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Sample records for acetylcholine esterase inhibitors

  1. Identification of petrogenic produced water components as acetylcholine esterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Froment, Jean; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Bråte, Inger Lise N; Brooks, Steven J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-08-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) was applied to identify acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors in produced water. Common produced water components from oil production activities, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and naphthenic acids were tested for AChE inhibition using a simple mixture of PAHs and naphthenic acids. Produced water samples collected from two offshore platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea were extracted by solid phase extraction and fractionated by open-column liquid solid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) before being tested using a high-throughput and automated AChE assay. The HPLC fractions causing the strongest AChE inhibition were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HR-ToF-MS). Butylated hydroxytoluene and 4-phenyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene were identified as two produced water components capable of inhibiting AChE at low concentrations. In order to assess the potential presence of such compounds discharged into aquatic ecosystems, AChE activity in fish tissues was measured. Saithe (Pollachius virens) caught near two offshore platforms showed lower enzymatic activity than those collected from a reference location. Target analysis of saithe did not detected the presence of these two putative AChE inhibitors and suggest that additional compounds such as PAHs, naphthenic acids and yet un-identified compounds may also contribute to the purported AChE inhibition observed in saithe. PMID:27176761

  2. Mitigation of Acetylcholine Esterase Activity in the 1,7-Diazacarbazole Series of Inhibitors of Checkpoint Kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Gazzard, Lewis; Williams, Karen; Chen, Huifen; Axford, Lorraine; Blackwood, Elizabeth; Burton, Brenda; Chapman, Kerry; Crackett, Peter; Drobnick, Joy; Ellwood, Charles; Epler, Jennifer; Flagella, Michael; Gancia, Emanuela; Gill, Matthew; Goodacre, Simon; Halladay, Jason; Hewitt, Joanne; Hunt, Hazel; Kintz, Samuel; Lyssikatos, Joseph; Macleod, Calum; Major, Sarah; Médard, Guillaume; Narukulla, Raman; Ramiscal, Judi; Schmidt, Stephen; Seward, Eileen; Wiesmann, Christian; Wu, Ping; Yee, Sharon; Yen, Ivana; Malek, Shiva

    2015-06-25

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (ChK1) plays a key role in the DNA damage response, facilitating cell-cycle arrest to provide sufficient time for lesion repair. This leads to the hypothesis that inhibition of ChK1 might enhance the effectiveness of DNA-damaging therapies in the treatment of cancer. Lead compound 1 (GNE-783), the prototype of the 1,7-diazacarbazole class of ChK1 inhibitors, was found to be a highly potent inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and unsuitable for development. A campaign of analogue synthesis established SAR delineating ChK1 and AChE activities and allowing identification of new leads with improved profiles. In silico docking using a model of AChE permitted rationalization of the observed SAR. Compounds 19 (GNE-900) and 30 (GNE-145) were identified as selective, orally bioavailable ChK1 inhibitors offering excellent in vitro potency with significantly reduced AChE activity. In combination with gemcitabine, these compounds demonstrate an in vivo pharmacodynamic effect and are efficacious in a mouse p53 mutant xenograft model. PMID:25988399

  3. Branched nanotrees with immobilized acetylcholine esterase for nanobiosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risveden, Klas; Dick, Kimberly A.; Bhand, Sunil; Rydberg, Patrik; Samuelson, Lars; Danielsson, Bengt

    2010-02-01

    A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on SiNx-covered wafers. Two different reactors are shown: one with simple, one-dimensional nanorods and one with branched nanorod structures (nanotrees). Significantly higher enzymatic activity is found for the nanotree reactors than for the nanorod reactors, most likely due to the increased gold surface area and thereby higher enzyme binding capacity. A theoretical calculation is included to show how the enzyme kinetics and hence the sensitivity can be influenced and increased by the control of electrical fields in relation to the active sites of enzymes in an electronic biosensor. The possible effects of electrical fields employed in the RISFET on the function of acetylcholine esterase is investigated using quantum chemical methods, which show that the small electric field strengths used are unlikely to affect enzyme kinetics. Acetylcholine esterase activity is determined using choline oxidase and peroxidase by measuring the amount of choline formed using the chemiluminescent luminol reaction.

  4. Donepezil, an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, and ABT-239, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, require the integrity of brain histamine system to exert biochemical and procognitive effects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Provensi, Gustavo; Costa, Alessia; Passani, M Beatrice; Blandina, Patrizio

    2016-10-01

    Histaminergic H3 receptors (H3R) antagonists enhance cognition in preclinical models and modulate neurotransmission, in particular acetylcholine (ACh) release in the cortex and hippocampus, two brain areas involved in memory processing. The cognitive deficits seen in aging and Alzheimer's disease have been associated with brain cholinergic deficits. Donepezil is one of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor approved for use across the full spectrum of these cognitive disorders. We addressed the question if H3R antagonists and donepezil require an intact histamine neuronal system to exert their procognitive effects. The effect of the H3R antagonist ABT-239 and donepezil were evaluated in the object recognition test (ORT), and on the level of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) phosphorylation in normal and histamine-depleted mice. Systemic administration of ABT-239 or donepezil ameliorated the cognitive performance in the ORT. However, these compounds were ineffective in either genetically (histidine decarboxylase knock-out, HDC-KO) or pharmacologically, by means of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the HDC irreversible inhibitor a-fluoromethylhistidine (a-FMHis), histamine-deficient mice. Western blot analysis revealed that ABT-239 or donepezil systemic treatments increased GSK-3β phosphorylation in cortical and hippocampal homogenates of normal, but not of histamine-depleted mice. Furthermore, administration of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 that blocks GSK-3β phosphorylation, prevented the procognitive effects of both drugs in normal mice. Our results indicate that both donepezil and ABT-239 require the integrity of the brain histaminergic system to exert their procognitive effects and strongly suggest that impairments of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β intracellular pathway activation is responsible for the inefficacy of both drugs in histamine-deficient animals. PMID:27291828

  5. Effects on operant learning and brain acetylcholine esterase activity in rats following chronic inorganic arsenic intake.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, T N; Desiraju, T

    1994-05-01

    1. Very young and adult Wistar rats were given As5+, 5 mg arsenic kg-1 body weight day-1 (sodium arsenate). 2. Operant learning was tested in a Skinner box at the end of exposure and, in the case of developing animals, also after a recovery period. 3. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was estimated in discrete brain regions of these animals. 4. The animals exposed to arsenic took longer to acquire the learned behaviour and to extinguish the operant. AChE activity was inhibited in some regions of the brain. PMID:8043317

  6. Automated high-throughput in vitro screening of the acetylcholine esterase inhibiting potential of environmental samples, mixtures and single compounds.

    PubMed

    Froment, Jean; Thomas, Kevin V; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2016-08-01

    A high-throughput and automated assay for testing the presence of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibiting compounds was developed, validated and applied to screen different types of environmental samples. Automation involved using the assay in 96-well plates and adapting it for the use with an automated workstation. Validation was performed by comparing the results of the automated assay with that of a previously validated and standardised assay for two known AChE inhibitors (paraoxon and dichlorvos). The results show that the assay provides similar concentration-response curves (CRCs) when run according to the manual and automated protocol. Automation of the assay resulted in a reduction in assay run time as well as in intra- and inter-assay variations. High-quality CRCs were obtained for both of the model AChE inhibitors (dichlorvos IC50=120µM and paraoxon IC50=0.56µM) when tested alone. The effect of co-exposure of an equipotent binary mixture of the two chemicals were consistent with predictions of additivity and best described by the concentration addition model for combined toxicity. Extracts of different environmental samples (landfill leachate, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and road tunnel construction run-off) were then screened for AChE inhibiting activity using the automated bioassay, with only landfill leachate shown to contain potential AChE inhibitors. Potential uses and limitations of the assay were discussed based on the present results. PMID:27085000

  7. Reactivity of Acetylcholine Esterase in inner Ear Maculae of Fish after Development at Hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucht, I.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    It has been shown earlier that the growth of inner ear otoliths of larval fish is (among other environmental factors) guided by the gravity vector. This guidance most probably is effected by the efferent vestibular system in the brainstem, because a transection of the nervus vestibularis has been shown to effect a cessation of the supply of calcium to the otoliths. The efferent innervation of fish inner ear maculae uses the synaptic transmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Therefore, we were - in order to further assess the role of the efferent system for otolith growth - prompted to determine ACh esterase-reactivity in the sensory epithelium of the utricle and the saccule (as well as in a non-gravity relevant brain region for control) in larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus), which had been maintained at hypergravity during their development. The respective data will be communicated at the meeting. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  8. Propoxur-induced acetylcholine esterase inhibition and impairment of cognitive function: attenuation by Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Yadav, C S; Kumar, V; Suke, S G; Ahmed, R S; Mediratta, P K; Banerjee, B D

    2010-04-01

    Propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate) is widely used as an acaricide in agriculture and public health programs. Studies have shown that sub-chronic exposure to propoxur can cause oxidative stress and immuno-suppression in rats. Carbamates are also known to exhibit inhibitory effect on cholinesterase activity, which is directly related to their cholinergic effects. In the present study, the effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), a widely used herbal drug possessing anti-stress and immunomodulatory properties was studied on propoxur-induced acetylcholine esterase inhibition and impairment of cognitive function in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I was treated with olive oil and served as control. Group II was administered orally with propoxur (10 mg/kg b.wt.) in olive oil, group III received a combination of propoxur (10 mg/kg b.wt.) and W. somnifera (100 mg/kg b.wt.) suspension and group IV W. somnifera (100 mg/kg b.wt.) only. All animals were treated for 30 days. Cognitive behaviour was assessed by transfer latency using elevated plus maze. Blood and brain acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was also assessed. Oral administration of propoxur (10 mg/kg b.wt.) resulted in a significant reduction of brain and blood AChE activity. A significant prolongation of the acquisition as well as retention transfer latency was observed in propoxur-treated rats. Oral treatment of W. somnifera exerts protective effect and attenuates AChE inhibition and cognitive impairment caused by sub-chronic exposure to propoxur. PMID:20521626

  9. 3 Benzyl-6-chloropyrone: a suicide inhibitor of cholesterol esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Saint, C.; Gallo, I.; Kantorow, M.; Bailey, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Cholesterol, absorbed from the intestine, appears in lymph as the ester. Cholesterol esterase is essential for this process, since depletion of the enzyme blocks and repletion restores, absorption. Selective inhibitors of cholesterol esterase may thus prove useful in reducing cholesterol uptake. A series of potential suicide substrates were synthesized which, following cleavage by the enzyme, would attack the putative nucleophile in the active site. One of these, 3-benzyl-6-chloropyrone (3BCP), inhibited both synthesis and hydrolysis of /sup 14/C-cholesteryl oleate with an I/sub 50/ of approximately 150 ..mu..M. The inactivation was time-dependent and characteristic of a suicide mechanism. The ..cap alpha.. pyrone structure (lactone analog) is cleaved by a serine-hydroxyl in the active site. This generates an enoyl chloride which inactivates the imidazole believed to play a part in the catalytic function of the enzyme. Inhibition by 3BCP is selective for cholesterol esterase. The activity of pancreatic lipase as not affected by concentrations up to 1 mM.

  10. Esterase phenotyping in human liver in vitro: specificity of carboxylesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Ken-Ichi; Zollinger, Markus; Kigondu, Elizabeth; Witschi, Marc; Juif, Claire; Huth, Felix; Schiller, Hilmar; Chibale, Kelly; Camenisch, Gian

    2016-10-01

    1. Esterases may play a major role in the clearance of drugs with functional groups amenable to hydrolysis, particularly in the case of ester prodrugs. To understand the processes involved in the elimination of such drugs, it is necessary to determine the esterases involved. However, the tools currently available for this enzyme phenotyping are relatively scarce. 2. The work was aimed at summarizing the selectivity of esterase inhibitors for carboxylesterases 1 and 2 (CES1 and CES2) in the human liver to clarify their suitability for esterase phenotyping. Eserine, at around 10 μM, was found to be a highly specific CES2 inhibitor, whereas other esterase inhibitors turned out less selective. When used together with tacrine, which inhibits cholinesterases but not CES, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (inhibitor of paraoxonases), the involvement of the hydrolyzing esterases in the hepatic clearance of a drug can be elucidated. 3. The second approach to esterase phenotyping is based on data from recombinant or isolated esterases, together with relative activity factors, which relate their activities to those of the same enzymes in subcellular fractions. 4. These two approaches will help to characterize the hydrolytic metabolism of drug candidates in a similar manner as practiced routinely for the oxidative metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes. PMID:26887925

  11. Angiooedema due to acquired deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor associated with leucocytoclastic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Farkas, H; Szongoth, M; Bély, M; Varga, L; Fekete, B; Karádi, I; Füst, G

    2001-01-01

    A hereditary and an acquired type of C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency have been described. Manifestations characteristic of both forms include recurrent subcutaneous and submucosal angiooedema. Acquired C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency has been observed in association with lymphoproliferative disorders, malignancy, autoimmune diseases and infections. We report on a case with the acquired form of the disease accompanied by leucocytoclastic vasculitis. Treatment with antimalarial agents resulted in complete resolution of symptoms and signs. Furthermore, C1-esterase inhibitor concentration and activity, as well as C1 levels, all returned to normal. PMID:11720182

  12. Purified human C1-esterase inhibitor is safe in acute relapses of neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To minimize complement-mediated damage in acute relapses of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) by adding treatment with a complement inhibitor, purified C1-esterase inhibitor, to the current standard of care (high-dose glucocorticoids). Method: We conducted an open-label phase 1b safety and proof-of-concept trial in 10 patients with NMO–immunoglobulin G seropositive NMO or NMO spectrum disease (NMOSD) who presented with acute transverse myelitis and/or optic neuritis. In addition to treating with 1 g of daily IV methylprednisolone, we infused 2,000 units of C1-esterase inhibitor daily for 3 days, beginning on day 1 of hospitalization. The primary outcome measure was safety, and the secondary efficacy measure was change in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. Results: Ten patients with NMO/NMOSD were enrolled, 7 of whom presented with acute transverse myelitis and 3 with acute optic neuritis. C1-esterase inhibitor proved to be safe in all 10 patients, with no serious adverse events recorded. There were no thromboembolic events or related lab abnormalities in any of the subjects. EDSS scores dropped from a median of 4.5 on admission to 4.0 on discharge and then down to 2.5 on 30-day follow-up. All but 1 patient returned to preattack EDSS or better and only 2 patients required escalation to plasmapheresis. Conclusions: C1-esterase inhibitor is a safe add-on therapy for patients with NMO/NMOSD presenting with acute transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Preliminary evidence suggests a promising benefit with C1-esterase inhibitor in reducing neurologic damage and improving outcomes. A placebo-controlled trial is necessary to confirm these findings. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with NMO with acute transverse myelitis or optic neuritis, C1-esterase inhibitor is safe and improves disability. PMID:25340061

  13. Effect of tissue-specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor C-547 on α3β4 and αβεδ acetylcholine receptors in COS cells.

    PubMed

    Lindovský, Jiří; Petrov, Konstantin; Krůšek, Jan; Reznik, Vladimir S; Nikolsky, Eugeny E; Vyskočil, František

    2012-08-01

    The C-547 is the most effective muscle and tissue-specific anticholinesterase among alkylammonium derivatives of 6-methyluracil (ADEMS) acting in nanomolar concentrations on locomotor muscles but not on respiratory muscles, smooth muscles and heart and brain acetylcholine esterases (AChE). When applied systematically it could influence peripheral acetylcholine receptors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C-547 on rat α3β4 (ganglionic type) and αβεδ (muscle type) nicotinic receptors expressed in COS cells. Currents evoked by rapid application of acetylcholine or nicotine were recorded in whole-cell mode by electrophysiological patch-clamp technique 2-4 days after cell transfection by plasmids coding the α3β4 or αβεδ combination of receptor subunits. In cells sensitive to acetylcholine, the application of C-547 evoked no responses. When acetylcholine was applied during an already running application of C-547, acetylcholine responses were only inhibited at concentrations higher than 10(-7)M. This inhibition is not voltage-dependent, but is accompanied by an increased rate of desensitization. Thus in both types of receptors, effective doses are approximately 100 times higher than those inhibiting AChE in leg muscles and similar to those inhibiting respiratory diaphragm muscles and external intercostal muscles. These observations show that C-547 can be considered for symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis and other congenital myasthenic syndromes as an inhibitor of AChE in leg muscles at concentrations much lower than those inhibiting muscle and ganglion types of acetylcholine receptors. PMID:22634638

  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-induced angioedema treated by C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate (Berinert®): about one case and review of the therapeutic arsenal

    PubMed Central

    Lipski, Samuel Michael; Casimir, Georges; Vanlommel, Martine; Jeanmaire, Mathieu; Dolhen, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message C1 esterase inhibitor (Berinert®) is generally used to treat severe attack of hereditary angioedema. We describe here the case of a patient who presented with a severe angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) endangering her life. It could be successfully treated with that medicine. PMID:25767713

  15. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-induced angioedema treated by C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate (Berinert®): about one case and review of the therapeutic arsenal.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Samuel Michael; Casimir, Georges; Vanlommel, Martine; Jeanmaire, Mathieu; Dolhen, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    C1 esterase inhibitor (Berinert®) is generally used to treat severe attack of hereditary angioedema. We describe here the case of a patient who presented with a severe angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) endangering her life. It could be successfully treated with that medicine. PMID:25767713

  16. Esterase detoxication of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors using human liver samples in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; Padilla, Stephanie

    2016-04-15

    Organophosphorus (OP) and N-methylcarbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but differences in metabolism and detoxication can influence potency of these pesticides across and within species. Carboxylesterase (CaE) and A-esterase (paraoxonase, PON1) are considered factors underlying age-related sensitivity differences. We used an in vitro system to measure detoxication of AChE-inhibiting pesticides mediated via these esterases. Recombinant human AChE was used as a bioassay of inhibitor concentration following incubation with detoxifying tissue: liver plus Ca(+2) (to stimulate PON1s, measuring activity of both esterases) or EGTA (to inhibit PON1s, thereby measuring CaE activity). AChE inhibitory concentrations of aldicarb, chlorpyrifos oxon, malaoxon, methamidophos, oxamyl, paraoxon, and methylparaoxon were incubated with liver homogenates from adult male rat or one of 20 commercially provided human (11-83 years of age) liver samples. Detoxication was defined as the difference in inhibition produced by the pesticide alone and inhibition measured in combination with liver plus Ca(+2) or liver plus EGTA. Generally, rat liver produced more detoxication than did the human samples. There were large detoxication differences across human samples for some pesticides (especially malaoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon) but not for others (e.g., aldicarb, methamidophos); for the most part these differences did not correlate with age or sex. Chlorpyrifos oxon was fully detoxified only in the presence of Ca(+2) in both rat and human livers. Detoxication of paraoxon and methylparaoxon in rat liver was greater with Ca(+2), but humans showed less differentiation than rats between Ca(+2) and EGTA conditions. This suggests the importance of PON1 detoxication for these three OPs in the rat, but mostly only for chlorpyrifos oxon in human samples. Malaoxon was detoxified similarly with Ca(+2) or EGTA, and the differences across humans correlated with metabolism of p

  17. Complement Blockade with a C1 Esterase Inhibitor in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Uknis, Marc; Yuan, Xuan; Mukhina, Galina L; Varela, Juan; Saye, JoAnne; Pu, Jeffrey; Brodsky, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, clonal, hematopoietic stem cell disorder that manifests with a complement-mediated hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure and a propensity for thrombosis. These patients experience both intra- and extravascular hemolysis in the context of underlying complement activation. Currently eculizumab effectively blocks the intravascular hemolysis PNH. There remains an unmet clinical need for a complement inhibitor with activity early in the complement cascade to block complement at the classical and alternative pathways. C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) is an endogenous human plasma protein that has broad inhibitory activity in the complement pathway through inhibition of the classical pathway by binding C1r and C1s and inhibits the mannose-binding lectin-associated serine proteases in the lectin pathway. In this study, we show that commercially available plasma derived C1INH prevents lysis induced by the alternative complement pathway, of PNH erythrocytes in human serum. Importantly, C1INH was able to block the accumulation of C3 degradation products on CD55 deficient erythrocytes from PNH patient on eculizumab therapy. This could suggest a role for inhibition of earlier phases of the complement cascade than that currently inhibited by eculizumab for incomplete or non-responders to that therapy. PMID:25034232

  18. The Use of Plasma-Derived Complement C1-Esterase Inhibitor Concentrate (Berinert®) in the Treatment of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-Inhibitor Related Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Hermanrud, Thorbjørn; Duus, Nicolaj; Bygum, Anette; Rasmussen, Eva Rye

    2016-01-01

    Angioedema of the upper airways is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence has been increasing in the past two decades, primarily due to pharmaceuticals influencing the generation or degradation of the vasoactive molecule bradykinin. Plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor concentrate is a well-established treatment option of hereditary and acquired complement C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency, which are also mediated by an increased level of bradykinin resulting in recurrent angioedema. We here present a case of severe angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor related angioedema (ACEi-AE) of the hypopharynx that completely resolved rapidly after the infusion of plasma-derived C1-inhibitor concentrate adding to the sparse reports in the existing literature. PMID:27123347

  19. The Use of Plasma-Derived Complement C1-Esterase Inhibitor Concentrate (Berinert®) in the Treatment of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-Inhibitor Related Angioedema.

    PubMed

    Hermanrud, Thorbjørn; Duus, Nicolaj; Bygum, Anette; Rasmussen, Eva Rye

    2016-01-01

    Angioedema of the upper airways is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence has been increasing in the past two decades, primarily due to pharmaceuticals influencing the generation or degradation of the vasoactive molecule bradykinin. Plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor concentrate is a well-established treatment option of hereditary and acquired complement C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency, which are also mediated by an increased level of bradykinin resulting in recurrent angioedema. We here present a case of severe angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor related angioedema (ACEi-AE) of the hypopharynx that completely resolved rapidly after the infusion of plasma-derived C1-inhibitor concentrate adding to the sparse reports in the existing literature. PMID:27123347

  20. Modulation of human neutrophil polymorphonuclear leucocyte migration by human plasma alpha-globulin inhibitors and synthetic esterase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, E J

    1975-01-01

    The exposure of isolated washed human neutrophils to purified human alpha1-antitrypsin resulted in a transient 2-fold enhancement of random migration and concomitant 70-90 per cent inhibition of chemotactic responsiveness to C5a or C3a, while treatment with alpha2-macroglobulin gave a less pronounced brief enhancement of random migration and prolonged 40-60 per cent suppression of chemotaxis. Peak effects occurred with concentrations of 1 mug/ml of alpha1-antitrypsin and 10 mug/ml of alpha2-macroglobulin. In contrast, the inhibitor of the activated first component of complement, at the highest concentration studied of 100/mug/ml, slightly enhanced chemotactic migration in response to C5a without influencing random migration. Preincubation of neutrophils with either L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethyl-chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) or N-alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) at concentrations of 10-8-10-4M suppressed chemotaxis with concomitant inhibition of random migration by TPCK and enhancement of random migration by TLCK. All agents worked directly and irreversibly on the cells but caused only slight stimulation of the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt of layers of adherent neutrophils. The results suggest that interaction of the plasma alpha-globulins or synthetic esterase inhibitors with surface receptors on neutrophils can influence both the random migration and responsiveness to chemotactic factors of these cells. PMID:49293

  1. ASSAY OF CHICKEN BRAIN NEUROTOXIC ESTERASE ACTIVITY USING LEPTOPHOSOXON AS THE SELECTIVE NEUROTOXIC INHIBITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hen brain microsomal preparation has phenyl valeratehydrolyzing activity associated with neurotoxic esterase activity. Part of that activity is due to paraoxon-insensitive esterases and a sub-part of this is sensitive to neurotoxic organophosphates, i.e., mipafox and leptophosoxo...

  2. Acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency in lymphomas: prevalence, symptoms, and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Bekos, Christine; Perkmann, Thomas; Krauth, Maria; Raderer, Markus; Lechner, Klaus; Jaeger, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    We retrospectively studied the prevalence of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) deficiency in 131 patients with various lymphomas. We determined C1 INH activity, C1 INH antigen, and C4 concentration at diagnosis and after chemotherapy. In follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) consecutive patients were studied. In these entities, the prevalence of C1 INH deficiency was 10.2% in DLBCL, 4.1% in CLL, and 0% in FL and Hodgkin lymphoma. In indolent lymphomas, we identified only single cases of C1 INH deficiency, predominantly in splenic marginal zone lymphomas (SMZL) (four cases). Only three patients were symptomatic while the majority (11 cases) was asymptomatic. In DLBCL patients who were successfully treated with chemotherapy, complete normalization of C1 INH activity and C4 was observed. In contrast, C1 INH deficiency remained in SMZL patients after splenectomy. We conclude that C1 INH deficiency in lymphomas is frequently asymptomatic and responsive to immunochemotherapy. PMID:26795750

  3. Synthesis of trifluoromethyl ketones as inhibitors of antennal esterases of insects.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, A; Villuendas, I; Guerrero, A

    1994-04-01

    A variety of long chain aliphatic and aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones I-XIV has been conveniently prepared, many of them for the first time, from the corresponding Grignard or organolithium derivatives. Two of them, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one (XV) and (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one (XVI), structurally-closed analogues of (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate, the sex pheromone of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, have been stereospecifically synthesized in excellent yield by a convenient new method. The procedure involves lithiation of the corresponding iododerivative XXIX and XXX with one equivalent of tert-BuLi to obviate addition of the reagent to the enyne system. Some of the compounds have already been tested and found to be good inhibitors of antennal esterases in the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis and the pheromone action in the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa. beta-Thiotrifluoromethyl ketones XVII-XX, which are expected to enhance the inhibition activity of the parent ketones due to their higher hydration constants, have also been prepared in good yields. PMID:7922135

  4. Are PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR Genes Involved in Mediating Resistance to Rhynchosporium commune in Barley?

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Stephan; Hanemann, Anja; Sharma, Shailendra; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Günther; Röder, Marion S.

    2016-01-01

    A family of putative PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR (PEI) genes, which were detected in the genomic region co-segregating with the resistance gene Rrs2 against scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune in barley, were characterized and tested for their possible involvement in mediating resistance to the pathogen by complementation and overexpression analysis. The sequences of the respective genes were derived from two BAC contigs originating from the susceptible cultivar ‘Morex’. For the genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3, HvPEI4 and HvPEI6, specific haplotypes for 18 resistant and 23 susceptible cultivars were detected after PCR-amplification and haplotype-specific CAPS-markers were developed. None of the tested candidate genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3 and HvPEI4 alone conferred a high resistance level in transgenic over-expression plants, though an improvement of the resistance level was observed especially with OE-lines for gene HvPEI4. These results do not confirm but also do not exclude an involvement of the PEI gene family in the response to the pathogen. A candidate for the resistance gene Rrs2 could not be identified yet. It is possible that Rrs2 is a PEI gene or another type of gene which has not been detected in the susceptible cultivar ‘Morex’ or the full resistance reaction requires the presence of several PEI genes. PMID:26937960

  5. Protease inhibitor homologues from mamba venoms: facilitation of acetylcholine release and interactions with prejunctional blocking toxins.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A L; Karlsson, E

    1982-09-01

    1 Five polypeptides, which were isolated from elapid snake venoms and which are structurally related to protease inhibitors, were tested for action on isolated biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparations of the chick. 2 Dendrotoxin from the Eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) and toxins K and I from the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis) increased to indirect stimulation without affecting responses to exogenous acetylcholine, carbachol of KCl. 3 The two other protease inhibitor homologues, HHV-II from Ringhals cobra (Hemachatus haemachatus) and NNV-II from Cape cobra (Naja nivea) did not increase responses to nerve stimulation. Trypsin inhibitor from bovine pancreas also had no facilitatory effects on neuromuscular transmission. 4 The facilitatory toxins from mamba venoms interacted with the prejunctional blocking toxins, beta-bungarotoxin, crotoxin and notexin, but not with taipoxin. The blocking effects of beta-bungarotoxin were reduced by pretreatment with the mamba toxins, whereas the blocking actions of crotoxin and notexin were enhanced. 5 The results indicate that protease inhibitor homologues from mamba venoms form a new class of neurotoxin, which acts to increase the release of acetylcholine in response to motor nerve stimulation. 6 From the interaction studies it is concluded that the facilitatory toxins bind to motor nerve terminals at sites related to those occupied by the prejunctional blocking toxins. However, differences in interactions with individual toxins suggest that there must be several related binding sites on the nerve terminals. PMID:6751453

  6. Treatment response after repeated administration of C1 esterase inhibitor for successive acute hereditary angioedema attacks.

    PubMed

    Craig, Timothy J; Bewtra, Againdra K; Hurewitz, David; Levy, Robyn; Janss, Gerti; Jacobson, Kraig W; Packer, Flint; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Rojavin, Mikhail A; Machnig, Thomas; Keinecke, Heinz-Otto; Wasserman, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    Placebo-controlled studies established the efficacy of replacement therapy with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate for treating single acute hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks, but only limited data from prospective studies are available on repeated treatment of successive HAE attacks. This study evaluates the association between repeated treatments with 20 U/kg of C1-INH concentrate (Berinert; CSL Behring, Marburg, Germany) for HAE attacks at any body location and treatment response. In a post hoc analysis of an open-label extension study (International Multicenter Prospective Angioedema C1-INH Trial [I.M.P.A.C.T.2]), the association between repeated treatment with C1-INH and times to onset of symptom relief and complete resolution of HAE symptoms was assessed in patients who were treated for at least 15 attacks by linear regression on the ordinal attack number. Eighteen patients received C1-INH concentrate for at least 15 HAE attacks over a mean duration of 34 months. Demographic and baseline characteristics of these patients were similar to those of all patients in the study. The distribution of body locations and the intensity of HAE attacks were similar for each of the first 15 attacks and subsequent attacks. The extent of previous use of C1-INH concentrate had no effect on the time to onset of symptom relief, the time to complete resolution of HAE symptoms, or the time between attacks treated with C1-INH concentrate; the median of individual linear regression coefficients was not statistically significantly different from 0. Treatment with 20 U/kg of C1-INH concentrate provided consistent treatment response in patients treated for multiple successive HAE attacks at any body location. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00292981). PMID:22856636

  7. Differential effect of the serine protease inhibitor phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride on cytochemically detectable esterases in human leucocytes and platelets.

    PubMed

    Dufer, J; Trentesaux, C; Desplaces, A

    1984-01-01

    Esterases of human leucocytes and platelets were studied by cytochemical methods. The aim of the study was to clarify the cellular distribution and possible nature of esterases types differing in their substrate specificity and/or their inhibitor sensitivity. 3 substrates (alpha-naphthyl acetate: ANA; naphthol AS-D chloroacetate: NASDCA; and N-acetyl DL-alanine alpha-naphthyl ester: NACALA) were used and the effects of 2 inhibitors (sodium fluoride and the serine protease inhibitor phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride: PMSF) were evaluated. 4 enzyme types were described: Type I, present in granulocytes, was detected using NASDCA and NACALA and was resistant to fluoride but sensitive to PMSF. Other types were detected using ANA as substrate. Type II, present in monocytes, was inhibited by both fluoride and PMSF. Type III, present in platelets and plasma cells, was inhibited by fluoride but resistant to PMSF. Type IV, present in lymphocytes, was resistant to both fluoride and PMSF. The specific aims and possible areas for application of these results are discussed. PMID:6364322

  8. Hereditary and acquired angioedema: problems and progress: proceedings of the third C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency workshop and beyond.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Angelo; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Binkley, Karen E; Blanch, Alvaro; Bork, Konrad; Bouillet, Laurence; Bucher, Christoph; Castaldo, Anthony J; Cicardi, Marco; Davis, Alvin E; De Carolis, Caterina; Drouet, Christian; Duponchel, Christiane; Farkas, Henriette; Fáy, Kálmán; Fekete, Béla; Fischer, Bettina; Fontana, Luigi; Füst, George; Giacomelli, Roberto; Gröner, Albrecht; Hack, C Erik; Harmat, George; Jakenfelds, John; Juers, Mathias; Kalmár, Lajos; Kaposi, Pál N; Karádi, István; Kitzinger, Arianna; Kollár, Tímea; Kreuz, Wolfhart; Lakatos, Peter; Longhurst, Hilary J; Lopez-Trascasa, Margarita; Martinez-Saguer, Inmaculada; Monnier, Nicole; Nagy, István; Németh, Eva; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Nuijens, Jan H; O'grady, Caroline; Pappalardo, Emanuela; Penna, Vincenzo; Perricone, Carlo; Perricone, Roberto; Rauch, Ursula; Roche, Olga; Rusicke, Eva; Späth, Peter J; Szendei, George; Takács, Edit; Tordai, Attila; Truedsson, Lennart; Varga, Lilian; Visy, Beáta; Williams, Kayla; Zanichelli, Andrea; Zingale, Lorenza

    2004-09-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE), a rare but life-threatening condition, manifests as acute attacks of facial, laryngeal, genital, or peripheral swelling or abdominal pain secondary to intra-abdominal edema. Resulting from mutations affecting C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), inhibitor of the first complement system component, attacks are not histamine-mediated and do not respond to antihistamines or corticosteroids. Low awareness and resemblance to other disorders often delay diagnosis; despite availability of C1-INH replacement in some countries, no approved, safe acute attack therapy exists in the United States. The biennial C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency Workshops resulted from a European initiative for better knowledge and treatment of HAE and related diseases. This supplement contains work presented at the third workshop and expanded content toward a definitive picture of angioedema in the absence of allergy. Most notably, it includes cumulative genetic investigations; multinational laboratory diagnosis recommendations; current pathogenesis hypotheses; suggested prophylaxis and acute attack treatment, including home treatment; future treatment options; and analysis of patient subpopulations, including pediatric patients and patients whose angioedema worsened during pregnancy or hormone administration. Causes and management of acquired angioedema and a new type of angioedema with normal C1-INH are also discussed. Collaborative patient and physician efforts, crucial in rare diseases, are emphasized. This supplement seeks to raise awareness and aid diagnosis of HAE, optimize treatment for all patients, and provide a platform for further research in this rare, partially understood disorder. PMID:15356535

  9. C1 Esterase Inhibitor Reduces Lower Extremity Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Associated Lung Damage

    PubMed Central

    Duehrkop, Claudia; Banz, Yara; Spirig, Rolf; Miescher, Sylvia; Nolte, Marc W.; Spycher, Martin; Smith, Richard A. G.; Sacks, Steven H.; Rieben, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Ischemia/reperfusion injury of lower extremities and associated lung damage may result from thrombotic occlusion, embolism, trauma, or surgical intervention with prolonged ischemia and subsequent restoration of blood flow. This clinical entity is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Deprivation of blood supply leads to molecular and structural changes in the affected tissue. Upon reperfusion inflammatory cascades are activated causing tissue injury. We therefore tested preoperative treatment for prevention of reperfusion injury by using C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Methods and Findings Wistar rats systemically pretreated with C1 INH (n = 6), APT070 (a membrane-targeted myristoylated peptidyl construct derived from human complement receptor 1, n = 4), vehicle (n = 7), or NaCl (n = 8) were subjected to 3h hind limb ischemia and 24h reperfusion. The femoral artery was clamped and a tourniquet placed under maintenance of a venous return. C1 INH treated rats showed significantly less edema in muscle (P<0.001) and lung and improved muscle viability (P<0.001) compared to controls and APT070. C1 INH prevented up-regulation of bradykinin receptor b1 (P<0.05) and VE-cadherin (P<0.01), reduced apoptosis (P<0.001) and fibrin deposition (P<0.01) and decreased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deposition of complement components was not significantly reduced in the reperfused muscle. Conclusions C1 INH reduced edema formation locally in reperfused muscle as well as in lung, and improved muscle viability. C1 INH did not primarily act via inhibition of the complement system, but via the kinin and coagulation cascade. APT070 did not show beneficial effects in this model, despite potent inhibition of complement activation. Taken together, C1 INH might be a promising therapy to reduce peripheral ischemia/reperfusion injury and distant lung damage in complex and prolonged surgical interventions requiring tourniquet application

  10. Esterase detoxification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors using human liver samples in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methylcarbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but differences in metabolism and detoxification can influence potency of these pesticides across and within species. Carboxylesterase (CaE) and A-esterase (paraoxonase, PON1) are consider...

  11. Fibulin-1C, C1 Esterase Inhibitor and Glucose Regulated Protein 75 Interact with the CREC Proteins, Calumenin and Reticulocalbin

    PubMed Central

    Aune Westergaard Hansen, Gry; Ludvigsen, Maja; Jacobsen, Christian; Cangemi, Claudia; Melholt Rasmussen, Lars; Vorum, Henrik; Honoré, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Affinity purification, immunoprecipitation, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify fibulin-1C, C1 esterase inhibitor and glucose regulated protein 75, grp75, as binding partners of the CREC proteins, calumenin and reticulocalbin. Surface plasmon resonance was used to verify the interaction of all three proteins with each of the CREC proteins. Fibulin-1C interacts with calumenin and reticulocalbin with an estimated dissociation constant around 50-60 nM. The interaction, at least for reticulocalbin, was not dependent upon the presence of Ca2+. C1 esterase inhibitor interacted with both proteins with an estimated dissociation constant at 1 μM for reticulocalbin and 150 nM for calumenin. The interaction, at least for calumenin, was dependent upon the presence of Ca2+ with strong interaction at 3.5 mM while no detectable interaction could be found at 0.1 mM. Grp75 binds with an affinity of approximately 3-7 nM with reticulocalbin as well as with calumenin. These interactions suggest functional participation of the CREC proteins in chaperone activity, cell proliferation and transformation, cellular aging, haemostasis and thrombosis as well as modulation of the complement system in fighting bacterial infection. PMID:26161649

  12. Structural studies of a potent insect maturation inhibitor bound to the juvenile hormone esterase of Manduca sexta†‡

    PubMed Central

    Wogulis, Mark; Wheelock, Craig E.; Kamita, Shizuo G.; Hinton, Andrew C.; Whetstone, Paul A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Wilson, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is an insect hormone containing an α,β unsaturated ester consisting of a small alcohol and long, hydrophobic acid. JH degradation is required for proper insect development. One pathway of this degradation is through juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), which cleaves the JH ester bond to produce methanol and JH acid. JHE is a member of the functionally divergent α/β-hydrolase family of enzymes, and is a highly efficient enzyme that cleaves JH at very low in vivo concentrations. We present here a 2.7 Å crystal structure of JHE from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (MsJHE) in complex with the transition state analog inhibitor 3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one (OTFP) covalently bound to the active site. This crystal structure, the first JHE structure reported, contains a long, hydrophobic binding pocket with the solvent inaccessible catalytic triad located at the end. The structure explains many of the interactions observed between JHE and its substrates and inhibitors, such as the preference for small alcohol groups and long hydrophobic backbones. The most potent JHE inhibitors identified to date contain a trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK) moiety and have a sulfur atom beta to the ketone. In this study, sulfur-aromatic interactions were observed between the sulfur atom of OTFP and a conserved aromatic residue in the crystal structure. Mutational analysis supported the hypothesis that these interactions contribute to the potency of sulfur-containing TFK inhibitors. Together these results clarify the binding mechanism of JHE inhibitors and provide useful observations for the development of additional enzyme inhibitors for a variety of enzymes. PMID:16566578

  13. In vivo protection against soman toxicity by known inhibitors of acetylcholine synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sterling, G H; Doukas, P H; Sheldon, R J; O'Neill, J J

    1988-02-01

    Soman inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, essentially irreversibly, producing an accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) which is responsible for many of its toxic effects. Current approaches to treatment include: (1) atropine, a muscarinic receptor blocker; (2) pyridine-2-aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM), an enzyme reactivator; and (3) carbamate protection of the enzyme. However, no fully satisfactory regimen has been found, primarily because of the rapid aging process. In this study, compounds known to inhibit ACh synthesis in vitro were evaluated in combination with atropine and 2-PAM so as to assess their potential utility in protection against soman toxicity in rats. Acetylsecohemicholinium (100 micrograms/kg, i.c.v.t., 30 min prior to soman), an inhibitor of high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) and cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in vitro, enhanced the protective effects of atropine and 2-PAM, reducing the mortality within the first 2 hr following soman. N-Hydroxyethylnaphthylvinylpyridine (NHENVP), a quaternary ChAT inhibitor (1.7 mumol/kg, i.m.), significantly reduced the overall percent mortality due to soman from 80% to 20%. The compound was most effective when administered 2-3 min prior to soman and was effective only by the intramuscular route. N-Allyl-3-quinuclidinol, a potent HAChU inhibitor (1 mumol/kg, i.m.) was the most effective quinuclidine analog evaluated, also reducing the percent mortality for a 24-hr period. Unlike NHENVP, it was most effective when given 30-60 min prior to soman. It is suggested from the data that compounds that disrupt presynaptic ACh synthesis in vitro may prove effective in treating organophosphate poisoning. The results demonstrate interesting differences among the compounds studied and provide insight for the design of protectants against soman toxicity. These findings further underscore the need to examine the structure activity and pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, i.e. comparison of routes of

  14. Neuropathy target esterase inhibitors: enantiomeric separation and stereospecificity of 2-substituted-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxides.

    PubMed

    Wu, S Y; Casida, J E

    1994-01-01

    2-Substituted-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxides (2-substituted-BDPOs) are known to be potent neuropathy target esterase (NTE) inhibitors (I50s for the racemates of 0.2-3 nM) when the 2-substituents are n-alkyl (C5-C12), N-alkoxy (C7-C10), or p-n-alkylbenzyl (C3 and C4). The list of potent inhibitors (I50s < 3 nM) is expanded by the new n-alkylamino (C9) and n-alkylthio (C5, C7, and C9) analogs reported here. The optimal chain length of the 2-substituent is about 10 atoms in the alkylamino and alkylthio series as in our previous study on alkyl and alkoxy moieties. In contrast, an I50 of 60 nM is reported for o-methylphenoxy-BDPO, the neuropathic metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP). In addition to substituent effects, each of these compounds contains two enantiomers of unknown stereospecificity as NTE inhibitors. Separation by chiral HPLC with the CHIRALCEL OC column and hexane-2-propanol eluent gives individual enantiomers of > 98% e.e. and a stereospecificity for NTE inhibition depending on the type and chain length of the 2-substituent; e.g., the ratio for inhibitory potency of the individual enantiomers is 1.7-fold for nonylthio, 1255-fold for nonylamino, and 9-fold for the TOCP metabolite. In comparing enantiomeric pairs of BDPOs with alkyl, alkoxy, alkylamino, alkylthio, benzyl, p-butylbenzyl, o-methylphenoxy, or phenyl as the 2-substituent, the more retained enantiomer in HPLC is always the better NTE inhibitor (in a series of twenty-two pairs) and housefly toxicant (based on two pairs) than the less retained one.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8155829

  15. Synthesis and in Vitro Biological Evaluation of Carbonyl Group-Containing Inhibitors of Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Efange, Simon M. N.; Khare, Anil B.; von Hohenberg, Krystyna; Mach, Robert H.; Parsons, Stanley M.; Tu, Zhude

    2010-01-01

    To identify selective high-affinity inhibitors of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), we have interposed a carbonyl group between the phenyl and piperidyl groups of the prototypical VAChT ligand vesamicol, and its more potent analogues benzovesamicol and 5-aminobenzovesamicol. Of 33 compounds synthesized and tested, six display very high affinity for VAChT (Ki, 0.25 – 0.66 nM) and greater than 500-fold selectivity for VAChT over σ1 and σ2 receptors. Twelve compounds have high affinity (Ki, 1.0–10 nM) and good selectivity for VAChT. Furthermore, three halogenated compounds, namely, trans-3-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (28b) (Ki = 2.7 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 70), trans-3-[4-(5-iodothienylcarbonyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (28h) (Ki = 0.66 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 294), and 5-amino-3-[4-(p-fluorobenzoyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (30b) (Ki = 2.40 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 410) display moderate to high selectivity for VAChT. These three compounds can be synthesized with the corresponding radioisotopes so as to serve as PET/SPECT probes for imaging the VAChT in vivo. PMID:20218624

  16. COMPARISON OF THE RELATIVE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE AND NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE IN RATS AND HENS GIVEN CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE, neurotoxic esterase) and acetylcholinesterase (AME) activities was compared in brain and spinal cords of adult. hile Leghorn hens and adult male Long Evans rats 4-48 hr after administration of tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP po, 50-5...

  17. High-affinity choline uptake and acetylcholine-metabolizing enzymes in CNS white matter. A quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Solyga, Volker; Lossius, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The presence of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors suggests the occurrence of cholinergic neurotransmission in white matter; however no quantitative information exists on acetylcholine formation and breakdown in white matter. We compared white structures of pig brain (fimbria, corpus callosum, pyramidal tracts, and occipital white matter) to gray structures (temporal, parietal and cerebellar cortices, hippocampus, and caudate) and found that sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline uptake in white structures was 25-31% of that in hippocampus. White matter choline acetyltransferase activity was 10-50% of the hippocampal value; the highest activity was found in fimbria. Acetylcholine esterase activity in white structures was 20-25% of that in hippocampus. The caudate, which is rich in cholinergic interneurons, gave values for all three parameters that were 2.8-4 times higher than in hippocampus. The results suggest a certain capacity for cholinergic neurotransmission in central nervous white matter. The white matter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which provides acetyl-CoA for acetylcholine synthesis, ranged between 33 and 50% of the hippocampal activity; the activity in the caudate was similar to that in hippocampus and the other gray structures, which was true also for other enzymes of glucose metabolism: hexokinase, phosphoglucomutase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Acetylcholine esterase activity in white matter was inhibited by the nerve agent soman, which may help explain the reported deleterious effect of soman on white matter. Further, this finding suggests that acetylcholine esterase inhibitors used in Alzheimer's disease may have an effect in white matter. PMID:18674580

  18. [Hereditary angioneurotic edema: a molecular disease caused by a defect in the O-glycosylation of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH)].

    PubMed

    Ollier-Hartmann, M P; Strecker, G; Montreuil, J; Hartmann, L

    1984-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study of neutral and aminosaccharides in C 1-esterase inhibitor (C 1-INH), protein of the complement system, was performed. We observe a mixed glycosylation of the molecule with an N-glycosylated: O-glycosylated chain ratio of 1: 4. The loss of the inhibitory activity of the molecule in hereditary angioedema (O ANH) is associated with an O-glycosylation deficiency which differs according to the two molecular variants: C 1-INH (1 A) and C 1-INH (II) previously described. PMID:6440668

  19. Synergistic effect between 5-HT4 receptor agonist and phosphodiesterase 4-inhibitor in releasing acetylcholine in pig gastric circular muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Romain A; Van Colen, Inge; Pauwelyn, Vicky; De Maeyer, Joris H

    2016-06-15

    5-HT4 receptor agonists have a gastroprokinetic effect by facilitating acetylcholine release from cholinergic nerves innervating gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 in the signal transduction pathway of the 5-HT4 receptors located on the cholinergic neurons towards the circular muscle layer in pig stomach was investigated by analysis of acetylcholine release. Circular muscle strips were prepared from pig proximal stomach and tritium outflow, induced by electrical field stimulation, was studied as a marker for acetylcholine release after incubation with [(3)H]-choline. The PDE4-inhibitor roflumilast concentration-dependently (0.1-1µM) enhanced the facilitating effect of a submaximally effective concentration of the 5-HT4 receptor agonist prucalopride (0.01µM) on electrically induced acetylcholine release. Roflumilast (0.3µM) enhanced acetylcholine release per se but in the combined presence of roflumilast and prucalopride, acetylcholine release was enhanced more than the sum of the effect of the 2 compounds alone. The 5-HT4 receptor agonist velusetrag concentration-dependently (0.01-0.1µM) enhanced acetylcholine release; the effect of the minimally effective concentration (0.01µM) was significantly enhanced by 1µM of the PDE4-inhibitor rolipram, again to a level higher than the sum of the effect of the 2 compounds alone. The synergistic effect between 5-HT4 receptor agonists and PDE4-inhibitors demonstrates that the intracellular pathway of the 5-HT4 receptors located on cholinergic neurons towards pig gastric circular muscle is controlled by PDE4. Combining a 5-HT4 receptor agonist with a PDE4-inhibitor might thus enhance its gastroprokinetic effect. PMID:27060014

  20. Increased acetylcholine esterase activity produced by the administration of an aqueous extract of the seed kernel of Thevetia peruviana and its role on acute and subchronic intoxication in mice

    PubMed Central

    Marroquín-Segura, Rubén; Calvillo-Esparza, Ricardo; Mora-Guevara, José Luis Alfredo; Tovalín-Ahumada, José Horacio; Aguilar-Contreras, Abigail; Hernández-Abad, Vicente Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Background: The real mechanism for Thevetia peruviana poisoning remains unclear. Cholinergic activity is important for cardiac function regulation, however, the effect of T. peruviana on cholinergic activity is not well-known. Objective: To study the effect of the acute administration of an aqueous extract of the seed kernel of T. peruviana on the acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in CD1 mice as well its implications in the sub-chronic toxicity of the extract. Materials and Methods: A dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract was administered to CD1 mice and after 7 days, serum was obtained for ceruloplasmin (CP) quantitation and liver function tests. Another group of mice received a 50 mg/kg dose of the extract 3 times within 1 h time interval and AChE activity was determined for those animals. Heart tissue histological preparation was obtained from a group of mice that received a daily 50 mg/kg dose of the extract by a 30-days period. Results: CP levels for the treated group were higher than those for the control group (Student's t-test, P ≤ 0.001). AChE activity in the treated group was significantly higher than the control group (Tukey test, control vs. T. peruviana, P ≤ 0.001). Heart tissue histological preparations showed leukocyte infiltrates and necrotic areas, consistent with infarcts. Conclusion: The increased levels of AChE and the hearth tissue infiltrative lesions induced by the aqueous seed kernel extract of T. peruviana explains in part the poisoning caused by this plant, which can be related to an inflammatory process. PMID:24914300

  1. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used in treatment of Alzheimer's disease prevent glutamate neurotoxicity via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade.

    PubMed

    Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Kume, Toshiaki; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro; Katsuki, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Hachiro; Akaike, Akinori

    2006-09-01

    We show here that donepezil, galanathamine and tacrine, therapeutic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors currently being used for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, protect neuronal cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner from glutamate neurotoxicity that involves apoptosis. The neuroprotective effects were antagonized by mecamylamine, an inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Dihydro-beta-erythroidine and methyllycaconitine, antagonists for alpha4-nAChR and alpha7-nAChR, respectively, antagonized the protective effect of donepezil and galanthamine, but not that of tacrine. Previous reports suggest the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway in the nicotine-induced neuroprotection. Inhibitors for a non-receptor type tyrosine kinase, Fyn, and janus-activated kinase 2, suppressed the neuroprotective effect of donepezil and galanthamine, but not that of tacrine. Furthermore, LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, also suppressed the neuroprotective effect of donepezil and galanthamine, but not that of tacrine. The phosphorylation of Akt, an effector of PI3K, and the expression level of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, increased with donepezil and galanthamine treatment, but not with tacrine treatment. These results suggest that donepezil and galanthamine prevent glutamate neurotoxicity through alpha4- and alpha7-nAChRs, followed by the PI3K-Akt pathway, and that tacrine protects neuronal cells through a different pathway. PMID:16762377

  2. Acetylcholinesterase liquid crystal biosensor based on modulated growth of gold nanoparticles for amplified detection of acetylcholine and inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shuzhen; Qiao, Yanan; Han, Wenting; Xie, Zhaoxia; Wu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2012-01-01

    A novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) liquid crystal (LC) biosensor based on enzymatic growth of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) has been developed for amplified detection of acetylcholine (ACh) and AChE inhibitor. In this method, AChE mediates the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATCl) to form thiocholine, and the latter further reduces AuCl(4)(-) to Au NPs without Au nanoseeds. This process, termed biometallization, leads to a great enhancement in the optical signal of the LC biosensor due to the large size of Au NPs, which can greatly disrupt the orientational arrangement of LCs. On the other hand, the hydrolysis of ATCl is inhibited in the presence of ACh or organophosphate pesticides (OPs, a AChE inhibitor), which will decrease the catalytic growth of Au NPs and, as a result, reduce the orientational response of LCs. On the basis of such an inhibition mechanism, the AChE LC biosensor can be used as an effective way to realize the detection of ACh and AChE inhibitors. The results showed that the AChE LC biosensor was highly sensitive to ACh with a detection limit of 15 μmol/L and OPs with a detection limit of 0.3 nmol/L. This study provides a simple and sensitive AChE LC biosensing approach and offers effective signal enhanced strategies for the development of enzyme LC biosensors. PMID:22148672

  3. The non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor APS12-2 is a potent antagonist of skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Grandič, Marjana; Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi; Turk, Tom; Sepčić, Kristina; Benoit, Evelyne; Frangež, Robert

    2012-12-01

    APS12-2, a non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is one of the synthetic analogs of polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. In the present work the effects of APS12-2 were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm muscle preparations, using twitch tension measurements and electrophysiological recordings. APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner blocked nerve-evoked isometric muscle contraction (IC(50)=0.74 μM), without affecting directly-elicited twitch tension up to 2.72 μM. The compound (0.007-3.40 μM) decreased the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials until a complete block by concentrations higher than 0.68 μM, without affecting their frequency. Full size endplate potentials, recorded after blocking voltage-gated muscle sodium channels, were inhibited by APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.36 μM) without significant change in the resting membrane potential of the muscle fibers up to 3.40 μM. The compound also blocked acetylcholine-evoked inward currents in Xenopus oocytes in which Torpedo (α1(2)β1γδ) muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been incorporated (IC(50)=0.0005 μM), indicating a higher affinity of the compound for Torpedo (α1(2)β1γδ) than for the mouse (α1(2)β1γε) nAChR. Our data show for the first time that APS12-2 blocks neuromuscular transmission by a non-depolarizing mechanism through an action on postsynaptic nAChRs of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. PMID:23046821

  4. Synthesis and Evaluation of in Vitro Bioactivity for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Inhibitors Containing Two Carbonyl Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Zhude; Wang, Wei; Cui, Jinquan; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Jinbin; Parsons, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    To identify selective high-affinity ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), we have incorporated a carbonyl group into the structures of trozamicol and prezamicol scaffolds, and also converted the secondary amines of the piperidines of trozamicols and prezamicols into amides. Of 18 new racemic compounds, 4 compounds displayed high affinity for VAChT (Ki = 10 - 20 nM) and greater than 300-fold selectivity for VAChT over σ1 and σ2 receptors, namely (4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-4'-hydroxy-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-1'-yl)(3-methylthiophen-2-yl)methanone oxalate (9g) (Ki-VAChT = 11.4 nM, VAChT/σ1 = 1063, VAChT/σ2 = 370), (1'-benzoyl-4'-hydroxy-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-4-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone oxalate (10c) (Ki-VAChT = 15.4 nM, VAChT/σ1 = 374, VAChT/ σ2 = 315), (4'-hydroxy-1'-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-4-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone oxalate (10e) (Ki-VAChT = 19.0 nM, VAChT/σ1 = 1787, VAChT/ σ2 = 335), and (4'-hydroxy-1'-(3-methylthiophene-2-carbonyl)-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-4-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone oxalate (10g) (Ki-VAChT = 10.2 nM, VAChT/σ1 = 1500, VAChT/ σ2 = 2030). These 4 compounds can be radiosynthesized with C-11 or F-18 to validate their possibilities of serving as PET probes for quantifying the levels of VAChT in vivo. PMID:22739089

  5. The non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor APS12-2 is a potent antagonist of skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Grandič, Marjana; Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi; Turk, Tom; Sepčić, Kristina; Benoit, Evelyne; Frangež, Robert

    2012-12-01

    APS12-2, a non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is one of the synthetic analogs of polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. In the present work the effects of APS12-2 were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve–hemidiaphragm muscle preparations, using twitch tension measurements and electrophysiological recordings. APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner blocked nerve-evoked isometric muscle contraction (IC{sub 50} = 0.74 μM), without affecting directly-elicited twitch tension up to 2.72 μM. The compound (0.007–3.40 μM) decreased the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials until a complete block by concentrations higher than 0.68 μM, without affecting their frequency. Full size endplate potentials, recorded after blocking voltage-gated muscle sodium channels, were inhibited by APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 0.36 μM) without significant change in the resting membrane potential of the muscle fibers up to 3.40 μM. The compound also blocked acetylcholine-evoked inward currents in Xenopus oocytes in which Torpedo (α1{sub 2}β1γδ) muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been incorporated (IC{sub 50} = 0.0005 μM), indicating a higher affinity of the compound for Torpedo (α1{sub 2}β1γδ) than for the mouse (α1{sub 2}β1γε) nAChR. Our data show for the first time that APS12-2 blocks neuromuscular transmission by a non-depolarizing mechanism through an action on postsynaptic nAChRs of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. -- Highlights: ► APS12-2 produces concentration-dependent inhibition of nerve-evoked muscle contraction in vitro. ► APS12-2 blocks MEPPs and EPPs at the neuromuscular junction. APS12-2 blocks ACh-activated current in Xenopus oocytes incorporated with Torpedo nAChRs.

  6. Reactivity versus steric effects in fluorinated ketones as esterase inhibitors: a quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Rayo, Josep; Muñoz, Lourdes; Rosell, Gloria; Hammock, Bruce D.; Guerrero, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Carboxylesterases (CEs) are a family of ubiquitous enzymes with broad substrate specificity, and their inhibition may have important implications in pharmaceutical and agrochemical fields. One of the most potent inhibitors both for mammalian and insect CEs are trifluoromethyl ketones (TFMKs), but the mechanism of action of these chemicals is not completely understood. This study examines the balance between reactivity versus steric effects in modulating the activity against human carboxylesterase 1. The intrinsic reactivity of the ketone moiety is determined from quantum mechanical computations, which combine gas phase B3LYP calculations with hydration free energies estimated with the IEF/MST model. In addition, docking and molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the binding mode of the inhibitors along the deep gorge that delineates the binding site. The results point out that the activity largely depends on the nature of the fluorinated ketone, since the activity is modulated by the balance between the intrinsic electrophilicity of the carbonyl carbon atom and the ratio between keto and hydrate forms. However, the results also suggest that the correct alignment of the alkyl chain in the binding site can exert a large influence on the inhibitory activity, as this effect seems to override the intrinsic reactivity features of the fluorinated ketone. Overall, the results sustain a subtle balance between reactivity and steric effects in modulating the inhibitory activity of TFMK inhibitors. PMID:20676708

  7. IN VITRO COMPARISON OF RAT AND CHICKEN BRAIN NEUROTOXIC ESTERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic comparison was undertaken to characterize neurotoxic esterase (NTE) from rat and chicken brain in terms of inhibitor sensitivities, pH optima, and molecular weights. Paraoxon titration of phenyl valerate (PV)-hydrolyzing carboxylesterased showed that rat esterases we...

  8. Clinical significance of esterases in man.

    PubMed

    Williams, F M

    1985-01-01

    Esterases, hydrolases which split ester bonds, hydrolyse a number of compounds used as drugs in humans. The enzymes involved are classified broadly as cholinesterases (including acetylcholinesterase), carboxylesterases, and arylesterases, but apart from acetylcholinesterase, their biological function is unknown. The acetylcholinesterase present in nerve endings involved in neurotransmission is inhibited by anticholinesterase drugs, e.g. neostigmine, and by organophosphorous compounds (mainly insecticides). Cholinesterases are primarily involved in drug hydrolysis in the plasma, arylesterases in the plasma and red blood cells, and carboxylesterases in the liver, gut and other tissues. The esterases exhibit specificities for certain substrates and inhibitors but a drug is often hydrolysed by more than one esterase at different sites. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), for example, is hydrolysed to salicylate by carboxylesterases in the liver during the first-pass. Only 60% of an oral dose reaches the systemic circulation where it is hydrolysed by plasma cholinesterases and albumin and red blood cell arylesterases. Thus, the concentration of aspirin relative to salicylate in the circulation may be affected by individual variation in esterase levels and the relative roles of the different esterases, and this may influence the overall pharmacological effect. Other drugs have been less extensively investigated than aspirin and these include heroin (diacetylmorphine), suxamethonium (succinylcholine), clofibrate, carbimazole, procaine and other local anaesthetics. Ester prodrugs are widely used to improve absorption of drugs and in depot preparations. The active drug is released by hydrolysis by tissue carboxylesterases. Individual differences in esterase activity may be genetically determined, as is the case with atypical cholinesterases and the polymorphic distribution of serum paraoxonase and red blood cell esterase D. Disease states may also alter esterase activity. PMID

  9. Feasibility of home infusion and self-administration of nanofiltered C1 esterase inhibitor for routine prophylaxis in patients with hereditary angioedema and characterization of a training and support program.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Cherylann; Landmesser, Ladonna M; Corrigan, Larry; Mariano, David

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare, chronic disease of C1 inhibitor deficiency. Study researchers evaluated the prevalence of home and self-administration of nanofiltered, human-derived C1 esterase inhibitor infusions and the implementation of a nursing training and support program. Home administration rate increased from 49.0% to 75.8%. The percentage who self-administered increased from 20.3% to 43.9%. Doses per week averaged 1.85 at home compared with 1.40 in infusion centers and physicians' offices. Patients required an average of 5 visits to be trained. Self-administration is a viable, feasible option in the management of HAE, which is facilitated by a nurse-managed training and support program. PMID:24384882

  10. Multiple transmembrane binding sites for p-trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-etomidate, a photoreactive Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Stewart, Deirdre S; Husain, S Shaukat; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2011-06-10

    Photoreactive derivatives of the general anesthetic etomidate have been developed to identify their binding sites in γ-aminobutyric acid, type A and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. One such drug, [(3)H]TDBzl-etomidate (4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzyl-[(3)H]1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate), acts as a positive allosteric potentiator of Torpedo nACh receptor (nAChR) and binds to a novel site in the transmembrane domain at the γ-α subunit interface. To extend our understanding of the locations of allosteric modulator binding sites in the nAChR, we now characterize the interactions of a second aryl diazirine etomidate derivative, TFD-etomidate (ethyl-1-(1-(4-(3-trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate). TFD-etomidate inhibited acetylcholine-induced currents with an IC(50) = 4 μM, whereas it inhibited the binding of [(3)H]phencyclidine to the Torpedo nAChR ion channel in the resting and desensitized states with IC(50) values of 2.5 and 0.7 mm, respectively. Similar to [(3)H]TDBzl-etomidate, [(3)H]TFD-etomidate bound to a site at the γ-α subunit interface, photolabeling αM2-10 (αSer-252) and γMet-295 and γMet-299 within γM3, and to a site in the ion channel, photolabeling amino acids within each subunit M2 helix that line the lumen of the ion channel. In addition, [(3)H]TFD-etomidate photolabeled in an agonist-dependent manner amino acids within the δ subunit M2-M3 loop (δIle-288) and the δ subunit transmembrane helix bundle (δPhe-232 and δCys-236 within δM1). The fact that TFD-etomidate does not compete with ion channel blockers at concentrations that inhibit acetylcholine responses indicates that binding to sites at the γ-α subunit interface and/or within δ subunit helix bundle mediates the TFD-etomidate inhibitory effect. These results also suggest that the γ-α subunit interface is a binding site for Torpedo nAChR negative allosteric modulators (TFD-etomidate) and for positive

  11. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine. This may mean you have a urinary tract infection . If this test is positive, the urine should ... Results Mean An abnormal result indicates a possible urinary tract infection. Alternative Names WBC esterase Images Male urinary system ...

  12. Brain regional acetylcholinesterase activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rats after repeated administration of cholinesterase inhibitors and its withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Haruo . E-mail: hk1664@iwate-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Tadahiko; Sakamoto, Maki; Hashimoto, Wataru; Kashiwada, Keiko; Sato, Itaru; Akahori, Fumiaki; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-03-15

    Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and specific binding of [{sup 3}H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), [{sup 3}H]pirenzepine (PZP) and [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 384 to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) preparations in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of rats were determined 1, 6 and 11 days after the last treatment with an organophosphate DDVP, a carbamate propoxur or a muscarinic agonist oxotremorine as a reference for 7 and 14 days. AChE activity was markedly decreased in the three regions 1 day after the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days with a gradual recovery 6 to 11 days, and much less decreased 1, 6 and 11 days after the treatment with propoxur for 7 days but not for 14 days in the hippocampus and cortex. The binding of [{sup 3}H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 in the three regions was generally decreased by the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days. Such down-regulations were generally restored 6 or 11 days after the treatment for 7 but not for 14 days. The down-regulation or up-regulation as measured by [{sup 3}H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 was observed 1, 6 or 11 days after treatment with propoxur for 7 days and/or 14 days. Repeated treatment with oxotremorine produced similar effects except AChE activity to DDVP. These results suggest that repeated inhibition of AChE activity may usually cause down-regulation of mAChRs with some exception in the hippocampus when a reversible antiChE propoxur is injected.

  13. Qualitative assessment of IC50 values of inhibitors of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor using a single chromatographic experiment and multivariate cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Moaddel, Ruin; Yamaguchi, Rika; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Collins, Jack R; Wainer, Irving W

    2005-05-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that affinity chromatography can be used to derive binding affinities, and that these affinities can be correlated to data obtained using standard techniques such as membrane binding, ultrafiltration and equilibrium dialysis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of immobilized nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stationary phase in chromatographic experiments to assess the functional activity of series of noncompetitive inhibitors (NCIs) as reflected in their IC50 values. Chromatographically determined retention values and computer generated molecular descriptors were obtained for 29 compounds and the data were analyzed by cluster analysis. The approach qualitatively ranked the test compounds as efficient NCIs (low IC50 values) or poor NCIs (high IC50 values). The data obtained with the 29 compounds used in this study demonstrate that the experimental approach had been able to place 25 of these compounds in the correct IC(50) clusters. To our knowledge, this is the first relationship established between chromatographic retention and IC50 for membrane-bound receptors. These results suggest that the chromatographic approach may be useful in development of lead drug candidates including the determination of off-target binding. PMID:15797535

  14. A common neoepitope is created when the reactive center of C1-inhibitor is cleaved by plasma kallikrein, activated factor XII fragment, C1 esterase, or neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed Central

    de Agostini, A; Patston, P A; Marottoli, V; Carrel, S; Harpel, P C; Schapira, M

    1988-01-01

    The reactive center of C1-inhibitor, a plasma protease inhibitor that belongs to the serpin superfamily, is located on a peptide loop which is highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. With plasma kallikrein, C1s and beta-Factor XIIa, this cleavage occurs at the reactive site residue P1 (Arg444); with neutrophil elastase, it takes place near P1, probably at residue P3 (Val442). After these cleavages, C1-inhibitor is inactivated and its conformation is modified. Moreover, in vivo, cleaved C1-inhibitor is removed from the blood stream more rapidly than the intact serpin, which suggests that proteolysis unmasks sites responsible for cellular recognition and the uptake of the cleaved inhibitor. In the study reported here, we show, using an MAb, that an identical neoepitope is created on C1-inhibitor after the cleavage of its exposed loop by plasma kallikrein, C1s, beta-Factor XIIa, and by neutrophil elastase. Images PMID:2457036

  15. Binding sites for. alpha. -bungarotoxin and the noncompetitive inhibitor phencyclidine on a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the. alpha. -subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly-Roberts, D.L.; Lentz, T.L. )

    1991-07-30

    The binding of the competitive antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-Btx) and the noncompetitive inhibitor phencyclidine (PCP) to a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the {alpha}-subunit of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor has been characterized. {sup 125}I-{alpha}-Btx bound to the 172-227 peptide in a solid-phase assay and was competed by {alpha}-Btx d-tubocurarine and NaCl. In the presence of 0.02% sodium dodecyl sulfate, {sup 125}I-{alpha}-Btx bound to the 56-residue peptide with a K{sub D} of 3.5 nM, as determined by equilibrium saturation binding studies. Because {alpha}Btx binds to a peptide comprising residues 173-204 with the same affinity and does not bind to a peptide comprising residues 205-227, the competitive antagonist and hence agonist binding site lies between residues 173 and 204. After photoaffinity labeling, ({sup 3}H)PCP was bound to the 172-227 peptide. ({sup 3}H)PCP binding was inhibited by chlorpromazine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. It is concluded that a high-affinity binding site for PCP is located between residues 205 and 227, which includes the first 18 residues of transmembrane segment M1, and that a low-affinity site is located in the competitive antagonist binding site between residues 173 and 204. These results show that a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the {alpha} subunit contains three binding sites, one for {alpha}-Btx and two for PCP. Previous studies on the intact receptor indicate high-affinity PCP binding occurs in the receptor channel.

  16. Successful use of daily intravenous infusion of C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate in the treatment of a hereditary angioedema patient with ascites, hypovolemic shock, sepsis, renal and respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hoang; Santucci, Stephanie; Yang, William H

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease most commonly associated with defects in C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). HAE manifests as recurrent episodes of edema in various body locations. Atypical symptoms, such as ascites, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and hypovolemic shock, have also been reported. Management of HAE conventionally involves the treatment of acute attacks, as well as short- and long-term prophylaxis. Since attacks can be triggered by several factors, including stress and physical trauma, prophylactic therapy is recommended for patients undergoing surgery. Human plasma-derived C1-INH (pdC1-INH) concentrate is indicated for the treatment of both acute HAE attacks and pre-procedure prevention of HAE episodes in patients undergoing medical, dental, or surgical procedures. We report the first case of a patient with HAE who experienced an abdominal attack precipitated by a retroperitoneal bleed while being converted from warfarin to heparin in preparation for surgery. Subsequently, the patient had a protracted course in hospital with other complications, which included hypovolemic shock, ascites, severe sepsis from nosocomial pneumonia, renal and respiratory failure. Despite intensive interventions, the patient remained in a critical state for months; however, after a trial of daily intravenous infusion of pdC1-INH concentrate (Berinert®, CSL Behring GmbH, Marburg, Germany), clinical status improved, particularly renal function. Therefore, pdC1-INH concentrate may be an effective treatment option to consider for critically-ill patients with HAE. PMID:25520740

  17. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms.

    PubMed

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38), in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50). This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM) site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM) site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and illustrate more complex

  18. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms

    PubMed Central

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K.; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38), in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50). This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM) site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM) site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and illustrate more complex

  19. Recent developments in the treatment of acute abdominal and facial attacks of hereditary angioedema: focus on human C1 esterase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Lourdes Pastó; Bellfill, Ramon Lleonart; Caus, Joaquim Marcoval

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a potentially fatal genetic disorder typified by a deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) and characterized by swelling of the extremities, face, trunk, abdominal viscera, and upper airway. Type III is normal estrogen-sensitive C1-INH HAE. Bradykinin, the main mediator of HAE, binds to endothelial B2 receptors, increasing vascular permeability and resulting in edema. HAE management includes short- and long-term prophylaxis. For treating acute episodes, C1-INH concentrate is recommended with regression of symptoms achieved in 30-90 min. Infusions of 500-1000 U have been used in Europe for years. Two plasma-derived C1-INH concentrates have been licensed recently in the United States: Berinert(®) for treating acute attacks and Cinryze(®) for prophylaxis in adolescent/adult patients. A recombinant C1-INH that is being considered for approval (conestat alfa) exhibited significant superiority versus placebo. Ecallantide (Kalbitor(®)) is a selective kallikrein inhibitor recently licensed in the United States for treating acute attacks in patients aged >16 years. It is administered in three 10-mg subcutaneous injections with the risk of anaphylactic reactions. Icatibant (Firazyr(®)) is a bradykinin B2 receptor competitor. It is administered subcutaneously as a 30-mg injection and approved in Europe but not in the United States. PMID:23776358

  20. Profiling and functional classification of esterases in olive (Olea europaea) pollen during germination

    PubMed Central

    Rejón, Juan D.; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Castro, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims A pollen grain contains a number of esterases, many of which are released upon contact with the stigma surface. However, the identity and function of most of these esterases remain unknown. In this work, esterases from olive pollen during its germination were identifided and functionally characterized. Methods The esterolytic capacity of olive (Olea europaea) pollen was examined using in vitro and in-gel enzymatic assays with different enzyme substrates. The functional analysis of pollen esterases was achieved by inhibition assays by using specific inhibitors. The cellular localization of esterase activities was performed using histochemical methods. Key Results Olive pollen showed high levels of non-specific esterase activity, which remained steady after hydration and germination. Up to 20 esterolytic bands were identified on polyacrylamide gels. All the inhibitors decreased pollen germinability, but only diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DIFP) hampered pollen tube growth. Non-specific esterase activity is localized on the surface of oil bodies (OBs) and small vesicles, in the pollen intine and in the callose layer of the pollen tube wall. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was mostly observed in the apertures, exine and pollen coat, and attached to the pollen tube wall surface and to small cytoplasmic vesicles. Conclusions In this work, for the first time a systematic functional characterization of esterase enzymes in pollen from a plant species with wet stigma has been carried out. Olive pollen esterases belong to four different functional groups: carboxylesterases, acetylesterases, AChEs and lipases. The cellular localization of esterase activity indicates that the intine is a putative storage site for esterolytic enzymes in olive pollen. Based on inhibition assays and cellular localization of enzymatic activities, it can be concluded that these enzymes are likely to be involved in pollen germination, and pollen tube growth and penetration of

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis. PMID:26711579

  2. Cholinergic activation of the murine trachealis muscle via non-vesicular acetylcholine release involving low-affinity choline transporters.

    PubMed

    Nassenstein, Christina; Wiegand, Silke; Lips, Katrin S; Li, Guanfeng; Klein, Jochen; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    In addition to quantal, vesicular release of acetylcholine (ACh), there is also non-quantal release at the motor endplate which is insufficient to evoke postsynaptic responses unless acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is inhibited. We here addressed potential non-quantal release in the mouse trachea by organ bath experiments and (immuno)histochemical methods. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) of nerve terminals elicited tracheal constriction that is largely due to ACh release. Classical enzyme histochemistry demonstrated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in nerve fibers in the muscle and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in the smooth muscle cells. Acute inhibition of both esterases by eserine significantly raised tracheal tone which was fully sensitive to atropine. This effect was reduced, but not abolished, in AChE, but not in BChE gene-deficient mice. The eserine-induced increase in tracheal tone was unaffected by vesamicol (10(-5)M), an inhibitor of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and by corticosterone (10(-4)M), an inhibitor of organic cation transporters. Hemicholinium-3, in low concentrations an inhibitor of the high-affinity choline transporter-1 (CHT1), completely abrogated the eserine effects when applied in high concentrations (10(-4)M) pointing towards an involvement of low-affinity choline transporters. To evaluate the cellular sources of non-quantal ACh release in the trachea, expression of low-affinity choline transporter-like family (CTL1-5) was evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Even though these transporters were largely abundant in the epithelium, denudation of airway epithelial cells had no effect on eserine-induced tracheal contraction, indicating a non-quantal release of ACh from non-epithelial sources in the airways. These data provide evidence for an epithelium-independent non-vesicular, non-quantal ACh release in the mouse trachea involving low-affinity choline transporters. PMID:26278668

  3. In vitro comparison of rat and chicken brain neurotoxic esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, R.; Padilla, S.

    1986-04-01

    A systematic comparison was undertaken to characterize neurotoxic esterase (NTE) from rat and chicken brain in terms of inhibitor sensitivities, pH optima, and molecular weights. Paraoxon titration of phenyl valerate (PV)-hydrolyzing carboxylesterases showed that rat esterases were more sensitive than chicken to paraoxon inhibition at concentrations less than or equal to microM and superimposable with chicken esterases at concentrations of 2.5-1000 microM. Mipafox titration of the paraoxon-resistant esterases at a fixed paraoxon concentration of 100 microM (mipafox concentration: 0-1000 microM) resulted in a mipafox I50 of 7.3 microM for chicken brain NTE and 11.6 microM for rat brain NTE. NTE (i.e., paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive esterase activity) comprised 80% of chicken and 60% of rat brain paraoxon-resistant activity with the specific activity of chicken brain NTE approximately twice that of rat brain NTE. The pH maxima for NTE from both species was similar showing broad, slightly alkaline optima from pH 7.9 to 8.6. (/sup 3/H)Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-labeled NTE from the brains of both species had an apparent mol wt of 160,000 measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, NTE from both species was very similar, with the mipafox I50 for rat NTE within the range of reported values for chicken and human NTE, and the inhibitor parameters of the chicken NTE assay were applicable for the rat NTE assay.

  4. Esterase zymograms of Proteus and Providencia.

    PubMed

    Goullet, P

    1975-03-01

    The intracellular esterases of 80 strains of Proteus and Providencia were analysed by the acrylamide-agarose zymogram technique using several synthetic substrates. The esterase bands were classified in five main groups. The alphaA-esterase bands hydrolysed alpha-naphthyl acetate and were resistant or relatively insensitive to di-isofluoropropyl phosphate (DFP). The alphaB-esterase band hydrolysed both alpha-naphthyl acetate and alpha-naphthyl butyrate and were very sensitive to DFP. Both groups of esterase bands were inactivated by heat. The betaA- and betaB-esterase bands hydrolysed beta-naphthyl acetate and were sensitive to DFP; these were distinguishable by the difference in their relative activity towards beta-naphthyl butyrate and in their relative stability to heat. The alpha-beta-esterase bands hydrolysed alpha- and beta-naphthyl acetates and alpha- and beta-naphthyl butyrates; they were inactivated by heat and were sensitive to DFP. The distribution of these esterase bands among the strains of Proteus and Providencia and their electrophoretic patterns established esterase profile types which correlate with the classification based on traditional bacteriological tests. The degree of inter-strain similarity in esterase pattern varied highly among species. The homogeneity of Proteus mirabilis and especially of Providencia stuartii contrasted with the heterogeneity of other species. This disparity suggests that the bacteria of the tribe Proteae have not the same degree of intra-specific differentiation in physico-chemical properties of esterases. PMID:48538

  5. The search of the target of promotion: Phenylbenzoate esterase activities in hen peripheral nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, A. . E-mail: angelo.moretto@icps.it; Nicolli, A.; Lotti, M.

    2007-03-15

    Certain esterase inhibitors, such as carbamates, phosphinates and sulfonyl halides, do not cause neuropathy as some organophosphates, but they may exacerbate chemical or traumatic insults to axons. This phenomenon is called promotion of axonopathies. Given the biochemical and toxicological characteristics of these compounds, the hypothesis was made that the target of promotion is a phenyl valerate (PV) esterase similar to neuropathy target esterase (NTE), the target of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy. However, attempts to identify a PV esterase in hen peripheral nerve have been, so far, unsuccessful. We tested several esters, other than PV, as substrates of esterases from crude homogenate of the hen peripheral nerve. The ideal substrate should be poorly hydrolysed by NTE but extensively by enzyme(s) that are insensitive to non-promoters, such as mipafox, and sensitive to promoters, such as phenyl methane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). When phenyl benzoate (PB) was used as substrate, about 65% of total activity was resistant to the non-promoter mipafox (up to 0.5 mM, 20 min, pH 8.0), that inhibits NTE and other esterases. More than 90% of this resistant activity was sensitive to the classical promoter PMSF (1 mM, 20 min, pH 8.0) with an IC{sub 50} of about 0.08 mM (20 min, pH 8.0). On the contrary, the non-promoter p-toluene sulfonyl fluoride caused only about 10% inhibition at 0.5 mM. Several esterase inhibitors including, paraoxon, phenyl benzyl carbamate, di-n-butyl dichlorovinyl phosphate and di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, were tested both in vitro and in vivo for inhibition of this PB activity. Mipafox-resistant PMSF-sensitive PB esterase activity(ies) was inhibited by promoters but not by non promoters and neuropathic compounds.

  6. Characterization of four esterase genes and esterase activity from the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four esterase genes and general esterase activity were investigated in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Two genes (RfEst1 and RfEst2) share significant translated identity with a number of insect JH esterases. The two remaining genes (RfEst3 and RfEst4) apparently code for much shorte...

  7. Parazoanthoxanthin A blocks Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Rozman, Klara Bulc; Araoz, Romulo; Sepcić, Kristina; Molgo, Jordi; Suput, Dusan

    2010-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are implicated in different nervous system-related disorders, and their modulation could improve existing therapy of these diseases. Parazoanthoxanthin A (ParaA) is a fluorescent pigment of the group of zoanthoxanthins. Since it is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, it may also bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). For this reason its effect on Torpedo nAChR (alpha1(2)betagammadelta) transplanted to Xenopus laevis oocytes was evaluated, using the voltage-clamp technique. ParaA dose-dependently reduced the acetylcholine-induced currents. This effect was fully reversible only at lower concentrations. ParaA also reduced the Hill coefficient and the time to peak current, indicating a channel blocking mode of action. On the other hand, the combined effect of ParaA and d-tubocurarine (d-TC) on acetylcholine-induced currents exhibited only partial additivity, assuming a competitive mode of action of ParaA on nAChR. These results indicate a dual mode of action of ParaA on the Torpedo AChR. PMID:20230806

  8. Esterase inhibition by grapefruit juice flavonoids leading to a new drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Callery, Patrick S; Gan, Liang-Shang; Balani, Suresh K

    2007-07-01

    Our previous studies described a newly identified potential of grapefruit juice (GFJ) in mediating pharmacokinetic drug interactions due to its capability of esterase inhibition. The current study identifies the active components in GFJ responsible for its esterase-inhibitory effect. The esterase-inhibitory potential of 10 constitutive flavonoids and furanocoumarins toward p-nitrophenylacetate (PNPA) hydrolysis was investigated. The furanocoumarins bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and bergapten, and the glycoside flavonoids naringin and hesperidin, at concentrations found in GFJ or higher, did not inhibit the hydrolysis of PNPA by purified porcine esterase and human liver microsomes. However, the flavonoid aglycones morin, galangin, kaempferol, quercetin, and naringenin showed appreciable inhibition of PNPA hydrolysis in purified porcine esterase, and human and rat liver systems. In Caco-2 cells, demonstrated to contain minimal CYP3A activity, the permeability coefficient of the prodrugs lovastatin and enalapril was increased in the presence of the active flavonoids kaempferol and naringenin, consistent with inhibition of esterase activity. In rats, oral coadministration of kaempferol and naringenin with these prodrugs led to significant increases in plasma exposure to the active acids. In addition, in portal vein-cannulated rats, coadministration of lovastatin with kaempferol (10 mg/kg) led to a 154% and a 113% increase in the portal plasma exposure to the prodrug and active acid, respectively, compared with coadministration with water. The contribution of CYP3A inhibition was demonstrated to be minimal. Overall, a series of flavonoids present in GFJ are identified as esterase inhibitors, of which kaempferol and naringenin are shown to mediate pharmacokinetic drug interaction with the prodrugs lovastatin and enalapril due to their capability of esterase inhibition. PMID:17452418

  9. [Variability in esterases of Metarhizium anisopliae].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Martínez, M E; Piñón, D R; Capote, M C

    1997-03-01

    The variability in esterases of the entomogenous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae was determined electrophoretically on 8.5% polyacrylamide gel. Ten isolates from diverse taxonomic groups of insects were analyzed. The electrophoretic analysis showed differences and similarities between these isolates and it was possible to distinguish six different patterns. The results obtained show a great polymorphism for the esterase system of M. anisopliae. PMID:15482022

  10. In vivo blockade of acetylcholinesterase increases intraovarian acetylcholine and enhances follicular development and fertility in the rat.

    PubMed

    Urra, Javier; Blohberger, Jan; Tiszavari, Michelle; Mayerhofer, Artur; Lara, Hernan E

    2016-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles are regulated by systemic and local factors, which may include acetylcholine (ACh). Granulosa cells (GCs) of growing follicles and luteal cells produce ACh and in cultured GCs it exerts trophic actions via muscarinic receptors. However, such actions were not studied in vivo. After having established that rat ovarian GCs and luteal cells express the ACh-metabolizing enzyme ACh esterase (AChE), we examined the consequences of local application of an AChE inhibitor, huperzine A (HupA), by osmotic minipump delivery into the ovarian bursa of hemiovariectomized rats. Saline was used in the control group. Local delivery of HupA for 4 weeks increased ovarian ACh content. Estrus cyclicity was not changed indicating a locally restricted range of HupA action. The number of primordial and primary follicles was unaffected, but small secondary follicles significantly increased in the HupA group. Furthermore, a significant increase in the number of corpora lutea suggested increased ovulatory events. In support, as shown upon mating, HupA-treated females had significantly increased implantation sites and more pups. Thus the data are in support of a trophic role of ACh in follicular development and ovulation and point to an important role of ACh in female fertility. PMID:27440195

  11. In vivo blockade of acetylcholinesterase increases intraovarian acetylcholine and enhances follicular development and fertility in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Blohberger, Jan; Tiszavari, Michelle; Mayerhofer, Artur; Lara, Hernan E.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles are regulated by systemic and local factors, which may include acetylcholine (ACh). Granulosa cells (GCs) of growing follicles and luteal cells produce ACh and in cultured GCs it exerts trophic actions via muscarinic receptors. However, such actions were not studied in vivo. After having established that rat ovarian GCs and luteal cells express the ACh-metabolizing enzyme ACh esterase (AChE), we examined the consequences of local application of an AChE inhibitor, huperzine A (HupA), by osmotic minipump delivery into the ovarian bursa of hemiovariectomized rats. Saline was used in the control group. Local delivery of HupA for 4 weeks increased ovarian ACh content. Estrus cyclicity was not changed indicating a locally restricted range of HupA action. The number of primordial and primary follicles was unaffected, but small secondary follicles significantly increased in the HupA group. Furthermore, a significant increase in the number of corpora lutea suggested increased ovulatory events. In support, as shown upon mating, HupA-treated females had significantly increased implantation sites and more pups. Thus the data are in support of a trophic role of ACh in follicular development and ovulation and point to an important role of ACh in female fertility. PMID:27440195

  12. Regulation of JH epoxide hydrolase versus JH esterase activity in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, by juvenile hormone and xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, Douglas D; Roe, R Michael

    2005-05-01

    JH III esterase and JH III epoxide hydrolase (EH) in vitro activity was compared in whole body Trichoplusia ni homogenates at each stage of development (egg, larva, pupa and adult). While activity of both enzymes was detected at all ages tested, JH esterase was significantly higher than EH activity except for day three of the fifth (last) stadium (L5D3). For both enzymes, activity was highest in eggs. Adult virgin females had 4.6- and 4.0-fold higher JH esterase and EH activities, respectively, than adult virgin males. JH III metabolic activity also was measured in whole body homogenates of fifth stadium T. ni that were fed a nutritive diet (control) or starved on a non-nutritive diet of alphacel, agar and water. With larvae that were starved for 6, 28 and 52 h, EH activity per insect equivalent was 48%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the control insects. At the same time points, JH esterase activity levels in starved T. ni were 29%, 4% and 3% of that of insects fed the nutritive diet. Selected insect hormones and xenobiotics were administered topically or orally to fifth stadium larvae for up to 52 h, and the effects on whole body EH and JH esterase activity analyzed. JH III increased the JH III esterase activity as high as 2.2-fold, but not the JH III EH activity. The JH analog, methoprene, increased both JH esterase and EH activity as high as 2.5-fold. The JH esterase inhibitor, 3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one (OTFP), had no impact on EH activity. The epoxides trans- and cis-stilbene oxide (TSO and CSO) in separate experiments increased the EH activity approximately 2.0-fold. TSO did not alter JH esterase levels when topically applied, but oral administration reduced activity to 70% of the control at 28 h, and then increased the activity 1.8-fold at 52 h after the beginning of treatment. CSO had no effect on JH esterase activity. Phenobarbital increased EH activity by 1.9-fold, but did not change JH esterase levels. Clofibrate and cholesterol 5alpha,6alpha

  13. Esterase inhibition attribute of grapefruit juice leading to a new drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Callery, Patrick S; Gan, Liang-Shang; Balani, Suresh K

    2007-07-01

    This report describes a newly identified potential of grapefruit juice (GFJ) in mediating pharmacokinetic drug interactions due to its capability to inhibit esterase. The study demonstrates that GFJ inhibits purified porcine esterase activity toward p-nitrophenyl acetate and the prodrugs lovastatin and enalapril. In rat and human hepatic or gut S9 fractions and rat gut lumen, GFJ inhibited the hydrolysis of enalapril and lovastatin, which are known to be metabolized principally by esterases, lovastatin being metabolized also by CYP3A. In Caco-2 cells, with minimal CYP3A activity, permeability of these prodrugs was increased in the presence of GFJ. In rats, oral coadministration of GFJ or an esterase inhibitor, bis-(p-nitrophenylphosphate), with the prodrugs led to respective increases in plasma area under the curve by 70% or 57% for enalaprilat and 279% or 141% for lovastatin acid. In addition, portal vein-cannulated rats pretreated with GFJ at -15 and -2 h before lovastatin administration (10 mg/kg p.o.) as a solution, 1) in water and 2) in GFJ, showed, respectively, a 49% increase (CYP3A-inhibited) and a 116% increase (both CYP3A and gut esterase-inhibited) in the portal plasma exposure to the active acid, compared with a non-GFJ pretreatment group. Overall, along with the CYP3A inactivation by GFJ, the decreased esterase activity also played a significant role in increasing the metabolic stability and permeability of esters leading to enhancement of exposure to the active drugs in rats. These new esterase inhibition findings indicate that the potential of drug interaction between ester prodrugs and GFJ should also be considered in the clinic. PMID:17392396

  14. BLT-esterase in infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, L; Wiesholzer, M; Worman, C P; Lang, G; Base, W

    1995-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes of three patients suffering from infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection were analysed for BLT-esterase expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes by a well established cytochemical staining method. During the acute phase of disease with presence of clinical symptoms a very high level of up to 90% BLT-esterase-expressing lymphocytes were detected. The increased percentage of lymphocytes expressing BLT-esterase coincided with the time of greatest symptoms and the peak elevation of hepatocellular enzymes. The still moderately elevated level only gradually decreased to normal during the further recovery period of 2 months during which the patients described episodes of weakness. Peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotype analysis revealed a marked CD8 lymphocytosis, a CD4/CD8 ratio of about 0.2, low number of CD19+ B cells, and a high level of DR+ CD3+ lymphocytes. Reduction of BLT esterase expression during the recovery period coincided with reduction of CD8+ DR+ lymphocytes. By a combination of BLT-esterase staining with immunocytochemical phenotype analysis, 95% of CD8+ lymphocytes were found to be BLT-esterase-positive. BLT-esterase might be involved in the immunodefence against EBV in infectious mononucleosis by inducing apoptosis in EBV-transformed B cells. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7743659

  15. Esterase profile of human masseter muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Vilmann, H

    1988-01-01

    The esterase profile of fresh human masseter muscle was investigated by use of histochemistry and electrophoresis. The histochemical methods included reactions for alpha-naphthyl esterase, myofibrillar ATPase, reverse myofibrillar ATPase and succinic dehydrogenase. In frozen sections of the muscle the coloured reaction product for esterases was present both as a diffuse sarcoplasmic coloration and as distinct granules. The intensity of diffuse reaction was used to classify the muscle fibres as strongly, moderately and weakly reacting. The fibres with strong esterase activity belonged to Type I and iiC. iM and Type II A fibres showed a moderate esterase reaction and Type II B fibres had a low activity. The electrophoretic gels stained for esterase activity showed that the human masseter muscle possesses a slow migrating double band with high enzyme activity and a cascade of faster migrating isoenzymes. In isoelectric focused gels the major esterases showed isoelectric points around pH 5. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Figs. 3-5 Figs. 6-8 Figs. 9-11 Figs. 12-14 Figs. 15-16 Fig. 17 PMID:3198486

  16. A new approach for determination of neuropathy target esterase activity.

    PubMed

    Sigolaeva, L V; Eremenko, A V; Makower, A; Makhaeva, G F; Malygin, V V; Kurochkin, I N

    1999-05-14

    Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) was shown to be an excellent biochemical marker for screening of organophosphates (OPs) with respect to their ability to result in organophosphate induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN). This paper describes a new biosensor approach to the analysis of NTE and its inhibitors. The method is based on the combination of NTE enzymatic hydrolysis of phenyl valerate (PV) with phenol detection by the Clark-type oxygen electrode modified by immobilized tyrosinase. The validity of this biosensor method is confirmed by the facts that the calibration curves for NTE obtained by colorimetric and flow-through electrochemical methods were nearly identical and the titration of NTE by test inhibitor mipafox was shown to yield the same pI50 values. The developed electrochemical methods can be considered as a promising approach both for serial express NTE analysis and for kinetic characteristics of NTE. PMID:10421495

  17. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Counts Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Videos Starting the Conversation Playing it Safe A Look at Hemophilia Joint Range of Motion My Story Links to Other Websites ...

  18. Acetylcholine and acetylcarnitine transport in peritoneum: Role of the SLC22A4 (OCTN1) transporter.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Di Silvestre, Sara; Belviso, Stefania; Pandolfi, Assunta; Arduini, Arduino; Bonomini, Mario; Indiveri, Cesare

    2016-04-01

    A suitable experimental tool based on proteoliposomes for assaying Organic Cation Transporter Novel member 1 (OCTN1) of peritoneum was pointed out. OCTN1, recently acknowledged as acetylcholine transporter, was immunodetected in rat peritoneum. Transport was assayed following flux of radiolabelled TEA, acetylcholine or acetylcarnitine in proteoliposomes reconstituted with peritoneum extract. OCTN1 mediated, besides TEA, also acetylcholine and a slower acetylcarnitine transport. External sodium inhibited acetylcholine uptake but not its release from proteoliposomes. Differently, sodium did not affect acetylcarnitine uptake. These results suggested that physiologically, acetylcholine should be released while acetylcarnitine was taken up by peritoneum cells. Transport was impaired by OCTN1 inhibitors, butyrobetaine, spermine, and choline. Biotin was also found as acetylcholine transport inhibitor. Anti-OCTN1 antibody specifically inhibited acetylcholine transport confirming the involvement of OCTN1. The transporter was also immunodetected in human mesothelial primary cells. Extract from these cells was reconstituted in proteoliposomes. Transport features very similar to those found with rat peritoneum were observed. Validation of the proteoliposome model for peritoneal transport study was then achieved assaying transport in intact mesothelial cells. TEA, butyrobetaine and Na(+) inhibited acetylcholine transport in intact cells while efflux was Na(+) insensitive. Therefore transport features in intact cells overlapped those found in proteoliposomes. PMID:26724204

  19. Treatment of hereditary angioedema with nanofiltered C1-esterase inhibitor concentrate (Cetor®): multi-center phase II and III studies to assess pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, J J; Kleine Budde, I; van Twuyver, E; Choi, G; Levi, M; Leebeek, F W G; de Monchy, J G R; Ypma, P F; Keizer, R J; Huitema, A D R; Strengers, P F W

    2012-03-01

    From 1997, plasma-derived C1-inhibitor concentrate (Cetor®) has been available to HAE and AAE patients. Recently, a virus reducing 15 nm nanofiltration step has been introduced in the production process. A randomized, double-blind controlled cross-over study was performed to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) of nanofiltered (C1-INH-NF) with conventional C1-inhibitor (C1-INH). Efficacy and safety were investigated in an open-label, on-demand and a prophylactic study. No differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between C1-INH and C1-INH-NF were found (13 non-symptomatic HAE patients). Both C1-inhibitor products equally increased plasma C4 levels. In the on-demand study, 14 acute angioedema attacks in 8 patients were analyzed. In the prophylactic study, 1 AAE and 5 HAE patients experienced in total 31 attacks during 748 observation days. In total 180,000 units of C1-INH-NF were administered. No product-related adverse events occurred, and no anti-C1-antibodies were induced. Nanofiltration in the production process of C1-inhibitor did not affect the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety. PMID:22197071

  20. Esterase isozyme polymorphism, specific and nonspecific esterase, syngenic lines development and natural occurrence of a thermostable esterase in the tropical silkworm Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, G K; Sengupta, A K; Verma, A K; Sen, S K; Saratchandra, B

    2001-11-01

    Esterase isozyme polymorphism was documented for digestive juice and haemolymph of the tropical multivoltine silkworm, Bombyx mori L., breed CB5 (GP) and its syngenic lines (CB5Lm(e)-1, CB5Lm-2 and CB5Lm-5) using alpha- and beta-naphthylacetate separately as nonspecific substrates (Ogita, Z., Kasai, T., 1965. Genetico-biochemical analysis of specific esterases in Musca domestica. Jpn. J. Genet. 40, 173-184). Polymorphism existed in the isozyme pattern of alpha-esterase with two or three bands in digestive juice and three to five bands in haemolymph. No polymorphism was observed in beta-esterase isozyme pattern having four bands in digestive juice and two bands in haemolymph. During the course of esterase isozyme studies, the presence of some specific alpha-esterase bands (Est-1, 4 and 5) in haemolymph and beta-esterase bands (Est-1, 2 and 3) in digestive juice were observed. But both alpha- and beta-esterase bands Est-3 and 4 in digestive juice and Est-2 and 3 in haemolymph were found to be nonspecific. Nonspecific beta-esterase band (Est-3) in haemolymph of CB5 (GP) and its syngenic lines withstood a temperature up to 80+/-1 degrees C for 10 min. No thermostable band was observed in the isozyme zymogram of alpha-esterase in digestive juice and haemolymph or beta-esterase in digestive juice. Overall, this study discusses the presence of esterase heterogeneity in the CB5 (GP) genepool, syngenic lines development, occurrence of specific alpha- and beta-esterase bands in digestive juice and haemolymph and thermostable beta-esterase band Est-3 in haemolymph in tropical silkworm Bombyx mori L. PMID:11583932

  1. α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulated by galantamine on nigrostriatal terminals regulates dopamine receptor-mediated rotational behavior.

    PubMed

    Inden, Masatoshi; Takata, Kazuyuki; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Ashihara, Eishi; Tooyama, Ikuo; Shimohama, Shun; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    Galantamine, an acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitor used to treat dementia symptoms, also acts as an allosteric potentiating ligand (APL) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study was designed to evaluate the allosteric effect of galantamine on nAChR regulation of nigrostrial dopaminergic neuronal function in the hemiparkinsonian rat model established by unilateral nigral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection. Methamphetamine, a dopamine releaser, induced ipsilateral rotation, whereas dopamine agonists apomorphine (a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist), SKF38393 (a selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist), and quinpirole (a selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist) induced contralateral rotation. When 6-OHDA-injected rats were co-treated with nomifensine, a dopamine transporter inhibitor, a more pronounced and a remarkable effect of nicotine and galantamine was observed. Under these conditions, the combination of nomifensine with nicotine or galantamine induced the ipsilateral rotation similar to the methamphetamine-induced rotational behavior, indicating that nicotine and galantamine also induce dopamine release from striatal terminals. Both nicotine- and galantamine-induced rotations were significantly blocked by flupenthixol (an antagonist of both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors) and mecamylamine (an antagonist of nAChRs), suggesting that galantamine modulation of nAChRs on striatal dopaminergic terminals regulates dopamine receptor-mediated movement. Immunohistochemical staining showed that α4 nAChRs were highly expressed on striatal dopaminergic terminals, while no α7 nAChRs were detected. Pretreatment with the α4 nAChR antagonist dihydroxy-β-erythroidine significantly inhibited nicotine- and galantamine-induced rotational behaviors, whereas pretreatment with the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine was ineffective. Moreover, the α4 nAChR agonist ABT-418 induced ipsilateral rotation, while the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 had no

  2. MAO-inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I) belong to the earliest drugs tried in Parkinson's disease (PD). They have been used with or without levodopa (L-DOPA). Non-selective MAO-I due to their side-effect/adverse reaction profile, like tranylcypromine have limited use in the treatment of depression in PD, while selective, reversible MAO-A inhibitors are recommended due to their easier clinical handling. For the treatment of akinesia and motor fluctuations selective irreversible MAO-B inhibitors selegiline and rasagiline are recommended. They are safe and well tolerated at the recommended daily doses. Their main differences are related to (1) metabolism, (2) interaction with CYP-enzymes and (3) quantitative properties at the molecular biological/genetic level. Rasagiline is more potent in clinical practise and has a hypothesis driven more favourable side effect/adverse reaction profile due to its metabolism to aminoindan. Both selegiline and rasagiline have a neuroprotective and neurorestaurative potential. A head-to head clinical trial would be of utmost interest from both the clinical outcome and a hypothesis-driven point of view. Selegiline is available as tablet and melting tablet for PD and as transdermal selegiline for depression, while rasagiline is marketed as tablet for PD. In general, the clinical use of MAO-I nowadays is underestimated. There should be more efforts to evaluate their clinical potency as antidepressants and antidementive drugs in addition to the final proof of their disease-modifying potential. In line with this are recent innovative developments of MAO-I plus inhibition of acetylcholine esterase for Alzheimer's disease as well as combined MAO-I and iron chelation for PD. PMID:22110357

  3. Sensing acetylcholine and anticholinesterase compounds.

    PubMed

    Schena, Alberto; Johnsson, Kai

    2014-01-27

    Acetylcholine is a key neurotransmitter, and anticholinesterase agents are essential compounds used as medical drugs, pesticides, and chemical warfare agents. A semisynthetic fluorescence-based probe for the direct, real-time detection of acetylcholine and anticholinesterase compounds is introduced. The probe possesses good sensitivity, tunable detection range, and can be selectively targeted to cell surfaces, thereby making it an attractive tool for applications in analytical chemistry and quantitative biology. PMID:24339043

  4. Phenolic acid esterases, coding sequences and methods

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David L.; Kataeva, Irina; Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    2002-01-01

    Described herein are four phenolic acid esterases, three of which correspond to domains of previously unknown function within bacterial xylanases, from XynY and XynZ of Clostridium thermocellum and from a xylanase of Ruminococcus. The fourth specifically exemplified xylanase is a protein encoded within the genome of Orpinomyces PC-2. The amino acids of these polypeptides and nucleotide sequences encoding them are provided. Recombinant host cells, expression vectors and methods for the recombinant production of phenolic acid esterases are also provided.

  5. Identification of Genes Encoding Microbial Glucuronoyl Esterases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One type of covalent linkages connecting lignin and hemicellulose in plant cell walls is the ester linkage between 4-0-methyl-D-glucuronic acid of glucuronoxylan and lignin alcohols. An enzyme that could hydrolyze such linkages, named glucuronoyl esterase, occurs in the cellulolytic system of the w...

  6. New Extremophilic Lipases and Esterases from Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Olalla; Cerdán, Maria E; González Siso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Lipolytic enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in the presence of water. In media with low water content or in organic solvents, they can catalyze synthetic reactions such as esterification and transesterification. Lipases and esterases, in particular those from extremophilic origin, are robust enzymes, functional under the harsh conditions of industrial processes owing to their inherent thermostability and resistance towards organic solvents, which combined with their high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity make them very attractive biocatalysts for a variety of industrial applications. Likewise, enzymes from extremophile sources can provide additional features such as activity at extreme temperatures, extreme pH values or high salinity levels, which could be interesting for certain purposes. New lipases and esterases have traditionally been discovered by the isolation of microbial strains producing lipolytic activity. The Genome Projects Era allowed genome mining, exploiting homology with known lipases and esterases, to be used in the search for new enzymes. The Metagenomic Era meant a step forward in this field with the study of the metagenome, the pool of genomes in an environmental microbial community. Current molecular biology techniques make it possible to construct total environmental DNA libraries, including the genomes of unculturable organisms, opening a new window to a vast field of unknown enzymes with new and unique properties. Here, we review the latest advances and findings from research into new extremophilic lipases and esterases, using metagenomic approaches, and their potential industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:24588890

  7. Production of cutinolytic esterase by filamentous bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fett, W F; Wijey, C; Moreau, R A; Osman, S F

    2000-07-01

    Thirty-eight strains of filamentous bacteria, many of which are thermophilic or thermotolerant and commonly found in composts and mouldy fodders, were examined for their ability to produce cutinolytic esterase (cutinase) in culture media supplemented with cutin, suberin or cutin-containing agricultural by-products. Initially, the ability of culture supernatants to hydrolyse the artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl butyrate was determined by spectrophotometric assays. Only one bacterium, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris NRRL B-16117, exhibited cutinolytic esterase production. The enzyme was highly inducible, was repressed by the presence of glucose in the medium and hydrolysed both apple and tomato cutins. Inducers included apple cutin, apple pomace, tomato peel, potato suberin and commercial cork. Unlike similar fungal enzymes, the T. vulgaris cutinolytic esterase was not inducible by cutin hydrolysate. The cutinolytic esterase exhibited a half-life of over 60 min at 70 degrees C and a pH optimum of >/= 11.0. This study indicates that thermophylic filamentous bacteria may be excellent commercial sources of heat-stable cutin-degrading enzymes that can be produced by fermentation of low cost feedstocks. PMID:10886609

  8. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified ...

  9. Immunisation with Torpedo acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Elfman, L

    1984-01-01

    Acetylcholine mediates the transfer of information between neurons in the electric organ of, for example, Torpedo as well as in vertebrate skeletal muscle. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex translates the binding of acetylcholine into ion permeability changes. This leads to an action potential in the muscle fibre. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein has been purified from Torpedo by use of affinity chromatography. The receptor is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein composed of five polypeptide chains. When various animals are immunised with the receptor they demonstrate clinical signs of severe muscle weakness coincident with high antibody titres in their sera. The symptoms resemble those found in the autoimmune neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis in humans. This animal model has constituted a unique model for studying autoimmune diseases. This paper reviews some of the work using Torpedo acetylcholine receptor in order to increase the understanding of the motor nervous system function and myasthenia gravis. It is now known that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein is the antigen involved in myasthenia gravis. The mechanism of immune damage involves a direct block of the receptor function. This depends on the presence of antibodies which crosslink the postsynaptic receptors leading to their degradation. The questions to be answered in the future are; (a) what initiates or triggers the autoimmune response, (b) how do the antibodies cause the symptoms--is there a steric hindrance of the interaction of acetylcholine and the receptor, (c) why is there not a strict relationship between antibody titre and severity of symptoms, and (d) why are some muscles affected and other spared? With help of the experimental model, answers to these questions may result in improved strategies for the treatment of the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. PMID:6097937

  10. Functional expression of human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuan; Jiang, Ji-Hong; Li, Shi-Tong

    2016-09-01

    The functional expression of recombinant α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells has presented a challenge. Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 3 (RIC‑3) has been confirmed to act as a molecular chaperone of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The primary objectives of the present study were to investigate whether the co‑expression of human (h)RIC‑3 with human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in HEK 293 cells facilitates functional expression of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Subsequent to transfection, western blotting and polymerase chain reaction were used to test the expression of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and RIC-3. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was expressed alone or co‑expressed with hRIC‑3 in the HEK 293 cells. Drug‑containing solution was then applied to the cells via a gravity‑driven perfusion system. Calcium influx in the cells was analyzed using calcium imaging. Nicotine did not induce calcium influx in the HEK 293 cells expressing human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor only. However, in the cells co‑expressing human RIC‑3 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nicotine induced calcium influx via the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a concentration‑dependent manner (concentration required to elicit 50% of the maximal effect=29.21 µM). Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that the co‑expression of RIC‑3 in HEK 293 cells facilitated the functional expression of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. PMID:27430244

  11. Association of esterases with insecticide resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jennifer R; Ottea, James

    2012-06-01

    The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, is a competent vector of human disease and an important target of mosquito abatement programs. However, these management programs have been compromised by development of insecticide resistance. In the current study, susceptibilities to naled and resmethrin, two adulticides used in mosquito abatement, were monitored using a topical and contact bioassay, respectively, in five field- collected populations of C. quinquefasciatus (MARC, HOOD1, HOOD2, MINLOVE, and THIB). Frequencies of resistance, measured as survival after treatment with discriminating concentrations (i.e., sufficient to kill > 90% of a reference susceptible strain) were high (88.0-96.8%) in all field collections treated with naled, but were variable (3.3-94.2%) with resmethrin. In addition, esterase activities in mosquitoes from these collections were quantified using alpha-naphthyl acetate and ranged from 1.08 to 3.39 micromol alpha-naphthol produced min(-1) mg prot(-1). Heightened activities were associated with decreased insecticide susceptibility in HOOD1, THIB, and MINLOVE but not HOOD2. Esterases were visualized using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and intra- and interstrain differences in banding patterns were detected. In addition, esterases from MINLOVE mosquitoes were more numerous and intensely staining when compared with those from a laboratory-susceptible strain. Finally, naled synergized the toxicity of resmethrin in populations with decreased insecticide susceptibility and increased esterase activity by 2.5-(MINLOVE) to three-fold (THIB). Results from this study will allow management strategies for populations of C. quinquefasciatus to be optimized, and provide a foundation for further studies exploring use of esterase inhibitors as synergists of pyrethroid toxicity. PMID:22812138

  12. Monoterpene indole alkaloids from the stem bark of Mitragyna diversifolia and their acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xing-Fen; Wang, Jun-Song; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Luo, Jun; Wang, Hong-Ying; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2013-12-01

    Five monoterpene indole alkaloids, mitradiversifoline, with a unique rearranged skeleton, specionoxeine-N(4)-oxide, 7-hydroxyisopaynantheine, 3-dehydropaynantheine, and 3-isopaynantheine-N(4)-oxide, and 10 known ones, were isolated from Mitragyna diversifolia. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activities, and four showed moderate activities, with IC50 values of 4.1, 5.2, 10.2, and 10.3 μM, respectively. PMID:24169379

  13. CAP modulates acetylcholine release at the myoneural junction

    PubMed Central

    Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Potian, Joseph G.; Baskaran, Padmamalini; McArdle, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are non-selective cation channel proteins that are expressed throughout the body. Previous studies demonstrated the expression of TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), capsaicin (CAP) receptor, in sensory neurons. Recently, we reported TRPV1 expression in mouse motor nerve terminals [MNTs; (Thyagarajan et al., 2009)], where we observed that CAP protected MNTs from botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A). Phrenic nerve diaphragm nerve muscle preparations (NMP) isolated from isoflurane anesthetized adult mice were analyzed for twitch tension, spontaneous (mEPCs) and nerve stimulus evoked (EPCs) acetylcholine release. When acutely applied to isolated NMP, CAP produced a concentration-dependent decline of twitch tension and produced a significant decline in the amplitude of EPCs and quantal content without any effect on the mEPCs. The suppression of nerve stimulus evoked acetylcholine release by CAP was antagonized by capsazepine (CPZ), a TRPV1 antagonist. CAP did not suppress phrenic nerve stimulus evoked acetylcholine release in TRPV1 knockout mice. Also, CAP treatment, in vitro, interfered with the localization of adapter protein 2 in cholinergic Neuro 2a cells. Wortmannin, (WMN; non-selective phosphoinositol kinase inhibitor), mimicked the effects of CAP by inhibiting the acetylcholine exocytosis. Our data suggest that TRPV1 proteins expressed at the MNT are coupled to the exo-endocytic mechanisms to regulate neuromuscular functions. PMID:25446918

  14. Relation between the content of acetyl-coenzyme A and acetylcholine in brain slices.

    PubMed Central

    Rícný, J; Tucek, S

    1980-01-01

    Slices of rat caudate nuclei were incubated in vitro in media containing, among other constituents, three different concentrations of glucose (0.5, 2 and 10 mM), 0.2 mM-choline, paraoxon as an inhibitor of cholinesterase, and 5 mM- or 30 mM-K+. After 30 and 60 min of incubation, the concentrations of acetyl-CoA, acetylcholine and choline in the tissue and of acetylcholine in the incubation medium were measured. The content of acetyl-CoA in the sliced varied in direct relation to the concentration of glucose in the incubation medium. The content of acetylcholine in the slices and, in experiments with high K+, also the amount of acetylcholine released into the incubation medium varied in direct relation to the concentration of glucose in the incubation medium and to the concentration of acetyl-CoA in the slices; the relation between the concentrations of acetyl-CoA and of acetylcholine in the slices was linear. It was concluded that the availability of acetyl-CoA had a decisive influence on both the rate of synthesis of acetylcholine and its steady-state concentration. The observations accord with the view that, at the ultimate level, the synthesis of acetylcholine is controlled by the Law of Mass Action. PMID:7470027

  15. Esterase mediated resistance in deltamethrin resistant reference tick colony of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Snehil; Ajith Kumar, K G; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, Sachin; Saravanan, B C; Ravikumar, Gandham; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of acaricide resistance is considered as one of the important facets of integrated tick management. In an attempt of development of resistance monitoring indicators, in the present study two reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus maintained in the Entomology laboratory, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, India, were studied to determine the possible contributing factors involved in development of resistance to deltamethrin. Electrophoretic profiling of esterase enzymes detected high activities of EST-1 in reference resistant tick colony designated as IVRI-IV whereas it was not detectable in reference susceptible IVRI-I line of R. (B.) microplus. Esterases were further characterized as carboxylesterase or acetylcholinesterase based on inhibitor study using PMSF, eserine sulphate, malathion, TPP and copper sulphate. It was concluded that an acetylcholinesterase, EST-1, possibly plays an important role for development of deltamethrin resistance in IVRI-IV colony of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:26979585

  16. Xylella fastidiosa esterase rather than hydroxynitrile lyase.

    PubMed

    Torrelo, Guzman; Ribeiro de Souza, Fayene Zeferino; Carrilho, Emanuel; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, we reported that the product of the gene SCJ21.16 (XFa0032) from Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-restricted plant pathogen that causes a range of diseases in several important crops, encodes a protein (XfHNL) with putative hydroxynitrile lyase activity. Sequence analysis and activity tests indicated that XfHNL exhibits an α/β-hydrolase fold and could be classified as a member of the family of FAD-independent HNLs. Here we provide a more detailed sequence analysis and new experimental data. Using pure heterologously expressed XfHNL we show that this enzyme cannot catalyse the cleavage/synthesis of mandelonitrile and that this protein is in fact a non-enantioselective esterase. Homology modelling and ligand docking simulations were used to study the active site and support these results. This finding could help elucidate the common ancestor of esterases and hydroxynitrile lyases with an α/β -hydrolase fold. PMID:25684099

  17. Juvenile Hormone (JH) Esterase of the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Is Not a Target of the JH Analog Insecticide Methoprene

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Samra, Aman I.; Liu, Jun-Yan; Cornel, Anthony J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are essential sesquiterpenes that control insect development and reproduction. JH analog (JHA) insecticides such as methoprene are compounds that mimic the structure and/or biological activity of JH. In this study we obtained a full-length cDNA, cqjhe, from the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that encodes CqJHE, an esterase that selectively metabolizes JH. Unlike other recombinant esterases that have been identified from dipteran insects, CqJHE hydrolyzed JH with specificity constant (kcat/KM ratio) and Vmax values that are common among JH esterases (JHEs). CqJHE showed picomolar sensitivity to OTFP, a JHE-selective inhibitor, but more than 1000-fold lower sensitivity to DFP, a general esterase inhibitor. To our surprise, CqJHE did not metabolize the isopropyl ester of methoprene even when 25 pmol of methoprene was incubated with an amount of CqJHE that was sufficient to hydrolyze 7,200 pmol of JH to JH acid under the same assay conditions. In competition assays in which both JH and methoprene were available to CqJHE, methoprene did not show any inhibitory effects on the JH hydrolysis rate even when methoprene was present in the assay at a 10-fold higher concentration relative to JH. Our findings indicated that JHE is not a molecular target of methoprene. Our findings also do not support the hypothesis that methoprene functions in part by inhibiting the action of JHE. PMID:22174797

  18. Novel choline esterase based sensor for monitoring of organophosphorus pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, E.S.; Ghindilis, A.L.; Atanasov, P.

    1996-12-31

    Organophosphorus compounds are significant major environmental pollutants due to their intensive use as pesticides. The modern techniques based on inhibition of choline esterase enzyme activity are discussed. Potentiometric electrodes based on detection of choline esterase inhibition by analytes has been developed. The detection of choline esterase activity is based on the novel principle of molecular transduction. Immobilized peroxidase acting as the molecular transducer, catalyzes the electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide by direct (mediatorless) electron transfer. The sensing element consists of a carbon based electrode containing an assembly of co-immobilized enzymes: choline esterase, choline oxidase and peroxidase.

  19. Attenuation of contractions to acetylcholine in canine bronchi by an endogenous nitric oxide-like substance.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Y.; Vanhoutte, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    1. The involvement was assessed of an endogenous nitric oxide-like substance in contractions of canine bronchi to acetylcholine. 2. Canine third order bronchial rings, in some of which the epithelium was removed mechanically, were suspended in organ chambers and isometric tension was recorded. In some experiments, the content of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) of the bronchi was also measured. 3. Acetylcholine induced concentration-dependent contractions. The contractions were potentiated by nitro-L-arginine (an inhibitor of the synthesis of nitric oxide), oxyhaemoglobin (a scavenger of nitric oxide), and methylene blue (an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase). The magnitude of the potentiation to acetylcholine-induced contractions by these inhibitors were not significantly different between tissues with and without epithelium. 4. Acetylcholine induced a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular content of cyclic GMP, which was similar in bronchi with and without epithelium. These increases were abolished by nitro-L-arginine and methylene blue. 5. During contractions to acetylcholine, exogenous nitric oxide relaxed the canine bronchi. The relaxations were not affected by nitro-L-arginine, but were augmented by superoxide dismutase plus catalase, and were abolished by methylene blue. 6. These observations suggest that, during contraction evoked by acetylcholine, the production of an endogenous nitric oxide-like substance increases and in turn attenuates the response of the airways to the muscarinic agonist. However, the endogenous nitric oxide-like substance does not play a major role in the epithelium-dependent attenuation of the contraction to acetylcholine in canine bronchi. PMID:8395301

  20. Esterase metabolism of cholinesterase inhibitors using rat liver in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of chemicals, such as organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides, nerve agents, and industrial chemicals, inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to overstimulation of the cholinergic nervous system. The resultant neurotoxicity is similar across mammalian species...

  1. Genetics of a tissue esterase polymorphism (Est-6) in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    van Zutphen, L F; den Bieman, M G; von Deimling, O; Fox, R R

    1987-06-01

    Genetic analysis of a polymorphic tissue esterase revealed a new locus (Est-6) with two alleles (Est-6a and Est-6b) on linkage group VI of the rabbit. Est-6 is closely linked to the Est-1,2,4 cluster. Esterase of Est-6 is found in many organs, particularly in liver and small intestine, but not in erythrocytes and serum. Est-6 esterase hydrolyzes alpha-naphthyl acetate and butyrate, naphthol AS-D acetate, indoxyl acetate, and butyrate as well as 5-bromoindoxyl acetate, N-acetyl-L-alanine-alpha-naphthyl ester but not 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate and fluorescein diacetate. The enzyme is inhibited by bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate and eserine but not by p-chloromercuribenzoate. It was classified as a carboxylesterase (EC 3.1.1.1). Based on chromosomal localization, tissue distribution, substrate specificity, inhibitor sensitivity, and range of pI's, rabbit Est-6 is assumed to be homologous with mouse Es-7. PMID:3619880

  2. Novel Family of Carbohydrate Esterases, Based on Identification of the Hypocrea jecorina Acetyl Esterase Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cell walls have been shown to contain acetyl groups in hemicelluloses and pectin. The gene, ae1, encoding the acetyl esterase (Ae1) of Hypocrea jecorina was identified by amino terminal sequencing, peptide mass spectrometry, and genomic sequence analyses. The coded polypeptide had 348 amino ...

  3. Pharmacology of some acetylcholine homologues

    PubMed Central

    Barrass, B. C.; Brimblecombe, R. W.; Rich, P.; Taylor, Joan V.

    1970-01-01

    1. The acetates of several long chain (3 to 12 methylene groups) analogues of choline have been prepared and their pharmacological properties studied. 2. None of the compounds had a high level of activity at the post-ganglionic parasympathetic acetylcholine receptors. The lower members of the series showed weak agonist activity and the homologues with 8 to 10 methylene groups had very weak anticholinergic activity. 3. All the compounds had a depolarizing action at the acetylcholine receptors of the neuromuscular junction and of sympathetic ganglia. At the neuromuscular junction there were two peaks of stimulant activity, one with the hexamethylene and one with the dodecamethylene homologue, whereas at the ganglion there was only one peak, with the hexamethylene homologue. 4. The ganglion-stimulant activity of the higher members of the series was blocked by pretreatment with the anticholinesterase drug dyflos, whereas the activity of lower members was either unaffected by such treatment or slightly potentiated. 5. The results are discussed in terms of possible spatial arrangements of acetylcholine receptor units in the neuromuscular junction and the ganglion. PMID:5420144

  4. Structural analysis of thermostabilizing mutations of cocaine esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Nance, Mark R.; Gao, Daquan; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Macdonald, Joanne; Tamburi, Patricia; Yoon, Dan; Landry, Donald M.; Woods, James H.; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.

    2010-09-03

    Cocaine is considered to be the most addictive of all substances of abuse and mediates its effects by inhibiting monoamine transporters, primarily the dopamine transporters. There are currently no small molecules that can be used to combat its toxic and addictive properties, in part because of the difficulty of developing compounds that inhibit cocaine binding without having intrinsic effects on dopamine transport. Most of the effective cocaine inhibitors also display addictive properties. We have recently reported the use of cocaine esterase (CocE) to accelerate the removal of systemic cocaine and to prevent cocaine-induced lethality. However, wild-type CocE is relatively unstable at physiological temperatures ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 13 min at 37 C), presenting challenges for its development as a viable therapeutic agent. We applied computational approaches to predict mutations to stabilize CocE and showed that several of these have increased stability both in vitro and in vivo, with the most efficacious mutant (T172R/G173Q) extending half-life up to 370 min. Here we present novel X-ray crystallographic data on these mutants that provide a plausible model for the observed enhanced stability. We also more extensively characterize the previously reported variants and report on a new stabilizing mutant, L169K. The improved stability of these engineered CocE enzymes will have a profound influence on the use of this protein to combat cocaine-induced toxicity and addiction in humans.

  5. Inhibition of monocyte esterase activity by organophosphate insecticides.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J; Waters, H C

    1977-11-01

    Organophosphate insecticides, such as Vapona, Naled, and Rabon, are highly potent inhibitors of an enzyme found in human monocytes. The enzyme, a specific monocyte esterase, could be inhibited by Vapona in blood samples via airborne contamination at levels easily achieved from commercial slow-release insecticide strips. Fifty percent inhibition (I50)--as measured on the Hemalog D (Technicon Corp.)--occurred at solution concentrations of 0.22, 1.5, and 2.6 X 10(-6) g/liter for Vapona, Rabon, and Naled, respectively. Parathion (a thiophosphate) and Baygon (a carbamate) were less potent, with I50 values of 3.7 X 10(-5) and 1.5 X 10(-4) g/liter, respectively. Dursban (another thiophosphate) and Carbaryl (a carbamate) showed only marginal inhibition. Eserine, malathion, nicotine and pyrethrum had no inhibitory effect up to 0.5 g/liter. The occurrence of this effect in vivo has not yet been shown, nor is it clear what the implications of such an effect would be. The inhibition of this enzyme by airborne contaminants, however, may interfere with the proper functioning of the Hemalog D. PMID:907842

  6. Structural features determining thermal adaptation of esterases.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Filip; Mandrysch, Agathe; Poojari, Chetan; Strodel, Birgit; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2016-02-01

    The adaptation of microorganisms to extreme living temperatures requires the evolution of enzymes with a high catalytic efficiency under these conditions. Such extremophilic enzymes represent valuable tools to study the relationship between protein stability, dynamics and function. Nevertheless, the multiple effects of temperature on the structure and function of enzymes are still poorly understood at the molecular level. Our analysis of four homologous esterases isolated from bacteria living at temperatures ranging from 10°C to 70°C suggested an adaptation route for the modulation of protein thermal properties through the optimization of local flexibility at the protein surface. While the biochemical properties of the recombinant esterases are conserved, their thermal properties have evolved to resemble those of the respective bacterial habitats. Molecular dynamics simulations at temperatures around the optimal temperatures for enzyme catalysis revealed temperature-dependent flexibility of four surface-exposed loops. While the flexibility of some loops increased with raising the temperature and decreased with lowering the temperature, as expected for those loops contributing to the protein stability, other loops showed an increment of flexibility upon lowering and raising the temperature. Preserved flexibility in these regions seems to be important for proper enzyme function. The structural differences of these four loops, distant from the active site, are substantially larger than for the overall protein structure, indicating that amino acid exchanges within these loops occurred more frequently thereby allowing the bacteria to tune atomic interactions for different temperature requirements without interfering with the overall enzyme function. PMID:26647400

  7. Cholinesterase inhibitors from botanicals.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Ghalib, Raza Murad; Sasikala, P; Ahmed, K K Mueen

    2013-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, wherein a progressive loss of cholinergic synapses occurs in hippocampus and neocortex. Decreased concentration of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), appears to be critical element in the development of dementia, and the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat AD and other form of dementia is to restore acetylcholine levels by inhibiting both major form of cholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Consequently, researches have focused their attention towards finding cholinesterase inhibitors from natural products. A large number of such inhibitors have been isolated from medicinal plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of the advances in field of cholinesterase inhibitor phytoconstituents. The structures of some important phytoconstituents (collected through www.Chemspider.com) are also presented and the scope for future research is discussed. PMID:24347920

  8. Cholinesterase inhibitors from botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Ghalib, Raza Murad; Sasikala, P.; Ahmed, K. K. Mueen

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, wherein a progressive loss of cholinergic synapses occurs in hippocampus and neocortex. Decreased concentration of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), appears to be critical element in the development of dementia, and the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat AD and other form of dementia is to restore acetylcholine levels by inhibiting both major form of cholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Consequently, researches have focused their attention towards finding cholinesterase inhibitors from natural products. A large number of such inhibitors have been isolated from medicinal plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of the advances in field of cholinesterase inhibitor phytoconstituents. The structures of some important phytoconstituents (collected through www.Chemspider.com) are also presented and the scope for future research is discussed. PMID:24347920

  9. Cellular function of neuropathy target esterase in lysophosphatidylcholine action

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, Sarah C.; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Gulevich, Alex G.; Lin, Amy Y.; Holland, Nina T.; Casida, John E.

    2008-11-01

    Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) plays critical roles in embryonic development and maintenance of peripheral axons. It is a secondary target of some organophosphorus toxicants including analogs of insecticides and chemical warfare agents. Although the mechanistic role of NTE in vivo is poorly defined, it is known to hydrolyze lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in vitro and may protect cell membranes from cytotoxic accumulation of LPC. To determine the cellular function of NTE, Neuro-2a and COS-7 cells were transfected with a full-length human NTE-containing plasmid yielding recombinant NTE (rNTE). We find the same inhibitor sensitivity and specificity profiles for rNTE assayed with LPC or phenyl valerate (a standard NTE substrate) and that this correlation extends to the LPC hydrolases of human brain, lymphocytes and erythrocytes. All of these LPC hydrolases are therefore very similar to each other in respect to a conserved inhibitor binding site conformation. NTE is expressed in brain and lymphocytes and contributes to LPC hydrolase activities in these tissues. The enzyme or enzymes responsible for erythrocyte LPC hydrolase activity remain to be identified. We also show that rNTE protects Neuro-2a and COS-7 cells from exogenous LPC cytotoxicity. Expression of rNTE in Neuro-2a cells alters their phospholipid balance (analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with single ion monitoring) by lowering LPC-16:0 and LPC-18:0 and elevating glycerophosphocholine without a change in phosphatidylcholine-16:0/18:1 or 16:0/18:2. NTE therefore serves an important function in LPC homeostasis and action.

  10. [Role of Human Orphan Esterases in Drug-induced Toxicity].

    PubMed

    Fukami, Tatsuki

    2015-01-01

    Esterases hydrolyze compounds containing ester, amide, and thioester bonds, causing prodrug activation or detoxification. Among esterases, carboxylesterases have been studied in depth due to their ability to hydrolyze a variety of drugs. However, there are several drugs for which the involved esterase(s) is unknown. We found that flutamide, phenacetin, rifamycins (rifampicin, rifabutin, and rifapentine), and indiplon are hydrolyzed by arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC), which is highly expressed in human liver and gastrointestinal tissues. Flutamide hydrolysis is considered associated with hepatotoxicity. Phenacetin, a prodrug of acetaminophen, was withdrawn due to side effects such as methemoglobinemia and renal failure. It was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo using mice that AADAC is responsible for phenacetin hydrolysis, which leads to methemoglobinemia. In addition, it was shown that AADAC-mediated hydrolysis attenuates the cytotoxicity of rifamycins. Thus AADAC plays critical roles in drug-induced toxicity. Another orphan esterase, α/β hydrolase domain containing 10 (ABHD10), was found responsible for deglucuronidation of acyl-glucuronides including mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide and probenecid acyl-glucuronide. Because acyl-glucuronides appear associated with toxicity, ABHD10 would function as a detoxification enzyme. The roles of orphan esterases are becoming increasingly understood. Further studies will facilitate our knowledge of the pharmacologic and toxicological significance of orphan esterases in drug therapy. PMID:26521872

  11. Kinetics and Molecular Docking Study of an Anti-diabetic Drug Glimepiride as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor: Implication for Alzheimer's Disease-Diabetes Dual Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Mohd Danish; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Naaz, Deeba; Shakil, Shazi; Ahmad, Adnan; Haneef, Mohd; Abuzenadah, Adel M

    2016-06-01

    At the present time, treatment of two most common degenerative disorders of elderly population i.e., Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major concern worldwide. As there are several evidences that proved strong linkages between these two disorders, the idea of using dual therapeutic agent for both the diseases might be considered as a good initiative. Earlier reports have revealed that oral anti-diabetic drugs such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists (thiazolidinediones) when used in T2DM patients suffering from AD showed improved memory and cognition. However, the underlying mechanism still needs to be deciphered. Therefore, the present study was carried out to find whether glimepiride, an oral antidiabetic drug which is a PPARγ agonist could inhibit the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) enzyme. Actually, AChE inhibitors seize the breakdown of acetylcholine which forms the main therapeutic strategy for AD. Here, glimepiride showed dose dependent inhibitory activity against AChE enzyme with IC50 value of 235 μM. Kinetic analysis showed competitive inhibition, which was verified by in silico docking studies. Glimepiride was found to interact with AChE enzyme at the same locus as that of substrate acetylcholine iodide (AChI). Interestingly, amino acid residues, Q71, Y72, V73, D74, W86, N87, Y124, S125, W286, F295, F297, Y337, F338 and Y341 of AChE were found to be common for 'glimepiride-AChE interaction' as well as 'AChI-AChE interaction'. Thus the present computational and kinetics study concludes that glimepiride and other thiazolidinediones derivatives could form the basis of future dual therapy against diabetes associated neurological disorders. PMID:26886763

  12. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  13. Mechanism of action of Neisseria gonorrhoeae O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase, an SGNH serine esterase.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, John M; Weadge, Joel T; Clarke, Anthony J

    2013-01-25

    O-Acetylpeptidoglycan esterase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae functions to release O-acetyl groups from the C-6 position of muramoyl residues in O-acetylated peptidoglycan, thereby permitting the continued metabolism of this essential cell wall heteropolymer. It has been demonstrated to be a serine esterase with sequence similarity to the family CE-3 carbohydrate esterases of the CAZy classification system. In the absence of a three-dimensional structure for any Ape, further knowledge of its structure and function relationship is dependent on modeling and kinetic studies. In this study, we predicted Neisseria gonorrhoeae Ape1a to be an SGNH hydrolase with an adopted α/β-hydrolase fold containing a central twisted four-stranded parallel β-sheet flanked by six α-helices with the putative catalytic triad, Asp-366, His-369, and Ser-80 appropriately aligned within a pocket. The role of eight invariant and highly conserved residues localized to the active site was investigated by site-directed replacements coupled with kinetic characterization and binding studies of the resultant engineered enzymes. Based on these data and theoretical considerations, Gly-236 and Asn-268 were identified as participating at the oxyanion hole to stabilize the tetrahedral species in the reaction mechanism, whereas Gly-78, Asp-79, His-81, Asn-235, Thr-267, and Val-368 are proposed to position appropriately the catalytic residues and participate in substrate binding. PMID:23209280

  14. Mechanism of Action of Neisseria gonorrhoeae O-Acetylpeptidoglycan Esterase, an SGNH Serine Esterase*

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, John M.; Weadge, Joel T.; Clarke, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    O-Acetylpeptidoglycan esterase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae functions to release O-acetyl groups from the C-6 position of muramoyl residues in O-acetylated peptidoglycan, thereby permitting the continued metabolism of this essential cell wall heteropolymer. It has been demonstrated to be a serine esterase with sequence similarity to the family CE-3 carbohydrate esterases of the CAZy classification system. In the absence of a three-dimensional structure for any Ape, further knowledge of its structure and function relationship is dependent on modeling and kinetic studies. In this study, we predicted Neisseria gonorrhoeae Ape1a to be an SGNH hydrolase with an adopted α/β-hydrolase fold containing a central twisted four-stranded parallel β-sheet flanked by six α-helices with the putative catalytic triad, Asp-366, His-369, and Ser-80 appropriately aligned within a pocket. The role of eight invariant and highly conserved residues localized to the active site was investigated by site-directed replacements coupled with kinetic characterization and binding studies of the resultant engineered enzymes. Based on these data and theoretical considerations, Gly-236 and Asn-268 were identified as participating at the oxyanion hole to stabilize the tetrahedral species in the reaction mechanism, whereas Gly-78, Asp-79, His-81, Asn-235, Thr-267, and Val-368 are proposed to position appropriately the catalytic residues and participate in substrate binding. PMID:23209280

  15. Investigation of the nature of semisynthetic esterases. Annual progress report, September 15, 1982-September 14, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, M.H.

    1983-12-01

    Two semisynthetic esterases, an acid-esterase with a pH optimum of 6.0 and a neutral-esterase with a pH optimum of 7.5, were generated from bovine pancreatic ribonuclease. The method involved perturbation of ribonuclease at pH 3.0, subsequent conformational modification with indole propionic acid, and crosslinking the modified protein with glutaraldehyde. The two esterases generated by this procedure were separated and partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation. The neutral-esterase activity was predominantly precipitated at 40% ammonium sulfate saturation, and the acid-esterase at 70 to 90% ammonium sulfate saturation. Nearly 4 fold purification of the esterases was achieved by this step. The two esterases were further purified by gel filtration of the above ammonium sulfate fractions on Biogel P0-30. Nearly 100 fold purification of the esterases over the starting modified RNase has been achieved by the above two purification steps. Kinetic studies with the purified acid-esterase indicated that this semisynthetic esterase hydrolyzed several aminoacid ethyl esters, but preferred ester containing an aromatic residue. The acid-esterase was competitively inhibited by L-tryptophan and also had low amidase activity towards benzoylarginine p-nitroanilide. Neutral-esterase showed a high degree of specificity toward L-TrEE and acetyl tryptophan ethyl ester. Moreover, this esterase had significant amidase activity toward N-acetyltryptophanamide (NATA). Neutral esterase was not inhibited by tryptophan.

  16. Genetics of esterase isoenzymes in Malus.

    PubMed

    Manganaris, A G; Alston, F H

    1992-02-01

    Three main zones of esterase activity (EST-I, EST-III, EST-IV) identified in leaf extracts of cultivated apple and Malus species were determined by the genes EST-1, EST-3 and EST-4, respectively. In addition to earlier reported alleles of EST-1 (a, b) three further bands c, d and f were identified in the EST-I zone of which c was found to be determined by an allele, c. Two alleles, a, b, and a null allele were found for both the genes EST-3 and EST-4. Differences in allelic frequency were observed between cultivars, rootstocks and Malus species. Allele EST-1a was rare amongst the rootstocks. The examination of Malus species and derivatives showed a geographical relationship. Allele EST-1c was confined to species of Asian origin, and EST-1d was confined to American species. PMID:24202593

  17. Structure-reactivity relationships for the inhibition mechanism at the second alkyl-chain-binding site of cholesterol esterase and lipase.

    PubMed

    Lin, G; Shieh, C T; Ho, H C; Chouhwang, J Y; Lin, W Y; Lu, C P

    1999-08-01

    Alkyl-N-phenyl carbamates (2-8) (see Figure 1), alkyl-N-phenyl thiocarbamates (9-15), 2,2'-biphenyl-2-ol-2'-N-substituted carbamates (16-23), and 2, 2'-biphenyl-2-N-octadecylcarbamate-2'-N-substituted carbamates (24-31) are prepared and evaluated for their inhibition effects on porcine pancreatic cholesterol esterase and Pseudomona species lipase. All inhibitors are characterized as transient or pseudo substrate inhibitors for both enzymes. Both enzymes are not protected from inhibition and further inactivated by carbamates 2-8 and thiocarbamates 9-15 in the presence of trifluoroacetophenone. Therefore, carbamates 2-8 and thiocarbamates 9-15 are exceptions for active site binding inhibitors and are probably the second alkyl-chain binding-site-directed inhibitors for both enzymes. The inhibition data for carbamates 2-8 and thiocarbamates 9-15 are correlated with the steric constant, E(s), and the hydrophobicity constant, pi; however, the inhibition data are not correlated with the Taft substituent constant, sigma. A comparison of the inhibition data for carbamates 2-8 and thiocarbamates 9-15 toward both enzymes indicates that thiocarbamates 9-15 are more potent inhibitors than carbamates 2-8. A comparison of the inhibition data for cholesterol esterase and Pseudomona species lipase by carbamates 2-8 or thiocarbamates 9-15 indicates that cholesterol esterase is more sensitive to the E(s) and pi values than Pseudomona species lipase. The negative slope values for the logarithms of inhibition data for Pseudomona species lipase by carbamates 2-8 and thiocarbamates 9-15 versus E(s) and pi indicate that the second alkyl-chain-binding site of Pseudomona species lipase is huge, hydrophilic, compared to that of cholesterol esterase, and prefers to interact with a bulky, hydrophilic inhibitor rather than a small, hydrophobic one. On the contrary, the second alkyl-chain-binding site of cholesterol esterase prefers to bind to a small, hydrophobic inhibitor. Both enzymes are

  18. Characterization of a Feruloyl Esterase from Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Torres, María; Reverón, Inés; Mancheño, José Miguel; de las Rivas, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is frequently found in the fermentation of plant-derived food products, where hydroxycinnamoyl esters are abundant. L. plantarum WCFS1 cultures were unable to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamoyl esters; however, cell extracts from the strain partially hydrolyze methyl ferulate and methyl p-coumarate. In order to discover whether the protein Lp_0796 is the enzyme responsible for this hydrolytic activity, it was recombinantly overproduced and enzymatically characterized. Lp_0796 is an esterase that, among other substrates, is able to efficiently hydrolyze the four model substrates for feruloyl esterases (methyl ferulate, methyl caffeate, methyl p-coumarate, and methyl sinapinate). A screening test for the detection of the gene encoding feruloyl esterase Lp_0796 revealed that it is generally present among L. plantarum strains. The present study constitutes the description of feruloyl esterase activity in L. plantarum and provides new insights into the metabolism of hydroxycinnamic compounds in this bacterial species. PMID:23793626

  19. A DIRECT METHOD TO ASSAY NEUROTOXIC ESTERASE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct photometric method for assaying neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity of chicken brain microsomal preparation has been developed using 4-nitrophenyl esters as substrates. Paired samples of the microsomal preparation were preincubated for 20 min. with paraoxon plus either (a...

  20. Acetylcholine and Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Donald A.; Fletcher, Max L.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2007-01-01

    Olfactory perceptual learning is a relatively long-term, learned increase in perceptual acuity, and has been described in both humans and animals. Data from recent electrophysiological studies have indicated that olfactory perceptual learning may be correlated with changes in odorant receptive fields of neurons in the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex. These changes include enhanced representation of the molecular features of familiar odors by mitral cells in the olfactory bulb, and synthetic coding of multiple coincident odorant features into odor objects by cortical neurons. In this paper, data are reviewed that show the critical role of acetylcholine (Ach) in olfactory system function and plasticity, and cholinergic modulation of olfactory perceptual learning at both the behavioral and cortical level. PMID:14747514

  1. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and cancer

    PubMed Central

    DANG, NINGNING; MENG, XIANGUANG; SONG, HAIYAN

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine, the primary addictive constituent of cigarettes, is believed to contribute to cancer promotion and progression through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are membrane ligand-gated cation channels. nAChRs activation can be triggered by the neurotransmitter Ach, or certain other biological compounds, such as nicotine. In recent years, genome-wide association studies have indicated that allelic variation in the α5-α3-β4 nAChR cluster on chromosome 15q24-15q25.1 is associated with lung cancer risk. The role of nAChRs in other types of cancer has also been reported. The present review highlights the role of nAChRs in types of human cancer. PMID:27123240

  2. Sub-anesthetic concentrations of (R,S)-ketamine metabolites inhibit acetylcholine-evoked currents in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Moaddel, Ruin; Abdrakhmanova, Galia; Kozak, Joanna; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Toll, Lawrence; Jimenez, Lucita; Rosenberg, Avraham; Tran, Thao; Xiao, Yingxian; Zarate, Carlos A.; Wainer, Irving W.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the (R,S)-ketamine metabolites (R,S)-norketamine, (R,S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2R,6R)- hydroxynorketamine on the activity of α7 and α3β4 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated using patch-clamp techniques. The data indicated that (R,S)-dehydronorketamine inhibited acetylcholine-evoked currents in α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, IC50 = 55 ± 6 nM, and that (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine, (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine and (R,S)-norketamine also inhibited α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function at concentrations ≤1μM, while (R,S)-ketamine was inactive at these concentrations. The inhibitory effect of (R,S)-dehydronorketamine was voltage-independent and the compound did not competitively displace selective α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-epibatidine indicating that (R,S)-dehydronorketamine is a negative allosteric modulator of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (R,S)-Ketamine and (R,S)-norketamine inhibited (S)-nicotine-induced whole-cell currents in cells expressing α3β4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, IC50 3.1 and 9.1μM, respectively, while (R,S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine were weak inhibitors, IC50 >100μM. The binding affinities of (R,S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine at the NMDA receptor were also determined using rat brain membranes and the selective NMDA receptor antagonist [3H]-MK-801. The calculated Ki values were 38.95 μM for (S)-dehydronorketamine, 21.19 μM for (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and > 100 μM for (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine. The results suggest that the inhibitory activity of ketamine metabolites at the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor may contribute to the clinical effect of the drug. PMID:23183107

  3. Label-Free Acetylcholine Image Sensor Based on Charge Transfer Technology for Biological Phenomenon Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaga, Shoko; Tamai, Yui; Okumura, Koichi; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2012-02-01

    A 32 ×32 charge-transfer enzyme-type acetylcholine (ACh) image sensor array was produced for label-free tracking of images of ACh distribution and its performance in repeatable measurements without enzyme deactivation was examined. The proposed sensor was based on a charge-transfer-type pH image sensor, which was modified using an enzyme membrane (acetylcholine esterase, AChE) for each pixel. The ACh image sensor detected hydrogen ions generated by the ACh-AChE reaction. A polyion complex membrane composed of poly(L-lysine) and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) was used to immobilize the enzyme on the sensor. The improved uniformity and adhesion of the polyion complex membrane were evaluated in this study. As a result, temporal and spatial fluctuations of the ACh image sensor were successfully minimized using this approach. The sensitivity of the sensor was 4.2 mV/mM, and its detection limit was 20 µM. In five repeated measurements, the repeatability was 8.8%.

  4. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate donepezil-induced oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Osamu; Arai, Masaaki; Dateki, Minori; Ogata, Toru; Uchida, Ryuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Takishima, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Failure of myelin development and oligodendrocyte loss results in serious human disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that donepezil, an acetlycholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells without affecting proliferation or cell viability. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase, and MOG, in addition to transcription factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil. Furthermore, luciferase assays confirmed that both MAG and MBP promoters display increased activity upon donepezil-induced oligodendrocytes differentiation, suggesting that donepezil increases myelin gene expression mainly through enhanced transcription. We also found that the increase in the number of oligodendrocytes observed following donepezil treatment was significantly inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine, but not by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine. Moreover, donepezil-induced myelin-related gene expression was suppressed by mecamylamine at both the mRNA and protein level. These results suggest that donepezil stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin-related gene expression via nAChRs in neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. We show that donepezil, a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase and MOG in addition to transcripton factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil

  5. Modelling substrate specificity and enantioselectivity for lipases and esterases by substrate-imprinted docking

    PubMed Central

    Juhl, P Benjamin; Trodler, Peter; Tyagi, Sadhna; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background Previously, ways to adapt docking programs that were developed for modelling inhibitor-receptor interaction have been explored. Two main issues were discussed. First, when trying to model catalysis a reaction intermediate of the substrate is expected to provide more valid information than the ground state of the substrate. Second, the incorporation of protein flexibility is essential for reliable predictions. Results Here we present a predictive and robust method to model substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of lipases and esterases that uses reaction intermediates and incorporates protein flexibility. Substrate-imprinted docking starts with covalent docking of reaction intermediates, followed by geometry optimisation of the resulting enzyme-substrate complex. After a second round of docking the same substrate into the geometry-optimised structures, productive poses are identified by geometric filter criteria and ranked by their docking scores. Substrate-imprinted docking was applied in order to model (i) enantioselectivity of Candida antarctica lipase B and a W104A mutant, (ii) enantioselectivity and substrate specificity of Candida rugosa lipase and Burkholderia cepacia lipase, and (iii) substrate specificity of an acetyl- and a butyrylcholine esterase toward the substrates acetyl- and butyrylcholine. Conclusion The experimentally observed differences in selectivity and specificity of the enzymes were reproduced with an accuracy of 81%. The method was robust toward small differences in initial structures (different crystallisation conditions or a co-crystallised ligand), although large displacements of catalytic residues often resulted in substrate poses that did not pass the geometric filter criteria. PMID:19493341

  6. An esterase from the basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus hydrolyzes feruloylated saccharides.

    PubMed

    Linke, Diana; Matthes, Rene; Nimtz, Manfred; Zorn, Holger; Bunzel, Mirko; Berger, Ralf G

    2013-08-01

    Investigating the secretion of esterases by the basidiomycetous fungus Pleurotus sapidus in a Tween 80-rich nutrient medium, an enzyme was discovered that hydrolyzed the ester bond of feruloylated saccharides. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed a monomeric protein of about 55 kDa. The complete coding sequence with an open reading frame of 1,665 bp encoded a protein (Est1) consisting of 554 amino acids. The enzyme showed no significant homology to any published feruloyl esterase sequences, but possessed putative conserved domains of the lipase/esterase superfamily. Substrate specificity studies classified the new enzyme as type-A feruloyl esterase, hydrolyzing methyl ferulate, methyl sinapate, and methyl p-coumarate but no methyl caffeate. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6 and a temperature optimum at 50 °C. Ferulic acid was efficiently released from ferulated saccharides, and the feruloyl esterase exhibited moderate stability in biphasic systems (50 % toluene or tert-butylmethyl ether). PMID:23203636

  7. NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE INHIBITION BY ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS IN HUMAN NEUROBLASTOMA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain organophosphorus compounds (OPs) produce a delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) in man and some animal species. apability to cause OPIDN is generally predicted in animal models by early and irreversible inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE, neurotoxic esterase) . In this s...

  8. Galantamine-induced amyloid-{beta} clearance mediated via stimulation of microglial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Takata, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Saeki, Mana; Terada, Maki; Kagitani, Sachiko; Kitamura, Risa; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Maelicke, Alfred; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shimohama, Shun

    2010-12-17

    Reduction of brain amyloid-β (Aβ) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer disease (AD), and microglial Aβ phagocytosis is noted as an Aβ clearance system in brains. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for symptomatic treatment of AD. Galantamine also acts as an allosterically potentiating ligand (APL) for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). APL-binding site is located close to but distinct from that for acetylcholine on nAChRs, and FK1 antibody specifically binds to the APL-binding site without interfering with the acetylcholine-binding site. We found that in human AD brain, microglia accumulated on Aβ deposits and expressed α7 nAChRs including the APL-binding site recognized with FK1 antibody. Treatment of rat microglia with galantamine significantly enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis, and acetylcholine competitive antagonists as well as FK1 antibody inhibited the enhancement. Thus, the galantamine-enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis required the combined actions of an acetylcholine competitive agonist and the APL for nAChRs. Indeed, depletion of choline, an acetylcholine-competitive α7 nAChR agonist, from the culture medium impeded the enhancement. Similarly, Ca(2+) depletion or inhibition of the calmodulin-dependent pathways for the actin reorganization abolished the enhancement. These results suggest that galantamine sensitizes microglial α7 nAChRs to choline and induces Ca(2+) influx into microglia. The Ca(2+)-induced intracellular signaling cascades may then stimulate Aβ phagocytosis through the actin reorganization. We further demonstrated that galantamine treatment facilitated Aβ clearance in brains of rodent AD models. In conclusion, we propose a further advantage of galantamine in clinical AD treatment and microglial nAChRs as a new therapeutic target. PMID:20947502

  9. Pregastric esterase in milk sham fed to adult jersey steers.

    PubMed

    Leidy, R B; Russell, R W; Wise, G H

    1975-04-01

    Pregastric esterase activity was detected in reconstituted nonfat milk sham fed from a nipple pail to two 4-yr-old rumen-fistualted steers. Lipolytic activity, determined in a medium containing 5% tri-n-butyrin, averaged 8.6 plus or minus .4 lipase units. Further assays, in which activitiy was measured by free fatty acids released from a condensed milk substrate, averaged 166.9 plus or minus 9.2 mumol. These values are higher than those noted for young calves, indicating that secretion of pregastric esterase may persist in cattle beyond calfhood. Esterase activity in one of the steers fed whole milk until he was 2 yr of age showed no marked residual effect of earlier intake of milk fat. PMID:1127162

  10. Metabolism of acetylcholine in human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to examine the possible role of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase in the maintenance of membrane phospholipid content and membrane fluidity, experiments were performed to monitor the activity of the enzyme and follow the fate of one of its hydrolytic products, choline. Intact human erythrocytes were incubated with acetylcholine (choline methyl-{sup 14}C). The incubation resulted in the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to acetate and choline; the reaction was catalyzed by membrane acetylcholinesterase. The studies demonstrate the further metabolism of choline. Experiments were carried out to determine rate of hydrolysis of acetylcholine, uptake of choline, identification of intracellular metabolites of choline, and identification of radiolabeled membrane components. Erythrocytes at a 25% hematocrit were incubated in an isoosmotic bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4, containing glucose, adenosine, streptomycin and penicillin with 0.3 {mu}Ci of acetylcholine (choline methyl-{sup 14}C), for 24 hours. Aliquots of the erythrocyte suspension were taken throughout for analysis. Erythrocytes were washed free of excess substrate, lysed, and the hemolysate was extracted for choline and its metabolites. Blank samples containing incubation buffer and radiolabeled acetylcholine only, and erythrocyte hemolysate extracts were analyzed for choline content, the difference between blank samples and hemolysate extracts was the amount of choline originating from acetylcholine and attributable to acetylcholinesterase activity. The conversion of choline to {sup 14}C-betaine is noted after several minutes of incubation; at 30 minutes, more than 80% of {sup 14}C-choline is taken up and after several hours, detectable levels of radiolabeled S-adenosylmethionine were present in the hemolysate extract.

  11. Regiospecific Ester Hydrolysis by Orange Peel Esterase - An Undergraduate Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Lewin, Andrew M.; Catlin, Eric R.

    1997-01-01

    A simple but effective experiment has been developed to demonstrate the regiospecificity of enzyme catalysis using an esterase activity easily isolated from orange peel. The experiment involves the preparation of diester derivatives of para-, meta- and ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid (e.g. methyl 4-acetoxy-benzoic acid). The derivatives are incubated with orange peel esterase, as a crude extract, and with commercially available pig liver esterase and porcine pancreatic lipase. The enzymatic hydrolysis reactions are monitored by thin layer chromatography, revealing which of the two ester groups is hydrolysed, and the rate of the enzyme-catalysed reaction. The results of a group experiment revealed that in all cases hydrolysis was observed with at least one enzyme, and in most cases the enzymatic hydrolysis was specific for production of either the hydroxy-ester or acyl-acid product. Specificity towards the ortho-substituted series was markedly different to that of the para-substituted series, which could be rationalised in the case of pig liver esterase by a published active site model.

  12. Characterization of a feruloyl esterase B from Talaromyces cellulolyticus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Yoshida, Erika; Fukada, Hiroaki; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tokura, Mitsunori; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A feruloyl esterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyl (feruloyl) group from esterified sugars in plant cell walls. Talaromyces cellulolyticus is a high cellulolytic-enzyme producing fungus. However, there is no report for feruloyl esterase activity of T. cellulolyticus. Analysis of the genome database of T. cellulolyticus identified a gene encoding a putative feruloyl esterase B. The recombinant enzyme was prepared using a T. cellulolyticus homologous expression system and characterized. The purified enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity toward p-nitrophenyl acetate, p-nitrophenyl trans-ferulate, methyl ferulate, rice husk, and bagasse. HPLC assays showed that the enzyme released ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid from hydrothermal-treated rice husk and bagasse. Trichoderma sp. is well-known high cellulolytic-enzyme producing fungus useful for the lignocellulosic biomass saccharification. Interestingly, no feruloyl esterase has been reported from Trichoderma sp. The results show that this enzyme is expected to be industrially useful for biomass saccharification. PMID:26110915

  13. Acetylcholine Esterase Activity and Behavioral Response in Hypoxia Induced Neonatal Rats: Effect of Glucose, Oxygen and Epinephrine Supplementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chathu, Finla; Krishnakumar, Amee; Paulose, Cheramadathikudyil S.

    2008-01-01

    Brain damage due to an episode of hypoxia remains a major problem in infants causing deficit in motor and sensory function. Hypoxia leads to neuronal functional failure, cerebral palsy and neuro-developmental delay with characteristic biochemical and molecular alterations resulting in permanent or transitory neurological sequelae or even death.…

  14. Hereditary angioedema and pregnancy: successful management of recurrent and frequent attacks of angioedema with C1-inhibitor concentrate, danazol and tranexamic acid – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Milingos, D S; Madhuvrata, P; Dean, J; Shetty, A; Campbell, D M

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition caused by deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor. It is characterized by subcutaneous swelling in any part of the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. We present the case of a pregnant woman with known HAE that deteriorated during pregnancy with frequent attacks that were managed successfully with danazol, tranexamic acid and regular intravenous administration of C1 esterase inhibitor.

  15. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. PMID:26991291

  16. Molecular environment of the phencyclidine binding site in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, A.L.; Wang, H.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Phencyclidine is a highly specific noncompetitive inhibitor of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In a novel approach to study this site, a spin-labeled analogue of phencyclidine, 4-phenyl-4-(1-piperidinyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (PPT) was synthesized. The binding of PPT inhibits 86Rb flux (IC50 = 6.6 microM), and (3H)phencyclidine binding to both resting and desensitized acetylcholine receptor (IC50 = 17 microM and 0.22 microM, respectively). From an indirect Hill plot of the inhibition of (3H)phencyclidine binding by PPT, a Hill coefficient of approximately one was obtained in the presence of carbamylcholine and 0.8 in alpha-bungarotoxin-treated preparations. Taken together, these results indicate that PPT mimics phencyclidine in its ability to bind to the noncompetitive inhibitor site and is functionally active in blocking ion flux across the acetylcholine receptor channel. Analysis of the electron spin resonance signal of the bound PPT suggests that the environment surrounding the probe within the ion channel is hydrophobic, with a hydrophobicity parameter of 1.09. A dielectric constant for the binding site was estimated to be in the range of 2-3 units.

  17. Self-incompatibility involved in the level of acetylcholine and cAMP.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Takafumi; Akita, Isamu; Yoshino, Natsuko

    2007-11-01

    Elongation of pollen tubes in pistils after self-pollination of Lilium longiflorum cv. Hinomoto exhibiting strong gametophytic self-incompatibility was promoted by cAMP and also promoted by some metabolic modulators, namely, activators (forskolin and cholera toxin) of adenylate cyclase and inhibitors (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and pertussis) of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Moreover, the elongation was promoted by acetylcholine (ACh) and other choline derivatives, such as acetylthiocholine, L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine and chlorocholinechloride [CCC; (2-chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride]. A potent inhibitor (neostigmine) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as well as acetylcholine also promoted the elongation. cAMP enhanced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and suppressed AChE activity in the pistils, suggesting that the results are closely correlated with self-incompatibility in L. longiflorum. In short, it came to light that cAMP modulates ChAT (acetylcholine-forming enzyme) and AChE (acetylchoine-decomposing enzyme) activities to enhance the level of ACh in the pistils of L. logiflorum after self-incompatible pollination. These results indicate that the self-incompatibility on self-pollination is caused by low levels of ACh and/or cAMP. PMID:19704589

  18. Acetylcholine affects osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells via acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Xianxian; Fu, Jing; Li, Yue; Gao, Li; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Ping; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2014-03-25

    The identification of the neuronal control of bone remodeling has become one of the many significant recent advances in bone biology. Cholinergic activity has recently been shown to favor bone mass accrual by complex cellular regulatory networks. Here, we identified the gene expression of the muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (m- and nAChRs) in mice tibia tissue and in osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells. Acetylcholine, which is a classical neurotransmitter and an osteo-neuromediator, not only influences the mRNA expression of the AChR subunits but also significantly induces the proliferation and viability of osteocytes. Moreover, acetylcholine treatment caused the reciprocal regulation of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression, which resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA ratio of RANKL:OPG in osteocytes via acetylcholine receptors. The expression of neuropeptide Y and reelin, which are two neurogenic markers, was also modulated by acetylcholine via m- and nAChRs in MLO-Y4 cells. These results indicated that osteocytic acetylcholine receptors might be a new valuable mediator for cell functions and even for bone remodeling. PMID:24508663

  19. A new family of carbohydrate esterases is represented by a GDSL hydrolase/acetylxylan esterase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Alalouf, Onit; Balazs, Yael; Volkinshtein, Margarita; Grimpel, Yael; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval

    2011-12-01

    Acetylxylan esterases hydrolyze the ester linkages of acetyl groups at positions 2 and/or 3 of the xylose moieties in xylan and play an important role in enhancing the accessibility of xylanases to the xylan backbone. The hemicellulolytic system of the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 comprises a putative acetylxylan esterase gene, axe2. The gene product belongs to the GDSL hydrolase family and does not share sequence homology with any of the carbohydrate esterases in the CAZy Database. The axe2 gene is induced by xylose, and the purified gene product completely deacetylates xylobiose peracetate (fully acetylated) and hydrolyzes the synthetic substrates 2-naphthyl acetate, 4-nitrophenyl acetate, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, and phenyl acetate. The pH profiles for k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) suggest the existence of two ionizable groups affecting the binding of the substrate to the enzyme. Using NMR spectroscopy, the regioselectivity of Axe2 was directly determined with the aid of one-dimensional selective total correlation spectroscopy. Methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-β-d-xylopyranoside was rapidly deacetylated at position 2 or at positions 3 and 4 to give either diacetyl or monoacetyl intermediates, respectively; methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside was initially deacetylated at position 6. In both cases, the complete hydrolysis of the intermediates occurred at a much slower rate, suggesting that the preferred substrate is the peracetate sugar form. Site-directed mutagenesis of Ser-15, His-194, and Asp-191 resulted in complete inactivation of the enzyme, consistent with their role as the catalytic triad. Overall, our results show that Axe2 is a serine acetylxylan esterase representing a new carbohydrate esterase family. PMID:21994937

  20. Kinetics of unliganded acetylcholine receptor channel gating.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M B

    1986-01-01

    Open- and closed-state lifetimes of unliganded acetylcholine receptor channel activity were analyzed by the method of likelihood maximazation. For both open times and closed times, the best-fitting density is most often a sum of two exponentials. These multiple open states cannot depend on the number of receptor binding sites occupied since they are observed in the absence of ligand. The rate of spontaneous opening and the faster decay constant of closing increased as the membrane was hyperpolarized. The voltage dependence of the rate of spontaneous opening is stronger than that for curare-liganded channels. Evidence that the acetylcholine receptor channel can open spontaneously in the absence of ligand has been presented previously (Sanchez et al, 1983; Brehm et al, 1984; Jackson, 1984). To add to this evidence, alpha-bungarotoxin was added to the patch electrode, causing the frequency of openings to decay with time. The rate constant determined from this decay is similar to rate constants reported for the binding of iodinated alpha-bungarotoxin to the acetylcholine receptor. The frequency of unliganded channel opening has been estimated as 2 X 10(-3) s-1 per receptor. A comparison of carbamylcholine-liganded and spontaneous gating transition rates suggests that ligand binding increases the rate of opening by a factor of 1.4 X 10(7). Carbamylcholine binding increases the mean open time by a factor of 5. Thus, a cholinergic agonist activates the acetylcholine receptor by destabilizing the closed state. The liganded and unliganded channel gating rates were used to analyze the energetics of ligand activation of the acetylcholine receptor channel, and to relate the open channel dissociation constant to the closed channel dissociation constant. PMID:2421793

  1. Effects of acute chlorpyrifos exposure on in vivo acetylcholine accumulation in rat striatum

    SciTech Connect

    Karanth, Subramanya; Liu, Jing; Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey . E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the acute effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinesterase inhibition and acetylcholine levels in the striatum of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg) or CPF (84, 156 or 279 mg/kg, sc) and functional signs of toxicity, body weight and motor activity recorded. Microdialysis was conducted at 1, 4 and 7 days after CPF exposure for measurement of acetylcholine levels in striatum. Rats were then sacrificed and the contralateral striatum and diaphragm were collected for biochemical measurements. Few overt signs of cholinergic toxicity were noted in any rats. Body weight gain was significantly affected in the high-dose (279 mg/kg) group only, while motor activity (nocturnal rearing) was significantly reduced in all CPF-treated groups at one day (84 mg/kg) or from 1-4 days (156 and 279 mg/kg) after dosing. Cholinesterase activities in both diaphragm and striatum were markedly inhibited (50-92%) in a time-dependent manner, but there were relatively minimal dose-related changes. In contrast, time- and dose-dependent changes in striatal acetylcholine levels were noted, with significantly higher levels noted in the high-dose group compared to other groups. Maximal increases in striatal acetylcholine levels were observed at 4-7 days after dosing (84 mg/kg, 7-9-fold; 156 mg/kg, 10-13-fold; 279 mg/kg, 35-57-fold). Substantially higher acetylcholine levels were noted when an exogenous cholinesterase inhibitor was included in the perfusion buffer, but CPF treatment-related differences were substantially lower in magnitude under those conditions. The results suggest that marked differences in acetylcholine accumulation can occur with dosages of CPF eliciting relatively similar degrees of cholinesterase inhibition. Furthermore, the minimal expression of classic signs of cholinergic toxicity in the presence of extensive brain acetylcholine accumulation suggests that some

  2. Electrophoretic and densitometric analysis of esterase activity as an indicator of mercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, M.J.; Guttman, S.I.

    1995-12-31

    In an earlier experiment, esterase activity as determined by starch gel electrophoresis was absent in larval caddisflies (Nectopsyche albida) that succumbed to mercury exposure, but was present in control larvae. To test the effects of mercury exposure duration on esterase activity, additional larval N. albida were exposed under conditions identical to those in the earlier experiment, and esterase activity was determined by electrophoresis of several live individuals every 12 hours. To test the effects of mercury concentration on esterase activity, homogenates of unexposed N. albida were electrophoresed, and esterase activity was determined using esterase-specific stains spiked with various concentrations of mercury. Following both experiments, esterase activity was quantified by laser densitometry of stained electrophoresis gels, Results indicate that: (1) inorganic mercury inhibited esterase activity, (2) inhibition increased with exposure time, and (3) inhibition increased with mercury concentration. Esterase inhibition may be a causal factor in mortality related to mercury exposure. Quantification of esterase activity by densitometry of electrophoretic gels may be an alternative method of rapid toxicity assessment.

  3. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF INHIBITION OF SERINE ESTERASES BY FLUORINATED AMINOPHOSPHONATES

    PubMed Central

    Makhaeva, G.F.; Aksinenko, A.Y.; Sokolov, V.B.; Baskin, I.I.; Palyulin, V.A.; Zefirov, N.S.; Hein, N.D.; Kampf, J.W.; Wijeyesakere, S.J.; Richardson, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews previously published data and presents new results to address the hypothesis that fluorinated aminophosphonates (FAPs), (RO)2P(O)C(CF3)2NHS(O)2C6H5, R = alkyl, inhibit serine esterases by scission of the P-C bond. Kinetics studies demonstrated that FAPs are progressive irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7.), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8.), carboxylesterase (CaE, EC 3.1.1.1.), and neuropathy target esterase (NTE, EC 3.1.1.5.), consistent with P-C bond breakage. Chemical reactivity experiments showed that diMe-FAP and diEt-FAP react with water to yield the corresponding dialkylphosphates and (CF3)2CHNHS(O)2C6H5, indicating lability of the P-C bond. X-ray crystallography of diEt-FAP revealed an elongated (and therefore weaker) P-C bond (1.8797 (13) Å) compared to P-C bonds in dialkylphosphonates lacking α-CF3 groups (1.805–1.822 Å). Semi-empirical and non-empirical molecular modeling of diEt-FAP and (EtO)2P(O)C(CH3)2NHS(O)2C6H5 (diEt-AP), which lacks CF3 groups, indicated lengthening and destabilization of the P-C bond in diEt-FAP compared to diEt-AP. Active site peptide adducts formed by reacting diEt-FAP with BChE and diBu-FAP with NTE catalytic domain (NEST) were identified using peptide mass mapping with mass spectrometry (MS). Mass shifts (mean ± SE, average mass) for peaks corresponding to active site peptides with diethylphosphoryl and monoethylphosphoryl adducts on BChE were 136.1 ± 0.1 and 108.0 ± 0.1 Da, respectively. Corresponding mass shifts for dibutylphosphoryl and monobutylphosphoryl adducts on NEST were 191.8 ± 0.2 and 135.5 ± 0.1 Da, respectively. Each of these values was statistically identical to the theoretical mass shift for each dialkylphosphoryl and monoalkylphosphoryl species. The MS results demonstrate that inhibition of BChE and NEST by FAPs yields dialkylphosphoryl and monoalkylphosphoryl adducts, consistent with phosphorylation via P-C bond cleavage and aging by net

  4. Functional characterization of an α-esterase gene involving malathion detoxification in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Lu, Xue-Ping; Meng, Li-Wei; Huang, Yong; Wei, Dong; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Extensive use of insecticides in many orchards has prompted resistance development in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). In this study, a laboratory selected strain of B. dorsalis (MR) with a 21-fold higher resistance to malathion was used to examine the resistance mechanisms to this organophosphate insecticide. Carboxylesterase (CarE) was found to be involved in malathion resistance in B. dorsalis from the synergism bioassay by CarE-specific inhibitor triphenylphosphate (TPP). Molecular studies further identified a previously uncharacterized α-esterase gene, BdCarE2, that may function in the development of malathion resistance in B. dorsalis via gene upregulation. This gene is predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, a key insect tissue for detoxification. The transcript levels of BdCarE2 were also compared between the MR and a malathion-susceptible (MS) strain of B. dorsalis, and it was significantly more abundant in the MR strain. No sequence mutation or gene copy changes were detected between the two strains. Functional studies using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BdCarE2 significantly increased the malathion susceptibility in the adult files. Furthermore, heterologous expression of BdCarE2 combined with cytotoxicity assay in Sf9 cells demonstrated that BdCarE2 could probably detoxify malathion. Taken together, the current study bring new molecular evidence supporting the involvement of CarE-mediated metabolism in resistance development against malathion in B. dorsalis and also provide bases on functional analysis of insect α-esterase associated with insecticide resistance. PMID:27155483

  5. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. ); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. ); Nicolaides, K. )

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Toxicological implications of esterases-From molecular structures to functions

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tetsuo . E-mail: satohbri@peach.ifnet.or.jp

    2005-09-01

    This article reports on a keynote lecture at the 10th International Congress of Toxicology sponsored by the International Union of Toxicology and held on July 2004. Current developments in molecular-based studies into the structure and function of cholinesterases, carboxylesterases, and paraoxonases are described. This article covers mechanisms of regulation of gene expression of the various esterases by developmental factors and xenobiotics, as well as the interplay between physiological and chemical regulation of the enzyme activity.

  7. Preparation and Properties of Novel Dentin Adhesives with Esterase Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Gu; Ye, Qiang; Topp, Elizabeth M.; Kostoryz, Elisabet L.; Wang, Yong; Kieweg, Sarah L.; Spencer, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    A new methacrylate monomer, trimethylolpropane mono allyl ether dimethacrylate (TMPEDMA), was synthesized and evaluated. This branched methacrylate was designed to increase esterase-resistance when incorporated into conventional HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/BisGMA (2,2-bis[4(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxy-propyloxy)-phenyl] propane) dental adhesives. The new adhesives, HEMA/BisGMA/TMPEDMA in a 45/30/25 (w/w) ratio were formulated with H2O at 0 (A0T) and 8 wt % water (A8T) and compared with control adhesives (HEMA/BisGMA, 45/55 (w/w), at 0 (A0) and 8 wt % (A8) water). Camphoroquinone (CQ), 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate were used as photoinitiators. The new adhesives showed a degree of conversion comparable with the control and improved modulus and glass transition temperature (Tg). Exposure of photopolymerized discs to porcine liver esterase for up to eight days showed that the net cumulative methacrylic acid (MAA) release in adhesives formulated with the new monomer and 8% water (A8T: 182 μg/mL) was dramatically (P < 0.05) decreased in comparison to the control (A8: 361.6 μg/mL). The results demonstrate that adhesives made with the new monomer and cured in water to simulate wet bonding are more resistant to esterase than conventional HEMA/BisGMA adhesive. PMID:22919119

  8. The effect of age and frailty upon blood esterase activities and their response to dietary supplementation.

    PubMed Central

    Summerbell, J; Wynne, H; Hankey, C R; Williams, F M

    1993-01-01

    1. The aims of this study were two-fold. First, to define ranges of blood esterase activities in three groups, namely young subjects, fit community dwelling elderly and frail, chronically hospitalised elderly subjects, and second, to determine whether low blood esterase activities in the frail patients could be altered by increasing their nutritional intake. 2. Plasma cholinesterase, aspirin esterase, paraoxonase and phenylacetate esterase activities were all significantly lower in the frail elderly compared with the young and fit elderly volunteers. The activity of red blood cell esterase was not different in the frail elderly. 3. Fourteen frail elderly patients were randomly assigned to receive either hospital meal provision plus supplemental feeding with Build-up (Nestle) and Maxijul (SHS Ltd) or hospital provision alone for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was measured for all patients at the start of the study and at week 8. Measurements of blood esterase (cholinesterase, phenylacetate esterase, paraoxonase, aspirin esterase and red blood cell esterase), albumin and anthropometric indices (weight, triceps skinfold thickness and mid arm circumference) were made before the study and repeated at week 4 and 8. 4. There was a significant increase in plasma cholinesterase at week 4 (P < 0.05) but this was not statistically significant at week 8. There were no significant changes in any of the other esterase activities or anthropometric measurements. 5. We conclude that the lower esterase activities of the frail chronically hospitalised elderly do not respond to dietary supplementation for a period of 8 weeks with routinely available products. The hypothesis that lower esterase activities are the direct result of undernutrition which would be corrected by dietary supplementation has not been supported by this study. PMID:12959286

  9. Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, Jan; El-Fakahany, Esam E.

    2010-01-01

    An allosteric modulator is a ligand that binds to an allosteric site on the receptor and changes receptor conformation to produce increase (positive cooperativity) or decrease (negative cooperativity) in the binding or action of an orthosteric agonist (e.g., acetylcholine). Since the identification of gallamine as the first allosteric modulator of muscarinic receptors in 1976, this unique mode of receptor modulation has been intensively studied by many groups. This review summarizes over 30 years of research on the molecular mechanisms of allosteric interactions of drugs with the receptor and for new allosteric modulators of muscarinic receptors with potential therapeutic use. Identification of positive modulators of acetylcholine binding and function that enhance neurotransmission and the discovery of highly selective allosteric modulators are mile-stones on the way to novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders involving impaired cognitive function.

  10. External imaging of cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Eckelman, W.C.; Reba, R.C.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Hill, T.; Holman, B.L.; Budinger, T.; Conklin, J.J.; Eng, R.; Grissom, M.P.

    1984-01-20

    A radioiodinated ligand that binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was shown to distribute in the brain by a receptor-mediated process. With single-photon-emission imaging techniques, radioactivity was detected in the cerebrum but not in the cerebellum, whereas with a flow-limited radiotracer, radioactivity was detected in cerebrum and cerebellum. Single-photon-emission computed tomography showed good definition of the caudate putamen and cortex in man.

  11. External Imaging of Cerebral Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelman, William C.; Reba, Richard C.; Rzeszotarski, Waclaw J.; Gibson, Raymond E.; Hill, Thomas; Holman, B. Leonard; Budinger, Thomas; Conklin, James J.; Eng, Robert; Grissom, Michael P.

    1984-01-01

    A radioiodinated ligand that binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was shown to distribute in the brain by a receptor-mediated process. With single-photon-emission imaging techniques, radioactivity was detected in the cerebrum but not in the cerebellum, whereas with a flow-limited radiotracer, radioactivity was detected in cerebrum and cerebellum. Single-photon-emission computed tomography showed good definition of the caudate putamen and cortex in man.

  12. The effect of liver esterases and temperature on remifentanil degradation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Ornella; Cascone, Sara; Sessa, Linda; De Robertis, Edoardo; Lamberti, Gaetano

    2016-08-20

    Remifentanil is a potent opioid metabolized by serum and tissue esterases; it is routinely administered to patients with liver failure as anaesthetic and analgo-sedative without variation in doses, even if prolonged clinical effects and respiratory depression have been observed in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine remifentanil enzymatic degradation kinetics bearing in mind the effect of liver esterases in order to trace a more accurate pharmacokinetic profile of the drug. Solution samples were taken over time and analysed to measure remifentanil concentration by HPLC. We reproduced the physiological settings, varying temperature and pH in vitro and evaluated the kinetics of degradation of remifentanil in the presence of Rhizopus Oryzae esterases, equine liver esterases and porcine liver esterases. Remifentanil kinetics of degradation was accelerated by porcine liver esterases. Remifentanil in vitro half-life decreases with increasing temperatures in the presence of porcine liver esterases. A drug model simulation considering the effect of temperature in the presence of liver esterases was developed. Remifentanil in vitro half-life decreases with increasing temperatures when porcine liver esterases are present. In this paper we propose a model for describing remifentanil degradation kinetics at various temperatures. PMID:27370912

  13. Isozymic variations in specific and nonspecific esterase and its thermostability in silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Biswas, Tapati Datta; Nayak, Sandeepta Kumar; Saha, A K; Majumdar, M K

    2012-09-01

    Esterase isozymic variations were documented in the haemolymph of developed multivoltine and bivoltine silkworm breeds during unfavorable seed crop seasons of May - September using á- and â- napthylacetate separately to identify specific and nonspecific esterase having thermotolerant potentiality. Variations existed in the isozyme pattern with three bands (Est-2, 3 and 4) in pure Nistari race and other developed multivoltine and bivoltine breeds. Est-2 and Est-3 were non-specific esterases as they were observed when both á- and â-napthylacetate was used as substrates separately. Est-4 band was observed only with á-napthylacetate as substrate and was therefore confirmed to be specific á-esterase band in the haemolymph of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Zymograms showed that the non-specific esterase band (Est-3) with R1 of 0.43 and specific á-esterase band (Est-4) with R(f) of 0.32 predominately withstood a temperature of 70 +/- 2 degrees C for a duration of 10 min and were confirmed as thermostable esterases in haemolymph of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. This also categorized the presence of thermostable esterases in developed multivoltine and bivoltine breeds of silkworm, even though the qualitative activity was more in the former than the latter. The qualitative presence of thermostable esterases and their activity could be adopted as an indicative biochemical marker in relation to thermotolerance in silkworm. PMID:23734447

  14. Esterase activity able to hydrolyze dietary antioxidant hydroxycinnamates is distributed along the intestine of mammals.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, M F; Kroon, P A; Williamson, G; Garcia-Conesa, M T

    2001-11-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids are effective antioxidants and are abundant components of plant cell walls, especially in cereal bran. For example, wheat and rye brans are rich sources of the hydroxycinnamates ferulic acid, sinapic acid, and p-coumaric acid. These phenolics are part of human and animal diets and may contribute to the beneficial effects derived from consumption of cereal bran. However, these compounds are ester linked to the main polymers in the plant cell wall and cannot be absorbed in this complex form. The present work shows that esterases with activity toward esters of the major dietary hydroxycinnamates are distributed throughout the intestinal tract of mammals. In rats, the cinnamoyl esterase activity in the small intestine is derived mainly from the mucosa, whereas in the large intestine the esterase activity was found predominantly in the luminal microflora. Mucosa cell-free extracts obtained from human duodenum, jejunum, and ileum efficiently hydrolyzed various hydroxycinnamoyl esters, providing the first evidence of human cinnamoyl esterase(s). This study first demonstrates the release by human colonic esterase(s) (mostly of microbial origin) of sinapic acid and p-coumaric acid from rye and wheat brans. Hydrolysis by intestinal esterase(s) is very likely the major route for release of antioxidant hydroxycinnamic acids in vivo. PMID:11714377

  15. Relaxation measurements on the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, R E; Lester, H A

    1975-01-01

    In Electrophorus electroplaques, the agonist-induced postsynaptic conductance depends on membrane potential. During steady exposure to agonists, after a voltage step the conductance relaxes on a millisecond time scale, exponentially approaching a new equilibrium value. The relaxation rate constant k is an instantaneous function of voltage, insensitive to the past or present conductance. Two components sum to form k. A concentration-sensitive component increases linearly with agonist concentration and decreases during desensitization or exposure to curare. Thus this component reflects the average frequency at which acetylcholine receptors are opening. The voltage-sensitive component, obtained by extrapolating k to zero agonist concentration, increases at more positive potentials. For acetylcholine, the voltage-sensitive component equals the rate constant for the exponential decay of postsynaptic currents; it thus seems to be the closing rate for active receptors. The voltage-sensitive component has the relative amplitudes acetylcholine less than carbamoylcholine less than decamethonium, and for each agonist equals the closing rate determined from "noise" measurements at neuromuscular junctions. The kinetic data explain several aspects of the steady-state conductance induced by agonists, but shed no light on apparent cooperative effects. PMID:1059136

  16. The gating isomerization of neuromuscular acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptor-channels are allosteric proteins that isomerize (‘gate’) between conformations that have a low vs. high affinity for the transmitter and conductance for ions. In order to comprehend the mechanism by which the affinity and conductance changes are linked it is of value to know the magnitude, timing and distribution of energy flowing through the system. Knowing both the di- and unliganded gating equilibrium constants (E2 and E0) is a foundation for understanding the AChR gating mechanism and for engineering both the ligand and the protein to operate in predictable ways. In adult mouse neuromuscular receptors activated by acetylcholine, E2= 28 and E0≈ 6.5 × 10−7. At each (equivalent) transmitter binding site acetylcholine provides ∼5.2 kcal mol−1 to motivate the isomerization. The partial agonist choline provides ∼3.3 kcal mol−1. The relative time of a residue's gating energy change is revealed by the slope of its rate–equilibrium constant relationship. A map of this parameter suggests that energy propagates as a conformational cascade between the transmitter binding sites and the gate region. Although gating energy changes are widespread throughout the protein, some residues are particularly sensitive to perturbations. Several specific proposals for the structural events that comprise the gating conformational cascade are discussed. PMID:19933754

  17. Biosensor analysis of blood esterases for organophosphorus compounds exposure assessment: approaches to simultaneous determination of several esterases.

    PubMed

    Sigolaeva, Larisa; Makhaeva, Galina; Rudakova, Elena; Boltneva, Natalia; Porus, Marya; Dubacheva, Galina; Eremenko, Arkadi; Kurochkin, Ilya; Richardson, Rudy J

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews our previously published data and presents new results on biosensor assay of blood esterases. Tyrosinase and choline oxidase biosensors based on nanostructured polyelectrolyte films were developed for these purposes. Experiments were performed on the quantitative determination of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), and neuropathy target esterase (NTE) in samples of whole blood of rats, mice, and humans. Good agreement was found between biosensor and spectrophotometric assays for AChE, BChE, and CaE. No direct comparison could be made for NTE because its activity cannot be measured spectrophotometrically in whole blood. A new method of simultaneous quantitative determination of AChE and BChE in test mixtures is also described. This method represents a bifunctional biosensor for the simultaneous analysis of choline and phenol based on integration of individual sensors. Algorithms for calculation of separate concentrations of AChE and BChE in the mixture were developed. The mean error of calculated component concentrations was approximately 6% for binary test mixtures. The present work provides a foundation for building multiplexed systems for the simultaneous determination of multiple esterases with applications to biomonitoring for exposures to organophosphorus compounds. PMID:20097186

  18. [Sites of synthesis of acetylcholine receptors in denervated muscles].

    PubMed

    Giacobini Robecchi, M G; Garelli, M; Filogamo, G

    1980-09-01

    Muscle fibres binding with 125I alpha-bungarotoxine from Bungarus Multicinctus, after treatment with saponine, shows (in electron microscope autoradiography) intracellular binding sites identifying sites of acetylcholine receptor synthesis. In innervated muscle, the acetylcholine receptor is located only at the neuromuscular junction. In denervated muscle the receptor is distributed along the whole sarcolemma; in this situation the acetylcholine receptor is synthesized "ex novo" in the membrane system over the whole length of the muscle fibre. PMID:7214035

  19. Evidence for involvement of endogenous acetylcholine in emotional-aversive response in the cat.

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, S M; Eckersdorf, B; Golebiewski, H

    1990-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to provide evidence for involvement of endogenous acetylcholine in naturally as well as pharmacologically induced emotional behaviour in the cat. 2. Emotional-aversive responses of 10 cats were naturally evoked by presentation of a dog or the responses were pharmacologically induced by intracerebral injections of cholinomimetics. 3. Naturally evoked emotional behaviour was abolished by i.p. pretreatment with atropine sulfate (1 mg/kg), but not by atropine methyl nitrate, or it was significantly decreased by bilateral intracerebral injection of atropine sulfate (5 micrograms/microliter). 4. On the other hand, intracerebral injections of physostigmine (100 micrograms/microliter), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor which elevates the level of endogenous acetylcholine, induced the fully developed emotional-aversive response comparable with natural behaviour and with responses induced by carbachol (10 micrograms/microliter). 5. The results demonstrate that the endogenous acetylcholine in the basal forebrain and diencephalic areas play a role in naturally occurring emotional aversive behaviour in cats. PMID:2293258

  20. Effects of vesicular acetylcholine uptake blockers on frequency augmentation-potentiation in frog neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Maeno, T; Enomoto, K

    1994-03-01

    Vesamicol inhibits the vesicular loading of acetylcholine molecules. The effects of vesamicol and similarly acting compounds on neuromuscular transmission in frogs were investigated to determine whether these inhibitors-inhibit the frequency augmentation-potentiation of transmitter release. Various vesicular acetylcholine transport blockers suppressed the stimulation frequency-related release parameter, k, in a dose-dependent manner. Artane, cetiedil, chloroquine, ethodin, quinacrine, vesamicol and its benzyl-analogue, 2-(4-benzylpiperidino)cyclohexanol, had strong effects, while those of aminacrine, chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, imipramine, pyrilamine and thioridazine were weak. A significant correlation was observed between the biochemically reported values of IC50 and the electrophysiological inhibitory potencies on k at 20 microM. Contrary to expectations from the biochemical data, however, vesamicol and its benzyl-analogue showed equipotent inhibitory actions on the electrophysiological frequency augmentation-potentiation relation. Low sensitivity and low selectivity of the frequency augmentation-potentiation for vesamicol and its benzyl-analogue lead us to conclude that the vesicular acetylcholine transporter is not the site of the electrophysiological action of vesamicol and similarly acting chemicals. PMID:8008203

  1. Cloning, Overexpression in Escherichia coli, and Characterization of a Thermostable Fungal Acetylxylan Esterase from Talaromyces emersonii

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Patrick G.; Miki, Yuta; Martínez, Angel T.; Tuohy, Maria G.; Faulds, Craig B.

    2012-01-01

    The gene encoding an acetylxylan esterase (AXE1) from the thermophilic ascomycete Talaromyces emersonii was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and characterized. This form of AXE1, rTeAXE1, exhibits increased thermostability and activity at a higher temperature than other known fungal acetyl esterases, thus having huge potential application in biomass bioconversion to high value chemicals or biofuels. PMID:22407679

  2. 21 CFR 173.140 - Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.140 Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei. Esterase-lipase enzyme, consisting of enzyme derived from Mucor miehei var. Cooney et Emerson by... Emerson is nonpathogenic and nontoxic in man or other animals. (c) The enzyme is produced by a...

  3. 21 CFR 173.140 - Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.140 Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei. Esterase-lipase enzyme, consisting of enzyme derived from Mucor miehei var. Cooney et Emerson by... Emerson is nonpathogenic and nontoxic in man or other animals. (c) The enzyme is produced by a...

  4. 21 CFR 173.140 - Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.140 Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei. Esterase-lipase enzyme, consisting of enzyme... animals. (c) The enzyme is produced by a process which completely removes the organism Mucor miehei...

  5. 21 CFR 173.140 - Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.140 Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei. Esterase-lipase enzyme, consisting of enzyme derived from Mucor miehei var. Cooney et Emerson by... Emerson is nonpathogenic and nontoxic in man or other animals. (c) The enzyme is produced by a...

  6. 21 CFR 173.140 - Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.140 Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei. Esterase-lipase enzyme, consisting of enzyme derived from Mucor miehei var. Cooney et Emerson by... Emerson is nonpathogenic and nontoxic in man or other animals. (c) The enzyme is produced by a...

  7. Cloning, overexpression in Escherichia coli, and characterization of a thermostable fungal acetylxylan esterase from Talaromyces emersonii.

    PubMed

    Waters, Deborah M; Murray, Patrick G; Miki, Yuta; Martínez, Angel T; Tuohy, Maria G; Faulds, Craig B

    2012-05-01

    The gene encoding an acetylxylan esterase (AXE1) from the thermophilic ascomycete Talaromyces emersonii was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and characterized. This form of AXE1, rTeAXE1, exhibits increased thermostability and activity at a higher temperature than other known fungal acetyl esterases, thus having huge potential application in biomass bioconversion to high value chemicals or biofuels. PMID:22407679

  8. Structure of the catalytic domain of glucuronoyl esterase Cip2 from Hypocrea jecorina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structure of the catalytic domain of glucuronoyl esterase Cip2 from the fungus Hypocrea jecorina was determined at a resolution of 1.9 Angstroms. This is the first structure of the newly established carbohydrate esterase family 15. The structure has revealed the residues Ser278–His411–Glu301 pre...

  9. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  10. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  11. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  12. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  13. Cycloxaprid insecticide: nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding site and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xusheng; Swenson, Tami L; Casida, John E

    2013-08-21

    Cycloxaprid (CYC) is a novel neonicotinoid prepared from the (nitromethylene)imidazole (NMI) analogue of imidacloprid. In this study we consider whether CYC is active per se or only as a proinsecticide for NMI. The IC50 values (nM) for displacing [(3)H]NMI binding are 43-49 for CYC and 2.3-3.2 for NMI in house fly and honeybee head membranes and 302 and 7.2, respectively, in mouse brain membranes, potency relationships interpreted as partial conversion of some CYC to NMI under the assay conditions. The 6-8-fold difference in toxicity of injected CYC and NMI to house flies is consistent with their relative potencies as in vivo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibitors in brain measured with [(3)H]NMI binding assays. CYC metabolism in mice largely involves cytochrome P450 pathways without NMI as a major intermediate. Metabolites of CYC tentatively assigned are five monohydroxy derivatives and one each of dihydroxy, nitroso, and amino modifications. CYC appears be a proinsecticide, serving as a slow-release reservoir for NMI with selective activity for insect versus mammalian nAChRs. PMID:23889077

  14. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ockenga, Wymke; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles. PMID:25985102

  15. Esterase activity of BSA-ZnO nanoparticle complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhogale, A.; Nair, A.; Patel, N.; Miotello, A.; Kothari, D. C.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on functional properties of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein was studied. ZnO NPs were synthesized with average size of ˜7.5 nm as obtained from TEM analysis. The catalytic conversion of p-nitrophenylacetate (PNPA) to p-nitrophenol in the presence of BSA attached with ZnO NPs was examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy at room temperature. The result suggests that esterase activity of BSA is significantly enhanced (6 times) due to the ground state BSA-ZnO complex formation.

  16. Inhibition of the acetylcholine receptor by histrionicotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Anwyl, R.; Narahashi, T.

    1980-01-01

    1 The action of C5-decahydrohistrionicotoxin (C5-HTX) has been investigated on the extrajunctional acetylcholine (ACh) receptors of denervated rat muscle. 2 C5-HTX causes both a rapid and slow reduction in amplitude of iontophoretic ACh potentials evoked at all frequencies from the extrajunctional receptors. 3 C5-HTX also causes a time-dependent inhibition of the iontophoretic potentials evoked at frequencies greater than 0.02 Hz. This inhibition was observed either alone or superimposed upon desensitization, and may be caused by a similar mechanism to desensitization. PMID:7378635

  17. Assays for the classification of two types of esterases: carboxylic ester hydrolases and phosphoric triester hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, Douglas D; Roe, R Michael

    2002-11-01

    Assays for the Classification of Two Types of Esterases: Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase and Phosphoric Triester Hydrolase (Douglas D. Anspaugh and Michael Roe, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). This unit describes assays that quantitate two types of esterase the carboxylic ester hydrolases and the phosphoric triester hydrolases. Carboxylic ester hydrolases include the B-esterases, which are inhibited by organophosphorus compounds. Among the phosphoric triester hydrolases is aryldialkylphosphatase, which has been called A-esterase or paraoxonase due to its ability to oxidize paraoxon and other organophosphates. These assays are colorimetric and miniaturized for rapid simultaneous testing of multiple, small-volume samples in a microtiter plate format. There is also a discussion of the history of esterase nomenclature and the reasons why this large group of enzymes is so difficult to classify. PMID:20945297

  18. Esterase Activity and Intracellular Localization in Reconstructed Human Epidermal Cultured Skin Models

    PubMed Central

    Katayanagi, Mishina; Hashimoto, Fumie

    2015-01-01

    Background Reconstructed human epidermal culture skin models have been developed for cosmetic and pharmaceutical research. Objective This study evaluated the total and carboxyl esterase activities (i.e., Km and Vmax, respectively) and localization in two reconstructed human epidermal culture skin models (LabCyte EPI-MODEL [Japan Tissue Engineering] and EpiDerm [MatTek/Kurabo]). The usefulness of the reconstruction cultured epidermis was also verified by comparison with human and rat epidermis. Methods Homogenized epidermal samples were fractioned by centrifugation. p-nitrophenyl acetate and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate were used as substrates of total esterase and carboxyl esterase, respectively. Results Total and carboxyl esterase activities were present in the reconstructed human epidermal culture skin models and were localized in the cytosol. Moreover, the activities and localization were the same as those in human and rat epidermis. Conclusion LabCyte EPI-MODEL and EpiDerm are potentially useful for esterase activity prediction in human epidermis. PMID:26082583

  19. A comparison of multiple esterases as biomarkers of organophosphate exposure and effect in two earthworm species.

    PubMed

    Henson-Ramsey, Heather; Schneider, Ashley; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2011-04-01

    Two different earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to 5 μg/cm(2) of malathion to evaluate their usefulness as sentinels of organophosphate exposure and to assess three different esterases, as biomarkers of malathion exposure and effect. Tissue xenobiotic burdens and esterase activity were determined for each species and each esterase in order to assess variability. E. fetida exhibited 4-fold less variability in tissue burdens than did L. terrestris and had less variable basal esterase activities. An attempt was made to correlate malathion and malaoxon tissue burdens with esterase activity post-exposure. There was no malaoxon present in the earthworm tissues. No significant correlations were determined by comparing acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, nor carboxylesterase activities with malathion burdens. PMID:21404045

  20. Acetylcholine facilitates recovery of episodic memory after brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Croxson, Paula L.; Browning, Philip G. F.; Gaffan, David; Baxter, Mark G.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory depends on a network of interconnected brain structures including the inferior temporal cortex, hippocampus, fornix and mammillary bodies. We have previously shown that a moderate episodic memory impairment in monkeys with transection of the fornix is exacerbated by prior depletion of acetylcholine from inferotemporal cortex. This is despite the fact that depletion of acetylcholine from inferotemporal cortex on its own has no effect on episodic memory. Here we now show that this effect occurs because inferotemporal acetylcholine facilitates recovery of function following structural damage within the neural circuit for episodic memory. Episodic memory impairment caused by lesions of the mammillary bodies, like fornix transection, was exacerbated by prior removal of temporal cortical acetylcholine. However, removing temporal cortical acetylcholine after the lesion of the fornix or mammillary bodies did not increase the severity of the impairment. This lesion order effect suggests that acetylcholine within the inferior temporal cortex ordinarily facilitates functional recovery after structural lesions that impair episodic memory. In the absence of acetylcholine innervation to inferotemporal cortex, this recovery is impaired and the amnesia caused by the structural lesion is more severe. These results suggest that humans with loss of cortical acetylcholine function, for example in Alzheimer’s disease, may be less able to adapt to memory impairments caused by structural neuronal damage to areas in the network important for episodic memory. PMID:23035090

  1. Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Soni, Neeraj; Wang, Hong; Klein, Anders B; Thiriet, Nathalie; Pinborg, Lars H; Muldoon, Pretal P; Wienecke, Jacob; Imad Damaj, M; Kohlmeier, Kristi A; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Thomsen, Morten S

    2016-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are modulated by regulatory proteins of the Lynx family. Here, we report for the first time a direct interaction of the Lynx protein LY6/PLAUR domain-containing 6 (Lypd6) with nAChRs in human brain extracts, identifying Lypd6 as a novel regulator of nAChR function. Using protein cross-linking and affinity purification from human temporal cortical extracts, we demonstrate that Lypd6 is a synaptically enriched membrane-bound protein that binds to multiple nAChR subtypes in the human brain. Additionally, soluble recombinant Lypd6 protein attenuates nicotine-induced hippocampal inward currents in rat brain slices and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells, suggesting that binding of Lypd6 is sufficient to inhibit nAChR-mediated intracellular signaling. We further show that perinatal nicotine exposure in rats (4 mg/kg/day through minipumps to dams from embryonic day 7 to post-natal day 21) significantly increases Lypd6 protein levels in the hippocampus in adulthood, which did not occur after exposure to nicotine in adulthood only. Our findings suggest that Lypd6 is a versatile inhibitor of cholinergic signaling in the brain, and that Lypd6 is dysregulated by nicotine exposure during early development. Regulatory proteins of the Lynx family modulate the function of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). We report for the first time that the Lynx protein Lypd6 binds to nAChRs in human brain extracts, and that recombinant Lypd6 decreases nicotine-induced ERK phosphorylation and attenuates nicotine-induced hippocampal inward currents. Our findings suggest that Lypd6 is a versatile inhibitor of cholinergic signaling in the brain. PMID:27344019

  2. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  3. Involvement of calpains in the destabilization of the acetylcholine receptor clusters in rat myotubes.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Nelson, P G

    2000-01-01

    The effects of calpain inhibitors on the total number of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on cultured rat myotubes and on the stability of AChR clusters in these myotubes were investigated. The degradation rate of total AChRs labeled with (125)I-alpha-bungarotoxin was assessed from radioactivity remaining in the myotubes as a function of time. Treatment with calpain inhibitors resulted in a two- to three-fold increase in the half-life of total AChRs. Incubation with these inhibitors produced 40% increases in intracellular AChRs but no major changes in surface AChRs, indicating that the increased AChR half-life is due to intracellular accumulation. The rate loss of AChRs from the clusters was assessed by measuring the loss of fluorescence intensity in rhodaminated-alpha-bungarotoxin-labeled clusters with time. Treatment with calpain inhibitors resulted in twofold increases in cluster half-life. Thus, there was generally no change in total surface receptors with the calpain inhibitors, whereas cluster half-life was substantially increased. Furthermore, with a low dose of calpeptin there was no change in turnover of total cellular AChRs, whereas cluster half-life was doubled. Taken together, these results suggest that the increased half-life of clusters produced by the calpain inhibitors may be due to retardation of the lateral movement from AChRs in the clusters. PMID:10623898

  4. HIGHLY METHYL ESTERIFIED SEEDS Is a Pectin Methyl Esterase Involved in Embryo Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Levesque-Tremblay, Gabriel; Müller, Kerstin; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Haughn, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Homogalacturonan pectin domains are synthesized in a highly methyl-esterified form that later can be differentially demethyl esterified by pectin methyl esterase (PME) to strengthen or loosen plant cell walls that contain pectin, including seed coat mucilage, a specialized secondary cell wall of seed coat epidermal cells. As a means to identify the active PMEs in seed coat mucilage, we identified seven PMEs expressed during seed coat development. One of these, HIGHLY METHYL ESTERIFIED SEEDS (HMS), is abundant during mucilage secretion, peaking at 7 d postanthesis in both the seed coat and the embryo. We have determined that this gene is required for normal levels of PME activity and homogalacturonan methyl esterification in the seed. The hms-1 mutant displays altered embryo morphology and mucilage extrusion, both of which are a consequence of defects in embryo development. A significant decrease in the size of cells in the embryo suggests that the changes in embryo morphology are a consequence of lack of cell expansion. Progeny from a cross between hms-1 and the previously characterized PME inhibitor5 overexpression line suggest that HMS acts independently from other cell wall-modifying enzymes in the embryo. We propose that HMS is required for cell wall loosening in the embryo to facilitate cell expansion during the accumulation of storage reserves and that its role in the seed coat is masked by redundancy. PMID:25572606

  5. Bacterial cocaine esterase: a protein-based therapy for cocaine overdose and addiction

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Woods, James H; Sunahara, Roger K

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine is highly addictive and there are no pharmacotherapeutic drugs available to treat acute cocaine toxicity or chronic abuse. Antagonizing an inhibitor such as cocaine using a small molecule has proven difficult. The alternative approach is to modify cocaine’s pharmacokinetic properties by sequestering or hydrolyzing it in serum and limiting access to its sites of action. We took advantage of a bacterial esterase (CocE) that has evolved to hydrolyze cocaine and have developed it as a therapeutic that rapidly and specifically clears cocaine from the subject. Native enzyme was unstable at 37°C, thus limiting CocE’s potential. Innovative computational methods based on the protein’s structure helped elucidate its mechanism of destabilization. Novel protein engineering methodologies were applied to substantially improve its stability in vitro and in vivo. These improvements rendered CocE as a powerful and efficacious therapeutic to treat cocaine intoxication and lead the way towards developing a therapy for addiction. PMID:22300094

  6. Molecular properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    HAGA, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which comprise five subtypes (M1-M5 receptors), are expressed in both the CNS and PNS (particularly the target organs of parasympathetic neurons). M1-M5 receptors are integral membrane proteins with seven transmembrane segments, bind with acetylcholine (ACh) in the extracellular phase, and thereafter interact with and activate GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in the intracellular phase: M1, M3, and M5 receptors interact with Gq-type G proteins, and M2 and M4 receptors with Gi/Go-type G proteins. Activated G proteins initiate a number of intracellular signal transduction systems. Agonist-bound muscarinic receptors are phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases, which initiate their desensitization through uncoupling from G proteins, receptor internalization, and receptor breakdown (down regulation). Recently the crystal structures of M2 and M3 receptors were determined and are expected to contribute to the development of drugs targeted to muscarinic receptors. This paper summarizes the molecular properties of muscarinic receptors with reference to the historical background and bias to studies performed in our laboratories. PMID:23759942

  7. Spontaneous openings of the acetylcholine receptor channel.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M B

    1984-01-01

    Patch clamp recordings from embryonic mouse muscle cells in culture revealed spontaneous openings of the acetylcholine receptor channel in the absence of exogenously applied cholinergic agent. The conductance of the spontaneous channel currents was, within experimental error, identical with the conductance of suberyldicholine-activated channel currents. The comparison of channel conductance was made with sodium and with cesium, each at two concentrations, with the same result. Treatment of the cells with alpha-bungarotoxin blocked the spontaneous channel currents. To determine whether the spontaneous openings were caused by an endogenous agent with cholinergic activity a reactive disulfide bond near the receptor binding site was reduced with dithiothreitol and alkylated with N-ethylmaleimide. This chemical modification reduced the effectiveness with which suberyldicholine and curare activated channel currents but did not reduce the frequency of spontaneous openings. These experiments indicate that the acetylcholine receptor briefly and infrequently fluctuates into an active state in the absence of agonist. Agonist activation of the receptor presumably accelerates this spontaneously occurring process. PMID:6328531

  8. Measurement of Acetylcholine from Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jamie K.; Brown, Kathleen C.; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor for the development of lung cancer. It is estimated that smoking is associated with 80–90% of lung cancer cases throughout the world (see References 1 and 2). The addictive component of cigarette smoke is nicotine. Our published data shows that nicotine promotes the production of acetylcholine (ACh) in human bronchioalveolar carcinoma cells (BACs) (Lau et al., 2013). ACh functions as a growth factor in human BACs. The following protocol is based on a published protocol by (Song et al., 2003), with some modifications (Lau et al., 2013; Song et al., 2008; Song et al., 2003; Sekhon et al., 2003). An important point to remember is that fetal bovine serum (FBS) contains a high amount of acetylcholine (ACh). Therefore, cells must be cultured in serum-free medium to measure ACh in the culture supernatant. Two aliquots of the culture supernatant are used for analysis. This protocol measures the total choline in the cell supernatent under two conditions: 1) After treatment with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which converts the ACh to choline (also called the total choline sample) and 2) after measuring the amount of free choline in the sample. The concentration of ACh in the sample calculated by subtracting the free choline from the total choline.

  9. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Čolović, Mirjana B; Krstić, Danijela Z; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara D; Bondžić, Aleksandra M; Vasić, Vesna M

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase is involved in the termination of impulse transmission by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in numerous cholinergic pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The enzyme inactivation, induced by various inhibitors, leads to acetylcholine accumulation, hyperstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and disrupted neurotransmission. Hence, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, interacting with the enzyme as their primary target, are applied as relevant drugs and toxins. This review presents an overview of toxicology and pharmacology of reversible and irreversible acetylcholinesterase inactivating compounds. In the case of reversible inhibitors being commonly applied in neurodegenerative disorders treatment, special attention is paid to currently approved drugs (donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine) in the pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease, and toxic carbamates used as pesticides. Subsequently, mechanism of irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition induced by organophosphorus compounds (insecticides and nerve agents), and their specific and nonspecific toxic effects are described, as well as irreversible inhibitors having pharmacological implementation. In addition, the pharmacological treatment of intoxication caused by organophosphates is presented, with emphasis on oxime reactivators of the inhibited enzyme activity administering as causal drugs after the poisoning. Besides, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides can be detoxified in mammals through enzymatic hydrolysis before they reach targets in the nervous system. Carboxylesterases most effectively decompose carbamates, whereas the most successful route of organophosphates detoxification is their degradation by corresponding phosphotriesterases. PMID:24179466

  10. A halotolerant type A feruloyl esterase from Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Haase-Aschoff, Paul; Linke, Diana; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2014-03-01

    An extracellular feruloyl esterase (PeFaeA) from the culture supernatant of Pleurotus eryngii was purified to homogeneity using cation exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. The length of the complete coding sequence of PeFaeA was determined to 1668 bp corresponding to a protein of 555 amino acids. The catalytic triad of Ser-Glu-His demonstrated the uniqueness of the enzyme compared to previously published FAEs. The purified PeFaeA was a monomer with an estimated molecular mass of 67 kDa. Maximum feruloyl esterase (FAE) activity was observed at pH 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively. Metal ions (5 mM), except Hg(2+), had no significant influence on the enzyme activity. Substrate specificity profiling characterized the enzyme as a type A FAE preferring bulky natural substrates, such as feruloylated saccharides, rather than small synthetic ones. Km and kcat of the purified enzyme for methyl ferulate were 0.15 mM and 0.85 s(-1). In the presence of 3 M NaCl activity of the enzyme increased by 28 %. PeFaeA alone released only little ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran (DSWB), whereas after addition of Trichoderma viride xylanase the concentration increased more than 20 fold. PMID:24607359

  11. Improved thermostability of a Bacillus subtilis esterase by domain exchange.

    PubMed

    Gall, Markus G; Nobili, Alberto; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2014-02-01

    A moderately thermostable esterase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsteE) and its homolog from Bacillus subtilis (BsubE) show a high structural similarity with more than 95% homology and 74% amino acid identity. Interestingly, their thermal stability differs significantly by 30 °C in their melting temperature. In order to identify the positions that are responsible for this difference, most of the flexible amino acids assumed to confer instability were found to be in the cap region. For this reason, a 30 amino acid long cap domain fragment containing ten differing positions derived from BsteE was incorporated into the homologous gene encoding for the more labile BsubE by spliced overlap-extension PCR. The melting temperature of the two wild-type esterases and the mutant was evaluated by circular dichroism spectroscopy, while the kinetic parameters and the stability were determined with a photometric assay. The cap domain mutant maintained its activity, with a catalytic efficiency more similar to BsteE, while it exhibited an increase of the melting temperature by 4 °C compared to BsubE. Additional point mutations based on the differences of the parent enzymes gave a further increase of the thermostability up to 11 °C compared to BsubE; however, a significant reduction in activity was observed. PMID:23812333

  12. Cholinesterase activity and exposure time to acetylcholine as factors influencing the muscarinic inhibition of [3H]-noradrenaline overflow from guinea-pig isolated atria.

    PubMed Central

    Fuder, H.; Muscholl, E.; Wolf, K.

    1985-01-01

    Guinea-pig isolated atria were incubated and loaded with [3H]-noradrenaline. The release of 3H and of [3H]-noradrenaline was induced by field stimulation (6-9 trains of 150 pulses at 5 Hz). The stimulation-evoked overflows of 3H and of [3H]-noradrenaline were determined. In the absence of an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, acetylcholine (12 min preincubation before nerve stimulation, up to 10 microM) failed to inhibit the evoked [3H]-noradrenaline overflow. In the presence of atropine, an increase by acetylcholine of evoked release was observed in the same atria. In contrast, the selective muscarinic agonist methacholine significantly decreased the evoked overflow. The inhibition was antagonized by atropine. Methacholine did not enhance release in the presence of atropine. When present for only 2 min, acetylcholine 10 microM inhibited the evoked overflow and no facilitation of release was observed in the presence of atropine. In the presence of physostigmine, acetylcholine (12 min preincubation, 1 and 10 microM) inhibited evoked [3H]-noradrenaline overflow, but the overflow was increased by acetylcholine 10 microM in the presence of atropine. In the presence of cocaine, corticosterone, phentolamine, propranolol and hexamethonium together, acetylcholine 1 microM inhibited the evoked [3H]-noradrenaline overflow. The inhibition was significantly enhanced in the presence of physostigmine. It decreased with preincubation time of the agonist, despite the presence of physostigmine and constant replacement by new drug. Neither inhibition nor facilitation of evoked release was observed in the presence of atropine. It is concluded that a muscarinic inhibition by acetylcholine (upon prolonged exposure time) may be masked by a concomitant facilitation of release and/or desensitization of the muscarinic inhibitory mechanism. Furthermore, degradation by acetylcholinesterase contributes in part to the ineffectiveness of acetylcholine as a presynaptic inhibitor. When a

  13. Improving the ex vivo stability of drug ester compounds in rat and dog serum: inhibition of the specific esterases and implications on their identity.

    PubMed

    Koitka, Matthias; Höchel, Joachim; Gieschen, Hille; Borchert, Hans-Hubert

    2010-02-01

    In drug development, it has been noticed that some drug compounds, especially esters, are unstable in serum samples ex vivo. This can lead to a substantial underestimation of the actual drug concentration. The rat and the dog, representing a rodent and non-rodent species, respectively, are widely used in preclinical studies. We studied the degradation of three structurally different drug esters in rat and dog serum. Moreover, the efficiency of selected enzyme inhibitors to prevent these degradations was investigated. Furthermore, we found indications of the identity of the drug-specific esterases by means of their inhibitor sensitivity as well as by protein purification and identification. The studied drugs were sagopilone, drospirenone, and methylprednisolone aceponate (MPA) all of which are used in (pre-)clinical drug development. The sagopilone-cleaving esterases in rat serum were inhibited by serine hydrolase inhibitors. We partly purified these esterases resulting in an activity yield of 5% and a purification factor of 472. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS), the rat carboxylesterase isoenzyme ES-1 was identified in these fractions, thus pointing to its involvement in sagopilone cleavage. Drospirenone cleavage in rat serum was effected by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) as we deduced from the high efficacy of certain serine hydrolase and metallohydrolase inhibitors, respectively. Likewise, some inhibition characteristics implied that MPA was cleaved in rat serum by BChE and serine proteases. Partial purification of the MPA-specific esterases resulted in activity yields of 1-2%, exhibiting up to 10,000-fold purification. In dog serum, we found that sagopilone was not degraded which was in contrast to MPA and drospirenone. MPA degradation was mainly prevented by serine hydrolase inhibitors. We used a three-step purification to isolate the esterases cleaving MPA. This

  14. An organic-solvent-tolerant esterase from thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis S-86.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sebastián; Martínez, M Alejandra; Pandey, Ashok; Castro, Guillermo R

    2009-01-01

    A thermophile, halotolerant and organic-solvent-tolerant esterase producer Bacillus sp. S-86 strain previously isolated was found to belong to Bacillus licheniformis species through morphological, biochemical, 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and rDNA intergenic spacers amplification (ITS-PCR). The strain can grow at 55 degrees C in presence of C2-C7 alkanols (log P=-0.86 to 2.39), and NaCl concentrations up to 15% (w/v). This bacterium showed optimal growth and esterase production at 50 degrees C. Two different molecular weight esterase activities were detected in zymographic assays. PMSF inhibited type I esterase activity, showing no inhibitory effect on type II esterase activity. B. licheniformis S-86 was able to grow in presence of hydroxylic organic-solvents like propan-2-ol, butan-1-ol and 3-methylbutan-1-ol. At a sub-lethal concentration of these solvents (392 mmoll(-1) propan-2-ol; 99 mmol l(-1) butan-1-ol, 37 mmol l(-1) 3-methylbutan-1-ol), adequate to produce 50% cell growth inhibition at 50 degrees C, an increment between 1.9 and 2.3 times was observed in type I esterase production, and between 2.2 and 3.1 times in type II esterase production. PMID:18723341

  15. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Peng; Pan, Hong; Wang, Hong-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10), Zusanli (ST36), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23) once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. PMID:27127487

  16. “Warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai-peng; Pan, Hong; Wang, Hong-feng

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. “Warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following “warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10), Zusanli (ST36), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23) once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that “warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. PMID:27127487

  17. Phospholipase A2 induced airway hyperreactivity to cooling and acetylcholine in rat trachea: pharmacological modulation.

    PubMed Central

    Chand, N.; Diamantis, W.; Mahoney, T. P.; Sofia, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    1. Rat isolated tracheal smooth muscle preparations respond to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC) with contractile responses of highly variable magnitudes. Rat tracheae exposed to PLA2 or PLC for a period of 10-30 min, exhibit airway hyperreactivity (AH) to cooling (10 degrees C), i.e., respond with strong contractile responses. Phospholipase D neither contracted rat tracheae nor induced AH to cooling. 2. PLA2-induced AH to cooling was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ in the physiological solution. 3. Verapamil, azelastine, diltiazem and TMB-8 (each 10 microM) significantly attenuated PLA2-induced AH. This effect was not shared by nifedipine (10 microM). 4. Bepridil (10 microM), a Ca2+ and calmodulin antagonist, also significantly attenuated AH induced by PLA2. 5. Indomethacin (a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor), AA-861 (a selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor), FPL 55712 (a leukotriene receptor antagonist), methysergide (a 5-hydroxytryptamine D-receptor antagonist) and pyrilamine (a histamine H1-receptor antagonist) exerted little or no effect on PLA2-induced AH to cooling. 6. Atropine significantly attenuated PLA2-induced AH suggesting the participation of acetylcholine. 7. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (an antioxidant; 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor) and BW 755C (an antioxidant; a dual inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase) significantly attenuated PLA2-induced AH to cooling. 8. In conclusion, these data show that PLA2 (an enzyme involved in the synthesis of Paf-acether, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, diacylglycerol, superoxide free radicals and lipid peroxides, etc.) induces AH to cooling and acetylcholine in rat trachea. The induction of AH to cooling is dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ and is significantly attenuated by verapamil, diltiazem, bepridil, atropine and azelastine (an antiallergic/antiasthmatic drug). PMID:3207972

  18. Topographical studies of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. [Torpedo californica

    SciTech Connect

    Middlemas, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    All four subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in membrane vesicles isolated from Torpedo californica have been labeled with the photoactivated hydrophobic probe, (/sup 3/H)adamantanediazirine, which selectively labels regions of integral membrane proteins in contact with the hydrocarbon core of the lipid bilayer. All four subunits of the acetylcholine receptor in membrane vesicles isolated from Torpedo californica have been labeled with (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl diazoacetate. As this probe incorporates into lipid bilayers analogously to cholesterol, this result indicates that acetylcholine receptor interacts with cholesterol. Since the photogenerated carbene is situated near the lipid-water interface, this probe has potential as a topographic tool for mapping membrane protein structure. The labeling studies with both (/sup 3/H)adamantanediazirine and (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl diazoacetate support the concept that the acetylcholine receptor is a pseudosymmetric complex of homologous subunits, all of which interact with and span the membrane. The synthesis of the fluorine-containing agonists for the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, fluoroacetylcholine bromide and p-fluorophenyltrimethylammonium iodide, are described. It is demonstrated that both are agonists using a cation flux assay with acetylcholine receptor enriched membrane vesicles. The affinity cleavage reagent, p-thiocyanophenyltrimethylammonium iodide, specifically cleaves a peptide bond of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in membrane vesicles isolated from Torpedo californica. It is demonstrated that this reagent is an agonist using a cation flux assay. The cleavage is blocked by stoichiometric quantities of ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin.

  19. Suitability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor 3 Antibodies for Immune Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Frank R.; Raghavan, Badrinarayanan; Paddenberg, Renate; Kummer, Wolfgang; Tumala, Susanne; Lochnit, Günter; Gieler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence reveals a crucial role for acetylcholine and its receptors in the regulation of inflammation, particularly of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (Chrna7) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (Chrm3). Immunohistochemistry is a key tool for their cellular localization in functional tissues. We evaluated nine different commercially available antibodies on back skin tissue from wild-type (Wt) and gene-deficient (KO) mice. In the immunohistochemical analysis, we focused on key AChR-ligand sensitive skin cells (mast cells, nerve fibers and keratinocytes). All five antibodies tested for Chrm3 and the first three Chrna7 antibodies stained positive in both Wt and respective KO skin. With the 4th antibody (ab23832) nerve fibers were unlabeled in the KO mice. By western blot analysis, this antibody detected bands in both Wt and Chrna7 KO skin and brain. qRT-PCR revealed mRNA amplification with a primer set for the undeleted region in both Wt and KO mice, but none with a primer set for the deleted region in KO mice. By 2D electrophoresis, we found β-actin and β-enolase cross reactivity, which was confirmed by double immunolabeling. In view of the present results, the tested antibodies are not suitable for immunolocalization in skin and suggest thorough control of antibody specificity is required if histomorphometry is intended. PMID:25673288

  20. Detection of ferulic acid esterase production by Bacillus spp. and lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Donaghy, J; Kelly, P F; McKay, A M

    1998-08-01

    The production of feruloyl esterase activity by Bacillus spp. and lactobacilli can be detected in an agarplate assay. The assay involves the substitution of the main carbon source in specific agar with ethyl ferulate. A number of Bacillus spp., predominantly B. subtilis strains, were found to exhibit feruloyl esterase activity by this method. Of the examined lactobacilli, Lb. fermentum (NCFB 1751) showed the highest level of ferulic acid esterase activity. The enzyme was released from harvested cells by sonication and showed pH and temperature optima of 6.5 and 30 degrees C respectively. PMID:9763694

  1. Cardiac acetylcholine concentration in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, A.; Yasuda, H.; Shimono, H.; Takechi, S.; Maruyama, Y.

    1988-01-01

    We measured cardiac acetylcholine (ACh) in mice using four different methods. The mice in the in vivo irradiation group received microwave irradiation and then the hearts were removed. The animals in the in vitro irradiation group were decapitated and only the hearts were irradiated. The animals in the non-frozen group were decapitated and ACh was measured soon after the removal of the heart. The animals in the frozen group were decapitated and the hearts were frozen. There were significant differences in ACh concentrations between the in vivo irradiation group and the other groups. We also measured the ACh concentrations in both atria and ventricles after the mice were irradiated while alive. The atrial ACh concentration 1.70 +/- 0.70 nmol/g (mean +/- SD) was significantly higher than the ventricle concentration 1.07 +/- 0.30. We concluded the microwave irradiation of animals was suitable method of sacrifice for the measurement of cardiac ACh.

  2. [Desensitization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor].

    PubMed

    Quiñonez, M; Rojas, L

    1994-01-01

    In biological membranes, ionic channels act speeding up ion movements. Each ionic channel is excited by a specific stimulus (i.e. electric, mechanical, chemical, etc.). Chemically activated ionic channels (CAIC), such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), suffer desensitization when the receptor site is still occupied by the agonist molecule. The desensitized CAIC is a non functional channel state regarded as a particular case of receptors rundown. CAIC desensitization only involve reduced activity and not their membrane elimination. Desensitization is important to control synaptic transmission and the development of the nervous system. In this review we discuss results related to its production, modulation and some aspects associated to models that consider it. Finally, an approach combining molecular biology and electrophysiology techniques to understand desensitization and its importance in biological systems is presented. PMID:8525756

  3. Conotoxins Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Lebbe, Eline K. M.; Peigneur, Steve; Wijesekara, Isuru; Tytgat, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Marine snails of the genus Conus are a large family of predatory gastropods with an unparalleled molecular diversity of pharmacologically active compounds in their venom. Cone snail venom comprises of a rich and diverse cocktail of peptide toxins which act on a wide variety of ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium- (NaV), potassium- (KV), and calcium- (CaV) channels as well as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which are classified as ligand-gated ion channels. The mode of action of several conotoxins has been the subject of investigation, while for many others this remains unknown. This review aims to give an overview of the knowledge we have today on the molecular pharmacology of conotoxins specifically interacting with nAChRs along with the structure–function relationship data. PMID:24857959

  4. Rhucin, a recombinant C1 inhibitor for the treatment of hereditary angioedema and cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Hilary

    2008-03-01

    Pharming NV and Esteve are developing Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor. Rhucin is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials in North America and is awaiting regulatory approval in Western Europe for the treatment of prophylactic and acute hereditary angioedema. Pharming is also investigating Rhucin for the potential treatment of cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:18311668

  5. Acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerves contributes to cutaneous vasodilation during heat stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to active cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress in humans. Given that acetylcholine is released from cholinergic nerves during whole body heating, coupled with evidence that acetylcholine causes vasodilation via NO mechanisms, it is possible that release of acetylcholine in the dermal space contributes to cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress. To test this hypothesis, in seven subjects skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were simultaneously monitored over three microdialysis membranes placed in the dermal space of dorsal forearm skin. One membrane was perfused with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (10 microM), the second membrane was perfused with the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 10 mM) dissolved in the aforementioned neostigmine solution (l-NAME(Neo)), and the third membrane was perfused with Ringer solution as a control site. Each subject was exposed to approximately 20 min of whole body heating via a water-perfused suit, which increased mean body temperature from 36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C (P < 0.05). After the heat stress, SkBF at each site was normalized to its maximum value, identified by administration of 28 mM sodium nitroprusside. Mean body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly lower at the neostigmine-treated site relative to the other sites (neostigmine: 36.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C, l-NAME(Neo): 37.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C, control: 36.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C), whereas no significant threshold difference was observed between the l-NAME(Neo)-treated and control sites. At the end of the heat stress, SkBF was not different between the neostigmine-treated and control sites, whereas SkBF at the l-NAME(Neo)-treated site was significantly lower than the other sites. These results suggest that acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerves is capable of modulating cutaneous vasodilation via NO synthase mechanisms early in the heat stress but

  6. Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Karen J; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are prototypical Family A G protein coupled-receptors. The five mAChR subtypes are widespread throughout the periphery and the central nervous system and, accordingly, are widely involved in a variety of both physiological and pathophysiological processes. There currently remains an unmet need for better therapeutic agents that can selectively target a given mAChR subtype to the relative exclusion of others. The main reason for the lack of such selective mAChR ligands is the high sequence homology within the acetylcholine-binding site (orthosteric site) across all mAChRs. However, the mAChRs possess at least one, and likely two, extracellular allosteric binding sites that can recognize small molecule allosteric modulators to regulate the binding and function of orthosteric ligands. Extensive studies of prototypical mAChR modulators, such as gallamine and alcuronium, have provided strong pharmacological evidence, and associated structure-activity relationships (SAR), for a “common” allosteric site on all five mAChRs. These studies are also supported by mutagenesis experiments implicating the second extracellular loop and the interface between the third extracellular loop and the top of transmembrane domain 7 as contributing to the common allosteric site. Other studies are also delineating the pharmacology of a second allosteric site, recognized by compounds such as staurosporine. In addition, allosteric agonists, such as McN-A-343, AC-42 and N-desmethylclozapine, have also been identified. Current challenges to the field include the ability to effectively detect and validate allosteric mechanisms, and to quantify allosteric effects on binding affinity and signaling efficacy to inform allosteric modulator SAR. PMID:19305798

  7. β-Glucuronidase-coupled assays of glucuronoyl esterases.

    PubMed

    Fraňová, Lucia; Puchart, Vladimír; Biely, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) are microbial enzymes with potential to cleave the ester bonds between lignin alcohols and xylan-bound 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid in plant cell walls. This activity renders GEs attractive research targets for biotechnological applications. One of the factors impeding the progress in GE research is the lack of suitable substrates. In this work, we report a facile preparation of methyl esters of chromogenic 4-nitrophenyl and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-D-glucuronides for qualitative and quantitative GE assay coupled with β-glucuronidase as the auxiliary enzyme. The indolyl derivative affording a blue indigo-type product is suitable for rapid and sensitive assay of GE in commercial preparations as well as for high throughput screening of microorganisms and genomic and metagenomic libraries. PMID:27452816

  8. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium funiculosum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoshaug, Eric P.; Selig, Michael J.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  9. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium Funiculosum

    SciTech Connect

    Knoshaug, E. P.; Selig, M. J.; Baker, J. O.; Decker, S. R.; Himmel, M. E.; Adney, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  10. [Probable mechanism of recognition of cholinergic ligands by acetylcholine receptors].

    PubMed

    Demushkin, V P; Kotelevtsev, Iu V; Pliashkevich, Iu G; Khramtsov, N V

    1982-01-01

    Dryding's models were used for the conformational analysis of compounds affecting muscarin-specific acetylcholine receptor and nicotin-specific acetylcholine receptor. Ammonium group and ether oxygen (3.6 A apart from the ammonium group) specifically oriented to each other were shown to be necessary structural elements to reveal muscarin-type cholinergic activity. Ammonium group along with carbonyl oxygen or its substituent (5 A distance) are the necessary structural units providing nicotin-type cholinergic activity. The presence of two hydrophobic substituents (one in the ammonium area and the other neighbouring the second active grouping) is the additional factor. The developed principles were justified by the use of a series of synthetic samples. The compounds were obtained likely favouring affinitive modification of acetylcholine receptor (dissociation constants of acetylcholine receptor complexes equalling to 10(-4)--10(-7) M-1). PMID:7070378

  11. New Insights on Plant Cell Elongation: A Role for Acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Fornaciari, Silvia; Barozzi, Fabrizio; Piro, Gabriella; Arru, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response. PMID:24642879

  12. New insights on plant cell elongation: a role for acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Fornaciari, Silvia; Barozzi, Fabrizio; Piro, Gabriella; Arru, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response. PMID:24642879

  13. Diagnostic assays based on esterase-mediated resistance mechanisms in western corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuguo; Scharf, Michael E; Parimi, Srinivas; Meinke, Lance J; Wright, Robert J; Chandler, Laurence D; Siegfried, Blair D

    2002-12-01

    Resistance to methyl-parathion among Nebraska western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, populations is associated with increased hydrolytic metabolism of an organophosphate insecticide substrate. An electrophoretic method to identify resistant individuals based on the staining intensity of esterase isozymes on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels was developed. Three groups of esterases (I, II, and III) were visible on the gels, but only group II esterase isozymes were intensified in resistant populations. A total of 26 and 31 field populations of western corn rootworms from Nebraska (in 1998 and 1999, respectively) were assessed with nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) assays and diagnostic concentration bioassays. Significant correlations were observed between the two diagnostic assays. Group II esterase isozymes provide a reliable biochemical marker for detection of methyl-parathion resistance in individual western corn rootworms and a tool for monitoring the frequency of resistant individuals in field populations. PMID:12539840

  14. Fungal genomes mining to discover novel sterol esterases and lipases as catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterol esterases and lipases are enzymes able to efficiently catalyze synthesis and hydrolysis reactions of both sterol esters and triglycerides and due to their versatility could be widely used in different industrial applications. Lipases with this ability have been reported in the yeast Candida rugosa that secretes several extracellular enzymes with a high level of sequence identity, although different substrate specificity. This versatility has also been found in the sterol esterases from the ascomycetes Ophiostoma piceae and Melanocarpus albomyces. Results In this work we present an in silico search of new sterol esterase and lipase sequences from the genomes of environmental fungi. The strategy followed included identification and search of conserved domains from these versatile enzymes, phylogenetic studies, sequence analysis and 3D modeling of the selected candidates. Conclusions Six potential putative enzymes were selected and their kinetic properties and substrate selectivity are discussed on the basis of their similarity with previously characterized sterol esterases/lipases with known structures. PMID:24138290

  15. TRIPHENYL PHOSPHITE: IN VIVO AND IN VITRO INHIBITION OF RAT NEUROTOXIC ESTERASE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus compounds which, after acute administration, inhibit neurotoxic esterase (NTE) by > or = 65% and undergo a subsequent 'aging' reaction, produce a delayed neuropathy characterized by degeneration of large and long nerve fibers. The present studies examine in detai...

  16. CORRELATION BETWEEN NEUROTOXIC ESTERASE INHIBITION AND MIPAFOX-INDUCED NEUROPATHIC DAMAGE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The correlation between neuropathic damage and inhibition of neurotoxic esterase or neuropathy target enzyme (NTE) was examined in rats acutely exposed to Mipafox (N, N'-diisopropylphosphorodiamidofluoridate), a neurotoxic organophospate. Brain and spinal cord NTE activities were...

  17. RELATIONSHIP OF NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE INHIBITION TO NEUROPATHOLOGY AND ATAXIA IN HENS GIVEN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult WhiteLeghorn hens were acutely exposed to 3 dosages of the following organophosphorus esters: mipafox, tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), penyl saligenin phosphate, diisppropylophosphoro-fluoridate (DFP), malathion and dichlorvos. europathy target esterase (NTE) activity was...

  18. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Hansen, K; Nedergaard, O A

    1999-08-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased with time. N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine abolished the inhibitory effect of EDTA and ascorbic acid. Acetylcholine evoked a rapid concentration-dependent relaxation that recovered spontaneously and slowly, but fully, with time. Relaxation evoked by equieffective concentrations of carbachol and acetylcholine had the same time course. Cumulative addition of acetylcholine (10(-7)-3 x 10(-5) M) caused a marked relaxation that was reverted slightly at high concentrations. The relaxation was the same with rings derived from the upper, middle, and lower part of the thoracic aorta. Two consecutive concentration-response curves for acetylcholine obtained at a 2-h interval demonstrated a slight development of tachyphylaxis. The relaxation was inversely related to precontractile tension evoked by phenylephrine when expressed as a percentage, but independent when expressed as g tension. Storage of aorta in cold salt solution for 24 h did not alter the relaxation. EDTA and ascorbic acid did not alter the relaxation. It is concluded that (1) EDTA and ascorbic acid can not be used with impunity to stabilize catecholamines used as preconstriction agents; (2) the reversal of the acetylcholine-evoked relaxation is not due to hydrolysis of acetylcholine; (3) the relaxation is uniform in all segments of thoracic aorta; (4) cold storage of aorta does not alter the relaxation; and (5) acetylcholine releases the same amount of relaxing factor, irrespective of the precontractile tension. PMID:10691020

  19. Structural Characterization and Reversal of the Natural Organophosphate Resistance of a D-Type Esterase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae S-Formylglutathione Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Legler,P.; Kumaran, D.; Swaminathan, S.; Studier, F.; Millard, C.

    2008-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses a 67.8 kDa homodimeric serine thioesterase, S-formylglutathione hydrolase (SFGH), that is 39.9% identical with human esterase D. Both enzymes possess significant carboxylesterase and S-formylglutathione thioesterase activity but are unusually resistant to organophosphate (OP) inhibitors. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of yeast (y) SFGH to 2.3 Angstroms resolution by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion and used the structure to guide site-specific mutagenesis experiments addressing substrate and inhibitor reactivity. Our results demonstrate a steric mechanism of OP resistance mediated by a single indole ring (W197) located in an enzyme 'acyl pocket'. The W197I substitution enhances ySFGH reactivity with paraoxon by >1000-fold (kiW197I = 16 {+-} 2 mM-1 h-1), thereby overcoming natural OP resistance. W197I increases the rate of OP inhibition under pseudo-first-order conditions but does not accelerate OP hydrolysis. The structure of the paraoxon-inhibited W197I variant was determined by molecular replacement (2.2 Angstroms); it revealed a stabilized sulfenic acid at Cys60. Wild-type (WT) ySFGH is inhibited by thiol reactive compounds and is sensitive to oxidation; thus, the cysteine sulfenic acid may play a role in the regulation of a 'D-type' esterase. The structure of the W197I variant is the first reported cysteine sulfenic acid in a serine esterase. We constructed five Cys60/W197I variants and show that introducing a positive charge near the oxyanion hole, W197I/C60R or W197I/C60K, results in a further enhancement of the rates of phosphorylation with paraoxon (ki = 42 or 80 mM-1 h-1, respectively) but does not affect the dephosphorylation of the enzyme. We also characterized three histidine substitutions near the oxyanion hole, G57H, L58H, and M162H, which significantly decrease esterase activity.

  20. The PE16 (Rv1430) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is an Esterase Belonging to Serine Hydrolase Superfamily of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Vemula, Mani Harika; Banerjee, Sharmishta; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2013-01-01

    The PE and PPE multigene families, first discovered during the sequencing of M. tuberculosis H37Rv genome are responsible for antigenic variation and have been shown to induce increased humoral and cell mediated immune response in the host. Using the bioinformatics tools, we had earlier reported that the 225 amino acid residue PE-PPE domain (Pfam: PF08237) common to some PE and PPE proteins has a “serine α/β hydrolase” fold and conserved Ser, Asp and His catalytic triad characteristic of lipase, esterase and cutinase activities. In order to prove experimentally that PE-PPE domain is indeed a serine hydrolase, we have cloned the full-length Rv1430 and its PE-PPE domain into pET-28a vector, expressed the proteins in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The activity assays of both purified proteins were carried out using p-nitrophenyl esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids with varying chain length (C2–C16) to study the substrate specificity. To characterize the active site of the PE-PPE domain, we mutated the Ser199 to Ala. The activity of the protein in the presence of serine protease inhibitor- PMSF and the mutant protein were measured. Our results reveal that Rv1430 and its PE-PPE domain possess esterase activity and hydrolyse short to medium chain fatty acid esters with the highest specific activity for pNPC6 at 37°C, 38°C and pH 7.0, 8.0. The details of this work and the observed results are reported in this manuscript. PMID:23383323

  1. Characterization and structural modeling of a new type of thermostable esterase from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Levisson, Mark; van der Oost, John; Kengen, Servé W M

    2007-06-01

    A bioinformatic screening of the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima for ester-hydrolyzing enzymes revealed a protein with typical esterase motifs, though annotated as a hypothetical protein. To confirm its putative esterase function the gene (estD) was cloned, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Recombinant EstD was found to exhibit significant esterase activity with a preference for short acyl chain esters (C4-C8). The monomeric enzyme has a molecular mass of 44.5 kDa and optimal activity around 95 degrees C and at pH 7. Its thermostability is relatively high with a half-life of 1 h at 100 degrees C, but less stable compared to some other hyperthermophilic esterases. A structural model was constructed with the carboxylesterase Est30 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus as a template. The model covered most of the C-terminal part of EstD. The structure showed an alpha/beta-hydrolase fold and indicated the presence of a typical catalytic triad consisting of a serine, aspartate and histidine, which was verified by site-directed mutagenesis and inhibition studies. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EstD is only distantly related to other esterases. A comparison of the active site pentapeptide motifs revealed that EstD should be grouped into a new family of esterases (Family 10). EstD is the first characterized member of this family. PMID:17466017

  2. Esterase in imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): activity, kinetics and variation.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Rashid, T; Feng, G

    2014-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri are two closely related invasive ants native to South America. Despite their similarity in biology and behavior, S. invicta is a more successful invasive species. Toxic tolerance has been found to be important to the success of some invasive species. Esterases play a crucial role in toxic tolerance of insects. Hence, we hypothesized that the more invasive S. invicta would have a higher esterase activity than S. richteri. Esterase activities were measured for workers and male and female alates of both ant species using α-naphthyl acetate and β-naphthyl acetate as substrates. Esterase activities in S. invicta were always significantly higher than those in S. richteri supporting our hypothesis. In S. invicta, male alates had the highest esterase activities followed by workers then female alates for both substrates. In S. richetri, for α-naphthyl acetate, male alates had the highest activity followed by female alates then workers, while for β-naphthyl acetate, female alates had the highest activity followed by male alates then workers. For workers, S. richteri showed significantly higher levels of variation about the mean esterase activity than S. invicta. However, S. invicta showed significantly higher levels of variation in both female and male alates. PMID:25408118

  3. Production and purification of a solvent-resistant esterase from Bacillus licheniformis S-86.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sebastián; Baigorí, Mario D; Pandey, Ashok; Castro, Guillermo R

    2008-12-01

    New thermophilic and organic-solvent-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis S-86 strain is able to produce two active and solvent-stable esterases. Production of type I and II esterases was substantially enhanced when oils and surfactants were supplied as carbon sources. Grape oil (0.1% v/v) and Tween 20 to 60 (0.1% v/v) had enhanced enzyme production between 1.6- and 2.2-folds. Type II esterase was purified to homogeneity in a five-step procedure. This esterase was purified 76.7-fold with a specific activity of 135 U mg(-1). Molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 38.4 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Type II esterase was active mostly on esters with short acyl chains, which allowed to classify the enzyme as a carboxylesterase with a K (m) of 80.2 mmol l(-1) and a V (max) of 256.4 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) for p-nitrophenyl acetate. Also, B. licheniformis S-86 type II esterase displayed activity in presence of water-miscible organic solvents at 50% concentration and stability after 1-h incubation. PMID:18543118

  4. Differences in Esterase Activity to Aspirin and p-Nitrophenyl Acetate among Human Serum Albumin Preparations.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Akitoshi; Okada, Masaya; Inagaki, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Sachiyo; Hamaguchi, Tsuneo; Iwakawa, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) has two major ligand-binding sites, sites I and II, and also hydrolyzes some compounds at both sites. In the present study, we investigated differences in esterase activity among HSA preparations, and also the effects of warfarin, indomethacin, and naproxen on the hydrolytic activities of HSA to aspirin and p-nitrophenyl acetate. The esterase activities of HSA to aspirin or p-nitrophenyl acetate were measured from the pseudo-first-order formation rate constant (kobs) of salicylic acid or p-nitrophenol by HSA. Inter-lot variations were observed in the esterase activities of HSA to aspirin and p-nitrophenyl acetate; however, the esterase activity of HSA to aspirin did not correlate with that to p-nitrophenyl acetate. The inhibitory effects of warfarin and indomethacin on the esterase activity of HSA to aspirin were stronger than that of naproxen. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of naproxen on the esterase activity of HSA to p-nitrophenyl acetate was stronger than those of warfarin and indomethacin. These results suggest that the administration of different commercial HSA preparations and the co-administration with site I or II high-affinity binding drugs may change the pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs that are hydrolyzed by HSA. PMID:27476944

  5. Identification of a cocaine esterase in a strain of Pseudomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed Central

    Britt, A J; Bruce, N C; Lowe, C R

    1992-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas maltophilia (termed MB11L) which was capable of using cocaine as its sole carbon and energy source was isolated by selective enrichment. An inducible esterase catalyzing the hydrolysis of cocaine to ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid was identified and purified 22-fold. In the presence of the solubilizing agent cholate, cocaine esterase had a native Mr of 110,000 and was shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be a monomer. In the absence of cholate, cocaine esterase had a native Mr of 410,000 and probably existed as a tetramer. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 8.0, and the Km values for cocaine, ethyl benzoate, and ethyl 2-hydroxybenzoate were 0.36, 1.89, and 1.75 mM, respectively. Inhibition studies indicated that the enzyme was a serine esterase, possibly possessing a cation-binding site similar to those of mammalian acetylcholinesterase and the atropine esterase of Pseudomonas putida PMBL-1. The cocaine esterase of P. maltophilia MB11L showed no activity with atropine, despite the structural similarity of cocaine and atropine. PMID:1551831

  6. Current acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors: a neuroinformatics perspective.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Verma, Anupriya; Siddiqui, Saimeen; Ahmad, Syed S; Rizvi, Syed M D; Shakil, Shazi; Biswas, Deboshree; Singh, Divya; Siddiqui, Mohmmad H; Shakil, Shahnawaz; Tabrez, Shams; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2014-04-01

    This review presents a concise update on the inhibitors of the neuroenzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7). AChE is a serine protease, which hydrolyses the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine into acetate and choline thereby terminating neurotransmission. Molecular interactions (mode of binding to the target enzyme), clinical applications and limitations have been summarized for each of the inhibitors discussed. Traditional inhibitors (e.g. physostigmine, tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine etc.) as well as novel inhibitors like various physostigmine-derivatives have been covered. This is followed by a short glimpse on inhibitors derived from nature (e.g. Huperzine A and B, Galangin). Also, a discussion on 'hybrid of pre-existing drugs' has been incorporated. Furthermore, current status of therapeutic applications of AChEinhibitors has also been summarized. PMID:24059296

  7. Modal gating of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vij, Ridhima

    Many ion channels exhibit multiple patterns of kinetic activity in single-channel currents. This behavior is rare in WT mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), where A2C↔A2O gating events are well-described by single exponentials. Also, single-channel open probability (PO) is essentially homogeneous at a given agonist concentration in the WT receptors. Here I report that perturbations of almost all the residues in loop C (alpha188-alpha199, at the agonist binding site) generate heterogeneity in PO ('modes'). Such unsettled activity was apparent with an alanine substitution at all positions in loop C (except alphaY190 and alphaY198) and with different side chain substitutions at alphaP197 for both adult- and fetal-type AChRs. I used single channel electrophysiology along with site-directed mutagenesis to study modal gating in AChRs consequent to mutations/deletions in loop C. The multiple patterns of kinetic activity arose from the difference in agonist affinity rather than in intrinsic AChR gating. Out of the four different agonists used to study the modal behavior, acetylcholine (ACh) showed a higher degree of kinetic heterogeneity compared to others. The time constant for switching between modes was long (~mins), suggesting that they arise from alternative, stable protein conformations. By studying AChRs having only 1 functional binding site, I attempted to find the source of the affinity difference, which was traced mainly to the alphadelta agonist site. Affinity at the neurotransmitter binding site is mainly determined by a core of five aromatic residues (alphaY93, alphaW149, alphaY190, alphaY198 and deltaW57). Phenylalanine substitutions at all aromatic residues except alphaY93 resulted in elimination of modes. Modes were also eliminated by alanine mutation at deltaW57 on the complementary side but not at other aromatics. Also, by substituting four gamma subunit residues into the delta subunit on the complementary beta sheet, I found that

  8. Thrombin action decreases acetylcholine receptor aggregate number and stability in cultured mouse myotubes.

    PubMed

    Davenport, R W; Lanuza, M; Kim, S; Jia, M; Snyder, E; Nelson, P G

    2000-08-30

    Neurons develop and make very stable, long-term synaptic connections with other nerve cells and with muscle. Synaptic stability at the neuromuscular junction changes over development in that a proliferation of synaptic input are made to individual myotubes and synapses from all but one neuron are lost during development. In an established co-culture paradigm in which spinal motoneurons synaptically contact myotubes, thrombin and associated protease inhibitors have been shown to affect the loss of functional synaptic contacts [6]. Evidence has not been provided which clearly demonstrate whether protease/protease inhibitors affect either the pre- or postsynaptic terminal, or both. In an effort to determine whether these reagents directly affect postsynaptic receptors on myotubes, myotubes were cultured in the absence of neurons and the spontaneous presence and stability of aggregates of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) in control and thrombin-containing media were evaluated. In dishes fixed after treatment and in dishes in which individual aggregates were observed live, thrombin action appeared to increase loss of AChR aggregates over time. Hirudin, a specific inhibitor of the thrombin protease, diminished this loss. Neither reagent affected the overall incorporation or degradation of AChR; therefore, it appears these protease/protease inhibitors affect the state of AChR aggregation. PMID:10960680

  9. Captopril augments acetylcholine-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions in vitro via kinin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Naman; Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2016-06-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors therapy is aassociated with bothersome dry cough as an adverse effect. The mechanisms underlying this adverse effect are not clear. Therefore, influence of captopril (an ACE inhibitor) on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions was investigated. Further, the mechanisms underlying the captopril-induced changes were also explored. In vitro contractions of rat bronchial smooth muscle to cumulative concentrations of ACh were recorded before and after exposure to captopril. Further, the involvement of kinin and inositol triphosphate (IP₃) pathways for captopril-induced alterations were explored. ACh produced concentration-dependent (5-500 µM) increase in bronchial smooth muscle contractions. Pre-treatment with captopril augmented the ACh-induced contractions at each concentration significantly. Pre-treatment with aprotinin (kinin synthesis inhibitor) or heparin (inositol triphosphate, IP₃-inhibitor), blocked the captopril-induced augmentation of bronchial smooth muscle contractions evoked by ACh. Further, captopril-induced augmentation was absent in calcium-free medium. These results suggest that captopril sensitizes bronchial smooth muscles to ACh-induced contractions. This sensitization may be responsible for dry cough associated with captopril therapy. PMID:27468462

  10. Role of acetylcholine receptors in proliferation and differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Resende, R.R.; Alves, A.S.; Britto, L.R.G; Ulrich, H.

    2008-04-15

    Coordinated proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells is the base for production of appropriate numbers of neurons and glia during neuronal development in order to establish normal brain functions. We have used murine embryonal carcinoma P19 cells as an in vitro model for early differentiation to study participation of nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine (mAChR) receptors in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and their differentiation to neurons. We have previously shown that functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) already expressed in embryonic cells mediate elevations in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) via calcium influx through nAChR channels whereas intracellular stores contribute to nAChR- and mAChR-mediated calcium fluxes in differentiated cells [Resende et al., Cell Calcium 43 (2008) 107-121]. In the present study, we have demonstrated that nicotine provoked inhibition of proliferation in embryonic cells as determined by BrdU labeling. However, in neural progenitor cells nicotine stimulated proliferation which was reversed in the presence of inhibitors of calcium mobilization from intracellular stores, indicating that liberation of intracellular calcium contributed to this proliferation induction. Muscarine induced proliferation stimulation in progenitor cells by activation of G{alpha}{sub q/11}-coupled M{sub 1}, M{sub 3} and M{sub 5} receptors and intracellular calcium stores, whereas G{alpha}{sub i/o}-protein coupled M{sub 2} receptor activity mediated neuronal differentiation.

  11. Coexpressed D1- and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Antagonistically Modulate Acetylcholine Release in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew T.; Maher, Kathryn N.; Wani, Khursheed A.; Betts, Katherine E.; Chase, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine acts through two classes of G protein-coupled receptor (D1-like and D2-like) to modulate neuron activity in the brain. While subtypes of D1- and D2-like receptors are coexpressed in many neurons of the mammalian brain, it is unclear how signaling by these coexpressed receptors interacts to modulate the activity of the neuron in which they are expressed. D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors are also coexpressed in the cholinergic ventral-cord motor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. To begin to understand how coexpressed dopamine receptors interact to modulate neuron activity, we performed a genetic screen in C. elegans and isolated mutants defective in dopamine response. These mutants were also defective in behaviors mediated by endogenous dopamine signaling, including basal slowing and swimming-induced paralysis. We used transgene rescue experiments to show that defects in these dopamine-specific behaviors were caused by abnormal signaling in the cholinergic motor neurons. To investigate the interaction between the D1- and D2-like receptors specifically in these cholinergic motor neurons, we measured the sensitivity of dopamine-signaling mutants and transgenic animals to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. We found that D2 signaling inhibited acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons while D1 signaling stimulated release from these same cells. Thus, coexpressed D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors act antagonistically in vivo to modulate acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons of C. elegans. PMID:21515580

  12. Polyisoprenylated methylated protein methyl esterase as a putative drug target for androgen-insensitive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Poku, Rosemary A; Amissah, Felix; Duverna, Randolph; Aguilar, Byron J; Kiros, Gebre-Egziabher; Lamango, Nazarius S

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in US men, with an estimated 236,590 new cases and 29,720 deaths in 2013. There exists the need to identify biomarkers/therapeutic targets for the early/companion diagnosis and development of novel therapies against the recalcitrant disease. Mutation and overexpression-induced abnormal activities of polyisoprenylated proteins have been implicated in CaP. Polyisoprenylated methylated protein methyl esterase (PMPMEase) catalyses the only reversible and terminal reaction of the polyisoprenylation pathway and may promote the effects of G proteins on cell viability. In this review, the potential role of PMPMEase to serve as a new drug target for androgen-insensitive CaP was determined. Specific PMPMEase activities were found to be 3.5- and 4.5-fold higher in androgen-sensitive 22Rv1 and androgen-dependent LNCaP and 1.5- and 9.8-fold higher in castration-resistant DU 145 and PC-3 CaP cells compared to normal WPE1-NA22 prostate cells. The PMPMEase inhibitor, L-28, induced apoptosis with EC50 values ranging from 1.8 to 4.6 μM. The PMPMEase activity in the cells following treatment with L-28 followed a similar profile, with IC50 ranging from 2.3 to 130 μM. L-28 disrupted F-actin filament organisation at 5 μM and inhibited cell migration 4-fold at 2 μM. Analysis of a CaP tissue microarray for PMPMEase expression revealed intermediate, strong, and very strong staining in 94.5% of the 92 adenocarcinoma cases compared to trace and weak staining in the normal and normal-adjacent tissue controls. The data are an indication that effective targeting of PMPMEase through the development of more potent agents may lead to the successful treatment of metastatic CaP. PMID:25228915

  13. Organophosphates induce distal axonal damage, but not brain oedema, by inactivating neuropathy target esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Read, David J.; Li Yong; Chao, Moses V.; Cavanagh, John B.; Glynn, Paul

    2010-05-15

    Single doses of organophosphorus compounds (OP) which covalently inhibit neuropathy target esterase (NTE) can induce lower-limb paralysis and distal damage in long nerve axons. Clinical signs of neuropathy are evident 3 weeks post-OP dose in humans, cats and chickens. By contrast, clinical neuropathy in mice following acute dosing with OPs or any other toxic compound has never been reported. Moreover, dosing mice with ethyloctylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF) - an extremely potent NTE inhibitor - causes a different (subacute) neurotoxicity with brain oedema. These observations have raised the possibility that mice are intrinsically resistant to neuropathies induced by acute toxic insult, but may incur brain oedema, rather than distal axonal damage, when NTE is inactivated. Here we provide the first report that hind-limb dysfunction and extensive axonal damage can occur in mice 3 weeks after acute dosing with a toxic compound, bromophenylacetylurea. Three weeks after acutely dosing mice with neuropathic OPs no clinical signs were observed, but distal lesions were present in the longest spinal sensory axons. Similar lesions were evident in undosed nestin-cre:NTEfl/fl mice in which NTE had been genetically-deleted from neural tissue. The extent of OP-induced axonal damage in mice was related to the duration of NTE inactivation and, as reported in chickens, was promoted by post-dosing with phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride. However, phenyldipentylphosphinate, another promoting compound in chickens, itself induced in mice lesions different from the neuropathic OP type. Finally, EOPF induced subacute neurotoxicity with brain oedema in both wild-type and nestin-cre:NTEfl/fl mice indicating that the molecular target for this effect is not neural NTE.

  14. Cardiac acetylcholine concentration in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, A.; Yasuda, H.; Takechi, S.; Matsuo, H.; Maruyama, Y. Gunma Univ., Maebashi )

    1990-01-01

    Varying values for the acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the rat heart have been reported. The possibility that the method of sampling may influence prompted a comparison of heart levels of ACh obtained by two different procedures for sacrificing animals. One method was by microwave irradiation in vivo and the other being in vitro on the irradiated heart removed after decapitation. There were significant differences found in cardiac ACh concentration between the in vivo irradiated group and the decapitation groups. In decapitated animals, the cardiac ACh concentration became increasingly lower on standing. We also measured the ACh concentration of right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle. They were 4.62 {plus minus} 1.57 nmol/g (mean {plus minus} SD), 2.58 {plus minus} 1.01, 2.76 {plus minus} 1.00 and 2.12 {plus minus} 0.70, respectively. We conclude the microwave irradiation in vivo is a more appropriate method for determining the cardiac ACh concentration.

  15. Catestatin attenuates endoplasmic reticulum induced cell apoptosis by activation type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Feng; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Junyan; Fan, Jinghui; Wang, Jing; Yang, Jichun; Cui, Qinghua; Xu, Guoheng; Tang, Chaoshu; Geng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Catestatin (CST) is a catecholamine secretion inhibiting peptide as non-competitive inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. CST play a protective role in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Cardiomyocytes endogenously produced CST and its expression was reduced after I/R. CST pretreatment decreased apoptosis especially endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response during I/R. The protection of CST was confirmed in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts under Anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R). In contrast, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CST exaggerated ER stress induced apoptosis. The protective effects of CST were blocked by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD90895 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor wortmannin. CST also increased ERK1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation and which was blocked by atropine and selective type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine (M2) receptor, but not type 1 muscarinic acetylcholine (M1) receptor antagonist. Receptor binding assay revealed that CST competitively bound to the M2 receptor with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 25.7 nM. Accordingly, CST inhibited cellular cAMP stimulated by isoproterenol or forskolin, and which was blocked by selective M2 receptor antagonist. Our findings revealed that CST binds to M2 receptor, then activates ERK1/2 and PI3 K/Akt pathway to inhibit ER stress-induced cell apoptosis resulting in attenuation cardiac I/R injury. PMID:26567709

  16. Switching catalysis from hydrolysis to perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens esterase.

    PubMed

    Yin, De Lu Tyler; Bernhardt, Peter; Morley, Krista L; Jiang, Yun; Cheeseman, Jeremy D; Purpero, Vincent; Schrag, Joseph D; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2010-03-01

    Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of epsilon-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k(cat), but K(m) also increased so the specificity constant, k(cat)/K(m), remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of epsilon-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access

  17. Switching Catalysis from Hydrolysis to Perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, D.; Bernhardt, P; Morley, K; Jiang, Y; Cheeseman, J; Purpero, V; Schrag, J; Kazlauskas, R

    2010-01-01

    Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k{sub cat}, but K{sub m} also increased so the specificity constant, k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the

  18. Structural Studies of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Using Acetylcholine-Binding Protein as a Structural Surrogate.

    PubMed

    Shahsavar, Azadeh; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette S; Balle, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel superfamily that play important roles in the control of neurotransmitter release in the central and peripheral nervous system. These receptors are important therapeutic targets for the development of drugs against a number of mental health disorders and for marketed smoking cessation aids. Unfortunately, drug discovery has been hampered by difficulties in obtaining sufficiently selective compounds. Together with functional complexity of the receptors, this has made it difficult to obtain drugs with sufficiently high-target to off-target affinity ratios. The recent and ongoing progress in structural studies holds promise to help understand structure-function relationships of nAChR drugs at the atomic level. This will undoubtedly lead to the design of more efficient drugs with fewer side effects. As a high-resolution structure of a nAChR is yet to be determined, structural studies are to a large extent based on acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) that despite low overall sequence identity display a high degree of conservation of overall structure and amino acids at the ligand-binding site. Further, AChBPs reproduce relative binding affinities of ligands at nAChRs. Over the past decade, AChBPs have been used extensively as models for nAChRs and have aided the understanding of drug receptor interactions at nAChRs significantly. PMID:26572235

  19. Hydrolysis of wheat arabinoxylan by two acetyl xylan esterases from Chaetomium thermophilum.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaoxue; Lange, Lene; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic filamentous ascomycete Chaetomium thermophilum produces functionally diverse hemicellulases when grown on hemicellulose as carbon source. Acetyl xylan esterase (EC 3.1.1.72) is an important accessory enzyme in hemicellulose biodegradation. Although the genome of C. thermophilum has been sequenced, its carbohydrate esterases are not annotated yet. We applied peptide pattern recognition (PPR) tool for sequence analysis of the C. thermophilum genome, and 11 carbohydrate esterase genes were discovered. Furthermore, we cloned and heterologously expressed two putative acetyl xylan esterase genes, CtAxeA and CtAxeB, in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant proteins, rCtAxeA and rCtAxeB, released acetic acids from p-nitrophenyl acetate and water-insoluble wheat arabinoxylan. These results indicate that CtAxeA and CtAxeB are true acetyl xylan esterases. For both recombinant esterases, over 93 % of the initial activity was retained after 24 h of incubation at temperatures up to 60 °C, and over 90 % of the initial activity was retained after 24 h of incubation in different buffers from pH 4.0 to 9.0 at 4 and 50 °C. The overall xylose yield from wheat arabinoxylan hydrolysis was 8 % with xylanase treatment and increased to 34 % when xylanase was combined with rCtAxeA and rCtAxeB. In sum, the present study first report the biochemical characterization of two acetyl xylan esterases from C. thermophilum, which are efficient in hydrolyzing hemicellulose with potential application in biomass bioconversion to high value chemicals or biofuels. PMID:25369895

  20. The Secreted Esterase of Propionibacterium freudenreichii Has a Major Role in Cheese Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abeijón Mukdsi, María Claudia; Falentin, Hélène; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Chuat, Victoria; Medina, Roxana Beatriz; Parayre, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Free fatty acids are important flavor compounds in cheese. Propionibacterium freudenreichii is the main agent of their release through lipolysis in Swiss cheese. Our aim was to identify the esterase(s) involved in lipolysis by P. freudenreichii. We targeted two previously identified esterases: one secreted esterase, PF#279, and one putative cell wall-anchored esterase, PF#774. To evaluate their role in lipolysis, we constructed overexpression and knockout mutants of P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T for each corresponding gene. The sequences of both genes were also compared in 21 wild-type strains. All strains were assessed for their lipolytic activity on milk fat. The lipolytic activity observed matched data previously reported in cheese, thus validating the relevance of the method used. The mutants overexpressing PF#279 or PF#774 released four times more fatty acids than the wild-type strain, demonstrating that both enzymes are lipolytic esterases. However, inactivation of the pf279 gene induced a 75% reduction in the lipolytic activity compared to that of the wild-type strain, whereas inactivation of the pf774 gene did not modify the phenotype. Two of the 21 wild-type strains tested did not display any detectable lipolytic activity. Interestingly, these two strains exhibited the same single-nucleotide deletion at the beginning of the pf279 gene sequence, leading to a premature stop codon, whereas they harbored a pf774 gene highly similar to that of the other strains. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate that PF#279 is the main lipolytic esterase in P. freudenreichii and a key agent of Swiss cheese lipolysis. PMID:24242250

  1. Genetic variability for esterase enzyme in Onobrychis species.

    PubMed

    Kidambi, S P; Mahan, J R; Matches, A G; Burke, J J; Nunna, R R

    1990-10-01

    Understanding polymorphism at the enzyme level is basic to its use in population and genetic studies. However, no such information is available on the variability among different sainfoin (Onobrychis) species. Therefore, our objective was to study the existence of genetic polymorphism for esterase in 17 Onobrychis species and three cultivars of O. viciifolia Scop. Three regions of banding were observed in all the materials tested, with the number of bands varying from 0 to 3, 3 to 14, and 1 to 2 bands in each of these zones, which have been designated EST1, EST2, and EST3 respectively. All the materials studied had unique banding patterns, the only common feature being that all of them, except one species, had isozyme 1. Identification was possible only for four species (O. iberica, O. kachetica, O. transcaucasica, and O. bieberstenii) and one cultivar ('Nova') based on the banding patterns. Large diversity was evident from the wide range of percent similarity values (0%-79%). Subsequent studies should be directed in using these isozyme banding patterns as markers to the desirable agronomic and quality traits of different germplasm lines. PMID:24220999

  2. Hydrolysis of synthetic polyesters by Clostridium botulinum esterases.

    PubMed

    Perz, Veronika; Baumschlager, Armin; Bleymaier, Klaus; Zitzenbacher, Sabine; Hromic, Altijana; Steinkellner, Georg; Pairitsch, Andris; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Gruber, Karl; Sinkel, Carsten; Küper, Ulf; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-05-01

    Two novel esterases from the anaerobe Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 (Cbotu_EstA and Cbotu_EstB) were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3) and were found to hydrolyze the polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) (PBAT). The active site residues (triad Ser, Asp, His) are present in both enzymes at the same location only with some amino acid variations near the active site at the surrounding of aspartate. Yet, Cbotu_EstA showed higher kcat values on para-nitrophenyl butyrate and para-nitrophenyl acetate and was considerably more active (sixfold) on PBAT. The entrance to the active site of the modeled Cbotu_EstB appears more narrowed compared to the crystal structure of Cbotu_EstA and the N-terminus is shorter which could explain its lower activity on PBAT. The Cbotu_EstA crystal structure consists of two regions that may act as movable cap domains and a zinc metal binding site. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1024-1034. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26524601

  3. Endocannabinoids Mediate Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Adult Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Henry G. S.; Bernabeu, Axel; Lassalle, Olivier; Bouille, Clément; Beurrier, Corinne; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Manzoni, Olivier J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are associated with attention and cognition; however there is evidence that acetylcholine also has a role in PFC dependent learning and memory. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the PFC can induce synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain either opaque or unresolved. We have characterized a form of mAChR mediated long-term depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses of layer 5 principal neurons in the adult medial PFC. This mAChR LTD is induced with the mAChR agonist carbachol and inhibited by selective M1 mAChR antagonists. In contrast to other cortical regions, we find that this M1 mAChR mediated LTD is coupled to endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling. Inhibition of the principal eCB CB1 receptor blocked carbachol induced LTD in both rats and mice. Furthermore, when challenged with a sub-threshold carbachol application, LTD was induced in slices pretreated with the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184, suggesting that the eCB 2-arachidonylglyerol (2-AG) mediates M1 mAChR LTD. Yet, when endogenous acetylcholine was released from local cholinergic afferents in the PFC using optogenetics, it failed to trigger eCB-LTD. However coupling patterned optical and electrical stimulation to generate local synaptic signaling allowed the reliable induction of LTD. The light—electrical pairing induced LTD was M1 mAChR and CB1 receptor mediated. This shows for the first time that connecting excitatory synaptic activity with coincident endogenously released acetylcholine controls synaptic gain via eCB signaling. Together these results shed new light on the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult PFC and expand on the actions of endogenous cholinergic signaling. PMID:26648844

  4. Fractional vesamicol receptor occupancy and acetylcholine active transport inhibition in synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, R; Rogers, G A; Fehlmann, C; Parsons, S M

    1989-09-01

    Vesamicol [(-)-(trans)-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol] receptor binding and inhibition of acetylcholine (AcCh) active transport by cholinergic synaptic vesicles that were isolated from Torpedo electric organ were studied for 23 vesamicol enantiomers, analogues, and other drugs. Use of trace [3H]vesamicol and [14C]AcCh allowed simultaneous determination of the concentrations of enantiomer, analogue, or drug required to half-saturate the vesamicol receptor (Ki) and to half-inhibit transport (IC50), respectively. Throughout a wide range of potencies for different compounds, the Ki/IC50 ratios varied from 1.5 to 24. Compounds representative of the diverse structures studied, namely deoxyvesamicol, chloroquine, and levorphanol, were competitive inhibitors of vesamicol binding. It is concluded that many drugs can bind to the vesamicol receptor and binding to only a small fraction of the receptors can result in AcCh active transport inhibition. Possible mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:2550778

  5. Allosteric modifiers of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: new methods, new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Moaddel, Ruin; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Wainer, Irving W

    2007-09-01

    Allosteric, non-competitive inhibitors (NCIs) of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been shown to produce a wide variety of clinically relevant responses. Many of the observed effects are desired as the nAChR is the therapeutic target, while others are undesired consequences due to off-target binding at the nAChR. Thus, the determination of whether or not a lead drug candidate is an NCI should play an important role in drug discovery programs. However, the current experimental techniques used to identify NCIs are challenging, expensive, and time consuming. This review focuses on an alternative approach to the investigation of interactions between test compounds and nAChRs based upon liquid chromatographic stationary phases containing cellular fragments from cell lines expressing nAChRs. The development and validation of these phases as well as their use in drug discovery and pharmacophore modeling are discussed. PMID:17238157

  6. Intracoronary Acetylcholine Provocation Testing for Assessment of Coronary Vasomotor Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peter; Athanasiadis, Anastasios; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Intracoronary acetylcholine provocation testing (ACH-test) is an established method for assessment of epicardial coronary artery spasm in the catheterization laboratory which was introduced more than 30 years ago. Due to the short half-life of acetylcholine it can only be applied directly into the coronary arteries. Several studies have demonstrated the safety and clinical usefulness of this test. However, acetylcholine testing is only rarely applied in the U.S. or Europe. Nevertheless, it has been shown that 62% of Caucasian patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronary arteries on coronary angiography suffer from coronary vasomotor disorders that can be diagnosed with acetylcholine testing. In recent years it has been appreciated that the ACH-test not only assesses the presence of epicardial spasm but that it can also be useful for the detection of coronary microvascular spam. In such cases no epicardial spasm is seen after injection of acetylcholine but ischemic ECG shifts are present together with a reproduction of the patient's symptoms during the test. This article describes the experience with the ACH-test and its implementation in daily clinical routine. PMID:27583694

  7. The role of acetylcholine in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark J; Adinoff, Bryon

    2008-07-01

    Central nervous system cholinergic neurons arise from several discrete sources, project to multiple brain regions, and exert specific effects on reward, learning, and memory. These processes are critical for the development and persistence of addictive disorders. Although other neurotransmitters, including dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin, have been the primary focus of drug research to date, a growing preclinical literature reveals a critical role of acetylcholine (ACh) in the experience and progression of drug use. This review will present and integrate the findings regarding the role of ACh in drug dependence, with a primary focus on cocaine and the muscarinic ACh system. Mesostriatal ACh appears to mediate reinforcement through its effect on reward, satiation, and aversion, and chronic cocaine administration produces neuroadaptive changes in the striatum. ACh is further involved in the acquisition of conditional associations that underlie cocaine self-administration and context-dependent sensitization, the acquisition of associations in conditioned learning, and drug procurement through its effects on arousal and attention. Long-term cocaine use may induce neuronal alterations in the brain that affect the ACh system and impair executive function, possibly contributing to the disruptions in decision making that characterize this population. These primarily preclinical studies suggest that ACh exerts a myriad of effects on the addictive process and that persistent changes to the ACh system following chronic drug use may exacerbate the risk of relapse during recovery. Ultimately, ACh modulation may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment interventions in cocaine-addicted subjects. However, the complicated neurocircuitry of the cholinergic system, the multiple ACh receptor subtypes, the confluence of excitatory and inhibitory ACh inputs, and the unique properties of the striatal cholinergic interneurons suggest that a precise target of cholinergic

  8. Survivin blockade sensitizes rhabdomyosarcoma cells for lysis by fetal acetylcholine receptor-redirected T cells.

    PubMed

    Simon-Keller, Katja; Paschen, Annette; Hombach, Andreas A; Ströbel, Philipp; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Vincent, Angela; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Hoppe, Florian; Leuschner, Ivo; Stegmaier, Sabine; Koscielniak, Ewa; Leverkus, Martin; Altieri, Dario C; Abken, Hinrich; Marx, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Cellular immunotherapy may provide a strategy to overcome the poor prognosis of metastatic and recurrent rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) under the current regimen of polychemotherapy. Because little is known about resistance mechanisms of RMS to cytotoxic T cells, we investigated RMS cell lines and biopsy specimens for expression and function of immune costimulatory receptors and anti-apoptotic molecules by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, IHC, and cytotoxicity assays using siRNA or transfection-modified RMS cell lines, together with engineered RMS-directed cytotoxic T cells specific for the fetal acetylcholine receptor. We found that costimulatory CD80 and CD86 were consistently absent from all RMSs tested, whereas inducible T-cell co-stimulator ligand (ICOS-L; alias B7H2) was expressed by a subset of RMSs and was inducible by tumor necrosis factor α in two of five RMS cell lines. Anti-apoptotic survivin, along with other inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family members (cIAP1, cIAP2, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein), was overexpressed by RMS cell lines and biopsy specimens. Down-regulation of survivin by siRNA or pharmacologically in RMS cells increased their susceptibility toward a T-cell attack, whereas induction of ICOS-L did not. Treatment of RMS-bearing Rag(-/-) mice with fetal acetylcholine receptor-specific chimeric T cells delayed xenograft growth; however, this happened without definitive tumor eradication. Combined blockade of survivin and application of chimeric T cells in vivo suppressed tumor proliferation during survivin inhibition. In conclusion, survivin blockade provides a strategy to sensitize RMS cells for T-cell-based therapy. PMID:23562272

  9. Activation of portal-hepatic osmoreceptors in rats: role of calcium, acetylcholine and cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Stoppini, L; Baertschi, A J

    1984-11-01

    Osmoreceptors are sensory organs of paramount importance in water and electrolyte balance, yet the mechanisms for their activation are virtually unknown. Peripheral osmoreceptors have been localised in the hepatic portal vein area of rats. We thus superfused the portal adventitia with 0.2 ml of 4% NaCl before and after various pharmacological pretreatments (0.4 ml of 1 mM solutions) of the portal area, while monitoring the neural activity of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Portal superfusion with verapamil, to reduce Ca-influx, reversibly inhibited the response to osmotic stimuli by up to 50% (P less than 0.0005). Such inhibition (58%; P less than 0.0005) was also seen with portal superfusion by atropine. Atropine did not affect hypothalamo-neurohypophysial responses to stimulation of portal bradykinin receptors with 0.2 ml 1 muM bradykinin, and portal superfusion with acetylcholine activated the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. The results thus support the hypothesis of a cholinergic neurotransmission linking portal osmoreceptive structures and afferent nerve endings. Diamide, which inhibits water efflux in frog skin, also reversibly inhibited responses to osmotic stimuli by 38% (P less than 0.0005). Pretreatments with trifluoperazine, a calmodulin inhibitor, and cordycepin, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, diminished responses to osmotic stimuli by 30-45% (P less than 0.005), while cAMP and theophilline potentiated them by 38% (P less than 0.0005). Responses to bradykinin superfusion were reduced 20-30% (P less than 0.05) by both cordycepin and cAMP. The results suggest that portal osmoreceptors release acetylcholine to excite afferent nerves when exposed to an osmotic gradient. The mechanism of this release may be mediated by an efflux of water and an increase of intracellular calcium activity and cAMP. PMID:6150955

  10. ROLE OF ACETYLCHOLINE IN RHYTHMIC SPONTANEOUS CONTRACTIONS OF RAT'S DUODENAL SMOOTH MUSCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study is to reexamine the role of endogenous acetylcholine in spontaneous contractions of smooth muscle whose contractions are associated with cell metabolism. The study does not attempt to define the role of endogenous acetylcholine.

  11. Kinetics of the inhibitory interaction of organophosphorus neuropathy inducers and non-inducers in soluble esterases in the avian nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Mangas, Iris; Vilanova, Eugenio; Estevez, Jorge

    2011-11-15

    Some published studies suggest that low level exposure to organophosphorus esters (OPs) may cause neurological and neurobehavioral effects at long term exposure. These effects cannot be explained by action on known targets. In this work, the interactions (inhibition, spontaneous reactivation and 'ongoing inhibition') of two model OPs (paraoxon, non neuropathy-inducer, and mipafox, neuropathy-inducer) with the chicken brain soluble esterases were evaluated. The best-fitting kinetic model with both inhibitors was compatible with three enzymatic components. The amplitudes (proportions) of the components detected with mipafox were similar to those obtained with paraoxon. These observations confirm the consistency of the results and the model applied and may be considered an external validation. The most sensitive component (E{alpha}) for paraoxon (11-23% of activity, I{sub 50} (30 min) = 9-11 nM) is also the most sensitive for mipafox (I{sub 50} (30 min) = 4 nM). This component is spontaneously reactivated after inhibition with paraoxon. The second sensitive component to paraoxon (E{beta}, 71-84% of activity; I{sub 50} (30 min) = 1216 nM) is practically resistant to mipafox. The third component (E{gamma}, 5-8% of activity) is paraoxon resistant and has I{sub 50} (30 min) of 3.4 {mu}M with mipafox, similar to NTE (neuropathy target esterase). The role of these esterases remains unknown. Their high sensitivity suggests that they may either play a role in toxicity in low-level long-term exposure of organophosphate compounds or have a protective effect related with the spontaneous reactivation. They will have to be considered in further metabolic and toxicological studies. -- Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraoxon and mipafox interactions have been evaluated with chicken soluble brain esterases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paraoxon inhibition was analyzed considering the simultaneous spontaneous reactivation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best

  12. Isolation and characterization of novel lipases/esterases from a bovine rumen metagenome.

    PubMed

    Privé, Florence; Newbold, C Jamie; Kaderbhai, Naheed N; Girdwood, Susan G; Golyshina, Olga V; Golyshin, Peter N; Scollan, Nigel D; Huws, Sharon A

    2015-07-01

    Improving the health beneficial fatty acid content of meat and milk is a major challenge requiring an increased understanding of rumen lipid metabolism. In this study, we isolated and characterized rumen bacterial lipases/esterases using functional metagenomics. Metagenomic libraries were constructed from DNA extracted from strained rumen fluid (SRF), solid-attached bacteria (SAB) and liquid-associated rumen bacteria (LAB), ligated into a fosmid vector and subsequently transformed into an Escherichia coli host. Fosmid libraries consisted of 7,744; 8,448; and 7,680 clones with an average insert size of 30 to 35 kbp for SRF, SAB and LAB, respectively. Transformants were screened on spirit blue agar plates containing tributyrin for lipase/esterase activity. Five SAB and four LAB clones exhibited lipolytic activity, and no positive clones were found in the SRF library. Fosmids from positive clones were pyrosequenced and twelve putative lipase/esterase genes and two phospholipase genes retrieved. Although the derived proteins clustered into diverse esterase and lipase families, a degree of novelty was seen, with homology ranging from 40 to 78% following BlastP searches. Isolated lipases/esterases exhibited activity against mostly short- to medium-chain substrates across a range of temperatures and pH. The function of these novel enzymes recovered in ruminal metabolism needs further investigation, alongside their potential industrial uses. PMID:25575887

  13. Esterase Active in Polar Organic Solvents from the Yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165

    PubMed Central

    Shainu, Anju; Pandey, Ashok; Sukumaran, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Esterases/lipases active in water miscible solvents are highly desired in biocatalysis where substrate solubility is limited and also when the solvent is desired as an acyl acceptor in transesterification reactions, as with the case of biodiesel production. We have isolated an esterase from the glycolipid producing yeast-Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 which in its crude form was alkali active, thermo stable, halo tolerant and also capable of acting in presence of high methanol concentration. The crude enzyme which maintained 90% of its original activity after being treated at 70°C was purified and the properties were characterized. The partially purified esterase preparation had temperature and pH optima of 60°C and 8.0 respectively. The enzyme retained almost complete activity in presence of 25% methanol and 80% activity in the same strength of ethanol. Conditions of enzyme production were optimized, which lead to 9 fold increase in the esterase yield. One of the isoforms of the enzyme LIP1 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Purified LIP1 had a Km and Vmax of 0.01 and 1.12, respectively. The purified esterase lost its thermo and halo tolerance but interestingly, retained 97% activity in methanol. PMID:24800063

  14. Esterase Active in Polar Organic Solvents from the Yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165.

    PubMed

    Alex, Deepthy; Shainu, Anju; Pandey, Ashok; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Esterases/lipases active in water miscible solvents are highly desired in biocatalysis where substrate solubility is limited and also when the solvent is desired as an acyl acceptor in transesterification reactions, as with the case of biodiesel production. We have isolated an esterase from the glycolipid producing yeast-Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 which in its crude form was alkali active, thermo stable, halo tolerant and also capable of acting in presence of high methanol concentration. The crude enzyme which maintained 90% of its original activity after being treated at 70°C was purified and the properties were characterized. The partially purified esterase preparation had temperature and pH optima of 60°C and 8.0 respectively. The enzyme retained almost complete activity in presence of 25% methanol and 80% activity in the same strength of ethanol. Conditions of enzyme production were optimized, which lead to 9 fold increase in the esterase yield. One of the isoforms of the enzyme LIP1 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Purified LIP1 had a K m and V max of 0.01 and 1.12, respectively. The purified esterase lost its thermo and halo tolerance but interestingly, retained 97% activity in methanol. PMID:24800063

  15. Solid-state fermentation as a potential technique for esterase/lipase production by halophilic archaea.

    PubMed

    Martin del Campo, Martha; Camacho, Rosa M; Mateos-Díaz, Juan C; Müller-Santos, Marcelo; Córdova, Jesus; Rodríguez, Jorge A

    2015-11-01

    Halophilic archaea are extremophiles, adapted to high-salt environments, showing a big biotechnological potential as enzyme, lipids and pigments producers. Four inert supports (perlite, vermiculite, polyurethane foam and glass fiber) were employed for solid-state fermentation (SSF) of the halophilic archaeon Natronococcus sp. TC6 to investigate biomass and esterase production. A very low esterase activity and high water activity were observed when perlite, vermiculite and polyurethane were used as supports. When glass fiber was employed, an important moisture loss was observed (8.6%). Moreover, moisture retention was improved by mixing polyurethane and glass fiber, resulting in maximal biomass and esterase production. Three halophilic archaea: Natronococcus sp. TC6, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Haloarcula marismortui were cultured by submerged fermentation (SmF) and by SSF; an improvement of 1.3- to 6.2-fold was observed in the biomass and esterase production when SSF was used. Growth was not homogeneous in the mixture, but was predominant in the glass fiber thus was probably because the glass fiber provides a holder to the cells, while the polyurethane acts as an impregnation medium reservoir. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first report on haloarchaea cultivation by SSF aiming biomass and esterase/lipase activity production. PMID:26369647

  16. Profiling Esterases in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using Far-Red Fluorogenic Substrates.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Katie R; Levine, Samantha R; Beatty, Kimberly E

    2016-07-15

    Enzyme-activated, fluorogenic probes are powerful tools for studying bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In prior work, we reported two 7-hydroxy-9H-(1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one) (DDAO)-derived acetoxymethyl ether probes for esterase and lipase detection. Here, we report four-carbon (C4) and eight-carbon (C8) acyloxymethyl ether derivatives, which are longer-chain fluorogenic substrates. These new probes demonstrate greater stability and lipase reactivity than the two-carbon (C2) acetoxymethyl ether-masked substrates. We used these new C4 and C8 probes to profile esterases and lipases from Mtb. The C8-masked probes revealed a new esterase band in gel-resolved Mtb lysates that was not present in lysates from nonpathogenic M. bovis (bacillus Calmette-Guérin), a close genetic relative. We identified this Mtb-specific enzyme as the secreted esterase Culp1 (Rv1984c). Our C4- and C8-masked probes also produced distinct Mtb banding patterns in lysates from Mtb-infected macrophages, demonstrating the potential of these probes for detecting Mtb esterases that are active during infections. PMID:27177211

  17. Cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum. II. Acetylcholine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, R.; De Tejada, S.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A. )

    1988-03-01

    Physiological and histochemical evidence indicates that cholinergic nerves may participate in mediating penile erection. Acetylcholine synthesis and release was studied in isolated human corporal tissue. Human corpus cavernosum incubated with ({sup 3}H)choline accumulated ({sup 3}H)choline and synthesized ({sup 3}H)acethylcholine in an concentration-dependent manner. ({sup 3}H)Acetylcholine accumulation by the tissue was inhibited by hemicholinium-3, a specific antagonist of the high-affinity choline transport in cholinergic nerves. Transmural electrical field stimulation caused release of ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine which was significantly diminished by inhibiting neurotransmission with calcium-free physiological salt solution or tetrodotoxin. These observations provide biochemical and physiological evidence for the existence of cholinergic innervation in human corpus cavernosum.

  18. Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase meet immunity.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. More recent use is for myasthenia gravis. Many of these inhibitors interact with the second known cholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Further, evidence shows that acetylcholine plays a role in suppression of cytokine release through a "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" which raises questions about the role of these inhibitors in the immune system. This review covers research and discussion of the role of the inhibitors in modulating the immune response using as examples the commonly available drugs, donepezil, galantamine, huperzine, neostigmine and pyridostigmine. Major attention is given to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a well-described link between the central nervous system and terminal effector cells in the immune system. PMID:24893223

  19. Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Meet Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. More recent use is for myasthenia gravis. Many of these inhibitors interact with the second known cholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Further, evidence shows that acetylcholine plays a role in suppression of cytokine release through a “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” which raises questions about the role of these inhibitors in the immune system. This review covers research and discussion of the role of the inhibitors in modulating the immune response using as examples the commonly available drugs, donepezil, galantamine, huperzine, neostigmine and pyridostigmine. Major attention is given to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a well-described link between the central nervous system and terminal effector cells in the immune system. PMID:24893223

  20. Extraction and purification of wheat-esterase using aqueous two-phase systems of ionic liquid and salt.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Feng, Zhibiao; Liu, Chunhong; Xu, Yingcao; Li, Dongmei; Ji, Guo

    2015-05-01

    To explore a new and simple rapid extraction and purification technique for wheat-esterase, an ionic liquids (ILs)-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was developed for the purification of wheat-esterase from wheat extracts. Effects of various process parameters such as the concentrations of [Bmim]BF4, the types and concentrations of phase-forming salt, the system pH and the temperature on partitioning of wheat-esterase were evaluated. The obtained data indicated that wheat-esterase was preferentially partitioned into the ILs-rich phase and the ATPS composed of 20 % [Bmim]BF4 (w/w) and 25 % (w/w) NaH2PO4(pH = 4.8) showed good selectivity on wheat-esterase. Under the optimum conditions, wheat-esterase was purified with an acceptable yield (88.93 %), but produced wheat-esterase was 4.23 times as pure. It was obvious that temperature shows little influence on the purification between 10 and 50 °C. Sephadex G-150FF revealed that the band intensity of contaminating proteins in ATPS fraction almost disappeared. Therefore, ILs-based ATPS was an effective method for partitioning and recovery of wheat-esterase from wheat crude extracts. PMID:25892786

  1. Cutinolytic esterase activity of bacteria isolated from mixed-plant compost and characterization of a cutinase gene from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Yanke, L J; Selinger, L B

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine cutinolytic esterase (i.e., cutinase) activity by pseudomonads and bacteria isolated from mixed-plant compost. Approximately 400 isolates representing 52 taxa recovered from mixed-plant compost using cuticle baits, along with 117 pseudomonad isolates obtained from a culture collection (i.e., non-compost habitats), were evaluated. The ability of isolates to degrade the synthetic cutin polycaprolactone (PCL) was initially measured. Isolates from 23 taxa recovered from the compost degraded PCL. As well, isolates from 13 taxa of pseudomonads cleared PCL. Secondary screening measured esterase activity induced by the presence of apple cuticle using the chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Eighteen isolates representing four taxa (Alcaligenes faecalis , Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus pumilus , and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes) recovered from compost exhibited substantial esterase activity when grown with cuticle. In contrast, none of the pseudomonad isolates from the culture collection produced appreciable esterase activity. Although degradation of PCL was not correlated with esterase activity, isolates that were unable to degrade PCL failed to produce measureable esterase activities. Zymogram analysis indicated that the esterases produced by bacteria from compost ranged in size from 29 to 47 kDa. A gene from P. pseudoalcaligenes (cutA) was found to code for a cutin-induced esterase consisting of 302 amino acids and a theoretical protein size of 32 kDa. The enzyme was unique and was most closely related to other bacterial lipases (≤48% similarity). PMID:22029433

  2. Cloning of a novel feruloyl esterase gene from rumen microbial metagenome and enzyme characterization in synergism with endoxylanases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feruloyl esterase (FAE) gene was isolated from a rumen microbial metagenome, cloned into E. coli, and expressed in active form. The enzyme (RuFae2) was identified as a Type C feruloyl esterase, which acted on methyl ferulate, methyl p-coumarate, methyl sinapinate, methyl caffeate, but not diferul...

  3. ROLE OF NEUROTOXIC ESTERASE (NTE) IN THE PREVENTION AND POTENTIATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS-INDUCED DELAYED NEUROTOXICITY (OPIDN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first step in the initiation of organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is proposed to be the phosphorylation of an enzyme found in the nervous system called neurotoxic esterase (neuropathy target esterase, NTE). t has been known for over twenty years that non-neu...

  4. Expression of feruloyl esterase A from Aspergillus terreus and its application in biomass degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai-Bing; Wang, Le; Liu, Yan; Zhai, Huan-Chen; Cai, Jing-Ping; Hu, Yuan-Sen

    2015-11-01

    Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are key enzymes involved in the complete biodegradation of lignocelluloses, which could hydrolyze the ester bonds between hemicellulose and lignin. The coding sequence of a feruloyl esterase A (AtFaeA) was cloned from Aspergillus terreus and the recombinant AtFaeA was constitutively expressed in Pichia pastoris. The SDS-PAGE analysis of purified AtFaeA showed two protein bands owing to the different extent of glycosylation, and the recombinant AtFaeA had an optimum temperature of 50°C and an optimum pH of 5.0. The substrate utilization and primary sequence identity of AtFaeA demonstrated that it is a type-A feruloyl esterase. The hydrolysis of corn stalk and corncob by xylanase from Aspergillus niger could be significantly improved in concert with recombinant AfFaeA. PMID:26282562

  5. Eco-friendly surface modification on polyester fabrics by esterase treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jindan; Cai, Guoqiang; Liu, Jinqiang; Ge, Huayun; Wang, Jiping

    2014-03-01

    Currently, traditional alkali deweighting technology is widely used to improve the hydrophilicity of polyester fabrics. However, the wastewater and heavy chemicals in the effluent cause enormous damage to the environment. Esterase treatment, which is feasible in mild conditions with high selectivity, can provide a clean and efficient way for polyester modification. Under the optimum conditions, the polyester fabric hydrolysis process of esterase had a linear kinetics. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) results showed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups were produced only on the surface of modified fiber without changing the chemical composition of the bulk. These fibers exhibited much improved fabric wicking, as well as greatly improved oily stain removal performance. Compared to the harsh alkali hydrolysis, the enzyme treatment led to smaller weight loss and better fiber integrity. The esterase treatment technology is promising to produce higher-quality polyester textiles with an environmental friendly approach.

  6. Comparison of fungal carbohydrate esterases of family CE16 on artificial and natural substrates.

    PubMed

    Puchart, Vladimír; Agger, Jane W; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Várnai, Anikó; Westereng, Bjørge; Biely, Peter

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic conversion of acetylated hardwood glucuronoxylan to functional food oligomers, biochemicals or fermentable monomers requires besides glycoside hydrolases enzymes liberating acetic acid esterifying position 2 and/or 3 in xylopyranosyl (Xylp) residues. The 3-O-acetyl group at internal Xylp residues substituted by MeGlcA is the only acetyl group of hardwood acetylglucuronoxylan and its fragments not attacked by acetylxylan esterases of carbohydrate esterase (CE) families 1, 4, 5 and 6 and by hemicellulolytic acetyl esterases classified in CE family 16. Monoacetylated aldotetraouronic acid 3″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3, generated from the polysaccharide by GH10 endoxylanases, appears to be one of the most resistant fragments. The presence of the two substituents on the non-reducing-end Xylp residue prevents liberation of MeGlcA by α-glucuronidase of family GH67 and blocks the action of acetylxylan esterases. The Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3 was isolated from an enzymatic hydrolysate of birchwood acetylglucuronoxylan and characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy as a mixture of two positional isomers, 3″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3 and 4″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3, the latter being the result of acetyl group migration. The mixture was used as a substrate for three members of CE16 family of fungal origin. Trichoderma reesei CE16 esterase, inactive on polymeric substrate, deacetylated both isomers. Podospora anserina and Aspergillus niger esterases, active on acetylglucuronoxylan, deesterified effectively only the 4″-isomer. The results indicate catalytic diversity among CE16 enzymes, but also their common and unifying catalytic ability to exo-deacetylate positions 3 and 4 on non-reducing-end Xylp residues, which is an important step in plant hemicellulose saccharification. PMID:27439201

  7. Characterization of a novel cold active and salt tolerant esterase from Zunongwangia profunda.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Asadur; Culsum, Umma; Tang, Wenhao; Zhang, Shao Wei; Wu, Gaobing; Liu, Ziduo

    2016-04-01

    A novel cold active esterase, EstLiu was cloned from the marine bacterium Zunongwangia profunda, overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by glutathione-S transferase (GST) affinity chromatography. The mature esterase EstLiu sequence encodes a protein of 273 amino acids residues, with a predicted molecular weight of 30KDa and containing the classical pentapeptidase motif from position 156 to 160 with the catalytic triad Ser158-Asp211-His243. Although, EstLiu showed 64% similarity with the hypothetical esterase from Chryseobacterium sp. StRB126 (WP_045498424), phylogenetic analysis showed it had no similarity with any of the established family of lipases/esterases, suggesting that it could be considered as a new family. The purified enzyme showed broad substrate specificity with the highest hydrolytic activity against p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C4). EstLiu showed remarkable activity (75%) at 0°Cand the optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 30°C with good thermostability and quickened inactivation above 60°C. EstLiu retained 81, 103, 67 and 78% of its original activity at 50% (v/v) in ethanol, isopropanol, DMSO and ethylene glycol, respectively. In the presence of Tween 20, Tween 80 and Triton X-100, EstLiu showed 88, 100 and 117% of relative activity. It is also co-factor independent. The high activity at low temperature and desirable stability in organic solvents and salts of this novel family esterase represents a good evidence of novel biocatalyst. Overall, this novel enzyme showed better activity than previously reported esterases in extreme reaction conditions and could promote the reaction in both aqueous and non-aqueous conditions, indicating its great potential for industrial applications. PMID:26920474

  8. Contribution of soil esterase to biodegradation of aliphatic polyester agricultural mulch film in cultivated soils.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Tamura, Kimiko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Watanabe, Takashi; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Yarimizu, Tohru; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between degradation speed of soil-buried biodegradable polyester film in a farmland and the characteristics of the predominant polyester-degrading soil microorganisms and enzymes were investigated to determine the BP-degrading ability of cultivated soils through characterization of the basal microbial activities and their transition in soils during BP film degradation. Degradation of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) film was evaluated in soil samples from different cultivated fields in Japan for 4 weeks. Both the degradation speed of the PBSA film and the esterase activity were found to be correlated with the ratio of colonies that produced clear zone on fungal minimum medium-agarose plate with emulsified PBSA to the total number colonies counted. Time-dependent change in viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and esterase activities were monitored in soils where buried films showed the most and the least degree of degradation. During the degradation of PBSA film, the viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and the esterase activities in soils, which adhered to the PBSA film, increased with time. The soil, where the film was degraded the fastest, recorded large PBSA-degrading fungal population and showed high esterase activity compared with the other soil samples throughout the incubation period. Meanwhile, esterase activity and viable counts of PBSA-degrading fungi were found to be stable in soils without PBSA film. These results suggest that the higher the distribution ratio of native PBSA-degrading fungi in the soil, the faster the film degradation is. This could be due to the rapid accumulation of secreted esterases in these soils. PMID:25852987

  9. Esterases immobilized on aminosilane modified magnetic nanoparticles as a catalyst for biotransformation reactions.

    PubMed

    Alex, Deepthy; Mathew, Abraham; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2014-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by reacting ferrous and ferric salts in presence of aqueous ammonia. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were amino functionalized by treating with 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES) and was coupled with glutaraldehyde. A novel solvent tolerant esterase from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 was immobilized on the MNPs through covalent bonding to the glutaraldehyde. The magnetite nanoparticles had a size range of 10-100 nm, confirmed by DLS. Lipases immobilized on MNPs were evaluated for biotransformation reactions including synthesis of ethyl acetate and transesterification of vegetable oil for producing biodiesel. The MNP immobilized esterase had prolonged shelf life and there was no loss in enzyme activity. PMID:24968816

  10. Enzyme-linked DNA dendrimer nanosensors for acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Ryan; Morales, Jennifer M.; Skipwith, Christopher G.; Ruckh, Timothy T.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    It is currently difficult to measure small dynamics of molecules in the brain with high spatial and temporal resolution while connecting them to the bigger picture of brain function. A step towards understanding the underlying neural networks of the brain is the ability to sense discrete changes of acetylcholine within a synapse. Here we show an efficient method for generating acetylcholine-detecting nanosensors based on DNA dendrimer scaffolds that incorporate butyrylcholinesterase and fluorescein in a nanoscale arrangement. These nanosensors are selective for acetylcholine and reversibly respond to levels of acetylcholine in the neurophysiological range. This DNA dendrimer architecture has the potential to overcome current obstacles to sensing in the synaptic environment, including the nanoscale size constraints of the synapse and the ability to quantify the spatio-temporal fluctuations of neurotransmitter release. By combining the control of nanosensor architecture with the strategic placement of fluorescent reporters and enzymes, this novel nanosensor platform can facilitate the development of new selective imaging tools for neuroscience. PMID:26442999

  11. Clitoria ternatea root extract enhances acetylcholine content in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Nalini, K; Rao, M S; Srinivasan, K K

    2002-12-01

    Treatment with 100 mg/kg of Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract (CTR), for 30 days in neonatal and young adult age groups of rat, significantly increased acetylcholine (ACh) content in their hippocampi as compared to age matched controls. Increase in ACh content in their hippocampus may be the neurochemical basis for their improved learning and memory. PMID:12490229

  12. Changes in Acetylcholine Extracellular Levels during Cognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepeu, Giancarlo; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the changes in neurotransmitter extracellular levels in discrete brain areas is considered a tool for identifying the neuronal systems involved in specific behavioral responses or cognitive processes. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the first neurotransmitter whose diffusion from the central nervous system was investigated and whose extracellular…

  13. Enzyme-linked DNA dendrimer nanosensors for acetylcholine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Ryan; Morales, Jennifer M.; Skipwith, Christopher G.; Ruckh, Timothy T.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-10-01

    It is currently difficult to measure small dynamics of molecules in the brain with high spatial and temporal resolution while connecting them to the bigger picture of brain function. A step towards understanding the underlying neural networks of the brain is the ability to sense discrete changes of acetylcholine within a synapse. Here we show an efficient method for generating acetylcholine-detecting nanosensors based on DNA dendrimer scaffolds that incorporate butyrylcholinesterase and fluorescein in a nanoscale arrangement. These nanosensors are selective for acetylcholine and reversibly respond to levels of acetylcholine in the neurophysiological range. This DNA dendrimer architecture has the potential to overcome current obstacles to sensing in the synaptic environment, including the nanoscale size constraints of the synapse and the ability to quantify the spatio-temporal fluctuations of neurotransmitter release. By combining the control of nanosensor architecture with the strategic placement of fluorescent reporters and enzymes, this novel nanosensor platform can facilitate the development of new selective imaging tools for neuroscience.

  14. Comparative effects of aluminum and ouabain on synaptosomal choline uptake, acetylcholine release and (Na+/K+)ATPase.

    PubMed

    Silva, Virgília S; Nunes, M Alexandra; Cordeiro, J Miguel; Calejo, Ana I; Santos, Sofia; Neves, Paulo; Sykes, António; Morgado, Fernando; Dunant, Yves; Gonçalves, Paula P

    2007-07-17

    Closing the gap between adverse health effects of aluminum and its mechanisms of action still represents a huge challenge. Cholinergic dysfunction has been implicated in neuronal injury induced by aluminum. Previously reported data also indicate that in vivo and in vitro exposure to aluminum inhibits the mammalian (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase, an ubiquitous plasma membrane pump. This study was undertaken with the specific aim of determining whether in vitro exposure to AlCl(3) and ouabain, the foremost utilized selective inhibitor of (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase, induce similar functional modifications of cholinergic presynaptic nerve terminals, by comparing their effects on choline uptake, acetylcholine release and (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity, on subcellular fractions enriched in synaptic nerve endings isolated from rat brain, cuttlefish optic lobe and torpedo electric organ. Results obtained show that choline uptake by rat synaptosomes was inhibited by submillimolar AlCl(3), whereas the amount of choline taken up by synaptosomes isolated from cuttlefish and torpedo remained unchanged. Conversely, choline uptake was reduced by ouabain to a large extent in all synaptosomal preparations analyzed. In contrast to ouabain, which modified the K(+) depolarization evoked release of acetylcholine by rat, cuttlefish and torpedo synaptosomal fractions, AlCl(3) induced reduction of stimulated acetylcholine release was only observed when rat synaptosomes were challenged. Finally, it was observed that the aluminum effect on cuttlefish and torpedo synaptosomal (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity was slight when compared to its inhibitory action on mammalian (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase. In conclusion, inhibition of (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase by AlCl(3) and ouabain jeopardized the high-affinity (Na(+)-dependent, hemicholinium-3 sensitive) uptake of choline and the Ca(2+)-dependent, K(+) depolarization evoked release of acetylcholine by rat, cuttlefish and torpedo synaptosomal fractions. The effects of submillimolar AlCl(3

  15. Effects of juvenile hormone (JH) analog insecticides on larval development and JH esterase activity in two spodopterans.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Kamita, Shizuo G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile hormone analog (JHA) insecticides are biological and structural mimics of JH, a key insect developmental hormone. Toxic and anti-developmental effects of the JHA insecticides methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen were investigated on the larval and pupal stages of Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Bioassays showed that fenoxycarb has the highest toxicity and fastest speed of kill in 2nd instar S. littoralis. All three JHAs affected the development of 6th instar (i.e., final instar) and pupal S. frugiperda. JH esterase (JHE) is a critical enzyme that helps to regulate JH levels during insect development. JHE activity in the last instar S. littoralis and S. frugiperda was 11 and 23 nmol min(-1) ml(-1) hemolymph, respectively. Methoprene and pyriproxyfen showed poor inhibition of JHE activity from these insects, whereas fenoxycarb showed stronger inhibition. The inhibitory activity of fenoxycarb, however, was more than 1000-fold lower than that of OTFP, a highly potent inhibitor of JHEs. Surprisingly, topical application of methoprene, fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen on 6th instars of S. littoralis and S. frugiperda prevented the dramatic reduction in JHE activity that was found in control insects. Our findings suggest that JHAs may function as JH agonists that play a disruptive role or a hormonal replacement role in S. littoralis and S. frugiperda. PMID:26969437

  16. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-01

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:25664467

  17. The impact of hydroquinone on acetylcholine esterase and certain human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (hCA I, II, IX, and XII).

    PubMed

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Kalın, Pınar; Supuran, Claudiu T; Gülçin, İlhami; Alwasel, Saleh H

    2015-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are widespread and the most studied members of a great family of metalloenzymes in higher vertebrates including humans. CAs were investigated for their inhibition of all of the catalytically active mammalian isozymes of the Zn(2+)-containing CA, (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). On the other hand, acetylcholinesterase (AChE. EC 3.1.1.7), a serine protease, is responsible for ACh hydrolysis and plays a fundamental role in impulse transmission by terminating the action of the neurotransmitter ACh at the cholinergic synapses and neuromuscular junction. In the present study, the inhibition effect of the hydroquinone (benzene-1,4-diol) on AChE activity was evaluated and effectively inhibited AChE with Ki of 1.22 nM. Also, hydroquinone strongly inhibited some human cytosolic CA isoenzymes (hCA I and II) and tumour-associated transmembrane isoforms (hCA IX, and XII), with Kis in the range between micromolar (415.81 μM) and nanomolar (706.79 nM). The best inhibition was observed in cytosolic CA II. PMID:25586344

  18. Responses of coronary arteries of cardiac transplant patients to acetylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Fish, R D; Nabel, E G; Selwyn, A P; Ludmer, P L; Mudge, G H; Kirshenbaum, J M; Schoen, F J; Alexander, R W; Ganz, P

    1988-01-01

    Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis is a major cause of graft failure after heart transplantation. Graft atherosclerosis is typically diffuse and difficult to detect even with coronary arteriography. Recently, acetylcholine was shown to dilate blood vessels by releasing a vasorelaxant substance from the endothelium (endothelium-derived relaxing factor). We have demonstrated paradoxical vasoconstriction induced by acetylcholine both early and late in the course of coronary atherosclerosis in patients, suggesting an association of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that coronary arteries of heart transplant patients can show endothelial dysfunction before or in the early stages of angiographically evident coronary atherosclerosis. Acetylcholine was infused into the left anterior descending artery of 13 heart transplant patients at 12 (n = 9) and 24 (n = 4) mo after transplantation. Vascular responses were evaluated by quantitative angiography. Among patients with angiographically smooth coronary arteries, relatively few (6/25) arterial segments had preserved vasodilator responses, while the majority failed to dilate (10/25) or paradoxically constricted (9/25). Angiographically irregular coronary arteries were present in three patients, in whom 8/10 segments showed marked paradoxical constriction and the remaining 2/10 failed to dilate. Only 1 of 13 patients retained appropriate dilation to acetylcholine in all segments. Nitroglycerin, which acts directly on vascular smooth muscle, dilated nearly all segments. No clinical features of the patients, including myocardial rejection appeared to correlate with the impaired functional response of vessels. Thus impaired response to acetylcholine is a common early finding in heart transplant patients and emphasizes the potential importance of endothelial dysfunction in the development of atherosclerosis. Images PMID:3121675

  19. Polyester with Pendent Acetylcholine-Mimicking Functionalities Promotes Neurite Growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaofei; Jeffries, Eric; Gao, Jin; Sun, Lijie; You, Zhengwei; Wang, Yadong

    2016-04-20

    Successful regeneration of nerves can benefit from biomaterials that provide a supportive biochemical and mechanical environment while also degrading with controlled inflammation and minimal scar formation. Herein, we report a neuroactive polymer functionalized by covalent attachment of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach). The polymer was readily synthesized in two steps from poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) (PSeD), which previously demonstrated biocompatibility and biodegradation in vivo. Distinct from prior acetylcholine-biomimetic polymers, PSeD-Ach contains both quaternary ammonium and free acetyl moieties, closely resembling native acetylcholine structure. The polymer structure was confirmed via (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Hydrophilicity, charge, and thermal properties of PSeD-Ach were determined by tensiometer, zetasizer, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. PC12 cells exhibited the greatest proliferation and neurite outgrowth on PSeD-Ach and laminin substrates, with no significant difference between these groups. PSeD-Ach yielded much longer neurite outgrowth than the control polymer containing ammonium but no the acetyl group, confirming the importance of the entire acetylcholine-like moiety. Furthermore, PSeD-Ach supports adhesion of primary rat dorsal root ganglions and subsequent neurite sprouting and extension. The sprouting rate is comparable to the best conditions from previous report. Our findings are significant in that they were obtained with acetylcholine-like functionalities in 100% repeating units, a condition shown to yield significant toxicity in prior publications. Moreover, PSeD-Ach exhibited favorable mechanical and degradation properties for nerve tissue engineering application. Humidified PSeD-Ach had an elastic modulus of 76.9 kPa, close to native neural tissue, and could well recover from cyclic dynamic compression. PSeD-Ach showed a gradual in

  20. Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima acetyl esterase complex with a substrate analog: Insights into the distinctive substrate specificity in the CE7 carbohydrate esterase family.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mrityunjay K; Manoj, Narayanan

    2016-07-22

    The carbohydrate esterase family 7 (CE7) members are acetyl esterases that possess unusual substrate specificity for cephalosporin C and 7-amino-cephalosporanic acid. This family containing the α/β hydrolase fold has a distinctive substrate profile that allows it to carry out hydrolysis of esters containing diverse alcohol moieties while maintaining narrow specificity for an acetate ester. Here we investigate the structural basis of this preference for small acyl groups using the crystal structure of the thermostable Thermotoga maritima CE7 acetyl esterase (TmAcE) complexed with a non-cognate substrate analog. The structure determined at 1.86 Å resolution provides direct evidence for the location of the largely hydrophobic and rigid substrate binding pocket in this family. Furthermore, a three-helix insertion domain near the catalytic machinery shapes the substrate binding site. The structure reveals two residues (Pro228 and Ile276) which constitute a hydrophobic rigid binding surface for the acyl group of the ester and thus restricts the size of the acyl group that be accommodated. In combination with previous literature on kinetic properties of the enzyme, our studies suggest that these residues determine the unique specificity of the TmAcE for short straight chain esters. The structure provides a template for focused attempts to engineer the CE7 enzymes for enhanced stability, selectivity or activity for biocatalytic applications. PMID:27181355

  1. Positive cooperativity of acetylcholine and other agonists with allosteric ligands on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Jakubík, J; Bacáková, L; El-Fakahany, E E; Tucek, S

    1997-07-01

    It is well known that allosteric modulators of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors can both diminish and increase the affinity of receptors for their antagonists. We investigated whether the allosteric modulators can also increase the affinity of receptors for their agonists. Twelve agonists and five allosteric modulators were tested in experiments on membranes of CHO cells that had been stably transfected with genes for the M1-M4 receptor subtypes. Allosterically induced changes in the affinities for agonists were computed from changes in the ability of a fixed concentration of each agonist to compete with [3H]N-methylscopolamine for the binding to the receptors in the absence and the presence of varying concentrations of allosteric modulators. The effects of allosteric modulators varied greatly depending on the agonists and the subtypes of receptors. The affinity for acetylcholine was augmented by (-)-eburnamonine on the M2 and M4 receptors and by brucine on the M1 and M3 receptors. Brucine also enhanced the affinities for carbachol, bethanechol, furmethide, methylfurmethide, pilocarpine, 3-(3-pentylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1- methylpyridine (pentylthio-TZTP), oxotremorine-M, and McN-A-343 on the M1, M3, and M4 receptors, for pentylthio-TZTP on the M2 receptors, and for arecoline on the M3 receptors. (-)-Eburnamonine enhanced the affinities for carbachol, bethanechol, furmethide, methylfurmethide, pentylthio-TZTP, pilocarpine, oxotremorine and oxotremorine-M on the M2 receptors and for pilocarpine on the M4 receptors. Vincamine, strychnine, and alcuronium displayed fewer positive allosteric interactions with the agonists, but each allosteric modulator displayed positive cooperativity with at least one agonist on at least one muscarinic receptor subtype. The highest degrees of positive cooperativity were observed between (-)-eburnamonine and pilocarpine and (-)-eburnamonine and oxotremorine-M on the M2 receptors (25- and 7-fold increases in

  2. The effects of postnatal alcohol exposure and galantamine on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect and acetylcholine efflux using in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Amy E; Fadel, Jim R; Kelly, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by damage to multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, which is involved in learning and memory. The acetylcholine neurotransmitter system provides major input to the hippocampus and is a possible target of developmental alcohol exposure. Alcohol (3.0 g/kg/day) was administered via intubation to male rat pups (postnatal day [PD] 2-10; ethanol-treated [ET]). Controls received a sham intubation (IC) or no treatment (NC). Acetylcholine efflux was measured using in vivo microdialysis (PD 32-35). ET animals were not different at baseline, but had decreased K(+)/Ca(2+)-induced acetylcholine efflux compared to NC animals and an enhanced acetylcholine response to galantamine (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; 2.0 mg/kg) compared to both control groups. A separate cohort of animals was tested in the context pre-exposure facilitation effect task (CPFE; PD 30-32) following postnatal alcohol exposure and administration of galantamine (2.0 mg/kg; PD 11-30). Neither chronic galantamine nor postnatal alcohol exposure influenced performance in the CPFE task. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that neither alcohol exposure nor behavioral testing significantly altered the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter or alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the ventral hippocampus (CA1). In the medial septum, the average number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT+) cells was increased in ET animals that displayed the context-shock association; there were no changes in IC and NC animals that learned the context-shock association or in any animals that were in the control task that entailed no learning. Taken together, these results indicate that the hippocampal acetylcholine system is significantly disrupted under conditions of pharmacological manipulations (e.g., galantamine) in alcohol-exposed animals. Furthermore, ChAT was up‑regulated in ET animals that learned the CPFE, which may account for their ability

  3. Acetylcholine suppression and potential benefit against anticholinesterase poisoning. Annual report No. 2, 1 July 1983-30 June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, J.J.; Doukas, H.; Sterling, H.

    1984-07-01

    A new series of compounds containing the quinuclidine moiety has been synthesized and tested as inhibitors of brain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or as inhibitors of high affinity choline uptake (HAChU). The tertiary quinuclidine was incorporated because of the potency it confers on anticholinergic compounds and antimuscarinic drugs, such as quinuclidinylbenzilate (QNB). Structure-activity studies indicate that ChAT inhibition and lipophilicity show a direct correlation and that some of the structure-activity relationships previously proposed (2) need to be modified to fit new insights gained from studies with the brain ChAT. The effectiveness of the quaternary HAChU inhibitor, acetylseco-hemicholinium (AcSeco HC) to block choline uptake and interfere with acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis served as a basis for in vivo protection studies versus soman. As an adjunct to atropine and oxime, the results obtained point to the need for HAChU inhibitors with pharmacokinetic properties which will permit oral or parenteral administration leading to high central nervous system (CNS) penetration. Based on initial in vitro studies, several quinuclidine derivatives show activity in brain nerve ending preparations. A series of toxicity studies has established the LD50 dose of soman at 1 hr and 24 hours. Based on the most potent inhibitors of ChAT activity, we have selected a series of tertiary amines as adjuncts to atropine-oxime therapy to ascertain whether such combinations increase protection against soman.

  4. Cholinesterase inhibition and acetylcholine accumulation following intracerebral administration of paraoxon in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, A.; Liu, J.; Karanth, S.; Gao, Y.; Brimijoin, S.; Pope, C.

    2009-05-01

    into enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Furthermore, the proliferation/migration of cells containing high amounts of cholinesterase just adjacent to a dialysis probe could affect the recovery and thus detection of extracellular acetylcholine in microdialysis studies.

  5. Acetylcholine modulates human working memory and subsequent familiarity based recognition via alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Eckart, Cindy; Woźniak-Kwaśniewska, Agata; Herweg, Nora A; Fuentemilla, Lluis; Bunzeck, Nico

    2016-08-15

    Working memory (WM) can be defined as the ability to maintain and process physically absent information for a short period of time. This vital cognitive function has been related to cholinergic neuromodulation and, in independent work, to theta (4-8Hz) and alpha (9-14Hz) band oscillations. However, the relationship between both aspects remains unclear. To fill this apparent gap, we used electroencephalography (EEG) and a within-subject design in healthy humans who either received the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (8mg) or a placebo before they performed a Sternberg WM paradigm. Here, sequences of sample images were memorized for a delay of 5s in three different load conditions (two, four or six items). On the next day, long-term memory (LTM) for the images was tested according to a remember/know paradigm. As a main finding, we can show that both theta and alpha oscillations scale during WM maintenance as a function of WM load; this resembles the typical performance decrease. Importantly, cholinergic stimulation via galantamine administration slowed down retrieval speed during WM and reduced associated alpha but not theta power, suggesting a functional relationship between alpha oscillations and WM performance. At LTM, this pattern was accompanied by impaired familiarity based recognition. These findings show that stimulating the healthy cholinergic system impairs WM and subsequent recognition, which is in line with the notion of a quadratic relationship between acetylcholine levels and cognitive functions. Moreover, our data provide empirical evidence for a specific role of alpha oscillations in acetylcholine dependent WM and associated LTM formation. PMID:27222217

  6. Tramadol state-dependent memory: involvement of dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Jafari-Sabet, Majid; Jafari-Sabet, Ali-Reza; Dizaji-Ghadim, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The effects on tramadol state-dependent memory of bilateral intradorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) injections of physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, were examined in adult male NMRI mice. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. Post-training intra-CA1 administration of an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse), dose dependently impaired memory retention. Pretest injection of tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under the influence of post-training tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). A pretest intra-CA1 injection of physostigmine (1 μg/mouse) reversed the memory impairment induced by post-training administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). Moreover, pretest administration of physostigmine (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) with an ineffective dose of tramadol (0.25 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) also significantly restored retrieval. Pretest administration of physostigmine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. A pretest intra-CA1 injection of the atropine (1 and 2 μg/mouse) 5 min before the administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) dose dependently inhibited tramadol state-dependent memory. Pretest administration of atropine (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. It can be concluded that dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mechanisms play an important role in the modulation of tramadol state-dependent memory. PMID:27089282

  7. Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of bioactives from leaves of Mangifera indica L

    PubMed Central

    Gururaja, G. M.; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Dethe, Shekhar M.; Sangli, Gopala K.; Abhilash, K.; Agarwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the earlier studies, methanolic extract of Mangifera indica L leaf was exhibited hypocholesterol activity. However, the bioactive compounds responsible for the same are not reported so far. Objective: To isolate the bioactive compounds with hypocholesterol activity from the leaf extract using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay which can be used for the standardization of extract. Materials and Methods: The leaf methanolic extract of M. indica (Sindoora variety) was partitioned with ethyl acetate and chromatographed on silica gel to yield twelve fractions and the activity was monitored by using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. Active fractions were re-chromatographed to yield individual compounds. Results and Discussion: A major compound mangiferin present in the extract was screened along with other varieties of mango leaves for cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. However, the result indicates that compounds other than mangiferin may be active in the extract. Invitro pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibition assay was used for bioactivity guided fractionation (BAGF) to yield bioactive compound for standardization of extract. Bioactivity guided fractionation afford the active fraction containing 3b-taraxerol with an IC50 value of 0.86μg/ml. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that M. indica methanol extract of leaf have significant hypocholesterol activity which is standardized with 3b-taraxerol, a standardized extract for hypocholesterol activity resulted in development of dietary supplement from leaves of Mangifera indica. PMID:26692750

  8. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001) reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children. PMID:27335975

  9. Evolution and homologous recombination of the hemagglutinin-esterase gene sequences from porcine torovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to gain new insights into the evolution, homologous recombination and selection pressures imposed on the porcine torovirus (PToV), by examining changes in the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene. The most recent common ancestor of PToV was estimated to have emerge...

  10. Phylogenetic classification of Aureobasidium pullulans strains for production of feruloyl esterase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to phylogenetically classify diverse strains of A. pullulans and determine their production of feruloyl esterase. Seventeen strains from the A. pullulans literature were phylogenetically classified. Phenotypic traits of color variation and endo-ß-1,4-xylanase overproduction were as...

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the pneumococcal teichoic acid phosphorylcholine esterase Pce

    SciTech Connect

    Lagartera, Laura; González, Ana; Stelter, Meike; García, Pedro; Kahn, Richard; Menéndez, Margarita; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2005-02-01

    The modular choline-binding protein Pce, the phosphorylcholine esterase from S. pneumoniae, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A SAD data set from a derivative with a gadolinium complex has been collected to 2.7 Å resolution.

  12. Gene cloning and characterization of a novel esterase from activated sludge metagenome

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A metagenomic library was prepared using pCC2FOS vector containing about 3.0 Gbp of community DNA from the microbial assemblage of activated sludge. Screening of a part of the un-amplified library resulted in the finding of 1 unique lipolytic clone capable of hydrolyzing tributyrin, in which an esterase gene was identified. This esterase/lipase gene consists of 834 bp and encodes a polypeptide (designated EstAS) of 277 amino acid residuals with a molecular mass of 31 kDa. Sequence analysis indicated that it showed 33% and 31% amino acid identity to esterase/lipase from Gemmata obscuriglobus UQM 2246 (ZP_02733109) and Yarrowia lipolytica CLIB122 (XP_504639), respectively; and several conserved regions were identified, including the putative active site, HSMGG, a catalytic triad (Ser92, His125 and Asp216) and a LHYFRG conserved motif. The EstAS was overexpressed, purified and shown to hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl (NP) esters of fatty acids with short chain lengths (≤ C8). This EstAS had optimal temperature and pH at 35°C and 9.0, respectively, by hydrolysis of p-NP hexanoate. It also exhibited the same level of stability over wide temperature and pH ranges and in the presence of metal ions or detergents. The high level of stability of esterase EstAS with its unique substrate specificities make itself highly useful for biotechnological applications. PMID:20028524

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis of the ces10 gene encoding a Sphingomonas paucimobilis esterase.

    PubMed

    Videira, P A; Fialho, A M; Marques, A R; Coutinho, P M; Sá-Correia, I

    2003-06-01

    The ces10 gene of the gellan gum-producing strain Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 was cloned and sequenced. Multi-sequence alignment of the deduced protein indicated that Ces10 belongs to the serine hydrolase family with a potential catalytic triad comprising Ser(153) (within the G-X-S-X-G consensus sequence), His(75) and Asp(125). The mixed block results obtained following pattern search and the low identities detected in a BLAST analysis indicate that Ces10 is significantly different from other characterised bacterial esterases/lipases. Nevertheless, the Ces10 amino acid sequence showed 45% similarity with Rhodococcus sp. heroin esterase and 48% with Bacillus subtilis p-nitrobenzyl esterase. Ces10, with a predicted molecular mass of 30,641 Da, was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in a histidine-tagged form. Enzyme assays using p-nitrophenyl-esters (p-NP-esters) with different acyl chain-lengths as the substrate confirmed the anticipated esterase activity. Ces10 exhibited a marked preference for short-chain fatty acids, yielding the highest activity with p-NP-propionate (optimal pH 7.4, optimal temperature 37 degrees C). PMID:12764567

  14. Tissue-specific inhibition and recovery of esterase activities in Lumbricus terrestris experimentally exposed to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Vejares, Sandra González; Sabat, Pablo; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C

    2010-04-01

    Exposure and effect assessment of organophosphate (OP) pesticides generally involves the use of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition. In earthworm, this enzyme activity is often measured in homogenates from the whole organism. Here we examine the tissue-specific response of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in Lumbricus terrestris experimentally exposed to chlorpyrifos-spiked field soils. Esterases were measured in different gut segments and in the seminal vesicles of earthworms following acute exposure (2 d) to the OP and during 35d of a recovery period. We found that inhibition of both esterase activities was dependent on the tissue. Cholinesterase activity decreased in the pharynx, crop, foregut and seminal vesicles in a concentration-dependent way, whereas CE activity (4-nitrophenyl valerate) was strongly inhibited in these tissues. Gizzard CE activity was not inhibited by the OP, even an increase of enzyme activity was evident during the recovery period. These results suggest that both esterases should be determined jointly in selected tissues of earthworms. Moreover, the high levels of gut CE activity and its inhibition and recovery dynamic following OP exposure suggest that this esterase could play an important role as an enzymatic barrier against OP uptake from the ingested contaminated soil. PMID:20045489

  15. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

  16. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M.; DeSimone, John A.; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. PMID:26039516

  17. [Effect of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase on the activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh, 1 microM) stimulates activity of the contractile vacuole of proteus. The effect of ACh is not mimicked by its analogs which are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), i. e., carbacholine and 5-methylfurmethide. The effect of ACh is not sensitive to the blocking action of M-cholinolytics, atropine and mytolone, but is suppressed by N-cholinolytic, tubocurarine. The inhibitors of AChE, eserine (0.01 microM) and armine (0.1 microM), suppress the effect of ACh on amoeba contractile vacuole. ACh does not affect activation of contractile vacuole induced by arginine-vasopressin (1 microM), but it blocks such effect of opiate receptors agonist, dynorphin A1-13 (0.01 microM). This effect of ACh is also suppressed by the inhibitors of AChE. These results suggest that, in the above-described effects of ACh, AChE acts not as an antagonist, but rather as a synergist. PMID:21870511

  18. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  19. Total esterase activity in human saliva: Validation of an automated assay, characterization and behaviour after physical stress.

    PubMed

    Tecles, Fernando; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; De Torre, Carlos; Carrillo, José M; Rubio, Mónica; García, Montserrat; Cugat, Ramón; Cerón, José J

    2016-07-01

    Although saliva has esterase activity, this activity has not been characterized or studied in individuals subjected to physical stress. The aim of this report was to develop and validate an automated spectrophotometric assay for total esterase activity measurement in human saliva, as well as to study the contribution of different enzymes on this activity and its behaviour under physical stress in healthy subjects. The assay used 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate and was precise, accurate and provided low limits of detection and quantification. Inhibition with diisopropylfluorophosphate showed that cholinesterase, carboxylesterase and cholesterol esterase contributions not represented more than 20% of total esterase. Addition of standards of lipase and albumin to saliva samples showed that both proteins significantly contributed to esterase activity only when equal or higher than 11.6 IU/L and 250 μg/mL, respectively. Western blot analyses showed absence of paraoxonase-1 and high amount of carbonic anhydrase-VI. The high affinity of purified carbonic anhydrase-VI for the substrate supported a major contribution of this enzyme. Total esterase activity and alpha-amylase was measured in saliva samples from 12 healthy male students before and after participation in an indoor football match. The activity significantly increased after match and positively correlated with salivary alpha-amylase. This method could be used as a biomarker of physical stress in humans, with carbonic anhydrase-VI being the esterase that contributed more to the activity of the assay. PMID:27045801

  20. The dual-acting H3 receptor antagonist and AChE inhibitor UW-MD-71 dose-dependently enhances memory retrieval and reverses dizocilpine-induced memory impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadia; Saad, Ali; Nurulain, Syed M; Darras, Fouad H; Decker, Michael; Sadek, Bassem

    2016-01-15

    Both the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) are involved in the regulation of release and metabolism of acetylcholine and several other central neurotransmitters. Therefore, dual-active H3R antagonists and AChE inhibitors (AChEIs) have shown in several studies to hold promise to treat cognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The novel dual-acting H3R antagonist and AChEI 7-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)-1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazoline (UW-MD-71) with excellent selectivity profiles over both the three other HRs as well as the AChE's isoenzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) shows high and balanced in vitro affinities at both H3R and AChE with IC50 of 33.9nM and hH3R antagonism with Ki of 76.2nM, respectively. In the present study, the effects of UW-MD-71 (1.25-5mg/kg, i.p.) on acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval in a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task in male rats were investigated applying donepezil (DOZ) and pitolisant (PIT) as reference drugs. Furthermore, the effects of UW-MD-71 on memory deficits induced by the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine (DIZ) were tested. Our results indicate that administration of UW-MD-71 before the test session dose-dependently increased performance and enhanced procognitive effect on retrieval. However neither pre- nor post-training acute systemic administration of UW-MD-71 facilitated acquisition or consolidation. More importantly, UW-MD-71 (2.5mg/kg, i.p.) ameliorated the DIZ-induced amnesic effects. Furthermore, the procognitive activity of UW-MD-71 in retrieval was completely reversed and partly abrogated in DIZ-induced amnesia when rats were pretreated with the centrally-acting H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL), but not with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR). These results demonstrate the procognitive effects of UW-MD-71 in two in vivo memory models, and are to our knowledge the first demonstration in vivo that a potent dual

  1. Gel-electrophoretic identification of hen brain neurotoxic esterase, labelled with tritiated di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D G; Johnson, M K

    1981-01-01

    The particulate fraction from hen brain was labelled with [3H]di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DiPF) and separated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Four radioactive protein bands (1--4) of molecular weights 155000, 92000, 60000, and 30000 were resolved. Most of the labelling of bands 2, 3 and 4 was inhibited by preincubation with Paraoxon. The residue in band 4 was sensitive to pH 5.2. Successive treatments with Paraoxon and pH 5.2 resulted in the abolition of bands 3 and 4. Bands 1 and 2 contained one and two polypeptides respectively, whose labelling was sensitive to Mipafox, but one, in band 2, was sensitive to higher concentrations of Paraoxon. The concentrations of the other two polypeptides were 6.7 and 1.95 pmol of DiPF bound/g of brain in bands 1 and 2 respectively. Both were as sensitive to Mipafox as neurotoxic esterase and were also sensitive to phenyl benzylcarbamate. 4-Nitrophenyl di-n-pentylphosphinate given in vivo inhibited neurotoxic esterase and the labelling of the band-1 polypeptide by 82% and 84% respectively, but inhibited the labelling of the band 2 polypeptide by 51%. The phosphinate in vitro produced 98% inhibition of the labelling of the band-1 polypeptide, with only 26% inhibition of the band-2 polypeptide, under conditions sufficient to inhibit neurotoxic esterase totally. Both neurotoxic esterase and the band-1 polypeptide were found in the forebrain at 1.74-fold their concentration in the rest of the brain, whereas the band-2 polypeptide was uniformly distributed. The evidence indicates that the Mipafox-sensitive polypeptide in band 1 is the [3H]DiPF-labelled active-site subunit of neurotoxic esterase. The catalytic-centre activity of the enzyme for phenyl valerate hydrolysis was found to be 2.6 x 10(5) min-1. PMID:7340807

  2. Characterization of an acetyl xylan esterase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, D.L.; Li, X.L.; Chen, H.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1999-09-01

    A 1,067-bp cDNA, designated axeA, coding for an acetyl xylan esterase (AxeA) was cloned from the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2. The gene had an open reading frame of 939 bp encoding a polypeptide of 313 amino acid residues with a calculated mass of 34,845 Da. An active esterase using the original start codon of the cDNA was synthesized in Escherichia coli. Two active forms of the esterase were purified from recombinant E. coli cultures. The size difference of 8 amino acids was a result of cleavages at two different sites within the signal peptide. The enzyme released acetate from several acetylated substrates, including acetylated xylan. The activity toward acetylated xylan was tripled in the presence of recombinant xylanase A from the same fungus. Using p-nitrophenyl acetate as a substrate, the enzyme had a K{sub m} of 0.9 mM and a V{sub max} of 785 {micro}mol min{sup {minus}} mg{sup {minus}1}. It had temperature and pH optima of 30 C and 9.0, respectively. AxeA had 56% amino acid identity with BnaA, an acetyl xylan esterase of Neocallimastix patriciarum, but the Orpinomyces AxeA was devoid of a noncatalytic repeated peptide domain (NCRPD) found at the carboxy terminus of the Neocallimastix BnaA. The NCRPD found in many glycosyl hydrolases and esterases of anaerobic fungi has been postulated to function as a docking domain for cellulase-hemicellulase complexes, similar to the dockerin of the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum.

  3. Isolation and characterization of p-coumaroyl esterase from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix strain MC-2.

    PubMed Central

    Borneman, W S; Ljungdahl, L G; Hartley, R D; Akin, D E

    1991-01-01

    An extracellular p-coumaroyl esterase produced by the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix strain MC-2 released p-coumaroyl groups from 0-[5-0-((E)-p-coumaroyl)-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl]-(1----3)-0-beta -D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-D-xylopyranose (PAXX). The esterase was purified 121-fold from culture medium in successive steps involving ultrafiltration column chromatography on S-sepharose and hydroxylapatite, isoelectric focusing, and gel filtration. The native enzyme had an apparent mass of 11 kDa under nondenaturing conditions and a mass of 5.8 kDa under denaturing conditions, suggesting that the enzyme may exist as a dimer. The isoelectric point was 4.7, and the pH optimum was 7.2. The purified esterase had 100 times more activity towards PAXX than towards the analogous feruloyl ester (FAXX). The apparent Km and Vmax of the purified p-coumaroyl esterase for PAXX at pH 7.2 and 40 degrees C were 19.4 microM and 5.1 microM min(-1), respectively. p-Coumaroyl tetrasaccharides isolated from plant cell walls were hydrolyzed at rates similar to that for PAXX, whereas a dimer of PAXX was hydrolyzed at a rate 20-fold lower, yielding 4,4'-dihydroxy-alpha-truxillic acid as an end product. Ethyl and methyl p-coumarates were hydrolyzed at very slow rates, if at all. The purified esterase released p-coumaroyl groups from finely, but not coarsely, ground plant cell walls, and this activity was enhanced by the addition of xylanase and other cell wall-degrading enzymes. Images PMID:1768103

  4. Physical studies of the interactions of acetylcholine chloride with membrane constituents.

    PubMed

    Hauser, H; Phillips, M C; Marchbanks, R M

    1970-11-01

    The binding of acetylcholine to pure lipids, and lipids, proteins and lipoproteins extracted from synaptic membranes, was investigated by monolayer and n.m.r. techniques. No specific binding of acetylcholine could be detected at the concentration used, although its muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists [atropine and (+)-tubocurarine respectively] could be shown to interact with the membrane components. It is concluded that the binding of the nicotinic and muscarinic antagonists of acetylcholine is not necessarily indicative of the existence of a specific acetylcholine receptor. Measurements of the displacement of (45)Ca(2+) from monolayers of phosphatidylserine by acetylcholine and the variation of electrophoretic mobility of phosphatidylserine particles with concentration of acetylcholine indicated that in these systems acetylcholine was acting as a counterion at the negatively charged lipid interface. But studies of the salting-in and salting-out of negatively charged lipid aggregates showed that acetylcholine and other quaternary ammonium compounds did not here behave simply as counterions. Electrostrictively hydrated cations such as Na(+) and K(+) were found to salt out, whereas hydrophobically hydrated cations such as acetylcholine salted in such aggregates. The possible role of the hydration of acetylcholine in synaptic transmission is discussed. PMID:4321895

  5. A multi-enzyme microreactor-based online electrochemical system for selective and continuous monitoring of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuqing; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-06-01

    This study demonstrates an online electrochemical system (OECS) for selective and continuous measurements of acetylcholine (ACh) through efficiently integrating in vivo microdialysis, a multi-enzyme microreactor and an electrochemical detector. A multi-enzyme microreactor was prepared first by co-immobilizing two kinds of enzymes, i.e. choline oxidase (ChOx) and catalase (Cat), onto magnetite nanoparticles and then confining the as-formed nanoparticles into a fused-silica capillary with the assistance of an external magnet. The multi-enzyme microreactor was settled between an in vivo microdialysis sampling system and an electrochemical detector to suppress the interference from choline toward ACh detection. Selective detection of ACh was accomplished using the electrochemical detector with ACh esterase (AChE) and ChOx as the recognition units for ACh and Prussian blue (PB) as the electrocatalyst for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The current recorded with the OECS was linear with the concentration of ACh (I/nA = -3.90CACh/μM + 1.21, γ = 0.998) within a concentration range of 5 μM to 100 μM. The detection limit, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, was calculated to be 1 μM. Interference investigation demonstrates that the OECS did not produce an observable current response toward physiological levels of common electroactive species, such as ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and uric acid (UA). The high selectivity and the good linearity in combination with the high stability may enable the OECS developed here as a potential system for continuous monitoring of cerebral ACh release in some physiological and pathological processes. PMID:25529471

  6. Separation of Plasma Thromboplastin Antecedent from Kallikrein by the Plasma α2-Macroglobulin, Kallikrein Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Harpel, Peter C.

    1971-01-01

    Plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI) is an important intermediate in the intrinsic coagulation system, and plasma kallikrein has been implicated as a mediator of the inflammatory process. Whereas their biologic activities are functionally distinct, their identity as separate entities in plasma has not been fully established, and the nature of their plasma inhibitors has not been completely characterized. A partially purified preparation containing the clotting, tosyl arginine methyl ester (TAMe) esterase and kinin-producing activities of these substances has been prepared by DEAE-cellulose chromatography of a Celite eluate obtained from acid-treated human plasma. These activities were not separable by acrylamide gel electrophoresis nor by isoelectric focusing, their pI being approximately 8.7. Human plasma α2-macroglobulin has been shown to inhibit the proteolytic activity of kallikrein and to inhibit partially its TAMe esterase activity. An α2-macroglobulin, PTA, kallikrein incubation mixture was separated by gel filtration chromatography. The α2-macroglobulin formed a high molecular weight complex with kallikrein and appeared in early chromatographic fractions. The PTA-clotting activity was not inhibited by the α2-macroglobulin; 64% of the initial PTA activity was isolated in later fractions free of kallikrein-induced kinin-like activity. In contrast, clotting, TAMe esterase, and kinin-forming activities were inhibited after gel filtration chromatography of an incubation mixture of these activities and partially purified C1̄ inactivator (C1 esterase inhibitor). Electrofocusing of an incubation mixture of an activated PTA, kallikrein preparation, and α2-macroglobulin resulted in the isolation of a PTA fraction free of kallikrein proteolytic activity, and with 4% of the original TAMe esterase activity. In this manner, activated PTA and plasma kallikrein have been shown to be distinct substances, and methods have been introduced for the further

  7. Neuromodulation by acetylcholine: examples from schizophrenia and depression.

    PubMed

    Higley, Michael J; Picciotto, Marina R

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of acetylcholine to psychiatric illnesses remains an area of active research. For example, increased understanding of mechanisms underlying cholinergic modulation of cortical function has provided insight into attentional dysfunction in schizophrenia. Acetylcholine normally enhances cortical sensitivity to external stimuli and decreases corticocortical communication, increasing focused attention; however, increases in ACh signaling can lead to symptoms related to anxiety and depression. For example, while stress-induced ACh release can result in adaptive responses to environmental stimuli, chronic elevations in cholinergic signaling may produce maladaptive behaviors. Here, we review several innovations in human imaging, molecular genetics and physiological control of circuits that have begun to identify mechanisms linking altered cholinergic neuromodulation to schizophrenia and depression. PMID:24983212

  8. SLC18: Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters for monoamines and acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Hakeem O.; Krantz, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The exocytotic release of neurotransmitters requires active transport into synaptic vesicles and other types of secretory vesicles. Members of the SLC18 family perform this function for acetylcholine (SLC18A3, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter or VAChT) and monoamines such as dopamine and serotonin (SLC18A1 and 2, the vesicular monoamine transporters VMAT1 and 2, respectively). To date, no specific diseases have been attributed to a mutation in an SLC18 family member; however, polymorphisms in SLC18A1 and SLC18A2 may confer risk for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Additional members of this family include SLC18A4, expressed in insects, and SLC18B1, the function of which is not known. SLC18 is part of the Drug:H+ Antiporter-1 Family (DHA1, TCID 2.A.1.2) within the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS, TCID 2.A.1). PMID:23506877

  9. Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

  10. Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:22270644

  11. Mechanisms of Barbiturate Inhibition of Acetylcholine Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Dilger, James P.; Boguslavsky, Rebecca; Barann, Martin; Katz, Tamir; Vidal, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    We used patch clamp techniques to study the inhibitory effects of pentobarbital and barbital on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels from BC3H-1 cells. Single channel recording from outside-out patches reveals that both drugs cause acetylcholine-activated channel events to occur in bursts. The mean duration of gaps within bursts is 2 ms for 0.1 mM pentobarbital and 0.05 ms for 1 mM barbital. In addition, 1 mM barbital reduces the apparent single channel current by 15%. Both barbiturates decrease the duration of openings within a burst but have only a small effect on the burst duration. Macroscopic currents were activated by rapid perfusion of 300 μM acetylcholine to outside-out patches. The concentration dependence of peak current inhibition was fit with a Hill function; for pentobarbital, Ki = 32 μM, n = 1.09; for barbital, Ki = 1900 μM, n = 1.24. Inhibition is voltage independent. The kinetics of inhibition by pentobarbital are at least 30 times faster than inhibition by barbital (3 ms vs. <0.1 ms at the Ki). Pentobarbital binds ≥10-fold more tightly to open channels than to closed channels; we could not determine whether the binding of barbital is state dependent. Experiments performed with both barbiturates reveal that they do not compete for a single binding site on the acetylcholine receptor channel protein, but the binding of one barbiturate destabilizes the binding of the other. These results support a kinetic model in which barbiturates bind to both open and closed states of the AChR and block the flow of ions through the channel. An additional, lower-affinity binding site for pentobarbital may explain the effects seen at >100 μM pentobarbital. PMID:9089445

  12. Mechanisms of barbiturate inhibition of acetylcholine receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Dilger, J P; Boguslavsky, R; Barann, M; Katz, T; Vidal, A M

    1997-03-01

    We used patch clamp techniques to study the inhibitory effects of pentobarbital and barbital on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels from BC3H-1 cells. Single channel recording from outside-out patches reveals that both drugs cause acetylcholine-activated channel events to occur in bursts. The mean duration of gaps within bursts in 2 ms for 0.1 mM pentobarbital and 0.05 ms for 1 mM barbital. In addition, 1 mM barbital reduces the apparent single channel current by 15%. Both barbiturates decrease the duration of openings within a burst but have only a small effect on the burst duration. Macroscopic currents were activated by rapid perfusion of 300 microM acetylcholine to outside-out patches. The concentration dependence of peak current inhibition was fit with a Hill function; for pentobarbital, Ki = 32 microM, n = 1.09; for barbital, Ki = 1900 microM, n = 1.24. Inhibition is voltage independent. The kinetics of inhibition by pentobarbital are at least 30 times faster than inhibition by barbital (3 ms vs. < 0.1 ms at the Ki). Pentobarbital binds > or = 10-fold more tightly to open channels than to closed channels; we could not determine whether the binding of barbital is state dependent. Experiments performed with both barbiturates reveal that they do not compete for a single binding site on the acetylcholine receptor channel protein, but the binding of one barbiturate destabilizes the binding of the other. These results support a kinetic model in which barbiturates bind to both open and closed states of the AChR and block the flow of ions through the channel. An additional, lower-affinity binding site for pentobarbital may explain the effects seen at > 100 microM pentobarbital. PMID:9089445

  13. A new family of insect muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Xia, R-Y; Li, M-Q; Wu, Y-S; Qi, Y-X; Ye, G-Y; Huang, J

    2016-08-01

    Most currently used insecticides are neurotoxic chemicals that target a limited number of sites and insect cholinergic neurotransmission is the major target. A potential target for insecticide development is the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), which is a metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptor. Insects have A- and B-type mAChRs and the five mammalian mAChRs are close to the A-type. We isolated a cDNA (CG12796) from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. After heterologous expression in Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells, CG12796 could be activated by acetylcholine [EC50 (half maximal effective concentration), 73 nM] and the mAChR agonist oxotremorine M (EC50 , 48.2 nM) to increase intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Thus, the new mAChR is coupled to Gq/11 but not Gs and Gi/o . The classical mAChR antagonists atropine and scopolamine N-butylbromide at 100 μM completely blocked the acetylcholine-induced responses. The orthologues of CG12796 can also be found in the genomes of other insects, but not in the genomes of the honeybee or parasitoid wasps. Knockdown of CG12796 in the central nervous system had no effect on male courtship behaviours. We suggest that CG12796 represents the first recognized member of a novel mAChR class. PMID:27003873

  14. Comparative study of human intestinal and hepatic esterases as related to enzymatic properties and hydrolizing activity for ester-type drugs.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Morikawa, M; Tsuboi, M; Ito, Y; Sugiura, M

    1980-08-01

    In attempts to determine the exact role of intestinal esterase in the body, we purified esterases from human intestinal mucosa and liver, and compared the enzymatic properties and substrate specificities with those of purified esterases. Esterase from human liver was purified 58-fold, by treatment with butanol, DE-52 and DEAE Sephadex A-50 column chromatographies, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, and isoelectric focusing. The purified preparation showed a single band by polyacylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weights of intestinal and hepatic esterases were determined to be 53,000-55,000 and 180,000, respectively, by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The activity of the purified intestinal and hepatic esterases was strongly inhibited by diethyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphate and diisopropyl fluorophosphate, and was not inhibited by eserine sulfate and p-chloromercuribenzoate. Moreover, the purified esterases hydrolyzed ester-type drugs such as aspirin, clofibrate, indanyl carbenicillin and procaine. Hepatic esterase had properties similar to those of intestinal esterase with respect to the sensitivity to organophosphate and the substrate specificity. However, the two purified esterases differed in properties such as molecular weight, isoelectric point, thermostability and optimal pH. PMID:7206363

  15. Aqueous Fraction of Beta vulgaris Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice due to Enhanced Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion, Mediated by Acetylcholine and GLP-1, and Elevated Glucose Uptake via Increased Membrane Bound GLUT4 Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Samad, Mehdi Bin; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Akhter, Farjana; Tasnim, Jinat; Hasan, S. M. Nageeb; Sayfe, Sania Sarker; Hannan, J. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was designed to investigate the probable mechanisms of anti-hyperglycemic activity of B. Vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Aqueous fraction of B. Vulgaris extract was the only active fraction (50mg/kg). Plasma insulin level was found to be the highest at 30 mins after B. Vulgaris administration at a dose of 200mg/kg. B. Vulgaris treated mice were also assayed for plasma Acetylcholine, Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP), Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Pancreatic Polypeptides (PP), and Somatostatin, along with the corresponding insulin levels. Plasma Acetylcholine and GLP-1 significantly increased in B. Vulgaris treated animals and were further studied. Pharmacological enhancers, inhibitors, and antagonists of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 were also administered to the test animals, and corresponding insulin levels were measured. These studies confirmed the role of acetylcholine and GLP-1 in enhanced insulin secretion (p<0.05). Principal signaling molecules were quantified in isolated mice islets for the respective pathways to elucidate their activities. Elevated concentrations of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 in B. Vulgaris treated mice were found to be sufficient to activate the respective pathways for insulin secretion (p<0.05). The amount of membrane bound GLUT1 and GLUT4 transporters were quantified and the subsequent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were assayed. We showed that levels of membrane bound GLUT4 transporters, glucose-6-phosphate in skeletal myocytes, activity of glycogen synthase, and level of glycogen deposited in the skeletal muscles all increased (p<0.05). Conclusion Findings of the present study clearly prove the role of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 in the Insulin secreting activity of B. Vulgaris. Increased glucose uptake in the skeletal muscles and subsequent glycogen synthesis may also play a part in

  16. Suitability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor 3 Antibodies for Immune Detection: Evaluation in Murine Skin.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Frank R; Raghavan, Badrinarayanan; Paddenberg, Renate; Kummer, Wolfgang; Tumala, Susanne; Lochnit, Günter; Gieler, Uwe; Peters, Eva M J

    2015-05-01

    Recent evidence reveals a crucial role for acetylcholine and its receptors in the regulation of inflammation, particularly of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (Chrna7) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (Chrm3). Immunohistochemistry is a key tool for their cellular localization in functional tissues. We evaluated nine different commercially available antibodies on back skin tissue from wild-type (Wt) and gene-deficient (KO) mice. In the immunohistochemical analysis, we focused on key AChR-ligand sensitive skin cells (mast cells, nerve fibers and keratinocytes). All five antibodies tested for Chrm3 and the first three Chrna7 antibodies stained positive in both Wt and respective KO skin. With the 4th antibody (ab23832) nerve fibers were unlabeled in the KO mice. By western blot analysis, this antibody detected bands in both Wt and Chrna7 KO skin and brain. qRT-PCR revealed mRNA amplification with a primer set for the undeleted region in both Wt and KO mice, but none with a primer set for the deleted region in KO mice. By 2D electrophoresis, we found β-actin and β-enolase cross reactivity, which was confirmed by double immunolabeling. In view of the present results, the tested antibodies are not suitable for immunolocalization in skin and suggest thorough control of antibody specificity is required if histomorphometry is intended. PMID:25673288

  17. Comparison of (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding in mouse brain: regional distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sershen, H.; Reith, M.E.; Hashim, A.; Lajtha, A.

    1985-06-01

    In a continuing study of nicotine binding sites, the authors determined the relative amount of nicotine binding and acetylcholine binding in various brain regions of C57/BL and of DBA mice. Although midbrain showed the highest and cerebellum the lowest binding for both (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine, the ratio of nicotine to acetylcholine binding showed a three-fold regional variation. Acetylcholine inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding indicated that a portion of nicotine binding was not inhibited by acetylcholine. These results indicate important differences between the binding of (+/-)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine and that of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine.

  18. The role of acetylcholine in the regulation of ion transport by rat colon mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Browning, J. G.; Hardcastle, Jacqueline; Hardcastle, P. T.; Sanford, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    1. Acetylcholine increases the potential difference across rat proximal colon both in vivo and in vitro. 2. There is a sigmoid relationship between the change in potential difference and the logarithm of the dose of acetylcholine. The dose—response curve is shifted to the left by neostigmine and to the right by atropine, suggesting that the action of acetylcholine is mediated by a muscarinic type of receptor. 3. The dose-response curve for acetylcholine in vivo is not altered by the ganglion-blocking agents hexamethonium and pentolinium, suggesting a direct effect of this transmitter on the colon. 4. Acetylcholine causes an increase in potential difference, a small decrease in resistance and hence a rise in the current generated by both normal and stripped everted sacs of rat colon. 5. In the absence of sodium, the calculated current change produced by acetylcholine is reduced, and the removal of chloride has a similar inhibitory effect. The absence of bicarbonate does not significantly affect the response. 6. Acetylcholine virtually abolished net sodium movement and induced net chloride secretion and these changes accounted for the increased short-circuit current. 7. Acetylcholine had no effect on oxygen consumption by rings of colon. 8. Tracts staining for acetylcholinesterase were observed running from the submucous plexus towards the mucosal epithelium. 9. This study shows that acetylcholine can influence ion movement by rat colonic mucosa and suggests that the autonomic nervous system might be involved in the regulation of transport mechanisms in this tissue. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:592212

  19. Effects of cooling on the response of the snail bursting neuron to acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Nedeljković, Miodrag; Kartelija, Gordana; Radenović, Lidija

    2005-06-01

    The Br-type neuron of the snail Helix pomatia, involved in neuronal regulation of various homeostatic and adaptive mechanisms, represents an interesting model for studying effects of temperature change on neuronal activity of poikilotherms. Acetylcholine induces a transient, inward dose-dependent current in the identified Br neuron. In the work presented, we analyzed the effects of cooling on the acetylcholine-induced inward current. The amplitude of acetylcholine-induced inward current was markedly decreased after cooling, and the speed of the decay of acetylcholine response was decreased. PMID:16154950

  20. Proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Beverly A; Tomaszewski, Joseph E

    2015-07-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have a 20 year history in cancer therapy. The first proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), a break-through multiple myeloma treatment, moved rapidly through development from bench in 1994 to first approval in 2003. Bortezomib is a reversible boronic acid inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome. Next generation proteasome inhibitors include carfilzomib and oprozomib which are irreversible epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors; and ixazomib and delanzomib which are reversible boronic acid proteasome inhibitors. Two proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib are FDA approved drugs and ixazomib and oprozomib are in late stage clinical trials. All of the agents are potent cytotoxics. The disease focus for all the proteasome inhibitors is multiple myeloma. This focus arose from clinical observations made in bortezomib early clinical trials. Later preclinical studies confirmed that multiple myeloma cells were indeed more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than other tumor cell types. The discovery and development of the proteasome inhibitor class of anticancer agents has progressed through a classic route of serendipity and scientific investigation. These agents are continuing to have a major impact in their treatment of hematologic malignancies and are beginning to be explored as potential treatment agent for non-cancer indications. PMID:25935605

  1. Evolution of the Alpha-Esterase Duplication within the Montana Subphylad of the Virilis Species Group of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Baker, William K.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies on linkage disequilibrium involving four tightly linked genes that code for the alpha-esterases of Drosophila montana suggest that these loci arose from a primitive esterase gene by gene duplication, followed by tandem duplication (Roberts and Baker 1973). We have examined the esterase variants in the closely related species, lacicola, flavomontana and borealis. These studies reveal that borealis has only a single esterase locus, and flavomontana may have only two loci. Cytological studies, using aceto-orcein staining and Hoechst fluorescence of squashes of ganglion chromosomes, reveal acrocentric Y chromosomes for all six species of the montana phylad, with the exception of borealis, which has the primitive rod-shaped Y chromosome. These studies provide evidence against the hypothesis (Stone, Guest and Wilson 1960) that borealis and flavomontana are derived from montana, but support Throckmorton's (1978) conclusion of the early divergence of the former two species. This phylogenetic relationship supports our contention that the difference in the number of esterase genes with active alleles between borealis and montana is based on an increase in the number of genes coding for the alpha-esterases, rather than the retention in borealis of three genes with null alleles. PMID:17249016

  2. Gene Cloning and Nucleotide Sequencing and Properties of a Cocaine Esterase from Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB1

    PubMed Central

    Bresler, Matthew M.; Rosser, Susan J.; Basran, Amrik; Bruce, Neil C.

    2000-01-01

    A strain of Rhodococcus designated MB1, which was capable of utilizing cocaine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of the tropane alkaloid-producing plant Erythroxylum coca. A cocaine esterase was found to initiate degradation of cocaine, which was hydrolyzed to ecgonine methyl ester and benzoate; both of these esterolytic products were further metabolized by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1. The structural gene encoding a cocaine esterase, designated cocE, was cloned from Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1 genomic libraries by screening recombinant strains of Rhodococcus erythropolis CW25 for growth on cocaine. The nucleotide sequence of cocE corresponded to an open reading frame of 1,724 bp that codes for a protein of 574 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of cocaine esterase has a region of similarity with the active serine consensus of X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidases, suggesting that the cocaine esterase is a serine esterase. The cocE coding sequence was subcloned into the pCFX1 expression plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant cocaine esterase was purified to apparent homogeneity and was found to be monomeric, with an Mr of approximately 65,000. The apparent Km of the enzyme (mean ± standard deviation) for cocaine was measured as 1.33 ± 0.085 mM. These findings are of potential use in the development of a linked assay for the detection of illicit cocaine. PMID:10698749

  3. The role of calcium in the hydrolysis of the organophosphate paraoxon by human serum A-esterase.

    PubMed

    Vitarius, J A; Sultatos, L G

    1995-01-01

    Human serum A-esterase is a calcium-dependent enzyme that hydrolyzes the organophosphate paraoxon by an Ordered Uni Bi kinetic mechanism. Incubation of various concentrations of calcium chloride with human serum A-esterase resulted in corresponding changes in appk3 and appE for the reaction, while appk2 was unaffected. Carboxyglutamic acid (CAG) prevented calcium chloride from altering appk3, but not appE. Similarly CAG reduced the calcium-stimulated nonenzymatic hydrolysis of paraoxon, as well as the calcium-stimulated de-phosphorylation of chymotrypsin phosphorylated by paraoxon. These results suggest that calcium plays two roles in the hydrolysis of paraoxon by A-esterase. Firstly, calcium is required in order to maintain an active site. In this capacity calcium might participate directly in the catalytic reaction, or it might be required in order to maintain the appropriate confirmation of the active site. And secondly, free calcium (or calcium weakly associated with A-esterase) facilitates the removal of diethyl phosphate from A-esterase, probably by polarizing the P = O bond of the diethyl phosphate-A-esterase intermediate, thereby rendering phosphorus more susceptible to nucleophilic attack by hydroxide ions. PMID:7823759

  4. Transient Receptor Potential Channel Opening Releases Endogenous Acetylcholine, which Contributes to Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Induced by Mild Hypothermia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat but Not Wistar-Kyoto Rat Arteries.

    PubMed

    Zou, Q; Leung, S W S; Vanhoutte, P M

    2015-08-01

    Mild hypothermia causes endothelium-dependent relaxations, which are reduced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. The present study investigated whether endothelial endogenous acetylcholine contributes to these relaxations. Aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were contracted with prostaglandin F2 α and exposed to progressive mild hypothermia (from 37 to 31°C). Hypothermia induced endothelium-dependent, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive relaxations, which were reduced by atropine, but not by mecamylamine, in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. The responses in SHR aortae were also reduced by acetylcholinesterase (the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine degradation), bromoacetylcholine (inhibitor of acetylcholine synthesis), hemicholinium-3 (inhibitor of choline uptake), and vesamicol (inhibitor of acetylcholine release). The mild hypothermia-induced relaxations in both SHR and WKY rat aortae were inhibited by AMTB [N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-[(3-methylphenyl)methoxy]-N-(2-thienylmethyl)-benzamide; the transient receptor potential (TRP) M8 inhibitor]; only those in SHR aortae were inhibited by HC-067047 [2-methyl-1-[3-(4-morpholinyl)propyl]-5-phenyl-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide; TRPV4 antagonist] while those in WKY rat aortae were reduced by HC-030031 [2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide; TRPA1 antagonist]. The endothelial uptake of extracellular choline and release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate was enhanced by mild hypothermia and inhibited by HC-067047 in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. Compared with WKY rats, the SHR preparations expressed similar levels of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase, but a lesser amount of vesicular acetylcholine transporter, located mainly in the endothelium. Thus, mild hypothermia causes nitric oxide-dependent relaxations by opening TRPA1 channels in WKY rat aortae

  5. A New Strategy for Fluorogenic Esterase Probes Displaying Low Levels of Non-specific Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwoo; Kim, Hyunjin; Choi, Yongdoo; Kim, Youngmi

    2015-06-26

    A new design for fluorescence probes of esterase activity that features a carboxylate-side pro-fluorophore is demonstrated with boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probes 1 a and 1 b. Because the design relies on the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of an ester group that is not electronically activated, these probes exhibit a stability to background hydrolysis that is far superior to classical alcohol-side profluorophore-based probes, large signal-to-noise ratios, reduced sensitivity to pH variations, and high enzymatic reactivity. The utility of probe 1 a was established with a real-time fluorescence imaging experiment of endogenous esterase activity that does not require washing of the extracellular medium. PMID:26033618

  6. Review on technological and scientific aspects of feruloyl esterases: A versatile enzyme for biorefining of biomass.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Nishant; Rodríguez-Duran, L V; Saucedo-Castaneda, G; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2015-10-01

    With increasing focus on sustainable energy, bio-refining from lignocellulosic biomass has become a thrust area of research. With most of the works being focused on biofuels, significant efforts are also being directed towards other value added products. Feruloyl esterases (EC. 3.1.1.73) can be used as a tool for bio-refining of lignocellulosic material for the recovery and purification of ferulic acid and related hydroxycinnamic acids ubiquitously found in the plant cell wall. More and more genes coding for feruloyl esterases have been mined out from various sources to allow efficient enzymatic release of ferulic acid and allied hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) from plant-based biomass. A sum up on enzymatic extraction of HCAs and its recovery from less explored agro residual by-products is still a missing link and this review brushes up the achieved landmarks so far in this direction and also covers a detailed patent search on this biomass refining enzyme. PMID:26159377

  7. Crystal structure of an acetyl esterase complexed with acetate ion provides insights into the catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Uechi, Keiko; Kamachi, Saori; Akita, Hironaga; Mine, Shouhei; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2016-08-26

    We previously reported the crystal structure of an acetyl esterase (TcAE206) belonging to carbohydrate esterase family 3 from Talaromyces cellulolyticus. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of an S10A mutant of TcAE206 complexed with an acetate ion. The acetate ion was stabilized by three hydrogen bonds in the oxyanion hole instead of a water molecule as in the structure of wild-type TcAE206. Furthermore, the catalytic triad residue His182 moved 0.8 Å toward the acetate ion upon substrate entering the active site, suggesting that this movement is necessary for completion of the catalytic reaction. PMID:27329813

  8. Is Esterase-P Encoded by a Cryptic Pseudogene in Drosophila Melanogaster?

    PubMed Central

    Balakirev, E. S.; Ayala, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have amplified and sequenced the gene encoding Esterase-P (Est-P) in 10 strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Three premature termination codons occur in the coding region of the gene in two strains. This observation, together with other indirect evidence, leads us to propose that Est-P may be a pseudogene in D. melanogaster. Est-P would be a ``cryptic'' pseudogene, in the sense that it retains intact the coding sequence (without stop codons and other alterations usually observed in pseudogenes) in most D. melanogaster strains. We conjecture that the β-esterase cluster may consist in other Drosophila species of functional and nonfunctional genes. We also conjecture that the rarity of detected pseudogenes in Drosophila may be due to the difficulty of discovering them, because most of them are cryptic. PMID:8978040

  9. Improved biomass degradation using fungal glucuronoyl-esterases-hydrolysis of natural corn fiber substrate.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Clotilde; Börjesson, Johan; Ding, Hanshu; Krogh, Kristian B R M; Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Madsen, Robert; Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2016-02-10

    Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) are in part responsible for the recalcitrance of lignocellulosics in relation to industrial utilization of biomass for biofuels. Glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) belonging to the carbohydrate esterase family 15 have been proposed to be able to degrade ester LCCs between glucuronic acids in xylans and lignin alcohols. By means of synthesized complex LCC model substrates we provide kinetic data suggesting a preference of fungal GEs for esters of bulky arylalkyl alcohols such as ester LCCs. Furthermore, using natural corn fiber substrate we report the first examples of improved degradation of lignocellulosic biomass by the use of GEs. Improved C5 sugar, glucose and glucuronic acid release was observed when heat pretreated corn fiber was incubated in the presence of GEs from Cerrena unicolor and Trichoderma reesei on top of different commercial cellulase/hemicellulase preparations. These results emphasize the potential of GEs for delignification of biomass thereby improving the overall yield of fermentable sugars for biofuel production. PMID:26712478

  10. Biocatalytic synthesis of poly(δ-valerolactone) using a thermophilic esterase from archaeoglobus fulgidus as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong; Han, Haobo; Li, Guangquan; Yang, Jiebing; Zhang, Lingfei; Yang, Yan; Fang, Xuedong; Li, Quanshun

    2012-01-01

    The ring-opening polymerization of δ-valerolactone catalyzed by a thermophilic esterase from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus was successfully conducted in organic solvents. The effects of enzyme concentration, temperature, reaction time and reaction medium on monomer conversion and product molecular weight were systematically evaluated. Through the optimization of reaction conditions, poly(δ-valerolactone) was produced in 97% monomer conversion, with a number-average molecular weight of 2225 g/mol, in toluene at 70 °C for 72 h. This paper has produced a new biocatalyst for the synthesis of poly(δ-valerolactone), and also deeper insight has been gained into the mechanism of thermophilic esterase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization. PMID:23202895

  11. Role of arachidonic acid lipoxygenase metabolites in acetylcholine-induced relaxations of mouse arteries.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Kathryn M; Goldman, Daniel H; Aggarwal, Nitin T; Chawengsub, Yuttana; Falck, J R; Campbell, William B

    2011-03-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites function as EDHFs in arteries of many species. They mediate cyclooxygenase (COX)- and nitric oxide (NO)-independent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh). However, the role of AA metabolites as relaxing factors in mouse arteries remains incompletely defined. ACh caused concentration-dependent relaxations of the mouse thoracic and abdominal aorta and carotid, femoral, and mesentery arteries (maximal relaxation: 57 ± 4%, 72 ± 4%, 82 ± 3%, 80 ± 3%, and 85 ± 3%, respectively). The NO synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine (L-NA; 30 μM) blocked relaxations in the thoracic aorta, and L-NA plus the COX inhibitor indomethacin (10 μM) inhibited relaxations in the abdominal aorta and carotid, femoral, and mesenteric arteries (maximal relaxation: 31 ± 10%, 33 ± 5%, 41 ± 8%, and 73 ± 3%, respectively). In mesenteric arteries, NO- and COX-independent relaxations to ACh were inhibited by the lipoxygenase (LO) inhibitors nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; 10 μM) and BW-755C (200 μM), the K(+) channel inhibitor apamin (1 μM), and 60 mM KCl and eliminated by endothelium removal. They were not altered by the cytochrome P-450 inhibitor N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (20 μM) or the epoxyeicosatrienoic acid antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (10 μM). AA relaxations were attenuated by NDGA or apamin and eliminated by 60 mM KCl. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis revealed arterial [(14)C]AA metabolites that comigrated with prostaglandins, trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (THETAs), hydroxyepoxyeicosatrienoic acids (HEETAs), and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids were not observed. Mass spectrometry confirmed the identity of 6-keto-PGF(1α), PGE(2), 12-HETE, 15-HETE, HEETAs, 11,12,15-THETA, and 11,14,15-THETA. AA metabolism was blocked by NDGA and endothelium removal. 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA relaxations (maximal relaxation: 73 ± 3%) were endothelium independent and blocked by 60 mM KCl. Western

  12. The effects of postnatal alcohol exposure and galantamine on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect and acetylcholine efflux using in vivo microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Amy E.; Fadel, Jim R.; Kelly, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) affect 2–5% of children. FASD have been shown to cause damage to multiple brain regions, but damage to the hippocampus specifically may explain deficits in learning and memory that are hallmark symptoms of FASD. The acetylcholine neurotransmitter system is a major input to the hippocampus and is a possible target of developmental alcohol exposure. Alcohol (3.0 g/kg/day) was administered via intragastric intubation to developing male rat pups (postnatal day [PD] 2–10; ethanol-treated [ET]), with controls receiving a sham intubation (IC) or no treatment (NC). In Experiment 1, in vivo microdialysis was used to measure acetylcholine efflux in adolescents (PD 32–35). During microdialysis, the effects of a high K+/Ca2+ aCSF solution (PD 32–33) and an acute galantamine (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] inhibitor) injection (2.0 mg/kg; PD 34–35) on acetylcholine efflux were measured. Alcohol-exposed animals did not differ in acetylcholine efflux at baseline. However, alcohol-exposed animals had a decrease in K+/Ca2+-induced acetylcholine efflux compared to non-treated controls, and an enhanced acetylcholine response to galantamine compared to both control groups. Experiment 2 tested whether chronic administration of galantamine (2.0 mg/kg; PD 11–30) could attenuate alcohol-induced learning deficits in the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE; PD 30–32). Neither chronic galantamine nor postnatal alcohol exposure influenced performance in the CPFE task. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; medial septum), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (vAChT; ventral CA1), and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR; ventral CA1) following microdialysis (Exp. 1) or chronic galantamine and behavioral testing (Exp. 2). Neither alcohol exposure nor behavioral testing significantly altered the density of vAChT or α7 nAChRs in the ventral CA1 region of the

  13. Polymorphism of salivary esterase and alpha-amylase in the Greek population.

    PubMed

    Petalopoulos, A; Fousteri, M; Kouvatsi, A; Triantaphyllidis, C

    1993-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of two salivary enzymes (esterase and alpha-amylase) was studied in individuals from eight districts of Greece. The pooled gene frequencies were: SetS = 0.63, SetF = 0.37, AMY1 = 0.87, AMY2 = 0.10, AMY3 = 0.02, and AMY4 = 0.01. There was no intrapopulation heterogeneity, while there was a significant difference between the Greeks and the few other European populations studied. PMID:7507080

  14. Environmental Factors Modulating the Stability and Enzymatic Activity of the Petrotoga mobilis Esterase (PmEst)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Julia M.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Jameson, David M.; Castro, Aline M.; Bossolan, Nelma R. S.; Wallace, B. A.; Araujo, Ana P. U.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes isolated from thermophilic organisms found in oil reservoirs can find applications in many fields, including the oleochemical, pharmaceutical, bioenergy, and food/dairy industries. In this study, in silico identification and recombinant production of an esterase from the extremophile bacteria Petrotoga mobilis (designated PmEst) were performed. Then biochemical, bioinformatics and structural characterizations were undertaken using a combination of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) and fluorescence spectroscopies to correlate PmEst stability and hydrolytic activity on different substrates. The enzyme presented a high Michaelis-Menten constant (KM 0.16 mM) and optimum activity at ~55°C for p-nitrophenyl butyrate. The secondary structure of PmEst was preserved at acid pH, but not under alkaline conditions. PmEst was unfolded at high concentrations of urea or guanidine through apparently different mechanisms. The esterase activity of PmEst was preserved in the presence of ethanol or propanol and its melting temperature increased ~8°C in the presence of these organic solvents. PmEst is a mesophilic esterase with substrate preference towards short-to medium-length acyl chains. The SRCD data of PmEst is in agreement with the prediction of an α/β protein, which leads us to assume that it displays a typical fold of esterases from this family. The increased enzyme stability in organic solvents may enable novel applications for its use in synthetic biology. Taken together, our results demonstrate features of the PmEst enzyme that indicate it may be suitable for applications in industrial processes, particularly, when the use of polar organic solvents is required. PMID:27351338

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of Capsicum spp germplasm bank accessions based on α/β-esterase polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, E R; Bronzato, A R; Orasmo, G R; Lopes, A C A; Gomes, R L F; Mangolin, C A; Machado, M F P S

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity and structure were analyzed in 10 accessions belonging to Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Capsicum located at Federal University of Piauí in northwestern Brazil that receives pepper samples grown in community gardens in various regions and Brazilian states. Selections were made from seeds of C. chinense (4 accessions), C. annuum (5 accessions), and C. baccatum (1 accession). Samples consisting of leaves were collected from 4-10 plants of each accession (a total of 85 plants). Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify α- and β-esterase polymorphisms. Polymorphism was clearly detected in 5 loci. Sixteen alleles were found at 5 α/β-esterase loci of the three Capsicum species. In the C. chinense samples, the highest HO and HE values were 0.3625 and 0.4395, respectively, whereas in C. annuum samples, HO and HE values were 0.2980 and 0.3310, respectively; the estimated HO and HE values in C. chinense samples were higher than those detected in C. annuum samples. A deficit of homozygous individuals was found in C. chinense (FIS = -0.6978) and C. annuum (FIS = 0.7750). Genetic differentiation between C. chinense and C. annuum at these loci was high (FST = 0.1867) indicating that C. chinense and C. annuum are genetically structured species for α/β- esterase isozymes. The esterase analysis showed high genetic diversity among the C. chinense and C. annuum samples and very high genetic differentiation (FST = 0.6321) among the C. chinense and C. annuum samples and the C. baccatum accession. PMID:23661440

  16. Gene cloning and characterization of a cold-adapted esterase from Acinetobacter venetianus V28.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ok; Heo, Yu Li; Kim, Hyung-Kwoun; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Bong-Seok; Jee, Young-Ju; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-09-01

    Acinetobacter venetians V28 was isolated from the intestine of righteye flounder, Poecilopsetta plinthus caught in Vietnam seawater, and the esterase gene was cloned using a shotgun method. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence (1,017 bp) corresponded to a protein of 338 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 37,186. The esterase had 87% and 72% identities with the lipases of A. junii SH205 and A. calcoaceticus RUH2202, respectively. The esterase contained a putative leader sequence, as well as the conserved catalytic triad (Ser, His, Asp), consensus pentapeptide GXSXG, and oxyanion hole sequence (HG). The protein from the strain V28 was produced in both a soluble and an insoluble form when the Escherichia coli cells harboring the gene were cultured at 18 degrees C. The maximal activity of the purified enzyme was observed at a temperature of 40 degrees C and pH 9.0 using p-NP-caprylate as substrate; however, relative activity still reached to 70% even at 5 degrees C with an activation energy of 3.36 kcal/mol, which indicated that it was a cold-adapted enzyme. The enzyme was a nonmetalloprotein and was active against p-nitrophenyl esters of C4, C8, and C14. Remarkably, this enzyme retained much of its activity in the presence of commercial detergents and organic solvents. This cold-adapted esterase will be applicable as catalysts for reaction in the presence of organic solvents and detergents. PMID:22814499

  17. A Chlorogenic Acid Esterase with a Unique Substrate Specificity from Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Haase-Aschoff, Paul; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Krings, Ulrich; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G.

    2014-01-01

    An extracellular chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis (UmChlE) was purified to homogeneity by using three separation steps, including anion-exchange chromatography on a Q Sepharose FF column, preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), and, finally, a combination of affinity chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on polyamide. SDS-PAGE analysis suggested a monomeric protein of ∼71 kDa. The purified enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 7.5 and at 37°C and was active over a wide pH range (3.5 to 9.5). Previously described chlorogenic acid esterases exhibited a comparable affinity for chlorogenic acid, but the enzyme from Ustilago was also active on typical feruloyl esterase substrates. Kinetic constants for chlorogenic acid, methyl p-coumarate, methyl caffeate, and methyl ferulate were as follows: Km values of 19.6 μM, 64.1 μM, 72.5 μM, and 101.8 μM, respectively, and kcat/Km values of 25.83 mM−1 s−1, 7.63 mM−1 s−1, 3.83 mM−1 s−1 and 3.75 mM−1 s−1, respectively. UmChlE released ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids from natural substrates such as destarched wheat bran (DSWB) and coffee pulp (CP), confirming activity on complex plant biomass. The full-length gene encoding UmChlE consisted of 1,758 bp, corresponding to a protein of 585 amino acids, and was functionally produced in Pichia pastoris GS115. Sequence alignments with annotated chlorogenic acid and feruloyl esterases underlined the uniqueness of this enzyme. PMID:25548041

  18. Butyrivibrio spp. and other xylanolytic microorganisms from the rumen have cinnamoyl esterase activity.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, C S; Dulieu, A; Bunch, R

    1998-02-01

    High concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids in the hemicellulosic fraction of dry season tropical grasses may influence the rate of microbial degradation of arabinoxylans by ruminant animals. The ability of 22 strains of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, other ruminal bacteria (Ruminococcus albus SY3, Ruminococcus flavefaciens RF1,Prevotella ruminicola AR20) and the ruminal phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum CX to digest the tropical grass Heteropogon contortus(spear grass) and hydrolyse esterified ferulic and p-coumaric acid was examined. Significant digestion (8-36%) of spear grass occurred with the B. fibrisolvens strains H17c, A38, LP92-1-1, 49,R. albus SY3 and N. patriciarum. Hydrolysis of ester-linked ferulic and p-coumaric acid occurred with all organisms except B. fibrisolvens strains GS113, OB156 and LP1028 and P. ruminicola AR20. The ratio of ferulic to p-coumaric acid hydrolysed by different strains of Butyrivibrio spp. varied markedly from 0.96 for AR 51 to 0.16 for A38. Butyrivibrios which were fibrolytic (H17c and A38) had higher extracellular cinnamoyl esterase activity than bacteria that did not digest spear grass fibre (LP 91-4-1 and AR 20) which had low activities or only produced cell associated enzyme. Cell associated and extracellular esterase activity were induced when Butyrivibrio spp. strains H17c, A38 and E14 and the Ruminococcus spp. were grown on birchwood xylan but induction did not occur to the same extent with N. patriciarum. This is the first reported observation of cinnamoyl esterase activity in the genus Ruminococcus. The fungus N. patriciarum had significantly higher digestibility of spear grass and solubilisation of phenolic acids than the bacteria. The study shows that high levels of extracellular cinnamoyl esterases are characteristic of a selection of fibre-degrading ruminal bacteria and fungi which probably indicates that these enzymes are common amongst xylanolytic ruminal microorganisms. PMID:16887624

  19. Environmental Factors Modulating the Stability and Enzymatic Activity of the Petrotoga mobilis Esterase (PmEst).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Jose L S; Yoneda, Juliana S; Martins, Julia M; DeMarco, Ricardo; Jameson, David M; Castro, Aline M; Bossolan, Nelma R S; Wallace, B A; Araujo, Ana P U

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes isolated from thermophilic organisms found in oil reservoirs can find applications in many fields, including the oleochemical, pharmaceutical, bioenergy, and food/dairy industries. In this study, in silico identification and recombinant production of an esterase from the extremophile bacteria Petrotoga mobilis (designated PmEst) were performed. Then biochemical, bioinformatics and structural characterizations were undertaken using a combination of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) and fluorescence spectroscopies to correlate PmEst stability and hydrolytic activity on different substrates. The enzyme presented a high Michaelis-Menten constant (KM 0.16 mM) and optimum activity at ~55°C for p-nitrophenyl butyrate. The secondary structure of PmEst was preserved at acid pH, but not under alkaline conditions. PmEst was unfolded at high concentrations of urea or guanidine through apparently different mechanisms. The esterase activity of PmEst was preserved in the presence of ethanol or propanol and its melting temperature increased ~8°C in the presence of these organic solvents. PmEst is a mesophilic esterase with substrate preference towards short-to medium-length acyl chains. The SRCD data of PmEst is in agreement with the prediction of an α/β protein, which leads us to assume that it displays a typical fold of esterases from this family. The increased enzyme stability in organic solvents may enable novel applications for its use in synthetic biology. Taken together, our results demonstrate features of the PmEst enzyme that indicate it may be suitable for applications in industrial processes, particularly, when the use of polar organic solvents is required. PMID:27351338

  20. Biochemical Characterization of a Family 15 Carbohydrate Esterase from a Bacterial Marine Arctic Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    De Santi, Concetta; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2016-01-01

    Background The glucuronoyl esterase enzymes of wood-degrading fungi (Carbohydrate Esterase family 15; CE15) form part of the hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzyme systems that break down plant biomass, and have possible applications in biotechnology. Homologous enzymes are predicted in the genomes of several bacteria, however these have been much less studied than their fungal counterparts. Here we describe the recombinant production and biochemical characterization of a bacterial CE15 enzyme denoted MZ0003, which was identified by in silico screening of a prokaryotic metagenome library derived from marine Arctic sediment. MZ0003 has high similarity to several uncharacterized gene products of polysaccharide-degrading bacterial species, and phylogenetic analysis indicates a deep evolutionary split between these CE15s and fungal homologs. Results MZ0003 appears to differ from previously-studied CE15s in some aspects. Some glucuronoyl esterase activity could be measured by qualitative thin-layer chromatography which confirms its assignment as a CE15, however MZ0003 can also hydrolyze a range of other esters, including p-nitrophenyl acetate, which is not acted upon by some fungal homologs. The structure of MZ0003 also appears to differ as it is predicted to have several large loop regions that are absent in previously studied CE15s, and a combination of homology-based modelling and site-directed mutagenesis indicate its catalytic residues deviate from the conserved Ser-His-Glu triad of many fungal CE15s. Taken together, these results indicate that potentially unexplored diversity exists among bacterial CE15s, and this may be accessed by investigation of the microbial metagenome. The combination of low activity on typical glucuronoyl esterase substrates, and the lack of glucuronic acid esters in the marine environment suggest that the physiological substrate of MZ0003 and its homologs is likely to be different from that of related fungal enzymes. PMID:27433797

  1. Role of B-esterases in assessing toxicity of organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion) and carbamate (carbofuran) pesticides to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Barata, Carlos; Solayan, Arun; Porte, Cinta

    2004-02-10

    In this study, the cladoceran Daphnia magna was exposed to two model organophosphorous and one carbamate pesticides including malathion, chlorpyrifos and carbofuran to assess acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) inhibition and recovery patterns and relate those responses with individual level effects. Our results revealed differences in enzyme inhibition and recovery patterns among the studied esterase enzymes and pesticides. CbE was more sensitive to organophosphorous than AChE, whereas both CbE and AChE showed equivalent sensitivities to the carbamate carbofuran. Recovery patterns of AChE and CbE activities following exposure to the studied pesticides were similar with 80-100% recoveries taking place 12 and 96 h after exposure to organophosphorous and carbamates pesticides, respectively. The physiological role of AChE and CbE inhibition patterns in Daphnia was examined by using organophosphorous and carbamate compounds alone and with specific inhibitors of CbE. Under exposure to organophosphorous pesticides, survival of Daphnia juveniles was impaired at AChE inhibition levels higher than 50% whereas under exposure to the carbamate carbofuran low levels of AChE inhibition affected mortality. Inhibition of CbE by 80-90% increased toxicity to organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides by up to two- and four-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that both AChE and CbE enzymes are involved in determining toxicity of Daphnia to the studied chemicals and that AChE inhibition levels higher than 50% can be considered of environmental concern to Daphnia species. PMID:15036868

  2. Regulation of the Feruloyl Esterase (faeA) Gene from Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Ronald P.; Visser, Jaap

    1999-01-01

    Feruloyl esterases can remove aromatic residues (e.g., ferulic acid) from plant cell wall polysaccharides (xylan, pectin) and are essential for complete degradation of these polysaccharides. Expression of the feruloyl esterase-encoding gene (faeA) from Aspergillus niger depends on d-xylose (expression is mediated by XlnR, the xylanolytic transcriptional activator) and on a second system that responds to aromatic compounds with a defined ring structure, such as ferulic acid and vanillic acid. Several compounds were tested, and all of the inducing compounds contained a benzene ring which had a methoxy group at C-3 and a hydroxy group at C-4 but was not substituted at C-5. Various aliphatic groups occurred at C-1. faeA expression in the presence of xylose or ferulic acid was repressed by glucose. faeA expression in the presence of ferulic acid and xylose was greater than faeA expression in the presence of either compound alone. The various inducing systems allow A. niger to produce feruloyl esterase not only during growth on xylan but also during growth on other ferulic acid-containing cell wall polysaccharides, such as pectin. PMID:10584009

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel salt-tolerant esterase from a Tibetan glacier metagenomic library.

    PubMed

    De Santi, Concetta; Ambrosino, Luca; Tedesco, Pietro; Zhai, Lei; Zhou, Cheng; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; de Pascale, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    A salt-tolerant esterase, designated H9Est, was identified from a metagenomic library of the Karuola glacier. H9Est gene comprised 1071 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 357 amino acids with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. Sequence analysis revealed that H9Est belonged to the family IV of bacterial lypolitic enzyme. H9Est was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the purified enzyme showed hydrolytic activity towards p-nitrophenyl esters with carbon chain from 2 to 8. The optimal esterase activity was at 40°C and pH 8.0 and the enzyme retained its activity towards some miscible organic solvents such as polyethylene glycol. A three-dimensional model of H9Est revealed that S200, D294, and H324 formed the H9Est catalytic triad. Circular Dichroism spectra and molecular dynamic simulation indicated that the esterase had a wide denaturation temperature range and flexible loops that would be beneficial for H9Est performance at low temperatures while retaining heat-resistant features. PMID:25920073

  4. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel esterase from a South China Sea sediment metagenome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Fuchao; Chen, Huaxin; Zhao, Jin; Yan, Jinfei; Jiang, Peng; Li, Ronggui; Zhu, Baoli

    2015-07-01

    Lipolytic enzymes, including esterases and lipases, represent a group of hydrolases that catalyze the cleavage and formation of ester bonds. A novel esterase gene, scsEst01, was cloned from a South China Sea sediment metagenome. The scsEst01 gene consisted of 921 bp encoding 307 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence shared less than 90% identity with other lipolytic enzymes in the NCBI nonredundant protein database. ScsEst01 was successfully co-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with chaperones (dnaK-dnaJ-grpE) to prevent the formation of inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein was purified on an immobilized metal ion affinity column containing chelating Sepharose charged with Ni2+. The enzyme was characterized using p -nitrophenol butyrate as a substrate. ScsEst01 had the highest lipolytic activity at 35°C and pH 8.0, indicative of a meso-thermophilic alkaline esterase. ScsEst01 was thermostable at 20°C. The lipolytic activity of scsEst01 was strongly increased by Fe2+, Mn2+ and 1% Tween 80 or Tween 20.

  5. Quorum-Sensing Mechanisms Mediated by Farnesol in Ophiostoma piceae: Effect on Secretion of Sterol Esterase

    PubMed Central

    de Salas, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Ophiostoma piceae CECT 20416 is a dimorphic wood-staining fungus able to produce an extracellular sterol-esterase/lipase (OPE) that is of great biotechnological interest. In this work, we have studied the morphological change of this fungus from yeast to hyphae, which is associated with the cell density-related mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS), and how this affects the secretion of OPE. The data presented here confirm that the molecule E,E-farnesol accumulates as the cell number is growing within the population. The exogenous addition of this molecule or spent medium to the cultures increased the extracellular activity of OPE 2.5 times. This fact was related not to an increase in microbial biomass or in the expression of the gene coding for OPE but to a marked morphological transition in the cultures. Moreover, the morphological transition also occurred when a high cell density was inoculated into the medium. The results suggest that E,E-farnesol regulates through QS mechanisms the morphological transition in the dimorphic fungus O. piceae and that it is associated with a higher extracellular esterase activity. Furthermore, identification and transcriptional analysis of genes tup1 and cyr1, which are involved in the response, was carried out. Here we report enhanced production of a sterol-esterase/lipase of biotechnological interest by means of QS mechanisms. These results may be useful in increasing the production of secreted enzymes of other dimorphic fungi of biotechnological interest. PMID:25888179

  6. Characterization of two metagenome-derived esterases that reactivate chloramphenicol by counteracting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weixin; Lee, Myung Hwan; Yoon, Mi-Young; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Malhotra, Shweta; Wu, Jing; Hwang, Eul Chul; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2011-12-01

    Function-driven metagenomic analysis is a powerful approach to screening for novel biocatalysts. In this study, we investigated lipolytic enzymes selected from an alluvial soil metagenomic library, and identified two novel esterases, EstDL26 and EstDL136. EstDL26 and EstDL136 reactivated chloramphenicol from its acetyl derivates by counteracting the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in Escherichia coli. These two enzymes showed only 27% identity in amino acid sequence to each other; however both preferentially hydrolyzed short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (< or =C5) and showed mesophilic properties. In vitro, EstDL136 catalyzed the deacetylation of 1- and 3- acetyl and 1,3-diacetyl derivates; in contrast, EstDL26 was not capable of the deacetylation at C1, indicating a potential regioselectivity. EstDL26 and EstDL136 were similar to microbial hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and since chloramphenicol acetate esterase (CAE) activity was detected from two other soil esterases in the HSL family, this suggests a distribution of CAE among the soil microorganisms. The isolation and characterization of EstDL26 and EstDL136 in this study may be helpful in understanding the diversity of CAE enzymes and their potential role in releasing active chloramphenicol in the producing bacteria. PMID:22210605

  7. Novel Cold-Adapted Esterase MHlip from an Antarctic Soil Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Berlemont, Renaud; Jacquin, Olivier; Delsaute, Maud; La Salla, Marcello; Georis, Jacques; Verté, Fabienne; Galleni, Moreno; Power, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    An Antarctic soil metagenomic library was screened for lipolytic enzymes and allowed for the isolation of a new cytosolic esterase from the a/b hydrolase family 6, named MHlip. This enzyme is related to hypothetical genes coding esterases, aryl-esterases and peroxydases, among others. MHlip was produced, purified and its activity was determined. The substrate profile of MHlip reveals a high specificity for short p-nitrophenyl-esters. The apparent optimal activity of MHlip was measured for p-nitrophenyl-acetate, at 33 °C, in the pH range of 6-9. The MHlip thermal unfolding was investigated by spectrophotometric methods, highlighting a transition (Tm) at 50 °C. The biochemical characterization of this enzyme showed its adaptation to cold temperatures, even when it did not present evident signatures associated with cold-adapted proteins. Thus, MHlip adaptation to cold probably results from many discrete structural modifications, allowing the protein to remain active at low temperatures. Functional metagenomics is a powerful approach to isolate new enzymes with tailored biophysical properties (e.g., cold adaptation). In addition, beside the ever growing amount of sequenced DNA, the functional characterization of new catalysts derived from environment is still required, especially for poorly characterized protein families like α/b hydrolases. PMID:24832657

  8. Novel Cold-Adapted Esterase MHlip from an Antarctic Soil Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Berlemont, Renaud; Jacquin, Olivier; Delsaute, Maud; Salla, Marcello La; Georis, Jacques; Verté, Fabienne; Galleni, Moreno; Power, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    An Antarctic soil metagenomic library was screened for lipolytic enzymes and allowed for the isolation of a new cytosolic esterase from the α/β hydrolase family 6, named MHlip. This enzyme is related to hypothetical genes coding esterases, aryl-esterases and peroxydases, among others. MHlip was produced, purified and its activity was determined. The substrate profile of MHlip reveals a high specificity for short p-nitrophenyl-esters. The apparent optimal activity of MHlip was measured for p-nitrophenyl-acetate, at 33 °C, in the pH range of 6–9. The MHlip thermal unfolding was investigated by spectrophotometric methods, highlighting a transition (Tm) at 50 °C. The biochemical characterization of this enzyme showed its adaptation to cold temperatures, even when it did not present evident signatures associated with cold-adapted proteins. Thus, MHlip adaptation to cold probably results from many discrete structural modifications, allowing the protein to remain active at low temperatures. Functional metagenomics is a powerful approach to isolate new enzymes with tailored biophysical properties (e.g., cold adaptation). In addition, beside the ever growing amount of sequenced DNA, the functional characterization of new catalysts derived from environment is still required, especially for poorly characterized protein families like α/β hydrolases. PMID:24832657

  9. Continuous monitoring of cholesterol oleate hydrolysis by hormone-sensitive lipase and other cholesterol esterases.

    PubMed

    Ali, Yassine Ben; Carrière, Frédéric; Verger, Robert; Petry, Stefan; Muller, Günter; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2005-05-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) contributes importantly to the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester in steroidogenic tissues, releasing the cholesterol required for adrenal steroidogenesis. HSL has broad substrate specificity, because it hydrolyzes triacylglycerols (TAGs), diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. In this study, we developed a specific cholesterol esterase assay using cholesterol oleate (CO) dispersed in phosphatidylcholine and gum arabic by sonication. To continuously monitor the hydrolysis of CO by HSL, we used the pH-stat technique. For the sake of comparison, the hydrolysis of CO dispersion was also tested using other cholesteryl ester-hydrolyzing enzymes. The specific activities measured on CO were found to be 18, 100, 27, and 3 micromol/min/mg for HSL, cholesterol esterase from Pseudomonas species, Candida rugosa lipase-3, and cholesterol esterase from bovine pancreas, respectively. The activity of HSL on CO is approximately 4- to 5-fold higher than on long-chain TAGs. In contrast, with all other enzymes tested, the rates of TAG hydrolysis were higher than those of CO hydrolysis. The relatively higher turnover of HSL on CO observed in vitro adds further molecular insight on the physiological importance of HSL in cholesteryl ester catabolism in vivo. Thus, HSL could be considered more as a cholesteryl ester hydrolase than as a TAG lipase. PMID:15716583

  10. Production and characterization of a tributyrin esterase from Lactobacillus plantarum suitable for cheese lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Torres, M; Mancheño, J M; de las Rivas, B; Muñoz, R

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that can be found during cheese ripening. Lipolysis of milk triacylglycerols to free fatty acids during cheese ripening has fundamental consequences on cheese flavor. In the present study, the gene lp_1760, encoding a putative esterase or lipase, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the overproduced Lp_1760 protein was biochemically characterized. Lp_1760 hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl esters of fatty acids from C2 to C16, with a preference for p-nitrophenyl butyrate. On triglycerides, Lp_1760 showed higher activity on tributyrin than on triacetin. Although optimal conditions for activity were 45°C and pH 7, Lp_1760 retains activity under conditions commonly found during cheese making and ripening. The Lp_1760 showed more than 50% activity at 5°C and exhibited thermal stability at high temperatures. Enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The Lp_1760 tributyrin esterase showed high activity in the presence of NaCl, lactic acid, and calcium chloride. The results suggest that Lp_1760 might be a useful tributyrin esterase to be used in cheese manufacturing. PMID:25173466

  11. Hormone-sensitive lipase is a cholesterol esterase of the intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Grober, Jacques; Lucas, Stéphanie; Sörhede-Winzell, Maria; Zaghini, Isabelle; Mairal, Aline; Contreras, Juan-Antonio; Besnard, Philippe; Holm, Cecilia; Langin, Dominique

    2003-02-21

    The identity of the enzymes responsible for lipase and cholesterol esterase activities in the small intestinal mucosa is not known. Because hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylglycerols and cholesteryl esters, we sought to determine whether HSL could be involved. HSL mRNA and protein were detected in all segments of the small intestine by Northern and Western blot analyses, respectively. Immunocytochemistry experiments revealed that HSL was expressed in the differentiated enterocytes of the villi and was absent in the undifferentiated cells of the crypt. Diacylglycerol lipase and cholesterol esterase activities were found in the different segments. Analysis of gut from HSL-null mice showed that diacylglycerol lipase activity was unchanged in the duodenum and reduced in jejunum. Neutral cholesterol esterase activity was totally abolished in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of HSL-null mice. Analysis of HSL mRNA structure showed two types of transcripts expressed in equal amounts with alternative 5'-ends transcribed from two exons. This work demonstrates that HSL is expressed in the mucosa of the small intestine. The results also reveal that the enzyme participates in acylglycerol hydrolysis in jejunal enterocytes and cholesteryl ester hydrolysis throughout the small intestine. PMID:12482847

  12. Increasing hippocampal acetylcholine levels enhance behavioral performance in an animal model of diencephalic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Roland, Jessica J; Mark, Katherine; Vetreno, Ryan P; Savage, Lisa M

    2008-10-01

    Pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) was used to produce a rodent model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome that results in acute neurological disturbances, thalamic lesions, and learning and memory impairments. There is also cholinergic septohippocampal dysfunction in the PTD model. Systemic (Experiment 1) and intrahippocampal (Experiment 2) injections of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine were administered to determine if increasing acetylcholine levels would eliminate the behavioral impairment produced by PTD. Prior to spontaneous alternation testing, rats received injections of either physostigmine (systemic=0.075 mg/kg; intrahippocampal=20, 40 ng/muL) or saline. In Experiment 2, intrahippocampal injections of physostigmine significantly enhanced alternation rates in the PTD-treated rats. In addition, although intrahippocampal infusions of 40 ng of physostigmine increased the available amount of ACh in both pair-fed (PF) and PTD rats, it did so to a greater extent in PF rats. The increase in ACh levels induced by the direct hippocampal application of physostigmine in the PTD model likely increased activation of the extended limbic system, which was dysfunctional, and therefore led to recovery of function on the spontaneous alternation task. In contrast, the lack of behavioral improvement by intrahippocampal physostigmine infusion in the PF rats, despite a greater rise in hippocampal ACh levels, supports the theory that there is an optimal range of cholinergic tone for optimal behavioral and hippocampal function. PMID:18706897

  13. Effect of physostigmine and atropine on acetylcholine turnover in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Karlén, B; Lundgren, G; Lundin, J; Holmstedt, B

    1979-07-01

    The effect of physostigmine salicylate (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and in combination with atropine sulfate (25 mg/kg, i.p.) on levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) and turnover of ACh has been studied in whole brain and striatum of mice. The animals were killed by focussed microwave irradiation and the turnover of ACh was studied after i.v. injection of deuterium labelled Ch by employing mass fragmentography. Physostigmine increased the levels of ACh in whole brain from 24.5--28.0 nmol/g(P less than 0.001) whereas there was no significant increase in striatum. The levels of Ch were also increased. The turnover rate of ACh was decreased in whole brain from 15.4 to 8.4 and in striatum from 52.9 to 24.4 nmol/g . min. Physostigmine given before or after atropine did not completely block the ACh lowering effect of atropine. When atropine was given before physostigmine the turnover rate of ACh in whole brain was increased to 24.2 nmoles/g . min. The results seem to indicate that there is no clear cut relation between the turnover rate and level of ACh in vivo. The increase of the turnover rate induced by atropine is masked unless a cholinesterase inhibitor is given to protect the newly synthesized labelled ACh released by atropine. PMID:492354

  14. Diacylglycerol levels modulate the cellular distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kamerbeek, Constanza B; Mateos, Melina V; Vallés, Ana S; Pediconi, María F; Barrantes, Francisco J; Borroni, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG), a second messenger involved in different cell signaling cascades, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and D (PKD), among other kinases. The present work analyzes the effects resulting from the alteration of DAG levels on neuronal and muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) distribution. We employ CHO-K1/A5 cells, expressing adult muscle-type AChR in a stable manner, and hippocampal neurons, which endogenously express various subtypes of neuronal AChR. CHO-K1/A5 cells treated with dioctanoylglycerol (DOG) for different periods showed augmented AChR cell surface levels at short incubation times (30min-4h) whereas at longer times (18h) the AChR was shifted to intracellular compartments. Similarly, in cultured hippocampal neurons surface AChR levels increased as a result of DOG incubation for 4h. Inhibition of endogenous DAG catabolism produced changes in AChR distribution similar to those induced by DOG treatment. Specific enzyme inhibitors and Western blot assays revealed that DAGs exert their effect on AChR distribution through the modulation of the activity of classical PKC (cPKC), novel PKC (nPKC) and PKD activity. PMID:26898898

  15. Drug binding to the acetylcholine receptor: Nitroxide analogs of phencyclidine and a local anesthetic

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of noncompetitive inhibitors (NCIs) with Torpedo californica native nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) membranes was examined primarily by the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The goal of this work being to define some of the physical characteristics for the site(s) of association between an NCI and the nAChR membrane. A nitroxide labeled analog of a quaternary amine local anesthetic, 2-(N,N-dimethyl-N-4-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl)amino)-ethyl 4-hexyloxybenzoate iodide (C6SLMeI), displays a strongly immobilized EPR component when added to nAChR membranes in the presence of carbamylcholine (carb). To further this work, a nitroxide labeled analog of phencyclidine (PCP), a potent NCI, was synthesized. 4-phenyl-4-(1-piperidinyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (PPT) exhibited one-third the potency of PCP in inhibiting nAChR mediated ion flux, and from competition binding studies with ({sup 3}H)PCP displayed a K{sub D} of 0.21 {mu}M towards a carb desensitized nAChR and a K{sub 0.5} of 18 {mu}M for a resting {alpha}-bungarotoxin treated nAChR.

  16. Neuregulin 1 as an endogenous regulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in adult major pelvic ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Gyu; Cho, Sung-Min; Lee, Choong-Ku; Jeong, Seong-Woo

    2015-08-01

    We investigated whether endogenous neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is released in a soluble form (called sNRG1) and upregulates expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in autonomic major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons of adult rats. To elicit the release of sNRG1, either the hypogastric nerve or the pelvic nerve was electrically stimulated. Then, the MPG-conditioned medium (CM) was subjected to western blotting using an antibody directed against the N-terminal ectodomain of NRG1. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activation elicited the release of sNRG1 from MPG neurons in a frequency-dependent manner. The sNRG1 release was also induced by treatment of MPG neurons with either high KCl or neurotrophic factors. The biological activity of the released sNRG1 was detected by tyrosine phosphorylation (p185) of the ErbB2 receptors in MPG neurons. When MPG neurons were incubated for 6 h in the CM, the protein level of the nAChR α3 subunit and ACh-induced current (IACh) density were significantly increased. The CM-induced changes in IACh was abolished by a selective ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Taken together, these data suggest that NRG1 functions as an endogenous regulator of nAChR expression in adult MPG neurons. PMID:26043693

  17. Activation of protein kinase C potentiates postsynaptic acetylcholine response at developing neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, W. M.; Lin, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    1. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA, 1 microM) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu, 2 microM), activators of protein kinase C (PKC), increased the mean amplitude and decay time of the spontaneous synaptic currents of Xenopus nerve-muscle coculture, whereas, 4 alpha-phorbol (2 microM) which is an inactive phorbol analogue had no effect. 2. Staurosporine (0.5 microM) and H-7 (10 microM), inhibitors of PKC, inhibited the potentiation effects of TPA on the spontaneous synaptic currents. 3. Effects of TPA on the postsynaptic acetylcholine (ACh) sensitivity were examined by iontophoresis of ACh to the surface of embryonic muscle cells of 1-day-old Xenopus cultures. TPA increased both the amplitude and decay time of ACh-induced whole-cell currents in isolated myocytes. 4. TPA concentration-dependently increased the mean open time of low-conductance ACh channels but did not affect those of high-conductance ACh channels. PDBu but not 4 alpha-phorbol exhibited similar effects to TPA. Staurosporine and H-7 inhibited the increasing effects of TPA. 5. These results suggest that activation of PKC might be involved in synaptogenesis at developing neuromuscular synapses by the postsynaptic potentiation of ACh sensitivity. PMID:7694757

  18. Neuromuscular block after intra-arterially injected acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Pinelli, P.; Tonali, P.; Gambi, D.

    1973-01-01

    It has been suggested that the effect of ACTH in myasthenia gravis may be ascribed to an action involving neuromuscular transmission which favours repolarization processes, with a tendency towards hyperpolarization of the membranes of muscle fibres and motor nerve endings. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the action of ACTH in epilepsy (Klein, 1970). A direct or indirect action on nerve membrane would interfere with depolarization. There is evidence of raised concentration of intracellular potassium and increased outflow of sodium ions which would cause hyperpolarization of the membrane. This paper studies the effect of ACTH on the late block of neuromuscular transmission caused by acetylcholine (ACTH). Images PMID:4350704

  19. Polyethylene glycol-based homologated ligands for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors☆

    PubMed Central

    Scates, Bradley A.; Lashbrook, Bethany L.; Chastain, Benjamin C.; Tominaga, Kaoru; Elliott, Brandon T.; Theising, Nicholas J.; Baker, Thomas A.; Fitch, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    A homologous series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) monomethyl ethers were conjugated with three ligand series for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Conjugates of acetylaminocholine, the cyclic analog 1-acetyl-4,4-dimethylpiperazinium, and pyridyl ether A-84543 were prepared. Each series was found to retain significant affinity at nicotinic receptors in rat cerebral cortex with tethers of up to six PEG units. Such compounds are hydrophilic ligands which may serve as models for fluorescent/affinity probes and multivalent ligands for nAChR. PMID:19006672

  20. Novel Redox-Dependent Esterase Activity (EC 3.1.1.2) for DJ-1: Implications for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Mayorga, Emmanuel; Díaz-Sánchez, Ángel G; Dagda, Ruben K; Domínguez-Solís, Carlos A; Dagda, Raul Y; Coronado-Ramírez, Cynthia K; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Mutations the in human DJ-1 (hDJ-1) gene are associated with early-onset autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). hDJ-1/parkinsonism associated deglycase (PARK7) is a cytoprotective multi-functional protein that contains a conserved cysteine-protease domain. Given that cysteine-proteases can act on both amide and ester substrates, we surmised that hDJ-1 possessed cysteine-mediated esterase activity. To test this hypothesis, hDJ-1 was overexpressed, purified and tested for activity towards 4-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) as µmol of pNPA hydrolyzed/min/mg·protein (U/mg protein). hDJ-1 showed maximum reaction velocity esterase activity (Vmax = 235.10 ± 12.00 U/mg protein), with a sigmoidal fit (S0.5 = 0.55 ± 0.040 mM) and apparent positive cooperativity (Hill coefficient of 2.05 ± 0.28). A PD-associated mutant of DJ-1 (M26I) lacked activity. Unlike its protease activity which is inactivated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), esterase activity of hDJ-1 is enhanced upon exposure to low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (<10 µM) and plateaus at elevated concentrations (>100 µM) suggesting that its activity is resistant to oxidative stress. Esterase activity of DJ-1 requires oxidation of catalytic cysteines, as chemically protecting cysteines blocked its activity whereas an oxido-mimetic mutant of DJ-1 (C106D) exhibited robust esterase activity. Molecular docking studies suggest that C106 and L126 within its catalytic site interact with esterase substrates. Overall, our data show that hDJ-1 contains intrinsic redox-sensitive esterase activity that is abolished in a PD-associated mutant form of the hDJ-1 protein. PMID:27556455

  1. Synthesis of poly(ester-carbonate) with a pendant acetylcholine analog for promoting neurite growth.

    PubMed

    Xing, Dongming; Ma, Lie; Gao, Changyou

    2014-10-01

    The modification of biodegradable polyesters with bioactive molecules has become an important strategy for controlling neuron adhesion and neurite outgrowth in nerve regeneration. In this study we report a biodegradable poly(ester-carbonate) with a pendant acetylcholine analog, which a neurotransmitter for the enhancement of neuron adhesion and outgrowth. The acetylcholine-functionalized poly(ester-carbonate) (Ach-P(LA-ClTMC)) was prepared by copolymerizing l-lactide (LA) and 5-methyl-5-chloroethoxycarbonyl trimethylene carbonate (ClTMC), followed by quaternization with trimethylamine. The acetylcholine analog content could be modulated by changing the molar feeding fraction of ClTMC. The incorporation of the acetylcholine analog improved the hydrophilicity of the films, but the acetylcholine analog content did not significantly influence the surface morphology of the acetylcholine-functionalized films. The results of PC12 cell culture showed that the acetylcholine analog promoted cell viability and neurite outgrowth in a concentration-dependent manner. The longest length of neurite and the percentage of cells bearing neurites were obtained on the Ach-P(LA-ClTMC)-10 film. All the results indicate that the integration of the acetylcholine analog at an appropriate fraction could be an effective strategy for optimizing the existing biodegradable polyesters for nerve regeneration applications. PMID:24998182

  2. Effects of antihistamines on the function of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Khanian, Seyedeh Soha; Ashoor, Abrar; Prytkova, Tatiana; Ghattas, Mohammad A; Atatreh, Noor; Nurulain, Syed M; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Howarth, Frank Christopher; Oz, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the histamine H₁ receptor (H1R) antagonists (antihistamines), promethazine (PMZ), orphenadrine (ORP), chlorpheniramine (CLP), pyrilamine (PYR), diphenhydramine (DPH), citerizine (CTZ), and triprolidine (TRP) on the functional properties of the cloned α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes were investigated. Antihistamines inhibited the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the order PYR>CLP>TRP>PMZ>ORP≥DPH≥CTZ. Among the antihistamines, PYR showed the highest reversible inhibition of acetylcholine (100 µM)-induced responses with IC₅₀ of 6.2 µM. PYR-induced inhibition was independent of the membrane potential and could not be reversed by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine. Specific binding of [¹²⁵I] α-bungarotoxin, a selective antagonist for α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, was not changed in the presence of PYR suggesting a non-competitive inhibition of nicotinic receptors. In line with functional experiments, docking studies indicated that PYR can potentially bind allosterically with the α7 transmembrane domain. Our results indicate that the H₂-H₄ receptor antagonists tested in this study (10 µM) showed negligible inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. On the other hand, H₁ receptor antagonists inhibited the function of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, with varying potencies. These results emphasize the importance of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for future pharmacological/toxicological profiling. PMID:25445036

  3. Influence of acetylcholine on binding of 4-[125I]iododexetimide to muscarinic brain receptors.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, M; Fixmann, A; Holschbach, M; Müller-Gärtner, H W

    1998-11-01

    The distribution of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the human brain in vivo has been successfully characterized using radiolabeled tracers and emission tomography. The effect of acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft on receptor binding of these tracers has not yet been investigated. The present study examined the influence of acetylcholine on binding of 4-[125I]iododexetimide to muscarinic cholinergic receptors of porcine brain synaptosomes in vitro. 4-Iododexetimide is a subtype-unspecific muscarinic receptor antagonist with high affinity. Acetylcholine competed with 4-[125I]iododexetimide in a dose-dependent manner. A concentration of 500 microM acetylcholine inhibited 50% of total specific 4-[125I]iododexetimide binding to synaptosomes when both substances were given simultaneously. An 800 microM acetylcholine solution reduced total specific 4-[125I]iododexetimide binding by about 35%, when acetylcholine was given 60 min after incubation of synaptosomes with 4-[125I]iododexetimide. Variations in the synaptic acetylcholine concentration might influence muscarinic cholinergic receptor imaging in vivo using 4-[123I]iododexetimide. Conversely, 4-[123I]iododexetimide might be an appropriate molecule to investigate alterations of acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography. PMID:9863566

  4. Identification of subunits of acetylcholine receptor that interact with a cholesterol photoaffinity probe

    SciTech Connect

    Middlemas, D.S.; Raftery, M.A.

    1987-03-10

    All four subunits of the acetylcholine receptor in membrane vesicles isolated from Torpedo californica have been labeled with (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl diazoacetate. As this probe incorporates into lipid bilayers analogously to cholesterol, this result indicates that acetylcholine receptor interacts with cholesterol. This investigation also demonstrates that this probe is a useful reagent for studying the interaction of cholesterol with membrane proteins.

  5. Regulation of nerve-evoked contractions of rabbit vas deferens by acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Audrey; Gabriel, Deborah; McHale, Noel G; Hollywood, Mark A; Thornbury, Keith D; Sergeant, Gerard P

    2015-09-01

    Stimulation of intramural nerves in the vas deferens of many species yields a classical biphasic contraction comprised of an initial fast component, mediated by P2X receptors and a second slower component, mediated by α1-adrenoceptors. It is also recognized that sympathetic nerve-mediated contractions of the vas deferens can be modulated by acetylcholine (Ach), however there is considerable disagreement in the literature regarding the precise contribution of cholinergic nerves to contraction of the vas deferens. In this study we examined the effect of cholinergic modulators on electric field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractions of rabbit vas deferens and on cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in isolated vas deferens smooth muscle cells (VDSMC). The sustained component of EFS-evoked contractions was inhibited by atropine and by the selective M3R antagonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (4-DAMP). EFS-evoked contractions were potentiated by Ach, carbachol (Cch), and neostigmine. The sustained phase of the EFS-evoked contraction was inhibited by prazosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist and guanethidine, an inhibitor of noradrenaline release, even in the continued presence of Ach, Cch or neostigmine. The soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one enhanced the amplitude of EFS-evoked contractions and reduced the inhibitory effects of 4-DAMP. Isolated VDSMC displayed spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations, but did not respond to Cch. However, the α1-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine, evoked a Ca(2+) transient and contracted the cells. These data suggest that EFS-evoked contractions of the rabbit vas deferens are potentiated by activation of M3 receptors and reduced by activation of a sGC-dependent inhibitory pathway. PMID:26359240

  6. Regulation of nerve-evoked contractions of rabbit vas deferens by acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Audrey; Gabriel, Deborah; McHale, Noel G; Hollywood, Mark A; Thornbury, Keith D; Sergeant, Gerard P

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of intramural nerves in the vas deferens of many species yields a classical biphasic contraction comprised of an initial fast component, mediated by P2X receptors and a second slower component, mediated by α1-adrenoceptors. It is also recognized that sympathetic nerve-mediated contractions of the vas deferens can be modulated by acetylcholine (Ach), however there is considerable disagreement in the literature regarding the precise contribution of cholinergic nerves to contraction of the vas deferens. In this study we examined the effect of cholinergic modulators on electric field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractions of rabbit vas deferens and on cytosolic Ca2+ levels in isolated vas deferens smooth muscle cells (VDSMC). The sustained component of EFS-evoked contractions was inhibited by atropine and by the selective M3R antagonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (4-DAMP). EFS-evoked contractions were potentiated by Ach, carbachol (Cch), and neostigmine. The sustained phase of the EFS-evoked contraction was inhibited by prazosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist and guanethidine, an inhibitor of noradrenaline release, even in the continued presence of Ach, Cch or neostigmine. The soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one enhanced the amplitude of EFS-evoked contractions and reduced the inhibitory effects of 4-DAMP. Isolated VDSMC displayed spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations, but did not respond to Cch. However, the α1-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine, evoked a Ca2+ transient and contracted the cells. These data suggest that EFS-evoked contractions of the rabbit vas deferens are potentiated by activation of M3 receptors and reduced by activation of a sGC-dependent inhibitory pathway. PMID:26359240

  7. Histamine H3 receptors regulate acetylcholine release from the guinea pig ileum myenteric plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, E.; Coruzzi, G.; Bertaccini, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The effect of selective histamine H3-receptor agonists and antagonists on the acetylcholine release from peripheral nerves was evaluated in the guinea pig longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations, preloaded with ({sup 3}H)choline. In the presence of H1 and H2 blockade, histamine and (R)-{alpha}-methylhistamine inhibited the electrically-evoked acetylcholine release, being (R)-{alpha}-methylhistamine more active than histamine, but behaving as a partial agonist. The effect of histamine was completely reversed by selective H3-blocking drugs, thioperamide and impromidine, while only submaximal doses of (R)-{alpha}-methylhistamine were antagonized. Furthermore, thioperamide and impromidine enhanced the electrically-evoked acetylcholine release. On the contrary, the new H3-blocker, HST-7, was found substantially ineffective, both as histamine antagonist and as acetylcholine overflow enhancer. These data suggest that histamine exerts an inhibitory control on the acetylcholine release from intestinal cholinergic nerves through the activation of H3 receptors.

  8. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced /sup 155/Eu:/sup 3 +/ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor.

  9. The psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas halosplanktis TAC125 possesses a gene coding for a cold-adapted feruloyl esterase activity that shares homology with esterase enzymes from gamma-proteobacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Aurilia, Vincenzo; Parracino, Antonietta; Saviano, Michele; Rossi, Mose'; D'Auria, Sabato

    2007-08-01

    The complete genome of the psychrophilic bacteria Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, recently published, owns a gene coding for a putative esterase activity corresponding to the ORF PSHAa1385, also classified in the Carbohydrate Active Enzymes database (CAZY) belonging to family 1 of carbohydrate esterase proteins. This ORF is 843 bp in length and codes for a protein of 280 amino acid residues. In this study we characterized and cloned the PSHAa1385 gene in Escherichia coli. We also characterized the recombinant protein by biochemical and biophysical methodologies. The PSHAa1385 gene sequence showed a significant homology with several carboxyl-esterase and acetyl-esterase genes from gamma-proteobacteria genera and yeast. The recombinant protein exhibited a significant activity towards pNP-acetate, alpha-and beta-naphthyl acetate as generic substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl p-trimethylammonio cinnamate chloride (MUTMAC) as a specific substrate, indicating that the protein exhibits a feruloyl esterase activity that it is displayed by similar enzymes present in other organisms. Finally, a three-dimensional model of the protein was built and the amino acid residues involved in the catalytic function of the protein were identified. PMID:17543477

  10. What is the effect of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation on osteoarthritis in a rodent animal model?

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Kilian; Plaass, Christian; Coger, Vincent; Peck, Claas-Tido; Reimers, Kerstin; Stukenborg-Colsman, Christina; Claassen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the rising number of patients with osteoarthritis, no sufficient chondroprotective and prophylactic therapy for osteoarthritis has been established yet. The purpose of this study was to verify whether stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor via nicotine has a beneficial effect on cartilage degeneration in the development of osteoarthritis and is capable of reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and cartilage degrading enzymes in synovial membranes after osteoarthritis induction. Methods: Experimental osteoarthritis was induced in Lewis rats using a standardized osteoarthritis model with monoiodoacetate. A total of 16 Lewis rats were randomized into four groups: control, sham + nicotine application, osteoarthritis, and osteoarthritis + nicotine application. Nicotine (0.625 mg/kg twice daily) was administered intraperitoneally for 42 days. We analyzed histological sections, radiological images and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and of matrix metalloproteases 3, 9 and 13 and tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease-1 in synovial membranes via quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Histological and x-ray examination revealed cartilage degeneration in the osteoarthritis group compared to control or sham + nicotine groups (histological control vs osteoarthritis: p = 0.002 and x-ray control vs osteoarthritis: p = 0.004). Nicotine treatment reduced the cartilage degeneration without significant differences. Osteoarthritis induction led to a higher expression of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteases as compared to control groups. This effect was attenuated after nicotine administration. The differences of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteases did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: With the present small-scale study, we could not prove a positive effect of nicotinic

  11. Differential effects of subtype-specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on early and late hippocampal LTP.

    PubMed

    Kroker, Katja S; Rast, Georg; Rosenbrock, Holger

    2011-12-01

    Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety. Currently, approaches selectively targeting the activation of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are in clinical development for treatment of memory impairment of Alzheimer's disease patients. These are α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists which are believed to enhance cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. In order to gain a better insight into the mechanistic role of these two nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in learning and memory, we investigated the effects of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist TC-1827 and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular experimental model of memory formation. Generally, LTP is distinguished in an early and a late form, the former being protein-synthesis independent and the latter being protein-synthesis dependent. TC-1827 was found to increase early LTP in a bell-shaped dose dependent manner, but did not affect late LTP. In contrast, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 showed enhancing effects on both early and late LTP in a bell-shaped manner. Furthermore, SSR180711 not only increased early LTP, but also transformed it into late LTP, which was not observed with the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Therefore, based on these findings α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (partial) agonists appear to exhibit stronger efficacy on memory improvement than α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. PMID:21968142

  12. Purification of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    André, C; De Backer, J P; Guillet, J C; Vanderheyden, P; Vauquelin, G; Strosberg, A D

    1983-01-01

    Calf forebrain homogenates contain 2.8 pM muscarinic acetylcholine receptors per mg of protein. [3H]Antagonist saturation binding experiments under equilibrium conditions revealed a single class of sites with equilibrium dissociation constants of 0.82 nM for [3H]dexetimide and 0.095 nM for [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate. Displacement binding studies with agonists revealed the presence of low and high affinity sites. Here we describe the solubilization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with digitonin and their purification by affinity chromatography using an affinity gel which consisted of dexetimide coupled to Affi-Gel 10 (i.e., carboxy N-hydroxysuccinimide esters linked via a 1 nm spacer arm to agarose beads). Purified proteins were obtained by specific elution with muscarinic drugs, i.e., the antagonist atropine and the irreversible ligand propylbenzilylcholine mustard. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the radioiodinated purified preparations revealed a major 70-K protein. Images Fig. 3. PMID:6605245

  13. END-PLATE ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR: STRUCTURE, MECHANISM, PHARMACOLOGY, AND DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Sine, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The synapse is a localized neurohumoral contact between a neuron and an effector cell and may be considered the quantum of fast intercellular communication. Analogously, the postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor may be considered the quantum of fast chemical to electrical transduction. Our understanding of postsynaptic receptors began to develop about a hundred years ago with the demonstration that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve released acetylcholine and slowed the heart beat. During the past 50 years, advances in understanding postsynaptic receptors increased at a rapid pace, owing largely to studies of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the motor endplate. The endplate AChR belongs to a large superfamily of neurotransmitter receptors, called Cys-loop receptors, and has served as an exemplar receptor for probing fundamental structures and mechanisms that underlie fast synaptic transmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recent studies provide an increasingly detailed picture of the structure of the AChR and the symphony of molecular motions that underpin its remarkably fast and efficient chemoelectrical transduction. PMID:22811427

  14. Effects of acetylcholine on neuronal properties in entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Heys, James G.; Schultheiss, Nathan W.; Shay, Christopher F.; Tsuno, Yusuke; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) receives prominent cholinergic innervation from the medial septum and the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MSDB). To understand how cholinergic neurotransmission can modulate behavior, research has been directed toward identification of the specific cellular mechanisms in EC that can be modulated through cholinergic activity. This review focuses on intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in EC that may underlie functions such as working memory, spatial processing, and episodic memory. In particular, the study of stellate cells (SCs) in medial entorhinal has resulted in discovery of correlations between physiological properties of these neurons and properties of the unique spatial representation that is demonstrated through unit recordings of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) from awake-behaving animals. A separate line of investigation has demonstrated persistent firing behavior among neurons in EC that is enhanced by cholinergic activity and could underlie working memory. There is also evidence that acetylcholine plays a role in modulation of synaptic transmission that could also enhance mnemonic function in EC. Finally, the local circuits of EC demonstrate a variety of interneuron physiology, which is also subject to cholinergic modulation. Together these effects alter the dynamics of EC to underlie the functional role of acetylcholine in memory. PMID:22837741

  15. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulation by general anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Flood, P; Role, L W

    1998-11-23

    1. General anesthetics have been shown to inhibit synaptic transmission in multiple areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems. 2. The mechanism of inhibition is not well understood. 3. It has become clear that general anesthetics modulate the function of members of the ligand gated ion channel superfamily, including receptors for GABA(A), glycine (Harrison et al., Mol. Pharmacol. 44(3), 1993, 628-632) and 5HT3 (Zhou and Lovinger, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 278(2), 1996, 732-740). 4. Studies of the activity of general anesthetics on recombinant neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have added this receptor family to those potently inhibited by general anesthetics (Flood et al., Anesthesiology 86(4), 1997, 859-865; Violet et al., Anesthesiology 86(4), 1997, 866-874). 5. Studies of neuronal nicotinic receptors in native neurons suggest that the inhibition of these receptors by general anesthetics at low clinical concentrations may be biologically significant (Nicoll, Science 199(4327), 1978, 451-452). 6. Recent work on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system suggests that their primary role may be to modulate synaptic transmission (Role and Berg, Neuron 16(6), 1996, 1077-1085). 7. Thus, inhibition of nicotinic modulation in the central nervous system may result in inhibition of synaptic transmission and some of the behavioral consequences of general anesthesia. PMID:10049135

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are required for nociception

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emiliano; Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Husson, Steven J.; Steuer-Costa, Wagner; Gottschalk, Alexander; Schafer, William R.; Treinin, Millet

    2014-01-01

    Polymodal nociceptors sense and integrate information on injurious mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. Chemical signals either activate nociceptors or modulate their responses to other stimuli. One chemical known to activate or modulate responses of nociceptors is acetylcholine (ACh). Across evolution nociceptors express subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family, a family of ACh-gated ion channels. The roles of ACh and nAChRs in nociceptor function are, however, poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans polymodal nociceptors, PVD, express nAChR subunits on their sensory arbor. Here we show that mutations reducing ACh synthesis and mutations in nAChR subunits lead to defects in PVD function and morphology. A likely cause for these defects is a reduction in cytosolic calcium measured in ACh and nAChR mutants. Indeed, overexpression of a calcium pump in PVD mimics defects in PVD function and morphology found in nAChR mutants. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a central role for nAChRs and ACh in nociceptor function and suggest that calcium permeating via nAChRs facilitates activity of several signaling pathways within this neuron. PMID:24518198

  17. Characterization of general esterases from methyl parathion-resistant and -susceptible populations of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuguo; Scharf, Michael E; Meinke, Lance J; Chandler, Laurence D; Siegfried, Blair D

    2003-12-01

    A consistent correlation between elevated esterase activity and methyl parathion resistance among Nebraska western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, populations has previously been documented. Characterization of general esterase activity using naphtholic esters as model substrates indicated that differences between resistant and susceptible strains could be maximized by optimizing assay conditions. The optimal conditions identified here were similar to those reported for other insect species. The majority of general esterase activity was found in the cytosolic fractions of resistant populations, whereas the activity was more evenly distributed between cytosolic and mitochondrial/nuclear fractions in the susceptible population. General esterase activity was predominately located in the adult thorax and abdomen. Although there were significant differences in general esterase activities between resistant and susceptible populations, the differences exhibited in single beetle activity assays did not provide sufficient discrimination to identify resistant individuals. In contrast, single larva activity assays provided greater discrimination and could be considered as an alternative to traditional bioassay techniques. PMID:14977127

  18. CFTR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Synder, David; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Anderson, Marc O.

    2014-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel whose major function is to facilitate epithelial fluid secretion. Loss-of-function mutations in CFTR cause the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. CFTR is required for transepithelial fluid transport in certain secretory diarrheas, such as cholera, and for cyst expansion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. High-throughput screening has yielded CFTR inhibitors of the thiazolidinone, glycine hydrazide and quinoxalinedione chemical classes. The glycine hydrazides target the extracellular CFTR pore, whereas the thiazolidinones and quinoxalinediones act at the cytoplasmic surface. These inhibitors have been widely used in cystic fibrosis research to study CFTR function at the cell and organ levels. The most potent CFTR inhibitor has IC50 of approximately 4 nM. Studies in animal models support the development of CFTR inhibitors for antisecretory therapy of enterotoxin-mediated diarrheas and polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23331030

  19. Acquisition and reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in rats: Effects of the cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil and rivastigmine.

    PubMed

    Gawel, Kinga; Labuz, Krzysztof; Gibula-Bruzda, Ewa; Jenda, Malgorzata; Marszalek-Grabska, Marta; Silberring, Jerzy; Kotlinska, Jolanta H

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the influence of the cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil (a selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase) and rivastigmine (also an inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase) on the acquisition and reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. Before the CPP procedure, animals received a single injection of ethanol (0.5 g/kg, 10% w/v, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) for 15 days. The ethanol-induced CPP (biased method) was developed by four injections of ethanol (0.5 g/kg, 10% w/v, i.p.) every second day. Control rats received saline instead of ethanol. Donepezil (0.5, 1 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) or rivastigmine (0.03, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered before ethanol during conditioning or before the reinstatement of ethanol-induced CPP. The cholinesterase inhibitors were equally effective in increasing (dose dependently) the acquisition of ethanol-induced CPP. Furthermore, priming injections of both inhibitors reinstated (cross-reinstatement) the ethanol-induced CPP with similar efficacy. These effects of both cholinesterase inhibitors were reversed by mecamylamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.), a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, but not by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. Thus, our results show that the cholinergic system is involved in the reinforcing properties of ethanol, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play an important role in the relapse to ethanol-seeking behaviour. PMID:27097732

  20. A novel feruloyl esterase from rumen microbial metagenome: Gene cloning and enzyme characterization in the release of mono- and diferulic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feruloyl esterase (FAE) gene was isolated from a rumen microbial metagenome, cloned into E. coli, and expressed in active form. The enzyme (RuFae4) was classified as a Type D feruloyl esterase based on its action on synthetic substrates and ability to release diferulates. The RuFae4 alone releas...

  1. Kinetic and structural relationships of transition monomeric and oligomeric carboxyl- and choline-esterases.

    PubMed

    Main, A R

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic and structural relationships of eight electrophoretically pure mammalian serum and liver serine carboxylesterases (CE) and cholinesterases (ChE) have been studied. Eight CE's and ChE's, which were fully resolved but only partially purified, provided additional information. Five of the electrophoretically pure esterases were monomeric, and of these, four belonged to a new and widely distributed class. These four monomeric esterases hydrolyzed choline esters, but at widely differing rates. Thus two were termed monomeric butyrylcholinesterases, mBuChE I and II, and two were monomeric CE's (mCE). The rabbit liver mCE was not a subunit of the oligomeric CE (oCE), although the oCE also hydrolyzed choline esters at a very low rate. The complex kinetics of the mCE's, mBuChE's, oCE's, and of the oligomeric BuChE's of horse and human serum could be interpreted according to a single reaction scheme involving an allosteric site and the equation derived from it. Thus activation and inhibition at high substrate concentrations, together with sigmoidal activity versus substrate concentration plots, all of which characterize the reactions of these esterases, could be interpreted by a single scheme and equation. Structural and kinetic comparisons showed a progressive transition of properties from the oCE's through the mCE's to the oBuChE's. One of the purified mCE's was from horse serum, and it exhibited physical and kinetic properties unlike those of the liver mCE's or oCE's. PMID:6339600

  2. B-esterase determination and organophosphate insecticide inhibitory effects in JEG-3 trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Marlon; Rivero Osimani, Valeria; Sánchez, Victoria; Rosenbaum, Enrique; Guiñazú, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    The placenta and trophoblasts express several B-esterases. This family includes acethylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CES) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are important targets of organophosphate insecticide (OP) toxicity. To better understand OP effects on trophoblasts, B-esterase basal activity and kinetic behavior were studied in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cell cultures. Effects of the OP azinphos-methyl (Am) and chlorpyrifos (Cp) on cellular enzyme activity were also evaluated. JEG-3 cells showed measurable activity levels of AChE and CES, while BChE was undetected. Recorded Km for AChE and CES were 0.33 and 0.26mM respectively. Native gel electrophoresis and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated CES1 and CES2 isoform expression. Cells exposed for 4 and 24h to the OP Am or Cp, showed a differential CES and AChE inhibition profiles. Am inhibited CES and AChE at 4h treatment while Cp showed the highest inhibition profile at 24h. Interestingly, both insecticides differentially affected CES1 and CES2 activities. Results demonstrated that JEG-3 trophoblasts express AChE, CES1 and CES2. B-esterase enzymes were inhibited by in vitro OP exposure, indicating that JEG-3 cells metabolization capabilities include phase I enzymes, able to bioactivate OP. In addition, since CES enzymes are important for medicinal drug activation/deactivation, OP exposure may interfere with trophoblast CES metabolization, probably being relevant in a co-exposure scenario during pregnancy. PMID:26790371

  3. Characterization of EST3: a metagenome-derived esterase with suitable properties for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Maester, Thaís Carvalho; Pereira, Mariana Rangel; Machado Sierra, E G; Balan, Andrea; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes

    2016-07-01

    Metagenomic libraries from diverse environments have been extensive sources of many lipases and esterases; nevertheless, most of these enzymes remain biochemically uncharacterized. We previously built a metagenomic fosmid library from a microbial consortium specialized for diesel oil degradation and tested it for lipolytic activity. In the present study, we identified the PL14.H10 clone that was subcloned and sequenced, which enabled the identification of the EST3 protein. This enzyme exhibited 74 % amino acid identity with the uncharacterized alpha/beta hydrolase from Parvibaculum lavamentivorans [GenBank: WP012110575.1] and was classified into lipolytic enzyme family IV. Biochemical characterization revealed that EST3 presents high activity in a wide range of temperature with highest activity from 41 to 45 °C. Also, this thermostable esterase acts from mild acidic to alkaline conditions with an optimum pH of 6.0. The enzyme exhibited activity against p-nitrophenyl esters of different chain lengths and highest catalytic efficiency against p-nitrophenyl caprylate. The activity of the protein was increased in the presence of 0.5 mM of Mn(+2), Li(+), EDTA, and 1 % of CTAB and exhibited half of the activity in the presence of 10 % methanol and ethanol. Moreover, the homology model of EST3 was built and compared to other esterases, revealing a substrate channel that should fit a wide range of substrates. Taken together, the data presented in this work reveal the unique and interesting characteristics of EST3 that might be explored for further use in biotechnological applications. PMID:26915995

  4. Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in alfalfa modifies cell wall digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in North America owing to its high biomass production, perennial nature and ability to fix nitrogen. Feruloyl esterase (EC 3.1.1.73) hydrolyzes ester linkages in plant cell walls and has the potential to further improve alfalfa as biomass for biofuel production. Results In this study, faeB [GenBank:AJ309807] was synthesized at GenScript and sub-cloned into a novel pEACH vector containing different signaling peptides to target type B ferulic acid esterase (FAEB) proteins to the apoplast, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole. Four constructs harboring faeB were transiently expressed in Nicotiana leaves, with FAEB accumulating at high levels in all target sites, except chloroplast. Stable transformed lines of alfalfa were subsequently obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404). Out of 136 transgenic plants regenerated, 18 independent lines exhibited FAEB activity. Subsequent in vitro digestibility and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of FAEB-expressing lines showed that they possessed modified cell wall morphology and composition with a reduction in ester linkages and elevated lignin content. Consequently, they were more recalcitrant to digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Interestingly, delignification by alkaline peroxide treatment followed by exposure to a commercial cellulase mixture resulted in higher glucose release from transgenic lines as compared to the control line. Conclusion Modifying cell wall crosslinking has the potential to lower recalcitrance of holocellulose, but also exhibited unintended consequences on alfalfa cell wall digestibility due to elevated lignin content. The combination of efficient delignification treatment (alkaline peroxide) and transgenic esterase activity complement each other towards efficient and effective digestion of transgenic lines. PMID:24650274

  5. Biochemical studies on a versatile esterase that is most catalytically active with polyaromatic esters.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Lores, Iván; Peña-García, Carlina; Bargiela, Rafael; Reyes-Duarte, Dolores; Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Peláez, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Jesús; Ferrer, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Herein, we applied a community genomic approach using a naphthalene-enriched community (CN1) to isolate a versatile esterase (CN1E1) from the α/β-hydrolase family. The protein shares low-to-medium identity (≤ 57%) with known esterase/lipase-like proteins. The enzyme is most active at 25-30°C and pH 8.5; it retains approximately 55% of its activity at 4°C and less than 8% at ≥ 55°C, which indicates that it is a cold-adapted enzyme. CN1E1 has a distinct substrate preference compared with other α/β-hydrolases because it is catalytically most active for hydrolysing polyaromatic hydrocarbon (phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, benzoyl, protocatechuate and phthalate) esters (7200-21 000 units g(-1) protein at 40°C and pH 8.0). The enzyme also accepts 44 structurally different common esters with different levels of enantio-selectivity (1.0-55 000 units g(-1) protein), including (±)-menthyl-acetate, (±)-neomenthyl acetate, (±)-pantolactone, (±)-methyl-mandelate, (±)-methyl-lactate and (±)-glycidyl 4-nitrobenzoate (in that order). The results provide the first biochemical evidence suggesting that such broad-spectrum esterases may be an ecological advantage for bacteria that mineralize recalcitrant pollutants (including oil refinery products, plasticizers and pesticides) as carbon sources under pollution pressure. They also offer a new tool for the stereo-assembly (i.e. through ester bonds) of multi-aromatic molecules with benzene rings that are useful for biology, chemistry and materials sciences for cases in which enzyme methods are not yet available. PMID:24418210

  6. Structural basis for ligand and substrate recognition by torovirus hemagglutinin esterases

    PubMed Central

    Langereis, Martijn A.; Zeng, Qinghong; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Frey, Barbara; von Itzstein, Mark; Kamerling, Johannis P.; de Groot, Raoul J.; Huizinga, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    Hemagglutinin esterases (HEs), closely related envelope glycoproteins in influenza C and corona- and toroviruses, mediate reversible attachment to O-acetylated sialic acids (Sias). They do so by acting both as lectins and as receptor-destroying enzymes, functions exerted by separate protein domains. HE divergence was accompanied by changes in quaternary structure and in receptor and substrate specificity. The selective forces underlying HE diversity and the molecular basis for Sia specificity are poorly understood. Here we present crystal structures of porcine and bovine torovirus HEs in complex with receptor analogs. Torovirus HEs form homodimers with sialate-O-acetylesterase domains almost identical to corresponding domains in orthomyxo- and coronavirus HEs, but with unique lectin sites. Structure-guided biochemical analysis of the esterase domains revealed that a functionally, but not structurally conserved arginine–Sia carboxylate interaction is critical for the binding and positioning of glycosidically bound Sias in the catalytic pocket. Although essential for efficient de-O-acetylation of Sias, this interaction is not required for catalysis nor does it affect substrate specificity. In fact, the distinct preference of the porcine torovirus enzyme for 9-mono- over 7,9-di-O-acetylated Sias can be explained from a single-residue difference with HEs of more promiscuous specificity. Apparently, esterase and lectin pockets coevolved; also the porcine torovirus HE receptor-binding site seems to have been designed to use 9-mono- and exclude di-O-acetylated Sias, possibly as an adaptation to replication in swine. Our findings shed light on HE evolution and provide fundamental insight into mechanisms of substrate binding, substrate recognition, and receptor selection in this important class of virion proteins. PMID:19721004

  7. Structural insights into the substrate specificity of two esterases from the thermophilic Rhizomucor miehei

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaoqing; Qin, Zhen; Duan, Xiaojie; Yan, Qiaojuan; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Two hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) family esterases (RmEstA and RmEstB) from the thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor miehei, exhibiting distinct substrate specificity, have been recently reported to show great potential in industrial applications. In this study, the crystal structures of RmEstA and RmEstB were determined at 2.15 Å and 2.43 Å resolutions, respectively. The structures of RmEstA and RmEstB showed two distinctive domains, a catalytic domain and a cap domain, with the classical α/β-hydrolase fold. Catalytic triads consisting of residues Ser161, Asp262, and His292 in RmEstA, and Ser164, Asp261, and His291 in RmEstB were found in the respective canonical positions. Structural comparison of RmEstA and RmEstB revealed that their distinct substrate specificity might be attributed to their different substrate-binding pockets. The aromatic amino acids Phe222 and Trp92, located in the center of the substrate-binding pocket of RmEstB, blocked this pocket, thus narrowing its catalytic range for substrates (C2–C8). Two mutants (F222A and W92F in RmEstB) showing higher catalytic activity toward long-chain substrates further confirmed the hypothesized interference. This is the first report of HSL family esterase structures from filamentous fungi.jlr The information on structure-function relationships could open important avenues of exploration for further industrial applications of esterases. PMID:26108223

  8. Biochemical studies on a versatile esterase that is most catalytically active with polyaromatic esters

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Lores, Iván; Peña-García, Carlina; Bargiela, Rafael; Reyes-Duarte, Dolores; Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Peláez, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Jesús; Ferrer, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we applied a community genomic approach using a naphthalene-enriched community (CN1) to isolate a versatile esterase (CN1E1) from the α/β-hydrolase family. The protein shares low-to-medium identity (≤ 57%) with known esterase/lipase-like proteins. The enzyme is most active at 25–30°C and pH 8.5; it retains approximately 55% of its activity at 4°C and less than 8% at ≥ 55°C, which indicates that it is a cold-adapted enzyme. CN1E1 has a distinct substrate preference compared with other α/β-hydrolases because it is catalytically most active for hydrolysing polyaromatic hydrocarbon (phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, benzoyl, protocatechuate and phthalate) esters (7200–21 000 units g−1 protein at 40°C and pH 8.0). The enzyme also accepts 44 structurally different common esters with different levels of enantio-selectivity (1.0–55 000 units g−1 protein), including (±)-menthyl-acetate, (±)-neomenthyl acetate, (±)-pantolactone, (±)-methyl-mandelate, (±)-methyl-lactate and (±)-glycidyl 4-nitrobenzoate (in that order). The results provide the first biochemical evidence suggesting that such broad-spectrum esterases may be an ecological advantage for bacteria that mineralize recalcitrant pollutants (including oil refinery products, plasticizers and pesticides) as carbon sources under pollution pressure. They also offer a new tool for the stereo-assembly (i.e. through ester bonds) of multi-aromatic molecules with benzene rings that are useful for biology, chemistry and materials sciences for cases in which enzyme methods are not yet available. PMID:24418210

  9. Benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester (BAME)-esterase activity in human plasma during the gravidic-puerperal cycle.

    PubMed

    Salles Meirelles, R

    1977-01-01

    Benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester (BAME)-esterase activity of plasma was measured in women going through the gravidic-puerperal cycle and compared with plasma of non-pregnant women. Plasma from women in the 36th to 40th week of pregnancy hydrolyzes BAME two times more rapidly than that from non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, BAME-esterase activity in plasma increases progressively up to the 40th week, decreases during labor, and after delivery reaches the same level as in non-pregnant women. The BAME-esterase activity of plasma was affected by the storage temperature, with differences demonstrable between -20 and -4 C and between pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:754510

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the glucuronoyl esterase catalytic domain from Hypocrea jecorina

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S. J.; Li, X.-L.; Cotta, M. A.; Biely, P.; Duke, N. E. C.; Schiffer, M.; Pokkuluri, P. R.

    2008-04-01

    The catalytic domain of the glucuronoyl esterase from H. jecorina was overexpresssed, purified and crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The catalytic domain of the glucuronoyl esterase from Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) was overexpresssed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method using 1.4 M sodium/potassium phosphate pH 6.9. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. This is the first enzyme with glucoronoyl esterase activity to be crystallized; its structure will be valuable in lignocellulose-degradation research.

  11. Co-release of acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid by a retinal neuron

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, D.M.; Masland, R.H.

    1989-05-01

    Rabbit retinas were vitally stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), a fluorescent compound that selectively accumulates within the cholinergic amacrine cells. The retinas were then incubated in vitro in the presence of radioactive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and autoradiographed. The cells that accumulated DAPI were found to accumulate GABA, confirming immunohistochemical evidence that the cholinergic amacrine cells contain GABA. Incubation of retinas in the presence of elevated concentrations of K+ caused them to release acetylcholine and GABA, and autoradiography showed depletion of radioactive GABA from the cholinergic amacrine cells. This indicates that the cholinergic amacrine cells can secrete acetylcholine and GABA. Retinas were double-labeled with (14C)GABA and (3H)acetylcholine, allowing simultaneous measurement of their release. The release of (14C)GABA was found to be independent of extracellular Ca2+. Radioactive GABA synthesized endogenously from (14C)glutamate behaved the same way as radioactive GABA accumulated from the medium. In the same experiments the simultaneously measured release of (3H)acetylcholine was strongly Ca2+-dependent, indicating that the releases of acetylcholine and GABA are controlled by different mechanisms. Synaptic vesicles immunologically isolated from double-labeled retinas contained much (3H)acetylcholine and little or no (14C)GABA. These results suggest that the cholinergic amacrine cells release acetylcholine primarily by vesicle exocytosis and release GABA primarily by means of a carrier.

  12. Specific Stimulated Uptake of Acetylcholine by Torpedo Electric Organ Synaptic Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Stanley M.; Koenigsberger, Robert

    1980-10-01

    The specificity of acetylcholine uptake by synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica was studied. In the absence of cofactors, [3H]acetylcholine was taken up identically to [14C]choline in the same solution (passive uptake), and the equilibrium concentration achieved inside the vesicles was equal to the concentration outside. In the presence of MgATP, [3H]acetylcholine and [14C]choline in the same solution were taken up identically, except only about half as much of each was taken up (suppressed uptake). [3H]Acetylcholine uptake was stimulated by MgATP and HCO3 about 4-fold relative to suppressed uptake, for a net concentrative uptake of about 2:1 (stimulated uptake). Uptake of [14C]choline in the same solution remained at the suppressed level. [3H]Acetylcholine taken up under stimulated conditions migrated with vesicles containing [14C]mannitol on analytical glycerol density gradients during centrifugation. Vesicles were treated with nine protein modification reagents under mild conditions. Two reagents had no effect on, dithiothreitol potentiated, and six reagents strongly inhibited subsequent stimulated uptake of [3H]acetylcholine. The results indicate that uptake of acetylcholine is conditionally specific for the transported substrate, is carried out by the synaptic vesicles rather than a contaminant of the preparation, and requires a functional protein system containing a critical sulfhydryl group.

  13. p-Nitrophenylacetate hydrolysis by honey bee esterases: kinetics and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Spoonamore, J E; Frohlich, D R; Wells, M A

    1993-03-01

    1. The kinetics and inhibition of p-nitrophenylacetate hydrolysis by cytosolic esterases of 1-day old female honey bees, Apis mellifera L., were studied. 2. The calculated values obtained were Km = 2.27 x 10(-5)M and Vmax = 2.48 x 10(-8) mol/s per mg protein. 3. The inhibition mechanisms examined for four organophosphorus insecticides were highly competitive in nature and based on competitive inhibition coefficients the order of toxicity was naled > dichlorvos > cis-mevinphos = trans-mevinphos. 4. Comparisons are made with the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fab). PMID:8498090

  14. A glucuronoyl esterase from Acremonium alcalophilum cleaves native lignin-carbohydrate ester bonds.

    PubMed

    Arnling Bååth, Jenny; Giummarella, Nicola; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lawoko, Martin; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2016-08-01

    The Glucuronoyl esterases (GE) have been proposed to target lignin-carbohydrate (LC) ester bonds between lignin moieties and glucuronic acid side groups of xylan, but to date, no direct observations of enzymatic cleavage on native LC ester bonds have been demonstrated. In the present investigation, LCC fractions from spruce and birch were treated with a recombinantly produced GE originating from Acremonium alcalophilum (AaGE1). A combination of size exclusion chromatography and (31) P NMR analyses of phosphitylated LCC samples, before and after AaGE1 treatment provided the first evidence for cleavage of the LC ester linkages existing in wood. PMID:27397104

  15. Prekallikein and kallikrein inhibitor in liver cirrhosis and hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Faciullacci, M; Galli, P; Monetti, M G; Pela, I; Del Bianco, P L

    1976-01-01

    Plasma prekallikrein (kallikreinogen) and kallikrein inhibitor, assayed with the kaolin activable esterase method, have been evaluated in 20 patients with hepatic cirrhosis, in 12 cases with jaundice from acute viral hepatitis, and in 9 normal. A significant reduction of the plasma prekallikrein in cirrhosis has been found. A lowering of plasma prekallikrein has also been observed in viral hepatitis; in this condition, however, the modifications were less important than those obtained in cirrhosis. In three cases of hepatitis, the behaviour of the plasma prekallikrein and kallikrein inhibitor have been controlled during the period of the disease and compared with the behaviour of some conventional parameters, such as serum transaminases and bilirubin. An important increase of the prekallikrein level has been observed during the improvement of hepatitis. These data confirm the implication of the prekallikrein-kallikrein system in severe liver diseases, and indirectly points out the role of the liver in maintaining the physiological balance of the kallikrein system. PMID:1084679

  16. Est10: A Novel Alkaline Esterase Isolated from Bovine Rumen Belonging to the New Family XV of Lipolytic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, María Cecilia; Loaces, Inés; Amarelle, Vanesa; Senatore, Daniella; Iriarte, Andrés; Fabiano, Elena; Noya, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    A metagenomic fosmid library from bovine rumen was used to identify clones with lipolytic activity. One positive clone was isolated. The gene responsible for the observed phenotype was identified by in vitro transposon mutagenesis and sequencing and was named est10. The 367 amino acids sequence harbors a signal peptide, the conserved secondary structure arrangement of alpha/beta hydrolases, and a GHSQG pentapeptide which is characteristic of esterases and lipases. Homology based 3D-modelling confirmed the conserved spatial orientation of the serine in a nucleophilic elbow. By sequence comparison, Est10 is related to hydrolases that are grouped into the non-specific Pfam family DUF3089 and to other characterized esterases that were recently classified into the new family XV of lipolytic enzymes. Est10 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged fusion protein, purified and biochemically characterized. Est10 showed maximum activity towards C4 aliphatic chains and undetectable activity towards C10 and longer chains which prompted its classification as an esterase. However, it was able to efficiently catalyze the hydrolysis of aryl esters such as methyl phenylacetate and phenyl acetate. The optimum pH of this enzyme is 9.0, which is uncommon for esterases, and it exhibits an optimal temperature at 40 °C. The activity of Est10 was inhibited by metal ions, detergents, chelating agents and additives. We have characterized an alkaline esterase produced by a still unidentified bacterium belonging to a recently proposed new family of esterases. PMID:25973851

  17. Purification and characterization of an extracellular esterase with organic solvent tolerance from a halotolerant isolate, Salimicrobium sp. LY19

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Halotolerant bacteria are excellent sources for selecting novel enzymes. Being intrinsically stable and active under high salinities, enzymes from these prokaryotes have evolved to function optimally under extreme conditions, making them robust biocatalysts with potential applications in harsh industrial processes. Results A halotolerant strain LY19 showing lipolytic activity was isolated from saline soil of Yuncheng Salt Lake, China. It was identified as belonging to the genus of Salimicrobium by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The extracellular enzyme was purified to homogeneity with molecular mass of 57 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Substrate specificity test revealed that the enzyme preferred short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters and exhibited maximum activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate (p-NPB), indicating an esterase activity. The esterase was highly active and stable over broad temperature (20°C-70°C), pH (7.0-10.0) and NaCl concentration (2.5%-25%) ranges, with an optimum at 50°C, pH 7.0 and 5% NaCl. Significant inhibition of the esterase was shown by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and phenylarsine oxide (PAO), which indicated that it was a metalloenzyme with serine and cysteine residues essential for enzyme activity. Moreover, the esterase displayed high activity and stability in the presence of hydrophobic organic solvents with log Pow ≥ 0.88 than in the absence of an organic solvent or in the presence of hydrophilic solvents. Conclusions Results from the present study indicated the novel extracellular esterase from Salimicrobium sp. LY19 exhibited thermostable, alkali-stable, halotolerant and organic solvent-tolerant properties. These features led us to conclude that the esterase may have considerable potential for industrial applications in organic synthesis reactions. PMID:24325447

  18. Modulation of the effect of acetylcholine on insulin release by the membrane potential of B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hermans, M.P.; Schmeer, W.; Henquin, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    Mouse islets were used to test the hypothesis that the B cell membrane must be depolarized for acetylcholine to increase insulin release. The resting membrane potential of B cells (at 3 mM glucose) was slightly decreased (5 mV) by acetylcholine, but no electrical activity appeared. This depolarization was accompanied by a Ca-independent acceleration of /sup 86/Rb and /sup 45/Ca efflux but no insulin release. When the B cell membrane was depolarized by a stimulatory concentration of glucose (10 mM), acetylcholine potentiated electrical activity, accelerated /sup 86/Rb and /sup 45/Ca efflux, and increased insulin release. This latter effect, but not the acceleration of /sup 45/Ca efflux, was totally dependent on extracellular Ca. If glucose-induced depolarization of the B cell membrane was prevented by diazoxide, acetylcholine lost all effects but those produced at low glucose. In contrast, when the B cell membrane was depolarized by leucine or tolbutamide (at 3 mM glucose), acetylcholine triggered a further depolarization with appearance of electrical activity, accelerated /sup 86/Rb and /sup 45/Ca efflux, and stimulated insulin release. Acetylcholine produced similar effects (except for electrical activity) in the presence of high K or arginine which, unlike the above test agents, depolarize the B cell membrane by a mechanism other than a decrease in K+ permeability. Omission of extracellular Ca abolished the releasing effect of acetylcholine under all conditions but only partially decreased the stimulation of /sup 45/Ca efflux. The results show thus that acetylcholine stimulation of insulin release does not result from mobilization of cellular Ca but requires that the B cell membrane be sufficiently depolarized to reach the threshold potential where Ca channels are activated. This may explain why acetylcholine alone does not initiate release but becomes active in the presence of a variety of agents.

  19. Functional characterization of a novel microbial esterase identified from the Indian Ocean and its use in the stereoselective preparation of (R)-methyl mandelate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiayuan; Sun, Aijun; Zhang, Yun; Deng, Dun; Wang, Yongfei; Ma, Sanmei; Hu, Yunfeng

    2016-03-01

    Genomic mining has identified a novel microbial alkaline esterase from the Indian Ocean. This esterase was overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and further functionally characterized. Under optimal conditions (10 mmol/L substrate, pH 6.0, 2 h at 40 °C), this esterase can hydrolyze racemic methyl mandelate to (R)-methyl mandelate with very high optical purity (e.e. >99%) and yield (nearly 90%). Interestingly, the stereoselectivity of this esterase is opposite to that of two previously reported lipases that can generate (S)-methyl mandelate through the hydrolysis of racemic methyl mandelate. No organic solvents or other additives were required to optimize the optical purity and production of the final chiral product (R)-methyl mandelate, which can potentially simplify the production procedure of (R)-methyl mandelate catalyzed by esterase.

  20. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in acetylcholine-induced vasodilation of rat retinal arterioles in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mori, Asami; Suzuki, Sachi; Sakamoto, Kenji; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    The vascular endothelium plays an important role in regulating retinal blood flow via actions of several vasodilators, including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin I₂, and an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Our previous in vivo studies demonstrated that acetylcholine (ACh) dilates the rat retinal arteriole partly through NO- and prostaglandin-independent pathway, possibly the EDHF-mediated pathway, but the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be elucidated. It has been suggested that activation of Ca²+-activated K+ (K(Ca)) channels contributes to the EDHF-mediated responses; therefore, the roles of K(Ca) channels in ACh-induced vasodilation of retinal arterioles were examined in rats. The retinal vascular responses were assessed by determining changes in diameters of retinal arterioles in ocular fundus images that were captured with an original fundus camera system. Intravitreal injection of charybdotoxin, an inhibitor of intermediate- and large-conductance K(Ca) (I/BK(Ca)) channels, or iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of large-conductance K(Ca) (BK(Ca)) channels, significantly reduced the ACh-induced vasodilation of retinal arterioles, whereas neither apamin, an inhibitor of small-conductance K(Ca) (SK(Ca)) channels, nor TRAM-34, an inhibitor of intermediate-conductance K(Ca) (IK(Ca)) channels, altered the response. The vasodilator response to ACh observed under the combined blockade of NO synthase and cyclooxygenase with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester plus indomethacin was also diminished by iberiotoxin. Iberiotoxin did not affect the NO donor NOR3-induced vasodilation of retinal arterioles, whereas it significantly reduced the BK(Ca) channel opener BMS-191011-induced responses. These results suggest that activation of BK(Ca) channels is involved in the EDHF-mediated component of the vasodilator response to ACh in the rat retinal arterioles in vivo. PMID:20978884

  1. Immunological relationship between acetylcholine receptor and thymus: a possible significance in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Aharonov, A; Tarrab-Hazdai, R; Abramsky, O; Fuchs, S

    1975-01-01

    A defined immunological cross-reaction was observed between acetylcholine receptor fraction from the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, and two calf thymus fractions. The cross-reaction was demonstrated on the cellular level by means of the lymphocyte transformation technique, and on the humoral level, by means of the microcomplement fixation assay. In the human disease myasthenia gravis both acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction and the thymus are affected, probably by an autoimmune mechanism. The immunological cross-reaction between acetylcholine receptor and thymic components may explain the association between endplate and thymus disorders in myasthenia gravis. PMID:1055418

  2. Structure and superorganization of acetylcholine receptor–rapsyn complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Benoît; Unwin, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The scaffolding protein at the neuromuscular junction, rapsyn, enables clustering of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in high concentration and is critical for muscle function. Patients with insufficient receptor clustering suffer from muscle weakness. However, the detailed organization of the receptor–rapsyn network is poorly understood: it is unclear whether rapsyn first forms a wide meshwork to which receptors can subsequently dock or whether it only forms short bridges linking receptors together to make a large cluster. Furthermore, the number of rapsyn-binding sites per receptor (a heteropentamer) has been controversial. Here, we show by cryoelectron tomography and subtomogram averaging of Torpedo postsynaptic membrane that receptors are connected by up to three rapsyn bridges, the minimum number required to form a 2D network. Half of the receptors belong to rapsyn-connected groups comprising between two and fourteen receptors. Our results provide a structural basis for explaining the stability and low diffusion of receptors within clusters. PMID:23754381

  3. A novel mechanism for acetylcholine to generate diacylglycerol in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Z.; Drewes, L.R. )

    1990-03-05

    The classical scheme involving inositol phospholipid breakdown by phospholipase C as the sole source of diacylglycerol (DAG) has recently been challenged by evidence that phosphatidylcholine (PC) is an alternative source. In synaptic membranes of canine cerebral cortex, cholinergic agonists caused rapid accumulation of ({sup 3}H)phosphatidic acid (PA) from ({sup 3}H)PC within 15 s, whereas (3H)DAG formation showed a transient lag period before becoming elevated and then exceeding the amount of ({sup 3}H)PA. Additional evidence shows that DAG is produced from PC by the action of phospholipase D to yield PA, which is further dephosphorylated to DAG by PA phosphatase. Our results indicate that this muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-regulated PC phospholipase D-PA phosphatase pathway may be a novel mechanism in cell signal transduction processes for activation of protein kinase C in brain.

  4. Accumbens dopamine-acetylcholine balance in approach and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Understanding systems for approach and avoidance is basic for behavioral neuroscience. Research on the neural organization and functions of the dorsal striatum in movement disorders, such as Huntington's and Parkinson's Disease, can inform the study of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in motivational disorders, such as addiction and depression. We propose opposing roles for dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) in the NAc in the control of GABA output systems for approach and avoidance. Contrary to DA, which fosters approach, ACh release is a correlate or cause of meal satiation, conditioned taste aversion and aversive brain stimulation. ACh may also counteract excessive DA-mediated approach behavior as revealed during withdrawal from drugs of abuse or sugar when the animal enters an ACh-mediated state of anxiety and behavioral depression. This review summarizes evidence that ACh is important in the inhibition of behavior when extracellular DA is high and the generation of an anxious or depressed state when DA is relatively low. PMID:18023617

  5. Frizzled-9 impairs acetylcholine receptor clustering in skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Avilés, Evelyn C.; Pinto, Cristina; Hanna, Patricia; Ojeda, Jorge; Pérez, Viviana; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V.; Zamorano, Pedro; Albistur, Miguel; Sandoval, Daniel; Henríquez, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative evidence indicates that Wnt pathways play crucial and diverse roles to assemble the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a peripheral synapse characterized by the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) on postsynaptic densities. The molecular determinants of Wnt effects at the NMJ are still to be fully elucidated. We report here that the Wnt receptor Frizzled-9 (Fzd9) is expressed in developing skeletal muscles during NMJ synaptogenesis. In cultured myotubes, gain- and loss-of-function experiments revealed that Fzd9-mediated signaling impairs the AChR-clustering activity of agrin, an organizer of postsynaptic differentiation. Overexpression of Fzd9 induced the cytosolic accumulation of β-catenin, a key regulator of Wnt signaling. Consistently, Fzd9 and β-catenin localize in the postsynaptic domain of embryonic NMJs in vivo. Our findings represent the first evidence pointing to a crucial role of a Fzd-mediated, β-catenin-dependent signaling on the assembly of the vertebrate NMJ. PMID:24860427

  6. Caffeine potentiates the enhancement by choline of striatal acetylcholine release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. A.; Ulus, I. H.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of peripherally administered caffeine (50 mg/kg), choline (30, 60, or 120 mg/kg) or combinations of both drugs on the spontaneous release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the corpus striatum of anesthetized rats using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine alone or choline in the 30 or 60 mg/kg dose failed to increase ACh in microdialysis samples; the 120 mg/kg choline dose significantly enhanced ACh during the 80 min following drug administration. Coadministration of caffeine with choline significantly increased ACh release after each of the choline doses tested. Peak microdialysate levels with the 120 mg/kg dose were increased 112% when caffeine was additionally administered, as compared with 54% without caffeine. These results indicate that choline administration can enhance spontaneous ACh release from neurons, and that caffeine, a drug known to block adenosine receptors on these neurons, can amplify the choline effect.

  7. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, Sybren F; Mansvelder, Huibert D; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-10-15

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are found in most brain regions, many studies on addiction have focused on the mesolimbic system and its reported behavioral correlates such as reward processing and reinforcement learning. Profound modulatory cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmentum to dopaminergic midbrain nuclei as well as local cholinergic interneuron projections to dopamine neuron axons in the striatum may play a major role in the effects of nicotine. Moreover, an indirect mesocorticolimbic feedback loop involving the medial prefrontal cortex may be involved in behavioral characteristics of nicotine addiction. Therefore, this review will highlight current understanding of the effects of nicotine on the function of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine projections in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. PMID:26208783

  8. Recent developments in the synthesis of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Breining, Scott R

    2004-01-01

    The extraordinary pharmacology of nicotine and epibatidine have indicated the potential for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands to serve as a new therapeutic class for a host of CNS disorders. Many such ligands are natural products, or analogs thereof, which represent a significant challenge to the synthetic chemist. Synthesis of such molecules often serves as a showcase to demonstrate the potential of newly developed methodology. This synthetic challenge coupled with the promise of pharmacological activity in compounds possessing the nicotinic pharmacophore has stimulated a great deal of synthetic activity over the last five years. The present report provides an overview of novel synthetic methodology occurring during this period directed toward the synthesis of compounds with presumed affinity for the neuronal nAChR. Syntheses chosen for review here represent the major efforts toward molecules such as epibatidine analogs, anatoxin-a, nicotine and related alkaloids, conformationally constrained nicotine derivatives, cytisine and methyllycaconitine (MLA). PMID:14965298

  9. Serotoninergic dorsal raphe neurons possess functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Charles, Luis; Hernandez-Lopez, Salvador; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Bargas, José; Garduño, Julieta; Frías-Dominguez, Carmen; Drucker-Colin, René; Mihailescu, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Very few neurons in the telencephalon have been shown to express functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), among them, the noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons. However, there is no evidence for postsynaptic nAChRs on serotonergic neurons. In this study, we asked if functional nAChRs are present in serotonergic (5-HT) and nonserotonergic (non-5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In rat midbrain slices, field stimulation at the tegmental pedunculopontine (PPT) nucleus evoked postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) with different components in DRN neurons. After blocking the glutamatergic and GABAergic components, the remaining eEPSCs were blocked by mecamylamine and reduced by either the selective alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) or the selective alpha4beta2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-beta-eritroidine (DHbetaE). Simultaneous addition of MLA and DHbetaE blocked all eEPSCs. Integrity of the PPT-DRN pathway was assessed by both anterograde biocytin tracing and antidromic stimulation from the DRN. Inward currents evoked by the direct application of acetylcholine (ACh), in the presence of atropine and tetrodotoxin, consisted of two kinetically different currents: one was blocked by MLA and the other by DHbetaE; in both 5-HT and non-5-HT DR neurons. Analysis of spontaneous (sEPSCs) and evoked (eEPSCs) synaptic events led to the conclusion that nAChRs were located at the postsynaptic membrane. The possible implications of these newly described nAChRs in various physiological processes and behavioral events, such as the wake-sleep cycle, are discussed. PMID:18512214

  10. Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Rosemond, Erica; Green, Hillary F.; Liu, Tong; Chae, Pil Seok; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2012-03-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate. Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences. We describe here the structure of the G{sub q/11}-coupled M3 mAChR ('M3 receptor', from rat) bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify the binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the G{sub i/o}-coupled M2 receptor, offers possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows a structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and provide additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors.

  11. Physiological characterization of human muscle acetylcholine receptors from ALS patients

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Conti, Luca; Deflorio, Cristina; Frasca, Vittorio; Manteca, Alessia; Pichiorri, Floriana; Roseti, Cristina; Torchia, Gregorio; Limatola, Cristina; Grassi, Francesca; Miledi, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons leading to muscle paralysis. Research in transgenic mice suggests that the muscle actively contributes to the disease onset, but such studies are difficult to pursue in humans and in vitro models would represent a good starting point. In this work we show that tiny amounts of muscle from ALS or from control denervated muscle, obtained by needle biopsy, are amenable to functional characterization by two different technical approaches: “microtransplantation” of muscle membranes into Xenopus oocytes and culture of myogenic satellite cells. Acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents and unitary events were characterized in oocytes and multinucleated myotubes. We found that ALS acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) retain their native physiological characteristics, being activated by ACh and nicotine and blocked by α-bungarotoxin (α-BuTX), d-tubocurarine (dTC), and galantamine. The reversal potential of ACh-evoked currents and the unitary channel behavior were also typical of normal muscle AChRs. Interestingly, in oocytes injected with muscle membranes derived from ALS patients, the AChRs showed a significant decrease in ACh affinity, compared with denervated controls. Finally, riluzole, the only drug currently used against ALS, reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the ACh-evoked currents, indicating that its action remains to be fully characterized. The two methods described here will be important tools for elucidating the role of muscle in ALS pathogenesis and for developing drugs to counter the effects of this disease. PMID:22128328

  12. Inhibitory Learning is Modulated by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Heidi C.; Putney, Rachel B.; Bucci, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has established that stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can facilitate learning and memory. However, most studies have focused on learning to emit a particular behavior, while little is known about the effects of nicotine on learning to withhold a behavioral response. The present study consisted of a dose response analysis of the effects of nicotine on negative occasion setting, a form of learned inhibition. In this paradigm, rats received one type of training trial in which presentation of a tone by itself was followed immediately by food reward. During the other type of trials, the tone was preceded by presentation of a light and no food was delivered after the tone. Rats gradually learned to approach the cup in anticipation of receiving food reward during presentations of the tone alone, but withheld that behavior when the tone was preceded by the light. Nicotine (0.35mg/kg) facilitated negative occasion setting by reducing the number of sessions needed to learn the discrimination between trial types and by reducing the rate of responding on non-reinforced trials. Nicotine also increased the orienting response to the light, suggesting that nicotine may have affected the ability to withhold food cup behavior on non-reinforced trials by increasing attention to the light. In contrast to the effects of nicotine, rats treated with mecamylamine (0.125, 0.5, or 2 mg/kg) needed more training sessions to discriminate between reinforced and non-reinforced trials compared to saline-treated rats. The findings indicate that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may be active during negative occasion setting and that nicotine can potentiate learned inhibition. PMID:25445487

  13. Morphine Increases Acetylcholine Release in the Trigeminal Nuclear Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhenghong; Bowman, Heather R.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The trigeminal nuclear complex (V) contains cholinergic neurons and includes the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (PSTN) which receives sensory input from the face and jaw, and the trigeminal motor nucleus (MoV) which innervates the muscles of mastication. Pain associated with pathologies of V is often managed with opioids but no studies have characterized the effect of opioids on acetylcholine (ACh) release in PSTN and MoV. Opioids can increase or decrease ACh release in brainstem nuclei. Therefore, the present experiments tested the 2-tailed hypothesis that microdialysis delivery of opioids to the PSTN and MoV significantly alters ACh release. Design: Using a within-subjects design and isoflurane-anesthetized Wistar rats (n = 53), ACh release in PSTN during microdialysis with Ringer's solution (control) was compared to ACh release during dialysis delivery of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin, muscarinic agonist bethanechol, opioid agonist morphine, mu opioid agonist DAMGO, antagonists for mu (naloxone) and kappa (nor-binaltorphimine; nor-BNI) opioid receptors, and GABAA antagonist bicuculline. Measurements and Results: Tetrodotoxin decreased ACh, confirming action potential-dependent ACh release. Bethanechol and morphine caused a concentration-dependent increase in PSTN ACh release. The morphine-induced increase in ACh release was blocked by nor-BNI but not by naloxone. Bicuculline delivered to the PSTN also increased ACh release. ACh release in the MoV was increased by morphine, and this increase was not blocked by naloxone or nor-BNI. Conclusions: These data comprise the first direct measures of ACh release in PSTN and MoV and suggest synaptic disinhibition as one possible mechanism by which morphine increases ACh release in the trigeminal nuclei. Citation: Zhu Z; Bowman HR; Baghdoyan HA; Lydic R. Morphine increases acetylcholine release in the trigeminal nuclear complex. SLEEP 2008;31(12):1629–1637. PMID:19090318

  14. Electroencephalographic coherence and cortical acetylcholine during ketamine-induced unconsciousness

    PubMed Central

    Pal, D.; Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, V. S.; Silverstein, B. H.; Mashour, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited understanding of cortical neurochemistry and cortical connectivity during ketamine anaesthesia. We conducted a systematic study to investigate the effects of ketamine on cortical acetylcholine (ACh) and electroencephalographic coherence. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats (n=11) were implanted with electrodes to record electroencephalogram (EEG) from frontal, parietal, and occipital cortices, and with a microdialysis guide cannula for simultaneous measurement of ACh concentrations in prefrontal cortex before, during, and after ketamine anaesthesia. Coherence and power spectral density computed from the EEG, and ACh concentrations, were compared between conscious and unconscious states. Loss of righting reflex was used as a surrogate for unconsciousness. Results Ketamine-induced unconsciousness was associated with a global reduction of power (P=0.02) in higher gamma bandwidths (>65 Hz), a global reduction of coherence (P≤0.01) across a broad frequency range (0.5–250 Hz), and a significant increase in ACh concentrations (P=0.01) in the prefrontal cortex. Compared with the unconscious state, recovery of righting reflex was marked by a further increase in ACh concentrations (P=0.0007), global increases in power in theta (4–10 Hz; P=0.03) and low gamma frequencies (25–55 Hz; P=0.0001), and increase in power (P≤0.01) and coherence (P≤0.002) in higher gamma frequencies (65–250 Hz). Acetylcholine concentrations, coherence, and spectral properties returned to baseline levels after a prolonged recovery period. Conclusions Ketamine-induced unconsciousness is characterized by suppression of high-frequency gamma activity and a breakdown of cortical coherence, despite increased cholinergic tone in the cortex. PMID:25951831

  15. Absence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit amplifies inflammation and accelerates onset of fibrosis: an inflammatory kidney model

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Luan D.; Trostel, Jessica; Garcia, Gabriela E.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is regulated by endogenous mechanisms, including anti-inflammatory cytokines, adenosine, and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit (α7nAChR). We investigated the role of α7nAChR in protection against the progression of tissue injury in a model of severe, macrophage-mediated, cytokine-dependent anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis (GN), in α7nAChR-deficient (α7−/−) mice . At d 7 after the injection of anti-GBM antibody, kidneys from α7−/− mice displayed severe glomeruli (P < 0.0001) and tubulointerstitial lesions (P < 0.001) compared to kidneys from WT mice. An important finding was the presence of severe glomerulosclerosis in α7−/− mice in this early phase of the disease. Kidneys of α7−/− mice showed greater accumulation of inflammatory cells and higher expression of chemokines and cytokines than did those of WT mice. In addition, in α7−/− fibrotic kidneys, the expression of fibrin, collagen, TGF-β, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 increased, and the expression of TIMP3 declined. The increase in counterregulatory responses to inflammation in α7−/− nephritic kidneys did not compensate for the lack of α7nAChR. These findings indicate that α7nAChR plays a key role in regulating the inflammatory response in anti-GBM GN and that disruption of the endogenous protective α7nAChR amplifies inflammation to accelerate kidney damage and fibrosis.—Truong, L. D., Trostel. J., Garcia, G. E. Absence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit amplifies inflammation and accelerates onset of fibrosis: an inflammatory kidney model. PMID:25985801

  16. Syntheses and Radiosyntheses of Two Carbon-11 Labeled Potent and Selective Radioligands for Imaging Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Padakanti, Prashanth K.; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Junfeng; Parsons, Stanley M.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Tu, Zhude

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is a specific biomarker for imaging presynaptic cholinergic neurons. The syntheses and C-11 labeling of two potent enantiopure VAChT inhibitors are reported here. Procedures Two VAChT inhibitors, (±)-2 and (±)-6, were successfully synthesized. A chiral HPLC column was used to resolve the enantiomers from each corresponding racemic mixture for in vitro characterization. The radiosyntheses of (−)-[11C]2 and (−)-[11C]6 from the corresponding desmethyl phenol precursor was accomplished using [11C]methyl iodide or [11C]methyl triflate, respectively. Results The synthesis of (−)-[11C]2 was accomplished with 40–50 % radiochemical yield (decay-corrected), SA>480 GBq/μmol (EOB), and radiochemical purity >99 %. Synthesis of (−)-[11C]6 was accomplished with 5–10 % yield, SA>140 GBq/μmol (EOB), and radiochemical purity >97 %. The radiosynthesis and dose formulation of each tracer was completed in 55–60 min. Conclusions Two potent enantiopure VAChT ligands were synthesized and 11C-labeled with good radiochemical yield and specific activity. PMID:24875230

  17. Crystal structures of Ophiostoma piceae sterol esterase: structural insights into activation mechanism and product release.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, Javier; Vaquero, María Eugenia; Prieto, Alicia; Barriuso, Jorge; Martínez, María Jesús; Hermoso, Juan A

    2014-09-01

    Sterol esterases are able to efficiently hydrolyze both sterol esters and triglycerides and to carry out synthesis reactions in the presence of organic solvents. Their high versatility makes them excellent candidates for biotechnological purposes. Sterol esterase from fungus Ophiostoma piceae (OPE) belongs to the family abH03.01 of the Candida rugosa lipase-like proteins. Crystal structures of OPE were solved in this study for the closed and open conformations. Enzyme activation involves a large displacement of the conserved lid, structural rearrangements of loop α16-α17, and formation of a dimer with a large opening. Three PEG molecules are placed in the active site, mimicking chains of the triglyceride substrate, demonstrating the position of the oxyanion hole and the three pockets that accommodate the sn-1, sn-2 and sn-3 fatty acids chains. One of them is an internal tunnel, connecting the active center with the outer surface of the enzyme 30 Å far from the catalytic Ser220. Based on our structural and biochemical results we propose a mechanism by which a great variety of different substrates can be hydrolyzed in OPE paving the way for the construction of new variants to improve the catalytic properties of these enzymes and their biotechnological applications. PMID:25108239

  18. Use of esterase activities for the detection of chemical neurotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Manco, Giuseppe; Nucci, Roberto; Febbraio, Ferdinando

    2009-01-01

    The quest for a quick and easy detection of the neurotoxin levels in the environment has fostered the search for systems alternative to currently employed analytical methods such as spectrophotometer, gas-liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and more recently mass spectrometry. These drawbacks lead to intense research efforts to develop biosensor devices for the determination of these compounds. In this review, we present an overview of the actual development of research in neurotoxin detection by using enzymatic biosensors based on esterase activity, in particular cholinesterases, and carboxylesterases. Detection by enzymatic activity could be carried out measuring the hydrolysis products or the residual enzymatic activity after inhibition, using a transducer system that makes possible the correlation between the determined activity and the analyte concentration. Several transducer systems were adopted for the neurotoxins identification using esterases, including electrochemical, optical, conductimetric and piezoelectric procedures. The differences in the used transducer determine the final sensitivity and specificity of the biosensor. Moreover, a brief description of immobilization procedure, that is an important step in the biosensor development and could affect the final characteristic of biosensor (sensibility, stability, response time and reproducibility), was accomplished. Final considerations on advantages and problems, related to actual development of these technologies, and its prospective were discussed. PMID:19508179

  19. An Esterase from Anaerobic Clostridium hathewayi Can Hydrolyze Aliphatic-Aromatic Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Perz, Veronika; Hromic, Altijana; Baumschlager, Armin; Steinkellner, Georg; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Gruber, Karl; Bleymaier, Klaus; Zitzenbacher, Sabine; Zankel, Armin; Mayrhofer, Claudia; Sinkel, Carsten; Kueper, Ulf; Schlegel, Katharina; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-03-15

    Recently, a variety of biodegradable polymers have been developed as alternatives to recalcitrant materials. Although many studies on polyester biodegradability have focused on aerobic environments, there is much less known on biodegradation of polyesters in natural and artificial anaerobic habitats. Consequently, the potential of anaerobic biogas sludge to hydrolyze the synthetic compostable polyester PBAT (poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) was evaluated in this study. On the basis of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis, accumulation of terephthalic acid (Ta) was observed in all anaerobic batches within the first 14 days. Thereafter, a decline of Ta was observed, which occurred presumably due to consumption by the microbial population. The esterase Chath_Est1 from the anaerobic risk 1 strain Clostridium hathewayi DSM-13479 was found to hydrolyze PBAT. Detailed characterization of this esterase including elucidation of the crystal structure was performed. The crystal structure indicates that Chath_Est1 belongs to the α/β-hydrolases family. This study gives a clear hint that also micro-organisms in anaerobic habitats can degrade manmade PBAT. PMID:26878094

  20. Purification and characterization of a pregastric esterase from a hygienized kid rennet paste.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M V; Fontecha, J

    2004-05-01

    Rennet pastes obtained by maceration of gastric tissues from suckling kids are used traditionally to produce some artisanal cheeses in Spain. Besides milk-clotting function, rennet pastes provide proteolytic activity and lipolytic system, essentially pregastric, necessary in the development of piquant flavor typical of these cheeses. A simple and reproducible procedure allows us to obtain a standardized rennet paste that posses the desired activity and is of good microbiological quality. Concomitantly, a kid pregastric esterase (KPGE) was purified to homogeneity. The purification procedure was based on an aqueous extract of hygienized rennet paste (HRP), which was chromatographed on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow then adsorbed on phenyl superose followed by a re-chromatography on the same column. The final enzymatic preparation, where the overall activity recovery was 3%, showed a molecular mass of 53 kDa. The highest activity was determined on p-nitrophenyl butyrate, but marked hydrolysis was also detected on beta-naphthyl caprylate. In contrast, low activity on tributyrin (substrate under emulsion form) was detected, thus confirming the esterase character of purified enzyme. PMID:15290959

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the metalloglycoprotein esterase A4 using a baculovirus expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Toshiki; Shibayama, Naoya; Yoon, Young-Ho; Yun, Kyung-Mook; Hamamoto, Toshiro; Tame, Jeremy R. H.; Park, Sam-Yong

    2007-09-01

    Esterase A4 (EA4) is a timer protein found in diapause eggs of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The gene for this metalloglycoprotein was cloned from B. mori eggs and expressed using a baculovirus expression system in silkworm pupae. Crystals of the purified protein have been grown that diffract to beyond 2.1 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Esterase A4 (EA4) is a timer protein found in diapause eggs of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The gene for this metalloglycoprotein was cloned from B. mori eggs and expressed using a baculovirus expression system in silkworm pupae. Crystals of the purified protein have been grown that diffract to beyond 2.1 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The protein crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.1, b = 73.9, c = 47.4 Å, β = 104.1°. With one dimer per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (V{sub M}) is 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and the solvent content is 47%.

  2. Electrophoretic survey of seedling esterases in wheats in relation to their phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Jaaska, V

    1980-11-01

    Evolutionary and ontogenetic variation of six seedling esterases of independent genetic control is studied in polyploid wheats and their diploid relatives by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Four of them are shown to be controlled by homoeoallelic genes in chromosomes of third, sixth and seventh homoeologous groups.The isoesterase electrophoretic data are considered supporting a monophyletic origin of both the primitive tetraploid and the primitive hexaploid wheat from which contemporary taxa of polyploid wheats have emerged polyphyletically and polytopically through recurrent introgressive hybridization and accumulation of mutations. Ancestral diploids belonging or closely related to Triticum boeoticum, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii ssp. strangulata are genetically the most suitable genome donors of polyploid wheats. Diploids of the Emarginata subsection of the section Sitopsis, Aegilops longissima s.str., Ae. sharonensis, Ae. searsii and Ae. bicornis, are unsuitable for the role of the wheat B genome donors, being all fixed for the esterase B and D electromorphs different from those of tetraploid wheats. PMID:24305916

  3. Dynamic mechanical analysis and esterase degradation of dentin adhesives containing a branched methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Gu; Ye, Qiang; Topp, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Chi H.; Kostoryz, Elisabet L.; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    A study of the dynamic mechanical properties and the enzymatic degradation of new dentin adhesives containing a multifunctional methacrylate are described. Adhesives contained 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]-propane (BisGMA), and a new multifunctional methacrylate with a branched side chain-trimethylolpropane mono allyl ether dimethacrylate (TMPEDMA). Adhesives were photopolymerized in the presence of 0, 8 and 16 wt% water to simulate wet bonding conditions in the mouth and compared to control adhesives. The degree of conversion as a function of irradiation time was comparable for experimental and control adhesives. In dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), broad tan δ peaks were obtained for all samples, indicating that the polymerized networks are heterogeneous; comparison of the full-width-at-half-maximum values obtained from the tan δ curves indicated increased heterogeneity for samples cured in the presence of water and/or containing TMPEDMA. The experimental adhesive showed higher Tg and higher rubbery modulus indicating increased crosslink density as compared to the control. The improvement in esterase resistance afforded by adhesives containing the TMPEDMA is greater when this material is photopolymerized in the presence of water, suggesting better performance in the moist environment of the mouth. The improved esterase resistance of the new adhesive could be explained in terms of the densely crosslinked network structure and/or the steric hindrance of branched alkyl side chains. PMID:19358261

  4. Functional Analysis of Esterase TCE2 Gene from Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) involved in Acaricide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Wei, Peng; Wang, Xiangzun; Shen, Guangmao; Zhang, Jiao; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Zhifeng; Xu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest of crops and vegetables worldwide, and it has the ability to develop resistance against acaricides rapidly. Our previous study identified an esterase gene (designated TCE2) over-expressed in resistant mites. To investigate this gene’s function in resistance, the expression levels of TCE2 in susceptible, abamectin-, fenpropathrin-, and cyflumetofen-resistant strains were knocked down (65.02%, 63.14%, 57.82%, and 63.99%, respectively) via RNA interference. The bioassay data showed that the resistant levels to three acaricides were significantly decreased after the down-regulation of TCE2, indicating a correlation between the expression of TCE2 and the acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus. TCE2 gene was then re-engineered for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The recombinant TCE2 exhibited α-naphthyl acetate activity (483.3 ± 71.8 nmol/mg pro. min−1), and the activity of this enzyme could be inhibited by abamectin, fenpropathrin, and cyflumetofen, respectively. HPLC and GC results showed that 10 μg of the recombinant TCE2 could effectively decompose 21.23% fenpropathrin and 49.70% cyflumetofen within 2 hours. This is the first report of a successful heterologous expression of an esterase gene from mites. This study provides direct evidence that TCE2 is a functional gene involved in acaricide resistance in T. cinnabarinus. PMID:26725309

  5. Aliphatic esters as targets of esterase activity in the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella).

    PubMed

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Liao, Ling-Hsiu; Jogesh, Tania; Berenbaum, May R

    2012-02-01

    As a specialist on the reproductive structures of Pastinaca sativa and species in the related genus Heracleum, the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella) routinely encounters a distinctive suite of phytochemicals in hostplant tissues. Little is known, however, about the detoxification mechanisms upon which this species relies to metabolize these compounds. In this study, larval guts containing hostplant tissues were homogenized, and metabolism was determined by incubating reactions with and without NADPH and analyzing for substrate disappearance and product appearance by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we found indications of carboxylesterase activity, in the form of appropriate alcohol metabolites for three aliphatic esters in hostplant tissues-octyl acetate, octyl butyrate, and hexyl butyrate. Involvement of webworm esterases in hostplant detoxification subsequently was confirmed with metabolism assays with pure compounds. This study is the first to implicate esterases in lepidopteran larval midgut metabolism of aliphatic esters, ubiquitous constituents of flowers and fruits. In addition, this method confirmed that webworms detoxify furanocoumarins and myristicin in their hostplants via cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism, and demonstrated that these enzymes also metabolize the coumarin osthol and the fatty acid derivative palmitolactone. PMID:22350520

  6. Esterase activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from malolactic fermentation of red wines.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2013-05-15

    The goal of this study was to examine the esterase activity of 243 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains from wines of different red grape varieties, belonging to the genera Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus. p-Nitrophenyl octanoate was used as substrate. All strains presented esterase activity in the first screening, but only those showing higher activity were used in subsequent studies to determine the cellular location of this activity, the influence of pH, temperature and the presence of ethanol and the substrate specificity. For the thirteen selected strains, the highest activity was observed in the intracellular fraction. Responses to pH, temperature and ethanol were strain-dependent, but for all the strains, a marked decrease in activity in presence of ethanol was observed. When the influence of pH and ethanol acting together was studied at 25 °C and 37 °C, temperature-dependent differences were not observed for any of the strains except for Oen6. In the substrate specificity assay, the majority of strains of all genera displayed a trend to more readily hydrolyse ester substrates from C8 and longer. PMID:23558198

  7. An essential role of caffeoyl shikimate esterase in monolignol biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chan Man; Escamilla-Trevino, Luis; Yarce, Juan Carlos Serrani; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical and genetic analyses have previously identified caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) as an enzyme in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, although the generality of this finding has been questioned. Here we show the presence of CSE genes and associated enzyme activity in barrel medic (Medicago truncatula, dicot, Leguminosae), poplar (Populus deltoides, dicot, Salicaceae), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, monocot, Poaceae). Loss of function of CSE in transposon insertion lines of M. truncatula results in severe dwarfing, altered development, reduction in lignin content, and preferential accumulation of hydroxyphenyl units in lignin, indicating that the CSE enzyme is critical for normal lignification in this species. However, the model grass Brachypodium distachyon and corn (Zea mays) do not possess orthologs of the currently characterized CSE genes, and crude protein extracts from stems of these species exhibit only a weak esterase activity with caffeoyl shikimate. Our results suggest that the reaction catalyzed by CSE may not be essential for lignification in all plant species. PMID:27037613

  8. A self-calibrating PARACEST MRI contrast agent that detects esterase enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuguo; Sheth, Vipul R.; Liu, Guanshu; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The CEST effect of many PARACEST MRI contrast agents changes in response to a molecular biomarker. However, other molecular biomarkers or environmental factors can influence CEST, so that a change in CEST is not conclusive proof for detecting the biomarker. To overcome this problem, a second control CEST effect may be included in the same PARACEST agent, which is responsive to all factors that alter the first CEST effect except for the biomarker to be measured. To investigate this approach, a PARACEST MRI contrast agent was developed with one CEST effect that is responsive to esterase enzyme activity and a second control CEST effect. The ratio of the two CEST effects was independent of concentration and T1 relaxation, so that this agent was self-calibrating with respect to these factors. This ratiometric method was dependent on temperature and was influenced by MR coalescence as the chemical exchange rates approached the chemical shifts of the exchangable protons as temperature was increased. The two CEST effects also showed evidence of having different pH dependencies, so that this agent was not self-calibrating with respect to pH. Therefore, a self-calibrating PARACEST MRI contrast agent can more accurately detect a molecular biomarker such as esterase enzyme activity, as long as temperature and pH are within an acceptable physiological range and remain constant. PMID:21861282

  9. (-)-Reboxetine inhibits muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by interacting with luminal and non-luminal sites.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ortells, Marcelo O; Feuerbach, Dominik

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of (-)-reboxetine, a non-tricyclic norepinephrine selective reuptake inhibitor, with muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was studied by functional and structural approaches. The results established that (-)-reboxetine: (a) inhibits (±)-epibatidine-induced Ca(2+) influx in human (h) muscle embryonic (hα1β1γδ) and adult (hα1β1εδ) AChRs in a non-competitive manner and with potencies IC50=3.86±0.49 and 1.92±0.48 μM, respectively, (b) binds to the [(3)H]TCP site with ~13-fold higher affinity when the Torpedo AChR is in the desensitized state compared to the resting state, (c) enhances [(3)H]cytisine binding to the resting but activatableTorpedo AChR but not to the desensitized AChR, suggesting desensitizing properties, (d) overlaps the PCP luminal site located between rings 6' and 13' in the Torpedo but not human muscle AChRs. In silico mutation results indicate that ring 9' is the minimum structural component for (-)-reboxetine binding, and (e) interacts to non-luminal sites located within the transmembrane segments from the Torpedo AChR γ subunit, and at the α1/ε transmembrane interface from the adult muscle AChR. In conclusion, (-)-reboxetine non-competitively inhibits muscle AChRs by binding to the TCP luminal site and by inducing receptor desensitization (maybe by interacting with non-luminal sites), a mechanism that is shared by tricyclic antidepressants. PMID:23917086

  10. Propofol and AZD3043 Inhibit Adult Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin; Krupp, Johannes; Dabrowski, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Propofol is a widely used general anaesthetic with muscle relaxant properties. Similarly as propofol, the new general anaesthetic AZD3043 targets the GABAA receptor for its anaesthetic effects, but the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has not been investigated. Notably, there is a gap of knowledge about the interaction between propofol and the nAChRs found in the adult neuromuscular junction. The objective was to evaluate whether propofol or AZD3043 interact with the α1β1δε, α3β2, or α7 nAChR subtypes that can be found in the neuromuscular junction and if there are any differences in affinity for those subtypes between propofol and AZD3043. Human nAChR subtypes α1β1δε, α3β2, and α7 were expressed into Xenopus oocytes and studied with an automated voltage-clamp. Propofol and AZD3043 inhibited ACh-induced currents in all of the nAChRs studied with inhibitory concentrations higher than those needed for general anaesthesia. AZD3043 was a more potent inhibitor at the adult muscle nAChR subtype compared to propofol. Propofol and AZD3043 inhibit nAChR subtypes that can be found in the adult NMJ in concentrations higher than needed for general anaesthesia. This finding needs to be evaluated in an in vitro nerve-muscle preparation and suggests one possible explanation for the muscle relaxant effect of propofol seen during higher doses. PMID:26861354

  11. Endogenous inhibition of the trigeminally evoked neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Gorini, C; Philbin, K; Bateman, R; Mendelowitz, D

    2010-10-01

    Stimulation of the nasal mucosa by airborne irritants or water evokes a pronounced bradycardia accompanied by peripheral vasoconstriction and apnea. The dive response, which includes the trigeminocardiac reflex, is among the most powerful autonomic responses. These responses slow the heart rate and reduce myocardial oxygen consumption. Although normally cardioprotective, exaggeration of this reflex can be detrimental and has been implicated in cardiorespiratory diseases, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). An essential component of the diving response and trigeminocardiac reflex is activation of the parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus that control heart rate. This study examined the involvement of cholinergic receptors in trigeminally evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in CVNs in an in vitro preparation from rats. CVNs were identified using a retrograde tracer injected into the fat pads at the base of the heart. Application of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine significantly decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs on stimulation of trigeminal fibers. Whereas nicotine did not have any effect on the glutamatergic responses, the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist bethanechol significantly decreased the excitatory neurotransmission. Atropine, an mAChR antagonist, facilitated these responses indicating this trigeminally evoked brain stem pathway in vitro is endogenously inhibited by mAChRs. Tropicamide, an m4 mAChR antagonist, prevented the inhibitory action of the muscarinic agonist bethanechol. These results indicate that the glutamatergic synaptic neurotransmission in the trigeminally evoked pathway to CVNs is endogenously inhibited in vitro by m4 mAChRs. PMID:20719927

  12. Luminal acetylcholine does not affect the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Nikolaus P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Fluid homeostasis mediated by the airway epithelium is required for proper lung function, and the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) Cl(-) channel is crucial for these processes. Luminal acetylcholine (ACh) acts as an auto-/paracrine mediator to activate Cl(-) channels in airway epithelia and evidence exists showing that nicotinic ACh receptors activate CFTR in murine airway epithelia. The present study investigated whether or not luminal ACh regulates CFTR activity in airway epithelia of pigs, an emerging model for investigations of human airway disease and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Transepithelial ion currents of freshly dissected pig tracheal preparations were measured with Ussing chambers. Application of luminal ACh (100 μM) induced an increase of the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The ACh effect was mimicked by muscarine and pilocarpine (100 μM each) and was sensitive to muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, 4-DAMP, pirenzepine). No changes of the I(SC) were observed by nicotine (100 μM) and ACh responses were not affected by nicotine or mecamylamine (25 μM). Luminal application of IBMX (I, 100 μM) and forskolin (F, 10 μM), increase the I(SC) and the I/F-induced current were decreased by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101 (GlyH, 50 μM) indicating increased CFTR activity by I/F. In contrast, GlyH did not affect the ACh-induced current, indicating that the ACh response does not involve the activation of the CFTR. Results from this study suggest that luminal ACh does not regulate the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs which opposes observation from studies using mice airway epithelium. PMID:26286842

  13. Depression of miniature endplate potential frequency by acetylcholine and its analogues in frog.

    PubMed Central

    Nikolsky, E. E.; Bukharaeva, E. A.; Strunsky, E. G.; Vyskocil, F.

    1991-01-01

    1. Acetylcholine (ACh), 7.5 x 10(-5) M, and carbachol, 5 x 10(-6) M (CCh) depressed the frequency of miniature endplate potentials (m.e.p.ps) in the frog (Rana temporaria) sartorius neuromuscular junction with active acetylcholinesterase to about 50-55% of the controls. 2. A similar depression was produced by the nicotinic agonists, nicotine, suberyldicholine and tetramethylammonium. 3. The muscarinic agonists, oxotremorine, methylfurmethide and methacholine were without effect on m.e.p.p. frequency. The muscarinic antagonist, atropine and the nicotinic antagonist, (+)-tubocurarine, had no effect on the depression of m.e.p.p. frequency evoked by CCh. 4. The ganglionic blockers, benzhexonium and IEM-1119, were also without effect on the CCh-evoked depression of m.e.p.p. frequency. 5. Pretreatment of muscles with anticholinesterases did not prevent the CCh-induced drop in m.e.p.p. frequency. 6. The effect of CCh was proportionally the same as in the controls in preparations where the m.e.p.p. frequency was changed by elevation of K+ and in the presence of theophylline, noradrenaline, dibutyryl adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (db cyclic AMP) and db cyclic GMP. 7. An inhibitor of Na+,K(+)-ATPase, ouabain, 5 x 10(-5) mol l-1, prevented or reversed the depression of m.e.p.p. frequency by CCh. However, the depression was present in a nominally K(+)-free medium. Insulin and adrenaline, which are considered to be Na+,K(+)-ATPase activators, were without effect on depression of m.e.p.p. frequency. 8. The depression of m.e.p.p. frequency by 5 x 10(-6) M CCh was the same at temperatures between 5 and 30 degrees C with a Q10 near to 1.0.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1667283

  14. Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated synaptic responses by GABAB receptors in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Robin A; Manuel, Nick A; Bulters, Diederick O; Cobb, Stuart R; Davies, Ceri H

    2001-01-01

    Both GABAB and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) influence hippocampal-dependent mnemonic processing. Here the possibility of a direct interaction between GABAB receptors and mAChR-mediated synaptic responses has been studied using intracellular recording in rat hippocampal slices. The GABAB receptor agonist(−)-baclofen (5–10 μm) depressed an atropine-sensitive slow EPSP (EPSPM) and occluded the GABAB-receptor-mediated IPSP (IPSPB) which preceded it. These inhibitory effects were accompanied by postsynaptic hyperpolarization (9 ± 2 mV) and a reduction in cell input resistance (12 ± 3 %). The selective GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 55845A (1 μm) fully reversed the depressant effects of (−)-baclofen (5–10 μm) such that in the combined presence of (−)-baclofen and CGP 55845A the EPSPM was 134 ± 21 % of control. (−)-Baclofen (5–10 μm) caused a small (28 ± 11 %) inhibition of carbachol-induced (3.0 μm) postsynaptic depolarizations and increases in input resistance. CGP 55845A (1 μm) alone caused an increase in the amplitude of the EPSPM (253 ± 74 % of control) and blocked the IPSPB that preceded it. In contrast, the selective GABA uptake inhibitor NNC 05–0711 (10 μm) increased the amplitude of the IPSPB by 141 ± 38 % and depressed the amplitude of the EPSPM by 58 ± 10 %. This inhibition was abolished by CGP 55845A (1 μm). Taken together these data provide good evidence that synaptically released GABA activates GABAB receptors that inhibit mAChR-mediated EPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurones. The mechanism of inhibition may involve both pre- and postsynaptic elements. PMID:11559773

  15. Notexin preferentially inhibits the release of newly synthesized acetylcholine from rat brain synaptosomal fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Gundersen, C.B.; Jenden, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effects of the snake venom neurotoxin, notexin, on acetylcholine turnover in rat brain P2 fractions using a gas chromatographic mass spectrometric assay for acetylcholine and choline. In contrast to earlier reports, we found a stimulation of the uptake and acetylation of labeled choline by toxin-treated P2 fractions. More significantly, notexin inhibited the release of this newly synthesized transmitter. These effects were found to be dependent on the dose of the toxin and the time of exposure of the P2 fraction to notexin. Longer exposure to notexin or experiments involving resuspension of notexin-treated P2 fractions appeared to result in considerable lysis of the transmitter-containing particles. Thus, notexin may alter acetylcholine compartmentation in the nerve ending and thereby affect acetylcholine synthesis.

  16. Retinal co-mediator acetylcholine evokes muscarinic inhibition of recurrent excitation in frog tectum column.

    PubMed

    Baginskas, Armantas; Kuras, Antanas

    2016-08-26

    Acetylcholine receptors contribute to the control of neuronal and neuronal network activity from insects to humans. We have investigated the action of acetylcholine receptors in the optic tectum of Rana temporaria (common frog). Our previous studies have demonstrated that acetylcholine activates presynaptic nicotinic receptors, when released into the frog optic tectum as a co-mediator during firing of a single retinal ganglion cell, and causes: a) potentiation of retinotectal synaptic transmission, and b) facilitation of transition of the tectum column to a higher level of activity. In the present study we have shown that endogenous acetylcholine also activates muscarinic receptors, leading to a delayed inhibition of recurrent excitatory synaptic transmission in the tectum column. The delay of muscarinic inhibition was evaluated to be of ∼80ms, with an extent of inhibition of ∼2 times. The inhibition of the recurrent excitation determines transition of the tectum column back to its resting state, giving a functional sense for the inhibition. PMID:27394688

  17. A family of acetylcholine-gated chloride channel subunits in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Putrenko, Igor; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Dent, Joseph A

    2005-02-25

    The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a surprisingly large and diverse superfamily of genes encoding Cys loop ligand-gated ion channels. Here we report the first cloning, expression, and pharmacological characterization of members of a family of anion-selective acetylcholine receptor subunits. Two subunits, ACC-1 and ACC-2, form homomeric channels for which acetylcholine and arecoline, but not nicotine, are efficient agonists. These channels are blocked by d-tubocurarine but not by alpha-bungarotoxin. We provide evidence that two additional subunits, ACC-3 and ACC-4, interact with ACC-1 and ACC-2. The acetylcholine-binding domain of these channels appears to have diverged substantially from the acetylcholine-binding domain of nicotinic receptors. PMID:15579462

  18. Role of dopamine receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blockade in the antiapomorphine action of neuroleptics

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Langel, Yu.L.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1987-08-01

    The authors analyze the role of dopamine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocking components in the antistereotypic action of neuroleptics with different chemical structure. To determine dopamine-blocking activity in vitro, binding of /sup 3/H-spiperone with membranes of the rat striatum was measured. To study the blocking action of the substances on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, binding of /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzylate with brain membranes was chosen.

  19. Acetylcholine test in patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Enrico; Destro, Gianni; Oliva, Massimo; Zardini, Piero

    1994-02-01

    Angina pectoris with normal coronary artery on the coronary angiography is an intriguing issue. Intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine has recently been used to test the integrity of endothelial cells. We studied 16 patients with this syndrome. A relationship has been found between the acetylcholine test and the exercise stress test in normotensive patients. The presence of hypertension makes the evaluation of the test more unpredictable, probably because of the damage on the endothelial cells related to systemic hypertension.

  20. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of the Glucuronoyl Esterase Catalytic Domain from Hypocrea jecorina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The catalytic domain of the glucuronoyl esterase from Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) was over-expressed, purified, and crystallized by sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method using 1.4 M sodium/potassium phosphate pH 6.9. Crystals had space group P212121 and X-ray diffraction data were...

  1. Molecular cloning, and characterization of a modular acetyl xylan esterase from the edible straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shaojun; Cao, Jie; Zhou, Rui; Zheng, Fei

    2007-09-01

    A new Volvariella volvacea gene encoding an acetyl xylan esterase (designated as Vvaxe1) was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The cDNA contained an ORF of 1047 bp encoding 349 amino acids with a calculated mass of 39 990 Da. VvAXE1 is a modular enzyme consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide, a catalytic domain, and a cellulose-binding domain. The amino acid sequence of the enzyme exhibited a high degree of similarity to cinnamoyl esterase B from Penicillium funiculosum, and acetyl xylan esterases from Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium purpurogenum, and Aspergillus ficuum. Recombinant acetyl xylan esterase released acetate from several acetylated substrates including beta-d-xylose tetraacetate and acetylated xylan. No activity was detectable on p-nitrophenyl acetate. Enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate was maximal at pH 8.0 and 60 degrees C, and reciprocal plots revealed an apparent K(m) value of 307.7 microM and a V(max) value of 24 733 IU micromol(-1) protein. ReAXE1 also exhibited a capacity to bind to Avicel and H(3)PO(4) acid-swollen cellulose. PMID:17623028

  2. Overexpression of Drosophila juvenile hormone esterase binding protein results in anti-JH effects and reduced pheromone abundance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The titer of juvenile hormone (JH), which has wide ranging physiological effects in insects, is regulated in part by JH esterase (JHE). We show that overexpression in Drosophila melanogaster of the JHE binding protein, DmP29 results in a series of apparent anti-JH effects. We hypothesize that DmP29 ...

  3. Acetyl xylan esterase of Aspergillus ficcum catalyzed the synthesis of peracetic acid from ethyl acetate and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Moon

    2011-11-01

    Recombinant acetyl xylan esterase (rAXE) of Aspergillus ficcum catalyzed the synthesis of peracetic acid (PAA) from ethyl acetate and hydrogen peroxide. Ten micrograms of rAXE catalyzed the synthesis of 1.34 mM of PAA, which can be used for the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass in situ. PMID:21824816

  4. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    SciTech Connect

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B.; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2009-12-08

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and three fold relative to wild type. The grains were shriveled and had a 25-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 kD and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase expressing grains were also shriveled and the seed weight was decreased by 20-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15-40% increase in water unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13 and 34%. In all the plants the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  5. Novel feruloyl esterase from Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL B-1932 and analysis of the recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using agar plates containing ethyl ferulate as the sole carbon source, 33 Lactobacillus strains were screened for feruloyl esterase (FE) activity. Among a dozen species showing a clearing zone on the opaque plate containing ethyl ferulate, Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL B-1932 demonstrated the stronge...

  6. Novel feruloyl esterase from gram-positive lactic acid bacteria and analysis of the recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using agar plates containing ethyl ferulate as the sole carbon source, 33 Lactobacillus strains were screened for feruloyl esterase (FE) activity. Among a dozen species showing a clearing zone on the opaque plate containing ethyl ferulate, Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL B-1932 demonstrated the stronge...

  7. Biocatalytic Resolution of Rac-α-Ethyl-2-Oxo-Pyrrolidineacetic Acid Methyl Ester by Immobilized Recombinant Bacillus cereus Esterase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yin-Yan; Luo, Wei-Feng; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Ying, Xiang-Xian; Wang, Zhao

    2016-04-01

    A new esterase-producing strain (Bacillus cereus WZZ001) which exhibiting high hydrolytic activity and excellent enantioselectivity on rac-α-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidineacetic acid methyl ester (R, S-1) has been isolated from soil sample by our laboratory. In this study, the stereoselective hydrolysis of (R, S-1) was performed using the recombinant Bacillus cereus esterase which expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Under the optimized conditions of pH 8.0, 35 °C, and concentration of substrate 400 mM, a successful enzymatic resolution was achieved with an e.e. s of 99.5 % and conversion of 49 %. Immobilization considerably increased the reusability of the recombinant esterase; the immobilized enzyme showed excellent reusability during 6 cycles of repeated 2 h reactions at 35 °C. Thereby, it makes the recombinant B. cereus esterase a usable biocatalyst for industrial application. PMID:26695776

  8. Monitoring Lipase/Esterase Activity by Stopped Flow in a Sequential Injection Analysis System Using p-Nitrophenyl Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Pliego, Jorge; Mateos, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez, Jorge; Valero, Francisco; Baeza, Mireia; Femat, Ricardo; Camacho, Rosa; Sandoval, Georgina; Herrera-López, Enrique J.

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05–1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed. PMID:25633600

  9. Cloning and Characterization of an Intracellular Esterase from the Wine-Associated Lactic Acid Bacterium Oenococcus oeni▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sumby, Krista M.; Matthews, Angela H.; Grbin, Paul R.; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of EstB28, the first esterase to be so characterized from the wine-associated lactic acid bacterium, Oenococcus oeni. The published sequence for O. oeni strain PSU-1 was used to identify putative esterase genes and design PCR primers in order to amplify the corresponding region from strain Ooeni28, an isolate intended for inoculation of wines. In this way a 912-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative esterase of 34.5 kDa was obtained. The amino acid sequence indicated that EstB28 is a member of family IV of lipolytic enzymes and contains the GDSAG motif common to other lactic acid bacteria. This ORF was cloned into Escherichia coli using an appropriate expression system, and the recombinant esterase was purified. Characterization of EstB28 revealed that the optimum temperature, pH, and ethanol concentration were 40°C, pH 5.0, and 28% (vol/vol), respectively. EstB28 also retained marked activity under conditions relevant to winemaking (10 to 20°C, pH 3.5, 14% [vol/vol] ethanol). Kinetic constants were determined for EstB28 with p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-linked substrates ranging in chain length from C2 to C18. EstB28 exhibited greatest specificity for C2 to C4 pNP-linked substrates. PMID:19734337

  10. Statistical optimization of medium components and physicochemical parameters to simultaneously enhance bacterial growth and esterase production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Mazzucotelli, Cintia Anabela; Moreira, María del Rosario; Ansorena, María Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a genus extensively studied because of its high potential for biotechnological application, principally in biocontrol techniques. However, the optimization of esterase production by this strain has been scarcely studied. The aim of this work was to select and optimize the physicochemical and nutritional parameters that significantly influence the growth and esterase production of B. thuringiensis. To this purpose, 6 nutritional factors and 2 physicochemical parameters were evaluated using a Plackett-Burman design. Significant variables were optimized using a Box-Behnken design and through the desirability function to select the levels of the variables that simultaneously maximize microbial growth and esterase production. The optimum conditions resulting from simultaneous optimization of the responses under study were found to be 1 g/L glucose, 15 g/L peptone, and 3.25 g/L NaCl. Under these optimal conditions, it was possible to achieve a 2.5 log CFU/mL increase in bacterial growth and a 113-fold increase in esterase productivity, compared with minimal medium without agitation. PMID:26529589

  11. ISOLATION OF JUVENILE HORMONES ESTERASE AND ITS PARTIAL CDNA CLONE FROM THE BEETLE, TENEBRIO MOLITOR. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an essential role in insect development. It is partially responsible for the clearance of juvenile hormone (JH) which regulates various aspects of insect development and reproduction. Because of its role in regulating JH titer, this enzyme...

  12. Esterase- and pH-responsive poly(β-amino ester)-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Isurika R; Ferris, Daniel P; Frasconi, Marco; Malin, Dmitry; Strekalova, Elena; Yilmaz, M Deniz; Ambrogio, Michael W; Algaradah, Mohammed M; Hong, Michael P; Chen, Xinqi; Nassar, Majed S; Botros, Youssry Y; Cryns, Vincent L; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2015-04-28

    Gating of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with the stimuli-responsive poly(β-amino ester) has been achieved. This hybrid nanocarrier releases doxorubicin (DOX) under acidic conditions or in the presence of porcine liver esterase. The DOX loaded poly(β-amino ester)-capped MSNs reduce cell viability when tested on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. PMID:25820516

  13. Novel ferulate esterase from Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria and analyses of the recombinant enzyme produced in E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a plate containing ethyl ferulate as sole carbon source, various bacteria cultures were screened for ferulate esterase (FAE). Among a dozen of species showing positive FAE, one Lactobacillus fermentum strain NRRL 1932 demonstrated the strongest activity. Using a published sequence of ferulate ...

  14. High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine to muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, K.J.; Martino, A.M.; Hall, D.P. Jr.; Schwartz, R.D.; Taylor, R.L.

    1985-06-01

    High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine to muscarinic cholinergic sites in rat CNS and peripheral tissues was measured in the presence of cytisin, which occupies nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The muscarinic sites were characterized with regard to binding kinetics, pharmacology, anatomical distribution, and regulation by guanyl nucleotides. These binding sites have characteristics of high-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors with a Kd of approximately 30 nM. Most of the muscarinic agonist and antagonist drugs tested have high affinity for the (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding site, but pirenzepine, an antagonist which is selective for M-1 receptors, has relatively low affinity. The ratio of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding sites to total muscarinic binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate varies from 9 to 90% in different tissues, with the highest ratios in the pons, medulla, and heart atrium. In the presence of guanyl nucleotides, (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine binding is decreased, but the extent of decrease varies from 40 to 90% in different tissues, with the largest decreases being found in the pons, medulla, cerebellum, and heart atrium. The results indicate that (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binds to high-affinity M-1 and M-2 muscarinic receptors, and they suggest that most M-2 sites have high affinity for acetylcholine but that only a small fraction of M-1 sites have such high affinity.

  15. A genomic search approach to identify esterases in Propionibacterium freudenreichii involved in the formation of flavour in Emmental cheese

    PubMed Central

    Dherbécourt, Julien; Falentin, Hélène; Canaan, Stéphane; Thierry, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Lipolysis is an important process of cheese ripening that contributes to the formation of flavour. Propionibacterium freudenreichii is the main agent of lipolysis in Emmental cheese; however, the enzymes involved produced by this species have not yet been identified. Lipolysis is performed by esterases (carboxylic ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.-) which are able to hydrolyse acylglycerols bearing short, medium and long chain fatty acids. The genome sequence of P. freudenreichii type strain CIP103027T was recently obtained in our laboratory. The aim of this study was to identify as exhaustively as possible the potential esterases in P. freudenreichii that could be involved in the hydrolysis of acylglycerols in Emmental cheese. The proteins identified were produced in a soluble and active form by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli for further study of their activity and specificity of hydrolysed substrates. Results The approach chosen was a genomic search approach that combined and compared four methods based on automatic and manual searches of homology and motifs among P. freudenreichii CIP103027T predicted proteins. Twenty-three putative esterases were identified in this step. Then a selection step permitted to focus the study on the 12 most probable esterases, according to the presence of the GXSXG motif of the α/β hydrolase fold family. The 12 corresponding coding sequences were cloned in expression vectors, containing soluble N-terminal fusion proteins. The best conditions to express each protein in a soluble form were found thanks to an expression screening, using an incomplete factorial experimental design. Eleven out of the 12 proteins were expressed in a soluble form in E. coli and six showed esterase activity on 1-naphthyl acetate and/or propionate, as demonstrated by a zymographic method. Conclusion We were able to demonstrate that our genomic search approach was efficient to identify esterases from the genome of a P. freudenreichii

  16. Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines

    PubMed Central

    Case, R. M.; Conigrave, A. D.; Novak, I.; Young, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    1. A method is described for the isolation and vascular perfusion in vitro of the mandibular gland of the rabbit. The perfusate is a physiological salt solution containing glucose as the only metabolic substrate. 2. During perfusion with solutions containing acetylcholine, the gland secretes vigorously at a rate and in a manner similar to that seen in vivo. Although the gland becomes oedematous during perfusion, the extent of this oedema appears to have no influence on secretory ability: the perfused glands were capable of functioning for at least 4 h, and often for more than 6 h. 3. Acetylcholine evoked a small secretory response at a concentration of 8 × 10-9 mol l-1 and a maximum response at 8 × 10-7 mol l-1. Eserine (2 × 10-5 mol l-1) evoked secretory responses comparable to those evoked by acetylcholine in a concentration of 8 × 10-9 mol l-1. Secretion, whether unstimulated or evoked by acetylcholine or eserine, could be blocked completely by atropine. 4. During prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine, the fluid secretory response declined rapidly over a period of about 15 min from an initial high value to a much lower plateau value. After 3 or more hours of stimulation, the secretory response began once more to decline, this time towards zero. If, before the second period of decline begins, stimulation is interrupted for about 30 min, the gland recovers its initial responsiveness to further stimulation with acetylcholine. 5. The Na, K, Cl and HCO3 concentrations and the osmolality of acetylcholine evoked saliva exhibited flow-dependency similar to that seen in vivo. The concentrations of Na and Cl, but not K and HCO3, increased by about 25 mmol l-1 during periods of prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine even though the salivary secretory rate was constant. The concentrations of K and HCO3, but not Na and Cl, increased progressively as the concentration of infused acetylcholine was increased. 6. Salivary protein secretion increased with increasing

  17. Analysing deltamethrin susceptibility and pyrethroid esterase activity variations in sylvatic and domestic Triatoma infestans at the embryonic stage

    PubMed Central

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo Luis; Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Vassena, Claudia Viviana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the deltamethrin susceptibility of eggs from Triatoma infestans populations and the contribution of pyrethroid esterases to deltamethrin degradation. Insects were collected from sylvatic areas, including Veinte de Octubre and Kirus-Mayu (Bolivia) and from domiciliary areas, including El Palmar (Bolivia) and La Pista (Argentina). Deltamethrin susceptibility was determined by dose-response bioassays. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin (0.0005-1 mg/mL) were topically applied to 12-day-old eggs. Samples from El Palmar had the highest lethal dose ratio (LDR) value (44.90) compared to the susceptible reference strain (NFS), whereas the Veinte de Octubre samples had the lowest value (0.50). Pyrethroid esterases were evaluated using 7-coumaryl permethrate (7-CP) on individually homogenised eggs from each population and from NFS. The El Palmar and La Pista samples contained 40.11 and 36.64 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively, and these values were statistically similar to NFS (34.92 pmol/min/mg protein) and different from Kirus-Mayu and Veinte de Octubre (27.49 and 22.69 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively). The toxicological data indicate that the domestic populations were resistant to deltamethrin, but no statistical contribution of 7-CP esterases was observed. The sylvatic populations had similar LDR values to NFS, but lower 7-CP esterase activities. Moreover, this is the first study of the pyrethroid esterases on T. infestans eggs employing a specific substrate (7-CP). PMID:24402155

  18. Leucocyte esterase, glucose and C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Vecchi, E; Villa, F; Bortolin, M; Toscano, M; Tacchini, L; Romanò, C L; Drago, L

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of joint fluid is of paramount importance for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections. Different markers of inflammation and/or infection in joint fluid have been proposed for diagnosis of these infections. In this study we evaluated the performance of leucocyte esterase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glucose assays in synovial fluids from 129 patients with septic (n = 27) or aseptic (n = 102) prosthetic joint failure. Samples were collected in serum tubes and centrifuged to limit the presence of corpuscle interfering with the assays. Determinations of leucocyte esterase and glucose were carried out by means of enzymatic colorimetric reactions performed on strips for urine analysis. Tests were considered positive when graded + or ++ whereas traces or absence of colour were considered negative. CRP was measured using an automated turbidimetric method and considered suggestive for infections when >10 mg/L. Leucocyte esterase was positive in 25/27 infected patients and negative in 99/102 not infected patients (sensitivity 92.6%, specificity 97.0%). CRP was higher than the threshold in 22/27 infected patients and in 6/102 not infected patients (sensitivity: 81.5%; specificity: 94.1%) whereas glucose showed the lowest sensitivity (77.8%) and specificity (81.4%), being negative in 21/27 and 19/102 infected and not infected patients, respectively. CRP led to a correct diagnosis in 19 of 22 patients with discordant esterase and glucose results. In conclusion, evaluation of leucocyte esterase, glucose and CRP may represent a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections. PMID:27040804

  19. Activation of endplate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of a small molecule made in one cell with a large receptor made in another is the signature event of cell signaling. Understanding the structure and energy changes associated with agonist activation is important for engineering drugs, receptors and synapses. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ∼300kD ion channel that binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and other cholinergic agonists to elicit electrical responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This mini-review is in two sections. First, general concepts of skeletal muscle AChR operation are discussed in terms of energy landscapes for conformational change. Second, adult vs. fetal AChRs are compared with regard to interaction energies between ACh and agonist-site side chains, measured by single-channel electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations. The five aromatic residues that form the core of each agonist binding site can be divided into two working groups, a triad (led by αY190) that behaves similarly at all sites and a coupled pair (led by γW55) that has a large influence on affinity only in fetal AChRs. Each endplate AChR has 5 homologous subunits, two of α(1) and one each of β, δ, and either γ (fetal) or ϵ (adult). These nicotinic AChRs have only 2 functional agonist binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αγ or αϵ subunit interfaces. The receptor undergoes a reversible, global isomerization between structures called C and O. The C shape does not conduct ions and has a relatively low affinity for ACh, whereas O conducts cations and has a higher affinity. When both agonist sites are empty (filled only with water) the probability of taking on the O conformation (PO) is low, <10(-6). When ACh molecules occupy the agonist sites the C→O opening rate constant and C↔O gating equilibrium constant increase dramatically. Following a pulse of ACh at the nerve-muscle synapse, the endplate current rises rapidly

  20. Calcium-dependent (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release and muscarinic autoreceptors in rat cortical synaptosomes during development

    SciTech Connect

    Marchi, M.; Caviglia, A.; Paudice, P.; Raiteri, M.

    1983-05-01

    A number of presynaptic cholinergic parameters (high affinity (/sup 3/H)choline uptake, (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine synthesis, (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release, and autoinhibition of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release mediated by muscarinic autoreceptors) were comparatively analyzed in rat brain cortex synaptosomes during postnatal development. These various functions showed a differential time course during development. At 10 days of age the release of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine evoked by 15 mM KCl from superfused synaptosomes was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent but insensitive to the inhibitory action of extrasynaptosomal acetylcholine. The muscarinic autoreceptors regulating acetylcholine release were clearly detectable only at 14 days, indicating that their appearance may represent a criterion of synaptic maturation more valuable than the onset of a Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent release.

  1. [Proteasome inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an essential role in degradation of eukaryotic intracellular protein, including cell cycle regulation, cell growth and proliferation, and survival. Cancer cells generally have higher level of proteasome activity compared with normal cells, suggesting proteasome inhibition could be therapeutic target in oncology. Bortezomib, the first proteasome inhibitor introduced into the clinic, is approved for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Although it was approved as single agent in the relapsed setting, bortezomib is now predominantly used in combination with conventional and novel targeted agents because bortezomib has demonstrated additive and synergistic activity in preclinical studies. Recently, several second-generation proteasome inhibitors, such as carfilzomib and MLN9708, have been developed and entered into clinical trials. These agents were investigated in frontline MM in combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone. These studies demonstrated positive efficacy and safety, and it is expected that they will be approved in near future. PMID:25016815

  2. Acetylcholine Protects against Candida albicans Infection by Inhibiting Biofilm Formation and Promoting Hemocyte Function in a Galleria mellonella Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Borghi, Elisa; Falleni, Monica; Perdoni, Federica; Tosi, Delfina; Lappin, David F; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Greetham, Darren; Ramage, Gordon; Nile, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Both neuronal acetylcholine and nonneuronal acetylcholine have been demonstrated to modulate inflammatory responses. Studies investigating the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections have revealed contradictory findings with regard to disease outcome. At present, the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of fungal infections is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether acetylcholine plays a role in fungal biofilm formation and the pathogenesis of Candida albicans infection. The effect of acetylcholine on C. albicans biofilm formation and metabolism in vitro was assessed using a crystal violet assay and phenotypic microarray analysis. Its effect on the outcome of a C. albicans infection, fungal burden, and biofilm formation were investigated in vivo using a Galleria mellonella infection model. In addition, its effect on modulation of host immunity to C. albicans infection was also determined in vivo using hemocyte counts, cytospin analysis, larval histology, lysozyme assays, hemolytic assays, and real-time PCR. Acetylcholine was shown to have the ability to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, acetylcholine protected G. mellonella larvae from C. albicans infection mortality. The in vivo protection occurred through acetylcholine enhancing the function of hemocytes while at the same time inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation. Furthermore, acetylcholine also inhibited inflammation-induced damage to internal organs. This is the first demonstration of a role for acetylcholine in protection against fungal infections, in addition to being the first report that this molecule can inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. Therefore, acetylcholine has the capacity to modulate complex host-fungal interactions and plays a role in dictating the pathogenesis of fungal infections. PMID:26092919

  3. Acetylcholine Protects against Candida albicans Infection by Inhibiting Biofilm Formation and Promoting Hemocyte Function in a Galleria mellonella Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Borghi, Elisa; Falleni, Monica; Perdoni, Federica; Tosi, Delfina; Lappin, David F.; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Greetham, Darren; Ramage, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Both neuronal acetylcholine and nonneuronal acetylcholine have been demonstrated to modulate inflammatory responses. Studies investigating the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections have revealed contradictory findings with regard to disease outcome. At present, the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of fungal infections is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether acetylcholine plays a role in fungal biofilm formation and the pathogenesis of Candida albicans infection. The effect of acetylcholine on C. albicans biofilm formation and metabolism in vitro was assessed using a crystal violet assay and phenotypic microarray analysis. Its effect on the outcome of a C. albicans infection, fungal burden, and biofilm formation were investigated in vivo using a Galleria mellonella infection model. In addition, its effect on modulation of host immunity to C. albicans infection was also determined in vivo using hemocyte counts, cytospin analysis, larval histology, lysozyme assays, hemolytic assays, and real-time PCR. Acetylcholine was shown to have the ability to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, acetylcholine protected G. mellonella larvae from C. albicans infection mortality. The in vivo protection occurred through acetylcholine enhancing the function of hemocytes while at the same time inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation. Furthermore, acetylcholine also inhibited inflammation-induced damage to internal organs. This is the first demonstration of a role for acetylcholine in protection against fungal infections, in addition to being the first report that this molecule can inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. Therefore, acetylcholine has the capacity to modulate complex host-fungal interactions and plays a role in dictating the pathogenesis of fungal infections. PMID:26092919

  4. Effect of oxotremorine on the acetylcholine content of whole brain and various brain regions in the pigeon

    PubMed Central

    Igić, R.

    1971-01-01

    Oxotremorine (0·125 mg/kg) produces a significant increase in total acetylcholine content in whole pigeon brain. The contribution of different regions to this increase varies. The largest increase occurs in the nucleus basalis (paleostriatum augmentatum), a region which is highly involved in motor control. The mechanism by which oxotremorine increases the acetylcholine content of brain and the causal relationship between the rise in acetylcholine content and tremor are discussed. PMID:5091163

  5. Identification of activating enzymes of a novel FBPase inhibitor prodrug, CS-917

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazuishi; Inaba, Shin-ichi; Nakano, Rika; Watanabe, Mihoko; Sakurai, Hidetaka; Fukushima, Yumiko; Ichikawa, Kimihisa; Takahashi, Tohru; Izumi, Takashi; Shinagawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    CS-917 (MB06322) is a selective small compound inhibitor of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), which is expected to be a novel drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes by inhibiting gluconeogenesis. CS-917 is a bisamidate prodrug and activation of CS-917 requires a two-step enzyme catalyzed reaction. The first-step enzyme, esterase, catalyzes the conversion of CS-917 into the intermediate form (R-134450) and the second-step enzyme, phosphoramidase, catalyzes the conversion of R-134450 into the active form (R-125338). In this study, we biochemically purified the CS-917 esterase activity in monkey small intestine and liver. We identified cathepsin A (CTSA) and elastase 3B (ELA3B) as CS-917 esterases in the small intestine by mass spectrometry, whereas we found CTSA and carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) in monkey liver. We also purified R-134450 phosphoramidase activity in monkey liver and identified sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, acid-like 3A (SMPADL3A), as an R-134450 phosphoramidase, which has not been reported to have any enzyme activity. Recombinant human CTSA, ELA3B, and CES1 showed CS-917 esterase activity and recombinant human SMPDL3A showed R-134450 phosphoramidase activity, which confirmed the identification of those enzymes. Identification of metabolic enzymes responsible for the activation process is the requisite first step to understanding the activation process, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of CS-917 at the molecular level. This is the first identification of a phosphoramidase other than histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein (HINT) family enzymes and SMPDL3A might generally contribute to activation of the other bisamidate prodrugs. PMID:26171222

  6. Bioassay technique using nonspecific esterase activities of Tetrahymena pyriformis for screening and assessing cytotoxicity of xenobiotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaerts, P.; Senaud, J.; Bohatier, J. |

    1998-08-01

    A simple and rapid test for screening and assessing the cytotoxicity of xenobiotics was developed with Tetrahymena pyriformis. The method estimates the activities of nonspecific esterases of a cell by concentrating within it a specific amount of fluorescence associated with fluorescein dye. The 2-h median effective concentration (EC50) values of 10 inorganic and eight organic substances are presented and compared to those of three other bioassays: the conventional T. pyriformis proliferation rate 9-h median inhibitory concentrations, the Microtox 30-min EC50s, and the Daphnia magna 4-methylumbelliferyl {beta}-D galactoside 1-h EC50s. A highly significant correlation was found between the results obtained with the fluorescein diacetate test and those obtained with the growth inhibition and Microtox tests. This in vivo enzymatic test showed high sensitivity to all compounds tested except Cr{sup 6+} and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  7. Functional-based screening methods for lipases, esterases, and phospholipases in metagenomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Duarte, Dolores; Ferrer, Manuel; García-Arellano, Humberto

    2012-01-01

    The use of metagenomic techniques for enzyme discovery constitutes a powerful approach. Functional screens, in contrast to sequence homology search, enable us to select enzymes based on their activity. It is noteworthy that they additionally guarantee the identification of genes coding for enzymes that exhibited no sequence similarity to known counterparts from public databases and that even do not match any putative catalytic residues, involved in the selected catalytic function. Therefore, this strategy not only provides new enzymes for new biotechnological applications, but also allows functional assignment of many proteins, found in abundance in the databases, currently designated as "hypothetical" or "conserved hypothetical" proteins. In the past decade, there has been an exponential increase in the design of functional screening programmes, the majority of them established for hydrolases and oxidoreductases. Here, functional screening methods that guarantee the greatest enzyme diversity, for mining esterases and lipases, are described. PMID:22426714

  8. Addition of feruloyl esterase and xylanase produced on-site improves sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Braga, Cleiton Márcio Pinto; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Paixão, Douglas Antônio Alvaredo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2014-10-01

    Accessory enzymes that assist biomass degradation could be used to improve the recovery of fermentable sugar for use in biorefineries. In this study, different fungal strains isolated from the Amazon rainforest were evaluated in terms of their ability to produce feruloyl esterase (FAE) and xylanase enzymes, and an assessment was made of the contributions of the enzymes in the hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. In the selection step, screening using plate assays was followed by shake flask submerged cultivations. After carbon source selection and cultivation in a stirred-tank bioreactor, Aspergillusoryzae P21C3 proved to be a promising strain for production of the enzymes. Supplementation of a commercial enzyme preparation with 30% (v/v) crude enzymatic complex from A. oryzae P21C3 increased the conversion of cellulose derived from pretreated sugarcane bagasse by 36%. Supplementation with FAE and xylanase enzymes produced on-site can therefore be used to improve the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. PMID:25151076

  9. How well do the substrates KISS the enzyme? Molecular docking program selection for feruloyl esterases

    PubMed Central

    Udatha, D. B. R. K. Gupta; Sugaya, Nobuyoshi; Olsson, Lisbeth; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    Molecular docking is the most commonly used technique in the modern drug discovery process where computational approaches involving docking algorithms are used to dock small molecules into macromolecular target structures. Over the recent years several evaluation studies have been reported by independent scientists comparing the performance of the docking programs by using default ‘black box’ protocols supplied by the software companies. Such studies have to be considered carefully as the docking programs can be tweaked towards optimum performance by selecting the parameters suitable for the target of interest. In this study we address the problem of selecting an appropriate docking and scoring function combination (88 docking algorithm-scoring functions) for substrate specificity predictions for feruloyl esterases, an industrially relevant enzyme family. We also propose the ‘Key Interaction Score System’ (KISS), a more biochemically meaningful measure for evaluation of docking programs based on pose prediction accuracy. PMID:22435086

  10. Potential of Ophiostoma piceae sterol esterase for biotechnologically relevant hydrolysis reactions

    PubMed Central

    Barba Cedillo, Víctor; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez, María Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete Ophiostoma piceae produces a sterol esterase (OPE) with high affinity toward p-nitrophenol, glycerol, and sterol esters. Recently, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the AOX1 methanol-inducible promoter (PAOX1) using sorbitol as co-susbtrate, and the hydrolytic activity of the recombinant protein (OPE*) turned out to be improved from a kinetic point of view. In this study, we analyze the effects of sorbitol during the expression of OPE*, at first added as an additional carbon source, and methanol as inducer. The O. piceae enzyme was successfully used for PVAc hydrolysis, suggesting its potential applicability in recycled paper production to decrease stickies problems. PMID:23138020

  11. Structure of EstA esterase from psychrotrophic Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A covalently inhibited by monoethylphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Brzuszkiewicz, Anna; Nowak, Elzbieta; Dauter, Zbigniew; Dauter, Miroslawa; Cieslinski, Hubert; Dlugolecka, Anna; Kur, Józef

    2010-10-28

    The crystal structure of the esterase EstA from the cold-adapted bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A was determined in a covalently inhibited form at a resolution of 1.35 {angstrom}. The enzyme has a typical SGNH hydrolase structure consisting of a single domain containing a five-stranded {beta}-sheet, with three helices at the convex side and two helices at the concave side of the sheet, and is ornamented with a couple of very short helices at the domain edges. The active site is located in a groove and contains the classic catalytic triad of Ser, His and Asp. In the structure of the crystal soaked in diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (DNP), the catalytic serine is covalently connected to a phosphonate moiety that clearly has only one ethyl group. This is the only example in the Protein Data Bank of a DNP-inhibited enzyme with covalently bound monoethylphosphate.

  12. Identification of a bacterial pectin acetyl esterase in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    PubMed

    Shevchik, V E; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1997-06-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot diseases of various plants by enzymatic degradation of the pectin in plant cell walls. The structural complexity of pectin requires the combined action of several pectinases for its efficient breakdown. Three types of pectinases have so far been identified in E. chrysanthemi: two pectin methyl esterases (PemA, PemB), a polygalacturonase (PehX), and eight pectate lyases (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelL, PelZ, PelX). We report in this paper the analysis of a novel enzyme, the pectin acetyl esterase encoded by the paeY gene. No bacterial form of pectin acetyl esterases has been described previously, while plant tissues and some pectinolytic fungi were found to produce similar enzymes. The paeY gene is present in a cluster of five pectinase-encoding genes, pelA-pelE-pelD-paeY-pemA. The paeY open reading frame is 1650 bases long and encodes a 551-residue precursor protein of 60704Da, including a 25-amino-acid signal peptide. PaeY shares one region of homology with a rhamnogalacturonan acetyl esterase of Aspergillus aculeatus. To characterize the enzyme, the paeY gene was overexpressed and its protein product was purified. PaeY releases acetate from sugar-beet pectin and from various synthetic substrates. Moreover, the enzyme was shown to act in synergy with other pectinases. The de-esterification rate by PaeY increased after previous demethylation of the pectins by PemA and after depolymerization of the pectin by pectate lyases. In addition, the degradation of sugar-beet pectin by pectate lyases is favoured after the removal of methyl and acetyl groups by PemA and PaeY, respectively. The paeY gene was first identified on the basis of its regulation, which shares several characteristics with that of other pectinases. Analysis of the paeY transcription, using gene fusions, revealed that it is induced by pectic catabolic products and is affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation and catabolite repression. Regulation of pae

  13. Disruption of lysosomal targeting is associated with insecticidal potency of juvenile hormone esterase

    PubMed Central

    Bonning, Bryony C.; Ward, Vernon K.; van Meer, Marnix M. M.; Booth, Tim F.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    1997-01-01

    Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE; EC 3.1.1.1), which is intrinsically involved in regulation of development of some insect larvae, is rapidly removed from the hemolymph by the pericardial cells. Lys-29 and Lys-524, which are implicated in the degradation of JHE, were mutated to Arg. Neither the half-life of the modified JHE in the hemolymph nor the catalytic parameters were changed significantly, but when combined, these mutations resulted in apparent failure of lysosomal targeting in the pericardial cell complex. A hypothesis for the mechanism of reduced efficiency of lysosomal targeting is presented. Infection of larvae with a recombinant baculovirus expressing the modified JHE resulted in a 50% reduction in feeding damage compared with larvae infected with the wild-type virus, thus demonstrating improved properties as a biological insecticide. These data demonstrate that alteration of specific residues of JHE that disrupted lysosomal targeting, dramatically increased the insecticidal activity of this protein. PMID:9177159

  14. Biomass-to-bio-products application of feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed

    Damásio, André R L; Braga, Cleiton Márcio Pinto; Brenelli, Lívia B; Citadini, Ana Paula; Mandelli, Fernanda; Cota, Junio; de Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; Salvador, Victor Hugo; Paixao, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Segato, Fernando; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; do Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Squina, Fabio M

    2013-08-01

    The structural polysaccharides contained in plant cell walls have been pointed to as a promising renewable alternative to petroleum and natural gas. Ferulic acid is a ubiquitous component of plant polysaccharides, which is found in either monomeric or dimeric forms and is covalently linked to arabinosyl residues. Ferulic acid has several commercial applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. The study herein introduces a novel feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus clavatus (AcFAE). Along with a comprehensive functional and biophysical characterization, the low-resolution structure of this enzyme was also determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. In addition, we described the production of phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity from wheat arabinoxylan and sugarcane bagasse using AcFAE. The ability to specifically cleave ester linkages in hemicellulose is useful in several biotechnological applications, including improved accessibility to lignocellulosic enzymes for biofuel production. PMID:23229566

  15. Detection of feruloyl- and cinnamoyl esterases from basidiomycetes in the presence of interfering laccase.

    PubMed

    Haase-Aschoff, Paul; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2013-02-01

    Little is known on basidiomycete sources of feruloyl esterases (FAEs), although many wood-rotting representatives of these fungi typically grow on feruloyl-rich substrates. A major reason is that the almost ubiquitous presence of laccases interferes with the detection of FAE activity. Laccases polymerize the liberated ferulic acid (FA) in situ, thus detracting the product of enzymatic hydrolysis from its detection. A rapid HPLC-UV method was developed to detect the loss of FA, but also to quantify the hydrolysis of FA esters. The method allows at the same time to evaluate the substrate specificity of a FAE. Forty one basidiomycetes were tested for their FAE activities, and 25 out of the set were positive. The basidiomycetes hydrolyzing cinnamates with the highest conversion rates were Auricularia auricula-judae and Marasmius scorodonius. Moreover, a new FAE inducer, the nonionic detergent Tween 80, was found. This is the first comprehensive study on basidiomycete sources of FAEs. PMID:23306132

  16. Non-specific esterases and esterproteases in masticatory muscles from the muscular dystrophic mouse.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Vilmann, H

    1989-03-01

    With the aid of histochemical and electrophoretic techniques activities for esterase and esterprotease were investigated in the digastric and masseter muscles from normal and dystrophic mice. The substrates used were alpha-naphthyl acetate and N-acetyl-L-alanine alpha-naphthyl ester. According to the microscopic observations of the dystrophic muscles the histopathological changes in the masseter muscle were much more pronounced than in the digastric muscle. The connective tissue surrounding the myofibers of the dystrophic masseter contained a large number of cells with pronounced enzyme activity. Among them were mast cells that were strongly stained for esterprotease. The connective tissue of the dystrophic digastricus was much less infiltrated with cellular elements reacting for esterprotease. In zymograms the normal digastricus, the dystrophic masseter and the dystrophic digastricus showed a strong activity for certain isoenzymes that were absent or weakly expressed in the normal masseter. PMID:2657470

  17. Substrate specificity of xenobiotic metabolizing esterases in the liver of two catfish species

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, R.G.; Huang, T.L.; Obih, P.O.

    1994-12-31

    The preliminary studies were conducted on the characterization of substrate specificity in the liver microsomes and cytosol of two catfish species, Ictalurus punctatus and Ictalurus natalie. A series of five esters of p-nitrophenol were used as calorimetric substrates to assay the carboxylesterases. The substrate specificity of liver microsomal and cytosolic carboxylesterases were remarkably different from each other. The valerate ester of p-nitrophenol was most rapidly hydrolyzed by the microsomal carboxylesterases, whereas the prioponate ester was the best substrate for cytosolic carboxylesterases. The Ictalurus natalie catfish species were obtained from the Devil Swamp site of the Mississippi River Basin which is known to be heavily contaminated with toxic and hazardous industrial wastes. These results will be discussed in relation to the responses of xenobiotic metabolizing esterases to environmental pollutants and their possible use as biomarkers.

  18. Production of Feruloyl Esterase from Aspergillus niger by Solid-State Fermentation on Different Carbon Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shiyi; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    A mixture of wheat bran with maize bran as a carbon source and addition of (NH4)SO4 as nitrogen source was found to significantly increase production of feruloyl esterase (FAE) enzyme compared with wheat bran as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. The optimal conditions in conical flasks were carbon source (30 g) to water 1 : 1, maize bran to wheat bran 1 : 2, (NH4)SO4 1.2 g and MgSO4 70 mg. Under these conditions, FAE activity was 7.68 mU/g. The FAE activity on the mixed carbon sources showed, high activity against the plant cell walls contained in the cultures. PMID:21603274

  19. Acetylcholine receptor and behavioral deficits in mice lacking apolipoprotein E

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jessica A; Benice, Theodore S; Van Meer, Peter; Park, Byung S; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in the risk to develop sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since impaired central acetylcholine (ACh) function is a hallmark of AD, apoE may influence ACh function by modulating muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). To test this hypothesis, mAChR binding was measured in mice lacking apoE and wild type C57BL/6J mice. Mice were also tested on the pre-pulse inhibition, delay eyeblink classical conditioning, and 5-choice serial reaction time tasks, which are all modulated by ACh transmission. Mice were also given scopolamine to challenge central mAChR function. Compared to wild type mice, mice lacking apoE had reduced number of cortical and hippocampal mAChRs. Scopolamine had a small effect on delay eyeblink classical conditioning in wild type mice but a large effect in mice lacking apoE. Mice lacking apoE were also unable to acquire performance on the 5-choice serial reaction time task. These results support a role for apoE in ACh function and suggest that modulation of cortical and hippocampal mAChRs might contribute to genotype differences in scopolamine sensitivity and task acquisition. Impaired apoE functioning may result in cholinergic deficits that contribute to the cognitive impairments seen in AD. PMID:19178986

  20. Therapeutic Potential of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Daniel; Lee, Chih-Hung L; Flood, Dorothy; Marger, Fabrice; Donnelly-Roberts, Diana

    2015-10-01

    Progress in the fields of neuroscience and molecular biology has identified the forebrain cholinergic system as being important in many higher order brain functions. Further analysis of the genes encoding the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has highlighted, in particular, the role of α7 nAChRs in these higher order brain functions as evidenced by their peculiar physiologic and pharmacological properties. As this receptor has gained the attention of scientists from academia and industry, our knowledge of its roles in various brain and bodily functions has increased immensely. We have also seen the development of small molecules that have further refined our understanding of the roles of α7 nAChRs, and these molecules have begun to be tested in clinical trials for several indications. Although a large body of data has confirmed a role of α7 nAChRs in cognition, the translation of small molecules affecting α7 nAChRs into therapeutics has to date only progressed to the stage of testing in clinical trials. Notably, however, most recent human genetic and biochemical studies are further underscoring the crucial role of α7 nAChRs and associated genes in multiple organ systems and disease states. The aim of this review is to discuss our current knowledge of α7 nAChRs and their relevance as a target in specific functional systems and disease states. PMID:26419447

  1. Mechanisms of acetylcholine receptor loss in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Drachman, D B; Adams, R N; Stanley, E F; Pestronk, A

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental abnormality affecting the neuromuscular junctions of myasthenic patients is a reduction of available AChRs, due to an autoimmune attack directed against the receptors. Antibodies to AChR are present in most patients, and there is evidence that they have a predominant pathogenic role in the disease, aided by complement. The mechanism of antibody action involves acceleration of the rate of degradation of AChRs, attributable to cross-linking of the receptors. In addition, antibodies may block AChRs, and may participate in producing destructive changes, perhaps in conjunction with complement. The possibility that cell-mediated mechanisms may play a role in the autoimmune responses of some myasthenic patients remains to be explored. Although the target of the autoimmune attack in myasthenic patients is probably always the acetylcholine receptors, it is not yet clear which of these immune mechanisms are most important. It is likely that the relative role of each mechanism varies from patient to patient. One of the goals of future research will be to identify the relative importance of each of these mechanisms in the individual patient, and to tailor specific immunotherapeutic measures to the abnormalities found. PMID:6249894

  2. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Holgate, Joan Y; Bartlett, Selena E

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual's brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD. PMID:26136145

  3. Genetic Reconstitution of Functional Acetylcholine Receptor Channels in Mouse Fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudio, Toni; Green, W. N.; Hartman, Deborah S.; Hayden, Deborah; Paulson, Henry L.; Sigworth, F. J.; Sine, Steven M.; Swedlund, Anne

    1987-12-01

    Foreign genes can be stably integrated into the genome of a cell by means of DNA-mediated gene transfer techniques, and large quantities of homogenous cells that continuously express these gene products can then be isolated. Such an expression system can be used to study the functional consequences of introducing specific mutations into genes and to study the expressed protein in the absence of cellular components with which it is normally in contact. All four Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit complementary DNA's were introduced into the genome of a mouse fibroblast cell by DNA-mediated gene transfer. A clonal cell line that stably produced high concentrations of correctly assembled cell surface AChR's and formed proper ligand-gated ion channels was isolated. With this new expression system, recombinant DNA, biochemical, pharmacological, and electrophysiological techniques were combined to study Torpedo AChR's in a single intact system. The physiological and pharmacological profiles of Torpedo AChR's expressed in mouse fibroblast cells differ in some details from those described earlier, and may provide a more accurate reflection of the properties of this receptor in its natural environment.

  4. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: location of the ligand binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, E.; Wheatley, M.; Curtis, C.; Birdsall, N.

    1987-05-01

    The key to understanding the pharmacological specificity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR's) is the location within the receptor sequence of the amino acid residues responsible for ligand binding. To approach this problem, they have purified mAChR's from rat brain to homogeneity by sequential ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and molecular weight fractionation. Following labelling of the binding site with an alkylating affinity label, /sup 3/H-propylbenzilycholine mustard aziridinium ion (/sup 3/H-PrBCM), the mAChR was digested with a lysine-specific endoproteinase, and a ladder of peptides of increasing molecular weight, each containing the glycosylated N-terminus, isolated by chromatography on wheat-germ agglutinin sepharose. The pattern of labelling showed that a residue in the peptides containing transmembrane helices 2 and/or 3 of the mAChR was alkylated. The linkage was cleaved by 1 M hydroxylamine, showing that /sup 3/H-PrBCM was attached to an acidic residue, whose properties strongly suggested it to be embedded in a hydrophobic intramembrane region of the mAChR. Examination of the cloned sequence of the mAChR reveals several candidate residues, the most likely of which is homologous to an aspartic acid residue thought to protonate the retinal Schiff's base in the congeneric protein rhodopsin.

  5. Schizophrenia and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura F; Freedman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the devastating symptoms of psychosis, many people with schizophrenia also suffer from cognitive impairment. These cognitive symptoms lead to marked dysfunction and can impact employability, treatment adherence, and social skills. Deficits in P50 auditory gating are associated with attentional impairment and may contribute to cognitive symptoms and perceptual disturbances. This nicotinic cholinergic-mediated inhibitory process represents a potential new target for therapeutic intervention in schizophrenia. This chapter will review evidence implicating the nicotinic cholinergic, and specifically, the alpha7 nicotinic receptor system in the pathology of schizophrenia. Impaired auditory sensory gating has been linked to the alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene on the chromosome 15q14 locus. A majority of persons with schizophrenia are heavy smokers. Although nicotine can acutely reverse diminished auditory sensory gating in people with schizophrenia, this effect is lost on a chronic basis due to receptor desensitization. The alpha7 nicotinic agonist 3-(2,4 dimethoxy)benzylidene-anabaseine (DMXBA) can also enhance auditory sensory gating in animal models. DMXBA is well tolerated in humans and a new study in persons with schizophrenia has found that DMXBA enhances both P50 auditory gating and cognition. alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists appear to be viable candidates for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia. PMID:17349863

  6. High-resolution mass spectrometry for detecting Acetylcholine in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Jun; Watanabe, Takehiro; Sugahara, Kohtaro; Yamagaki, Tohru; Takahashi, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) was first identified a century ago, and has long been known as a neurotransmitter in animals. However, it has been shown recently that the occurrence of ACh is widespread among various non-animal species including higher plants. Although previous reports suggest that various plant species are capable of responding to exogenously applied ACh, the molecular basis for ACh biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms mediated by endogenous ACh are largely unclear. This is partly because of the lack of conclusive data on the occurrence and the tissue specificity of ACh in plants. To this end, we performed various analyses including liquid chromatography electro-chemical detection (LC-ECD), liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The results, together with electrospray ionization-orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI-orbitrap FT-MS) analysis provide strong evidence that ACh exists in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues. The results also showed that the level of ACh is highest in seed, followed by root and cotyledon. Moreover, exogenously applied ACh inhibited the elongation of Arabidopsis root hairs. These results collectively indicate that ACh exists primarily in seed and root in Arabidopsis seedlings, and plays a pivotal role during the initial stages of seedling development by controlling root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26237653

  7. Transmembrane topography of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor delta subunit.

    PubMed

    McCrea, P D; Popot, J L; Engelman, D M

    1987-12-01

    Current folding models for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) predict either four or five transmembrane segments per subunit. The N-terminus of each subunit is almost certainly extracellular. We have tested folding models by determining biochemically the cellular location of an intermolecular disulfide bridge thought to lie at the delta subunit C-terminus. Dimers of AChR linked through the delta-delta bridge were prepared from Torpedo marmorata and T.californica electric organ. The disulfide's accessibility to hydrophilic reductants was tested in a reconstituted vesicle system. In right-side-out vesicles (greater than 95% ACh binding sites outwards), the bridge was equally accessible whether or not vesicles had been disrupted by freeze--thawing or by detergents. Control experiments based on the rate of reduction of entrapped diphtheria toxin and measurements of radioactive reductant efflux demonstrated that the vesicles provide an adequate permeability barrier. In reconstituted vesicles containing AChR dimers in scrambled orientations, right-side-out dimers were reduced to monomers three times more rapidly than inside-out dimers, consistent with the measured rate of reductant permeation. These observations indicate that in reconstituted vesicles the delta-delta disulfide bridge lies in the same aqueous space as the ACh binding sites. They are most easily reconciled with folding models that propose an even number of transmembrane crossing per subunit. PMID:3428268

  8. Electrically induced release of acetylcholine from denervated Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, M. J.; Miledi, R.

    1974-01-01

    1. Focal electrical stimulation of Schwann cells at the end-plates of denervated frog muscles elicited slow depolarizations of up to 30 mV in the muscle fibres. This response is referred to as a Schwann-cell end-plate potential (Schwann-e.p.p.). 2. Repeated stimulation sometimes evoked further Schwann-e.p.p.s, but they were never sustained for more than 30 pulses. Successive e.p.p.s varied in amplitude and time course independently of the stimulus. 3. The Schwann-e.p.p.s were reversibly blocked by curare, suggesting that they result from a release of acetylcholine (ACh) by the Schwann cells. 4. ACh release by electrical stimulation did not seem to occur in quantal form and was not dependent on the presence of calcium ions in the external medium; nor was it blocked by tetrodotoxin. 5. Stimulation which caused release of ACh also resulted in extensive morphological disruption of the Schwann cells, as seen with both light and electron microscopy. 6. It is concluded that electrical stimulation of denervated Schwann cells causes break-down of the cell membrane and releases ACh, presumably in molecular form. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3Plate 4Plate 5Plate 6Plate 7Plate 8Plate 9Plate 10 PMID:4545183

  9. The twin drug approach for novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Tomassoli, Isabelle; Gündisch, Daniela

    2015-08-01

    The association of two pharmacophoric entities generates so-called 'twin drugs' or dimer derivatives. We applied this approach for the design of a small compound library for the interaction with α4β2(∗) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In this compound series, the nAChR ligand N,N-dimethyl-2-(pyridin-3-yloxy)ethan-1-amine 9 served as one pharmacological entity and it was initially kept constant as one part of the 'twin' compound. 'Twin' compounds with identical or non-identical entities using the 'no linker mode' or 'overlap' mode were synthesized and evaluated for their nAChR affinities. Compound 17a showed the highest affinity for the α4β2(∗) nAChR subtype (Ki=0.188 nM) and its (di)fluoro analogs could retain nanomolar affinities, when replacing pyridine as the hydrogen bond acceptor system by mono- or difluoro-phenyls. The 'twin drug' approach proved to provide compounds with high affinity and subtype selectivity for α4β2(∗) nAChRs. PMID:26142318

  10. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulators Reduce Sugar Intake

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, Masroor; Quik, Maryka; Holgate, Joan; Morgan, Michael; Patkar, Omkar L.; Tam, Vincent; Belmer, Arnauld; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2016-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption has been shown to contribute directly to weight gain, thus contributing to the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Interestingly, increased sugar consumption has been shown to repeatedly elevate dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain similar to many drugs of abuse. We report that varenicline, an FDA-approved nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist that modulates dopamine in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain, significantly reduces sucrose consumption, especially in a long-term consumption paradigm. Similar results were observed with other nAChR drugs, namely mecamylamine and cytisine. Furthermore, we show that long-term sucrose consumption increases α4β2 * and decreases α6β2* nAChRs in the nucleus accumbens, a key brain region associated with reward. Taken together, our results suggest that nAChR drugs such as varenicline may represent a novel treatment strategy for reducing sugar consumption. PMID:27028298

  11. Halothane shortens acetylcholine receptor channel kinetics without affecting conductance.

    PubMed Central

    Lechleiter, J; Gruener, R

    1984-01-01

    The extracellular patch-clamp technique was used to examine how halothane, a general anesthetic, affects the properties of single nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels of embryonic Xenopus skeletal muscle cells grown in culture. Under control conditions, single-channel events showed a bimodal distribution on the basis of current amplitudes. This distribution was maintained during exposure to halothane and its washout. In addition, the mean current value of the low-and high-amplitude channels was unaffected by the presence of the anesthetic at clinically relevant concentrations. In contrast, halothane shortened the burst durations of both channel types in a concentration-dependent manner. This shortening of burst durations may be an expression of the more rapid relaxation of the channel protein to the nonconducting state, possibly due to the disordering effect of the anesthetic on membrane lipids in which the receptor protein is embedded. This functional change, in the behavior of the synaptic receptor, provides further direct information on the mode of action of general anesthetics. Images PMID:6326154

  12. Aporphine metho salts as neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blockers.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Pérez, Edwin G; Slater, E Yvonne; Bermúdez, Isabel; Cassels, Bruce K

    2007-05-15

    (S)-Aporphine metho salts with the 1,2,9,10 oxygenation pattern displaced radioligands from recombinant human alpha7 and alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) at low micromolar concentrations. The affinity of the nonphenolic glaucine methiodide (4) (vs [(3)H]cytisine) was the lowest at alpha4beta2 nAChR (K(i)=10 microM), and predicentrine methiodide (2) and xanthoplanine iodide (3), with free hydroxyl groups at C-2 or C-9, respectively, had the highest affinity at these receptors (K(i) approximately 1 microM), while the affinity of the diphenolic boldine methiodide (1) was intermediate between these values. At homomeric alpha7 nAChR, xanthoplanine had the highest affinity (K(i)=10 microM) vs [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin while the other three compounds displaced the radioligand with K(i) values between 15 and 21 microM. At 100 microM, all four compounds inhibited the responses of these receptors to EC(50) concentrations of ACh. The effects of xanthoplanine iodide (3) were studied in more detail. Xanthoplanine fully inhibited the EC(50) ACh responses of both alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nACh receptors with estimated IC(50) values of 9+/-3 microM (alpha7) and 5+/-0.8 microM (alpha4beta2). PMID:17391965

  13. Accumbens dopamine-acetylcholine balance in approach and avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.; Rada, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Summary Understanding systems for approach and avoidance is basic for behavioral neuroscience. Research on the neural organization and functions of the dorsal striatum in movement disorders, such as Huntington's and Parkinson's Disease, can inform the study of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in motivational disorders, such as addiction and depression. We propose opposing roles for dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) in the NAc in the control of GABA output systems for approach and avoidance. Contrary to DA, which fosters approach, ACh release is a correlate or cause of meal satiation, conditioned taste aversion and aversive brain stimulation. ACh may also counteract excessive DA-mediated approach behavior as revealed during withdrawal from drugs of abuse or sugar, when the animal enters an ACh-mediated state of anxiety and behavioral depression. This review summarizes evidence that ACh is important in the inhibition of behavior when extracellular DA is high and the generation of an anxious or depressed state when DA is relatively low. PMID:18023617

  14. Crosslinking-Induced Endocytosis of Acetylcholine Receptors by Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lin; Peng, H. Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  15. Wnt proteins regulate acetylcholine receptor clustering in muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a cholinergic synapse that rapidly conveys signals from motoneurons to muscle cells and exhibits a high degree of subcellular specialization characteristic of chemical synapses. NMJ formation requires agrin and its coreceptors LRP4 and MuSK. Increasing evidence indicates that Wnt signaling regulates NMJ formation in Drosophila, C. elegans and zebrafish. Results In the study we systematically studied the effect of all 19 different Wnts in mammals on acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cluster formation. We identified five Wnts (Wnt9a, Wnt9b, Wnt10b, Wnt11, and Wnt16) that are able to stimulate AChR clustering, of which Wnt9a and Wnt11 are expressed abundantly in developing muscles. Using Wnt9a and Wnt11 as example, we demonstrated that Wnt induction of AChR clusters was dose-dependent and non-additive to that of agrin, suggesting that Wnts may act via similar pathways to induce AChR clusters. We provide evidence that Wnt9a and Wnt11 bind directly to the extracellular domain of MuSK, to induce MuSK dimerization and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the kinase. In addition, Wnt-induced AChR clustering requires LRP4. Conclusions These results identify Wnts as new players in AChR cluster formation, which act in a manner that requires both MuSK and LRP4, revealing a novel function of LRP4. PMID:22309736

  16. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Holgate, Joan Y.; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD. PMID:26136145

  17. Alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the treatment of pain.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, J Michael; Absalom, Nathan; Chebib, Mary; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Vincler, Michelle

    2009-10-01

    Chronic pain is a vexing worldwide problem that causes substantial disability and consumes significant medical resources. Although there are numerous analgesic medications, these work through a small set of molecular mechanisms. Even when these medications are used in combination, substantial amounts of pain often remain. It is therefore highly desirable to develop treatments that work through distinct mechanisms of action. While agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been intensively studied, new data suggest a role for selective antagonists of nAChRs. alpha-Conotoxins are small peptides used offensively by carnivorous marine snails known as Conus. A subset of these peptides known as alpha-conotoxins RgIA and Vc1.1 produces both acute and long lasting analgesia. In addition, these peptides appear to accelerate the recovery of function after nerve injury, possibly through immune mediated mechanisms. Pharmacological analysis indicates that RgIA and Vc1.1 are selective antagonists of alpha9alpha10 nAChRs. A recent study also reported that these alpha9alpha10 antagonists are also potent GABA-B agonists. In the current study, we were unable to detect RgIA or Vc1.1 binding to or action on cloned GABA-B receptors expressed in HEK cells or Xenopus oocytes. We review the background, findings and implications of use of compounds that act on alpha9* nAChRs.(1). PMID:19477168

  18. Serotonergic modulation of muscle acetylcholine receptors of different subunit composition.

    PubMed Central

    García-Colunga, J; Miledi, R

    1996-01-01

    Modulation of muscle acetylcholine (AcCho) receptors (AcChoRs) by serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)] and other serotonergic compounds was studied in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Various combinations of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunit RNAs were injected into oocytes, and membrane currents elicited by AcCho were recorded under voltage clamp. Judging by the amplitudes of AcCho currents generated, the levels of functional receptor expression were: alpha beta gamma delta > alpha beta delta > alpha beta gamma > alpha gamma delta. The alpha beta gamma delta and alpha beta delta AcChoR Subtypes were strongly blocked by 5HT, whereas the alpha beta gamma receptor was blocked only slightly. The order of blocking potency of AcChoRs by 5HT was: alpha beta delta > alpha beta gamma delta > alpha beta gamma. 5HT receptor antagonists, such as methysergide and spiperone, were even more potent blockers of AcChoRs than 5HT but did not show much subunit selectivity. Blockage of alpha beta gamma delta and alpha beta delta receptors by 5HT was voltage-dependent, and the voltage dependence was abolished when the delta subunit was omitted. These findings may need to be taken into consideration when trying to elucidate the mode of action of many clinically important serotonergic compounds. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8633003

  19. Transmembrane topography of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor delta subunit.

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, P D; Popot, J L; Engelman, D M

    1987-01-01

    Current folding models for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) predict either four or five transmembrane segments per subunit. The N-terminus of each subunit is almost certainly extracellular. We have tested folding models by determining biochemically the cellular location of an intermolecular disulfide bridge thought to lie at the delta subunit C-terminus. Dimers of AChR linked through the delta-delta bridge were prepared from Torpedo marmorata and T.californica electric organ. The disulfide's accessibility to hydrophilic reductants was tested in a reconstituted vesicle system. In right-side-out vesicles (greater than 95% ACh binding sites outwards), the bridge was equally accessible whether or not vesicles had been disrupted by freeze--thawing or by detergents. Control experiments based on the rate of reduction of entrapped diphtheria toxin and measurements of radioactive reductant efflux demonstrated that the vesicles provide an adequate permeability barrier. In reconstituted vesicles containing AChR dimers in scrambled orientations, right-side-out dimers were reduced to monomers three times more rapidly than inside-out dimers, consistent with the measured rate of reductant permeation. These observations indicate that in reconstituted vesicles the delta-delta disulfide bridge lies in the same aqueous space as the ACh binding sites. They are most easily reconciled with folding models that propose an even number of transmembrane crossing per subunit. PMID:3428268

  20. Evoked release of acetylcholine from the growing embryonic neuron.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y A; Poo, M M

    1987-01-01

    An excised patch of embryonic muscle membrane was used as a probe for measuring the release of acetylcholine (AcCho) from growing spinal neurons in Xenopus cell culture. The neuron was stimulated extracellularly at the soma, and the evoked AcCho release was monitored at the growth cone, along the neurite, and near the soma. For a majority of the neurons studied, a brief suprathreshold stimulation of the soma triggered a pulse of AcCho release from the growth cone. This release showed many of the characteristics reminiscent of the transmitter release at the nerve terminal of a mature neuromuscular synapse: it occurs within a few ms following the stimulation, depends on extracellular Ca2+ concentration, and exhibits depression and potentiation during and after high-frequency stimulation, respectively. Similar evoked release was also observed only at selected points along the neurite, and prolonged suprathreshold stimulus was required to induce release from the soma. These results indicate that some of the growing spinal neurons have acquired a substantial number of AcCho molecules as well as an efficient mechanism for excitation-secretion coupling at the growth cone, ready for establishing functional contact with the target muscle cell. This notion was further supported by the finding that the evoked AcCho release is capable of inducing suprathreshold excitation of the muscle cell within the first minute following neurite-muscle contact. Images PMID:3470810