicly defined "desensitization." Based on these results, we hypothesize that chronic nicotine treatment induces persistent functional inactivation and numerical up-regulation of all nAChR subtypes via distinct post-transcriptional mechanisms and with potencies, at rates and with magnitudes that are nAChR-subtype specific. We also hypothesize that chronic nicotine exposure produces long-lasting changes in nervous system function, at least in part, by disabling

  19. PPARα regulates cholinergic-driven activity of midbrain dopamine neurons via a novel mechanism involving α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; Scheggi, Simona; Carta, Gianfranca; Madeddu, Camilla; Lecca, Salvatore; Luchicchi, Antonio; Cadeddu, Francesca; Frau, Roberto; Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Ennas, M Grazia; Castelli, M Paola; Fratta, Walter; Schilstrom, Bjorn; Banni, Sebastiano; De Montis, M Graziella; Pistis, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons control reward-driven learning, and their dysregulation can lead to psychiatric disorders. Tonic and phasic activity of these dopaminergic neurons depends on cholinergic tone and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly those containing the β2 subunit (β2*-nAChRs). Nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type-α (PPARα) tonically regulate β2*-nAChRs and thereby control dopamine neuron firing activity. However, it is unknown how and when PPARα endogenous ligands are synthesized by dopamine cells. Using ex vivo and in vivo electrophysiological techniques combined with biochemical and behavioral analysis, we show that activation of α7-nAChRs increases in the rat VTA both the tyrosine phosphorylation of the β2 subunit of nAChRs and the levels of two PPARα endogenous ligands in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Accordingly, in vivo production of endogenous PPARα ligands, triggered by α7-nAChR activation, blocks in rats nicotine-induced increased firing activity of dopamine neurons and displays antidepressant-like properties. These data demonstrate that endogenous PPARα ligands are effectors of α7-nAChRs and that their neuromodulatory properties depend on phosphorylation of β2*-nAChRs on VTA dopamine cells. This reveals an autoinhibitory mechanism aimed at reducing dopamine cell overexcitation engaged during hypercholinergic drive. Our results unveil important physiological functions of nAChR/PPARα signaling in dopamine neurons and how behavioral output can change after modifications of this signaling pathway. Overall, the present study suggests PPARα as new therapeutic targets for disorders associated with unbalanced dopamine-acetylcholine systems. PMID:23554501

  20. Separate or sequential exposure to nicotine prenatally and in adulthood: persistent effects on acetylcholine systems in rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Ryde, Ian T; Seidler, Frederic J

    2007-09-14

    Nicotine is a developmental neurotoxicant but the proposed "sensitization-homeostasis" model postulates that even in adulthood nicotine permanently reprograms synaptic function. We administered nicotine to rats throughout gestation or in adulthood (postnatal days PN90-107), simulating plasma levels in smokers, with evaluations on PN105, PN110, PN120, PN130 and PN180. We assessed nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, choline acetyltransferase activity, a marker for acetylcholine (ACh) terminals, and hemicholinium-3 (HC3) binding to the choline transporter, an index of ACh presynaptic activity. Prenatal nicotine exposure elicited persistent deficits in HC3 binding in male cerebral cortex and female striatum, but little change in other parameters. Nicotine given in adulthood produced profound nAChR upregulation lasting 2 weeks after discontinuing treatment. Decrements in cerebrocortical and striatal HC3 binding emerged during withdrawal and persisted through PN180, indicative of reduced ACh synaptic activity. Prenatal nicotine did not evoke any major alterations in the response to nicotine given in adulthood. The effects seen here are substantially different from those found previously for nicotine given to adolescent rats, which showed more prolonged nAChR upregulation and profound, widespread and persistent deficits in markers of ACh synaptic function; for adolescents, prenatal nicotine exposure desensitized nAChR responses, exacerbated withdrawal-induced ACh functional deficits, and worsened the long-term outcome. Our results indicate that the effects of nicotine during prenatal or adolescent stages are indeed distinct from the effects in adults, but that even adults show persistent changes after nicotine exposure, commensurate with the sensitization-homeostasis model. These effects may contribute to lifelong vulnerability to readdiction.

  1. Unmasking the functions of the chromaffin cell α7 nicotinic receptor by using short pulses of acetylcholine and selective blockers

    PubMed Central

    López, Manuela G.; Montiel, Carmen; Herrero, Carlos J.; García-Palomero, Esther; Mayorgas, Inés; Hernández-Guijo, Jesús M.; Villarroya, M.; Olivares, Román; Gandía, Luis; McIntosh, J. Michael; Olivera, Baldomero M.; García, Antonio G.

    1998-01-01

    Methyllycaconitine (MLA), α-conotoxin ImI, and α-bungarotoxin inhibited the release of catecholamines triggered by brief pulses of acetylcholine (ACh) (100 μM, 5 s) applied to fast-superfused bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, with IC50s of 100 nM for MLA and 300 nM for α-conotoxin ImI and α-bungarotoxin. MLA (100 nM), α-conotoxin ImI (1 μM), and α-bungarotoxin (1 μM) halved the entry of 45Ca2+ stimulated by 5-s pulses of 300 μM ACh applied to incubated cells. These supramaximal concentrations of α7 nicotinic receptor blockers depressed by 30% (MLA), 25% (α-bungarotoxin), and 50% (α-conotoxin ImI) the inward current generated by 1-s pulses of 100 μM ACh, applied to voltage-clamped chromaffin cells. In Xenopus oocytes expressing rat brain α7 neuronal nicotinic receptor for acetylcholine nAChR, the current generated by 1-s pulses of ACh was blocked by MLA, α-conotoxin ImI, and α-bungarotoxin with IC50s of 0.1 nM, 100 nM, and 1.6 nM, respectively; the current through α3β4 nAChR was unaffected by α-conotoxin ImI and α-bungarotoxin, and weakly blocked by MLA (IC50 = 1 μM). The functions of controlling the electrical activity, the entry of Ca2+, and the ensuing exocytotic response of chromaffin cells were until now exclusively attributed to α3β4 nAChR; the present results constitute the first evidence to support a prominent role of α7 nAChR in controlling such functions, specially under the more physiological conditions used here to stimulate chromaffin cells with brief pulses of ACh. PMID:9826675

  2. Effect of calcium on nicotine-induced current expressed by an atypical alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2.

    PubMed

    Thany, Steeve H; Courjaret, Raphael; Lapied, Bruno

    2008-06-27

    Two distinct native alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt)-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), named nAChR1 and nAChR2, were identified in the cockroach Periplaneta americana dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons. They differed in their electrophysiological, pharmacological properties and intracellular regulation pathways. nAChR2 being an atypical nicotinic receptor closed upon agonist application and its current-voltage relationship resulted from a reduction in potassium conductance. In this study, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrated that calcium modulated nAChR2-mediated nicotine response. Under 0.5 microM alpha-Bgt and 20 mM d-tubocurarine, the nicotine-induced inward current amplitude was strongly reduced in the presence of intracellularly applied BAPTA or bath application of calcium-free solution. In addition, using cadmium chloride, we showed that nicotine response was modulated by extracellular calcium through plasma membrane calcium channels. Moreover, extracellular application of caffeine and thapsigargin reduced nAChR2-mediated response. Together these experiments revealed a complex calcium-dependent regulation of nAChR2. PMID:18485593

  3. Selective potentiation of (α4)3(β2)2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors augments amplitudes of prefrontal acetylcholine- and nicotine-evoked glutamatergic transients in rats.

    PubMed

    Grupe, Morten; Paolone, Giovanna; Jensen, Anders A; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Sarter, Martin; Grunnet, Morten

    2013-11-15

    Prefrontal glutamate release evoked through activation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) situated on thalamic glutamatergic afferents mediates cue detection processes and thus contributes to attentional performance. However, little is known about the respective contributions of the high sensitivity and low sensitivity (LS) stoichiometries of the α4β2 nAChR, (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2, to these processes. In the present study we employed glutamate-sensitive microelectrodes and the (α4)3(β2)2-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) NS9283 to investigate the importance of the LS α4β2 nAChR for glutamate release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Firstly, the signaling evoked by physiologically relevant ACh concentrations through the (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR in HEK293 cells was potentiated by NS9283, consistent with the classification of NS9283 as a PAM. In urethane-anesthetized rats, intra-prefrontal pressure ejections of NS9283 evoked glutamatergic transients. Importantly, this glutamate release was attenuated by removal of cholinergic projections to the recording area. This finding indicates that the effects of NS9283 depend on endogenous ACh, again consistent with effects of a PAM. We then conducted microdialysis to demonstrate the presence of extracellular ACh in urethane-anesthetized control rats. While detectable, those levels were significantly lower than in awake rats. Finally, the amplitudes of glutamatergic transients evoked by local pressure ejections of a low concentration of nicotine were significantly augmented following systemic administration of NS9283 (3.0mg/kg). In conclusion, our results indicate that a LS α4β2 nAChR PAM such as NS9283 may enhance the cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cortex, thereby perhaps alleviating the attentional impairments common to a range of brain disorders.

  4. Selective potentiation of (α4)3(β2)2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors augments amplitudes of prefrontal acetylcholine- and nicotine-evoked glutamatergic transients in rats

    PubMed Central

    Grupe, Morten; Paolone, Giovanna; Jensen, Anders A.; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Sarter, Martin; Grunnet, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Prefrontal glutamate release evoked through activation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) situated on thalamic glutamatergic afferents mediates cue detection processes and thus contributes to attentional performance. However, little is known about the respective contributions of the high sensitivity and low sensitivity (LS) stoichiometries of the α4β2 nAChR, (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2, to these processes. In the present study we employed glutamate-sensitive microelectrodes and the (α4)3(β2)2-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) NS9283 to investigate the importance of the LS α4β2 nAChR for glutamate release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Firstly, the signaling evoked by physiologically relevant ACh concentrations through the (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR in HEK293 cells was potentiated by NS9283, consistent with the classification of NS9238 as a PAM. In urethane-anesthetized rats, intra-prefrontal pressure ejections of NS9283 evoked glutamatergic transients. Importantly, this glutamate release was attenuated by removal of cholinergic projections to the recording area. This finding indicates that the effects of NS9283 depend on endogenous ACh, again consistent with effects of a PAM. We then conducted microdialysis to demonstrate the presence of extracellular ACh in urethane-anesthetized control rats. While detectable, those levels were significantly lower than in awake rats. Finally, the amplitudes of glutamatergic transients evoked by local pressure ejections of a low concentration of nicotine were significantly augmented following systemic administration of NS9283 (3.0 mg/kg). In conclusion, our results indicate that a LS α4β2 nAChR PAMs such as NS9283 may enhance the cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cortex, thereby perhaps alleviating the attentional impairments common to a range of brain disorders. PMID:24051136

  5. The Role of nAChR and Calcium Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, Courtney; Padmanabhan, Jaya; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer shows a strong correlation with smoking and the current therapeutic strategies have been relatively ineffective in improving the survival of patients. Efforts have been made over the past many years to understand the molecular events that drive the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, especially in the context of smoking. It has become clear that components of tobacco smoke not only initiate these cancers, especially pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) through their mutagenic properties, but can also promote the growth and metastasis of these tumors by stimulating cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Studies in cell culture systems, animal models and human samples have shown that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation enhances these tumor-promoting events by channeling signaling through multiple pathways. In this context, signaling through calcium channels appear to facilitate pancreatic cancer growth by itself or downstream of nAChRs. This review article highlights the role of nAChR downstream signaling events and calcium signaling in the growth, metastasis as well as drug resistance of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26264026

  6. Broad-spectrum efficacy across cognitive domains by alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism correlates with activation of ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation pathways.

    PubMed

    Bitner, Robert S; Bunnelle, William H; Anderson, David J; Briggs, Clark A; Buccafusco, Jerry; Curzon, Peter; Decker, Michael W; Frost, Jennifer M; Gronlien, Jens Halvard; Gubbins, Earl; Li, Jinhe; Malysz, John; Markosyan, Stella; Marsh, Kennan; Meyer, Michael D; Nikkel, Arthur L; Radek, Richard J; Robb, Holly M; Timmermann, Daniel; Sullivan, James P; Gopalakrishnan, Murali

    2007-09-26

    The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays an important role in cognitive processes and may represent a drug target for treating cognitive deficits in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we used a novel alpha7 nAChR-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) to interrogate cognitive efficacy, as well as examine potential cellular mechanisms of cognition. Exhibiting high affinity to native rat (Ki = 10.8 nM) and human (Ki = 16.7 nM) alpha7 nAChRs, A-582941 enhanced cognitive performance in behavioral assays including the monkey delayed matching-to-sample, rat social recognition, and mouse inhibitory avoidance models that capture domains of working memory, short-term recognition memory, and long-term memory consolidation, respectively. In addition, A-582941 normalized sensory gating deficits induced by the alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine in rats, and in DBA/2 mice that exhibit a natural sensory gating deficit. Examination of signaling pathways known to be involved in cognitive function revealed that alpha7 nAChR agonism increased extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in PC12 cells. Furthermore, increases in ERK1/2 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were observed in mouse cingulate cortex and/or hippocampus after acute A-582941 administration producing plasma concentrations in the range of alpha7 binding affinities and behavioral efficacious doses. The MEK inhibitor SL327 completely blocked alpha7 agonist-evoked ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that alpha7 nAChR agonism can lead to broad-spectrum efficacy in animal models at doses that enhance ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation/activation and may represent a mechanism that offers potential to improve cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:17898229

  7. Broad-spectrum efficacy across cognitive domains by alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism correlates with activation of ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation pathways.

    PubMed

    Bitner, Robert S; Bunnelle, William H; Anderson, David J; Briggs, Clark A; Buccafusco, Jerry; Curzon, Peter; Decker, Michael W; Frost, Jennifer M; Gronlien, Jens Halvard; Gubbins, Earl; Li, Jinhe; Malysz, John; Markosyan, Stella; Marsh, Kennan; Meyer, Michael D; Nikkel, Arthur L; Radek, Richard J; Robb, Holly M; Timmermann, Daniel; Sullivan, James P; Gopalakrishnan, Murali

    2007-09-26

    The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays an important role in cognitive processes and may represent a drug target for treating cognitive deficits in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we used a novel alpha7 nAChR-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) to interrogate cognitive efficacy, as well as examine potential cellular mechanisms of cognition. Exhibiting high affinity to native rat (Ki = 10.8 nM) and human (Ki = 16.7 nM) alpha7 nAChRs, A-582941 enhanced cognitive performance in behavioral assays including the monkey delayed matching-to-sample, rat social recognition, and mouse inhibitory avoidance models that capture domains of working memory, short-term recognition memory, and long-term memory consolidation, respectively. In addition, A-582941 normalized sensory gating deficits induced by the alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine in rats, and in DBA/2 mice that exhibit a natural sensory gating deficit. Examination of signaling pathways known to be involved in cognitive function revealed that alpha7 nAChR agonism increased extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in PC12 cells. Furthermore, increases in ERK1/2 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were observed in mouse cingulate cortex and/or hippocampus after acute A-582941 administration producing plasma concentrations in the range of alpha7 binding affinities and behavioral efficacious doses. The MEK inhibitor SL327 completely blocked alpha7 agonist-evoked ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that alpha7 nAChR agonism can lead to broad-spectrum efficacy in animal models at doses that enhance ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation/activation and may represent a mechanism that offers potential to improve cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.

  8. Pharmacological characterization of [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding, a new radioligand for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, to rat brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Toyohara, Jun; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Fujita, Yuko; Zhang, Jichun; Chen, Hongxian; Matsuo, Masaaki; Wang, Rong Fu; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-11-11

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. However, there are currently no suitable small molecule radioligands for imaging α7 nAChRs in the brain. In this study, we synthesized the novel radioligand [(125)I]4-iodophenyl 1,4-diazaicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-4-carboxylate ([(125)I]CHIBA-1006), a iodine-derivative of the selective α7 nAChR agonist SSR180711, and studied the characterization of [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding to rat brain membranes. The assays of [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding to rat brain membranes were performed at 4°C. The presence of a single saturable high-affinity binding component for [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 in the rat brain was shown. Scatchard analysis revealed an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of 88.2±21.4nM and a maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) of 65.4±6.8fmol/mg protein (mean±SEM, n=4). The specific binding of [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 was inhibited by a number of α7 nAChR-selective ligands (e.g., unlabeled CHIBA-1006, SSR180711, CHIBA-1001, MG624 and A844606), suggesting a similarity among α7 nAChR pharmacological profiles. In contrast, α-bungarotoxin, MLA, and nicotine showed very weak affinity for [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding. The regional distribution of [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding to crude membranes from dissected regions of the rat brain was different from that of [(125)I]α-bungarotoxin binding, suggesting that [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding sites may not be identical to [(125)I]α-bungarotoxin binding sites in the rat brain. The present findings suggest that [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 would be a useful new small molecule radioligand for α7 nAChRs in the brain. PMID:20816767

  9. Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, A; Newsom Davis, J

    1980-01-01

    Early suggestions that a humoral factor might be implicated in the disorder of neuromuscular transmission in myasthenia gravis have been confirmed by the detection of anti-AChR antibody in 85-90% of the patients with generalised disease and in 75% of cases with restricted ocular myasthenia. Plasma exchange reveals that serum anti-AChR usually has an inverse relationship to muscle strength and present evidence indicates that patients responding to thymectomy and immunosuppressive durg treatment usually show a consistent decline in serum anti-AChR titres. The antibody is heterogeneous and can lead to a loss of muscle AChR by several mechanisms. Anti-AChR is produced in the thymus in relatively small amounts. Anti-AChR antibody synthesis by thymic lymphocytes and pokeweed stimulated peripheral lymphocytes in culture provides a means of studying the effect of different lymphocyte populations in vitro. Analysis of clinical, immunological and HLA antigen characteristics in MG suggest that more than one mechanism may underlie the breakdown in tolerance to AChR, leading to the production of anti-AChR antibodies. PMID:7400823

  10. Lynx1 and Aβ1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morten S; Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Pinborg, Lars H; Härtig, Wolfgang; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2016-10-01

    Lynx1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain by regulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). It is not known to which extent Lynx1 can bind to endogenous nAChR subunits in the brain or how this interaction is affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology. We apply affinity purification to demonstrate that a water-soluble variant of human Lynx1 (Ws-Lynx1) isolates α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits from human and rat cortical extracts, and rat midbrain and olfactory bulb extracts, suggesting that Lynx1 forms complexes with multiple nAChR subtypes in the human and rodent brain. Incubation with Ws-Lynx1 decreases nicotine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells and striatal neurons, indicating that binding of Ws-Lynx1 is sufficient to inhibit signaling downstream of nAChRs. The effect of nicotine in PC12 cells is independent of α7 or α4β2 nAChRs, suggesting that Lynx1 can affect the function of native non-α7, non-α4β2 nAChR subtypes. We further show that Lynx1 and oligomeric β-amyloid1-42 compete for binding to several nAChR subunits, that Ws-Lynx1 prevents β-amyloid1-42-induced cytotoxicity in cortical neurons, and that cortical Lynx1 levels are decreased in a transgenic mouse model with concomitant β-amyloid and tau pathology. Our data suggest that Lynx1 binds to multiple nAChR subtypes in the brain and that this interaction might have functional and pathophysiological implications in relation to Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27460145

  11. Nicotine activates and up-regulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao Wen; Lindstrom, Jon; Spindel, Eliot R

    2009-07-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure impairs normal lung development and leads to diminished pulmonary function after birth. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that nicotine alters lung development by affecting a nonneuronal cholinergic autocrine loop that is expressed in lung. Bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) express choline acetyltransferase, the choline high-affinity transporter and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (nAChR) subunits. We now demonstrate through a combination of morphological and electrophysiological techniques that nicotine affects this autocrine loop by up-regulating and activating cholinergic signaling. RT-PCR showed the expression of alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 7, alpha 9, alpha 10, beta2, and beta 4 nAChR mRNAs in rhesus monkey lung and cultured BECs. The expression of alpha 7, alpha 4, and beta2 nAChR was confirmed by immunofluorescence in the cultured BECs and lung. The electrophysiological characteristics of nAChR in BECs were determined using whole-cell patch-clamp on cultured BECs. Both ACh and nicotine evoked an inward current, with a rapid desensitizing current. Nicotine induced inward currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with an EC(50) of 26.7 microM. Nicotine-induced currents were reversibly blocked by the nicotinic antagonists, mecamylamine, dihydro-beta-erythroidine, and methyllcaconitine. Incubation of BECs with 1 microM nicotine for 48 hours enhanced nicotine-induced currents by roughly 26%. The protein tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor, genistein, increased nicotine-induced currents by 58% and enhanced methyllcaconitine-sensitive currents (alpha 7 nAChR activities) 2.3-fold, whereas the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, pervanadate, decreased the effects of nicotine. These results demonstrate that chronic nicotine exposure up-regulates nAChR activity in developing lung, and that nAChR activity can be further modified by tyrosine phosphorylation.

  12. Luminal acetylcholine does not affect the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Nikolaus P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Fluid homeostasis mediated by the airway epithelium is required for proper lung function, and the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) Cl(-) channel is crucial for these processes. Luminal acetylcholine (ACh) acts as an auto-/paracrine mediator to activate Cl(-) channels in airway epithelia and evidence exists showing that nicotinic ACh receptors activate CFTR in murine airway epithelia. The present study investigated whether or not luminal ACh regulates CFTR activity in airway epithelia of pigs, an emerging model for investigations of human airway disease and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Transepithelial ion currents of freshly dissected pig tracheal preparations were measured with Ussing chambers. Application of luminal ACh (100 μM) induced an increase of the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The ACh effect was mimicked by muscarine and pilocarpine (100 μM each) and was sensitive to muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, 4-DAMP, pirenzepine). No changes of the I(SC) were observed by nicotine (100 μM) and ACh responses were not affected by nicotine or mecamylamine (25 μM). Luminal application of IBMX (I, 100 μM) and forskolin (F, 10 μM), increase the I(SC) and the I/F-induced current were decreased by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101 (GlyH, 50 μM) indicating increased CFTR activity by I/F. In contrast, GlyH did not affect the ACh-induced current, indicating that the ACh response does not involve the activation of the CFTR. Results from this study suggest that luminal ACh does not regulate the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs which opposes observation from studies using mice airway epithelium.

  13. Luminal acetylcholine does not affect the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Nikolaus P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Fluid homeostasis mediated by the airway epithelium is required for proper lung function, and the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) Cl(-) channel is crucial for these processes. Luminal acetylcholine (ACh) acts as an auto-/paracrine mediator to activate Cl(-) channels in airway epithelia and evidence exists showing that nicotinic ACh receptors activate CFTR in murine airway epithelia. The present study investigated whether or not luminal ACh regulates CFTR activity in airway epithelia of pigs, an emerging model for investigations of human airway disease and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Transepithelial ion currents of freshly dissected pig tracheal preparations were measured with Ussing chambers. Application of luminal ACh (100 μM) induced an increase of the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The ACh effect was mimicked by muscarine and pilocarpine (100 μM each) and was sensitive to muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, 4-DAMP, pirenzepine). No changes of the I(SC) were observed by nicotine (100 μM) and ACh responses were not affected by nicotine or mecamylamine (25 μM). Luminal application of IBMX (I, 100 μM) and forskolin (F, 10 μM), increase the I(SC) and the I/F-induced current were decreased by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101 (GlyH, 50 μM) indicating increased CFTR activity by I/F. In contrast, GlyH did not affect the ACh-induced current, indicating that the ACh response does not involve the activation of the CFTR. Results from this study suggest that luminal ACh does not regulate the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs which opposes observation from studies using mice airway epithelium. PMID:26286842

  14. The relationship of the postsynaptic 43K protein to acetylcholine receptors in receptor clusters isolated from cultured rat myotubes.

    PubMed

    Bloch, R J; Froehner, S C

    1987-03-01

    We have examined the relationship of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) to the Mr 43,000 receptor-associated protein (43K) in the AChR clusters of cultured rat myotubes. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed that the 43K protein was concentrated at the AChR domains of the receptor clusters in intact rat myotubes, in myotube fragments, and in clusters that had been purified approximately 100-fold by extraction with saponin. The association of the 43K protein with clustered AChR was not affected by buffers of high or low ionic strength, by alkaline pHs up to 10, or by chymotrypsin at 10 micrograms/ml. However, the 43K protein was removed from clusters with lithium diiodosalicylate or at alkaline pH (greater than 10). Upon extraction of 43K, several changes were observed in the AChR population. Receptors redistributed in the plane of the muscle membrane in alkali-extracted samples. The number of binding sites accessible to an anti-AChR monoclonal antibody directed against cytoplasmic epitopes (88B) doubled. Receptors became more susceptible to digestion by chymotrypsin, which destroyed the binding sites for the 88B antibody only after 43K was extracted. These results suggest that in isolated AChR clusters the 43K protein covers part of the cytoplasmic domain of AChR and may contribute to the unique distribution of this membrane protein.

  15. Characterization of the retina in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Marci L.

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are involved in visual processing and are expressed by inner retinal neurons in all species studied to date (Keyser et al., 2000; Dmitrieva et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009), but their distribution in the mouse retina remains unknown. Reductions in alpha7 nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are thought to contribute to memory and visual deficits observed in Alzheimer's and schizophrenia (Coyle et al., 1983; Nordberg et al., 1999; Leonard et al., 2006). However, the alpha7 nAChR knockout (KO) mouse has a mild phenotype (Paylor et al., 1998; Fernandes et al., 2006; Young et al., 2007; Origlia et al., 2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of AChRs in wildtype (WT) mouse retina and to assess whether up-regulation of other AChRs in the alpha7 nAChR KO retina may explain the minimal deficits described in the KO mouse. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed that mRNA transcripts for alpha2-7, alpha 9, alpha10, beta2-4 nAChR subunits and m1-m5 muscarinic AChR (mAChR) subtypes were present in WT murine retina. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of alpha3-5, alpha9, and m1-m5 AChR proteins and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated nAChR and mAChR proteins expressed by subsets of bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells. This is the first reported expression of alpha9 and alpha10 nAChR transcripts and alpha9 nAChR proteins in the retina of any species. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) showed changes in AChR transcript expression in the alpha7 nAChR KO mouse retina relative to WT. Within whole retina alpha2, alpha9, alpha10, beta4, m1 and m4 AChR transcripts were up-regulated, while alpha5 nAChR transcripts were down-regulated. However, cell populations showed subtle differences; m4 mAChR transcripts were up-regulated in the ganglion cell layer and outer portion of the inner nuclear layer (oINL),while beta4 nAChR transcript up-regulation was limited to the oINL. Surprisingly, alpha2, alpha9, beta4, m2 and m4 transcripts were

  16. Boosting visual cortex function and plasticity with acetylcholine to enhance visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Il; Huppé-Gourgues, Frédéric; Vaucher, Elvire

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic system is a potent neuromodulatory system that plays critical roles in cortical plasticity, attention and learning. In this review, we propose that the cellular effects of acetylcholine (ACh) in the primary visual cortex during the processing of visual inputs might induce perceptual learning; i.e., long-term changes in visual perception. Specifically, the pairing of cholinergic activation with visual stimulation increases the signal-to-noise ratio, cue detection ability and long-term facilitation in the primary visual cortex. This cholinergic enhancement would increase the strength of thalamocortical afferents to facilitate the treatment of a novel stimulus while decreasing the cortico-cortical signaling to reduce recurrent or top-down modulation. This balance would be mediated by different cholinergic receptor subtypes that are located on both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons of the different cortical layers. The mechanisms of cholinergic enhancement are closely linked to attentional processes, long-term potentiation (LTP) and modulation of the excitatory/inhibitory balance. Recently, it was found that boosting the cholinergic system during visual training robustly enhances sensory perception in a long-term manner. Our hypothesis is that repetitive pairing of cholinergic and sensory stimulation over a long period of time induces long-term changes in the processing of trained stimuli that might improve perceptual ability. Various non-invasive approaches to the activation of the cholinergic neurons have strong potential to improve visual perception. PMID:25278848

  17. Heterogeneity of neuromuscular junctions in striated muscle of human esophagus demonstrated by triple staining for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, alpha-bungarotoxin, and acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Kallmünzer, Bernd; Sörensen, Björn; Neuhuber, Winfried L; Wörl, Jürgen

    2006-05-01

    During studies on enteric co-innervation in the human esophagus, we found that not all acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-positive motor endplates stained for alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), respectively. Therefore, we probed for differences in neuromuscular junctions in human esophagus by using triple staining for VAChT, alpha-BT, and AChE followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. To exclude that the results were caused by processing artifacts, we additionally examined the influence of a number of factors including post-mortem changes and the type and duration of fixation on the staining results. Four types of neuromuscular junction could be distinguished in human esophagus: type I with VAChT-positive and type II with VAChT-negative nerve terminals on a alpha-BT-positive and AChE-positive endplate area, type III with VAChT-positive nerve terminals on a alpha-BT-negative but AChE-positive endplate area, and type IV with VAChT-negative nerve terminals on a alpha-BT-negative but AChE-positive endplate area. On average, 32% of evaluated AChE-positive motor endplates were type I, 6% type II, 24% type III, and 38% type IV. Based on these results, we suggest that, in human esophagus, (1) the most reliable method for staining motor endplates is presently AChE histochemistry, (2) alpha-BT-sensitive and alpha-BT-resistant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors exist in neuromuscular junctions, and (3) different types of VAChT or transport mechanisms for acetylcholine probably exist in neuromuscular junctions.

  18. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Structure and Function and Response to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Dani, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the “Cys-loop” superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that includes GABAA, glycine, and serotonin (5-HT3) receptors. There are 16 homologous mammalian nAChR subunits encoded by a multigene family. These subunits combine to form many different nAChR subtypes with various expression patterns, diverse functional properties, and differing pharmacological characteristics. Because cholinergic innervation is pervasive and nAChR expression is extremely broad, practically every area of the brain is impinged upon by nicotinic mechanisms. This review briefly examines the structural and functional properties of the receptor/channel complex itself. The review also summarizes activation and desensitization of nAChRs by the low nicotine concentrations obtained from tobacco. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure and the structural characteristics of channel gating has reached an advanced stage. Likewise, the basic functional properties of the channel also are reasonably well understood. It is these receptor/channel properties that underlie the participation of nAChRs in nearly every anatomical region of the mammalian brain. PMID:26472524

  19. Nicotine evokes kinetic tremor by activating the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Naofumi; Iha, Higor A; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of movement disorders (e.g., tremor) and epilepsy. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies using mice and rats to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced tremor. Treatments of animals with nicotine (0.5-2mg/kg, i.p.) elicited kinetic tremor, which was completely suppressed by the nACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MEC). The specific α7 nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) also inhibited nicotine-induced tremor, whereas the α4β2 nACh antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) or the peripheral α3β4 nACh antagonist hexamethonium showed no effects. Mapping analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a tremorgenic dose (1mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the piriform cortex (PirC), medial habenula, solitary nucleus and inferior olive (IO) among 44 brain regions examined. In addition, similarly to the tremor responses, nicotine-induced Fos expression in the PirC and IO was selectively antagonized by MLA, but not by DHβE. Furthermore, an electrical lesioning of the IO, but not the PirC, significantly suppressed the induction of nicotine tremor. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits kinetic tremor in rodents by activating the IO neurons via α7 nACh receptors.

  20. Binding of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine to cholinergic receptors in bovine cerebral arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shimohama, S.; Tsukahara, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Fujiwara, M.

    1985-11-18

    Cholinergic receptor sites in bovine cerebral arteries were analyzed using radioligand binding techniques with the cholinergic agonist, /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (ACh), as the ligand. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-ACh to membrane preparations of bovine cerebral arteries was saturable, of two binding sites, with dissociation constant (K/sub D/) values of 0.32 and 23.7 nM, and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) values of 67 and 252 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-ACh was displaced effectively by muscarinic cholinergic agents and less effectively by nicotinic cholinergic agents. IC/sub 50/ values of cholinergic drugs for /sup 3/H-ACh binding were as follows: atropine, 38.5 nM; ACh, 59.8 nM; oxotremorine, 293 nM; scopolamine 474 nM; carbamylcholine, 990 nM. IC/sub 50/ values of nicotinic cholinergic agents such as nicotine, cytisine and ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin exceeded 50 ..mu..M. Choline acetyltransferase activity was 1.09 nmol/mg protein/hour in the cerebral arteries. These findings suggest that the cholinergic nerves innervate the bovine cerebral arteries and that there are at least two classes of ACh binding sites of different affinities on muscarinic reporters in these arteries. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Structure and Function and Response to Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Dani, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the "Cys-loop" superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that includes GABAA, glycine, and serotonin (5-HT3) receptors. There are 16 homologous mammalian nAChR subunits encoded by a multigene family. These subunits combine to form many different nAChR subtypes with various expression patterns, diverse functional properties, and differing pharmacological characteristics. Because cholinergic innervation is pervasive and nAChR expression is extremely broad, practically every area of the brain is impinged upon by nicotinic mechanisms. This review briefly examines the structural and functional properties of the receptor/channel complex itself. The review also summarizes activation and desensitization of nAChRs by the low nicotine concentrations obtained from tobacco. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure and the structural characteristics of channel gating has reached an advanced stage. Likewise, the basic functional properties of the channel also are reasonably well understood. It is these receptor/channel properties that underlie the participation of nAChRs in nearly every anatomical region of the mammalian brain.

  2. Drug binding to the acetylcholine receptor: Nitroxide analogs of phencyclidine and a local anesthetic

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of noncompetitive inhibitors (NCIs) with Torpedo californica native nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) membranes was examined primarily by the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The goal of this work being to define some of the physical characteristics for the site(s) of association between an NCI and the nAChR membrane. A nitroxide labeled analog of a quaternary amine local anesthetic, 2-(N,N-dimethyl-N-4-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl)amino)-ethyl 4-hexyloxybenzoate iodide (C6SLMeI), displays a strongly immobilized EPR component when added to nAChR membranes in the presence of carbamylcholine (carb). To further this work, a nitroxide labeled analog of phencyclidine (PCP), a potent NCI, was synthesized. 4-phenyl-4-(1-piperidinyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (PPT) exhibited one-third the potency of PCP in inhibiting nAChR mediated ion flux, and from competition binding studies with ({sup 3}H)PCP displayed a K{sub D} of 0.21 {mu}M towards a carb desensitized nAChR and a K{sub 0.5} of 18 {mu}M for a resting {alpha}-bungarotoxin treated nAChR.

  3. A mutational analysis of the acetylcholine receptor channel transmitter binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Akk, G; Zhou, M; Auerbach, A

    1999-01-01

    Mutagenesis and single-channel kinetic analysis were used to investigate the roles of four acetylcholine receptor channel (AChR) residues that are candidates for interacting directly with the agonist. The EC50 of the ACh dose-response curve was increased following alpha-subunit mutations Y93F and Y198F and epsilon-subunit mutations D175N and E184Q. Single-channel kinetic modeling indicates that the increase was caused mainly by a reduced gating equilibrium constant (Theta) in alphaY198F and epsilonD175N, by an increase in the equilibrium dissociation constant for ACh (KD) and a reduction in Theta in alphaY93F, and only by a reduction in KD in epsilonE184Q. This mutation altered the affinity of only one of the two binding sites and was the only mutation that reduced competition by extracellular K+. Additional mutations of epsilonE184 showed that K+ competition was unaltered in epsilonE184D and was virtually eliminated in epsilonE184K, but that neither of these mutations altered the intrinsic affinity for ACh. Thus there is an apparent electrostatic interaction between the epsilonE184 side chain and K+ ( approximately 1.7kBT), but not ACh+. The results are discussed in terms of multisite and induced-fit models of ligand binding to the AChR. PMID:9876135

  4. Keratinocyte nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation modulates early TLR2-mediated wound healing responses.

    PubMed

    Kishibe, Mari; Griffin, Tina M; Radek, Katherine A

    2015-11-01

    The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway spans several macro- and micro-environments to control inflammation via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Physiologic inflammation is necessary for normal wound repair and is triggered, in part, via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Here, we demonstrate that keratinocyte nAChR activation dampens TLR2-mediated migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production, which is restored by a α7-selective nAChR antagonist. The mechanism of this response occurs by blocking the NF-κB and Erk1/2 pathway during early and late wound healing. In a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus wound infection, topical nAChR activation reduces wound AMP and TLR2 production to augment bacterial survival in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that aberrant α7 nAChR activation may impair normal wound healing responses, and that pharmacologic administration of topical nAChR antagonists may improve wound healing outcomes in wounds necessitating a more robust inflammatory response.

  5. Nicotine evokes kinetic tremor by activating the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Naofumi; Iha, Higor A; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of movement disorders (e.g., tremor) and epilepsy. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies using mice and rats to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced tremor. Treatments of animals with nicotine (0.5-2mg/kg, i.p.) elicited kinetic tremor, which was completely suppressed by the nACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MEC). The specific α7 nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) also inhibited nicotine-induced tremor, whereas the α4β2 nACh antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) or the peripheral α3β4 nACh antagonist hexamethonium showed no effects. Mapping analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a tremorgenic dose (1mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the piriform cortex (PirC), medial habenula, solitary nucleus and inferior olive (IO) among 44 brain regions examined. In addition, similarly to the tremor responses, nicotine-induced Fos expression in the PirC and IO was selectively antagonized by MLA, but not by DHβE. Furthermore, an electrical lesioning of the IO, but not the PirC, significantly suppressed the induction of nicotine tremor. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits kinetic tremor in rodents by activating the IO neurons via α7 nACh receptors. PMID:27506652

  6. The Ubiquitin–Proteasome System Regulates the Stability of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Khosrow; Teng, Yanfen

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a key event for protein degradation by the proteasome system, membrane protein internalization, and protein trafficking among cellular compartments. Few data are available on the role of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) in the trafficking of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Experiments conducted in neuron-like differentiated rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) show that the α3, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits are ubiquitinated and that their ubiquitination is necessary for degradation. A 24-h treatment with the proteasome inhibitor PS-341 increased the total levels of α3 and the two β subunits in both whole cell lysates and fractions enriched for the ER/Golgi compartment. nAChR subunit upregulation was also detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions. Inhibition of the lysosomal degradation machinery by E-64 had a significantly smaller effect on nAChR turnover. The present data, together with previous results showing that the α7 nAChR subunit is a target of the UPS, point to a prominent role of the proteasome in nAChR trafficking. PMID:19693707

  7. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew K; Grauso, Marta; Sattelle, David B

    2005-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system and are targets of widely selling insecticides. We have identified the nAChR gene family from the genome of the malaria mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae, to be the second complete insect nAChR gene family described following that of Drosophila melanogaster. Like Drosophila, Anopheles possesses 10 nAChR subunits with orthologous relationships evident between the two insects. Interestingly, the Anopheles orthologues of Dbeta2 and Dbeta3 possess the vicinal cysteines that define alpha subunits. As with Dalpha4 and Dalpha6, the Anopheles orthologues are alternatively spliced at equivalent exons. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis shows that RNA A-to-I editing sites conserved between Dalpha6 of Drosophila and alpha7-2 of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, are not shared with the equivalent nAChR subunit of Anopheles. Indeed, RNA-editing sites identified in functionally significant regions of Dbeta1, Dalpha5, and Dalpha6 are not conserved in the mosquito orthologues, indicating considerable divergence of RNA molecules targeted for editing within the insect order Diptera. These findings shed further light on the diversity of nAChR subunits and may present a useful basis for the development of improved malaria control agents by enhancing our understanding of a validated mosquito insecticide target.

  8. Captopril augments acetylcholine-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions in vitro via kinin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Naman; Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2016-06-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors therapy is aassociated with bothersome dry cough as an adverse effect. The mechanisms underlying this adverse effect are not clear. Therefore, influence of captopril (an ACE inhibitor) on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions was investigated. Further, the mechanisms underlying the captopril-induced changes were also explored. In vitro contractions of rat bronchial smooth muscle to cumulative concentrations of ACh were recorded before and after exposure to captopril. Further, the involvement of kinin and inositol triphosphate (IP₃) pathways for captopril-induced alterations were explored. ACh produced concentration-dependent (5-500 µM) increase in bronchial smooth muscle contractions. Pre-treatment with captopril augmented the ACh-induced contractions at each concentration significantly. Pre-treatment with aprotinin (kinin synthesis inhibitor) or heparin (inositol triphosphate, IP₃-inhibitor), blocked the captopril-induced augmentation of bronchial smooth muscle contractions evoked by ACh. Further, captopril-induced augmentation was absent in calcium-free medium. These results suggest that captopril sensitizes bronchial smooth muscles to ACh-induced contractions. This sensitization may be responsible for dry cough associated with captopril therapy. PMID:27468462

  9. An electrochemical acetylcholine sensor based on lichen-like nickel oxide nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Sattarahmady, N; Heli, H; Vais, R Dehdari

    2013-10-15

    Lichen-like nickel oxide nanostructure was synthesized by a simple method and characterized. The nanostructure was then applied to modify a carbon paste electrode and for the fabrication of a sensor, and the electrocatalytic oxidation of acetylcholine (ACh) on the modified electrode was investigated. The electrocatalytic efficiency of the nickel oxide nanostructure was compared with nickel micro- and nanoparticles, and the lichen-like nickel oxide nanostructure showed the highest efficiency. The mechanism and kinetics of the electrooxidation process were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, steady-state polarization curve and chronoamperometry. The catalytic rate constant and the charge transfer coefficient of ACh electrooxidation by the active nickel species, and the diffusion coefficient of ACh were reported. A sensitive and time-saving hydrodynamic amperometry method was developed for the determination of ACh. ACh was determined with a sensitivity of 392.4 mA M⁻¹ cm⁻² and a limit of detection of 26.7 μM. The sensor had the advantages of simple fabrication method without using any enzyme or reagent and immobilization step, high electrocatalytic activity, very high sensitivity, long-term stability, and antifouling surface property toward ACh and its oxidation product.

  10. Impaired acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus of Trichinella-infected rats

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.M.; Blennerhassett, P.A.; Blennerhassett, M.G.; Vermillion, D.L. )

    1989-12-01

    We examined the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from jejunal longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations in noninfected control rats and in rats infected 6, 23, or 40 days previously with Trichinella spiralis. ACh release was assessed by preincubating the tissue with ({sup 3}H)choline and measuring the evoked release of tritium. The uptake of {sup 3}H was significantly less in tissue from T. spiralis-infected rats compared with control. In tissues from either infected or control animals, electrical field stimulation (30 V, 0.5 ms, 10 Hz for 1 min), or veratridine (6-30 microM) induced {sup 3}H release that was tetrodotoxin sensitive. Depolarization by KCl (25-75 mM) also caused {sup 3}H release, but this was only partially reduced by tetrodotoxin. Radiochromatographic analysis indicated evoked release of {sup 3}H to be almost entirely ({sup 3}H)ACh. In rats infected 6 days previously with T. spiralis, ({sup 3}H)ACh release induced by KCl, veratridine, and field stimulation were decreased at least 80%. The suppression of ({sup 3}H)ACh release induced by veratridine or KCl was fully reversible after 40 days postinfection, but field-stimulated responses remained approximately 50% of control values. These results indicate that T. spiralis infection in the rat is accompanied by a reversible suppression of ACh release from the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the jejunum.

  11. An essential role of acetylcholine-glutamate synergy at habenular synapses in nicotine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Frahm, Silke; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Görlich, Andreas; Zander, Johannes-Friedrich; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Ibañez-Tallon, Ines

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of interest has been focused recently on the habenula and its critical role in aversion, negative-reward and drug dependence. Using a conditional mouse model of the ACh-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (Chat), we report that local elimination of acetylcholine (ACh) in medial habenula (MHb) neurons alters glutamate corelease and presynaptic facilitation. Electron microscopy and immuno-isolation analyses revealed colocalization of ACh and glutamate vesicular transporters in synaptic vesicles (SVs) in the central IPN. Glutamate reuptake in SVs prepared from the IPN was increased by ACh, indicating vesicular synergy. Mice lacking CHAT in habenular neurons were insensitive to nicotine-conditioned reward and withdrawal. These data demonstrate that ACh controls the quantal size and release frequency of glutamate at habenular synapses, and suggest that the synergistic functions of ACh and glutamate may be generally important for modulation of cholinergic circuit function and behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11396.001 PMID:26623516

  12. Suitability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor 3 Antibodies for Immune Detection: Evaluation in Murine Skin.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Frank R; Raghavan, Badrinarayanan; Paddenberg, Renate; Kummer, Wolfgang; Tumala, Susanne; Lochnit, Günter; Gieler, Uwe; Peters, Eva M J

    2015-05-01

    Recent evidence reveals a crucial role for acetylcholine and its receptors in the regulation of inflammation, particularly of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (Chrna7) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (Chrm3). Immunohistochemistry is a key tool for their cellular localization in functional tissues. We evaluated nine different commercially available antibodies on back skin tissue from wild-type (Wt) and gene-deficient (KO) mice. In the immunohistochemical analysis, we focused on key AChR-ligand sensitive skin cells (mast cells, nerve fibers and keratinocytes). All five antibodies tested for Chrm3 and the first three Chrna7 antibodies stained positive in both Wt and respective KO skin. With the 4th antibody (ab23832) nerve fibers were unlabeled in the KO mice. By western blot analysis, this antibody detected bands in both Wt and Chrna7 KO skin and brain. qRT-PCR revealed mRNA amplification with a primer set for the undeleted region in both Wt and KO mice, but none with a primer set for the deleted region in KO mice. By 2D electrophoresis, we found β-actin and β-enolase cross reactivity, which was confirmed by double immunolabeling. In view of the present results, the tested antibodies are not suitable for immunolocalization in skin and suggest thorough control of antibody specificity is required if histomorphometry is intended. PMID:25673288

  13. Acetylcholine-induced current in perfused rat myoballs

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Spherical "myoballs" were grown under tissue culture conditions from striated muscle of neonatal rat thighs. The myoballs were examined electrophysiologically with a suction pipette which was used to pass current and perfuse internally. A microelectrode was used to record membrane potential. Experiments were performed with approximately symmetrical (intracellular and extracellular) sodium aspartate solutions. The resting potential, acetylcholine (ACh) reversal potential, and sodium channel reversal potential were all approximately 0 mV. ACh-induced currents were examined by use of both voltage jumps and voltage ramps in the presence of iontophoretically applied agonist. The voltage-jump relaxations had a single exponential time-course. The time constant, tau, was exponentially related to membrane potential, increasing e-fold for 81 mV hyperpolarization. The equilibrium current- voltage relationship was also approximately exponential, from -120 to +81 mV, increasing e-fold for 104 mV hyperpolarization. The data are consistent with a first-order gating process in which the channel opening rate constant is slightly voltage dependent. The instantaneous current-voltage relationship was sublinear in the hyperpolarizing direction. Several models are discussed which can account for the nonlinearity. Evidence is presented that the "selectivity filter" for the ACh channel is located near the intracellular membrane surface. PMID:7381423

  14. Substance P and acetylcholine both suppress the same K+ current in dissociated smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sims, S M; Walsh, J V; Singer, J J

    1986-10-01

    The effect of substance P on freshly dissociated gastric smooth muscle cells was examined electrophysiologically. Substance P caused depolarization, associated with a membrane conductance decrease, which led to the generation of action potentials and contraction. When the membrane potential was held constant under voltage clamp, substance P induced a net inward current, also associated with a conductance decrease. The net inward current resulted from suppression of an outward K+ current, one which resembled the acetylcholine-sensitive M-current in these cells. When substance P maximally suppressed this outward K+ current, acetylcholine (ACh) had no additional effect. Conversely, when ACh fully suppressed the M-current, substance P was without additional effect. These results indicate that substance P suppresses the same outward K+ current affected by ACh. Suppression of M-current by substance P was observed in approximately half (44 of 85) of the cells studied in these experiments. In those cells that did not respond to substance P, ACh was nevertheless capable of suppressing the M-current. Thus both substance P and cholinergic agonists appear to exert their excitatory effects on smooth muscle cells by inhibiting a common K+ current.

  15. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of DHβE Analogues as Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) is a member of the Erythrina family of alkaloids and a potent competitive antagonist of the α4β2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Guided by an X-ray structure of DHβE in complex with an ACh binding protein, we detail the design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of a series of DHβE analogues in which two of the four rings in the natural product has been excluded. We found that the direct analogue of DHβE maintains affinity for the α4β2-subtype, but further modifications of the simplified analogues were detrimental to their activities on the nAChRs. PMID:25050162

  16. Characterization of alpha-conotoxin interactions with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ashcom, J D; Stiles, B G

    1997-01-01

    The venoms of predatory marine cone snails, Conus species, contain numerous peptides and proteins with remarkably diverse pharmacological properties. One group of peptides are the alpha-conotoxins, which consist of 13-19 amino acids constrained by two disulphide bonds. A biologically active fluorescein derivative of Conus geographus alpha-conotoxin GI (FGI) was used in novel solution-phase-binding assays with purified Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) and monoclonal antibodies developed against the toxin. The binding of FGI to nAchR or antibody had apparent dissociation constants of 10-100 nM. Structure-function studies with alpha-conotoxin GI analogues composed of a single disulphide loop revealed that different conformational restraints are necessary for effective toxin interactions with nAchR or antibodies. PMID:9359860

  17. Fragment growing induces conformational changes in acetylcholine-binding protein: a structural and thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Edink, Ewald; Rucktooa, Prakash; Retra, Kim; Akdemir, Atilla; Nahar, Tariq; Zuiderveld, Obbe; van Elk, René; Janssen, Elwin; van Nierop, Pim; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline; Smit, August B; Sixma, Titia K; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2011-04-13

    Optimization of fragment hits toward high-affinity lead compounds is a crucial aspect of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). In the current study, we have successfully optimized a fragment by growing into a ligand-inducible subpocket of the binding site of acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP). This protein is a soluble homologue of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of Cys-loop receptors. The fragment optimization was monitored with X-ray structures of ligand complexes and systematic thermodynamic analyses using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Using site-directed mutagenesis and AChBP from different species, we find that specific changes in thermodynamic binding profiles, are indicative of interactions with the ligand-inducible subpocket of AChBP. This study illustrates that thermodynamic analysis provides valuable information on ligand binding modes and is complementary to affinity data when guiding rational structure- and fragment-based discovery approaches. PMID:21322593

  18. Calcium signalling mediated by the α9 acetylcholine receptor in a cochlear cell line from the Immortomouse

    PubMed Central

    Jagger, D J; Griesinger, C B; Rivolta, M N; Holley, M C; Ashmore, J F

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of the α9 acetylcholine receptor (α9AChR) expressed in hair cell precursors in an immortalized cell line UB/OC-2 developed from the organ of Corti of the transgenic H-2Kb-tsA58 mouse (the Immortomouse) using both calcium imaging and whole-cell recording. Ratiometric measurements of fura-2 fluorescence revealed an increase of intracellular calcium concentration in cells when challenged with 10 μM ACh. The calcium increase was seen in 66 % of the cells grown at 39 °C in differentiated conditions. A smaller fraction (34 %) of cells grown at 33 °C in proliferative conditions responded. Caffeine (10 mM) elevated cell calcium. In the absence of caffeine, the majority of imaged cells responded only once to ACh. A small proportion (< 2 % of the total) responded with an increase in intracellular calcium to multiple ACh presentations. Pretreatment with caffeine inhibited all calcium responses to ACh. In whole-cell tight-seal recordings 10 μM ACh activated an inward, non-selective cation current. The reversal potential of the ACh-activated inward current was dependent on the extracellular calcium concentration with an estimated PCa/PNa of 80 for the α9 receptor at physiological calcium levels. The data indicate that ACh activates a calcium-permeable channel α9AChR in UB/OC-2 cells and that the channel has a significantly higher calcium permeability than other AChRs. The results indicate that the α9AChR may be able to elevate intracellular calcium levels in hair cells both directly and via store release. PMID:10944169

  19. In silico point mutation and evolutionary trace analysis applied to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in deciphering ligand-binding surfaces.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Marimuthu; Shanmughavel, Piramanayagam; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2010-10-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the Cys-loop superfamily and contain ligand gated ion channels (LGIC). These receptors are located mostly in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). nAChRs reside at pre-synaptic regions to mediate acetylcholine neurotransmission and in the post synaptic membrane to propagate nerve impulses through neurons via acetylcholine. Malfunction of this neurotransmitter receptor is believed to cause various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, and nAChRs are thus important drug targets. In the present work, starting from an earlier model of pentameric alpha7nAChR, a considerable effort has been taken to investigate interaction with ligands by performing docking studies with a diverse array of agonists and antagonists. Analysis of these docking complexes reveals identification of possible ligand-interacting residues. Some of these residues, e.g. Ser34, Gln55, Ser146, and Tyr166, which are evolutionarily conserved, were specifically subjected to virtual mutations based on their amino acid properties and found to be highly sensitive in the presence of antagonists by docking. Further, the study was extended using evolutionary trace analysis, revealing conserved and class-specific residues close to the putative ligand-binding site, further supporting the results of docking experiments.

  20. α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulated by galantamine on nigrostriatal terminals regulates dopamine receptor-mediated rotational behavior.

    PubMed

    Inden, Masatoshi; Takata, Kazuyuki; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Ashihara, Eishi; Tooyama, Ikuo; Shimohama, Shun; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    Galantamine, an acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitor used to treat dementia symptoms, also acts as an allosteric potentiating ligand (APL) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study was designed to evaluate the allosteric effect of galantamine on nAChR regulation of nigrostrial dopaminergic neuronal function in the hemiparkinsonian rat model established by unilateral nigral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection. Methamphetamine, a dopamine releaser, induced ipsilateral rotation, whereas dopamine agonists apomorphine (a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist), SKF38393 (a selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist), and quinpirole (a selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist) induced contralateral rotation. When 6-OHDA-injected rats were co-treated with nomifensine, a dopamine transporter inhibitor, a more pronounced and a remarkable effect of nicotine and galantamine was observed. Under these conditions, the combination of nomifensine with nicotine or galantamine induced the ipsilateral rotation similar to the methamphetamine-induced rotational behavior, indicating that nicotine and galantamine also induce dopamine release from striatal terminals. Both nicotine- and galantamine-induced rotations were significantly blocked by flupenthixol (an antagonist of both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors) and mecamylamine (an antagonist of nAChRs), suggesting that galantamine modulation of nAChRs on striatal dopaminergic terminals regulates dopamine receptor-mediated movement. Immunohistochemical staining showed that α4 nAChRs were highly expressed on striatal dopaminergic terminals, while no α7 nAChRs were detected. Pretreatment with the α4 nAChR antagonist dihydroxy-β-erythroidine significantly inhibited nicotine- and galantamine-induced rotational behaviors, whereas pretreatment with the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine was ineffective. Moreover, the α4 nAChR agonist ABT-418 induced ipsilateral rotation, while the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 had no

  1. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location. PMID:27233822

  2. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location.

  3. The dual-acting AChE inhibitor and H3 receptor antagonist UW-MD-72 reverses amnesia induced by scopolamine or dizocilpine in passive avoidance paradigm in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Khan, Nadia; Darras, Fouad H; Pockes, Steffen; Decker, Michael

    2016-10-15

    Both the acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) are involved in the metabolism and modulation of acetylcholine release and numerous other centrally acting neurotransmitters. Hence, dual-active AChE inhibitors (AChEIs) and H3R antagonists hold potential to treat cognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The novel dual-acting AChEI and H3R antagonist 7-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)-2,3-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-9(1H)-one (UW-MD-72) shows excellent selectivity profiles over the AChE's isoenzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as well as high and balanced in-vitro affinities at both AChE and hH3R with IC50 of 5.4μM on hAChE and hH3R antagonism with Ki of 2.54μM, respectively. In the current study, the effects of UW-MD-72 (1.25, 2.5, and 5mg/kg, i.p.) on memory deficits induced by the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (SCO) and the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine (DIZ) were investigated in a step-through type passive avoidance paradigm in adult male rats applying donepezil (DOZ) and pitolisant (PIT) as reference drugs. The results observed show that SCO (2mg/kg, i.p.) and DIZ (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired learning and memory in rats. However, acute systemic administration of UW-MD-72 significantly ameliorated the SCO- and DIZ-induced amnesic effects. Furthermore, the ameliorating activity of UW-MD-72 (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) in DIZ-induced amnesia was partly reversed when rats were pretreated with the centrally-acting H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL, 10mg/kg, i.p.), but not with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR, 10mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, ameliorative effect of UW-MD-72 (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) in DIZ-induced amnesia was strongly reversed when rats were pretreated with a combination of ZOL (10mg/kg, i.p.) and SCO (1.0mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that these memory enhancing effects were, in addition to other neural circuits, observed through histaminergic H2R as well as

  4. Effect of ethanol at clinically relevant concentrations on atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Pásek, Michal; Hořáková, Zuzana; Hošek, Jan; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol intoxication tends to induce arrhythmias, most often the atrial fibrillation. To elucidate arrhythmogenic mechanisms related to alcohol consumption, the effect of ethanol on main components of the ionic membrane current is investigated step by step. Considering limited knowledge, we aimed to examine the effect of clinically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0.8-80 mM) on acetylcholine-sensitive inward rectifier potassium current I K(Ach). Experiments were performed by the whole-cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat and guinea-pig atrial myocytes, and on expressed human Kir3.1/3.4 channels. Ethanol induced changes of I K(Ach) in the whole range of concentrations applied; the effect was not voltage dependent. The constitutively active component of I K(Ach) was significantly increased by ethanol with the maximum effect (an increase by ∼100 %) between 8 and 20 mM. The changes were comparable in rat and guinea-pig atrial myocytes and also in expressed human Kir3.1/3.4 channels (i.e., structural correlate of I K(Ach)). In the case of the acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach), a dual ethanol effect was apparent with a striking heterogeneity of changes in individual cells. The effect correlated with the current magnitude in control: the current was increased by eth-anol in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The average effect peaked at 20 mM ethanol (an increase of the current by ∼20 %). Observed changes of action potential duration agreed well with the voltage clamp data. Ethanol significantly affected both components of I K(Ach) even in concentrations corresponding to light alcohol consumption.

  5. Propoxur-induced acetylcholine esterase inhibition and impairment of cognitive function: attenuation by Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Yadav, C S; Kumar, V; Suke, S G; Ahmed, R S; Mediratta, P K; Banerjee, B D

    2010-04-01

    Propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate) is widely used as an acaricide in agriculture and public health programs. Studies have shown that sub-chronic exposure to propoxur can cause oxidative stress and immuno-suppression in rats. Carbamates are also known to exhibit inhibitory effect on cholinesterase activity, which is directly related to their cholinergic effects. In the present study, the effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), a widely used herbal drug possessing anti-stress and immunomodulatory properties was studied on propoxur-induced acetylcholine esterase inhibition and impairment of cognitive function in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I was treated with olive oil and served as control. Group II was administered orally with propoxur (10 mg/kg b.wt.) in olive oil, group III received a combination of propoxur (10 mg/kg b.wt.) and W. somnifera (100 mg/kg b.wt.) suspension and group IV W. somnifera (100 mg/kg b.wt.) only. All animals were treated for 30 days. Cognitive behaviour was assessed by transfer latency using elevated plus maze. Blood and brain acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was also assessed. Oral administration of propoxur (10 mg/kg b.wt.) resulted in a significant reduction of brain and blood AChE activity. A significant prolongation of the acquisition as well as retention transfer latency was observed in propoxur-treated rats. Oral treatment of W. somnifera exerts protective effect and attenuates AChE inhibition and cognitive impairment caused by sub-chronic exposure to propoxur.

  6. Acetylcholine receptors from human muscle as pharmacological targets for ALS therapy

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Lopergolo, Diego; Roseti, Cristina; Bertollini, Cristina; Ruffolo, Gabriele; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Onesti, Emanuela; Limatola, Cristina; Miledi, Ricardo; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons that leads to progressive paralysis of skeletal muscle. Studies of ALS have revealed defects in expression of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in skeletal muscle that occur even in the absence of motor neuron anomalies. The endocannabinoid palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) modified the clinical conditions in one ALS patient, improving muscle force and respiratory efficacy. By microtransplanting muscle membranes from selected ALS patients into Xenopus oocytes, we show that PEA reduces the desensitization of acetylcholine-evoked currents after repetitive neurotransmitter application (i.e., rundown). The same effect was observed using muscle samples from denervated (non-ALS) control patients. The expression of human recombinant α1β1γδ (γ-AChRs) and α1β1εδ AChRs (ε-AChRs) in Xenopus oocytes revealed that PEA selectively affected the rundown of ACh currents in ε-AChRs. A clear up-regulation of the α1 subunit in muscle from ALS patients compared with that from non-ALS patients was found by quantitative PCR, but no differential expression was found for other subunits. Clinically, ALS patients treated with PEA showed a lower decrease in their forced vital capacity (FVC) over time as compared with untreated ALS patients, suggesting that PEA can enhance pulmonary function in ALS. In the present work, data were collected from a cohort of 76 ALS patients and 17 denervated patients. Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of skeletal muscle in ALS pathogenesis and pave the way for the development of new drugs to hamper the clinical effects of the disease. PMID:26929355

  7. Adolescent nicotine treatment changes the response of acetylcholine systems to subsequent nicotine administration in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Bodwell, Bethany E; Ryde, Ian T; Seidler, Frederic J

    2008-05-15

    Nicotine alters the developmental trajectory of acetylcholine (ACh) systems in the immature brain, with vulnerability extending from fetal stages through adolescence. We administered nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days PN30-47) and then examined the subsequent response to nicotine given in adulthood (PN90-107), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and performing evaluations during nicotine treatment (PN105) and withdrawal (PN110, PN120 and PN130), as well as assessing persistent changes at 6 months of age (PN180). We measured nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, a marker for ACh terminals, and hemicholinium-3 (HC3) binding to the choline transporter, an index of ACh presynaptic activity. By itself, adolescent nicotine exposure evoked sex-selective deficits in cerebrocortical HC3 binding while elevating ChAT in young adulthood in striatum and midbrain. Nicotine given in adulthood produced profound nAChR upregulation lasting 2 weeks after discontinuing treatment, and decrements in cerebrocortical and striatal HC3 binding emerged during withdrawal, indicative of reduced ACh synaptic activity. For all three parameters, adolescent nicotine altered the responses to nicotine given in adulthood, producing both sensitization and desensitization that depended on sex and brain region, effects that parallel the disparate behavioral outcomes reported for these treatments. The interaction seen here for the impact of adolescent nicotine exposure on adult nicotine responses was substantially greater than that found previously for the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on adult responses. Our findings thus reinforce the importance of adolescence as a critical period in which the future responsiveness to nicotine is programmed.

  8. Adolescent nicotine treatment changes the response of acetylcholine systems to subsequent nicotine administration in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Bodwell, Bethany E; Ryde, Ian T; Seidler, Frederic J

    2008-05-15

    Nicotine alters the developmental trajectory of acetylcholine (ACh) systems in the immature brain, with vulnerability extending from fetal stages through adolescence. We administered nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days PN30-47) and then examined the subsequent response to nicotine given in adulthood (PN90-107), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and performing evaluations during nicotine treatment (PN105) and withdrawal (PN110, PN120 and PN130), as well as assessing persistent changes at 6 months of age (PN180). We measured nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, a marker for ACh terminals, and hemicholinium-3 (HC3) binding to the choline transporter, an index of ACh presynaptic activity. By itself, adolescent nicotine exposure evoked sex-selective deficits in cerebrocortical HC3 binding while elevating ChAT in young adulthood in striatum and midbrain. Nicotine given in adulthood produced profound nAChR upregulation lasting 2 weeks after discontinuing treatment, and decrements in cerebrocortical and striatal HC3 binding emerged during withdrawal, indicative of reduced ACh synaptic activity. For all three parameters, adolescent nicotine altered the responses to nicotine given in adulthood, producing both sensitization and desensitization that depended on sex and brain region, effects that parallel the disparate behavioral outcomes reported for these treatments. The interaction seen here for the impact of adolescent nicotine exposure on adult nicotine responses was substantially greater than that found previously for the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on adult responses. Our findings thus reinforce the importance of adolescence as a critical period in which the future responsiveness to nicotine is programmed. PMID:18395624

  9. Acetylcholine Receptor: An Allosteric Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Devillers-Thiery, Anne; Chemouilli, Phillippe

    1984-09-01

    The nicotine receptor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is an allosteric protein composed of four different subunits assembled in a transmembrane pentamer α 2β γ δ . The protein carries two acetylcholine sites at the level of the α subunits and contains the ion channel. The complete sequence of the four subunits is known. The membrane-bound protein undergoes conformational transitions that regulate the opening of the ion channel and are affected by various categories of pharmacologically active ligands.

  10. An in vitro AChE inhibition assay combined with UF-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS approach for screening and characterizing of AChE inhibitors from roots of Coptis chinensis Franch.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hengqiang; Zhou, Siduo; Zhang, Minmin; Feng, Jinhong; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Daijie; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao

    2016-02-20

    In this study, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition assay based on microplate reader combined with ultrafiltration high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass (UF-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS) was developed for the rapid screening and identification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) from roots of Coptis chinensis Franch. Incubation conditions such as enzyme concentration, incubation time, incubation temperature and co-solvent was optimized so as to get better screening results. Five alkaloids including columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, palmatine and berberine were found with AChE inhibition activity in the 80% ethanol extract of C. chinensis Franch. The screened compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-TOF/MS compared with the reference stands and literatures. The screened results were verified by in vitro AChE inhibition assays, palmatine showed the best AChE inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 36.6μM among the five compounds. Results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using in vitro AChE inhibition assay and UF-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS could be widely applied for rapid screening and identification of AChEI from complex TCM extract.

  11. Endogenously released ACh and exogenous nicotine differentially facilitate long-term potentiation induction in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice.

    PubMed

    Nakauchi, Sakura; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2012-05-01

    We examined the role of α7- and β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Theta-burst stimulation (TBS), mimicking the brain's naturally occurring theta rhythm, induced robust LTP in hippocampal slices from α7 and β2 knockout mice. This suggests TBS is capable of inducing LTP without activation of α7- or β2-containing nAChRs. However, when weak TBS was applied, the modulatory effects of nicotinic receptors on LTP induction became visible. We showed that during weak TBS, activation of α7 nAChRs occurs by the release of ACh, contributing to LTP induction. Additionally, bath-application of nicotine activated β2-containing nAChRs to promote LTP induction. Despite predicted nicotine-induced desensitization, synaptically mediated activation of α7 nAChRs still occurs in the presence of nicotine and contributed to LTP induction. Optical recording of single-stimulation-evoked excitatory activity with a voltage-sensitive dye revealed enhanced excitatory activity in the presence of nicotine. This effect of nicotine was robust during high-frequency stimulation, and was accompanied by enhanced burst excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Nicotine-induced enhancement of excitatory activity was observed in slices from α7 knockout mice, but was absent in β2 knockout mice. These results suggest that the nicotine-induced enhancement of excitatory activity is mediated by β2-containing nAChRs, and is related to the nicotine-induced facilitation of LTP induction. Thus, our study demonstrates that the activation of α7- and β2-containing nAChRs differentially facilitates LTP induction via endogenously released ACh and exogenous nicotine, respectively, in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice.

  12. Automated Patch Clamp Analysis of nAChα7 and Na(V)1.7 Channels.

    PubMed

    Obergrussberger, Alison; Haarmann, Claudia; Rinke, Ilka; Becker, Nadine; Guinot, David; Brueggemann, Andrea; Stoelzle-Feix, Sonja; George, Michael; Fertig, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Automated patch clamp devices are now commonly used for studying ion channels. A useful modification of this approach is the replacement of the glass pipet with a thin planar glass layer with a small hole in the middle. Planar patch clamp devices, such as the three described in this unit, are overtaking glass pipets in popularity because they increase throughput, are easier to use, provide for the acquisition of high-quality and information-rich data, and allow for rapid perfusion and temperature control. Covered in this unit are two challenging targets in drug discovery: voltage-gated sodium subtype 1.7 (Na(V)1.7) and nicotinic acetylcholine α7 receptors (nAChα7R). Provided herein are protocols for recording activation and inactivation kinetics of Na(V)1.7, and activation and allosteric modulation of nAChα7R. PMID:24934604

  13. The Novel α7β2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtype Is Expressed in Mouse and Human Basal Forebrain: Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Milena; Zoli, Michele; George, Andrew A.; Lukas, Ronald J.; Pistillo, Francesco; Maskos, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    We examined α7β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7β2-nAChR) expression in mammalian brain and compared pharmacological profiles of homomeric α7-nAChRs and α7β2-nAChRs. α-Bungarotoxin affinity purification or immunoprecipitation with anti-α7 subunit antibodies (Abs) was used to isolate nAChRs containing α7 subunits from mouse or human brain samples. α7β2-nAChRs were detected in forebrain, but not other tested regions, from both species, based on Western blot analysis of isolates using β2 subunit–specific Abs. Ab specificity was confirmed in control studies using subunit-null mutant mice or cell lines heterologously expressing specific human nAChR subtypes and subunits. Functional expression in Xenopus oocytes of concatenated pentameric (α7)5-, (α7)4(β2)1-, and (α7)3(β2)2-nAChRs was confirmed using two-electrode voltage clamp recording of responses to nicotinic ligands. Importantly, pharmacological profiles were indistinguishable for concatenated (α7)5-nAChRs or for homomeric α7-nAChRs constituted from unlinked α7 subunits. Pharmacological profiles were similar for (α7)5-, (α7)4(β2)1-, and (α7)3(β2)2-nAChRs except for diminished efficacy of nicotine (normalized to acetylcholine efficacy) at α7β2- versus α7-nAChRs. This study represents the first direct confirmation of α7β2-nAChR expression in human and mouse forebrain, supporting previous mouse studies that suggested relevance of α7β2-nAChRs in Alzheimer disease etiopathogenesis. These data also indicate that α7β2-nAChR subunit isoforms with different α7/β2 subunit ratios have similar pharmacological profiles to each other and to α7 homopentameric nAChRs. This supports the hypothesis that α7β2-nAChR agonist activation predominantly or entirely reflects binding to α7/α7 subunit interface sites. PMID:25002271

  14. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulation of mu (mu) opioid receptors in adult rat sphenopalatine ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Margas, Wojciech; Mahmoud, Saifeldin; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) neurons represent the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system involved in controlling cerebral blood flow. In the present study, we examined the coupling mechanism between mu (mu) opioid receptors (MOR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) with Ca(2+) channels in acutely dissociated adult rat SPG neurons. Successful MOR activation was recorded in approximately 40-45% of SPG neurons employing the whole cell variant of the patch-clamp technique. In addition, immunofluorescence assays indicated that MOR are not expressed in all SPG neurons while M(2) mAChR staining was evident in all neurons. The concentration-response relationships generated with morphine and [d-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4-Glycol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) showed IC(50) values of 15.2 and 56.1 nM and maximal Ca(2+) current inhibition of 26.0 and 38.7%, respectively. Activation of MOR or M(2) mAChR with morphine or oxotremorine-methiodide (Oxo-M), respectively, resulted in voltage-dependent inhibition of Ca(2+) currents via coupling with Galpha(i/o) protein subunits. The acute prolonged exposure (10 min) of neurons to morphine or Oxo-M led to the homologous desensitization of MOR and M(2) mAChR, respectively. The prolonged stimulation of M(2) mAChR with Oxo-M resulted in heterologous desensitization of morphine-mediated Ca(2+) current inhibition, and was sensitive to the M(2) mAChR blocker methoctramine. On the other hand, when the neurons were exposed to morphine or DAMGO for 10 min, heterologous desensitization of M(2) mAChR was not observed. These results suggest that in rat SPG neurons activation of M(2) mAChR likely modulates opioid transmission in the brain vasculature to adequately maintain cerebral blood flow. PMID:19889856

  15. Nitric oxide modulates the cardiovascular effects elicited by acetylcholine in the NTS of awake rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Liana Gouveia; Dias, Ana Carolina Rodrigues; Furlan, Elaina; Colombari, Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Microinjection of acetylcholine chloride (ACh) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of awake rats caused a transient and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia. Because it is known that cardiovascular reflexes are affected by nitric oxide (NO) produced in the NTS, we investigated whether these ACh-induced responses depend on NO in the NTS. Responses to ACh (500 pmol in 100 nl) were strongly reduced by ipsilateral microinjection of the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 nmol in 100 nl) in the NTS: mean arterial pressure (MAP) fell by 50 +/- 5 mmHg before L-NAME to 9 +/- 4 mmHg, 10 min after L-NAME, and HR fell by 100 +/- 26 bpm before L-NAME to 20 +/- 10 bpm, 10 min after L-NAME (both P < 0.05). Microinjection of the selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole (TRIM; 13.3 nmol in 100 nl), in the NTS also reduced responses to ACh: MAP fell from 42 +/- 3 mmHg before TRIM to 27 +/- 6 mmHg, 10 min after TRIM (P < 0.05). TRIM also tended to reduce ACh-induced bradycardia, but this effect was not statistically significant. ACh-induced hypotension and bradycardia returned to control levels 30-45 min after NOS inhibition. Control injections with D-NAME and saline did not affect resting values or the response to ACh. In conclusion, injection of ACh into the NTS of conscious rats induces hypotension and bradycardia, and these effects may be mediated at least partly by NO produced in NTS neurons.

  16. Propofol and AZD3043 Inhibit Adult Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin; Krupp, Johannes; Dabrowski, Michael A

    2016-02-06

    Propofol is a widely used general anaesthetic with muscle relaxant properties. Similarly as propofol, the new general anaesthetic AZD3043 targets the GABAA receptor for its anaesthetic effects, but the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has not been investigated. Notably, there is a gap of knowledge about the interaction between propofol and the nAChRs found in the adult neuromuscular junction. The objective was to evaluate whether propofol or AZD3043 interact with the α1β1δε, α3β2, or α7 nAChR subtypes that can be found in the neuromuscular junction and if there are any differences in affinity for those subtypes between propofol and AZD3043. Human nAChR subtypes α1β1δε, α3β2, and α7 were expressed into Xenopus oocytes and studied with an automated voltage-clamp. Propofol and AZD3043 inhibited ACh-induced currents in all of the nAChRs studied with inhibitory concentrations higher than those needed for general anaesthesia. AZD3043 was a more potent inhibitor at the adult muscle nAChR subtype compared to propofol. Propofol and AZD3043 inhibit nAChR subtypes that can be found in the adult NMJ in concentrations higher than needed for general anaesthesia. This finding needs to be evaluated in an in vitro nerve-muscle preparation and suggests one possible explanation for the muscle relaxant effect of propofol seen during higher doses.

  17. Propofol and AZD3043 Inhibit Adult Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin; Krupp, Johannes; Dabrowski, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Propofol is a widely used general anaesthetic with muscle relaxant properties. Similarly as propofol, the new general anaesthetic AZD3043 targets the GABAA receptor for its anaesthetic effects, but the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has not been investigated. Notably, there is a gap of knowledge about the interaction between propofol and the nAChRs found in the adult neuromuscular junction. The objective was to evaluate whether propofol or AZD3043 interact with the α1β1δε, α3β2, or α7 nAChR subtypes that can be found in the neuromuscular junction and if there are any differences in affinity for those subtypes between propofol and AZD3043. Human nAChR subtypes α1β1δε, α3β2, and α7 were expressed into Xenopus oocytes and studied with an automated voltage-clamp. Propofol and AZD3043 inhibited ACh-induced currents in all of the nAChRs studied with inhibitory concentrations higher than those needed for general anaesthesia. AZD3043 was a more potent inhibitor at the adult muscle nAChR subtype compared to propofol. Propofol and AZD3043 inhibit nAChR subtypes that can be found in the adult NMJ in concentrations higher than needed for general anaesthesia. This finding needs to be evaluated in an in vitro nerve-muscle preparation and suggests one possible explanation for the muscle relaxant effect of propofol seen during higher doses. PMID:26861354

  18. Targeting brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in Alzheimer's disease: rationale and current status.

    PubMed

    Vallés, Ana Sofía; Borroni, María Virginia; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older persons. Pathognomonic hallmarks of the disease include the development of amyloid senile plaques and deposits of neurofibrillary tangles. These changes occur in the brain long before the clinical manifestations of AD (cognitive impairment in particular) become apparent. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), particularly the α7 subtype, are highly expressed in brain regions relevant to cognitive and memory functions and involved in the processing of sensory information. There is strong evidence that implicates the participation of AChRs in AD. This review briefly introduces current strategies addressing the pathophysiologic findings (amyloid-β-peptide plaques, neurofibrillary tangles) and then focuses on more recent efforts of pharmacologic intervention in AD, specifically targeted to the α7 AChR. Whereas cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine, together with the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine are at the forefront of present-day clinical intervention for AD, new insights into AChR molecular pharmacology are bringing other drugs, directed at AChRs, to center stage. Among these are the positive allosteric modulators that selectively target α7 AChRs and are aimed at unleashing the factors that hinder agonist-mediated, α7 AChR channel activation. This calls for more detailed knowledge of the distribution, functional properties, and involvement of AChRs in various signaling cascades-together with the corresponding abnormalities in all these properties-to be able to engineer strategies in drug design and evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of new compounds targeting this class of neurotransmitter receptors. PMID:25248971

  19. Crystal structure of acetylcholine-binding protein from Bulinus truncatus reveals the conserved structural scaffold and sites of variation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Celie, Patrick H N; Klaassen, Remco V; van Rossum-Fikkert, Sarah E; van Elk, René; van Nierop, Pim; Smit, August B; Sixma, Titia K

    2005-07-15

    The crystal structure of acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) from the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis is the established model for the ligand binding domains of the ligand-gated ion channel family, which includes nicotinic acetylcholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), types A and C, and glycine receptors. Here we present the crystal structure of a remote homolog, AChBP from Bulinus truncatus, which reveals both the conserved structural scaffold and the sites of variation in this receptor family. These include rigid body movements of loops that are close to the transmembrane interface in the receptors and changes in the intermonomer contacts, which alter the pentamer stability drastically. Structural, pharmacological and mutational analysis of both AChBPs shows how 3 amino acid changes in the binding site contribute to a 5-10-fold difference in affinity for nicotinic ligands. Comparison of these structures will be valuable for improving structure-function studies of ligand-gated ion channel receptors, including signal transduction, homology modeling, and drug design. PMID:15899893

  20. Alpha3* and alpha 7 nAChR-mediated Ca2+ transient generation in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ween, Hilde; Thorin-Hagene, Kirsten; Andersen, Elisabeth; Grønlien, Jens Halvard; Lee, Chih-Hung; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Malysz, John

    2010-10-01

    Alpha3-containing (alpha 3*) and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells and implicated in Ca(2+) signaling. In this study, we investigated the intracellular Ca(2+) transient generation evoked by selective activation of alpha 3* (agonist potency rank order: epibatidine>varenicline>nicotine approximately cytisine) and alpha 7 (rank order in the presence of alpha 7 positive allosteric modulator or PAM: A-795723>NS6784 approximately PNU-282987) using, respectively, varenicline and NS6784 (+alpha 7 PAM) by Ca(2+) imaging. Effects of inhibitors of nAChRs (MLA and mecamylamine), ER Ca(2+) ATPase pump (CPA and thapsigargin), Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (ryanodine and dantrolene), Ca(2+) channels (nitrendipine, diltiazem, and Cd(2+)), and removal of extracellular Ca(2+) were examined. alpha 7 PAMs, when tested in the presence of NS6784, were more active when added first, followed by the agonist, than in the reverse order. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) - but not CPA, thapsigargin, ryanodine, dantrolene, nitrendipine, diltiazem, or Cd(2+) - diminished the alpha 7 agonist-evoked Ca(2+) transients. In contrast, only diltiazem and nitrendipine and removal of extracellular Ca(2+) inhibited the alpha 3*-mediated Ca(2+) transients. The differential effect of diltiazem and nitrendipine versus Cd(2+) was due to direct inhibition of alpha 3* nAChRs as revealed by Ca(2+) imaging in HEK-293 cells expressing human alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs and patch clamp in IMR-32 cells. In summary, this study provides evidence that alpha 3* and alpha 7 nAChR agonist-evoked global Ca(2+) transient generation in IMR-32 cells does not primarily involve voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, intracellular Ca(2+) stores, or Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. These mechanisms may, however, be still involved in other forms of nAChR-mediated Ca(2+) signaling.

  1. Honeybees Produce Millimolar Concentrations of Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine for Breeding: Possible Adverse Effects of Neonicotinoids.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Ignaz; Gärtner, Hedwig-Annabel; Michel-Schmidt, Rosmarie; Brochhausen, Christoph; Schmitz, Luise; Anspach, Laura; Grünewald, Bernd; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide use of neonicotinoid pesticides has caused concern on account of their involvement in the decline of bee populations, which are key pollinators in most ecosystems. Here we describe a role of non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) for breeding of Apis mellifera carnica and a so far unknown effect of neonicotinoids on non-target insects. Royal jelly or larval food are produced by the hypopharyngeal gland of nursing bees and contain unusually high ACh concentrations (4-8 mM). ACh is extremely well conserved in royal jelly or brood food because of the acidic pH of 4.0. This condition protects ACh from degradation thus ensuring delivery of intact ACh to larvae. Raising the pH to ≥5.5 and applying cholinesterase reduced the content of ACh substantially (by 75-90%) in larval food. When this manipulated brood was tested in artificial larval breeding experiments, the survival rate was higher with food supplemented by 100% with ACh (6 mM) than with food not supplemented with ACh. ACh release from the hypopharyngeal gland and its content in brood food declined by 80%, when honeybee colonies were exposed for 4 weeks to high concentrations of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (100 parts per billion [ppb]) or thiacloprid (8,800 ppb). Under these conditions the secretory cells of the gland were markedly damaged and brood development was severely compromised. Even field-relevant low concentrations of thiacloprid (200 ppb) or clothianidin (1 and 10 ppb) reduced ACh level in the brood food and showed initial adverse effects on brood development. Our findings indicate a hitherto unknown target of neonicotinoids to induce adverse effects on non-neuronal ACh which should be considered when re-assessing the environmental risks of these compounds. To our knowledge this is a new biological mechanism, and we suggest that, in addition to their well documented neurotoxic effects, neonicotinoids may contribute to honeybee colony losses consecutive to a reduction of the ACh content in

  2. Megakaryocytes and platelets express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors but nicotine does not affect megakaryopoiesis or platelet function.

    PubMed

    Schedel, Angelika; Kaiser, Kerstin; Uhlig, Stefanie; Lorenz, Florian; Sarin, Anip; Starigk, Julian; Hassmann, Dennis; Bieback, Karen; Bugert, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In our previous investigations we have shown that platelets and their precursors express nicotinic α7 acetylcholine receptors (nAChRα7) that are involved in platelet function and in vitro differentiation of the megakaryoblastic cell line MEG-01. In this study, we were interested in the expression analysis of additional nAChR and the effects of nicotine in an ex vivo model using megakaryocytic cells differentiated from cord blood derived CD34(+) cells (CBMK) and an in vivo model using blood samples from smokers. CBMK were differentiated with thrombopoietin (TPO) for up to 17 days. Quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), Western blot analysis and flow cytometry were used to investigate nAChR expression (nAChRα7, nAChRα4, nAChRβ2) and nicotine effects. In blood samples of 15 nonsmokers and 16 smokers platelet parameters (count, mean platelet volume--MPV and platelet distribution width--PDW) were determined as indicators for changes of in vivo megakaryopoiesis. Platelet function was determined by the use of whole blood aggregometry and flow cytometry. The functional role of nAChR was evaluated using specific antagonists in aggregometry. CHRNA7, CHRNA4 and CHRNB2 gene transcripts and the corresponding proteins could be identified in CBMK during all stages of differentiation. Platelets contain nAChRα7 and nAChRβ2 but not nAChRα4. Nicotine had no effect on TPO-induced differentiation of CBMK. There was no significant difference in all platelet parameters of the smokers compared to the nonsmokers. In line with this, cholinergic gene transcripts as well as the encoded proteins were equally expressed in both the study groups. Despite our observation of nAChR expression in megakaryopoiesis and platelets, we were not able to detect effects of nicotine in our ex vivo and in vivo models. Thus, the functional role of the nAChR in these cells remains open.

  3. Honeybees Produce Millimolar Concentrations of Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine for Breeding: Possible Adverse Effects of Neonicotinoids

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Ignaz; Gärtner, Hedwig-Annabel; Michel-Schmidt, Rosmarie; Brochhausen, Christoph; Schmitz, Luise; Anspach, Laura; Grünewald, Bernd; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide use of neonicotinoid pesticides has caused concern on account of their involvement in the decline of bee populations, which are key pollinators in most ecosystems. Here we describe a role of non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) for breeding of Apis mellifera carnica and a so far unknown effect of neonicotinoids on non-target insects. Royal jelly or larval food are produced by the hypopharyngeal gland of nursing bees and contain unusually high ACh concentrations (4–8 mM). ACh is extremely well conserved in royal jelly or brood food because of the acidic pH of 4.0. This condition protects ACh from degradation thus ensuring delivery of intact ACh to larvae. Raising the pH to ≥5.5 and applying cholinesterase reduced the content of ACh substantially (by 75–90%) in larval food. When this manipulated brood was tested in artificial larval breeding experiments, the survival rate was higher with food supplemented by 100% with ACh (6 mM) than with food not supplemented with ACh. ACh release from the hypopharyngeal gland and its content in brood food declined by 80%, when honeybee colonies were exposed for 4 weeks to high concentrations of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (100 parts per billion [ppb]) or thiacloprid (8,800 ppb). Under these conditions the secretory cells of the gland were markedly damaged and brood development was severely compromised. Even field-relevant low concentrations of thiacloprid (200 ppb) or clothianidin (1 and 10 ppb) reduced ACh level in the brood food and showed initial adverse effects on brood development. Our findings indicate a hitherto unknown target of neonicotinoids to induce adverse effects on non-neuronal ACh which should be considered when re-assessing the environmental risks of these compounds. To our knowledge this is a new biological mechanism, and we suggest that, in addition to their well documented neurotoxic effects, neonicotinoids may contribute to honeybee colony losses consecutive to a reduction of the ACh content

  4. Honeybees Produce Millimolar Concentrations of Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine for Breeding: Possible Adverse Effects of Neonicotinoids.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Ignaz; Gärtner, Hedwig-Annabel; Michel-Schmidt, Rosmarie; Brochhausen, Christoph; Schmitz, Luise; Anspach, Laura; Grünewald, Bernd; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide use of neonicotinoid pesticides has caused concern on account of their involvement in the decline of bee populations, which are key pollinators in most ecosystems. Here we describe a role of non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) for breeding of Apis mellifera carnica and a so far unknown effect of neonicotinoids on non-target insects. Royal jelly or larval food are produced by the hypopharyngeal gland of nursing bees and contain unusually high ACh concentrations (4-8 mM). ACh is extremely well conserved in royal jelly or brood food because of the acidic pH of 4.0. This condition protects ACh from degradation thus ensuring delivery of intact ACh to larvae. Raising the pH to ≥5.5 and applying cholinesterase reduced the content of ACh substantially (by 75-90%) in larval food. When this manipulated brood was tested in artificial larval breeding experiments, the survival rate was higher with food supplemented by 100% with ACh (6 mM) than with food not supplemented with ACh. ACh release from the hypopharyngeal gland and its content in brood food declined by 80%, when honeybee colonies were exposed for 4 weeks to high concentrations of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (100 parts per billion [ppb]) or thiacloprid (8,800 ppb). Under these conditions the secretory cells of the gland were markedly damaged and brood development was severely compromised. Even field-relevant low concentrations of thiacloprid (200 ppb) or clothianidin (1 and 10 ppb) reduced ACh level in the brood food and showed initial adverse effects on brood development. Our findings indicate a hitherto unknown target of neonicotinoids to induce adverse effects on non-neuronal ACh which should be considered when re-assessing the environmental risks of these compounds. To our knowledge this is a new biological mechanism, and we suggest that, in addition to their well documented neurotoxic effects, neonicotinoids may contribute to honeybee colony losses consecutive to a reduction of the ACh content in

  5. Vagus nerve stimulation mediates protection from kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury through α7nAChR+ splenocytes

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Chikara; Sung, Sun-sang J.; Moscalu, Stefan; Jankowski, Jakub; Huang, Liping; Ye, Hong; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2016-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems interact in complex ways to maintain homeostasis and respond to stress or injury, and rapid nerve conduction can provide instantaneous input for modulating inflammation. The inflammatory reflex referred to as the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway regulates innate and adaptive immunity, and modulation of this reflex by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is effective in various inflammatory disease models, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Effectiveness of VNS in these models necessitates the integration of neural signals and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) on splenic macrophages. Here, we sought to determine whether electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve attenuates kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), which promotes the release of proinflammatory molecules. Stimulation of vagal afferents or efferents in mice 24 hours before IRI markedly attenuated acute kidney injury (AKI) and decreased plasma TNF. Furthermore, this protection was abolished in animals in which splenectomy was performed 7 days before VNS and IRI. In mice lacking α7nAChR, prior VNS did not prevent IRI. Conversely, adoptive transfer of VNS-conditioned α7nAChR splenocytes conferred protection to recipient mice subjected to IRI. Together, these results demonstrate that VNS-mediated attenuation of AKI and systemic inflammation depends on α7nAChR-positive splenocytes. PMID:27088805

  6. Myopathic changes detected by quantitative electromyography in patients with MuSK and AChR positive myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Ana; Basta, Ivana; Stojanovic, Vidosava Rakocevic; Stevic, Zorica; Peric, Stojan; Lavrnic, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Myopathic changes are frequent a electrophysiological finding in patients with muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) positive myasthenia gravis (MG). The aim of this study was to explore the importance of quantitative electromyography (EMG) in the detection of myopathic changes in MuSK MG patients. Classical and quantitative EMG were performed in 31 MuSK and 28 acetylcholine receptor (AChR) positive MG patients, matched by sex, age, disease duration and severity. Classical EMG revealed the presence of myopathic changes more frequently in MuSK MG compared to AChR MG patients, especially in the facial muscles. Quantitative EMG registered myopathic lesions more frequently than classical EMG, but the frequency was similar between MuSK and AChR MG patients. Quantitative EMG revealed myopathic changes in the majority of both MuSK and AChR positive MG patients. This examination is sensitive, but it cannot be used to differentiate between MG patients belonging to the different disease groups. It should not be used in isolation. Rather, it should complement classical EMG in the detection of myopathic changes.

  7. Contributions from Caenorhabditis elegans functional genetics to antiparasitic drug target identification and validation: nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a case study.

    PubMed

    Brown, L A; Jones, A K; Buckingham, S D; Mee, C J; Sattelle, D B

    2006-05-31

    Following the complete sequencing of the genome of the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, in 1998, rapid advances have been made in assigning functions to many genes. Forward and reverse genetics have been used to identify novel components of synaptic transmission as well as determine the key components of antiparasitic drug targets. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are prototypical ligand-gated ion channels. The functions of these transmembrane proteins and the roles of the different members of their extensive subunit families are increasingly well characterised. The simple nervous system of C. elegans possesses one of the largest nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene families known for any organism and a combination of genetic, microarray, physiological and reporter gene expression studies have added greatly to our understanding of the components of nematode muscle and neuronal nAChR subtypes. Chemistry-to-gene screens have identified five subunits that are components of nAChRs sensitive to the antiparasitic drug, levamisole. A novel, validated target acting downstream of the levamisole-sensitive nAChR has also been identified in such screens. Physiology and molecular biology studies on nAChRs of parasitic nematodes have also identified levamisole-sensitive and insensitive subtypes and further subdivisions are under investigation. PMID:16620825

  8. Effects of thyroxine and donepezil on hippocampal acetylcholine content, acetylcholinesterase activity, synaptotagmin-1 and SNAP-25 expression in hypothyroid adult rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Zeng, Xianzhong; Zhu, Yangbo; Ning, Dan; Liu, Junxia; Liu, Chunlei; Jia, Xuemei; Zhu, Defa

    2015-02-01

    A growing number of studies have revealed that neurocognitive impairment, induced by adult-onset hypothyroidism, may not be fully restored by traditional hormone substitution therapies, including thyroxine (T4). The present study has investigated the effect of T4 and donepezil (DON; an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor) treatment on the hypothyroidism-induced alterations of acetylcholine (ACh) content and AChE activity. Furthermore, we examined synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1) and SNAP-25 expression in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adding 0.05% propylthiouracil to their drinking water for five weeks induced hypothyroidism in the rat models. From the fourth week, the rats were treated with T4, DON or a combination of both. Concentration of ACh and the activity of AChE was determined colorimetrically. The results demonstrated that hypothyroidism induced a significant decrease of Ach content and AChE activity (by 17 and 34%, respectively), which were restored to control values by T4 administration. DON treatment also restored Ach to the normal level. Protein levels of syt-1 and SNAP-25 were determined by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that syt-1 was expressed at significantly lower levels in hypothyroid rats, while SNAP-25 levels were notably higher compared with the controls. Two-week treatment with T4 alone failed to normalize the expression levels of these two proteins, while co-administration of T4 and DON was able to induce this effect. These data suggested that the thyroid hormone, T4, may have a direct effect on the metabolism of hippocampal ACh in adult rats, and that the DON treatment may facilitate the recovery of synaptic protein impairments induced by hypothyroidism.

  9. Differential inhibition of rat alpha3* and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by tetrandrine and closely related bis-benzylisoquinoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Virginio, Caterina; Graziani, Francesca; Terstappen, Georg C

    2005-06-24

    The patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids on two of the major neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the alpha3-containing nAChR (alpha3*nAChR) endogenously expressed in PC12 cells and the rat alpha7-nAChR heterologously expressed in GH4C1 cells. Tetrandrine and hernandezine reversibly inhibited both receptors displaying half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 8.1 microM and 5.8 microM for alpha3*nAChR and 407.4 nM and 372.2 nM, respectively, for alpha7-nAChR. E6-berbamine completely inhibited the alpha3*nAChR with an IC50 of 5.1 microM, but only partially inhibited the alpha7-nAChR at concentrations up to 30 microM. Tetrandrine inhibition of alpha3*nAChR was functionally non-competitive. All three compounds displaced radiolabelled methyllycaconitine ([3H]-MLA) binding to alpha7-nAChR providing some evidence of competitive antagonism. The results demonstrate that these alkaloids are nAChRs antagonists, with tetrandrine and hernandezine displaying selectivity for one of the major neuronal subtype, the alpha7 nAChR. The different potencies and multiple modes of action on nAChRs may help to better understand the pharmacology of these receptors and to aid in novel drug design.

  10. α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Occur at Postsynaptic Densities of AMPA Receptor-Positive and -Negative Excitatory Synapses in Rat Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Robert B.; Aoki, Chiye

    2010-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation requires concurrent membrane depolarization, and glutamatergic synapses lacking AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are often considered “silent” in the absence of another source of membrane depolarization. During the second postnatal week, NMDA currents can be enhanced in rat auditory cortex through activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Electrophysiological results support a mainly presynaptic role for α7nAChR at these synapses. However, immunocytochemical evidence that α7nAChR is prevalent at postsynaptic sites of glutamatergic synapses in hippocampus and neocortex, along with emerging electrophysiological evidence for postsynaptic nicotinic currents in neocortex and hippocampus, has prompted speculation that α7nAChR allows for activation of NMDAR postsynaptically at synapses lacking AMPAR. Here we used dual immunolabeling and electron microscopy to examine the distribution of α7nAChR relative to AMPAR (GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3 subunits combined) at excitatory synapses in somatosensory cortex of adult and 1-week-old rats. α7nAChR occurred discretely over most of the thick postsynaptic densities in all cortical layers of both age groups. AMPAR immunoreactivity was also detectable at most synapses; its distribution was independent of that of α7nAChR. In both age groups, approximately one-quarter of asymmetrical synapses were α7nAChR positive and AMPAR negative. The variability of postsynaptic α7nAChR labeling density was greater at postnatal day (PD) 7 than in adulthood, and PD 7 neuropil contained a subset of small AMPA receptor-negative synapses with a high density of α7nAChR immunoreactivity. These observations support the idea that acetylcholine receptors can aid in activating glutamatergic synapses and work together with AMPA receptors to mediate postsynaptic excitation throughout life. PMID:12077196

  11. Apolipoprotein E4 reduces evoked hippocampal acetylcholine release in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Dolejší, Eva; Liraz, Ori; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; Michaelson, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. We utilized apoE4-targeted replacement mice (approved by the Tel Aviv University Animal Care Committee) to investigate whether cholinergic dysfunction, which increases during aging and is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, is accentuated by apoE4. This revealed that levels of the pre-synaptic cholinergic marker, vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the hippocampus and the corresponding electrically evoked release of acetylcholine, are similar in 4-month-old apoE4 and apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3) mice. Both parameters decrease with age. This decrease is, however, significantly more pronounced in the apoE4 mice. The levels of cholinacetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were similar in the hippocampus of young apoE4 and apoE3 mice and decreased during aging. For ChAT, this decrease was similar in the apoE4 and apoE3 mice, whereas it was more pronounced in the apoE4 mice, regarding their corresponding AChE and BuChE levels. The level of muscarinic receptors was higher in the apoE4 than in the apoE3 mice at 4 months and increased to similar levels with age. However, the relative representation of the M1 receptor subtype decreased during aging in apoE4 mice. These results demonstrate impairment of the evoked release of acetylcholine in hippocampus by apoE4 in 12-month-old mice but not in 4-month-old mice. The levels of ChAT and the extent of the M2 receptor-mediated autoregulation of ACh release were similar in the adult mice, suggesting that the apoE4-related inhibition of hippocampal ACh release in these mice is not driven by these parameters. Evoked ACh release from hippocampal and cortical slices is similar in 4-month-old apoE4 and apoE3 mice but is specifically and significantly reduced in hippocampus, but not cortex, of 12-month-old apoE4 mice. This effect is accompanied by decreased VAChT levels. These findings show that

  12. Enhanced meta-analysis of acetylcholine binding protein structures reveals conformational signatures of agonism in nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stober, Spencer T; Abrams, Cameron F

    2012-01-01

    The soluble acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) is the default structural proxy for pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). Unfortunately, it is difficult to recognize conformational signatures of LGIC agonism and antagonism within the large set of AChBP crystal structures in both apo and ligand-bound states, primarily because AChBP conformations in this set are nearly superimposable (root mean square deviation < 1.5 Å). We have undertaken a systematic, alignment-free approach to elucidate conformational differences displayed by AChBP that cleanly differentiate apo/antagonist-bound from agonist-bound states. Our approach uses statistical inference based on both crystallographic states and conformations sampled during long molecular dynamics simulations to select important inter-Cα distances and map their collective values onto functional states. We observe that binding of (nAChR) agonists to AChBP elicits clockwise rotation of the inner β-sheet with respect to the outer β-sheet, causing tilting of the cys-loop away from the five-fold axis, in a manner quite similar to that speculated for α-subunits of the heteromeric nAChR structure (Unwin, J Mol Biol 2005;346:967), making this motion potentially important in transmission of the gating signal to the transmembrane domain of a LGIC. The method is also successful at discriminating partial from full agonists and supports the hypothesis that a particularly controversial ligand, lobeline, is in fact an LGIC antagonist. PMID:22170867

  13. The cholinergic immune regulation mediated by a novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor through TNF pathway in oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Dong, Wenjing; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2016-12-01

    Muscarinic receptors, which selectively take muscarine as their ligand, are critical for the immunological and physiological processes in animals. In the present study, the open region frame (ORF) of a homologue of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (mAChR) was amplified from oyster Crassostrea gigas (named as CgmAChR-1), whose full length was 1983 bp and the protein it encoded contained 660 amino acids with a seven transmembrane region. Phylogeny analysis suggested that CgmAChR-1 shared homology with M5 muscarinic receptor found in invertebrates including Habropoda laboriosa, Acromyrmex echinatior and Echinococcus granulosus. After cell transfection of CgmAChR-1 into HEK293T cells and ACh incubation, the level of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP increased significantly (p < 0.05). Such trend could be reverted with the addition of M3 and M5 muscarinic receptor antagonists DAMP and DAR. The CgmAChR-1 transcripts were ubiquitously detectable in seven different tissues with the maximal expression level in adductor muscle. When the oysters received LPS stimulation, CgmAChR-1 mRNA expression in haemocyte was increased to the highest level (6.05-fold, p < 0.05) at 24 h, while blocking CgmAChR-1 using receptor antagonists before LPS stimulation promoted the expression of oyster TNF, resulting in the increase of haemocyte apoptosis index. These results suggested that CgmAChR-1 was the key molecule in cholinergic neuroendocrine-immune system contributing to the regulation of TNF expression and apoptosis process. PMID:27394930

  14. Evaluation of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Associated Proteome at Baseline and Following Nicotine Exposure in Human and Mouse Cortex.

    PubMed

    McClure-Begley, Tristan D; Esterlis, Irina; Stone, Kathryn L; Lam, TuKiet T; Grady, Sharon R; Colangelo, Christopher M; Lindstrom, Jon M; Marks, Michael J; Picciotto, Marina R

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) support the initiation and maintenance of smoking, but the long-term changes occurring in the protein complex as a result of smoking and the nicotine in tobacco are not known. Human studies and animal models have also demonstrated that increasing cholinergic tone increases behaviors related to depression, suggesting that the nAChR-associated proteome could be altered in individuals with mood disorders. We therefore immunopurified nAChRs and associated proteins for quantitative proteomic assessment of changes in protein-protein interactions of high-affinity nAChRs containing the β2 subunit (β2*-nAChRs) from either cortex of mice treated with saline or nicotine, or postmortem human temporal cortex tissue from tobacco-exposed and nonexposed individuals, with a further comparison of diagnosed mood disorder to control subjects. We observed significant effects of nicotine exposure on the β2*-nAChR-associated proteome in human and mouse cortex, particularly in the abundance of the nAChR subunits themselves, as well as putative interacting proteins that make up core components of neuronal excitability (Na/K ATPase subunits), presynaptic neurotransmitter release (syntaxins, SNAP25, synaptotagmin), and a member of a known nAChR protein chaperone family (14-3-3ζ). These findings identify candidate-signaling proteins that could mediate changes in cholinergic signaling via nicotine or tobacco use. Further analysis of identified proteins will determine whether these interactions are essential for primary function of nAChRs at presynaptic terminals. The identification of differences in the nAChR-associated proteome and downstream signaling in subjects with various mood disorders may also identify novel etiological mechanisms and reveal new treatment targets. PMID:27559543

  15. Brain regional acetylcholinesterase activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rats after repeated administration of cholinesterase inhibitors and its withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Haruo . E-mail: hk1664@iwate-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Tadahiko; Sakamoto, Maki; Hashimoto, Wataru; Kashiwada, Keiko; Sato, Itaru; Akahori, Fumiaki; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-03-15

    Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and specific binding of [{sup 3}H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), [{sup 3}H]pirenzepine (PZP) and [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 384 to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) preparations in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of rats were determined 1, 6 and 11 days after the last treatment with an organophosphate DDVP, a carbamate propoxur or a muscarinic agonist oxotremorine as a reference for 7 and 14 days. AChE activity was markedly decreased in the three regions 1 day after the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days with a gradual recovery 6 to 11 days, and much less decreased 1, 6 and 11 days after the treatment with propoxur for 7 days but not for 14 days in the hippocampus and cortex. The binding of [{sup 3}H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 in the three regions was generally decreased by the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days. Such down-regulations were generally restored 6 or 11 days after the treatment for 7 but not for 14 days. The down-regulation or up-regulation as measured by [{sup 3}H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 was observed 1, 6 or 11 days after treatment with propoxur for 7 days and/or 14 days. Repeated treatment with oxotremorine produced similar effects except AChE activity to DDVP. These results suggest that repeated inhibition of AChE activity may usually cause down-regulation of mAChRs with some exception in the hippocampus when a reversible antiChE propoxur is injected.

  16. N-methyl-D-aspartate increases acetylcholine release from rat striatum and cortex: its effect is augmented by choline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulus, I. H.; Buyukuysal, R. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, and of glutamate itself, on acetylcholine (ACh) release from superfused rat striatal slices. In a Mg(++)-free medium, NMDA (32-1000 microM) as well as glutamate (1 mM) increased basal ACh release by 35 to 100% (all indicated differences, P less than .05), without altering tissue ACh or choline contents. This augmentation was blocked by Mg++ (1.2 mM) or by MK-801 (10 microM). Electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 75 mA) increased ACh release 9-fold (from 400 to 3660 pmol/mg of protein): this was enhanced (to 4850 pmol/mg of protein) by NMDA (100 microM). ACh levels in stimulated slices fell by 50 or 65% depending on the absence or presence of NMDA. The addition of choline (40 microM) increased ACh release both basally (570 pmol/mg of protein) and with electrical stimulation (6900 pmol/mg of protein). In stimulated slices choline acted synergistically with NMDA, raising ACh release to 10,520 pmol/mg of protein. The presence of choline also blocked the fall in tissue ACh. No treatment affected tissue phospholipid or protein levels. NMDA (32-320 microM) also augmented basal ACh release from cortical but not hippocampal slices. Choline efflux from striatal and cortical (but not hippocampal) slices decreased by 34 to 50% in Mg(++)-free medium. These data indicate that NMDA-like drugs may be useful, particularly in combination with choline, to enhance striatal and cortical cholinergic activity. ACh release from rat hippocampus apparently is not affected by NMDA receptors.

  17. Evaluation of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Associated Proteome at Baseline and Following Nicotine Exposure in Human and Mouse Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Esterlis, Irina; Stone, Kathryn L.; Grady, Sharon R.; Lindstrom, Jon M.; Marks, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) support the initiation and maintenance of smoking, but the long-term changes occurring in the protein complex as a result of smoking and the nicotine in tobacco are not known. Human studies and animal models have also demonstrated that increasing cholinergic tone increases behaviors related to depression, suggesting that the nAChR-associated proteome could be altered in individuals with mood disorders. We therefore immunopurified nAChRs and associated proteins for quantitative proteomic assessment of changes in protein–protein interactions of high-affinity nAChRs containing the β2 subunit (β2*-nAChRs) from either cortex of mice treated with saline or nicotine, or postmortem human temporal cortex tissue from tobacco-exposed and nonexposed individuals, with a further comparison of diagnosed mood disorder to control subjects. We observed significant effects of nicotine exposure on the β2*-nAChR-associated proteome in human and mouse cortex, particularly in the abundance of the nAChR subunits themselves, as well as putative interacting proteins that make up core components of neuronal excitability (Na/K ATPase subunits), presynaptic neurotransmitter release (syntaxins, SNAP25, synaptotagmin), and a member of a known nAChR protein chaperone family (14-3-3ζ). These findings identify candidate-signaling proteins that could mediate changes in cholinergic signaling via nicotine or tobacco use. Further analysis of identified proteins will determine whether these interactions are essential for primary function of nAChRs at presynaptic terminals. The identification of differences in the nAChR-associated proteome and downstream signaling in subjects with various mood disorders may also identify novel etiological mechanisms and reveal new treatment targets. PMID:27559543

  18. Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Elgueta, Claudio; Vielma, Alex H.; Palacios, Adrian G.; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major retinal neurotransmitter that modulates visual processing through a large repertoire of cholinergic receptors expressed on different retinal cell types. ACh is released from starburst amacrine cells (SACs) under scotopic conditions, but its effects on cells of the rod pathway have not been investigated. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in slices of rat retina, we found that ACh application triggers GABA release onto rod bipolar (RB) cells. GABA was released from A17 amacrine cells and activated postsynaptic GABAA and GABAC receptors in RB cells. The sensitivity of ACh-induced currents to nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) antagonists (TMPH ~ mecamylamine > erysodine > DhβE > MLA) together with the differential potency of specific agonists to mimic ACh responses (cytisine >> RJR2403 ~ choline), suggest that A17 cells express heteromeric nAChRs containing the β4 subunit. Activation of nAChRs induced GABA release after Ca2+ accumulation in A17 cell dendrites and varicosities mediated by L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and intracellular Ca2+ stores. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase depolarized A17 cells and increased spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RB cells, indicating that endogenous ACh enhances GABAergic inhibition of RB cells. Moreover, injection of neostigmine or cytisine reduced the b-wave of the scotopic flash electroretinogram (ERG), suggesting that cholinergic modulation of GABA release controls RB cell activity in vivo. These results describe a novel regulatory mechanism of RB cell inhibition and complement our understanding of the neuromodulatory control of retinal signal processing. PMID:25709566

  19. α7-Containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on interneurons of the basolateral amygdala and their role in the regulation of the network excitability.

    PubMed

    Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I; Prager, Eric M; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Braga, Maria F M

    2013-11-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a key role in fear-related learning and memory, in the modulation of cognitive functions, and in the overall regulation of emotional behavior. Pathophysiological alterations involving hyperexcitability in this brain region underlie anxiety and other emotional disorders as well as some forms of epilepsy. GABAergic interneurons exert a tight inhibitory control over the BLA network; understanding the mechanisms that regulate their activity is necessary for understanding physiological and disordered BLA functions. The BLA receives dense cholinergic input from the basal forebrain, affecting both normal functions and dysfunctions of the amygdala, but the mechanisms involved in the cholinergic regulation of inhibitory activity in the BLA are unclear. Using whole cell recordings in rat amygdala slices, here we demonstrate that the α(7)-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α(7)-nAChRs) are present on somatic or somatodendritic regions of BLA interneurons. These receptors are active in the basal state enhancing GABAergic inhibition, and their further, exogenous activation produces a transient but dramatic increase of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in principal BLA neurons. In the absence of AMPA/kainate receptor antagonists, activation of α(7)-nAChRs in the BLA network increases both GABAergic and glutamatergic spontaneous currents in BLA principal cells, but the inhibitory currents are enhanced significantly more than the excitatory currents, reducing overall excitability. The anxiolytic effects of nicotine as well as the role of the α(7)-nAChRs in seizure activity involving the amygdala and in mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, may be better understood in light of the present findings.

  20. α4β2* and α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Predicts Choice Preference in Two Cost Benefit Decision Making Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Ian A.; Damborsky, Joanne C.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Nicotinic receptors have been linked to a wide range of cognitive and behavioral functions, but surprisingly little is known about their involvement in cost benefit decision making. The goal of these experiments was to determine how nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression is related to two forms of cost benefit decision making. Male Long Evans rats were tested in probability and delay discounting tasks, which required discrete trial choices between a small reward and a large reward associated with varying probabilities of omission and varying delays to reward delivery, respectively. Following testing, radioligand binding to α4β2* and α7 nAChR subtypes in brain regions implicated in cost benefit decision making was examined. Significant linear relationships were observed between choice of the large delayed reward in the delay discounting task and α4β2* receptor binding in both dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Additionally, trends were found suggesting that choice of the large costly reward in both discounting tasks was inversely related to α4β2* receptor binding in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell. Similar, trends suggested that choice of the large delayed reward in the delay discounting task was inversely related to α4β2* receptor binding in the orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens core, and basolateral amygdala, as well as to α7 receptor binding in basolateral amygdala. These data suggest that nAChRs (particularly α4β2*) play both unique and common roles in decisions that require consideration of different types of reward costs. PMID:23159316

  1. A neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha 7) is developmentally regulated and forms a homo-oligomeric channel blocked by alpha-BTX.

    PubMed

    Couturier, S; Bertrand, D; Matter, J M; Hernandez, M C; Bertrand, S; Millar, N; Valera, S; Barkas, T; Ballivet, M

    1990-12-01

    cDNA and genomic clones encoding alpha 7, a novel neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha subunit, were isolated and sequenced. The mature alpha 7 protein (479 residues) has moderate homology with all other alpha and non-alpha nAChR subunits and probably assumes the same transmembrane topology. alpha 7 transcripts transiently accumulate in the developing optic tectum between E5 and E16. They are present in both the deep and the superficial layers of E12 tectum. In Xenopus oocytes, the alpha 7 protein assembles into a homo-oligomeric channel responding to acetylcholine and nicotine. The alpha 7 channel desensitizes very rapidly, rectifies strongly above -20 mV, and is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin. A bacterial fusion protein encompassing residues 124-239 of alpha 7 binds labeled alpha-bungarotoxin. We conclude that alpha-bungarotoxin binding proteins in the vertebrate nervous system can function as nAChRs.

  2. α6β2*-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are more sensitive than α4β2*-subtype receptors to regulation by chronic nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael J; Grady, Sharon R; Salminen, Outi; Paley, Miranda A; Wageman, Charles R; McIntosh, J Michael; Whiteaker, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) of the α6β2* subtype (where *indicates the possible presence of additional subunits) are prominently expressed on dopaminergic neurons. Because of this, their role in tobacco use and nicotine dependence has received much attention. Previous studies have demonstrated that α6β2*-nAChR are down-regulated following chronic nicotine exposure (unlike other subtypes that have been investigated - most prominently α4β2* nAChR). This study examines, for the first time, effects across a comprehensive chronic nicotine dose range. Chronic nicotine dose-responses and quantitative ligand-binding autoradiography were used to define nicotine sensitivity of changes in α4β2*-nAChR and α6β2*-nAChR expression. α6β2*-nAChR down-regulation by chronic nicotine exposure in dopaminergic and optic-tract nuclei was ≈three-fold more sensitive than up-regulation of α4β2*-nAChR. In contrast, nAChR-mediated [(3) H]-dopamine release from dopamine-terminal region synaptosomal preparations changed only in response to chronic treatment with high nicotine doses, whereas dopaminergic parameters (transporter expression and activity, dopamine receptor expression) were largely unchanged. Functional measures in olfactory tubercle preparations were made for the first time; both nAChR expression levels and nAChR-mediated functional measures changed differently between striatum and olfactory tubercles. These results show that functional changes measured using synaptosomal [(3) H]-DA release are primarily owing to changes in nAChR, rather than in dopaminergic, function. This study examined dose-response relationships for murine α6β2*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) down-regulation by chronic nicotine treatment. The ID50 value for α6β2* down-regulation (35 nM) is ≈ 3x lower than the ED50 value for α4β2* nAChR up-regulation (95 nM), both well within the range reached by human smokers. Chronic nicotine treatment altered α6β2*- and α4

  3. Restitution of defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in diabetic GK rat by acetylcholine uncovers paradoxical stimulatory effect of beta-cell muscarinic receptor activation on cAMP production.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Manuel; Bailbé, Danielle; Giroix, Marie-Hélène; Calderari, Sophie; Gangnerau, Marie-Noelle; Serradas, Patricia; Rickenbach, Katharina; Irminger, Jean-Claude; Portha, Bernard

    2005-11-01

    Because acetylcholine (ACh) is a recognized potentiator of glucose-stimulated insulin release in the normal beta-cell, we have studied ACh's effect on islets of the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes. We first verified that ACh was able to restore the insulin secretory glucose competence of the GK beta-cell. Then, we demonstrated that in GK islets 1) ACh elicited a first-phase insulin release at low glucose, whereas it had no effect in Wistar; 2) total phospholipase C activity, ACh-induced inositol phosphate production, and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation were normal; 3) ACh triggered insulin release, even in the presence of thapsigargin, which induced a reduction of the ACh-induced [Ca2+]i response (suggesting that ACh produces amplification signals that augment the efficacy of elevated [Ca2+]i on GK exocytosis); 4) inhibition of protein kinase C did not affect [Ca2+]i nor the insulin release responses to ACh; and 5) inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs), adenylyl cyclases, or cAMP generation, while not affecting the [Ca2+]i response, significantly lowered the insulinotropic response to ACh (at low and high glucose). In conclusion, ACh acts mainly through activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway to potently enhance Ca2+-stimulated insulin release in the GK beta-cell and, in doing so, normalizes its defective glucose responsiveness.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene modification in transgenic animals: functional consequences of selected exon and regulatory region deletion.

    PubMed

    Camp, Shelley; Zhang, Limin; Marquez, Michael; de la Torre, Brian; Long, Jeffery M; Bucht, Goran; Taylor, Palmer

    2005-12-15

    AChE is an alternatively spliced gene. Exons 2, 3 and 4 are invariantly spliced, and this sequence is responsible for catalytic function. The 3' alternatively spliced exons, 5 and 6, are responsible for AChE disposition in tissue [J. Massoulie, The origin of the molecular diversity and functional anchoring of cholinesterases. Neurosignals 11 (3) (2002) 130-143; Y. Li, S. Camp, P. Taylor, Tissue-specific expression and alternative mRNA processing of the mammalian acetylcholinesterase gene. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (8) (1993) 5790-5797]. The splice to exon 5 produces the GPI anchored form of AChE found in the hematopoietic system, whereas the splice to exon 6 produces a sequence that binds to the structural subunits PRiMA and ColQ, producing AChE expression in brain and muscle. A third alternative RNA species is present that is not spliced at the 3' end; the intron 3' of exon 4 is used as coding sequence and produces the read-through, unanchored form of AChE. In order to further understand the role of alternative splicing in the expression of the AChE gene, we have used homologous recombination in stem cells to produce gene specific deletions in mice. Alternatively and together exon 5 and exon 6 were deleted. A cassette containing the neomycin gene flanked by loxP sites was used to replace the exon(s) of interest. Tissue analysis of mice with exon 5 deleted and the neomycin cassette retained showed very low levels of AChE expression, far less than would have been anticipated. Only the read-through species of the enzyme was produced; clearly the inclusion of the selection cassette disrupted splicing of exon 4 to exon 6. The selection cassette was then deleted in exon 5, exon 6 and exons 5 + 6 deleted mice by breeding to Ella-cre transgenic mice. AChE expression in serum, brain and muscle has been analyzed. Another AChE gene targeted mouse strain involving a region in the first intron, found to be critical for AChE expression in muscle cells [S. Camp, L. Zhang, M. Marquez, B

  5. Measurement of Acetylcholine in Rat Brain Microdialysates by LC – Isotope Dilution Tandem MS

    PubMed Central

    Fryčák, P.; Stevens, S. M.; Nguyen, V.

    2008-01-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed for measuring acetylcholine (ACh) in an aqueous medium using reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography, electrospray ionization on a quadrupole ion trap instrument and a tetradeuterated analogue (ACh-1,1,2,2-d4) as an internal standard. A rapid separation was achieved on a 5-cm long octadecylsilica column (2.1 mm i.d.) by employing heptafluorobutyric acid (0.1% v/v) as an ion-pairing agent and requiring 10% v/v acetonitrile in 20 mM ammonium formate buffer under isocratic elution at 200 μl/min flow rate. The instrument’s response was calibrated with samples containing known mole ratios of ACh and ACh-1,1,2,2-d4 in an artificial cerebrospinal fluid, which afforded the conclusion that analyte concentrations could be determined by multiplying the measured analyte to internal standard ion-current ratio with the known molar concentration of the ACh-1,1,2,2-d4 added. The rapid and simple assay was tested by measuring the basal neurotransmitter concentration in rat brain microdialysates without the use of a cholinesterase inhibitor upon sample collection. PMID:19802332

  6. Acetylcholine secretion in the human cell strain LA-N-2

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, U.I.; Blusztajn, J.K.; Wurtman, R.J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have studied the synthesis and release of acetylcholine (ACh) in human neuroblastoma cells, LA-N-2. In cells cultured for 4 days in nutrient medium containing 7-700 ..mu..M choline, the cell content as well as the amounts of ACh spontaneously released into the medium increased with increasing substrate concentration. Half-maximal intracellular ACh levels were reached at 40 /sup +/M medium choline. Incubation of LA-N-2 cells for 1 hr with (/sup 3/H)choline and subsequent purification of the radioactive species by HPLC, showed incorporation of radioactive choline into ACh in a saturable manner with an apparent Km of 82 +/- 17 ..mu..M and a Vmax of 1.4 +/- 0.1 nmol/mg protein/hr. ACh secretion by LA-N-2 cells is stimulated by 1. elevated concentrations of extracellular K/sup +/ but not Cs/sup +/; 2. a sodium channel agonist, veratridine, an effect blocked by tetrodotoxin and 3. A cholinergic agonist, carbachol, an effect blocked by atropine. LA-N-2 cells thus have retained important features of differentiated neuronal cells and offer a model system for studies on the molecular mechanisms of cholinergic function.

  7. Increased olfactory bulb acetylcholine bi-directionally modulates glomerular odor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Bendahmane, Mounir; Ogg, M. Cameron; Ennis, Matthew; Fletcher, Max L.

    2016-01-01

    The glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) receives heavy cholinergic input from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) and expresses both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors. However, the effects of ACh on OB glomerular odor responses remain unknown. Using calcium imaging in transgenic mice expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP2 in the mitral/tufted cells, we investigated the effect of ACh on the glomerular responses to increasing odor concentrations. Using HDB electrical stimulation and in vivo pharmacology, we find that increased OB ACh leads to dynamic, activity-dependent bi-directional modulation of glomerular odor response due to the combinatorial effects of both muscarinic and nicotinic activation. Using pharmacological manipulation to reveal the individual receptor type contributions, we find that m2 muscarinic receptor activation increases glomerular sensitivity to weak odor input whereas nicotinic receptor activation decreases sensitivity to strong input. Overall, we found that ACh in the OB increases glomerular sensitivity to odors and decreases activation thresholds. This effect, along with the decreased responses to strong odor input, reduces the response intensity range of individual glomeruli to increasing concentration making them more similar across the entire concentration range. As a result, odor representations are more similar as concentration increases. PMID:27165547

  8. ACR-12 ionotropic acetylcholine receptor complexes regulate inhibitory motor neuron activity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Petrash, Hilary A; Philbrook, Alison; Haburcak, Marian; Barbagallo, Belinda; Francis, Michael M

    2013-03-27

    Heterogeneity in the composition of neurotransmitter receptors is thought to provide functional diversity that may be important in patterning neural activity and shaping behavior (Dani and Bertrand, 2007; Sassoè-Pognetto, 2011). However, this idea has remained difficult to evaluate directly because of the complexity of neuronal connectivity patterns and uncertainty about the molecular composition of specific receptor types in vivo. Here we dissect how molecular diversity across receptor types contributes to the coordinated activity of excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons express distinct populations of ionotropic acetylcholine receptors (iAChRs) requiring the ACR-12 subunit. The activity level of excitatory motor neurons is influenced through activation of nonsynaptic iAChRs (Jospin et al., 2009; Barbagallo et al., 2010). In contrast, synaptic coupling of excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons is achieved through a second population of iAChRs specifically localized at postsynaptic sites on inhibitory motor neurons. Loss of ACR-12 iAChRs from inhibitory motor neurons leads to reduced synaptic drive, decreased inhibitory neuromuscular signaling, and variability in the sinusoidal motor pattern. Our results provide new insights into mechanisms that establish appropriately balanced excitation and inhibition in the generation of a rhythmic motor behavior and reveal functionally diverse roles for iAChR-mediated signaling in this process. PMID:23536067

  9. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a target in pharmacology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is an important part of the cholinergic nerve system in the brain. Moreover, it is associated with a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the termination of the parasympathetic nervous system. Antagonists of α7 nAChR are a wide group represented by conotoxin and bungarotoxin. Even Alzheimer's disease drug memantine acting as an antagonist in its side pathway belongs in this group. Agonists of α7 nAChR are suitable for treatment of multiple cognitive dysfunctions such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Inflammation or even sepsis can be ameliorated by the agonistic acting compounds. Preparations RG3487, SEN34625/WYE-103914, SEN12333, ABT-107, Clozapine, GTS-21, CNI-1493, and AR-R17779 are representative examples of the novel compounds with affinity toward the α7 nAChR. Pharmacological, toxicological, and medicinal significance of α7 nAChR are discussed throughout this paper.

  10. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: I. Deficiency and short open-time of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Engel, A G; Nagel, A; Walls, T J; Harper, C M; Waisburg, H A

    1993-12-01

    A 5.5-year-old girl had myasthenic symptoms since birth. Tests for antiacetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies were negative. To investigate the character of the neuromuscular transmission defect, an intercostal muscle specimen was obtained at age 27 months. Immune deposits were absent from the endplates. On electron microscopy, most postsynaptic regions appeared normal, but the density of AChR on the junctional folds was diffusely reduced. In vitro microelectrode studies revealed that the number of transmitter quanta released by nerve impulse was normal. The amplitude of miniature of endplate potentials and currents was abnormally low. A study of the kinetic properties of AChR by analysis of acetylcholine-induced current noise demonstrated a significant decrease in mean channel open-time; the mean channel conductance was normal. The safety margin of neuromuscular transmission in this disorder is likely to be compromised by the deficiency and abnormal kinetic properties of AChR. The findings are unique among those patients with congenital AChR deficiency described to date. PMID:8232383

  11. [Nicotine effects on mitochondria membrane potential: participation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors].

    PubMed

    Gergalova, G L; Skok, M V

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nicotine on the mouse liver mitochondria was studied by fluorescent flow cytometry. Mice consumed nicotine during 65 days; alternatively, nicotine was added to isolated mitochondria. Mitochondria of nicotine-treated mice had significantly lower basic levels of membrane potential and granularity as compared to those of the control group. Pre-incubation of the isolated mitochondria with nicotine prevented from dissipation of their membrane potential stimulated with 0.8 microM CaCl2 depending on the dose, and this effect was strengthened by the antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic receptors (alpha7 nAChR) methyllicaconitine. Mitochondria of mice intravenously injected with the antibodies against alpha7 nAChR demonstrated lower levels of membrane potential. Introduction of nicotine, choline, acetylcholine or synthetic alpha7 nAChR agonist PNU 282987 into the incubation medium inhibited Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondria, although the doses of agonists were too low to activate the alpha7 nAChR ion channel. It is concluded that nicotine consumption worsens the functional state of mitochondria by affecting their membrane potential and granularity, and this effect, at least in part, is mediated by alpha7 nAChR desensitization.

  12. Endogenous inhibition of the trigeminally evoked neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Gorini, C; Philbin, K; Bateman, R; Mendelowitz, D

    2010-10-01

    Stimulation of the nasal mucosa by airborne irritants or water evokes a pronounced bradycardia accompanied by peripheral vasoconstriction and apnea. The dive response, which includes the trigeminocardiac reflex, is among the most powerful autonomic responses. These responses slow the heart rate and reduce myocardial oxygen consumption. Although normally cardioprotective, exaggeration of this reflex can be detrimental and has been implicated in cardiorespiratory diseases, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). An essential component of the diving response and trigeminocardiac reflex is activation of the parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus that control heart rate. This study examined the involvement of cholinergic receptors in trigeminally evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in CVNs in an in vitro preparation from rats. CVNs were identified using a retrograde tracer injected into the fat pads at the base of the heart. Application of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine significantly decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs on stimulation of trigeminal fibers. Whereas nicotine did not have any effect on the glutamatergic responses, the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist bethanechol significantly decreased the excitatory neurotransmission. Atropine, an mAChR antagonist, facilitated these responses indicating this trigeminally evoked brain stem pathway in vitro is endogenously inhibited by mAChRs. Tropicamide, an m4 mAChR antagonist, prevented the inhibitory action of the muscarinic agonist bethanechol. These results indicate that the glutamatergic synaptic neurotransmission in the trigeminally evoked pathway to CVNs is endogenously inhibited in vitro by m4 mAChRs.

  13. Aversive hypothalamic stimulation releases acetylcholine in the nucleus accumbens, and stimulation-escape decreases it.

    PubMed

    Rada, P V; Hoebel, B G

    2001-01-01

    Hypothalamic electrodes can generate positive reinforcement, as shown by self-stimulation, and negative reinforcement shown by stimulation-escape. It was hypothesized that acetylcholine (ACh) is released in the nucleus accumbens during the aversive state that underlies stimulation-escape. If this is correct, escape behavior should lower extracellular ACh. Rats were prepared with microdialysis probes in the accumbens (posterior shell region) and electrodes in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus. Animals learned to press a lever for 0.5 s trains of stimulation (typically 3600 responses/h). Then they were given automatic stimulation to determine which animals would also learn to press a lever to turn stimulation off for 5 s at a time (typically 75 responses/h). Accumbens microdialysis showed that automatic stimulation caused extracellular ACh to double, but only in the rats that were motivated to learn stimulation-escape. When allowed to escape stimulation, these animals lowered extracellular ACh significantly. It is concluded that ACh release in the accumbens is related to the neural state that animals work to escape.

  14. Photoaffinity labeling of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with an aryl azide derivative of phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.P.; Wang, H.H. )

    1990-02-06

    A photoactivatable analogue of phosphatidylserine, {sup 125}I-labeled 4-azidosalicylic acid-phosphatidylserine ({sup 125}I ASA-PS), was used to label both native acetylcholine receptor (AchR)-rich membranes from Torpedo californica and AchR membranes affinity purified from Torpedo reconstituted into asolectin vesicles. The radioiodinated arylazido group attaches directly to the phospholipid head group and thus probes for regions of the AchR structure in contact with the negatively charged head group of phosphatidylserine. All four subunits of the AchR incorporated the label, with the {alpha} subunit incorporating approximately twice as much as each of the other subunits on a per mole basis. The regions of the AchR {alpha} subunit that incorporated {sup 125}I ASA-PS were mapped by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion. The majority of label incorporated into fragments representing a more complete digestion of the {alpha} subunit was localized to 11.7- and 10.1-kDa V8 cleavage fragments, both beginning at Asn-339 and of sufficient length to contain the hydrophobic region M4. An 18.7-kDa fragment beginning at Ser-173 and of sufficient length to contain the hydrophobic regions M1, M2, and M3 was also significantly labeled. In contrast, V8 cleavage fragments representing roughly a third of the amino-terminal portion of the {alpha} subunit incorporated little or no detectable amount of probe.

  15. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reconstitution in Au(111)-supported thiolipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Pissinis, Diego E; Diaz, Carolina; Maza, Eliana; Bonini, Ida C; Barrantes, Francisco J; Salvarezza, Roberto C; Schilardi, Patricia L

    2015-10-14

    The insertion and function of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Au(111)-supported thiolipid self-assembled monolayers have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemical techniques. It was possible for the first time to resolve the supramolecular arrangement of the protein spontaneously inserted in a thiolipid monolayer in an aqueous solution. Geometric supramolecular arrays of nAChRs were observed, most commonly in a triangular form compatible with three nAChR dimers of ∼20 nm each. Addition of the full agonist carbamoylcholine activated and opened the nAChR ion channel, as revealed by the increase in capacitance relative to that of the nAChR-thiolipid system under basal conditions. Thus, the self-assembled system appears to be a viable biomimetic model to measure ionic conductance mediated by ion-gated ion channels under different experimental conditions, with potential applications in biotechnology and pharmacology. PMID:26355753

  16. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reconstitution in Au(111)-supported thiolipid monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissinis, Diego E.; Diaz, Carolina; Maza, Eliana; Bonini, Ida C.; Barrantes, Francisco J.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Schilardi, Patricia L.

    2015-09-01

    The insertion and function of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Au(111)-supported thiolipid self-assembled monolayers have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemical techniques. It was possible for the first time to resolve the supramolecular arrangement of the protein spontaneously inserted in a thiolipid monolayer in an aqueous solution. Geometric supramolecular arrays of nAChRs were observed, most commonly in a triangular form compatible with three nAChR dimers of ~20 nm each. Addition of the full agonist carbamoylcholine activated and opened the nAChR ion channel, as revealed by the increase in capacitance relative to that of the nAChR-thiolipid system under basal conditions. Thus, the self-assembled system appears to be a viable biomimetic model to measure ionic conductance mediated by ion-gated ion channels under different experimental conditions, with potential applications in biotechnology and pharmacology.

  17. Sex differences in acetylcholine-induced sweating responses due to physical training

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study examined sex differences in the sweat gland response to acetylcholine (ACh) in physically trained and untrained male and female subjects. Methods Sweating responses were induced on the forearm and thigh in resting subjects by ACh iontophoresis using a 10% solution at 2 mA for 5 min at 26°C and 50% relative humidity. Results The ACh-induced sweating rate (SR) on the forearm and thigh was greater in physically trained male (P < 0.001 for the forearm and thigh, respectively) and female (P = 0.08 for the forearm, P < 0.001 for the thigh) subjects than in untrained subjects of both sexes. The SR was also significantly greater in physically trained males compared to females at both sites (P < 0.001) and in untrained males compared to females on the thigh (P < 0.02) only, although the degree of difference was greater in trained subjects than in untrained subjects. These sex differences can be attributed to the difference in sweat output per gland rather than the number of activated sweat glands. Conclusion We conclude that physical training enhances the ACh-induced SR in both sexes but that the degree of enhancement is greater in male than in female subjects. The effects of physical training and sex on the SR may be due to changes in peripheral sensitivity to ACh and/or sweat gland size. PMID:24887294

  18. Mean field model of acetylcholine mediated dynamics in the thalamocortical system.

    PubMed

    Clearwater, J M; Rennie, C J; Robinson, P A

    2008-12-01

    A recent continuum model of the large scale electrical activity of the thalamocortical system is generalized to include cholinergic modulation. The model is examined analytically and numerically to determine the effect of acetylcholine (ACh) on its steady states, linear stability, spectrum, and temporal responses. Changing the ACh concentration moves the system between zones of one, three, and five steady states, showing that neuromodulation of synaptic strength is a possible mechanism by which multiple steady states emerge in the brain. The lowest firing rate steady state is always stable, and subsequent fixed points alternate between stable and unstable. Increasing ACh concentration changes the form of the spectrum. Increasing the tonic level of ACh concentration increases the magnitudes of the N100 and P200 in the evoked response potential (ERP), without changing the timing of these peaks. Driving the system with a pulse of cholinergic activity results in a transient increase in the firing rate of cortical neurons that lasts over 10s. Step-like increases in cortical ACh concentration cause increases in the firing rate of cortical neurons, with rapid responses due to fast acting nicotinic receptors and slower responses due to muscarinic receptor suppression of intracortical connections.

  19. Menthol suppresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptor functioning in sensory neurons via allosteric modulation.

    PubMed

    Hans, M; Wilhelm, M; Swandulla, D

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we have investigated how the function of native and recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is modulated by the monoterpenoid alcohol from peppermint (-) menthol. In trigeminal neurons (TG), we found that nicotine (75 μM)-activated whole-cell currents through nAChRs were reversibly reduced by menthol in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC₅₀ of 111 μM. To analyze the mechanism underlying menthol's action in more detail, we used single channel and whole-cell recordings from recombinant human α4β2 nAChR expressed in HEK tsA201 cells. Here, we found a shortening of channel open time and a prolongation of channel closed time, and an increase in single channel amplitude leading in summary to a reduction in single channel current. Furthermore, menthol did not affect nicotine's EC₅₀ value for currents through recombinant human α4β2 nAChRs but caused a significant reduction in nicotine's efficacy. Taken together, these findings indicate that menthol is a negative allosteric modulator of nAChRs.

  20. The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA increases membrane surface localization of the α7 ACh receptor in a protein 4.1N-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2013-03-01

    In yeast two-hybrid screening, protein 4.1N, a scaffolding protein, was identified as a binding partner of the α7 ACh (acetylcholine) receptor. For rat hippocampal slices, the linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA {8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid} increased the association of the α7 ACh receptor with 4.1N, and the effect was inhibited by GF109203X, an inhibitor of PKC (protein kinase C), although DCP-LA did not induce PKC phosphorylation of 4.1N. For PC-12 cells, the presence of the α7 ACh receptor in the plasma membrane fraction was significantly suppressed by knocking down 4.1N. DCP-LA increased the presence of the α7 ACh receptor in the plasma membrane fraction, and the effect was still inhibited by knocking down 4.1N. In the monitoring of α7 ACh receptor mobilization, DCP-LA enhanced signal intensities for the α7 ACh receptor at the membrane surface in PC-12 cells, which was clearly prevented by knocking down 4.1N. Taken together, the results of the present study show that 4.1N interacts with the α7 ACh receptor and participates in the receptor tethering to the plasma membrane. The results also indicate that DCP-LA increases membrane surface localization of the α7 ACh receptor in a 4.1N-dependent manner under the control of PKC, but without phosphorylating 4.1N.

  1. The biological role of non-neuronal acetylcholine in plants and humans.

    PubMed

    Wessler, I; Kilbinger, H; Bittinger, F; Kirkpatrick, C J

    2001-01-01

    Acetylcholine, one of the most exemplary neurotransmitters, has been detected in bacteria, algae, protozoa, tubellariae and primitive plants, suggesting an extremely early appearance in the evolutionary process and a wide expression in non-neuronal cells. In plants (Urtica dioica), acetylcholine is involved in the regulation of water resorption and photosynthesis. In humans, acetylcholine and/or the synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, have been demonstrated in epithelial (airways, alimentary tract, urogenital tract, epidermis), mesothelial (pleura, pericardium), endothelial, muscle and immune cells (granulocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells). The widespread expression of non-neuronal acetylcholine is accompanied by the ubiquitous expression of cholinesterase and acetylcholine sensitive receptors (nicotinic, muscarinic). Both receptor populations interact with more or less all cellular signalling pathways. Thus, non-neuronal acetylcholine can be involved in the regulation of basic cell functions like gene expression, proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeletal organization, cell-cell contact (tight and gap junctions, desmosomes), locomotion, migration, ciliary activity, electrical activity, secretion and absorption. Non-neuronal acetylcholine also plays a role in the control of unspecific and specific immune functions. Future experiments should be designed to analyze the cellular effects of acetylcholine in greater detail and to illuminate the involvement of the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the pathogenesis of diseases such as acute and chronic inflammation, local and systemic infection, dementia, atherosclerosis, and finally cancer. PMID:11243568

  2. Taurolithocholic acid promotes intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell growth via muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Amonyingcharoen, Sumet; Suriyo, Tawit; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant cancer of the biliary tract and its occurrence is associated with chronic cholestasis which causes an elevation of bile acids in the liver and bile duct. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanistic effect of bile acids on the CCA cell growth. Intrahepatic CCA cell lines, RMCCA-1 and HuCCA-1, were treated with bile acids and their metabolites to determine the growth promoting effect. Cell viability, cell cycle analysis, EdU incorporation assays were conducted. Intracellular signaling proteins were detected by western immunoblotting. Among eleven forms of bile acids and their metabolites, only taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) concentration dependently (1-40 µM) increased the cell viability of RMCCA-1, but not HuCCA-1 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed induction of cells in the S phase and the EdU incorporation assay revealed induction of DNA synthesis in the TLCA-treated RMCCA-1 cells. Moreover, TLCA increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK 1/2 and also increased the expression of cyclin D1 in RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, TLCA-induced RMCCA-1 cell growth could be inhibited by atropine, a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, AG 1478, a specific EGFR inhibitor, or U 0126, a specific MEK 1/2 inhibitor. These results suggest that TLCA induces CCA cell growth via mAChR and EGFR/EKR1/2 signaling pathway. Moreover, the functional presence of cholinergic system plays a certain role in TLCA-induced CCA cell growth.

  3. Alanine scan of α-conotoxin RegIIA reveals a selective α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kompella, Shiva N; Hung, Andrew; Clark, Richard J; Marí, Frank; Adams, David J

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of various conditions, including development and progression of lung cancer and in nicotine addiction. As selective α3β4 nAChR antagonists, α-conotoxins are valuable tools to evaluate the functional roles of this receptor subtype. We previously reported the discovery of a new α4/7-conotoxin, RegIIA. RegIIA was isolated from Conus regius and inhibits acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents mediated by α3β4, α3β2, and α7 nAChR subtypes. The current study used alanine scanning mutagenesis to understand the selectivity profile of RegIIA at the α3β4 nAChR subtype. [N11A] and [N12A] RegIIA analogs exhibited 3-fold more selectivity for the α3β4 than the α3β2 nAChR subtype. We also report synthesis of [N11A,N12A]RegIIA, a selective α3β4 nAChR antagonist (IC50 of 370 nM) that could potentially be used in the treatment of lung cancer and nicotine addiction. Molecular dynamics simulations of RegIIA and [N11A,N12A]RegIIA bound to α3β4 and α3β2 suggest that destabilization of toxin contacts with residues at the principal and complementary faces of α3β2 (α3-Tyr(92), Ser(149), Tyr(189), Cys(192), and Tyr(196); β2-Trp(57), Arg(81), and Phe(119)) may form the molecular basis for the selectivity shift.

  4. Alanine scan of α-conotoxin RegIIA reveals a selective α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kompella, Shiva N; Hung, Andrew; Clark, Richard J; Marí, Frank; Adams, David J

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of various conditions, including development and progression of lung cancer and in nicotine addiction. As selective α3β4 nAChR antagonists, α-conotoxins are valuable tools to evaluate the functional roles of this receptor subtype. We previously reported the discovery of a new α4/7-conotoxin, RegIIA. RegIIA was isolated from Conus regius and inhibits acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents mediated by α3β4, α3β2, and α7 nAChR subtypes. The current study used alanine scanning mutagenesis to understand the selectivity profile of RegIIA at the α3β4 nAChR subtype. [N11A] and [N12A] RegIIA analogs exhibited 3-fold more selectivity for the α3β4 than the α3β2 nAChR subtype. We also report synthesis of [N11A,N12A]RegIIA, a selective α3β4 nAChR antagonist (IC50 of 370 nM) that could potentially be used in the treatment of lung cancer and nicotine addiction. Molecular dynamics simulations of RegIIA and [N11A,N12A]RegIIA bound to α3β4 and α3β2 suggest that destabilization of toxin contacts with residues at the principal and complementary faces of α3β2 (α3-Tyr(92), Ser(149), Tyr(189), Cys(192), and Tyr(196); β2-Trp(57), Arg(81), and Phe(119)) may form the molecular basis for the selectivity shift. PMID:25411242

  5. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutation (Y151S) causes reduced agonist potency to a range of neonicotinoid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zewen; Williamson, Martin S; Lansdell, Stuart J; Han, Zhaojun; Denholm, Ian; Millar, Neil S

    2006-11-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are potent selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Since their introduction in 1991, resistance to neonicotinoids has been slow to develop, but it is now established in some insect field populations such as the planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a major rice pest in many parts of Asia. We have reported recently the identification of a target-site mutation (Y151S) within two nAChR subunits (Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha3) from a laboratory-selected field population of N. lugens. In the present study, we have examined the influence of this mutation upon the functional properties of recombinant nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes (as hybrid nAChRs, co-expressed with a rat beta2 subunit). The agonist potency of several nicotinic agonists has been examined, including all of the neonicotinoid insecticides that are currently licensed for either crop protection or animal health applications (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam). The Y151S mutation was found to have no significant effect on the maximal current (I(max)) observed with the endogenous agonist, acetylcholine. In contrast, a significant reduction in I(max) was observed for all neonicotinoids (the I(max) for mutant nAChRs ranged from 13 to 81% of that observed on wild-type receptors). In addition, nAChRs containing the Y151S mutation caused a significant rightward shift in agonist dose-response curves for all neonicotinoids, but of varying magnitude (shifts in EC(50) values ranged from 1.3 to 3.6-fold). The relationship between neonicotinoid structure and their potency on nAChRs containing the Y151S target-site mutation is discussed.

  6. Hydrogen-bond interactions of nicotine and acetylcholine salts: a combined crystallographic, spectroscopic, thermodynamic and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Virginie; Berthelot, Michel; Evain, Michel; Graton, Jérôme; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2007-01-01

    The hydrogen-bond (HB) interactions of the monocharged active forms of nicotine and acetylcholine (ACh) have been compared theoretically by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimentally on the basis of crystallographic observations and the measurement of equilibrium constants in solution. The 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate (picrate) counterion was used to determine the experimental HB basicity of the cations despite its potential multisite HB acceptor properties. The preferred HB interaction site of the ammonium picrate salts was determined from a survey of crystallographic data found in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and is supported by theoretical calculations. Two distinct classes of ammonium groups were characterised depending on the absence (quaternary ammonium) or presence (tertiary, secondary and primary ammoniums) of an N(+)HO hydrogen bond linking the two ions. The crystal structure of nicotinium picrate was determined and compared with that of ACh. This analysis revealed the peculiar behaviour of the ammonium moiety of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands towards the picrate anion. Dedicated methods have been developed to separate the individual contributions of the anion and cation accepting sites to the overall HB basicity of the ion pairs measured in solution. The HB basicities of the picrate anions associated with the two different ammonium classes were determined in dichloromethane solution by using several model ion pairs with non-basic ammonium cations. The experimental and theoretical studies performed on the nicotine and ACh cations consistently show the significant HB ability of the acceptor site of nAChR agonists in their charged form. Both the greater HB basicity of the pyridinic nitrogen over the carbonyl oxygen and the greater HB acidity of the N(+)H unit relative to N(+)CH could contribute to the higher affinity for nAChRs of nicotine-like ligands relative to ACh-like ligands.

  7. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: Binding of nitroxide analogs of a local anesthetic and a photoactivatable analog of phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Electron spin resonance was used to contrast the accessibility of tertiary and quaternary amine local anesthetics to their high affinity binding site in the desensitized Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AchR). Preincubation of AchR-rich membranes with agonist resulted in a substantial reduction in the initial association of the quaternary amine local anesthetic C6SLMEI with the receptor. The time-dependent reduction in association follows a biphasic exponential function having rate constants of 0.19 min{sup {minus}1} and 0.03 min{sup {minus}1}. In contrast, agonist preincubation did not produce a comparable decrease in the association of C6SL, a tertiary amine analog, with the AchR. The results are modeled in two ways: (1) A charge gate near the channel mouth in the desensitized receptor limits access of the permanently charged cationic local anesthetic (C6SLMEI), but not for the uncharged form of the tertiary amine anesthetic C6SL. (2) A hydrophobic pathway, possibly through a corridor in the annular lipid surrounding receptor subunits, allows the uncharged form of C6SL to reach the high affinity binding site in the AchR. A photoactivatable analog of phosphatidylserine {sup 125}I 4-azido salicylic acid-phosphatidylserine ({sup 125}I ASA-PS) was use to label both Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes and reconstituted AchR membranes. All four subunits of the AchR were found to incorporate label, with the {alpha} subunit incorporating approximately twice as much as each of the other subunits on a per mole basis. The regions of the AchR {alpha} subunit that incorporate {sup 125}I ASA-PS were mapped by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion. Eighty-one per cent of the incorporated label was localized to 11.7 and 10.1 kdal V8 cleavage fragments.

  8. Presynaptic α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors increase glutamate release and serotonin neuron excitability in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Garduño, Julieta; Galindo-Charles, Luis; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Javier; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Mihailescu, Stefan; Hernandez-Lopez, Salvador

    2012-10-24

    Several behavioral effects of nicotine are mediated by changes in serotonin (5-HT) release in brain areas that receive serotonergic afferents from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In vitro experiments have demonstrated that nicotine increases the firing activity in the majority of DRN 5-HT neurons and that DRN contains nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) located at both somata and presynaptic elements. One of the most common presynaptic effects of nicotine is to increase glutamate release. Although DRN receives profuse glutamatergic afferents, the effect of nicotine on glutamate release in the DRN has not been studied in detail. Using whole-cell recording techniques, we investigated the effects of nicotine on the glutamatergic input to 5-HT DRN neurons in rat midbrain slices. Low nicotine concentrations, in the presence of bicuculline and tetrodotoxin (TTX), increased the frequency but did not change the amplitude of glutamate-induced EPSCs, recorded from identified 5-HT neurons. Nicotine-induced increase of glutamatergic EPSC frequency persisted 10-20 min after drug withdrawal. This nicotinic effect was mimicked by exogenous administration of acetylcholine (ACh) or inhibition of ACh metabolism. In addition, the nicotine-induced increase in EPSC frequency was abolished by blockade of α4β2 nAChRs, voltage-gated calcium channels, or intracellular calcium signaling but not by α7 nAChR antagonists. These data suggest that both nicotine and endogenous ACh can increase glutamate release through activation of presynaptic α4β2 but not α7 nAChRs in the DRN. The effect involves long-term changes in synaptic function, and it is dependent on voltage-gated calcium channels and presynaptic calcium stores. PMID:23100436

  9. The effects of temperature on the interactions between volatile general anaesthetics and a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, R.; Lieb, W. R.; Franks, N. P.

    1995-01-01

    1. Completely isolated identified neurones from the right parietal ganglion of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were investigated under two-electrode voltage clamp. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) currents were studied at low acetylcholine concentrations (< or = 200 nM). 2. Inhibition of the ACh-induced currents by three volatile general anaesthetics (halothane, isoflurane and methoxyflurane) and the specific inhibitor (+)-tubocurarine was studied as a function of temperature (over the range 4-25 degrees C). 3. The inhibition by the volatile anaesthetics increased (inhibition constants decreased) with decreasing temperature while the inhibition by (+)-tubocurarine did not change significantly near room temperature, but decreased at lower temperatures. The (+)-tubocurarine inhibition appeared to be competitive in nature and showed no significant voltage-dependence. 4. The van't Hoff plots (logarithms of the dissociation constants against reciprocal absolute temperature) were linear for the anaesthetics, but markedly non-linear for (+)-tubocurarine. From these plots, values for the changes in the standard Gibbs free energy delta G degrees water-->AChR, enthalpy delta H degree water-->AChR, entropy delta S degree water-->AChR and heat capacity delta Cp degree water-->AChR were determined. Tubocurarine was found to bind very much tighter to the receptor than the volatile anaesthetics due, entirely, to a favourable increase in entropy on binding. 5. A comparison between the temperature-dependence of the anaesthetic inhibition of the ACh receptor and that of general anaesthetic potencies in animals indicates that the temperature-dependence of animal potencies might be simply accounted for in terms of changes in anaesthetic/receptor binding. PMID:8680729

  10. Nicotine is a selective pharmacological chaperone of acetylcholine receptor number and stoichiometry. Implications for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Lester, Henry A; Xiao, Cheng; Srinivasan, Rahul; Son, Cagdas D; Miwa, Julie; Pantoja, Rigo; Banghart, Matthew R; Dougherty, Dennis A; Goate, Alison M; Wang, Jen C

    2009-03-01

    The acronym SePhaChARNS, for "selective pharmacological chaperoning of acetylcholine receptor number and stoichiometry," is introduced. We hypothesize that SePhaChARNS underlies classical observations that chronic exposure to nicotine causes "upregulation" of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). If the hypothesis is proven, (1) SePhaChARNS is the molecular mechanism of the first step in neuroadaptation to chronic nicotine; and (2) nicotine addiction is partially a disease of excessive chaperoning. The chaperone is a pharmacological one, nicotine; and the chaperoned molecules are alpha4beta2* nAChRs. SePhaChARNS may also underlie two inadvertent therapeutic effects of tobacco use: (1) the inverse correlation between tobacco use and Parkinson's disease; and (2) the suppression of seizures by nicotine in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. SePhaChARNS arises from the thermodynamics of pharmacological chaperoning: ligand binding, especially at subunit interfaces, stabilizes AChRs during assembly and maturation, and this stabilization is most pronounced for the highest-affinity subunit compositions, stoichiometries, and functional states of receptors. Several chemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics render exogenous nicotine a more potent pharmacological chaperone than endogenous acetylcholine. SePhaChARNS is modified by desensitized states of nAChRs, by acid trapping of nicotine in organelles, and by other aspects of proteostasis. SePhaChARNS is selective at the cellular, and possibly subcellular, levels because of variations in the detailed nAChR subunit composition, as well as in expression of auxiliary proteins such as lynx. One important implication of the SePhaChARNS hypothesis is that therapeutically relevant nicotinic receptor drugs could be discovered by studying events in intracellular compartments rather than exclusively at the surface membrane.

  11. α6-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons are Poised to Govern Dopamine-Mediated Behaviors and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jennifer N.; Engle, Staci E.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Drenan, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine acts through nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in ventral midbrain and striatal areas to influence dopamine (DA) transmission. This cholinergic control of DA transmission is important for processes such as attention and motivated behavior, and is manipulated by nicotine in tobacco products. Identifying and characterizing the key ACh receptors involved in cholinergic control of DA transmission could lead to small molecule therapeutics for treating disorders involving attention, addiction, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. α6-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly and specifically expressed in midbrain DA neurons, making them an attractive drug target. Here, we used genetic, pharmacological, behavioral, and biophysical approaches to study this nAChR subtype. For many experiments, we used mice expressing mutant α6 nAChRs (“α6L9S” mice) that increase the sensitivity of these receptors to agonists such as ACh and nicotine. Taking advantage of a simple behavioral phenotype exhibited by α6L9S mice, we compared the ability of full versus partial α6* nAChR agonists to activate α6* nAChRs in vivo. Using local infusions of both agonists and antagonists into brain, we demonstrate that neurons and nAChRs in the midbrain are sufficient to account for this behavioral response. To complement these behavioral studies, we studied the ability of in vivo α6* nAChR activation to support plasticity changes in midbrain DA neurons that are relevant to behavioral sensitization and addiction. By coupling local infusion of drugs and brain slice patch clamp electrophysiology, we show that activating α6* nAChRs in midbrain DA areas is sufficient to enhance glutamatergic transmission in VTA DA neurons. Together, these results from in vivo studies strongly suggest that α6* nAChRs expressed by VTA DA neurons are positioned to strongly influence both DA-mediated behaviors and the induction of synaptic plasticity by

  12. Otilonium: a potent blocker of neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gandía, L.; Villarroya, M.; Lara, B.; Olmos, V.; Gilabert, J. A.; López, M. G.; Martínez-Sierra, R.; Borges, R.; García, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Otilonium, a clinically useful spasmolytic, behaves as a potent blocker of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) as well as a mild wide-spectrum Ca2+ channel blocker in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. 2. 45Ca2+ uptake into chromaffin cells stimulated with high K+ (70 mM, 1 min) was blocked by otilonium with an IC50 of 7.6 microM. The drug inhibited the 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by the nicotinic AChR agonist, dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) with a 79 fold higher potency (IC50 = 0.096 microM). 3. Whole-cell Ba2+ currents (IBa) through Ca2+ channels of voltage-clamped chromaffin cells were blocked by otilonium with an IC50 of 6.4 microM, very close to that of K(+)-evoked 45Ca2+ uptake. Blockade developed in 10-20 s, almost as a single step and was rapidly and almost fully reversible. 4. Whole-cell nicotinic AChR-mediated currents (250 ms pulses of 100 microM DMPP) applied at 30 s intervals were blocked by otilonium in a concentration-dependent manner, showing an IC50 of 0.36 microM. Blockade was induced in a step-wise manner. Wash out of otilonium allowed a slow recovery of the current, also in discrete steps. 5. In experiments with recordings in the same cells of whole-cell IDMPP, Na+ currents (INa) and Ca2+ currents (ICa), 1 microM otilonium blocked 87% IDMPP, 7% INa and 13% ICa. 6. Otilonium inhibited the K(+)-evoked catecholamine secretory response of superfused bovine chromaffin cells with an IC50 of 10 microM, very close to the IC50 for blockade of K(+)-induced 45Ca2+ uptake and IBa. 7. Otilonium inhibited the secretory responses induced by 10 s pulses of 50 microM DMPP with an IC50 of 7.4 nM. Hexamethonium blocked the DMPP-evoked responses with an IC50 of 29.8 microM, 4,000 fold higher than that of otilonium. 8. In conclusion, otilonium is a potent blocker of nicotinic AChR-mediated responses. The drugs also blocked various subtypes of neuronal voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels at a considerably lower potency. Na+ channels were unaffected by

  13. Prostate stem cell antigen interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is affected in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Majbrit M; Arvaniti, Maria; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Michalski, Dominik; Pinborg, Lars H; Härtig, Wolfgang; Thomsen, Morten S

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving impaired cholinergic neurotransmission and dysregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Ly-6/neurotoxin (Lynx) proteins have been shown to modulate cognition and neural plasticity by binding to nAChR subtypes and modulating their function. Hence, changes in nAChR regulatory proteins such as Lynx proteins could underlie the dysregulation of nAChRs in AD. Using Western blotting, we detected bands corresponding to the Lynx proteins prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and Lypd6 in human cortex indicating that both proteins are present in the human brain. We further showed that PSCA forms stable complexes with the α4 nAChR subunit and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular-signal regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells. In addition, we analyzed protein levels of PSCA and Lypd6 in postmortem tissue of medial frontal gyrus from AD patients and found significantly increased PSCA levels (approximately 70%). In contrast, no changes in Lypd6 levels were detected. In concordance with our findings in AD patients, PSCA levels were increased in the frontal cortex of triple transgenic mice with an AD-like pathology harboring human transgenes that cause both age-dependent β-amyloidosis and tauopathy, whereas Tg2576 mice, which display β-amyloidosis only, had unchanged PSCA levels compared to wild-type animals. These findings identify PSCA as a nAChR-binding protein in the human brain that is affected in AD, suggesting that PSCA-nAChR interactions may be involved in the cognitive dysfunction observed in AD. PMID:25680266

  14. Reaction of (3H)meproadifen mustard with membrane-bound Torpedo acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, E.B.; Hasan, F.; Cohen, S.G.; Cohen, J.B.

    1986-10-15

    The Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) contains a binding site for aromatic amine noncompetitive antagonists that is distinct from the binding site for agonists and competitive antagonists. To characterize the location and function of this allosteric antagonist site, an alkylating analog of meproadifen has been synthesized, 2-(chloroethylmethylamino)-ethyl-2, 2-diphenylpentanoate HCl (meproadifen mustard). Reaction of (/sup 3/H)meproadifen mustard with AChR-rich membrane suspensions resulted in specific incorporation of label predominantly into the AChR alpha-subunit with minor incorporation into the beta-subunit. Specific labeling required the presence of high concentration of agonist and was inhibited by reversible noncompetitive antagonists including proadifen, meproadifen, perhydrohistrionicotoxin (HTX), and tetracaine when present at concentrations consistent with the binding affinity of these compounds for the allosteric antagonist site. No specific alkylation of the AChR alpha-subunit was detected in the absence of agonist, or in the presence of the partial agonist phenyltrimethylammonium or the competitive antagonists, d-tubocurarine, gallamine triethiodide, or decamethonium. Reaction with 35 microM meproadifen mustard for 70 min in the presence of carbamylcholine produced no alteration in the concentration of (/sup 3/H)ACh-binding sites, but decreased by 38 +/- 4% the number of allosteric antagonist sites as measured by (/sup 3/H)HTX binding. This decrease was not observed when the alkylation reaction was blocked by the presence of HTX. These results lead us to conclude that meproadifen mustard alkylates the allosteric antagonist site in the Torpedo AChR and that part of that site is associated with the AChR alpha-subunit.

  15. Assessing the lipid requirements of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Sauls, Daniel; Machu, Tina K; Blanton, Michael P

    2006-04-01

    The lipid requirements of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) were assessed by reconstituting purified receptors into lipid vesicles of defined composition and by using photolabeling with 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([125I]TID) to determine functionality. Earlier studies demonstrated that nAChRs reconstituted into membranes containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), the anionic lipid phosphatidic acid (PA), and cholesterol (CH) are particularly effective at stabilizing the nAChR in the resting (closed) state that is capable of undergoing agonist-induced conformational transitions (i.e., functionality). The present studies demonstrate that (1) there is no obligatory requirement for PC, (2) increasing the CH content serves to increase the degree to which nAChRs are stabilized in the resting state, and this effect saturates at approximately 35 mol % (molar lipid percentage), and (3) the effect of increasing levels of PA saturates at approximately 12 mol % and in the absence of PA nAChRs are stabilized in the desensitized state (i.e., nonfunctional). Native Torpedo membranes contain approximately 35 mol % CH but less than 1 mol % PA, suggesting that other anionic lipids may substitute for PA. We report that (1) phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), anionic lipids that are abundant in native Torpedo membranes, also stabilize the receptor in the resting state although with reduced efficacy (approximately 50-60%) compared to PA, and (2) for nAChRs reconstituted into PA/CH membranes at different lipid-protein molar ratios, receptor functionality decreases rapidly below approximately 65 lipids per receptor. Collectively, these results are consistent with a functional requirement of a single shell of lipids surrounding the nAChR and specific anionic lipid- and sterol (CH)-protein interactions.

  16. Subnanosecond polarized fluorescence photobleaching: rotational diffusion of acetylcholine receptors on developing muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Y; Axelrod, D

    1995-01-01

    Polarized fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (PFRAP) is a technique for measuring the rate of rotational motion of biomolecules on living, nondeoxygenated cells with characteristic times previously ranging from milliseconds to many seconds. Although very broad, that time range excludes the possibility of quantitatively observing freely rotating membrane protein monomers that typically should have a characteristic decay time of only several microseconds. This report describes an extension of the PFRAP technique to a much shorter time scale. With this new system, PFRAP experiments can be conducted with sample time as short as 0.4 microseconds and detection of possible characteristic times of less than 2 microseconds. The system is tested on rhodamine-alpha-bungarotoxin-labeled acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on myotubes grown in primary cultures of embryonic rat muscle, in both endogenously clustered and nonclustered regions of AChR distribution. It is found that approximately 40% of the AChRs in nonclustered regions undergoes rotational diffusion fast enough to possibly arise from unrestricted monomer Brownian motion. The AChRs in clusters, on the other hand, are almost immobile. The effects of rat embryonic brain extract (which contains AChR aggregating factors) on the myotube AChR were also examined by the fast PFRAP system. Brain extract is known to abolish the presence of endogenous clusters and to induce the formation of new clusters. It is found here that rotational diffusion of AChR in the extract-induced clusters is as slow as that in endogenous clusters on untreated cells but that rotational diffusion in the nonclustered regions of extract-treated myotubes remains rapid. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:8527682

  17. Suppression of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in IL-10 gene-disrupted mice is associated with reduced B cells and serum cytotoxicity on mouse cell line expressing AChR.

    PubMed

    Poussin, M A; Goluszko, E; Hughes, T K; Duchicella, S I; Christadoss, P

    2000-11-01

    To analyze the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) pathogenesis, we induced clinical EAMG in C57BL/6 and IL-10 gene-knockout (KO) mice. IL-10 KO mice had a lower incidence and severity of EAMG, with less muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) loss. AChR-immunized IL-10 KO mice showed a significantly higher AChR-specific proliferative response, altered cytokine response, lower number of class II-positive cells and B-cells, but a greater CD5(+)CD19(+) population than C57BL/6 mice. The lower clinical incidence in IL-10 KO could be explained not by a reduction of the quantity, but by a possible difference in the pathogenicity of anti-AChR antibodies.

  18. Identification and functional expression of a family of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the central nervous system of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    van Nierop, Pim; Bertrand, Sonia; Munno, David W; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; van Minnen, Jan; Spafford, J David; Syed, Naweed I; Bertrand, Daniel; Smit, August B

    2006-01-20

    We described a family of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits underlying cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS) of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis. By using degenerate PCR cloning, we identified 12 subunits that display a high sequence similarity to nAChR subunits, of which 10 are of the alpha-type, 1 is of the beta-type, and 1 was not classified because of insufficient sequence information. Heterologous expression of identified subunits confirms their capacity to form functional receptors responding to acetylcholine. The alpha-type subunits can be divided into groups that appear to underlie cation-conducting (excitatory) and anion-conducting (inhibitory) channels involved in synaptic cholinergic transmission. The expression of the Lymnaea nAChR subunits, assessed by real time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization, indicates that it is localized to neurons and widespread in the CNS, with the number and localization of expressing neurons differing considerably between subunit types. At least 10% of the CNS neurons showed detectable nAChR subunit expression. In addition, cholinergic neurons, as indicated by the expression of the vesicular ACh transporter, comprise approximately 10% of the neurons in all ganglia. Together, our data suggested a prominent role for fast cholinergic transmission in the Lymnaea CNS by using a number of neuronal nAChR subtypes comparable with vertebrate species but with a functional complexity that may be much higher.

  19. Conformational Changes in Acetylcholine Binding Protein Investigated by Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad Hosseini Naveh, Zeynab; Malliavin, Therese E.; Maragliano, Luca; Cottone, Grazia; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies available on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a complete account of the mechanistic aspects of their gating transition in response to ligand binding still remains elusive. As a first step toward dissecting the transition mechanism by accelerated sampling techniques, we study the ligand-induced conformational changes of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a widely accepted model for the full receptor extracellular domain. Using unbiased Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (TAMD) simulations we investigate the AChBP transition between the apo and the agonist-bound state. In long standard MD simulations, both conformations of the native protein are stable, while the agonist-bound structure evolves toward the apo one if the orientation of few key sidechains in the orthosteric cavity is modified. Conversely, TAMD simulations initiated from the native conformations are able to produce the spontaneous transition. With respect to the modified conformations, TAMD accelerates the transition by at least a factor 10. The analysis of some specific residue-residue interactions points out that the transition mechanism is based on the disruption/formation of few key hydrogen bonds. Finally, while early events of ligand dissociation are observed already in standard MD, TAMD accelerates the ligand detachment and, at the highest TAMD effective temperature, it is able to produce a complete dissociation path in one AChBP subunit. PMID:24551117

  20. Regulation of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by SRC family tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kan; Hackett, John T; Cox, Michael E; Van Hoek, Monique; Lindstrom, Jon M; Parsons, Sarah J

    2004-03-01

    Src family kinases (SFKs) are abundant in chromaffin cells that reside in the adrenal medulla and respond to cholinergic stimulation b