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Sample records for acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation

  1. Effects of reactive oxygen species and neutrophils on endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Viktor; Sotníková, Ružena; Drábiková, Katarína

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in different metabolic processes including the respiratory burst of neutrophils accompanying local inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-activated neutrophils, isolated from the guinea pig peritoneal cavity, on isolated rings of a large (conduit) artery, the rat thoracic aorta. FMLP-activated neutrophils enhanced the basal tension increased by α1-adrenergic stimulation. In phenylephrine-precontracted aortae, they elicited marked contraction, while in noradrenaline-precontracted rat aortal rings they caused a biphasic response (contraction-relaxation). To eliminate interaction of activated neutrophils with catecholamines, in the subsequent experiments the basal tension was increased by KCl-induced depolarization. Activated neutrophils evoked a low-amplitude biphasic response (relaxation-contraction) on the KCl-induced contraction. Not only the acetylcholine- and A23187-induced relaxations but also the catalase sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) elicited contractions were endothelium-dependent. Even though the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was changed by activated neutrophils and by the ROS studied, their effects differed significantly, yet none of them did eliminate fully the endothelium-dependent acetylcholine relaxation. The effect of activated neutrophils resembled the effect of superoxide anion radical (O2 •–) produced by xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) and differed from the inhibitory effects of Fe2SO4/H2O2-produced hydroxyl radical (•OH) and H2O2. Thus O2 •– produced either by activated neutrophils or X/XO affected much less the endothelium-dependent acetylcholine-activated relaxation mechanisms than did •OH and H2O2. In the large (conduit) artery, the effects of activated neutrophils and various ROS (O2 •–, •OH and H2O2) seem to be more dependent on muscle tension than on endothelial mechanisms. PMID:22319253

  2. Impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated resistance arteries of spontaneously diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Heygate, K. M.; Lawrence, I. G.; Bennett, M. A.; Thurston, H.

    1995-01-01

    nitric oxide synthetase substrate, U-arginine, or the free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (150 mu ml-1) failed to improve the attenuated response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the diabetic vessels. 7. Endothelium-dependent relaxation mediated by ACh and BK was significantly attenuated in both the diabetic and control vessels after incubation with L-NOARG. 8. Pretreatment with a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, significantly enhanced the relaxation to ACh in both the recent onset and insulin treated diabetic rats (42 +/- 10%, n = 7 versus 64 +/- 7%, n = 7, P < 0.05, and 40 +/- 5%, n = 7 versus 65 +/- 9%, n = 6, P < 0.05). 9. Following endothelium removal, there was a marked impairment in endothelium-dependent relaxation responses to ACh and BK in both the diabetic and control vessels. 10. Incubation with the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548, did not significantly improve the ACh endothelium-dependent relaxation response in the diabetic vessels. 11. Endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside was significantly impaired in the first group of diabetic vessels studied; however, subsequent studies showed no impairment of the sodium nitroprusside response in the diabetic vessels. 12. In conclusion, the ability of the endothelium to regulate vascular contractility is reduced in recent onset diabetic vessels, and significantly impaired in established insulin treated diabetics. Relaxation to the endothelium-dependent vasodilators ACh and BK was impaired in both the recent onset and the established insulin treated diabetics, and the ACh response was significantly improved following pretreatment with indomethacin, suggesting a role for a cyclo-oxygenase-derived vasoconstrictor. Preliminary studies with a thromboxane A2, receptor antagonist, SQ29548 did not significantly improve the impaired relaxation to ACh, indicating that the vasoconstrictor prostanoid is not thromboxane A2. PMID:8719804

  3. Nitric oxide is the mediator of both endothelium-dependent relaxation and hyperpolarization of the rabbit carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R A; Plane, F; Najibi, S; Huk, I; Malinski, T; Garland, C J

    1997-04-15

    It is controversial whether the endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO) or a different factor(s) accounts for endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, because in many arteries endothelium-dependent relaxation and hyperpolarization resists inhibitors of NO synthase. The contribution of NO to acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and relaxation of the rabbit carotid artery was determined by measuring NO with electrochemical and chemiluminescence techniques. In the presence of phenylephrine to depolarize and contract the smooth muscle cells, acetylcholine caused concentration-dependent hyperpolarization and relaxation which were closely correlated to the release of NO. N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (30 microM) partially reduced the release of NO and caused a similar reduction in smooth muscle cell relaxation and hyperpolarization. To determine if the residual responses were mediated by another endothelium-derived mediator or NO released despite treatment with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (300 microM) was added. The combined inhibitors further reduced, but did not eliminate, NO release, smooth muscle relaxation, and hyperpolarization. Hyperpolarization and relaxation to acetylcholine remained closely correlated with the release of NO in the presence of the inhibitors. In addition, the NO donor, SIN-1, caused hyperpolarization and relaxation which correlated with the concentrations of NO that it released. These studies indicate that (i) the release of NO by acetylcholine is only partially inhibited by these inhibitors of NO synthase when used even at high concentrations, and (ii) NO rather than another factor accounts fully for endothelium-dependent responses of the rabbit carotid artery. PMID:9108128

  4. Nitric oxide is the mediator of both endothelium-dependent relaxation and hyperpolarization of the rabbit carotid artery

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Richard A.; Plane, Frances; Najibi, Soheil; Huk, Igor; Malinski, Tadeusz; Garland, Chris J.

    1997-01-01

    It is controversial whether the endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO) or a different factor(s) accounts for endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, because in many arteries endothelium-dependent relaxation and hyperpolarization resists inhibitors of NO synthase. The contribution of NO to acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and relaxation of the rabbit carotid artery was determined by measuring NO with electrochemical and chemiluminescence techniques. In the presence of phenylephrine to depolarize and contract the smooth muscle cells, acetylcholine caused concentration-dependent hyperpolarization and relaxation which were closely correlated to the release of NO. Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (30 μM) partially reduced the release of NO and caused a similar reduction in smooth muscle cell relaxation and hyperpolarization. To determine if the residual responses were mediated by another endothelium-derived mediator or NO released despite treatment with Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, Nω-nitro-l-arginine (300 μM) was added. The combined inhibitors further reduced, but did not eliminate, NO release, smooth muscle relaxation, and hyperpolarization. Hyperpolarization and relaxation to acetylcholine remained closely correlated with the release of NO in the presence of the inhibitors. In addition, the NO donor, SIN-1, caused hyperpolarization and relaxation which correlated with the concentrations of NO that it released. These studies indicate that (i) the release of NO by acetylcholine is only partially inhibited by these inhibitors of NO synthase when used even at high concentrations, and (ii) NO rather than another factor accounts fully for endothelium-dependent responses of the rabbit carotid artery. PMID:9108128

  5. Production of endothelium-dependent relaxation responses by saphenous vein grafts in the canine arterial circulation.

    PubMed

    el Khatib, H; Lupinetti, F M; Sanofsky, S J; Behrendt, D M

    1991-09-01

    To determine if venous endothelium can acquire the ability to elicit endothelium-dependent relaxation responses, five dogs underwent femoral artery bypass with autogenous saphenous vein. The veins were harvested 15 to 17 months later. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was determined by measuring tension of deendothelialized coronary arteries mounted on a tensiometer and superfused with the effluent of the vein grafts. These grafts were perfused with acetylcholine and calcium ionophore A23187, which cause case vascular smooth muscle relaxation by means of endothelium-dependent relaxing factor production. Control arteries and veins were obtained from other dogs for comparison. In response to acetylcholine from 10(-9) to 10(-4) mol/L, the final cumulative relaxation produced in the detector coronary artery (mean +/- SD) was 64.2% +/- 25.7% by the control arteries, 14.2% +/- 5.5% by the vein bypass graft, and 5.3% +/- 5.6% by the control veins. In response to A23187 from 10(-8) to 10(-4) mol/L, the final cumulative relaxation was 66.2% +/- 19.0% by the control arteries, 30.6% +/- 8.9% by the vein bypass grafts, and 5.3% +/- 5.6% by the control veins. The differences were significant between the vein bypass grafts and the control arteries (p less than 0.04 for acetylcholine; p less than 0.04 for A23187) and the control veins (p less than 0.03 for acetylcholine; p less than 0.02 for A23187). Perfusion of saphenous veins used as chronic arterial bypass grafts with either acetylcholine or A23187 produced detector vessel relaxation, consistent with endothelium-dependent relaxing factor production. The magnitude of the relaxation response did not approach that from perfusion of control arteries. PMID:1887376

  6. L-Carnitine supplementation impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries from rats.

    PubMed

    Valgas da Silva, Carmem P; Rojas-Moscoso, Julio A; Antunes, Edson; Zanesco, Angelina; Priviero, Fernanda B M

    2014-07-01

    L-Carnitine (L-Car) is taken as fat burner. The risks of L-Car supplementation for the cardiovascular system are unclear. We evaluated the relaxing responses of the mesenteric and aorta rings from rats after four weeks of L-Car supplementation and/or physical training. Concentration response curves to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), as well as cyclic GMP levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated. Physical training decreased body weight gain that was potentiated by L-Car. In mesenteric rings, L-Car impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation whereas endothelium independent relaxation was increased. In aorta, exercise improved endothelium-dependent relaxation; however, it was partially inhibited by L-Car. SNP-induced relaxation was similar in aorta of all groups. Basal cGMP were increased in aorta of exercised rats. SOD activity and MDA levels were unaltered. In conclusion, L-Car and physical exercise promotes body weight loss; however, it impairs endothelium-dependent vaso-relaxation possibly involving alterations in muscarinic receptors/eNOS/NO signalling pathway in mesenteric artery.

  7. [Ionic mechanisms of endothelium-dependent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle under the action of acetylcholine].

    PubMed

    Taranenko, V M; Talaeva, T V; Bratus', V V

    1988-04-01

    Acetylcholine and nitroglycerin were shown to induce relaxation in muscles of the ring vascular segments of canine coronary arteries and rabbit aortic archs, the magnitude of the reaction depending on the level of initial tonic tension. Methylene blue abolished the relaxation. Mechanical removal of endothelium abolished the reaction to acetylcholine but not to nitroglycerin. Verapamil decreased the relaxation by 70%. The endothelium-dependent relaxation seems to be connected mainly with a decrease in the calcium entering vascular smooth muscle cells through voltage-dependent channels.

  8. Polydatin Restores Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in Rat Aorta Rings Impaired by High Glucose: A Novel Insight into the PPARβ-NO Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Xue, Lai; Du, Weimin; Huang, Bo; Tang, Cuiping; Liu, Changqing; Qiu, Hongmei; Jiang, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Polydatin, a natural component from Polygonum Cuspidatum, has important therapeutic effects on metabolic syndrome. A novel therapeutic strategy using polydatin to improve vascular function has recently been proposed to treat diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. However, the biological role and molecular basis of polydatin's action on vascular endothelial cells (VECs)-mediated vasodilatation under diabetes-related hyperglycemia condition remain elusive. The present study aimed to assess the contribution of polydatin in restoring endothelium-dependent relaxation and to determine the details of its underlying mechanism. By measuring endothelium-dependent relaxation, we found that acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was impaired by elevated glucose (55 mmol/L); however, polydatin (1, 3, 10 μmol/L) could restore the relaxation in a dose-dependent manner. Polydatin could also improve the histological damage to endothelial cells in the thoracic aorta. Polydatin's effects were mediated via promoting the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), enhancing eNOS activity and decreasing the inducible NOS (iNOS) level, finally resulting in a beneficial increase in NO release, which probably, at least in part, through activation of the PPARβ signaling pathway. The results provided a novel insight into polydatin action, via PPARβ-NO signaling pathways, in restoring endothelial function in high glucose conditions. The results also indicated the potential utility of polydatin to treat diabetes related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25941823

  9. Arbutus unedo induces endothelium-dependent relaxation of the isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekhfi, Hassane; Bnouham, Mohamed; Tahri, Abdelhafid; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hoerter, Jacqueline; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2002-09-01

    Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) is used in oriental Morocco to treat arterial hypertension. We studied its vasodilator effect and mechanisms of action in vitro. The root aqueous extract of Arbutus (0.25 mg/mL) produced a relaxation of noradrenaline-precontracted ring preparations of rat aorta with intact endothelium. Relaxation by Arbutus did not occur in specimens without endothelium and was inhibited by pretreatment with 100 microM N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), 10 microM methylene blue or 50 microM 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) but not by 10 microM atropine. These results suggest that Arbutus produces an endothelium-dependent relaxation of the isolated rat aorta which may be mediated mainly by a stimulation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase by mechanisms other than activation of muscarinic receptors. PMID:12237817

  10. Inhibition by quinine of endothelium-dependent relaxation of rabbit aortic strips.

    PubMed Central

    Gebremedhin, D.; Hadházy, P.; Magyar, K.

    1987-01-01

    1 The effects of quinine sulphate, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMA) and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) (all blockers of the Ca2+-activated K+ channels) on the relaxations induced by acetylcholine (ACh), calcium ionophore A23187 and sodium nitrite were studied in helical strips of rabbit aorta. 2 The strips were contracted to a moderate stable tone with phenylephrine (10(-7) M). ACh (4 X 10(-9) to 10(-6) M) as well as A23187 (10(-8) to 3 X 10(-7) M) reduced this tone in a concentration- and endothelium-dependent manner. 3 Pretreatment of the tissues with quinine (2.5 X 10(-5) to 10(-4) M) for 60 min produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the relaxation induced by ACh. Also 90 min incubation of the strips with TMA (3 X 10(-3) to 6.5 X 10(-2) M) or TEA (10(-3) to 3 X 10(-2) M) inhibited the ACh-evoked relaxation in a manner similar to quinine. 4 Quinine (10(-4) M, 60 min), TMA (6.5 X 10(-2) M, 90 min) or TEA (3 X 10(-2) M, 90 min) produced 5 to 10 fold reductions in the relaxant EC50 values of A23187 and ACh and depressed (by 40 to 95%) the maximal relaxations to the ionophore and ACh. 5 On a molar basis, quinine was more effective than the two tetraalkylammonium ions in reducing the endothelium-dependent relaxations of the aortic strips induced by ACh or A23187. The inhibitory actions were reversible after 60 to 90 min washout.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2827827

  11. Histamine H1-receptors mediate endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat isolated pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Szarek, J L; Bailly, D A; Stewart, N L; Gruetter, C A

    1992-01-01

    Histamine has been reported to cause endothelium-dependent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and vasodilation. This study was undertaken to examine the inhibitory effects of histamine on cylindrical segments of extrapulmonary arteries isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats. In arterial segments precontracted with phenylephrine (10 microM), histamine (0.1-100 microM) elicited concentration-dependent relaxation responses. Removal of the endothelium or pretreatment with methylene blue (10 microM) abolished relaxation responses to low concentrations of histamine and markedly inhibited those caused by histamine at concentrations greater than 1 microM. Incubation of endothelium-intact arterial segments with pyrilamine (1 microM) caused a significant rightward shift of the histamine concentration-response curves. Treatment of the segments with cimetidine (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) only minimally antagonized histamine-induced relaxation in arteries with endothelium. Residual relaxation responses observed in arteries stripped of endothelium were unaffected by pretreatment with cimetidine, indomethacin, or pyrilamine. The results suggest that the inhibitory effect of histamine in rat pulmonary arteries is mediated predominantly by activation of H1-receptors on the endothelium and the subsequent release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s).

  12. Endothelium-dependent and-independent relaxation induced by resveratrol in rat superior mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Xu, Cangbao; Wei, Yahui; Zhang, Yaping; Cao, Ailan

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (Res) is a specific agonist of sirtuin 1, and has many cardioprotective effects. Although Res is able to relax various vascular beds, its pharmacological properties in rat superior mesenteric arteries and the underlying mechanism are not well clarified. The aim of present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of Res on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded in vitro using myography. It was found that Res concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine hydrochloride (Emax, 97.66±0.79%; pD2, 4.30±0.14) or KCl (Emax, 101.3±0.6%; pD2, 4.12±0.03). The vasorelaxant effect of Res on the superior mesenteric artery rings was partially endothelium-dependent. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 µM) significantly inhibited the Res-induced vasorelaxant effect. However, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (10 µM) and indomethacin (5 µM) each had no effect on the Res-induced vasorelaxation. In artery rings without endothelium, the vasorelaxation induced by Res was attenuated by 4-aminopyridine (100 µM) and glibenclamide (10 µM). However, barium chloride dehydrate (10 µM) and tetraethylammonium chloride (1 mM) did not affect the vasorelaxation induced by Res. Moreover, Res also inhibited the contraction induced by an increase in external calcium concentration in Ca2+-free medium plus KCl (60 mM). These results suggest that Res induces relaxation in superior mesenteric arterial rings through an endothelium-dependent pathway, involving nitric oxide release, and also through an endothelium-independent pathway, with opening of voltage-dependent K+ channels and ATP-sensitive K+ channels and blockade of extracellular Ca2+ influx. PMID:27698719

  13. Endothelium-dependent and-independent relaxation induced by resveratrol in rat superior mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Xu, Cangbao; Wei, Yahui; Zhang, Yaping; Cao, Ailan

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (Res) is a specific agonist of sirtuin 1, and has many cardioprotective effects. Although Res is able to relax various vascular beds, its pharmacological properties in rat superior mesenteric arteries and the underlying mechanism are not well clarified. The aim of present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of Res on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded in vitro using myography. It was found that Res concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine hydrochloride (Emax, 97.66±0.79%; pD2, 4.30±0.14) or KCl (Emax, 101.3±0.6%; pD2, 4.12±0.03). The vasorelaxant effect of Res on the superior mesenteric artery rings was partially endothelium-dependent. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 µM) significantly inhibited the Res-induced vasorelaxant effect. However, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (10 µM) and indomethacin (5 µM) each had no effect on the Res-induced vasorelaxation. In artery rings without endothelium, the vasorelaxation induced by Res was attenuated by 4-aminopyridine (100 µM) and glibenclamide (10 µM). However, barium chloride dehydrate (10 µM) and tetraethylammonium chloride (1 mM) did not affect the vasorelaxation induced by Res. Moreover, Res also inhibited the contraction induced by an increase in external calcium concentration in Ca2+-free medium plus KCl (60 mM). These results suggest that Res induces relaxation in superior mesenteric arterial rings through an endothelium-dependent pathway, involving nitric oxide release, and also through an endothelium-independent pathway, with opening of voltage-dependent K+ channels and ATP-sensitive K+ channels and blockade of extracellular Ca2+ influx.

  14. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation in the forelimb and hindlimb vasculatures of swine.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Sean C; Taylor, Jessica C; Bowles, Douglas K; Laughlin, M Harold

    2007-10-01

    Limb differences in endothelial function exist between arm and leg vasculatures of humans. The current investigation tested the hypothesis that forelimb and hindlimb vasorelaxation are similar in the absence of limb differences in blood pressure. Conduit arteries (brachials/femorals) and second order arterioles were harvested from 22 miniature Yucatan swine. In vitro assessment of vasorelaxation was determined by administering increasing doses of bradykinin (BK), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The role of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways was assessed in conduit arteries but not resistance arterioles through L-NAME (300 microM) and INDO (5 microM) incubation, respectively. The relaxation responses to BK and ACh were similar in brachial and femoral arteries. SNP relaxation response was greater in the brachial compared to femoral arteries. There were also no significant differences in the relaxation responses of second order arterioles of the forelimb and hindlimb to BK, ACh, and SNP. Incubation of conduit arterial rings in L-NAME produced a greater reduction in BK and ACh relaxation in the brachial (approximately 25%) compared to femoral (approximately 13%) arterial rings. The current results of this investigation suggest that the forelimb and hindlimb vasculatures of swine have relatively similar vasorelaxation responses to both endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators.

  15. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in the isolated rat kidney: impairment by cyclosporine A.

    PubMed

    Stephan, D; Billing, A; Krieger, J P; Grima, M; Fabre, M; Hofner, M; Imbs, J L; Barthelmebs, M

    1995-12-01

    The therapeutical use of cyclosporine A (CsA) is hampered by the development of nephrotoxicity characterized by a marked increase in renal vascular resistance (RVR). We investigated vascular functions in kidneys of rats treated with CsA. The ex vivo vascular reactivity of kidneys from control rats and animals treated subacutely with CsA [50 mg/kg/day subcutaneously (s.c.) for 16-21 days] or an olive oil vehicle (1 ml/kg) was analyzed in male Wistar rats. The right kidney was isolated and perfused with Tyrode's or Krebs solution in an open circuit. The effects of acetylcholine (Ach), fenoldopam (FEN), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on norepinephrine (NE) preconstricted kidneys were studied. In control kidneys (untreated or vehicle-treated), Ach induced a relaxation (EC50 = 0.56 +/- 0.05 x 10(-9)M; Emax = 88.2 +/- 2.1% decrease in the vascular tone restored by NE) which was endothelium-dependent [near-complete abolition after treatment with a detergent, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate (CHAPS) treatment] but only partially inhibited by indomethacin (EC50 = 1.71 +/- 0.39 x 10(-9)M, p < 0.05; Emax = 87.1 +/- 4.9%, NS) or indomethacin with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME: EC50 = 1.04 +/- 0.38 x 10(-9)M, NS; Emax = 63.8 +/- 2.5%, p < 0.01). CsA treatment induced a marked decrease in creatinine clearance and natriuresis measured in vivo but had no effect on systolic blood pressure (SBP). In CsA-treated rats, Ach-induced renal relaxation was partially blunted (EC50 = 1.88 +/- 0.34 x 10(-9)M, p < 0.01; Emax = 82.8 +/- 4.6, NS), with both a defect in prostaglandin (PG) and nitric oxide (NO)-related responses. CsA treatment had no effect on endothelium-independent relaxations induced by FEN and SNP. These results show that subacute CsA treatment selectively impairs renal endothelium-dependent relaxation related to PGs and NO release.

  16. Excess L-arginine restores endothelium-dependent relaxation impaired by monocrotaline pyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Wei; Oike, Masahiro . E-mail: moike@pharmaco.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ohnaka, Keizo; Koyama, Tetsuya; Ito, Yushi

    2005-09-15

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid plant toxin monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) causes pulmonary hypertension in experimental animals. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MCTP on the endothelium-dependent relaxation. We constructed an in vitro disease model of pulmonary hypertension by overlaying MCTP-treated bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAEs) onto pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell-embedded collagen gel lattice. Acetylcholine (Ach) induced a relaxation of the control CPAEs-overlaid gels that were pre-contracted with noradrenaline, and the relaxation was inhibited by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). In contrast, when MCTP-treated CPAEs were overlaid, the pre-contracted gels did not show a relaxation in response to Ach in the presence of 0.5 mM L-arginine. Expression of endothelial NOS protein, Ach-induced Ca{sup 2+} transients and cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine were significantly smaller in MCTP-treated CPAEs than in control cells, indicating that these changes were responsible for the impaired NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. Since cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine linearly increased according to its extracellular concentration, we hypothesized that the excess concentration of extracellular L-arginine might restore NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. As expected, in the presence of 10 mM L-arginine, Ach showed a relaxation of the MCTP-treated CPAEs-overlaid gels. These results indicate that the impaired NO production in damaged endothelial cells can be reversed by supplying excess L-arginine.

  17. Resistance of endothelium-dependent relaxation to elevation of O(-)(2) levels in rabbit carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Pagano, P J; Griswold, M C; Najibi, S; Marklund, S L; Cohen, R A

    1999-11-01

    Endogenous superoxide anion (O(-)(2)) interferes with the bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) in endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation (EDR). Using the lucigenin chemiluminescence assay, we measured O(-)(2) in the thoracic and abdominal aortas and the carotid artery of rabbits to determine whether ambient O(-)(2) varies among the three arteries and differentially diminishes the effect of NO. Basal levels of O(-)(2) were significantly higher in carotid arteries than in the thoracic aorta [23 +/- 6.1 vs. 3.9 +/- 1.4 chemiluminescence units (CU); P < 0.05], whereas EDR in response to ACh (10(-8)-10(-5) M) was not significantly different on ANOVA. After treatment with the superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC; 10 mM), O(-)(2) levels were significantly elevated, becoming greater in the carotid artery and abdominal aorta than in the thoracic aorta (185 +/- 31.2 and 202 +/- 40.3 vs. 89 +/- 18 CU; P < 0.05). DDC significantly reversed EDR in the thoracic aorta but not in the carotid artery; at 10(-6) M ACh, the decrease seen with DDC was 48 +/- 6.2 vs. 6.8 +/- 8.0% of maximal relaxation in the thoracic aorta and carotid artery, respectively. In the thoracic aorta, exogenous SOD reversed the inhibition of EDR caused by DDC. Moreover, DDC/O(-)(2)-resistant EDR in the carotid artery was ablated by the addition of nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (300 microM; P < 0.05), an NO synthase inhibitor, consistent with peroxynitrite or an O(-)(2)-resistant NO donor being involved in carotid relaxation. Indeed, exogenous peroxynitrite caused similar relaxation of the carotid artery and thoracic aorta, which was unaffected by DDC. Our studies show a greater production of nitrite and O(-)(2) per unit area by the carotid artery, suggesting a greater amount of their product peroxynitrite. These findings support the hypothesis that peroxynitrite is the relaxing agent that resists high O(-)(2) in the carotid artery. PMID:10564167

  18. Alterations in endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and relaxation in mesenteric arteries from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Fukao, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Yuichi; Kanno, Morio; Sakuma, Ichiro; Kitabatake, Akira

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and relaxation are altered during experimental diabetes mellitus. Membrane potentials were recorded in mesenteric arteries from rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and age-matched controls. The resting membrane potentials were not significantly different between control and diabetic mesenteric arteries (−55.3±0.5 vs −55.6±0.4 mV). However, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization produced by acetylcholine (ACh; 10−8–10−5 M) was significantly diminished in amplitude in diabetic arteries compared with that in controls (maximum −10.4±1.1 vs −17.2±0.8 mV). Furthermore, the hyperpolarizing responses of diabetic arteries were more transient. ACh-induced hyperpolarization observed in control and diabetic arteries remained unaltered even after treatment with 3×10−4 M NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), 10−5 M indomethacin or 60 u ml−1 superoxide dismutase. Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization with 10−6 M A23187, a calcium ionophore, was also decreased in diabetic arteries compared to controls (−8.3±1.4 vs −18.0±1.9 mV). However, endothelium-independent hyperpolarizing responses to 10−6 M pinacidil, a potassium channel opener, were similar in control and diabetic arteries (−20.0±1.4 vs −19.2±1.1 mV). The altered endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations in diabetic arteries were almost completely prevented by insulin therapy. Endothelium-dependent relaxations by ACh in the presence of 10−4 M L-NOARG and 10−5 M indomethacin in diabetic arteries were also reduced and more transient compared to controls. These data indicate that endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization is reduced by diabetes, and this would, in part, account for the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations in mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats. PMID:9257918

  19. Prenatal Testosterone Induces Sex-Specific Dysfunction in Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Pathways in Adult Male and Female Rats1

    PubMed Central

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone (T) exposure impacts postnatal cardiovascular function, leading to increases in blood pressure with associated decreased endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in adult females. Endothelial function in males is not known. Furthermore, which of the endothelial pathways contributes to endothelial dysfunction and if there exists sex differences are not known. The objective of this study was to characterize the relative contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in prenatal T-exposed adult males and females. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with T propionate or its vehicle were examined. Telemetric blood pressure levels and endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity were assessed with wire myography. Levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and Kcnn3 and Kcnn4 channel expression were examined in mesenteric arteries. Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in T males and females than in controls. Endothelium-dependent acetylcholine relaxation was significantly lower in both T males and females. EDHF-mediated relaxation was specifically blunted in T males (Emax = 48.64% ± 3.73%) compared to that in control males (Emax = 81.71% ± 3.18%); however, NO-mediated relaxation was specifically impaired in T females (Emax = 36.01% ± 4.29%) compared with that in control females (Emax = 54.56% ± 6.37%). Relaxation to sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim were unaffected with T-treatment. NOS3 protein was decreased in T females but not in T males. Kcnn3 expression was decreased in both T males and females compared to controls. These findings suggest that prenatal T leads to an increase in blood pressure in the adult offspring, associated with blunting of endothelial cell-associated relaxation and that the effects are sex-specific: EDHF-related in males and NO-related in females. PMID:23966325

  20. Smooth muscle membrane potential modulates endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar artery via myo-endothelial gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tracy; Iftinca, Mircea; Cole, William C; Plane, Frances

    2002-12-15

    The release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors, such as nitric oxide (NO), is dependent on an increase in intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)](i)) within endothelial cells. Endothelial cell membrane potential plays a critical role in the regulation of [Ca(2+)](i) in that calcium influx from the extracellular space is dependent on membrane hyperpolarization. In this study, the effect of inhibition of vascular smooth muscle delayed rectifier K(+) (K(DR)) channels by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar artery to acetylcholine (ACh) was assessed. ACh-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxations were inhibited by N-(Omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), confirming a role for NO and guanylyl cyclase. 4-AP (300 microM) also suppressed ACh-induced relaxation, with the maximal response reduced from approximately 92 to approximately 33 % (n = 11; P < 0.01). However, relaxations in response to exogenous NO, applied in the form of authentic NO, sodium nitroprusside or diethylamineNONOate (DEANONOate), were not affected by 4-AP treatment (n = 3-11). These data are not consistent with the view that 4-AP-sensitive K(DR) channels are mediators of vascular hyperpolarization and relaxation in response to endothelium-derived NO. Inhibition of ACh-evoked relaxation by 4-AP was reversed by pinacidil (0.5-1 microM; n = 5) or 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18betaGA; 5 microM; n = 5), indicating that depolarization and electrical coupling of the smooth muscle to the endothelium were involved. 4-AP caused depolarization of both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells of isolated segments of basilar artery (mean change 11 +/- 1 and 9 +/- 2 mV, respectively; n = 15). Significantly, 18betaGA almost completely prevented the depolarization of endothelial cells (n = 6), but not smooth muscle cells (n = 6) by 4-AP. ACh-induced hyperpolarization of endothelium and smooth muscle cells was also reduced by 4-AP

  1. P2U-receptor mediated endothelium-dependent but nitric oxide-independent vascular relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Malmsjö, M; Edvinsson, L; Erlinge, D

    1998-01-01

    The dilator effect of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has mainly been characterized as a direct effect on smooth muscle or as an endothelium-dependent effect mediated by nitric oxide (NO) or prostaglandins. We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) may also be involved. Dilator effects were studied in vitro by continuous recording of isomeric tension in cylindrical segments of rat blood vessels precontracted by noradrenaline (NA), in the presence of indomethacin (10 μM). By screening different blood vessels in the rat we found that both acetylcholine (ACh) and ATP dilate mesenteric arteries with a resting tone of 1 mN by an endothelium-dependent non-NO mechanism. With an increased resting tone (4 mN) the dilatation was mediated by NO. Thus by varying the resting tension the different dilator mechanisms could be examined. However, in the carotid artery the dilatation was solely mediated by an endothelium-dependent NO mechanism, even at different resting tones (1 and 4 mN). The N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-resistant dilatation to ACh and ATP was further inhibited by the NO-scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), indicating L-NAME insensitive NO-synthesis. In carotid arteries and mesenteric arteries at high resting tones (4 mN) the ATP-dilatation was totally inhibited by endothelium removal or L-NAME (10−3 M). In mesenteric arteries at low resting tone (1 mN) the ATP, UTP (uridine-triphosphate) and 2-MeSATP (2methylthioATP)-dilatation was totally inhibited by endothelium removal. However, L-NAME in combination with indomethacin attenuated only 5% of the UTP dilatation, 70% of the ATP dilatation but all of the 2-MeSATP-dilatation. The inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ channels charybdotoxin (0.5×10−7 M) together with apamin (10−6 M), and the cytochrome P450 inhibitor, SKF 525A (10−4 M), each in combination with indomethacin, L-NAME and PTIO (0.5×10

  2. P2U-receptor mediated endothelium-dependent but nitric oxide-independent vascular relaxation.

    PubMed

    Malmsjö, M; Edvinsson, L; Erlinge, D

    1998-02-01

    1. The dilator effect of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has mainly been characterized as a direct effect on smooth muscle or as an endothelium-dependent effect mediated by nitric oxide (NO) or prostaglandins. We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) may also be involved. Dilator effects were studied in vitro by continuous recording of isomeric tension in cylindrical segments of rat blood vessels precontracted by noradrenaline (NA), in the presence of indomethacin (10 microM). 2. By screening different blood vessels in the rat we found that both acetylcholine (ACh) and ATP dilate mesenteric arteries with a resting tone of 1 mN by an endothelium-dependent non-NO mechanism. With an increased resting tone (4 mN) the dilatation was mediated by NO. Thus by varying the resting tension the different dilator mechanisms could be examined. However, in the carotid artery the dilatation was solely mediated by an endothelium-dependent NO mechanism, even at different resting tones (1 and 4 mN). 3. The N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-resistant dilatation to ACh and ATP was further inhibited by the NO-scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), indicating L-NAME insensitive NO-synthesis. 4. In carotid arteries and mesenteric arteries at high resting tones (4 mN) the ATP-dilatation was totally inhibited by endothelium removal or L-NAME (10(-3) M). In mesenteric arteries at low resting tone (1 mN) the ATP, UTP (uridine-triphosphate) and 2-MeSATP (2methylthioATP)-dilatation was totally inhibited by endothelium removal. However, L-NAME in combination with indomethacin attenuated only 5% of the UTP dilatation, 70% of the ATP dilatation but all of the 2-MeSATP-dilatation. The inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ channels charybdotoxin (0.5 x 10(-7) M) together with apamin (10(-6) M), and the cytochrome P450 inhibitor, SKF 525A (10(-4) M), each in combination with indomethacin. L-NAME and PTIO (0.5 x 10

  3. Polyphenol-enriched extract of oil palm fronds (Elaeis guineensis) promotes vascular relaxation via endothelium-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, Mahinda; Runnie, Irine; Nizar, Mohd; Suhaila, Momamed; Head, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Plant-based polyphenolic compounds have been reported to possess cardiovascular health benefits. Several dietary sources, including herbs and spices, fruits and vegetables, and tea and wine, contain an array of biologically active compounds that have been shown to be effective in retarding oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and promoting vascular relaxation. In the present study four different plant sources, both edible and non-edible, were evaluated for potential activity. Organic extracts enriched in polyphenols were prepared from palm fronds (Elaesis guineensis); lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates); papaya shoots (Carica papaya) and green chilli (Capsicum frutescenes) and tested for their ability to prevent in vitro oxidation of LDL, and for potential vascular relaxation actions. Rings of rat thoracic aorta and isolated perfused mesenteric vascular beds were mounted in organ baths, contracted using a half-maximal dose of noradrenaline and exposed to cumulative additions of test extracts. Palm frond extract resulted in considerable relaxation (>75%) in both preparations and was found to be endothelium-dependent as removal of endothelium or inhibition of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) led to a total loss in relaxant activity. Lemongrass extract caused a greater relaxation action in the mesenteric preparation compared to aortic rings, and appears to be mediated via NO-independent and non-prostanoid mechanisms. Of the extracts tested, palm fronds also demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity, as determined by the ferric reducing activity/potential assay, and resulted in a significant delay (P < 0.05) in the oxidation of LDL. Collectively, these preliminary findings lend further support to the potential cardiovascular actions of plant polyphenols and also identify oil palm fronds as containing constituents that promote vascular relaxation via endothelium-dependent mechanisms.

  4. Long-lasting endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated arteries caused by an extract from the bark of Combretum leprosum

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Francisco das Chagas; Cavalcanti, Paulo Marques da Silva; Passaglia, Rita de Cassia Aleixo Tostes; Ballejo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and to characterize the relaxing effect of an extract of the bark of Combretum leprosum on isolated arterial rings from different animals. Methods Rings (3 to 4mm) from rabbit, rat, or porcine arteries rings were suspended in an organ bath (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) to record isometric contractions. After the stabilization period (2 to 3 hours) contractions were induced by the addition of phenylephrine (0.1 to 0.3µM) or U46619 (10 to 100nM), and Combretum leprosum extract was added on the plateau of the contractions. Experiments were performed to determine the potency, duration, reversibility, and to get insights on the potential mechanism involved in extract-induced relaxations. Results In all rings tested, Combretumleprosum extract (1.5μg/mL) was able to cause relaxations, which were strictly endothelium-dependent. In rabbit or rat thoracic aorta rings, the relaxations were reversed by vitamin B12a or L-NG-nitroarginine. In porcine right coronary arteries and rabbit abdominal aorta, extract caused both L-NG-nitroarginine-sensitive and L-NG-nitroarginine-resistant relaxations. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the extract was relatively potent (EC50=0.20µg/mL) and caused relaxations; intriguingly the endothelium continued to produce relaxing factors for a long period after removing the extract. The magnitude of extract-induced relaxations was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; in addition, the TRPs channels blocker ruthenium red (10µM) was able to revert extract-induced relaxations. Phytochemical analyses indicated that the extract was rich in polyphenol-like reacting substances. Conclusions Combretum leprosum extract contains bioactive compounds capable of promoting Ca2+-dependent stimulation of endothelial cells which results in a prolonged production of relaxing factors. PMID:26466063

  5. Endothelium dependency of contractile activity differs in infant and adult vertebral arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Charpie, J R; Schreur, K D; Papadopoulos, S M; Webb, R C

    1994-01-01

    Contractions to serotonin (5-HT) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in infant (0-2 yr) and adult (38-71 yr) vertebral arteries were examined in the presence of either the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide production. In addition, endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were characterized in arteries contracted with agonist. The results showed that: (a) Contractions of infant arteries to 5-HT or ET-1 decreased to 44 +/- 8% and 27 +/- 13%, respectively, within 10 min. Indomethacin or removal of endothelium abolished this decreased response, whereas L-NMMA had no effect. (b) Adult arteries produced sustained contractions to 5-HT or ET-1 that were unaffected by indomethacin, endothelium denudation, or L-NMMA. (c) Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were greater in infant than adult arteries and were abolished by indomethacin (but not L-NMMA) in infants and L-NMMA (but not indomethacin) in adults. Thus, endothelium-dependent responses in infant arteries are attenuated because of increased prostaglandin activity not observed in adult tissues. Additionally, there is an age-dependent change in the primary mechanism responsible for acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. Apparently, endothelium dependency of acetylcholine-induced relaxation is highly dependent on cyclooxygenase activity in the infant vertebral artery, but in the adult artery, nitric oxide is linked to the vasodilator response. Images PMID:8132776

  6. Marginal copper deficiency impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation responses across two generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generational effects of marginal copper (Cu) deficiency on vascular function have not been characterized.In this study, the vascular consequences of marginal Cu deficiency were determined by relaxation responses in mesenteric arteries of dams and two generations of offspring. Pups from dams (fir...

  7. Paullinia pinnata extracts rich in polyphenols promote vascular relaxation via endothelium-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zamble, Alexis; Carpentier, Marie; Kandoussi, Abdelmejid; Sahpaz, Sevser; Petrault, Olivier; Ouk, Tawarak; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart; Bordet, Régis; Duriez, Patrick; Bailleul, François; Martin-Nizard, Françoise

    2006-04-01

    Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) is an African tropical plant whose roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine for many purposes, especially for erectile dysfunction, but its action mechanism is unknown. P. pinnata root and leaf methanolic extracts are rich in phenolic compounds. This study shows that both extracts are highly antioxidative and induce a slight transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha. They also increased and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 mRNA levels in bovine aortic endothelial cells, respectively. In this study P. pinnata methanolic extracts in cumulative doses elicited in a dose-dependent manner the relaxation of phenylephrine precontracted isolated rat aortic rings. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester significantly attenuated the capacity of both extracts to induce arterial relaxation, indicating that this arterial relaxation was mediated by endothelial nitric oxide release. It could be suggested that the arterial relaxation induced by both extracts could be mainly linked to their capacities to inhibit nitric oxide oxidation through their antioxidant properties.

  8. Paullinia pinnata extracts rich in polyphenols promote vascular relaxation via endothelium-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zamble, Alexis; Carpentier, Marie; Kandoussi, Abdelmejid; Sahpaz, Sevser; Petrault, Olivier; Ouk, Tawarak; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart; Bordet, Régis; Duriez, Patrick; Bailleul, François; Martin-Nizard, Françoise

    2006-04-01

    Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) is an African tropical plant whose roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine for many purposes, especially for erectile dysfunction, but its action mechanism is unknown. P. pinnata root and leaf methanolic extracts are rich in phenolic compounds. This study shows that both extracts are highly antioxidative and induce a slight transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha. They also increased and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 mRNA levels in bovine aortic endothelial cells, respectively. In this study P. pinnata methanolic extracts in cumulative doses elicited in a dose-dependent manner the relaxation of phenylephrine precontracted isolated rat aortic rings. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester significantly attenuated the capacity of both extracts to induce arterial relaxation, indicating that this arterial relaxation was mediated by endothelial nitric oxide release. It could be suggested that the arterial relaxation induced by both extracts could be mainly linked to their capacities to inhibit nitric oxide oxidation through their antioxidant properties. PMID:16680075

  9. Heme oxygenase 2: endothelial and neuronal localization and role in endothelium-dependent relaxation.

    PubMed Central

    Zakhary, R; Gaine, S P; Dinerman, J L; Ruat, M; Flavahan, N A; Snyder, S H

    1996-01-01

    Heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2), which synthesizes carbon monoxide (CO), has been localized by immunohistochemistry to endothelial cells and adventitial nerves of blood vessels. HO-2 is also localized to neurons in autonomic ganglia, including the petrosal, superior cervical, and nodose ganglia, as well as ganglia in the myenteric plexus of the intestine. Enzyme studies demonstrated that tin protoporphyrin-9 is a selective inhibitor of HO with approximately 10-fold selectivity for HO over endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase. Inhibition of HO activity by tin protoporphyrin 9 reverses the component of endothelial-derived relaxation of porcine distal pulmonary arteries not reversed by an inhibitor of NOS. Thus, CO, like NO, may have endothelial-derived relaxing activity. The similarity of NOS and HO-2 localizations and functions in blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system implies complementary and possibly coordinated physiologic roles for these two mediators. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8570637

  10. Contribution of K+ channels and ouabain-sensitive mechanisms to the endothelium-dependent relaxations of horse penile small arteries

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Dolores; Simonsen, Ulf; Hernández, Medardo; García-Sacristán, Albino

    1998-01-01

    Penile small arteries (effective internal lumen diameter of 300–600 μm) were isolated from the horse corpus cavernosum and mounted in microvascular myographs in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) and bradykinin (BK).In arteries preconstricted with the thromboxane analogue U46619 (3–30 nM), ACh and BK elicited concentration-dependent relaxations, pD2 and maximal responses being 7.71±0.09 and 91±1% (n=23), and 8.80±0.07 and 89±2% (n=24) for ACh and BK, respectively. These relaxations were abolished by mechanical endothelial cell removal, attenuated by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 μM) and unchanged by indomethacin (3 μM). However, raising extracellular K+ to concentrations of 20–30 mM significantly inhibited the ACh and BK relaxant responses to 63±4% (P<0.01, n=7) and to 59±4% (P<0.01, n=6), respectively. ACh- and BK-elicited relaxations were abolished in arteries preconstricted with K+ in the presence of 100 μM L-NOARG.In contrast to the inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, the blockers of Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels, charybdotoxin (30 nM) and apamin (0.3 μM), each induced slight but significant rightward shifts of the relaxations to ACh and BK without affecting the maximal responses. Combination of charybdotoxin and apamin did not cause further inhibition of the relaxations compared to either toxin alone. In the presence of L-NOARG (100 μM), combined application of the two toxins resulted in the most effective inhibition of the relaxations to both ACh and BK. Thus, pD2 and maximal responses for ACh and BK were 7.65±0.08 and 98±1%, and 9.17±0.09 and 100±0%, respectively, in controls, and 5.87±0.09 (P<0.05, n=6) and 38±11% (P<0.05, n=6), and 8.09±0.14 (P<0.01, n=6) and 98±1% (n=6), respectively, after combined application of charybdotoxin plus apamin and L-NOARG.The selective inhibitor of

  11. Brazilin isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L induces endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of rat aortic rings

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yu; Chen, Yu-cai; Lin, Yi-huang; Guo, Jing; Niu, Zi-ran; Li, Li; Wang, Shou-bao; Fang, Lian-hua; Du, Guan-hua

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Brazilin is one of the major constituents of Caesalpinia sappan L with various biological activities. This study sought to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of brazilin on isolated rat thoracic aorta and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Endothelium-intact and -denuded aortic rings were prepared from rats. The tension of the preparations was recorded isometrically with a force displacement transducer connected to a polygraph. The phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and myosin light chain (MLC) were analyzed using Western blotting assay. Results: Application of brazilin (10–100 μmol/L) dose-dependently relaxed the NE- or high K+-induced sustained contraction of endothelium-intact aortic rings (the EC50 was 83.51±5.6 and 79.79±4.57 μmol/L, respectively). The vasorelaxant effect of brazilin was significantly attenuated by endothelium removal or by pre-incubation with L-NAME, methylene blue or indomethacin. In addition, pre-incubation with brazilin dose-dependently attenuated the vasoconstriction induced by KCl, NE or Ang II. Pre-incubation with brazilin also markedly suppressed the high K+-induced extracellular Ca2+ influx and NE-induced intracellular Ca2+ release in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. Pre-incubation with brazilin dose-dependently inhibited the NE-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and MLC in both endothelium-intact and -denuded aortic rings. Conclusion: Brazilin induces relaxation in rat aortic rings via both endothelium-dependent and -independent ways as well as inhibiting NE-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and MLC. Brazilin also attenuates vasoconstriction via blocking voltage- and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels. PMID:26564314

  12. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86 g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14 g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48 g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition.

  13. Chelation of copper reduces inhibition by oxidized lipoproteins of endothelium-dependent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Ishikawa, T; Kuzuya, M; Naito, M; Yamada, K; Asai, K; Hidaka, H; Iguchi, A

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effect of dialyzing oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oLDL) against Krebs-Ringer solution, in the absence (yielding d-oLDL) or presence (yielding EDTA-oLDL) of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), to investigate the mechanism that underlies the inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) by o-LDL. Oxidation of LDL by exposure to Cu2+ resulted in the formation of a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO). At a concentration of 5 mg/dl, d-oLDL markedly attenuated EDR in the porcine coronary artery. Analysis of d-oLDL by gel filtration revealed that TBARS was ditributed in both the lipoprotein and the aqueous phases, whereas LPO was present only in the lipoprotein particles. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), which has been suggested to be responsible for the impairment of EDR by oLDL, was present not only in the lipoprotein but also in the aqueous phase. However, EDR inhibitory activity was observed only in the oLDL particles, not in the aqueous phase. Almost all Cu2+ associated with the oLDL particles was removed by dialysis of oLDL against Krebs-Ringer solution containing EDTA. EDTA-oLDL or native LDL, at concentrations as high as 75 mg/dl, exerted only a moderate inhibitory action on EDR, Both TBARS and LPO in EDTA-oLDL were distributed only in the lipoprotein particles, not in the aqueous phase. These results demonstrate that the impairment of EDR by oLDL is related both to LPO and to transition metal ions such as Cu2+ associated with the lipoprotein particles, not to the amount of the TBARS or negative charge, and that factors other than LPC may affect EDR.

  14. Osteocalcin attenuates high fat diet-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation through Akt/eNOS-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated a protective effect of osteocalcin (OCN) on glucose homeostasis and metabolic syndrome. However, its role in vascular function remains unknown. This study investigated the contribution of OCN to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in the thoracic aorta of apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO) mice. Methods Eight-week-old ApoE–KO mice were given chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks with or without daily intraperitoneal injection of OCN. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT),measurement of serum lipid profiles and blood pressure were carried out. Endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) was measured by wire myography. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to study the role of OCN on eNOS levels in vitro. PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and Akt inhibitor V were used ex-vivo to determine whether PI3K/Akt/eNOS contributes to the beneficial effect of OCN for the vascular or not. Results Daily injections of OCN can significantly improve lipid metabolism, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in ApoE-KO mice. In ApoE-KO mice fed with HFD, the OCN-treated mice displayed an improved acetylcholine-stimulated EDR compared to the vehicle-treated group. In addition, compared to vehicle-treated HUVECs, OCN-treated HUVECs displayed increased activation of the Akt-eNOS signaling pathway, as evidenced by significantly higher levels of phosphorylated Akt and eNOS. Furthermore, a similar beneficial effect of OCN on thoracic aorta was observed using ex vivo organ culture of isolated mouse aortic segment. However, this effect was attenuated upon co-incubation with PI3K inhibitor or Akt inhibitor V. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that OCN has an endothelial-protective effect in atherosclerosis through mediating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. PMID:24708830

  15. Effects of trientine, a metal chelator, on defective endothelium-dependent relaxation in the mesenteric vasculature of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Inkster, Melanie E; Cotter, Mary A; Cameron, Norman E

    2002-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus compromises endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels. This has been linked to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which neutralise nitric oxide (NO) and interfere with vasodilator function. Experiments using chelators have emphasised the importance of ROS produced by transition metal catalysed reactions. However, particularly for the small arteries and arterioles that control microcirculatory blood flow, NO is not the only endothelium-derived mediator; endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) has a major role. EDHF-mediated vasodilation is severely curtailed by diabetes; however, little information exists on the underlying pathophysiology. Deficits in the EDHF system, alone or in combination with the NO system, are crucial for the development of diabetic microvascular complications. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved, the aim was to examine the effects of diabetes and preventive and intervention chelator therapy with trientine on a preparation that has well-defined NO and EDHF-mediated responses, the rat mesenteric vascular bed. In phenylephrine-preconstricted preparations, maximum vasodilation to acetylcholine was reduced by 35 and 44% after 4 and 8 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, respectively. Trientine treatment over the first 4 weeks gave 72% protection; intervention therapy over the final 4 weeks prevented deterioration and corrected the initial deficit by 68%. These responses depend on both NO and EDHF. When the latter mechanism was isolated by NO synthase inhibition, diabetic deficits of 53.4 (4 weeks) and 65.4% (8 weeks) were revealed, that were 65% prevented and 50% corrected by trientine treatment. Neither diabetes nor trientine altered vascular smooth muscle responses to the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Thus, the data suggest that metal catalysed ROS production makes a substantial contribution to defects in both the EDHF and NO endothelial mechanisms in diabetes, which has

  16. B2 kinin receptor activation is the predominant mechanism by which trypsin mediates endothelium-dependent relaxation in bovine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Grant R; Selemidis, Stavros; Cocks, Thomas M

    2008-07-01

    The roles of kinin and protease-activated receptors (PAR) in endothelium-dependent relaxations to the serine protease, trypsin, were examined in rings of bovine left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Trypsin (0.01-30 U/ml) caused biphasic, endothelium-dependent relaxations-a high potency (0.01-0.3 U/ml), low efficacy relaxation [maximum relaxation (R (max)), 9.0 +/- 5.1%] followed by a lower potency (1-30 U/ml) but high efficacy (R (max), 90.4 +/- 5.5%) relaxation, which was abolished by aprotinin. Captopril (10 microM) caused an approximately 10-fold leftward shift of the second phase response such that the first phase was masked. The second phase relaxation to trypsin was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, non-surmountable manner by the B2 antagonist, HOE-140. At 3 nM HOE-140, the second phase response to trypsin was abolished unmasking the first phase. Kallikrein (0.0003-0.3 U/ml) caused monophasic, endothelium-dependent relaxations (R (max), 33.7 +/- 14.6%), which were potentiated by captopril (R (max), 94.2 +/- 1.0%) and abolished by HOE-140. In the presence of captopril, the second phase relaxation to trypsin was only minimally inhibited by either N(G)-nitro-L: -arginine (100 microM) or 67 mM [K(+)](o) alone but markedly reduced when these two treatments were combined (R (max), 26.1 +/- 11.6% versus 98.6 +/- 2.9% in controls). The PAR1-activating peptide, SFLLRN (0.1-30 microM), but not the PAR2-activating peptide, SLIGRL, caused concentration-dependent relaxations (pEC(50), 5.9 +/- 0.0%; R (max), 43.3 +/- 8.3%). In conclusion, trypsin causes endothelium-dependent relaxations in the bovine LAD predominantly via release of endogenous BK, which in turn activates endothelial B2 receptors. Only a minor role for PAR1-like receptors was evident in this tissue. PMID:18458878

  17. Tocotrienol-Rich Tocomin Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Improves Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in Aortae from Rats Fed a High-Fat Western Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Saher F.; Nguyen, Jason C. D.; Jenkins, Trisha A.; Woodman, Owen L.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high-fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat) or control rat chow (standard diet, 6% fat) for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc) or its vehicle (peanut oil) was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime. Aortae from WD rats showed an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation that was associated with an increased expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit and an increase in the vascular generation of superoxide measured using L-012 chemiluminescence. The increase in vascular oxidative stress was accompanied by a decrease in basal NO release and impairment of the contribution of NO to ACh-induced relaxation. The impaired relaxation is likely contributed to by a decreased expression of eNOS, calmodulin, and phosphorylated Akt and an increase in caveolin. Tocotrienol rich tocomin, which prevented the diet-induced changes in vascular function, reduced vascular superoxide production and abolished the diet-induced changes in eNOS and other protein expression. Using selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels we demonstrated that tocomin increased NO-mediated relaxation, without affecting the contribution of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization type relaxation to the endothelium-dependent relaxation. The beneficial actions of tocomin in this diet-induced model of obesity suggest that it may have potential to be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent vascular disease in obesity. PMID:27800483

  18. Exercise training-induced adaptations in mediators of sustained endothelium-dependent coronary artery relaxation in a porcine model of ischemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Heaps, Cristine L.; Robles, Juan Carlos; Sarin, Vandana; Mattox, Mildred L.; Parker, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that exercise training enhances sustained relaxation to persistent endothelium-dependent vasodilator exposure via increased nitric oxide contribution in small coronary arteries of control and ischemic hearts. Methods Yucatan swine were designated to a control group or a group in which an ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal LCX. Subsequently, pigs from both groups were assigned to exercise (5 days/week; 16 weeks) or sedentary regimens. Coronary arteries (~100–350 μm) were isolated from control pigs and from both nonoccluded and collateral-dependent regions of chronically-occluded hearts. Results In arteries from control pigs, training significantly enhanced relaxation responses to increasing concentrations of bradykinin (10−10 to 10−7 M) and sustained relaxation to a single bradykinin concentration (30 nM), which were abolished by NOS inhibition. Training also significantly prolonged bradykinin-mediated relaxation in collateral-dependent arteries of occluded pigs, which was associated with more persistent increases in endothelial cellular Ca2+ levels, and reversed with NOS inhibition. Protein levels for eNOS and p-eNOS-(Ser1179), but not caveolin-1, Hsp90, or Akt, were significantly increased with occlusion, independent of training state. Conclusions Exercise training enhances sustained relaxation to endothelium-dependent agonist stimulation in small arteries of control and ischemic hearts by enhanced nitric oxide contribution and endothelial Ca2+ responses. PMID:24447072

  19. Aronia melanocarpa juice, a rich source of polyphenols, induces endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary arteries via the redox-sensitive activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Auger, Cyril; Kurita, Ikuko; Anselm, Eric; Rivoarilala, Lalainasoa Odile; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2013-11-30

    This study examined the ability of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) juice, a rich source of polyphenols, to cause NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanism and the active polyphenols. A. melanocarpa juice caused potent endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery rings. Relaxations to A. melanocarpa juice were minimally affected by inhibition of the formation of vasoactive prostanoids and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated responses, and markedly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine (endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor), membrane permeant analogs of superoxide dismutase and catalase, PP2 (Src kinase inhibitor), and wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor). In cultured endothelial cells, A. melanocarpa juice increased the formation of NO as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using the spin trap iron(II)diethyldithiocarbamate, and reactive oxygen species using dihydroethidium. These responses were associated with the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of Src, Akt and eNOS. A. melanocarpa juice-derived fractions containing conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids induced the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. The present findings indicate that A. melanocarpa juice is a potent stimulator of the endothelial formation of NO in coronary arteries; this effect involves the phosphorylation of eNOS via the redox-sensitive activation of the Src/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway mostly by conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids.

  20. Vascular Protective Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Camellia japonica Fruit: Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Coronary Artery and Reduction of Smooth Muscle Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Hee; Shim, Bong-Sup; Yoon, Jun-Seong; Lee, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Hye-Won; Yoo, Seok-Bong; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Dong-Wok; Oak, Min-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica is a popular garden plant in Asia and widely used as cosmetic sources and traditional medicine. However, the possibility that C. japonica affects cardiovascular system remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vascular effects of an extract of C. japonica. Vascular reactivity was assessed in organ baths using porcine coronary arteries and inhibition of proliferation and migration were assessed using human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). All four different parts, leaf, stem, flower, and fruits, caused concentration-dependent relaxations and C. japonica fruit (CJF) extract showed the strongest vasorelaxation and its effect was endothelium dependent. Relaxations to CJF were markedly reduced by inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inhibitor of PI3-kinase, but not affected by inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated response. CJF induced activated a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells. Altogether, these studies have demonstrated that CJF is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator and this effect was involved in, at least in part, PI3K-eNOS-NO pathway. Moreover, CJF attenuated TNF-α induced proliferation and PDGF-BB induced migration of VSMCs. The present findings indicate that CJF could be a valuable candidate of herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PMID:26697138

  1. The ent-15α-Acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic Acid Relaxes Rat Artery Mesenteric Superior via Endothelium-Dependent and Endothelium-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Êurica Adélia Nogueira; Herculano, Edla de Azevedo; da Costa, Cintia Danieli Ferreira; Furtado, Fabiola Fialho; da-Cunha, Emídio Vasconcelos Leitão; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Medeiros, Isac Almeida

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of the ent-15α-acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA-acetoxy). In rat mesenteric artery rings, KA-acetoxy induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine. In the absence of endothelium, the vasorelaxation was significantly shifted to the right without reduction of the maximum effect. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of the NO-synthase (NOS), indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase, L-NAME + indomethacin, atropine, a nonselective antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, ODQ, selective inhibitor of the guanylyl cyclase enzyme, or hydroxocobalamin, a nitric oxide scavenger. The relaxation was completely reversed in the presence of L-NAME + 1 mM L-arginine or L-arginine, an NO precursor. Diterpene-induced relaxation was not affected by TEA, a nonselective inhibitor of K+ channels. The KA-acetoxy antagonized CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner and also inhibited an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction. The KA-acetoxy did not interfere with Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The vasorelaxant induced by KA-acetoxy seems to involve the inhibition of the Ca2+ influx and also, at least in part, by endothelial muscarinic receptors activation, NO and PGI2 release. PMID:23346202

  2. Chronic administration of nicotine-free cigarette smoke extract impaired endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rats via increased vascular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shimosato, Takashi; Geddawy, Ayman; Tawa, Masashi; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Tomio

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disorders and atherosclerosis. Here, we examined the effects of nicotine-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the regulation of cardiovascular function. Rats were subcutaneously administered PBS or nicotine-free CSE at 0.05 to 1.5 mL/day per rat for 4 weeks. Blood pressure, cardiac function, and vascular responsiveness were measured at 4 weeks after administration. Furthermore, acute effects of nicotine-free CSE were also studied in the aorta isolated from normal rats. Blood pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) were significantly increased in the nicotine-free CSE-administered rats, but heart rate, dP/dt(max), and dP/dt(min) were not affected. Endothelium-dependent relaxation by acetylcholine (ACh) in the nicotine-free CSE-treated rats was significantly attenuated compared to PBS-treated rats, but endothelium-independent relaxation by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) did not differ. Pretreatment with superoxide dismutase restored the attenuated ACh-induced relaxation. Contractions by phenylephrine, angiotensin II, and KCl did not differ between two groups. In vitro acute nicotine-free CSE treatment did not alter the response to ACh or SNP. These results suggest that chronic nicotine-free CSE administration impairs endothelial function by increased production of superoxide derived from the vascular wall components other than smooth muscles and induces slight hypertension accompanied with LVSP elevation.

  3. Evidence that mechanisms dependent and independent of nitric oxide mediate endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin in human small resistance-like coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, B K; Cocks, T M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), the NO scavenger, oxyhaemoglobin (HbO) and high extracellular K+ upon endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin were investigated in human isolated small coronary arteries.Endothelium-dependent relaxations to bradykinin were compared in vessels contracted to ∼50% of their maximum contraction to 124 mM KCl Krebs solution, regardless of treatments, with the thromboxane A2 mimetic, U46619 and acetylcholine. All relaxations were expressed as percentage reversal of the initial level of active force.L-NOARG (100 μM) caused a small but significant, 12% (P<0.01), decrease in the maximum relaxation (Rmax: 91.5±5.4%) to bradykinin but did not significantly affect the sensitivity (pEC50: 8.08±0.17). Increasing the concentration of L-NOARG to 300 μM had no further effect on the pEC50 or Rmax to bradykinin. HbO (20 μM) and a combination of HbO (20 μM) and L-NOARG (100 μM) reduced Rmax to bradykinin by 58% (P<0.05) and 54% (P<0.05), respectively. HbO (20 μM) and L-NOARG (100 μM, combined but not HbO (20 μM) alone, caused a significant 11 fold (P<0.05) decrease in sensitivitiy to bradykinin. HbO (20 μM) decreased the sensitivity to the endothelium-independent NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), approximately 17 fold (P<0.05).Raising the extracellular concentration of K+ isotonically to 30 mM, reduced the Rmax to bradykinin from 96.6±3.1% to 43.9±10.1% (P<0.01) with no significant change in sensitivity. A combination of HbO, L-NOARG and high K+ (30 mM) abolished the response to bradykinin. High K+ did not change either the sensitivity or maximum relaxation to SNAP.In conclusion, L-NOARG does not completely inhibit endothelial cell NO synthesis in human isolated small coronary arteries. By comparison, HbO appeared to block all the effects of NO in this tissue and revealed that most of the relaxation to bradykinin was due to NO. The non

  4. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent relaxations in monkey isolated superior and inferior caval veins.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, S.; Ohhashi, T.

    1993-01-01

    1. We examined the effects of acetylcholine (ACh), isoprenaline (Isop) and Ca-ionophore, A23187 on monkey isolated superior (SCV) and inferior caval veins (ICV) with and without intact endothelium, which had been partially contracted by 2 x 10(-6)-5 x 10(-6) M prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). 2. Low concentrations of ACh (10(-10)-10(-9) M) produced a dose-dependent relaxation in the precontracted venous segments with endothelium. ACh at concentrations more than 10(-7) M elicited a transient contraction followed by a relaxation in these segments. 3. An addition of 5 x 10(-7) M A 23187 induced about 60% of maximum relaxation produced by 10(-5) M sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in each venous segment with endothelium. 4. Isop (10(-10)-10(-5) M) caused a dose-related relaxation in the precontracted caval veins with intact endothelium. 5. Removal of endothelium caused no significant effect on the ACh-induced dual responses but a significant inhibition of the A23187-induced relaxation. 6. Pretreatment with atropine antagonized competitively the ACh-induced relaxations in the endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded caval veins. The Schild plot analysis showed that the pA2 values of the segments with and without endothelium were 9.72 +/- 0.14 (n = 5) and 10.01 +/- 0.23 (n = 6) in the ICV; and 9.95 +/- 0.20 (n = 5) and 9.70 +/- 0.10 (n = 5) in the SCV, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8401953

  5. Ultrasonic Measurement of Change in Elasticity due to Endothelium Dependent Relaxation Response by Accurate Detection of Artery-Wall Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Takuya; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    Ross hypothesized that an endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step in atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells, which release nitric oxide (NO) in response to shear stress from blood flow, have a function of relaxing smooth muscle in the media of the arterial wall. For the assessment of the endothelial function, there is a conventional method in which the change in the diameter of the brachial artery caused by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is measured with ultrasound. However, despite the fact that the collagen-rich hard adventitia does not respond to NO, the conventional method measures the change in diameter depending on the mechanical property of the entire wall including the adventitia. Therefore, we developed a method of measuring the change in the thickness and the elasticity of the brachial artery during a cardiac cycle using the phased tracking method for the evaluation of the mechanical property of only the intima-media region. In this study, the initial positions of echoes from the lumen-intima and media-adventitia boundaries are determined using complex template matching to accurately estimate the minute change in the thickness and the elasticity of the brachial and radial arteries. The ambiguity in the determination of such boundaries was eliminated using complex template matching, and the change in elasticity measured by the proposed method was larger than the change in inner diameter obtained by the conventional method.

  6. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chu-Lin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Tony J F; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group). Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose) for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L). These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial function, glucose

  7. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chu-Lin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Tony J F; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group). Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose) for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L). These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial function, glucose

  8. Chronic exposure to arsenic in tap water reduces acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the aorta and increases oxidative stress in female rats.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Fredi; Bravo, Jaime; Norambuena, Milton; Stegen, Susana; Ayavire, Alejandra; Palacios, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine whether consuming tap water containing arsenic (20 microg/L) alters oxidative stress levels in female rats and changes vascular response. Whereas nitric oxide produces complete relaxation, arsenic (7 months of exposure) impairs the acetylcholine-induced endothelial relaxation in the rat aorta compared with control rats. Arsenic exposure results in a marked elevation in reactive oxygen species in blood, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, which is a sensitive biomarker for arsenic toxicity and oxidative stress, is significantly decreased in erythrocytes from 7-month-old rats. Diastolic blood pressure increases significantly in 7-month-old arsenic-treated versus control rats. The percentage of change in peripheral resistance increases. The results indicate that chronic environmental exposure to low levels of arsenic alters the release of vasoactive substances, causes changes in oxidative stress, and increases blood pressure in female rats.

  9. Transient Receptor Potential Channel Opening Releases Endogenous Acetylcholine, which Contributes to Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Induced by Mild Hypothermia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat but Not Wistar-Kyoto Rat Arteries.

    PubMed

    Zou, Q; Leung, S W S; Vanhoutte, P M

    2015-08-01

    Mild hypothermia causes endothelium-dependent relaxations, which are reduced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. The present study investigated whether endothelial endogenous acetylcholine contributes to these relaxations. Aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were contracted with prostaglandin F2 α and exposed to progressive mild hypothermia (from 37 to 31°C). Hypothermia induced endothelium-dependent, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive relaxations, which were reduced by atropine, but not by mecamylamine, in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. The responses in SHR aortae were also reduced by acetylcholinesterase (the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine degradation), bromoacetylcholine (inhibitor of acetylcholine synthesis), hemicholinium-3 (inhibitor of choline uptake), and vesamicol (inhibitor of acetylcholine release). The mild hypothermia-induced relaxations in both SHR and WKY rat aortae were inhibited by AMTB [N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-[(3-methylphenyl)methoxy]-N-(2-thienylmethyl)-benzamide; the transient receptor potential (TRP) M8 inhibitor]; only those in SHR aortae were inhibited by HC-067047 [2-methyl-1-[3-(4-morpholinyl)propyl]-5-phenyl-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide; TRPV4 antagonist] while those in WKY rat aortae were reduced by HC-030031 [2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide; TRPA1 antagonist]. The endothelial uptake of extracellular choline and release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate was enhanced by mild hypothermia and inhibited by HC-067047 in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. Compared with WKY rats, the SHR preparations expressed similar levels of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase, but a lesser amount of vesicular acetylcholine transporter, located mainly in the endothelium. Thus, mild hypothermia causes nitric oxide-dependent relaxations by opening TRPA1 channels in WKY rat aortae

  10. Enhanced acetylcholine induced relaxation in small mesenteric arteries from pregnant rats: an important role for endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, R T; Anwar, M A; Poston, L

    1998-01-01

    Small mesenteric arteries from pregnant rats demonstrated greater sensitivity (pEC50 : P<0.001) and maximum relaxation (P<0.01) to acetylcholine (ACh) than those of control non-pregnant animals.Maximum relaxation, but not sensitivity, to ACh remained greater (P<0.01) in pregnant animals when evaluated in 25 mM KCl, which prevents relaxation dependent upon hyperpolarization. ACh induced relaxation in the presence of 25 mM KCl was completely inhibited in pregnant and non-pregnant groups by Nω-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μM), indomethacin (INDO, 10 μM) and oxadiazole quinoxalin (ODQ, 1 μM), suggesting pregnancy associated enhancement of dilator prostanoid and/or nitric oxide (NO) synthesis.ACh induced relaxation in 5 mM KCl was only partially inhibited by a combination of Nω-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μM), indomethacin (INDO, 10 μM) and oxadiazole quinoxalin (ODQ, 1 μM). The residual relaxation, which was greater in arteries from pregnant rats (maximum relaxation: P<0.01), was prevented by 25 mM KCl, indicating pregnancy associated enhanced synthesis/reduced degradation of a hyperpolarizing factor. Residual relaxation to ACh in 5 mM KCl was inhibited by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor, proadifen (1 μM) in the pregnant group (P<0.001).Relaxation to spermine NONOate was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant groups and totally inhibited by ODQ (in the presence of L-NAME).This study suggests that, in addition to enhanced endothelium dependent NO/dilator prostanoid synthesis, a hyperpolarizing factor may contribute to the vascular adaptation to pregnancy. PMID:9806327

  11. Possible site of action of 2-methylserotonin in inducing relaxation of acetylcholine-induced contraction in the molluscan (Mytilus edulis) smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Murakami, H; Kizawa, Y; Sano, M; Edamura, N; Maruyama, C; Yamazaki, A

    1992-02-01

    1. The present study investigated the presence of 5-HT3 receptor using 2-methylserotonin (2-Me-5-HT) in the smooth muscle of Mytilus ABRM. 2. 2-Me-5-HT relaxed the acetylcholine-induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner ranging from 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-4) M (pD2 = 5.55 +/- 0.32). 3. 2-Me-5-HT-induced relaxation was antagonized by 3 x 10(-5) M ketanserin in a competitive manner (pA2 = 5.14 +/- 0.1), but not by cypropheptadine, mianserin, MDL 72222 or ICS 205-930 at a concentration of 3 x 10(-5) M. 4. 2-Me-5-HT (3 x 10(-4) M) did not alter the content of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in the ABRM. 5. These findings suggested that the 2-Me-5-HT-induced relaxation was mediated through 5-HT2-like receptors and was not linked to cyclic AMP or GMP systems, and, further, that 5-HT3 receptor subtype was not present in the ABRM.

  12. Acetylcholine- and sodium hydrosulfide-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and hyperpolarization in cerebral vessels of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Chen, Zhi-Wu; He, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and the role of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the cerebral vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) rats. CIR was induced by occlusion of bilateral carotid and vertebral arteries. Isolated arterial segments from the cerebral basilar (CBA) and middle artery (MCA) of CIR rats were studied in a pressurized chamber. Transmembrane potential was recorded using glass microelectrodes to evaluate hyperpolarization. In the CIR CBAs and MCAs preconstricted by 30 mM KCl, ACh induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization that were partially attenuated by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 30 μM) and l-NAME plus indomethacin (10 μM). The residual responses were abolished by the H2S inhibitor dl-propargylglycine (PPG, 100 μM). The H2S donor NaHS and l-Cys, the substrate of endogenous H2S synthase, elicited similar responses to ACh and was inhibited by tetraethylamonine (1 mM) or PPG. ACh induces EDHF-mediated vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization in rat cerebral arteries. These responses are up-regulated by ischemia-reperfusion while NO-mediated responses are down-regulated. Further, the ACh-induced, EDHF-mediated relaxation, and hyperpolarization and the inhibition of these responses are similar to the H2S-induced responses, suggesting that H2S is a possible candidate for EDHF in rat cerebral vessels.

  13. Enhanced role of potassium channels in relaxations to acetylcholine in hypercholesterolemic rabbit carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Najibi, S; Cowan, C L; Palacino, J J; Cohen, R A

    1994-05-01

    The effect of hypercholesterolemia for 10 wk on endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine was studied in isolated rings of rabbit carotid artery and abdominal aorta contracted with phenylephrine or elevated potassium. In these arteries obtained from hypercholesterolemic rabbits, endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were not significantly different from those of normal rabbits. In normal and hypercholesterolemic arteries, partial relaxation persisted in the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which blocked acetylcholine-induced increases in arterial guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Combined treatment with L-NAME and the calcium-dependent potassium-channel inhibitor, charybdotoxin, blocked relaxations in both groups, suggesting that L-NAME-resistant relaxations are mediated by an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Charybdotoxin alone or depolarizing potassium had no significant effect on normal carotid artery or normal and hypercholesterolemic abdominal aorta but significantly inhibited relaxations of the carotid artery from cholesterol-fed rabbits. The enhanced role of calcium-dependent potassium channels and the hyperpolarizing factor in relaxation of the hypercholesterolemic carotid artery suggested by these results was likely related to the fact that acetylcholine failed to stimulate cGMP only in that artery. These data suggest that endothelium-dependent relaxation in these rabbit arteries is mediated by nitric oxide-cGMP-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In hypercholesterolemia, the contribution of nitric oxide-cGMP in the carotid artery is reduced, but a hyperpolarizing factor and calcium-dependent potassium channels maintain normal acetylcholine-induced relaxation. PMID:7515589

  14. The effects of chronic ethanol treatment on endothelium-dependent responses in rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Williams, S P; Adams, R D; Mustafa, S J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on blood pressure and vascular responses, specifically, the possible alterations in endothelium-dependent relaxation which are associated with ethanol-induced hypertension in the rat model. Male rats received ethanol in drinking water for 13 weeks. Systolic pressure was recorded weekly. Following treatment, segments of thoracic aorta with and without intact endothelium were used to generate relaxation-response curves to the endothelium-dependent agents, acetylcholine, ATP and bradykinin, as well as the endothelium-independent agents, adenosine and sodium nitroprusside. Mean systolic pressures at the end of the treatment period were: 127.8 +/- 1.2 and 151.1 +/- 1.3 mmHg for controls and ethanol-treated rats, respectively. Ethanol treatment did not affect the relaxation produced by either acetylcholine, ATP or sodium nitroprusside in aorta with or without endothelium. In contrast, ring segments with intact endothelium from ethanol-treated rats exhibited augmented relaxation in response to both adenosine and bradykinin compared to controls. Removal of the endothelium abolished the relaxation produced by bradykinin in both groups. Although removal of the endothelium had no effect on the relaxation produced by adenosine in the control group, it attenuated the adenosine-induced relaxation in the ethanol-treated group back to control levels. These data suggest that chronic ingestion of ethanol causes elevated blood pressure and augments the endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin. These findings also suggest that chronic ethanol treatment can cause the appearance of an endothelium-dependent component in the relaxation produced by adenosine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Advanced glycosylation products quench nitric oxide and mediate defective endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Bucala, R; Tracey, K J; Cerami, A

    1991-01-01

    Nitric oxide (an endothelium-derived relaxing factor) induces smooth muscle relaxation and is an important mediator in the regulation of vascular tone. Advanced glycosylation end products, the glucose-derived moieties that form nonenzymatically and accumulate on long-lived tissue proteins, have been implicated in many of the complications of diabetes and normal aging. We demonstrate that advanced glycosylation products quench nitric oxide activity in vitro and in vivo. Acceleration of the advanced glycosylation process in vivo results in a time-dependent impairment in endothelium-dependent relaxation. Inhibition of advanced glycosylation with aminoguanidine prevents nitric oxide quenching, and ameliorates the vasodilatory impairment. These results implicate advanced glycosylation products as important modulators of nitric oxide activity and endothelium-dependent relaxation. PMID:1991829

  16. Acetylcholine-induced K+ currents in smooth muscle cells of intact rat small arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Weidelt, T; Boldt, W; Markwardt, F

    1997-01-01

    1. The mechanism of the sustained acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) in intact rat small mesenteric arteries prestimulated with noradrenaline (10(-6) M) was investigated by means of the single microelectrode voltage-clamp method. 2. The vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in this preparation are poorly or even not coupled for the reasons that: (1) the mean input resistance Rlnp of the clamped vascular smooth muscle increases from 120 M omega under control conditions to 440 M omega after application of K+ channel blocking drugs, (2) the voltage relaxation after injection of hyperpolarizing currents has a monoexponential time course and is linearly dependent on Rlnp, and (3) voltage steps induced by current-clamp steps are not transferred to locations in the vascular musculature 120 microns apart from the current injecting microelectrode. 3. Sustained (> 5 min) application of ACh (10(-5) M) hyperpolarized the VSMCs by induction of a hyperpolarizing current. This effect was completely blocked by the inhibitor of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase L-NAME (10(-3) M) but not by the inhibitor of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGCl) Methylene Blue (MB, 10(-4) M). 4. Application of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10(-6) M) for more than 5 min mimicked the induction of the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing current in vessels with destroyed endothelium. The reversal potential of this current is dependent on the extracellular K+ concentration. The effect of SNP could also not be blocked by MB. 5. The blockers of ATP-dependent and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels, glibenclamide (Glb, 10(-5) M) and charybdotoxin (CTX, 5 x 10(-8) M), respectively, blocked a hyperpolarizing current in the VSMCs similar to the ACh- or SNP-induced current. 6. The isolated application of either Glb or CTX did not block the activation of the hyperpolarizing current by SNP. Only the combined administration of Glb and CTX blocked the SNP-induced current completely

  17. L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic humans.

    PubMed Central

    Creager, M A; Gallagher, S J; Girerd, X J; Coleman, S M; Dzau, V J; Cooke, J P

    1992-01-01

    Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in hypercholesterolemia, even before the development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infusion of L-arginine, the precursor of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide, improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic humans. Vascular reactivity was measured in the forearm resistance vessels of 11 normal subjects (serum LDL cholesterol = 2.76 +/- 0.10 mmol/liter) and 14 age-matched patients with hypercholesterolemia (serum LDL cholesterol = 4.65 +/- 0.36 mmol/liter, P < 0.05). The vasodilative response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, methacholine chloride, was depressed in the hypercholesterolemic group, whereas endothelium-independent vasodilation, induced by nitroprusside, was similar in each group. Intravenous administration of L-arginine augmented the forearm blood flow response to methacholine in the hypercholesterolemic individuals, but not in the normal subjects. L-arginine did not alter the effect of nitroprusside in either group. D-arginine had no effect on forearm vascular reactivity in either group. It is concluded that endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in hypercholesterolemic humans. This abnormality can be improved acutely by administration of L-arginine, possibly by increasing the synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. PMID:1401062

  18. Human obesity and endothelium-dependent responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Campia, Umberto; Tesauro, Manfredi; Cardillo, Carmine

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is an ongoing worldwide epidemic. Besides being a medical condition in itself, obesity dramatically increases the risk of development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to stem from multiple abnormalities in adipose tissue function leading to a chronic inflammatory state and to dysregulation of the endocrine and paracrine actions of adipocyte-derived factors. These, in turn, disrupt vascular homeostasis by causing an imbalance between the NO pathway and the endothelin 1 system, with impaired insulin-stimulated endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that the vascular dysfunction of obesity is not just limited to the endothelium, but also involves the other layers of the vessel wall. In particular, obesity-related changes in medial smooth muscle cells seem to disrupt the physiological facilitatory action of insulin on the responsiveness to vasodilator stimuli, whereas the adventitia and perivascular fat appear to be a source of pro-inflammatory and vasoactive factors that may contribute to endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunction, and to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. While obesity-induced vascular dysfunction appears to be reversible, at least in part, with weight control strategies, these have not proved sufficient to prevent the metabolic and cardiovascular complication of obesity on a large scale. While a number of currently available drugs have shown potentially beneficial vascular effects in patients with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying vascular damage in obese patients is necessary to identify additional pharmacologic targets to prevent the cardiovascular complications of obesity, and their human and economic costs. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3 PMID:21895631

  19. Acute but not chronic metabolic acidosis potentiates the acetylcholine-induced reduction in blood pressure: an endothelium-dependent effect.

    PubMed

    Celotto, A C; Ferreira, L G; Capellini, V K; Albuquerque, A A S; Rodrigues, A J; Evora, P R B

    2016-02-01

    Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on vascular tone. This study investigated the in vivo effects of acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) and chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function. CMA was induced by ad libitum intake of 1% NH4Cl for 7 days, and AMA was induced by a 3-h infusion of 6 M NH4Cl (1 mL/kg, diluted 1:10). Phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach) dose-response curves were performed by venous infusion with simultaneous venous and arterial blood pressure monitoring. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was measured by chemiluminescence. The CMA group had a blood pH of 7.15±0.03, which was associated with reduced bicarbonate (13.8±0.98 mmol/L) and no change in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The AMA group had a pH of 7.20±0.01, which was associated with decreases in bicarbonate (10.8±0.54 mmol/L) and PaCO2 (47.8±2.54 to 23.2±0.74 mmHg) and accompanied by hyperventilation. Phe or ACh infusion did not affect arterial or venous blood pressure in the CMA group. However, the ACh infusion decreased the arterial blood pressure (ΔBP: -28.0±2.35 mm Hg [AMA] to -4.5±2.89 mmHg [control]) in the AMA group. Plasma NOx was normal after CMA but increased after AMA (25.3±0.88 to 31.3±0.54 μM). These results indicate that AMA, but not CMA, potentiated the Ach-induced decrease in blood pressure and led to an increase in plasma NOx, reinforcing the effect of pH imbalance on vascular tone and blood pressure control. PMID:26648089

  20. Acute but not chronic metabolic acidosis potentiates the acetylcholine-induced reduction in blood pressure: an endothelium-dependent effect

    PubMed Central

    Celotto, A.C.; Ferreira, L.G.; Capellini, V.K.; Albuquerque, A.A.S.; Rodrigues, A.J.; Evora, P.R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on vascular tone. This study investigated the in vivo effects of acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) and chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function. CMA was induced by ad libitum intake of 1% NH4Cl for 7 days, and AMA was induced by a 3-h infusion of 6 M NH4Cl (1 mL/kg, diluted 1:10). Phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach) dose-response curves were performed by venous infusion with simultaneous venous and arterial blood pressure monitoring. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was measured by chemiluminescence. The CMA group had a blood pH of 7.15±0.03, which was associated with reduced bicarbonate (13.8±0.98 mmol/L) and no change in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The AMA group had a pH of 7.20±0.01, which was associated with decreases in bicarbonate (10.8±0.54 mmol/L) and PaCO2 (47.8±2.54 to 23.2±0.74 mmHg) and accompanied by hyperventilation. Phe or ACh infusion did not affect arterial or venous blood pressure in the CMA group. However, the ACh infusion decreased the arterial blood pressure (ΔBP: -28.0±2.35 mm Hg [AMA] to -4.5±2.89 mmHg [control]) in the AMA group. Plasma NOx was normal after CMA but increased after AMA (25.3±0.88 to 31.3±0.54 μM). These results indicate that AMA, but not CMA, potentiated the Ach-induced decrease in blood pressure and led to an increase in plasma NOx, reinforcing the effect of pH imbalance on vascular tone and blood pressure control. PMID:26648089

  1. High-fat feeding reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rats: differential mechanisms for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Song, Guang-Yao; Gao, Yu; Di, Yu-Wei; Pan, Li-Li; Zhou, Yu; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2006-08-01

    1. Chronic feeding with a high-fat diet can cause metabolic syndrome in rodents similar to humans, but the role of saturated versus unsaturated fats in vascular tension remains unclear. 2. The present study shows that rats on a diet rich in either saturated or unsaturated fat had higher blood pressure compared with chow-fed rats (approximately 130 vs 100 mmHg, respectively), along with hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Compared with responses of phenylephrine-preconstricted artery segments from chow-fed rats, vasorelaxation of isolated renal arteries from high-fat fed rats was reduced substantially (> 50%) in response to acetylcholine (0.01-10 micromol/L) and moderately to nitroprusside (>or=1 micromol/L) at low concentrations. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of arteries from high-fat fed rats was also more sensitive to inhibition by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine and methylene blue. 3. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the production of NO and endothelin-1 was significantly inhibited by unsaturated fatty acids. In comparison, saturated fatty acids stimulated endothelin-1 production without altering NO production. 4. The data indicate that both saturated and unsaturated high-fat feeding may result in an increase in blood pressure owing to reduced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the arterial system. The impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids may involve different mechanisms.

  2. Nafamostat mesilate promotes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation via the Akt-eNOS dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujeong; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Song, Hee-Jung; Choi, Si Wan; Nagar, Harsha; Piao, Shuyu; Jung, Saet-Byel; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Cuk-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. The intracellular mediator and external anti-inflammatory external signal in the vascular wall have been reported to protect endothelial cells, in part due to nitric oxide (NO) production. This study was designed to examine whether NM exhibit endothelium dependent vascular relaxation through Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and generation of NO. NM enhanced Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aorta tissues obtained from rats treated with various concentrations of NM. NM concomitantly decreased arginase activity, which could increase the available arginine substrate for NO production. Moreover, we investigated whether NM increased NO bioavailability and decreased aortic relaxation response to an eNOS inhibitor in the aorta. These results suggest that NM increases NO generation via the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, leading to endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. Therefore, the vasorelaxing action of NM may contribute to the regulation of cardiovascular function. PMID:27610041

  3. Nafamostat mesilate promotes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation via the Akt-eNOS dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sujeong; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Song, Hee-Jung; Choi, Si Wan; Nagar, Harsha; Piao, Shuyu; Jung, Saet-byel; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. The intracellular mediator and external anti-inflammatory external signal in the vascular wall have been reported to protect endothelial cells, in part due to nitric oxide (NO) production. This study was designed to examine whether NM exhibit endothelium dependent vascular relaxation through Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and generation of NO. NM enhanced Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aorta tissues obtained from rats treated with various concentrations of NM. NM concomitantly decreased arginase activity, which could increase the available arginine substrate for NO production. Moreover, we investigated whether NM increased NO bioavailability and decreased aortic relaxation response to an eNOS inhibitor in the aorta. These results suggest that NM increases NO generation via the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, leading to endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. Therefore, the vasorelaxing action of NM may contribute to the regulation of cardiovascular function. PMID:27610041

  4. Nafamostat mesilate promotes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation via the Akt-eNOS dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sujeong; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Song, Hee-Jung; Choi, Si Wan; Nagar, Harsha; Piao, Shuyu; Jung, Saet-byel; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. The intracellular mediator and external anti-inflammatory external signal in the vascular wall have been reported to protect endothelial cells, in part due to nitric oxide (NO) production. This study was designed to examine whether NM exhibit endothelium dependent vascular relaxation through Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and generation of NO. NM enhanced Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aorta tissues obtained from rats treated with various concentrations of NM. NM concomitantly decreased arginase activity, which could increase the available arginine substrate for NO production. Moreover, we investigated whether NM increased NO bioavailability and decreased aortic relaxation response to an eNOS inhibitor in the aorta. These results suggest that NM increases NO generation via the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, leading to endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. Therefore, the vasorelaxing action of NM may contribute to the regulation of cardiovascular function.

  5. Nitric oxide production and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by wine polyphenols in rat aorta

    PubMed Central

    Andriambeloson, Emile; Kleschyov, Andrei L; Muller, Bernard; Beretz, Alain; Stoclet, Jean Claude; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism of vasorelaxation induced by red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPC) and two defined polyphenols contained in wine, leucocyanidol and catechin. The role of the endothelium, especially endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), was also investigated.Relaxation produced by polyphenols was studied in rat aortic rings with and without functional endothelium, pre-contracted to the same extent with noradrenaline (0.3 and 0.1 μM, respectively). RWPC and leucocyanidol, but not catechin, produced complete relaxation of vessels with and without endothelium. However, 1000 fold higher concentrations were needed to relax endothelium-denuded rings compared to those with functional endothelium.High concentrations of catechin (in the range of 10−1 g l−1) only produced partial relaxation (maximum 30%) and had the same potency in rings with and without endothelium.The NO synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME, 300 μM) completely abolished the endothelium-dependent but not the endothelium-independent relaxations produced by all of the polyphenolic compounds.In contrast to superoxide dismutase (SOD, 100 u ml−1), neither RWPC nor leucocyanidol affected the concentration-response curve for the NO donor, SIN-1 (3-morpholino-sydnonimine) which also produces superoxide anion (O2−).In aortic rings with endothelium, RWPC (10−2 g l−1) produced a 7 fold increase in the basal production of guanosine 3′ : 5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) which was prevented by L-NAME (300 μM).Electron paramagnetic resonance (e.p.r.) spectroscopy studies with Fe2+-diethyldithiocarbamate as an NO spin trap demonstrated that RWPC and leucocyanidol increased NO levels in rat thoracic aorta about 2 fold. This NO production was entirely dependent on the presence of the endothelium and was abolished by L-NAME (300 μM).These results show that RWPC and leucocyanidol, but not the structurally closely

  6. Reduced nitric oxide-mediated relaxation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the tail arteries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Siti Safiah; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan Wai Sum; Suppian, Rapeah; Yusof, Mohd Imran; Rasool, Aida Hanum Ghulam

    2016-02-15

    Diabetes is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations. The present study aimed to examine the role of nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH), in the relaxation of ventral tail arteries of rats under diabetic conditions. Relaxations of tail arteries of control and diabetic rats were studied in wire myograph. Western blotting and immunostaining were used to determine the presence of proteins. Acetylcholine-induced relaxations were significantly smaller in arteries of diabetic compared to control rats (Rmax; 70.81 ± 2.48% versus 85.05 ± 3.15%). Incubation with the combination of non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin and potassium channel blockers, TRAM 34 and UCL 1684, demonstrated that NO-mediated relaxation was attenuated significantly in diabetic compared to control rats (Rmax; 48.47 ± 5.84% versus 68.39 ± 6.34%). EDH-type (in the presence of indomethacin and NO synthase inhibitor, LNAME) and prostacyclin-mediated (in the presence of LNAME plus TRAM 34 and UCL 1684) relaxations were not significantly reduced in arteries of diabetic compared to control rats [Rmax: (EDH; 17.81 ± 6.74% versus 34.16 ± 4.59%) (prostacyclin; 15.85 ± 3.27% versus 17.23 ± 3.75%)]. Endothelium-independent relaxations to sodium nitroprusside, salbutamol and prostacyclin were comparable in the two types of preparations. Western blotting and immunostaining indicated that diabetes diminished the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), while increasing those of COX-1 and COX-2. Thus, since acetylcholine-induced NO-mediated relaxation was impaired in diabetes because of reduced eNOS protein expression, pharmacological intervention improving NO bioavailability could be useful in the management of diabetic endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Association and cosegregation of stroke with impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in stroke prone, spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, M; Iaccarino, G; Vecchione, C; Rizzoni, D; Russo, R; Rubattu, S; Condorelli, G; Ganten, U; Ganten, D; Trimarco, B; Lindpaintner, K

    1996-01-01

    While hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, it is not its sole determinant. Despite similar blood pressures, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) do not share the predisposition to cerebrovascular disease typical of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). We investigated vascular function in male SHR and SHRSP as well as in SHRSP/SHR-F2 hybrid animals. Animals were maintained on the appropriate dietary regimen necessary for the manifestation of stroke. Among the hybrid animals, a group of stroke-prone and a group of stroke-resistant rats were selected. Blood pressure was similar in all groups. Endothelium-independent vascular reactivity tested on isolated rings of thoracic aorta and basilar artery after death showed similar contractile and dilatory responses to serotonin and nitroglycerin, respectively, in all groups. In contrast, endothelium-dependent relaxation, in response to acetylcholine or substance P, was markedly reduced in SHRSP compared with SHR. Similarly, reduced vasodilatory responses were present in aortae of F2 rats that had suffered a stroke when compared with SHR or F2 rats resistant to stroke. The observed association and cosegregation of stroke with significant and specific impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation among SHRSP and stroke-prone F2 hybrids, respectively, suggest a potential causal role of altered endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in the pathogenesis of stroke. PMID:8755632

  8. Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction after ionized radiation: selective impairment of the nitric oxide component of endothelium-dependent vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Soloviev, Anatoly I; Tishkin, Sergey M; Parshikov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Irina V; Goncharov, Eugene V; Gurney, Alison M

    2003-01-01

    Gamma radiation impairs vascular function, leading to the depression of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Loss of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway has been implicated, but little is known about radiation effects on other endothelial mediators. This study investigated the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in rabbits subjected to whole-body irradiation from a cobalt60 source. The endothelium-dependent relaxation of rabbit aorta evoked by acetylcholine (ACh) or A23187 was impaired in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation at 2 Gy or above. Inhibition was evident 9 days post-irradiation and persisted over the 30 day experimental period. Endothelium-independent responses to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) were suppressed over a similar dose range at 7–9 days post-irradiation, but recovered fully by 30 days post-irradiation. In healthy vessels, ACh-induced relaxation was inhibited by L-Nω-nitroarginine (L-NA; 3×10−4 M) and charybdotoxin (10−8 M) plus apamin (10−6 M) but resistant to indomethacin, indicating the involvement of NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Supporting this, ACh caused smooth muscle hyperpolarization that was reduced by L-NA and charybdotoxin plus apamin. In irradiated vessels, responses to ACh were insensitive to L-NA but abolished by charybdotoxin plus apamin, indicating selective loss of NO-mediated relaxation. In animals treated shortly after irradiation with the antioxidant, α-tocopherol acetate, the NO-dependent relaxation was restored without effect on the EDHF-dependent component. The results imply that radiation selectively impairs the NO pathway as a consequence of oxidative stress, while EDHF is able to maintain endothelium-dependent relaxation at a reduced level. PMID:12642385

  9. Superoxide dismutase restores endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilatation during acute infusion of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Mayhan, W G; Sharpe, G M

    1998-10-01

    We previously showed [Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 41): H2337-H2342, 1997] that nicotine impairs endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilatation. However, mechanisms that accounted for the effect of nicotine on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation were not examined. Thus the goal of this study was to examine the role of oxygen radicals in nicotine-induced impairment of arteriolar reactivity. We measured diameter of cheek pouch resistance arterioles (approximately 50 micrometer diameter) in response to endothelium-dependent (ACh and ADP) and -independent (nitroglycerin) agonists before and after infusion of vehicle or nicotine in the absence or presence of superoxide dismutase. ACh, ADP, and nitroglycerin produced dose-related dilatation of cheek pouch arterioles before infusion of vehicle or nicotine. Infusion of vehicle, in the absence or presence of superoxide dismutase (150 U/ml), did not alter endothelium-dependent or -independent arteriolar dilatation. In contrast, infusion of nicotine (2 microgram . kg-1 . min-1) impaired endothelium-dependent, but not -independent, arteriolar dilatation. In addition, the effect of nicotine on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was reversed by topical application of superoxide dismutase. We suggest that nicotine impairs endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilatation via an increase in the synthesis/release of oxygen-derived free radicals.

  10. Age Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation is improved by resveratrol in rat mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Gocmez, Semil S; Scarpace, Philip J; Whidden, Melissa A; Erdos, Benedek; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Sakarya, Yasemin; Utkan, Tijen; Tumer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether resveratrol improves the adverse effects age on vascular function in mesenteric arteries (MAs), and diminishes the hyperactivity in adrenal gland with age. [Methods] Male F344 x Brown Norway rats were assigned to 6-month control (YC), 6-month resveratrol (YR), 24-month control (OC) and 24-month resveratrol (OR). Resveratrol (15 mg/kg) was provided to resveratrol groups in drinking water for 14 days. [Results] Concentration response curves to phenylephrine (PE, 10-9-10-5M), acetylcholine (Ach, 10-9-10-5M) and resveratrol (10-8-10-4M) were evaluated in pressurized isolated MAs. The Ach concentration-response curve was right shifted with maximal response diminished in OC compared with YC rats. These effects were reversed by resveratrol treatment. The resveratrol-mediated relaxant responses were unchanged with age or resveratrol suggesting an endothelium-independent mechanism. Resveratrol tended to increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase; caused no effect on copper-zinc superoxide dismutase; and normalized the age-related elevatation in DβH and NPY levels in adrenal medulla, two indicators of sympathetic activity [Conclusion] These data indicate that resveratrol reverses age-related dysfunction in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in MAs and partially reverses hyperactivity of adrenomedullary function with age. This treatment may have a therapeuticpotential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or hypertension in the elderly. PMID:27298812

  11. Vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects of formononetin through endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    SUN, Tao; LIU, Rui; CAO, Yong-xiao

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the vasorelaxant effect of formononetin, an O-methylated isoflavone, in isolated arteries, and its antihypertensive activity in vivo. Methods: Arterial rings of superior mesenteric arteries, renal arteries, cerebral basilar arteries, coronary arteries and abdominal aortas were prepared from SD rats. Isometric tension of the arterial rings was recorded using a myograph system. Arterial pressure was measured using tail-cuff method in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Results: Formononetin (1–300 μmol/L) elicited relaxation in arteries of the five regions that were pre-contracted by KCl (60 mmol/L), U46619 (1 μmol/L) or phenylephrine (10 μmol/L). The formononetin-induced relaxation was reduced by removal of endothelium or by pretreatment with L-NAME (100 μmol/L). Under conditions of endothelium denudation, formononetin (10, 30, and 100 μmol/L) inhibited the contraction induced by KCl and that induced by CaCl2 in Ca2+-free depolarized medium. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, formononetin (10, 30, and 100 μmol/L) depressed the constriction caused by phenylephrine (10 μmol/L), but did not inhibit the tonic contraction in response to the addition of CaCl2 (2 mmol/L). The contraction caused by caffeine (30 mmol/L) was not inhibited by formononetin (100 μmol/L). Formononetin (10 and 100 μmol/L) reduced the change rate of Ca2+-fluorescence intensity in response to KCl (50 mmol/L). In spontaneously hypertensive rats, formononetin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) slowly lowered the systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion: Formononetin causes vasodilatation via two pathways: (1) endothelium-independent pathway, probably due to inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and intracellular Ca2+ release; and (2) endothelium-dependent pathway by releasing NO. Both the pathways may contribute to its antihypertensive effect. PMID:21818108

  12. Heterogeneity of endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine in canine femoral arteries and veins. Separation of the role played by endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Rubanyi, G M; Vanhoutte, P M

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether heterogeneity in endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine between canine blood vessels of different anatomical origin reflects variations in endothelial function or in responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle cells. Experiments were conducted in a bioassay system, where segments of femoral artery or vein with endothelium were perfused intraluminally and the perfusate used to superfuse rings of femoral arteries or veins without endothelium. Indomethacin was present in all experiments to prevent the synthesis of prostanoids. The blood vessels were contracted by phenylephrine. Measurement of wall tension in both the perfused segment and bioassay ring allowed simultaneous detection of endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s) released abluminally (segment) and intraluminally (ring). Intraluminal infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) induced relaxations in the perfused artery but not in vein segments. During arterial superfusion ACh induced relaxation in femoral arterial rings but contraction in venous rings. After treatment with atropine the arterial perfusate evoked relaxations in venous rings. Infusion of ACh through the femoral vein evoked only moderate relaxations in arterial rings. These data demonstrate that depressed endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh in femoral veins compared to femoral arteries is due to a masking effect of the direct stimulating action of ACh and decreased release of the same mediator or the release of a different relaxing factor from venous endothelium.

  13. Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by the butanol extract of Phellinus igniarius in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae Gill; Cao, Li Hua; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Choi, Deok Ho; Kim, Seung Ju; Lee, Hyuck; Kim, Jin Sook; Lee, Ho Sub

    2006-01-01

    The butanol extract of Phellinus igniarius (BPI) induced relaxation of the phenylephrin e-precontracted rat aorta in a dose-dependent manner, and its effect was abolished by the removal of functional endothelium. Pretreatment of the aortic tissues with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), methylene blue, or 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-alpha]-quinoxalin1-one (ODQ) inhibited the vascular relaxation induced by BPI. BPI-induced vascular relaxations were also markedly attenuated by the addition of verapamil or diltiazem, while the relaxant effect of BPI was not blocked by pretreatment with indomethacine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium (TEA), atropine, or propranolol. Incubation of endothelium-intact rat aorta with BPI increased the production of cGMP in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BPI dilates vascular smooth muscle via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-cGMP signaling pathway, with the possible involvement of L-type Ca(2+) channels. PMID:16883636

  14. Potassium and potassium clouds in endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gillian; Weston, Arthur H

    2004-06-01

    A small increase in extracellular K(+) acts as a local, physiological regulator of blood flow to certain vascular beds. The K(+) derives from active tissues such as contracting skeletal muscle and brain and increases blood supply to these organs by the activation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases and/or inwardly-rectifying K(+) channels on the vascular myocytes. K(+) liberated from the vascular endothelium also acts as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing and relaxing factor within blood vessels. The K(+) effluxes from endothelial cell intermediate- and small-conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels which open in response to stretch and local hormones. In many vessels, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) seems identical to the K(+) derived from endothelial cells; it activates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases (particularly those containing alpha2 and alpha3 subunits) and inward rectifiers (particularly Kir2.1) located on the vascular myocytes. Vasospastic agents generate "potassium clouds" around vascular smooth muscle cells via the efflux of this ion through large conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels on the myocytes. These potassium clouds can reduce the hyperpolarizing actions of endothelium-derived K(+) by effectively saturating the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases and inward rectifiers on the muscle cells and they may be of clinical significance in vasospastic conditions.

  15. Endothelium-dependent Effect of Sesame Seed Feeding on Vascular Reactivity of Streptozotocin-diabetic Rats: Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Roghani, Mehrdad; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammad Reza; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Naderi, Gholamali; Roghani Dehkordi, Farshad; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders continue to constitute major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of sesame (Sesamum indicum L) seed feeding was studied on aortic reactivity of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Male diabetic rats received sesame seed-mixed food at weight ratios of 3% and 6% for 7 weeks, one week after diabetes induction. Contractile responses to KCl and phenylephrine (PE) and relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were obtained from aortic rings. Maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact rings to PE was significantly lower in sesame-treated diabetic rats (at a ratio of 6%) relative to untreated diabetics and endothelium removal abolished this difference. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was also significantly higher in sesame-treated diabetic rats (at a ratio of 6%) as compared to diabetic rats and pretreatment of rings with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly attenuated the observed response. Two-month diabetes also resulted in an elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and sesame treatment significantly reversed the increased MDA content and restored activity of SOD. We thus conclude that chronic treatment of diabetic rats with sesame seed could in a dose-manner prevent some abnormal changes in vascular reactivity through nitric oxide and via attenuation of oxidative stress in aortic tissue and endothelium integrity is necessary for this beneficial effect.

  16. [Changes in endothelium-dependent dilation and α1-adrenoreactivity of rat aorta caused by inducible NO-synthase inhibition after motor activity restrictions].

    PubMed

    Solodkov, A P; Iatskovskaia, N M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of work was to study the influence of the highly selective blocker of the inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) of S-methylthiourea on the alteration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilation and α1-adrenoreactivity of the isolated rat aortic rings which underwent a short-term restriction of physical activity. The experiments were carried out on rat aortic rings preparations from female-rats bathed in Krebs-Henseleit solution, bubbled with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 and contracting in isometric mode. Endothelium-dependent dilation was caused by cumulative addition of acetylcholine (10-(10)-10(-4) M) after phenylephrine precontraction(10(-6) M). Adrenoreactivity was assessed through the response to increasing concentrations of α1-adrenergic receptor agonist. The 60-minute immobilization stress, characterized by the increase of the relative weight of the adrenal glands by 19.5%, the concentration of glucocorticoids (twice as much), of NO2/NO3 (stable NO degradation products) by 35%, the reduction in the level of thyroxine (by 16%), triiodothyronine (by 10%) and the increase in thyrotropic hormone by 45%, interleukin-1b (twice as much) and the appearance of tumour necrosis factor alpha in the blood serum, was accompanied by the two types of reaction of isolated aortic rings to acetylcholine and phenylephrine. The first one was expressed in the enhancing of acetylcholine-induced dilation of isolated aortic rings and the reduction of its response to α1-adrenergic stimulant phenylephrine. The second one showed a decrease in the response of isolated aortic rings to acetylcholine and enhancing the response to phenylephrine. But both of these reaction types were eliminated by using highly selective inducible NO-synthase inhibitor with S-methylisothiourea. However, it was differently directed with a different type of reaction. Taken together, these results suggest that the iNOS is formed in the cells of rat aorta under short-term stress. In some cases it can be a source of a large

  17. Stimulation of calcium-sensing receptors induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxations via nitric oxide production and activation of IKCa channels

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Harry Z.E.; Shi, Jian; Jahan, Kazi S.; Martinucci, Matthew C.; Gilbert, Steven J.; Vanessa Ho, W.-S.; Albert, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of vascular calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) is reported to induce both constrictions and relaxations. However, cellular mechanisms involved in these responses remain unclear. The present study investigates the effect of stimulating CaSRs on vascular contractility and focuses on the role of the endothelium, nitric oxide (NO) and K+ channels in these responses. In wire myography studies, increasing [Ca2 +]o from 1 mM to 6 mM induced concentration-dependent relaxations of methoxamine pre-contracted rabbit mesenteric arteries. [Ca2 +]o-induced relaxations were dependent on a functional endothelium, and were inhibited by the negative allosteric CaSR modulator Calhex-231. [Ca2 +]o-induced relaxations were reduced by inhibitors of endothelial NO synthase, guanylate cyclase, and protein kinase G. CaSR activation also induced NO production in freshly isolated endothelial cells (ECs) in experiments using the fluorescent NO indicator DAF-FM. Pre-treatment with inhibitors of large (BKCa) and intermediate (IKCa) Ca2 +-activated K+ channels (iberiotoxin and charybdotoxin), and Kv7 channels (linopirdine) also reduced [Ca2 +]o-induced vasorelaxations. Increasing [Ca2 +]o also activated IKCa currents in perforated-patch recordings of isolated mesenteric artery ECs. These findings indicate that stimulation of CaSRs induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxations which are mediated by two separate pathways involving production of NO and activation of IKCa channels. NO stimulates PKG leading to BKCa activation in vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas IKCa activity contributes to endothelium-derived hyperpolarisations. PMID:26772767

  18. Influence of habitual high dietary fat intake on endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2015-07-01

    High-fat diets are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A potential underlying mechanism for the increased cardiovascular risk is endothelial dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation is critical in the regulation of vascular tone and overall vascular health. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dietary fat intake on endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Forty-four middle-aged and older sedentary, healthy adults were studied: 24 consumed a lower fat diet (LFD; 29% ± 1% calories from fat) and 20 consumed a high-fat diet (HFD; 41% ± 1% calories from fat). Four-day diet records were used to assess fat intake, and classifications were based on American Heart Association guidelines (<35% of total calories from fat). Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of the endothelial NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA), as well as responses to sodium nitroprusside were determined by plethysmography. The FBF response to acetylcholine was lower (∼15%; P < 0.05) in the HFD group (4.5 ± 0.2 to 12.1 ± 0.8 mL/100 mL tissue/min) than in the LFD group (4.6 ± 0.2 to 14.4 ± 0.6 mL/100 mL tissue/min). L-NMMA significantly reduced the FBF response to acetylcholine in the LFD group (∼25%) but not in the HFD group. There were no differences between groups in the vasodilator response to sodium nitroprusside. These data indicate that a high-fat diet is associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction due, in part, to diminished NO bioavailability. Impaired NO-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk with high dietary fat intake.

  19. Influence of growth during infancy on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation at the age of 6 months.

    PubMed

    Touwslager, Robbert N H; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; Tan, Frans E S; Gielen, Marij; Zeegers, Maurice P; Zimmermann, Luc J; Houben, Alfons J H M; Blanco, Carlos E; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Mulder, Antonius L M

    2012-11-01

    Low birth weight and accelerated infant growth are associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as a precursor of atherosclerosis and is also related to infant growth. We aimed to examine whether an association between infant growth and endothelial function is already present during discrete periods of growth during the first 6 months of life in healthy term infants. A cohort of 104 newborns was studied in the first week after birth and reexamined at the age of 6 months. Maximum vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine (endothelium dependent) and nitroprusside (endothelium independent) was measured in the vasculature of the forearm skin, using laser Doppler flowmetry and iontophoresis. Growth was calculated as difference in Z scores for weight, length, weight-for-length, and head circumference. Multivariable multilevel linear regression was used for the analysis. Growth from 0 to 1 month (calculated as difference in weight) was the only window in the first 6 months of life that was significantly and inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilatation at 6 months (b=-11.72 perfusion units per Z score, P=0.01 in multivariable analysis). Birth size was not important when considered simultaneously with infant growth. Maximum endothelium-independent vasodilatation was not associated with birth size or growth parameters. We conclude that growth in the first month of life is inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilatation at the age of 6 months in healthy term infants, regardless of birth size.

  20. Angiotensin degradation products mediate endothelium-dependent dilation of rabbit brain arterioles.

    PubMed

    Haberl, R L; Decker, P J; Einhäupl, K M

    1991-06-01

    This study demonstrates that the hexapeptide angiotensin II-(3-8) and L-arginine, generated through enzymatic degradation of angiotensin, mediate endothelium-dependent dilation in rabbit brain arterioles. Topical application of angiotensin II (10(-5) M) on the brain surface of anesthetized rabbits caused 21.6 +/- 4.5% (mean +/- SEM) cerebral arteriolar dilation. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin did not change this dilation. The natural degradation product of angiotensin II in the brain, angiotensin III, also induced vasodilation at concentrations of 10(-7) to 10(-5) M. The dilation to angiotensin II and angiotensin III was eliminated in the presence of 10(-5) M methylene blue, a known inhibitor of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Amastatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor and blocker of enzymatic angiotensin degradation, also inhibited the response to angiotensin II and angiotensin III. The angiotensin fragment angiotensin II-(3-8), which lacks the amino-terminal L-arginine residue of angiotensin III, did not elicit an arteriolar response. When angiotensin II-(3-8) was topically applied subsequent to L-arginine, a 21.2 +/- 2.9% vasodilation was observed. L-Arginine itself induced only moderate vasodilation with a maximum of 4.0 +/- 0.9% at 10(-5) M L-arginine. The dilating response to angiotensin II-(3-8) after L-arginine was inhibited by methylene blue. It was not affected by amastatin. It is concluded that degradation products of angiotensin, rather than angiotensin II itself, induce endothelium-dependent dilation in rabbit brain arterioles without involvement of cyclooxygenase products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Ageing diminishes endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and tetrahydrobiopterin content in rat skeletal muscle arterioles.

    PubMed

    Delp, Michael D; Behnke, Bradley J; Spier, Scott A; Wu, Guoyao; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2008-02-15

    Ageing reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilatation through an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) signalling pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine whether arginase activity diminishes endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in skeletal muscle arterioles from old rats, and whether NOS substrate (L-arginine) and cofactor (tetrahydrobiopterin; BH(4)) concentrations are reduced. First-order arterioles were isolated from the soleus muscle of young (6 months old) and old (24 months old) male Fischer 344 rats. In vitro changes in luminal diameter in response to stepwise increases in flow were determined in the presence of the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10(-5) mol l(-1)), the arginase inhibitor N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (NOHA, 5 x 10(-4) mol l(-1)), exogenous L-arginine (3 x 10(-3) mol l(-1)) or the precursor for BH(4) synthesis sepiapterin (1 micromol l(-1)). Arteriolar L-arginine and BH(4) content were determined via HPLC. Ageing decreased flow-mediated vasodilatation by 52%, and this difference was abolished with NOS inhibition. Neither inhibition of arginase activity nor addition of exogenous L-arginine had any effect on flow-mediated vasodilatation; arteriolar l-arginine content was also not different between age groups. BH(4) content was lower in arterioles from old rats (94 +/- 8 fmol (mg tissue)(-1)) relative to controls (234 +/- 21 fmol (mg tissue)(-1)), and sepiapterin elevated flow-mediated vasodilatation in arterioles from old rats. These results demonstrate that the impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation induced by old age is due to an altered nitric oxide signalling mechanism in skeletal muscle arterioles, but is not the result of increased arginase activity and limited L-arginine substrate. Rather, the age-related deficit in flow-mediated vasodilatation appears to be the result, in part, of limited BH(4) bioavailability.

  2. Vascular Endothelium-Dependent and Independent Actions of Oleanolic Acid and Its Synthetic Oleanane Derivatives as Possible Mechanisms for Hypotensive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Madlala, Hlengiwe P.; Metzinger, Thomas; van Heerden, Fanie R.; Mubagwa, Kanigula; Dessy, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Plant-derived oleanolic acid (OA) and its related synthetic derivatives (Br-OA and Me-OA) possess antihypertensive effects in experimental animals. The present study investigated possible underlying mechanisms in rat isolated single ventricular myocytes and in vascular smooth muscles superfused at 37°C. Methods Cell shortening was assessed at 1 Hz using a video-based edge-detection system and the L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL) was measured using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in single ventricular myocytes. Isometric tension was measured using force transducer in isolated aortic rings and in mesenteric arteries. Vascular effects were measured in endothelium-intact and denuded vessels in the presence of various enzyme or channel inhibitors. Results OA and its derivatives increased cell shortening in cardiomyocytes isolated from normotensive rats but had no effect in those isolated from hypertensive animals. These triterpenes also caused relaxation in aortic rings and in mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with either phenylephrine or KCl-enriched solution. The relaxation was only partially inhibited by endothelium denudation, and also partly inhibited by the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin, with no additional inhibitory effect of the NO synthase inhibitor, N-ω-Nitro-L-arginine. A combination of both ATP-dependent channel inhibition by glibenclaminde and voltage-dependent K+ channel inhibition by 4-aminopyridine was necessary to fully inhibit the relaxation. Conclusion These data indicate that the effects of OA and its derivatives are mediated via both endothelium-dependent and independent mechanisms suggesting the involvement of COX in the endothelium-dependent effects and of vascular muscle K+ channels in the endothelium-independent effects. Finally, our results support the view that the antihypertensive action of OA and its derivatives is due to a decrease of vascular resistance with no negative inotropic effect on the heart. PMID:26799746

  3. Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilation in hypercholesterolemic young adults.

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, P; Adams, M R; Powe, A J; Donald, A E; McCredie, R; Robinson, J; McCarthy, S N; Keech, A; Celermajer, D S; Deanfield, J E

    1996-01-01

    In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, oral L-arginine (the substrate for endothelium derived nitric oxide) attenuates endothelial dysfunction and atheroma formation, but the effect in hypercholesterolemic humans is unknown. Using high resolution external ultrasound, we studied arterial physiology in 27 hypercholesterolemic subjects aged 29+/-5 (19-40) years, with known endothelial dysfunction and LDL-cholesterol levels of 238+/-43 mg/dl. Each subject was studied before and after 4 wk of L-arginine (7 grams x 3/day) or placebo powder, with 4 wk washout, in a randomized double-blind crossover study. Brachial artery diameter was measured at rest, during increased flow (causing endothelium-dependent dilation, EDD) and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (causing endothelium-independent dilation). After oral L-arginine, plasma L-arginine levels rose from 115+/-103 to 231+/-125 micromol/liter (P<0.001), and EDD improved from 1.7+/-1.3 to 5.6+/-3.0% (P<0.001). In contrast there was no significant change in response to glyceryl trinitrate. After placebo there were no changes in endothelium-dependent or independent vascular responses. Lipid levels were unchanged after L-arginine and placebo. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine significantly improves EDD in hypercholesterolemic young adults, and this may impact favorably on the atherogenic process. PMID:8621785

  4. Singlet oxygen scavengers affect laser-dye impairment of endothelium-dependent responses of brain arterioles.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, W I; Nelson, G H

    1996-04-01

    This study investigates the possible role of singlet oxygen in accounting for the inhibitory effect of laser-dye injury on endothelium-dependent dilations. The combination of helium-neon (HeNe) laser (20-s exposure) and intravascular Evans blue impairs endothelium-dependent dilation of mouse pial arterioles by acetylcholine (ACh), bradykinin (BK), and calcium ionophore A23187. Each has a different endothelium-derived mediator (EDRFACh, EDRFBK, EDRFionophore, respectively). In this study, diameters at a craniotomy site were monitored in vivo with an image splitter-television microscope. The laser-dye injury, as usual, abolished the responses 10 and 30 min after injury, with recovery, complete or partial, at 60 min. Dilations by sodium nitroprusside, an endothelium-independent dilator, were not affected by laser-dye. When the singlet oxygen scavengers L-histidine (10(-3) M) and L-tryptophan (10(-2) M) were added to the suffusate over the site, the responses to ACh at 10 and 30 min were relatively intact, the response to BK was partly protected at 10 min only, and the response to ionophore was still totally impaired at 10 and 30 min. Lysine, a nonscavenging amino acid, had no protective effects with any dilator. We postulate that a heat-induced injury initiates a chain of events resulting in prolonged singlet oxygen generation by the endothelial cell (not by the dye). We postulate further that destruction of EDRFACh by singlet oxygen is responsible for laser-dye inhibition of ACh and that generation of the radical must continue for > or = 30 min. On the other hand, the heat injury itself is probably responsible for the elimination of the response to ionophore. Heat plus singlet oxygen generated by heat-damaged tissue may initially impair the response to BK, but by 30 min only the effects of some other factor, presumably heat injury, account for the impaired response to BK. PMID:8967364

  5. Hindlimb unweighting decreases endothelium-dependent dilation and eNOS expression in soleus not gastrocnemius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, C. R.; Schrage, W. G.; Rush, J. W.; Ray, C. A.; Price, E. M.; Hasser, E. M.; Laughlin, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb unweighting (HLU) decreases endothelium-dependent vasodilation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) in arteries of skeletal muscle with reduced blood flow during HLU. Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were exposed to HLU (n = 15) or control (n = 15) conditions for 14 days. ACh-induced dilation was assessed in muscle with reduced [soleus (Sol)] or unchanged [gastrocnemius (Gast)] blood flow during HLU. eNOS and SOD-1 expression were measured in feed arteries (FA) and in first-order (1A), second-order (2A), and third-order (3A) arterioles. Dilation to infusion of ACh in vivo was blunted in Sol but not Gast. In arteries of Sol muscle, HLU decreased eNOS mRNA and protein content. eNOS mRNA content was significantly less in Sol FA (35%), 1A arterioles (25%) and 2A arterioles (18%). eNOS protein content was less in Sol FA (64%) and 1A arterioles (65%) from HLU rats. In arteries of Gast, HLU did not decrease eNOS mRNA or protein. SOD-1 mRNA expression was less in Sol 2A arterioles (31%) and 3A arterioles (29%) of HLU rats. SOD-1 protein content was less in Sol FA (67%) but not arterioles. SOD-1 mRNA and protein content were not decreased in arteries from Gast. These data indicate that HLU decreases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, eNOS expression, and SOD-1 expression primarily in arteries of Sol muscle where blood flow is reduced during HLU.

  6. Endothelin-1 vasoconstriction and the age-related decline in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in men.

    PubMed

    Westby, Christian M; Weil, Brian R; Greiner, Jared J; Stauffer, Brian L; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2011-06-01

    ET (endothelin)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide released by the endothelium, plays an important role in vasomotor regulation and has been linked to diminished endothelial vasodilator capacity in several pathologies associated with human aging, including hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. However, it is currently unknown whether the decline in endothelial vasodilatation with advancing age is due to elevated ET-1 vasoconstrictor activity. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the age-related impairment in ACh (acetylcholine)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is due, at least in part, to increased ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. FBF (forearm blood flow) responses to ACh, SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and BQ-123 (ET(A) receptor blocker) were determined in 14 young (age, 25 ± 1 years) and 14 older (age, 61 ± 2 years) healthy non-obese men. Additionally, FBF responses to ACh were determined in the presence of ETA blockade. Vasodilatation to ACh was lower (approx. 25%; P<0.05) in the older men (from 4.9 ± 0.2 to 13.9 ± 0.9 ml·100 ml(-1) of tissue·min(-1)) compared with the young men (4.6 ± 0.3 to 17.2 ± 1.0 ml·100 ml(-1) of tissue·min(-1)). There were no differences in FBF responses to SNP between the young (4.8 ± 0.3 to 18.5 ± 0.3 ml·100 ml(-1) of tissue·min(-1)) and older (5.1 ± 0.3 to 17.3 ± 0.8 ml·100 ml(-1) of tissue·min(-1)) men. In the young men, resting FBF was not significantly altered by BQ-123, whereas, in the older men, FBF increased approx. 25% in response to BQ-123 infusion (P<0.05). Co-infusion of ACh with BQ-123 resulted in an approx. 20% increase in the ACh-induced vasodilatation in older men compared with saline. In contrast, FBF responses to ACh were not significantly altered by ET(A) blockade in the young men. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that ET-1 vasoconstrictor activity contributes, at least in part, to diminished endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in older men.

  7. TRP channel Ca2+ sparklets: fundamental signals underlying endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Michelle N.

    2013-01-01

    Important functions of the vascular endothelium, including permeability, production of antithrombotic factors, and control of vascular tone, are regulated by changes in intracellular Ca2+. The molecular identities and regulation of Ca2+ influx channels in the endothelium are incompletely understood, in part because of experimental difficulties associated with application of patch-clamp electrophysiology to native endothelial cells. However, advances in confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and the development of fast, high-affinity Ca2+-binding fluorophores have recently allowed for direct visualization and characterization of single-channel transient receptor potential (TRP) channel Ca2+ influx events in endothelial cells. These events, called “TRP channel Ca2+ sparklets,” have been optically recorded from primary endothelial cells and the intact endothelium, and the biophysical properties and fundamental significance of these Ca2+ signals in vasomotor regulation have been characterized. This review will first briefly discuss the role of endothelial cell TRP channel Ca2+ influx in endothelium-dependent vasodilation, describe improved methods for recording unitary TRP channel activity using optical methods, and highlight discoveries regarding the regulation and physiological significance of TRPV4 Ca2+ sparklets in the vascular endothelium enabled by this new technology. Perspectives on the potential use of these techniques to evaluate changes in TRP channel Ca2+ influx activity associated with endothelial dysfunction are offered. PMID:24025865

  8. Serum alkaline phosphatase negatively affects endothelium-dependent vasodilation in naïve hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Perticone, Francesco; Perticone, Maria; Maio, Raffaele; Sciacqua, Angela; Andreucci, Michele; Tripepi, Giovanni; Corrao, Salvatore; Mallamaci, Francesca; Sesti, Giorgio; Zoccali, Carmine

    2015-10-01

    Tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, promoting arterial calcification in experimental models, is a powerful predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality in general population and in patients with renal or cardiovascular diseases. For this study, to evaluate a possible correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase levels and endothelial function, assessed by strain gauge plethysmography, we enrolled 500 naïve hypertensives divided into increasing tertiles of alkaline phosphatase. The maximal response to acetylcholine was inversely related to alkaline phosphatase (r=−0.55; P<0.001), and this association was independent (r=−0.61; P<0.001) of demographic and classical risk factors, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum phosphorus and calcium, C-reactive protein, and albuminuria. At multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of endothelial dysfunction was ≈3-fold higher in patients in the third tertile than that of patients in the first tertile. We also tested the combined role of alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphorus on endothelial function. The steepness of the alkaline phosphatase/vasodilating response to acetylcholine relationship was substantially attenuated (P<0.001) in patients with serum phosphorus above the median value when compared with patients with serum phosphorus below the median (−5.0% versus −10.2% per alkaline phosphatase unit, respectively), and this interaction remained highly significant (P<0.001) after adjustment of all the previously mentioned risk factors. Our data support a strong and significant inverse relationship between alkaline phosphatase and endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which was attenuated by relatively higher serum phosphorus levels.

  9. Pkd2 mesenteric vessels exhibit a primary defect in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation restored by rosiglitazone.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Zoë L S; Ruff, Lewis; Upadhyay, Viralkumar S; Huang, Linghong; Prasad, Sony; Solanky, Tirupa; Nauli, Surya M; Ong, Albert C M

    2013-01-01

    Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease have a high prevalence of hypertension and structural vascular abnormalities, such as intracranial aneurysms. Hypertension can develop in childhood and often precedes a significant reduction in the glomerular filtration rate. The major aim of this study was to investigate whether a primary endothelial defect or a vascular smooth muscle (VSM) defect was present in murine polycystic kidney disease (Pkd)2 heterozygous mesenteric vessels before the development of renal failure or hypertension. Using pressure myography, we observed a marked defect in ACh-stimulated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in Pkd2 arterioles. In contrast, Pkd2 vessels responded normally to sodium nitroprusside, phenylephrine, KCl, and pressure, indicating unaltered VSM-dependent responses. Pretreatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist rosiglitazone significantly restored ACh-dependent vasodilation in Pkd2 mice. Isolated heterozygous Pkd2 endothelial cells displayed normal ACh-stimulated Ca(2+) and nitric oxide production. However, isolated Pkd2 heterozygous VSM cells displayed basal increases in superoxide and sodium nitroprusside-stimulated peroxynitrite formation, which were both suppressed by rosiglitazone. Furthermore, we observed a defective response of Pkd2 mesenteric venules to ACh in vivo, which was more marked after ischemia-reperfusion injury. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that the defect in vasodilatation in Pkd2 heterozygous vessels is primarily due to a reduction in nitric bioavailability secondary to increased vascular oxidative stress. The ability of rosiglitazone to correct this phenotype suggests that this defect is potentially reversible in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

  10. Integrins mediate mechanical compression-induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation through endothelial nitric oxide pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction lead to compression of intramuscular arterioles, which, in turn, leads to their vasodilation (a process that may enhance blood flow during muscle activity). Although endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in compression-induced vasodilation, the mechanism whereby arterial compression elicits NO production is unclear. We cannulated isolated swine (n = 39) myocardial (n = 69) and skeletal muscle (n = 60) arteriole segments and exposed them to cyclic transmural pressure generated by either intraluminal or extraluminal pressure pulses to simulate compression in contracting muscle. We found that the vasodilation elicited by internal or external pressure pulses was equivalent; moreover, vasodilation in response to pressure depended on changes in arteriole diameter. Agonist-induced endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation was used to verify endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell viability. Vasodilation in response to cyclic changes in transmural pressure was smaller than that elicited by pharmacological activation of the NO signaling pathway. It was attenuated by inhibition of NO synthase and by mechanical removal of the endothelium. Stemming from previous observations that endothelial integrin is implicated in vasodilation in response to shear stress, we found that function-blocking integrin α5β1 or αvβ3 antibodies attenuated cyclic compression-induced vasodilation and NOx (NO(-)2 and NO(-)3) production, as did an RGD peptide that competitively inhibits ligand binding to some integrins. We therefore conclude that integrin plays a role in cyclic compression-induced endothelial NO production and thereby in the vasodilation of small arteries during cyclic transmural pressure loading.

  11. Mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) in porcine coronary artery rings.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Anselm, Eric; Séne, Madièye; Diatta, Williams; Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Faye, Babacar; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2009-12-30

    This study was undertaken to investigate the vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis guineensis Jacq (EGE) in the porcine coronary artery and elicit its possible mechanism(s) of action. Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered leaves of Elaeis guineensis were evaluated on isolated coronary arteries on organ chambers. Determination of eNOS expression and the phosphorylation level of eNOS were determined by Western blot analysis. In the presence of indomethacin, EGE caused pronounced relaxations in endothelium-intact but not in endothelium-denuded coronary artery rings. Relaxations to EGE were significantly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase), slightly but not significantly by charybdotoxin plus apamin (two potent inhibitors of EDHF-mediated responses) and abolished by the combination of L-NA and charybdotoxin plus apamin. Relaxations to EGE were abolished by the membrane permeant, SOD mimetic, MnTMPyP, and significantly reduced by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase. Exposure of endothelial cells to EGE increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS at Ser1177 in a time and concentration-dependent manner. MnTMPyP abolished the EGE-induced phosphorylation of eNOS.In conclusion, the obtained data indicate that EGE induces pronounced endothelium-dependent relaxations of the porcine coronary artery, which involve predominantly NO. The stimulatory effect of EGE on eNOS involves the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 most likely via the PI3-kinase pathway.

  12. Nitric oxide, cholesterol oxides and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in plasma of patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Sevanian, A; Ajzen, S; Zanella, M T; Plavnik, F L; Rubbo, H; Abdalla, D S P

    2002-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify disturbances of nitric oxide radical (.NO) metabolism and the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in human essential hypertension. The concentrations of.NO derivatives (nitrite, nitrate, S-nitrosothiols and nitrotyrosine), water and lipid-soluble antioxidants and cholesterol oxides were measured in plasma of 11 patients with mild essential hypertension (H: 57.8 +/- 9.7 years; blood pressure, 148.3 +/- 24.8/90.8 +/- 10.2 mmHg) and in 11 healthy subjects (N: 48.4 +/- 7.0 years; blood pressure, 119.4 +/- 9.4/75.0 +/- 8.0 mmHg). Nitrite, nitrate and S-nitrosothiols were measured by chemiluminescence and nitrotyrosine was determined by ELISA. Antioxidants were determined by reverse-phase HPLC and cholesterol oxides by gas chromatography. Hypertensive patients had reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to reactive hyperemia (H: 9.3 and N: 15.1% increase of diameter 90 s after hyperemia), and lower levels of ascorbate (H: 29.2 +/- 26.0, N: 54.2 +/- 24.9 micro M), urate (H: 108.5 +/- 18.9, N: 156.4 +/- 26.3 micro M), beta-carotene (H: 1.1 +/- 0.8, N: 2.5 +/- 1.2 nmol/mg cholesterol), and lycopene (H: 0.4 +/- 0.2, N: 0.7 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg cholesterol), in plasma, compared to normotensive subjects. The content of 7-ketocholesterol, 5alpha-cholestane-3beta,5,6beta-triol and 5,6alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholestan-3alpha-ol in LDL, and the concentration of endothelin-1 (H: 0.9 +/- 0.2, N: 0.7 +/- 0.1 ng/ml) in plasma were increased in hypertensive patients. No differences were found for.NO derivatives between groups. These data suggest that an increase in cholesterol oxidation is associated with endothelium dysfunction in essential hypertension and oxidative stress, although.NO metabolite levels in plasma are not modified in the presence of elevated cholesterol oxides. PMID:12426629

  13. Effect of chronic lithium administration on endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat mesenteric bed: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Afsharimani, Banafsheh; Moezi, Leila; Sadeghipour, Hamed; Rahimzadeh-Rofouyi, Bahareh; Nobakht, Maliheh; Sanatkar, Mehdi; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hosein; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2007-10-01

    The mechanism of action of lithium, an effective treatment for bipolar disease, is still unknown. In this study, the mesenteric vascular beds of control rats and rats that were chronically treated with lithium were prepared by the McGregor method, and the mesenteric vascular bed vasorelaxation responses were examined. NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry was used to determine the activity of NOS (nitric oxide synthase) in mesenteric vascular beds. We demonstrated that ACh-induced vasorelaxation increased in the mesenteric vascular bed of rats treated with lithium. Acute No-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administration in the medium blocked ACh-induced vasorelaxation in the control group more effectively than in lithium-treated rats, while the vasorelaxant response to sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor, was not different between lithium-treated and control groups. Acute aminoguanidine administration blocked ACh-induced vasorelaxation of lithium-treated rats, but had no effect in the control rats. Furthermore, NOS activity, determined by NADPH-diaphorase staining, was significantly greater in the mesenteric vascular beds from chronic lithium-treated rats than in those from control rats. These data suggest that the enhanced ACh-induced endothelium-derived vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric bed from chronic lithium-treated rats might be associated with increased NOS activity, likely via iNOS. Simultaneous acute L-NAME and indomethacin administration suggests the possible upregulation of EDHF (endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor) in lithium-treated rats.

  14. Acyl chain-dependent effect of lysophosphatidylcholine on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shailaja P; Riederer, Monika; Lechleitner, Margarete; Hermansson, Martin; Desoye, Gernot; Hallström, Seth; Graier, Wolfgang F; Frank, Saša

    2013-01-01

    Previously we identified palmitoyl-, oleoyl-, linoleoyl-, and arachidonoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC 16:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 20:4) as the most prominent LPC species generated by endothelial lipase (EL). In the present study, we examined the impact of those LPC on acetylcholine (ACh)- induced vascular relaxation. All tested LPC attenuated ACh-induced relaxation, measured ex vivo, using mouse aortic rings and wire myography. The rank order of potency was as follows: 18:2>20:4>16:0>18:1. The attenuating effect of LPC 16:0 on relaxation was augmented by indomethacin-mediated cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibition and CAY10441, a prostacyclin (PGI2)- receptor (IP) antagonist. Relaxation attenuated by LPC 20:4 and 18:2 was improved by indomethacin and SQ29548, a thromboxane A2 (TXA2)- receptor antagonist. The effect of LPC 20:4 could also be improved by TXA2- and PGI2-synthase inhibitors. As determined by EIA assays, the tested LPC promoted secretion of PGI2, TXA2, PGF2α, and PGE2, however, with markedly different potencies. LPC 16:0 was the most potent inducer of superoxide anion production by mouse aortic rings, followed by LPC 18:2, 20:4 and 18:1, respectively. The strong antioxidant tempol recovered relaxation impairment caused by LPC 18:2, 18:1 and 20:4, but not by LPC 16:0. The tested LPC attenuate ACh-induced relaxation through induction of proconstricting prostanoids and superoxide anions. The potency of attenuating relaxation and the relative contribution of underlying mechanisms are strongly related to LPC acyl-chain length and degree of saturation. PMID:23741477

  15. Overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in arteries infused with helper-dependent adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Du, Liang; Flynn, Rowan; Dronadula, Nagadhara; Zhang, Jingwan; Kim, Francis; Dichek, David

    2012-11-01

    Adenoviral vectors (Ad) are useful tools for in vivo gene transfer into endothelial cells. However, endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired after Ad infusion, and this impairment is not prevented by use of advanced-generation "helper-dependent" (HD) Ad that lack all viral genes. We hypothesized that endothelium-dependent vasodilation could be improved in Ad-infused arteries by overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). We tested this hypothesis in hyperlipidemic, atherosclerosis-prone rabbits because HDAd will likely be used for treating and preventing atherosclerosis. Moreover, the consequences of eNOS overexpression might differ in normal and atherosclerosis-prone arteries and could include atherogenic effects, as reported in transgenic mice. We cloned rabbit eNOS and constructed an HDAd that expresses it. HDAdeNOS increased NO production by cultured endothelial cells and increased arterial eNOS mRNA in vivo by ∼10-fold. Compared to arteries infused with a control HDAd, HDAdeNOS-infused arteries of hyperlipidemic rabbits had significantly improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and similar responses to phenylephrine and nitroprusside. Moreover, infusion of HDAdeNOS had local atheroprotective effects including large, significant decreases in intimal lipid accumulation and arterial tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression (p≤0.04 for both). HDAdeNOS infusion yields a durable (≥2 weeks) increase in arterial eNOS expression, improves vasomotor function, and reduces artery wall inflammation and lipid accumulation. Addition of an eNOS expression cassette improves the performance of HDAd, has no harmful effects, and may reduce atherosclerotic lesion growth.

  16. Hormonal therapy with estradiol and drospirenone improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the coronary bed of ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Borgo, M.V.; Claudio, E.R.G.; Silva, F.B.; Romero, W.G.; Gouvea, S.A.; Moysés, M.R.; Santos, R.L.; Almeida, S.A.; Podratz, P.L.; Graceli, J.B.; Abreu, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Drospirenone (DRSP) is a progestin with anti-aldosterone properties and it reduces blood pressure in hypertensive women. However, the effects of DRSP on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation have not been evaluated. This study investigated the effects of combined therapy with estrogen (E2) and DRSP on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the coronary bed of ovariectomized (OVX) spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=87) at 12 weeks of age were randomly divided into sham operated (Sham), OVX, OVX treated with E2 (E2), and OVX treated with E2 and DRSP (E2+DRSP) groups. Hemodynamic parameters were directly evaluated by catheter insertion into the femoral artery. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to bradykinin in the coronary arterial bed was assessed using isolated hearts according to a modified Langendorff method. Coronary protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) was assessed by Western blotting. Histological slices of coronary arteries were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and morphometric parameters were analyzed. Oxidative stress was assessed in situ by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Ovariectomy increased systolic blood pressure, which was only prevented by E2+DRSP treatment. Estrogen deficiency caused endothelial dysfunction, which was prevented by both treatments. However, the vasodilator response in the E2+DRSP group was significantly higher at the three highest concentrations compared with the OVX group. Reduced ER-α expression in OVX rats was restored by both treatments. Morphometric parameters and oxidative stress were augmented by OVX and reduced by E2 and E2+DRSP treatments. Hormonal therapy with E2 and DRSP may be an important therapeutic option in the prevention of coronary heart disease in hypertensive post-menopausal women. PMID:26577845

  17. Hormonal therapy with estradiol and drospirenone improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the coronary bed of ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Borgo, M V; Claudio, E R G; Silva, F B; Romero, W G; Gouvea, S A; Moysés, M R; Santos, R L; Almeida, S A; Podratz, P L; Graceli, J B; Abreu, G R

    2016-01-01

    Drospirenone (DRSP) is a progestin with anti-aldosterone properties and it reduces blood pressure in hypertensive women. However, the effects of DRSP on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation have not been evaluated. This study investigated the effects of combined therapy with estrogen (E2) and DRSP on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the coronary bed of ovariectomized (OVX) spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=87) at 12 weeks of age were randomly divided into sham operated (Sham), OVX, OVX treated with E2 (E2), and OVX treated with E2 and DRSP (E2+DRSP) groups. Hemodynamic parameters were directly evaluated by catheter insertion into the femoral artery. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to bradykinin in the coronary arterial bed was assessed using isolated hearts according to a modified Langendorff method. Coronary protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) was assessed by Western blotting. Histological slices of coronary arteries were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and morphometric parameters were analyzed. Oxidative stress was assessed in situ by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Ovariectomy increased systolic blood pressure, which was only prevented by E2+DRSP treatment. Estrogen deficiency caused endothelial dysfunction, which was prevented by both treatments. However, the vasodilator response in the E2+DRSP group was significantly higher at the three highest concentrations compared with the OVX group. Reduced ER-α expression in OVX rats was restored by both treatments. Morphometric parameters and oxidative stress were augmented by OVX and reduced by E2 and E2+DRSP treatments. Hormonal therapy with E2 and DRSP may be an important therapeutic option in the prevention of coronary heart disease in hypertensive post-menopausal women.

  18. Acetylcholine-induced current in perfused rat myoballs

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Spherical "myoballs" were grown under tissue culture conditions from striated muscle of neonatal rat thighs. The myoballs were examined electrophysiologically with a suction pipette which was used to pass current and perfuse internally. A microelectrode was used to record membrane potential. Experiments were performed with approximately symmetrical (intracellular and extracellular) sodium aspartate solutions. The resting potential, acetylcholine (ACh) reversal potential, and sodium channel reversal potential were all approximately 0 mV. ACh-induced currents were examined by use of both voltage jumps and voltage ramps in the presence of iontophoretically applied agonist. The voltage-jump relaxations had a single exponential time-course. The time constant, tau, was exponentially related to membrane potential, increasing e-fold for 81 mV hyperpolarization. The equilibrium current- voltage relationship was also approximately exponential, from -120 to +81 mV, increasing e-fold for 104 mV hyperpolarization. The data are consistent with a first-order gating process in which the channel opening rate constant is slightly voltage dependent. The instantaneous current-voltage relationship was sublinear in the hyperpolarizing direction. Several models are discussed which can account for the nonlinearity. Evidence is presented that the "selectivity filter" for the ACh channel is located near the intracellular membrane surface. PMID:7381423

  19. Roles of calcium-activated and voltage-gated delayed rectifier potassium channels in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the rabbit middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hui; Waldron, Gareth J; Cole, William C; Triggle, Christopher R

    1998-01-01

    The cellular mechanism(s) of action of endothelium-derived vasodilator substances in the rabbit middle cerebral artery (RMCA) were investigated. Specifically, the subtypes of potassium channels involved in the effects of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) in acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in this vessel were systematically compared. In the endothelium-intact RMCA precontracted with histamine (3 μM), ACh induced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation, which was sensitive to indomethacin (10 μM) or NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 100 μM); pD2 values 8.36 vs 7.40 and 6.38, P<0.01 for both, n=6 and abolished by a combination of both agents. ACh caused relaxation in the presence of high K+ PSS (40 mM KCl), which was not affected by indomethacin, but abolished by L-NOARG and a combination of indomethacin and L-NOARG. In the presence of indomethacin, relaxation to ACh in the endothelium-intact RMCA precontracted with histamine was unaffected by either glibenclamide (10 μM), an ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1 mM) or dendrotoxin (DTX, 0.1 μM), delayed rectifier K+ channel (KV) blockers. However, relaxation responses to ACh were significantly inhibited by either LY83583 (10 μM) and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 μM), guanylyl cyclase inhibitors, or charybdotoxin (CTX; 0.1 μM), iberiotoxin (ITX, 0.1 μM) and apamin (APA, 0.1 μM), large conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channels (BKCa) blocker and small conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channel (SKCa) blocker, respectively. In the presence of L-NOARG, relaxation to ACh was unaffected by glibenclamide or the cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase inhibitor, clotrimazole (1 μM), but was significantly inhibited by either 9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine (SQ  22,536, 10 μM) and 2′,3′-dideoxyadenosine (2′,3′-DDA, 30 μM), adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, or 4-AP, DTX, CTX, ITX and APA. In

  20. Vascular microRNA-204 is remotely governed by the microbiome and impairs endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by downregulating Sirtuin1.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Ajit; Kim, Young-Rae; Kumar, Santosh; Li, Qiuxia; Kassan, Modar; Jacobs, Julia S; Irani, Kaikobad

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota promotes atherosclerosis, and vascular endothelial dysfunction, signalled by impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, is an early marker of atherosclerosis. Here we show that vascular microRNA-204 (miR-204) expression is remotely regulated by the microbiome, and impairs endothelial function by targeting the Sirtuin1 lysine deacetylase (Sirt1). MiR-204 is downregulated, while Sirt1 is upregulated, in aortas of germ-free mice. Suppression of gut microbiome with broad-spectrum antibiotics decreases miR-204, increases Sirt1 and bioavailable vascular nitric oxide, and improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in mouse aortas. Antibiotics curtail aortic miR-204 upregulation, and rescue decline of aortic Sirt1 and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, triggered by high-fat diet feeding. Improvement of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by antibiotics is lost in mice lacking endothelial Sirt1. Systemic antagonism of miR-204 rescues impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and vascular Sirt1, and decreases vascular inflammation induced by high-fat diet. These findings reveal a gut microbe-vascular microRNA-Sirtuin1 nexus that leads to endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27586459

  1. Vascular microRNA-204 is remotely governed by the microbiome and impairs endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by downregulating Sirtuin1

    PubMed Central

    Vikram, Ajit; Kim, Young-Rae; Kumar, Santosh; Li, Qiuxia; Kassan, Modar; Jacobs, Julia S.; Irani, Kaikobad

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota promotes atherosclerosis, and vascular endothelial dysfunction, signalled by impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, is an early marker of atherosclerosis. Here we show that vascular microRNA-204 (miR-204) expression is remotely regulated by the microbiome, and impairs endothelial function by targeting the Sirtuin1 lysine deacetylase (Sirt1). MiR-204 is downregulated, while Sirt1 is upregulated, in aortas of germ-free mice. Suppression of gut microbiome with broad-spectrum antibiotics decreases miR-204, increases Sirt1 and bioavailable vascular nitric oxide, and improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in mouse aortas. Antibiotics curtail aortic miR-204 upregulation, and rescue decline of aortic Sirt1 and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, triggered by high-fat diet feeding. Improvement of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by antibiotics is lost in mice lacking endothelial Sirt1. Systemic antagonism of miR-204 rescues impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and vascular Sirt1, and decreases vascular inflammation induced by high-fat diet. These findings reveal a gut microbe-vascular microRNA–Sirtuin1 nexus that leads to endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27586459

  2. Perivascular tissue inhibits rho-kinase-dependent smooth muscle Ca(2+) sensitivity and endothelium-dependent H2 S signalling in rat coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Aalbaek, Filip; Bonde, Lisbeth; Kim, Sukhan; Boedtkjer, Ebbe

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between perivascular tissue (PVT) and the vascular wall modify artery tone and contribute to local blood flow regulation. Using isometric myography, fluorescence microscopy, membrane potential recordings and phosphospecific immunoblotting, we investigated the cellular mechanisms by which PVT affects constriction and relaxation of rat coronary septal arteries. PVT inhibited vasoconstriction to thromboxane, serotonin and α1 -adrenergic stimulation but not to depolarization with elevated extracellular [K(+) ]. When PVT was wrapped around isolated arteries or placed at the bottom of the myograph chamber, a smaller yet significant inhibition of vasoconstriction was observed. Resting membrane potential, depolarization to serotonin or thromboxane stimulation, and resting and serotonin-stimulated vascular smooth muscle [Ca(2+) ]-levels were unaffected by PVT. Serotonin-induced vasoconstriction was almost abolished by rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and modestly reduced by protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide X. PVT reduced phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT) at Thr850 by ∼40% in serotonin-stimulated arteries but had no effect on MYPT-phosphorylation in arteries depolarized with elevated extracellular [K(+) ]. The net anti-contractile effect of PVT was accentuated after endothelial denudation. PVT also impaired vasorelaxation and endothelial Ca(2+) responses to cholinergic stimulation. Methacholine-induced vasorelaxation was mediated by NO and H2 S, and particularly the H2 S-dependent (dl-propargylglycine- and XE991-sensitive) component was attenuated by PVT. Vasorelaxation to NO- and H2 S-donors was maintained in arteries with PVT. In conclusion, cardiomyocyte-rich PVT surrounding coronary arteries releases diffusible factors that reduce rho-kinase-dependent smooth muscle Ca(2+) sensitivity and endothelial Ca(2+) responses. These mechanisms inhibit agonist-induced vasoconstriction and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation

  3. Inhibition of the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor in vitro and in vivo by dipeptides containing NG-nitro-L-arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Thiemermann, C.; Mustafa, M.; Mester, P. A.; Mitchell, J. A.; Hecker, M.; Vane, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. We have shown that dipeptides containing NG-nitro-L-arginine (NO2Arg) inhibit the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in vitro and in vivo. 2. In anaesthetized rats, intravenous administration at 1-30 mg kg-1 of the methyl ester of NO2Arg, NO2-Arg-L-phenylalanine (NO2Arg-Phe), L-alanyl-NO2Arg (Ala-NO2Arg) or NO2Arg-L-arginine (NO2Arg-Arg) produced dose-related increases in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) which were unaffected by D-arginine (D-Arg; 20 mg kg-1 min-1 for 15 min), but prevented by co-infusions of L-arginine (L-Arg; 20 mg kg-1 min-1 for 15 min) or by their parent dipeptides. 3. NO2Arg methyl ester, NO2Arg-Phe methyl ester or Ala-NO2Arg methyl ester (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) also inhibited the reduction in MABP caused by the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 3 min), but not those induced by glycerly trinitrate (20 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 3 min) or iloprost (6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 3 min) which act directly on the vascular smooth muscle. 4. Moreover, NO2Arg methyl ester, NO2Arg-Phe methyl ester or NO2Arg-Arg methyl ester (100 microM) inhibited the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic strips, and NO2Arg-Phe methyl ester (30 microM) blocked the stimulated (bradykinin, 30 pmol) release of EDRF from bovine aortic endothelial cells grown on microcarrier beads.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1786515

  4. Anandamide induces endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction and CGRPergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation in the rat mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Chihiro; Nawa, Hideki; Takatori, Shingo; Oda, Sakiko; Sendo, Toshiaki; Zamami, Yoshito; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    An endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamide) has been shown to cause vasodilatation in vitro and a brief vasoconstriction followed by prolonged depressor response in vivo. This study investigated the vascular effects of anandamide and underlying mechanisms in rat mesenteric vascular beds. In preparations with an intact endothelium and active tone, anandamide at low concentrations (0.1 - 1 nM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in perfusion pressure due to vasodilatation, but at high concentrations (10 nM - 1 µM) elicited an initial and sharp increase in perfusion pressure due to vasoconstriction followed by long-lasting vasodilatation in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with SR141716A [cannabinoid-1 (CB(1))-receptor antagonist] blunted both the vasoconstrictor and vasodilator responses. Also, removal of the endothelium and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), but not adrenergic denervation with 6-hydoxydopamine (adrenergic neurotoxin), markedly inhibited the vasoconstrictor response to anandamide, while these treatments did not affect vasodilatation. The vasodilatation, but not vasoconstriction, in response to anandamide was markedly attenuated by capsazepine [selective antagonist for transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1)], pretreatment with capsaicin [calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)ergic-nerve depletor], or cold-storage denervation. These results suggest that in rat mesenteric vascular beds, anandamide causes CB(1)-receptor- and prostanoid-mediated endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction and perivascular capsaicin-sensitive CGRPergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation.

  5. Inflammation and impaired endothelium-dependant vasodilatation in non obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate whether abnormal endothelial function, a common finding in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnancies, can be explained by inflammatory cytokines. Methods Forearm skin blood flow (FSBF), into response to acetylcholine (Ach) (endothelium-dependent vasodilatation), were measured in 24 pregnant control subjects and 28 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women, in the third trimester of gestation. A fasting glycemic and lipidic panel was obtained, and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and adiponectin were also determined. Results FSBF is significantly reduced in GDM group compared with control subjects (344.59 ± 57.791 vs.176.38 ± 108.52, P < 0.05). Among all subjects, FSBF showed a strong negative correlation with TNF-α and IL-6 (r = −0.426, P < 0.0001 and r = −0.564, P < 0.0001, respectively) and positive correlation with adiponectin (r = 0.468, P < 0.0001). Conclusions Endothelial function, an early marker of macrovascular disease, is present in non-obese pregnancies complicated by GDM. This alteration seems to be directly related to inflammatory status, which may represent a patho-physiological link between GDM and type 2 diabetes and, later on, metabolic syndrome. PMID:23805905

  6. Endothelial Small- and Intermediate-Conductance K Channels and Endothelium-Dependent Hyperpolarization as Drug Targets in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Köhler, R; Oliván-Viguera, A; Wulff, H

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial calcium/calmodulin-gated K channels of small (KCa2.3) and intermediate conductance (KCa3.1) produce membrane hyperpolarization and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated vasodilation. Dysfunctions of the two channels and ensuing EDH impairments are found in several cardiovascular pathologies such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, postangioplastic neointima formation, but also inflammatory disease, cancer, and organ fibrosis. Moreover, KCa3.1 plays an important role in endothelial barrier dysfunction, edema formation in cardiac and pulmonary disease, and in ischemic stroke. Concerning KCa2.3, genome-wide association studies revealed an association of KCa2.3 channels with atrial fibrillation in humans. Accordingly, both channels are considered potential drug targets for cardio- and cerebrovascular disease states. In this chapter, we briefly review the function of the two channels in EDH-type vasodilation and systemic circulatory regulation and then highlight their pathophysiological roles in ischemic stroke as well as in pulmonary and brain edema. Finally, the authors summarize recent advances in the pharmacology of the channels and explore potential therapeutic utilities of novel channel modulators. PMID:27451095

  7. Retrospectively gated MRI for in vivo assessment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and endothelial permeability in murine models of endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bar, Anna; Skórka, Tomasz; Jasiński, Krzysztof; Sternak, Magdalena; Bartel, Żaneta; Tyrankiewicz, Urszula; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is linked to impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation and permeability changes. Here, we quantify both of these phenomena associated with endothelial dysfunction by MRI in vivo in mice. Endothelial function was evaluated in the brachiocephalic artery (BCA) and left carotid artery (LCA) in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice as compared with control mice (C57BL/6J). The 3D IntraGate® FLASH sequence was used for evaluation of changes in vessels' cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume following acetylcholine (Ach) administration. Evaluation of endothelial permeability after administration of contrast agent (Galbumin, BioPAL) was based on the variable flip angle method for the assessment of parameters based on the relaxation time (T1 ) value. In order to confirm the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in response to Ach, L-NAME-treated mice were also analyzed. To confirm that endothelial permeability changes accompany the impairment of Ach-dependent vasodilatation, permeability changes were analyzed in isolated, perfused carotid artery. In C57BL/6J mice, Ach-induced vasodilatation led to an approximately 25% increase in CSA in both vessels, which was temporarily dissociated from the effect of Ach on heart rate. In ApoE/LDLR(-/-) or HFD-fed mice Ach induced a paradoxical vasoconstriction that amounted to approximately 30% and 50% decreases in CSA of BCA and LCA respectively. In ApoE/LDLR(-/-) and HFD-fed mice endothelial permeability in BCA was also increased (fall in T1 by about 25%). In L-NAME-treated mice Ach-induced vasodilatation in BCA was lost. In isolated, perfused artery from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice endothelial permeability was increased. MRI-based assessment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation induced by Ach and endothelial permeability using a retrospectively self-gated 3D gradient-echo sequence (IntraGate® FLASH) enables the reliable detection of systemic endothelial dysfunction in mice and provides an important tool

  8. Improvement of Acetylcholine-Induced Vasodilation by Acute Exercise in Ovariectomized Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Lin, Yi-Yuan; Su, Chia-Ting; Hu, Chun-Che; Yang, Ai-Lun

    2016-06-30

    Postmenopause is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. However, limited information is available regarding effects of exercise on cardiovascular responses and its underlying mechanisms in the simultaneous postmenopausal and hypertensive status. We aimed to investigate whether acute exercise could enhance vasodilation mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. The fifteen-week-old female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were bilaterally ovariectomized, at the age of twenty-four weeks, and randomly divided into sedentary (SHR-O) and acute exercise (SHR-OE) groups. Age-matched WKY rats were used as the normotensive control group. The SHR-OE group ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 24 m/min for one hour in a moderate-intensity program. Following a single bout of exercise, rat aortas were isolated for the evaluation of the endothelium-dependent (ACh-induced) and endothelium-independent (SNP-induced) vasodilation by the organ bath system. Also, the serum levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant activities, including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase, were measured after acute exercise among the three groups. We found that acute exercise significantly enhanced the ACh-induced vasodilation, but not the SNP-induced vasodilation, in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. This increased vasodilation was eliminated after the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Also, the activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased after acute exercise, whereas the level of MDA was comparable among the three groups. These results indicated that acute exercise improved the endothelium-dependent vasodilating response to ACh through the NOS-related pathway in ovariectomized hypertensive rats, which might be associated with increased serum antioxidant activities.

  9. Interactions between endothelium-derived relaxing factors in the rat hepatic artery: focus on regulation of EDHF

    PubMed Central

    Zygmunt, Peter M; Plane, Frances; Paulsson, Marie; Garland, Christopher J; Högestätt, Edward D

    1998-01-01

    alter the resting membrane potential in endothelium-denuded vascular segments.The COX-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was abolished following exposure to 30 mM KCl, but unaffected by glibenclamide (10 μM). The prostacyclin analogue iloprost induced a concentration-dependent relaxation, which was also abolished in 30 mM KCl and unaffected by the combined treatment with glibenclamide, charybdotoxin and apamin. Iloprost (10 μM) induced a glibenclamide-resistant hyperpolarization (8 mV with and 9 mV without glibenclamide) in endothelium-denuded vascular segments.Exposure to SIN-1 or iloprost did not affect the EDHF-mediated relaxation induced by acetylcholine (i.e. in the presence of L-NOARG and indomethacin). Replacement of L-NOARG with the NO scavenger oxyhaemoglobin (10 μM) or the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ (10 μM) or methylene blue (10 μM), which all significantly inhibited responses to endothelium-derived NO, did not affect the acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the presence of indomethacin, indicating that endogenous NO also does not suppress EDHF-mediated responses.These results show that, in addition to EDHF and NO, an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor(s) generated by COX contributes significantly to endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rat heptic artery. Neither this factor nor NO seems to regulate EDHF-mediated responses. Thus, EDHF does not serve simply as a `back-up' system for NO and prostacyclin in this artery. However, whether EDHF modulates the NO and COX pathways remains to be determined. PMID:9692786

  10. Mechanism underlying H2O2-induced inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contraction in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Saito, Michihiro; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Takeo

    2007-02-28

    The mechanism underlying the inhibition by H2O2 of acetylcholine-induced contraction was investigated in epithelium-denuded strips of rabbit trachea. Acetylcholine (10 microM) generated a phasic, followed by a tonic increase in both the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and force. Although the acetylcholine-induced tonic contraction was around 9 times the high K+ (80 mM)-induced one, the two stimulants induced similar [Ca2+]i increases (around 0.2 microM), indicating that acetylcholine generates tonic contraction via increases in both [Ca2+]i and myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity. H2O2 (30 microM) (a) enhanced the acetylcholine-induced tonic (not phasic) increase in [Ca2+]i but attenuated both phases of the acetylcholine-induced contraction and (b) enhanced the high K+-induced increase in [Ca2+]i but did not modify the high K+-induced contraction. In beta-escin-skinned strips, application of acetylcholine in the presence of GTP enhanced the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+ so that its amplitude became similar to that induced by 1 microM Ca2+. H2O2 (30 microM) attenuated the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+ (alone or in the presence of acetylcholine) but not those induced by higher concentrations of Ca2+ alone (0.5 microM and 1 microM). These results indicate that H2O2 acts directly on contractile proteins in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle to inhibit the contraction induced by low concentrations of Ca2+ (<0.5 microM). An action of H2O2 that increases [Ca2+]i (and thereby masks this reactive-oxygen-induced inhibition of myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity) is apparent in the presence of high K+ but not of acetylcholine. Thus, in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle H2O2 downregulates myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity more potently during acetylcholine-induced contraction than during high-K+-induced contraction, leading to an effective inhibition of the former contraction.

  11. Impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation is an early event in children with familial hypercholesterolemia and is related to the lipoprotein(a) level.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, K E; Celermajer, D S; Georgakopoulos, D; Hatcher, G; Betteridge, D J; Deanfield, J E

    1994-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with premature atherosclerosis. Since endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherogenesis, we used a noninvasive method to assess endothelial function in the systemic arteries of 30 children aged 7-17 yr (median 11) with familial hypercholesterolemia (2 homozygotes, 28 heterozygotes, total cholesterol 240-696 mg/dl) and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Using high resolution ultrasound, the diameter of the superficial femoral artery was measured at rest, in response to reactive hyperemia (with increased flow causing endothelium-dependent dilation), and after sublingual glyceryltrinitrate (causing endothelium-independent vasodilation). Flow-mediated dilation was present in the controls (7.5 +/- 0.7%) but was impaired or absent in the hypercholesterolemic children (1.2 +/- 0.4%, P < 0.0001). Total cholesterol was inversely correlated with flow-mediated dilation (r = -0.61, P < 0.0001). In the hypercholesterolemic children, flow-mediated dilation was inversely related to the lipoprotein(a) level (r = -0.61, P = 0.027) but not to other lipid fractions. Glyceryltrinitrate-induced dilation was present in all subjects but was lower in the hypercholesterolemia group (10.0 +/- 0.6% vs 12.4 +/- 0.8%, P = 0.023). Thus, impaired endothelium-dependent dilation is present in children with familial hypercholesterolemia as young as 7 yr of age and the degree of impairment is related to the lipoprotein(a) level. Images PMID:8282821

  12. Comparison of endothelium-derived relaxing factor activity between nonpregnant and pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Kaneko, H; Kondo, M; Kogo, H

    1996-07-01

    The tension of isolated ring preparation of aorta from nonpregnant and pregnant rats was measured isometrically to study the effect of pregnancy on endothelium-derived relaxing factor activity. Contraction in response to norepinephrine and potassium chloride was greater in aortae from nonpregnant rats than in those from pregnant rats. The endothelium-dependent relaxation that was caused by acetylcholine (10(-10)-3 x 10(-9) M) in aortae precontracted with norepinephrine was significantly enhanced in aortae from pregnant rats compared with the relaxation in those from nonpregnant rats. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) inhibited the endothelium-dependent relaxation in both aorta from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. L-Arginine reversed the inhibition of L-NAME. Those results suggest that the enhanced endothelium-derived relaxing factor activity in rats aortae is associated with pregnancy. PMID:8856958

  13. Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factors of Small Resistance Arteries in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyu-Tae

    2014-09-01

    Endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs), including nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), play pivotal roles in regulating vascular tone. Reduced EDRFs cause impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, or endothelial dysfunction. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) is consistently observed in conduit vessels in human patients and experimental animal models of hypertension. Because small resistance arteries are known to produce more than one type of EDRF, the mechanism(s) mediating endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in small resistance arteries may be different from that observed in conduit vessels under hypertensive conditions, where vasorelaxation is mainly dependent on NO. EDHF has been described as one of the principal mediators of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in small resistance arteries in normotensive animals. Furthermore, EDHF appears to become the predominant endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation pathway when the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3)/NO pathway is absent, as in NOS3-knockout mice, whereas some studies have shown that the EDHF pathway is dysfunctional in experimental models of hypertension. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding EDRFs in small arteries under normotensive and hypertensive conditions. PMID:25343007

  14. Dietary obesity increases NO and inhibits BKCa-mediated, endothelium-dependent dilation in rat cremaster muscle artery: association with caveolins and caveolae.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Lauren; Grayson, T Hilton; Morris, Margaret J; Sandow, Shaun L; Murphy, Timothy V

    2012-06-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for hypertension and other vascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of diet-induced obesity on endothelium-dependent dilation of rat cremaster muscle arterioles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (213 ± 1 g) were fed a cafeteria-style high-fat or control diet for 16-20 wk. Control rats weighed 558 ± 7 g compared with obese rats 762 ± 12 g (n = 52-56; P < 0.05). Diet-induced obesity had no effect on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced dilation of isolated, pressurized (70 mmHg) arterioles, but sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced vasodilation was enhanced. ACh-induced dilation of arterioles from control rats was abolished by a combination of the K(Ca) blockers apamin, 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34), and iberiotoxin (IBTX; all 0.1 μmol/l), with no apparent role for nitric oxide (NO). In arterioles from obese rats, however, IBTX had no effect on responses to ACh while the NO synthase (NOS)/guanylate cyclase inhibitors N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 μmol/l)/1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 10 μmol/l) partially inhibited ACh-induced dilation. Furthermore, NOS activity (but not endothelial NOS expression) was increased in arteries from obese rats. L-NAME/ODQ alone or removal of the endothelium constricted arterioles from obese but not control rats. Expression of caveolin-1 and -2 oligomers (but not monomers or caveolin-3) was increased in arterioles from obese rats. The number of caveolae was reduced in the endothelium of arteries, and caveolae density was increased at the ends of smooth muscle cells from obese rats. Diet-induced obesity abolished the contribution of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel to ACh-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation of rat cremaster muscle arterioles, while increasing NOS activity and inducing an NO-dependent component. PMID:22492718

  15. Exercise training-enhanced, endothelium-dependent dilation mediated by altered regulation of BKCa channels in collateral-dependent porcine coronary arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Parker, Janet L.; Heaps, Cristine L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that exercise training increases the contribution of large-conductance, Ca2+-dependent K+ (BKCa) channels to endothelium-mediated dilation in coronary arterioles from collateral-dependent myocardial regions of chronically occluded pig hearts and may function downstream of H2O2. Methods An ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal left circumflex coronary artery to induce gradual occlusion in Yucatan miniature swine. Eight weeks postoperatively, pigs were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise training (treadmill; 14 wk) regimens. Results Exercise training significantly enhanced bradykinin-mediated dilation in collateral-dependent arterioles (~125 μm diameter) compared with sedentary pigs. The BKCa-channel blocker, iberiotoxin alone or in combination with the H2O2 scavenger, polyethylene glycol catalase, reversed exercise training-enhanced dilation in collateral-dependent arterioles. Iberiotoxin-sensitive whole-cell K+ currents (i.e., BKCa-channel currents) were not different between smooth muscle cells of nonoccluded and collateral-dependent arterioles of sedentary and exercise trained groups. Conclusions These data provide evidence that BKCa-channel activity contributes to exercise training-enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation in collateral-dependent coronary arterioles despite no change in smooth muscle BKCa-channel current. Taken together, our findings suggest that a component of the bradykinin signaling pathway, which stimulates BKCa channels, is enhanced by exercise training in collateral-dependent arterioles and suggest a potential role for H2O2 as the mediator. PMID:23002811

  16. Cilostazol Enhances Mobilization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Endothelium-Dependent Function in Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ting-Hsing; Chen, I-Chih; Lee, Cheng-Han; Chen, Ju-Yi; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Li, Yi-Heng; Tseng, Shih-Ya; Tsai, Liang-Miin; Tseng, Wei-Kung

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to investigate the vasculoangiogenic effects of cilostazol on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 71 patients (37 received 200 mg/d cilostazol and 34 received placebo for 12 weeks). Use of cilostazol, but not placebo, significantly increased circulating EPC (kinase insert domain receptor(+)CD34(+)) counts (percentage changes: 149.0% [67.9%-497.8%] vs 71.9% [-31.8% to 236.5%], P = .024) and improved triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P = .002 and P = .003, respectively). Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165 and FMD significantly increased (72.5% [32.9%-120.4%] vs -5.8% [-46.0% to 57.6%], P = .001; 232.8% ± 83.1% vs -46.9% ± 21.5%, P = .003, respectively) in cilostazol-treated patients. Changes in the plasma triglyceride levels significantly inversely correlated with the changes in the VEGF-A165 levels and FMD. Cilostazol significantly enhanced the mobilization of EPCs and improved endothelium-dependent function by modifying some metabolic and angiogenic markers in patients at high risk of CVD.

  17. A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. Methods and design 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. Control group: usual prenatal care (PC) and placebo (maltodextrine). 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg), selenium (70 μg), vitamin A (400 μg), alphatocopherol (30 mg), vitamin C (200 mg), and niacin (100 mg). 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Discussion Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. Trial registration NCT00872365. PMID:21356082

  18. Parallel decrease in arterial distensibility and in endothelium-dependent dilatation in young women with a history of pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Pàez, Olga; Alfie, José; Gorosito, Marta; Puleio, Pablo; de Maria, Marcelo; Prieto, Noemì; Majul, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    Pre-eclampsia not only complicates 5 to 8% of pregnancies but also increases the risk of maternal cardiovascular disease and mortality later in life. We analyzed three different aspects of arterial function (pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and flow-mediated dilatation), in 55 nonpregnant, normotensive women (18-33 years old) according to their gestational history: 15 nulliparous, 20 with a previous normotensive, and 20 formerly pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Former pre-eclamptic women showed a significantly higher augmentation index and pulse wave velocity (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) and lower flow-mediated dilatation (p = 0.01) compared to control groups. In contrast, sublingual nitroglycerine elicited a comparable vasodilatory response in the three groups. The augmentation index correlated significantly with pulse wave velocity and flow-mediated dilatation (R = 0.28 and R = -0.32, respectively, P < 0.05 for both). No significant correlations were observed between augmentation index or flow-mediated dilatation with age, body mass index (BMI), brachial blood pressure, heart rate, or metabolic parameters (plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, or insulin resistance). Birth weight maintained a significantly inverse correlation with the augmentation index (R = -0.51, p < 0.002) but not with flow-mediated dilatation. Our findings revealed a parallel decrease in arterial distensibility and endothelium-dependent dilatation in women with a history of pre-eclampsia compared to nulliparous women and women with a previous normal pregnancy. A high augmentation index was the most consistent alteration associated with a history of pre-eclampsia. The study supports the current view that the generalized arterial dysfunction associated with pre-eclampsia persists subclinically after delivery.

  19. Enhanced role of K+ channels in relaxations of hypercholesterolemic rabbit carotid artery to NO.

    PubMed

    Najibi, S; Cohen, R A

    1995-09-01

    Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine remain normal in the carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic rabbits, but unlike endothelium-dependent relaxations of normal rabbits, they are inhibited by charybdotoxin, a specific blocker of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. Because nitric oxide (NO) is the mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxation and can activate Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels directly or via guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, the present study investigated the role of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels in relaxations caused by NO, sodium nitroprusside, and 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Brc-GMP) in hypercholesterolemic rabbit carotid artery. Isometric tension was measured in rabbit carotid artery denuded of endothelium from normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits which were fed 0.5% cholesterol for 12 wk. Under control conditions, relaxations to all agents were similar in normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbit arteries. Charybdotoxin had no significant effect on relaxations of normal arteries to NO, sodium nitroprusside, or 8-BrcGMP, but the Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channel blocker significantly inhibited the relaxations caused by each of these agents in the arteries from hypercholesterolemic rabbits. By contrast, relaxations to the calcium channel blocker nifedipine were potentiated to a similar extent by charybdotoxin in both groups. In addition, arteries from hypercholesterolemic rabbits relaxed less than normal to sodium nitroprusside when contracted with depolarizing potassium solution. These results indicate that although nitrovasodilator relaxations are normal in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit carotid artery, they are mediated differently, and to a greater extent, by Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. These data also suggest that K+ channel-independent mechanism(s) are impaired in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:7573521

  20. Substance P-induced relaxation and hyperpolarization in human cerebral arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, J.; Zygmunt, P. M.; Brandt, L.; Högestätt, E. D.

    1995-01-01

    1. Vascular effects of substance P were studied in human isolated pial arteries removed from 14 patients undergoing cerebral cortical resection. 2. Substance P induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in the presence of indomethacin. No relaxation was seen in arteries where the endothelium had been removed. 3. N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 0.3 mM) abolished the relaxation in arteries from six patients. The relaxation was only partially inhibited in the remaining eight patients, the reduction of the maximum relaxation being less than 50% in each patient. 4. The L-NOARG-resistant relaxation was abolished when the external K+ concentration was raised above 30 mM. 5. Substance P caused a smooth muscle hyperpolarization (in the presence of L-NOARG and indomethacin), but only when the artery showed an L-NOARG-resistant relaxation. 6. The results indicate that nitric oxide is an important mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxation in human cerebral arteries. Furthermore, another endothelium-dependent pathway, causing hyperpolarization and vasodilatation, was identified in arteries from more than half the population of patients. PMID:7582516

  1. Arginase II Deletion Increases Corpora Cavernosa Relaxation in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Toque, Haroldo; Tostes, Rita; Yao, Lin; Xu, Zhimin; Webb, Clinton R.; Caldwell, Ruth; Caldwell, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction involves elevated arginase (Arg) activity and expression. Because nitric oxide (NO) synthase and Arg share and compete for their substrate L-arginine, NO production is likely linked to regulation of Arg. Arg is highly expressed and implicated in erectile dysfunction. Aim It was hypothesized that Arg-II isoform deletion enhances relaxation function of corpora cavernosal (CC) smooth muscle in a streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic model. Methods Eight weeks after STZ-induced diabetes, vascular functional studies, Arg activity assay, and protein expression levels of Arg and constitutive NOS (using western blots) were assessed in CC tissues from non-diabetic wild type (WT), diabetic (D) WT (WT+D), Arg-II knockout (KO) and Arg-II KO+D mice (N=8–10 per group). Main Outcome Measures Inhibition or lack of arginase results in facilitation of CC relaxation in diabetic CC. Results Strips of CC from Arg-II KO mice exhibited an enhanced maximum endothelium-dependent relaxation (from 70+3% to 84+4%) and increased nitrergic relaxation (by 55%, 71%, 42%, 42%, and 24% for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz, respectively) compared to WT mice. WT+D mice showed a significant reduction of endothelium-dependent maximum relaxation (44+8%), but this impairment of relaxation was significantly prevented in Arg-II KO+D mice (69+4%). Sympathetic-mediated and alpha-adrenergic agent-induced contractile responses also were increased in CC strips from D compared to non-D controls. Contractile responses were significantly lower in Arg-II KO control and D versus the WT groups. WT+D mice increased Arg activity (1.5-fold) and Arg-II protein expression and decreased total and phospho-eNOS at Ser-1177, and nNOS levels. These alterations were not seen in Arg-II KO mice. Additionally, the Arg inhibitor BEC (50 μM) enhanced nitrergic and endothelium-dependent relaxation in CC of WT+D mice. Conclusion These studies show for the first time that Arg-II deletion improves CC

  2. Involvement of large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels in both nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type relaxation in human penile small arteries.

    PubMed

    Király, István; Pataricza, János; Bajory, Zoltán; Simonsen, Ulf; Varro, András; Papp, Julius Gy; Pajor, Lászlo; Kun, Attila

    2013-07-01

    Large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels (BKC a ), located on the vascular smooth muscle, play an important role in regulation of vascular tone. In penile corpus cavernosum tissue, opening of BKC a channels leads to relaxation of corporal smooth muscle, which is essential during erection; however, there is little information on the role of BKC a channels located in penile vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to investigate the involvement of BKC a channels in endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation of human intracavernous penile arteries. In human intracavernous arteries obtained in connection with transsexual operations, change in isometric force was recorded in microvascular myographs, and endothelium-dependent [nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type] and endothelium-independent (NO-donor) relaxations were measured in contracted arteries. In penile small arteries contracted with phenylephrine, acetylcholine evoked NO- and EDH-type relaxations, which were sensitive to iberiotoxin (IbTX), a selective blocker of BKC a channels. Iberiotoxin also inhibited relaxations induced by a NO-donor, sodium nitroprusside. NS11021, a selective opener of BKC a channels, evoked pronounced relaxations that were inhibited in the presence of IbTX. NS13558, a BKC a -inactive analogue of NS11021, failed to relax human penile small arteries. Our results show that BKC a channels are involved in both NO- and EDH-type relaxation of intracavernous penile arteries obtained from healthy men. The effect of a selective opener of BKC a channels also suggests that direct activation of the channel may be an advantageous approach for treatment of impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation often associated with erectile dysfunction.

  3. Exercise training enhances multiple mechanisms of relaxation in coronary arteries from ischemic hearts

    PubMed Central

    Deer, Rachel R.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training of coronary artery disease patients is of considerable interest, since it has been shown to improve vascular function and, thereby, enhance blood flow into compromised myocardial regions. However, the mechanisms underlying exercise-induced improvements in vascular function have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training increases the contribution of multiple mediators to endothelium-dependent relaxation of coronary arteries in the underlying setting of chronic coronary artery occlusion. To induce gradual occlusion, an ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal left circumflex coronary artery in Yucatan miniature swine. At 8 wk postoperatively, pigs were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise (treadmill, 5 days/wk) regimens for 14 wk. Exercise training significantly enhanced the contribution of nitric oxide, prostanoids, and large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (BKCa) channels to endothelium-dependent, bradykinin-mediated relaxation in nonoccluded and collateral-dependent arteries. Combined nitric oxide synthase, prostanoid, and BKCa channel inhibition ablated the enhanced relaxation associated with exercise training. Exercise training significantly increased nitric oxide levels in response to bradykinin in endothelial cells isolated from nonoccluded and collateral-dependent arteries. Bradykinin treatment significantly increased PGI2 levels in all artery treatment groups and tended to be further enhanced after nitric oxide synthase inhibition in exercise-trained pigs. No differences were found in whole cell BKCa channel currents, BKCa channel protein levels, or arterial cyclic nucleotide levels. Although redundant, upregulation of parallel vasodilator pathways appears to contribute to enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation, potentially providing a more refined control of blood flow after exercise training. PMID:23997097

  4. Silicic acid in drinking water prevents age-related alterations in the endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation modulating eNOS and AQP1 expression in experimental mice: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Buffoli, Barbara; Foglio, Eleonora; Borsani, Elisa; Exley, Christopher; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio

    2013-06-01

    The maintenance of endothelial integrity is of great importance in coping with age-related vascular alterations. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide is one of the various vasoactive substances able to regulate vascular tone and homeostasis, and whose decrease is known to be related with senescence in endothelial cells. There are reports on the efficacy of silicon, especially as silicic acid, in protecting vascular integrity during age-related vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of supplementation of silicic acid in drinking water in the maintenance of vascular health in a mouse model of early physiological aging. In particular, we evaluated the relationship between Si supplementation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, taking into account also the aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) isoform that, as recently reported, seems to be involved in nitric oxide transport across cell membranes. Our results showed that silicic acid supplementation increased both eNOS and AQP-1 expression, suggesting that silicic acid modulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and aquaporin-1 could represent a potential strategy against age-related vascular senescence.

  5. Pyocyanin inhibits both nitric oxide-dependent and -independent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Hempenstall, Allison; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Johnson, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    The effects of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin (PCN) on the contractile function of porcine coronary arteries was investigated in vitro. Artery rings (5 mm) were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs' solution for the measurement of isometric tension. The effect of PCN on resting and precontracted coronary arteries was initially investigated with various agents. Arteries were precontracted with prostaglandin (PG) F2α or potassium chloride and endothelium-dependent relaxations were induced by various agents in the presence of PCN. Pyocyanin (0.1-10 μmol/L) evoked small-amplitude, dose-dependent contractions in resting porcine coronary arteries. In addition, PCN amplified the contractile response to PGF2α , but did not alter responses to carbachol. Pyocyanin (0.1-10 μmol/L) significantly inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxations evoked by neurokinin A. Pyocyanin also inhibited relaxations evoked by diethylamine nitric oxide (a nitric oxide donor), forskolin (an adenylate cyclase activator), dibuytyryl-cAMP (a cAMP analogue), 8-bromo-cGMP (a cGMP analogue) and P1075 (a KATP channel activator), but not isoprenaline (β-adrenoceceptor agonist). These results indicate that physiological concentrations of PCN interfere with multiple intracellular processes involved in vascular smooth muscle relaxation, in particular pathways downstream of nitric oxide release. Thus, PCN may alter normal vascular function in patients infected with P. aeruginosa.

  6. Potassium channel-mediated relaxation to acetylcholine in rabbit arteries.

    PubMed

    Cowan, C L; Palacino, J J; Najibi, S; Cohen, R A

    1993-09-01

    Endothelium-dependent relaxation is associated with smooth muscle hyperpolarization in many arteries which may account for relaxation that persists in the presence of nitric oxide inhibitors such as NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxations of the rabbit thoracic and abdominal aorta and iliac and carotid arteries were studied for the relative contribution of nitric oxide-dependent and -independent mechanisms in rings suspended for measurement of isometric tension. Although relaxation of the thoracic aorta to ACh (10(-6) M) was almost blocked completely by L-NAME (3 x 10(-5) M), the maximal relaxation in the abdominal aorta, carotid and iliac arteries was only reduced by 28, 26 and 62%, respectively. In rings of abdominal aorta, L-NAME blocked the ACh-stimulated (10(-6) M) rise in cyclic GMP verifying that relaxation which persists in L-NAME-treated rings is not mediated by nitric oxide. The L-NAME resistant response was nearly abolished by elevated external K+ in rings of abdominal aorta and carotid artery, suggesting this relaxation may be mediated by a membrane potential sensitive mechanism. Furthermore, tetraethylammonium (10(-3) M) partially and charybdotoxin (5 x 10(-8) M) completely inhibited the remaining L-NAME-resistant relaxation in both abdominal aorta and carotid artery, suggesting a role for Ca(++)-activated K(+)-channels. Blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels also inhibited the L-NAME resistant relaxation in the abdominal aorta only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8396636

  7. Vascular endothelial dysfunction associated with elevated serum homocysteine levels in rat adjuvant arthritis: effect of vitamin E administration.

    PubMed

    Can, Cenk; Cinar, Mehtap G; Koşay, Sezen; Evinç, Akgün

    2002-06-14

    We aimed to study the alterations in serum homocysteine levels and endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular relaxant responses in adjuvant-induced arthritis of the rat and to determine the effects of vitamin E administration on these changes. Arthritis was induced by a single intradermal injection of Freund's complete adjuvant into the paw. 26 days after the induction of arthritis, serum homocysteine levels and relaxant responses to acetylcholine and sodiumnitroprusside in thoracic aortas were evaluated. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine were decreased in aortas from arthritic rats, whereas the responses to sodiumnitroprusside were not significantly different when compared to the aortas from control rats. A significant increase was observed in serum homocysteine levels of the arthritic rats in comparison to those of controls. Vitamin E administration (100 mg/kg/day, i.m. for 26 days) to arthritic rats resulted in a significant increase in endothelium-dependent aortic responses to acetylcholine and a significant decrease in serum homocysteine levels with respect to the non-treated arthritic rats. However, in healthy rats, vitamin E treatment significantly decreased the acetylcholine-induced relaxant responses. We conclude that adjuvant-induced arthritis in the rat is associated with increased serum homocysteine levels and this is accompanied by a reduction in endothelium-dependent vascular responses in the thoracic aortas. Vitamin E treatment leads to normalization of the increased serum homocysteine levels and improves the endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in this experimental model. PMID:12044840

  8. Differences in responsiveness of intrapulmonary artery and vein to arachidonic acid: mechanism of arterial relaxation involves cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate and cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Ignarro, L.J.; Harbison, R.G.; Wood, K.S.; Wolin, M.S.; McNamara, D.B.; Hyman, A.L.; Kadowitz, P.J.

    1985-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between responses of bovine intrapulmonary artery and vein to arachidonic acid and cyclic nucleotide levels in order to better understand the mechanism of relaxation elicited by arachidonic acid and acetylcholine. Arachidonic acid relaxed phenylephrine-precontracted arterial rings and elevated both cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP levels in arteries with intact endothelium. In contrast, endothelium-damaged arterial rings contracted to arachidonic acid without demonstrating significant changes in cyclic nucleotide levels. Indomethacin partially inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxation and abolished cyclic AMP accumulation whereas methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, partially inhibited relaxation and abolished cyclic GMP accumulation in response to arachidonic acid. All vessel responses were blocked by a combination of the two inhibitors. Prostaglandin (PG) I2 relaxed arterial rings and elevated cyclic AMP levels whereas PGE2 and PGF2 alpha caused contraction, suggesting that the indomethacin-sensitive component of arachidonic acid-elicited relaxation is due to PGI2 formation and cyclic AMP accumulation. The methylene blue-sensitive component is attributed to an endothelium-dependent but cyclooxygenase-independent generation of a substance causing cyclic GMP accumulation. Intrapulmonary veins contracted to arachidonic acid with no changes in cyclic nucleotide levels and PGI2 was without effect. Homogenates of intrapulmonary artery and vein formed 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid, which was inhibited by indomethacin. Thus, bovine intrapulmonary vein may not possess receptors for PGI2.

  9. Relaxation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  10. Characterization of endothelium-derived relaxing factors released by bradykinin in human resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ohlmann, P; Martínez, M C; Schneider, F; Stoclet, J C; Andriantsitohaina, R

    1997-01-01

    Relaxing factors released by the endothelium and their relative contribution to the endothelium-dependent relaxation produced by bradykinin (BK) in comparison with different vasodilator agents were investigated in human omental resistance arteries. BK produced an endothelium-dependent relaxation of arteries pre-contracted with the thromboxane A2 agonist, U46619. The B2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 (0.1, 1 and 10 μM), produced a parallel shift to the right of the concentration-response curve to BK with a pA2 of 7.75. Neither the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 μM) alone, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 300 μM) alone, the nitric oxide scavenger, oxyhaemoglobin (Hb, 10 μM) alone, nor the combination of L-NAME plus Hb affected the concentration-response curve to BK. Conversely, the combination of indomethacin with either L-NAME or Hb attenuated but did not abolish the BK-induced relaxation. By contrast, the relaxations produced by the Ca2+ ionophore, calcimycin (A23187), and by the inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, thapsigargin (THAPS), were abolished in the presence of indomethacin plus L-NAME. Also, the presence of indomethacin plus L-NAME produced contraction of arteries with functional endothelium. The indomethacin plus L-NAME resistant component of BK relaxation was abolished in physiological solution (PSS) containing 40 mM KCl and vice versa. However, in the presence of KCl 40 mM, indomethacin plus L-NAME did not affect the nitric oxide donor, S-N-acetylpenicillamine-induced relaxation. The indomethacin plus L-NAME resistant component of the relaxation to BK was significantly attenuated by the K+ channel blocker tetrabutylammonium (TBA, 1 mM). However, it was not affected by other K+ channel blockers such as apamin (10 μM), 4-aminopyridine (100 μM), glibenclamide (10 μM), tetraethylammonium (10 mM) and charybdotoxin (50 nM). In the presence of indomethacin

  11. Involvement of nitric oxide pathway in the PAF-induced relaxation of rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Moritoki, H.; Hisayama, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Miyano, H.; Kondoh, W.

    1992-01-01

    1. The mechanism of the vasorelaxant effect of platelet activating factor (PAF) on rat thoracic aorta and the effect of aging on the PAF-induced relaxation were investigated. 2. PAF at concentrations causing relaxation induced marked increases in guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) production, but did not induce an increase in adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP). 3. Removal of the endothelium by mechanical rubbing, and treatment with the PAF antagonists CV-3988, CV-6209 and FR-900452, the nitric oxide biosynthesis inhibitor, NG-nitro L-arginine, the radical scavenger, haemoglobin, and the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, methylene blue, inhibited PAF-induced relaxation and abolished or attenuated PAF-stimulated cyclic GMP production. 4. The relaxation was greatest in arteries from rats aged 4 weeks. With an increase in age, the response of the arteries to PAF was attenuated. 5. Endothelium-dependent cyclic GMP production also decreased with increase in age of the rats. 6. These results suggest that PAF stimulates production of nitric oxide from L-arginine by acting on the PAF receptors in the endothelium, which in turn stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase in the smooth muscle cells, and so increases production of cyclic GMP, thus relaxing the arteries. Age-associated decrease in PAF-induced relaxation may result from a reduction of cyclic GMP formation. PMID:1358382

  12. Tranilast Increases Vasodilator Response to Acetylcholine in Rat Mesenteric Resistance Arteries through Increased EDHF Participation

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Esther; Caracuel, Laura; Callejo, María; Balfagón, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Tranilast, in addition to its capacity to inhibit mast cell degranulation, has other biological effects, including inhibition of reactive oxygen species, cytokines, leukotrienes and prostaglandin release. In the current study, we analyzed whether tranilast could alter endothelial function in rat mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA). Experimental Approach Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was analyzed in MRA (untreated and 1-hour tranilast treatment) from 6 month-old Wistar rats. To assess the possible participation of endothelial nitric oxide or prostanoids, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was analyzed in the presence of L-NAME or indomethacin. The participation of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in acetylcholine-induced response was analyzed by preincubation with TRAM-34 plus apamin or by precontraction with a high K+ solution. Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion levels were measured, as well as vasomotor responses to NO donor DEA-NO and to large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel opener NS1619. Key Results Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was greater in tranilast-incubated MRA. Acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was decreased by L-NAME in a similar manner in both experimental groups. Indomethacin did not modify vasodilation. Preincubation with a high K+ solution or TRAM-34 plus apamin reduced the vasodilation to ACh more markedly in tranilast-incubated segments. NO and superoxide anion production, and vasodilator responses to DEA-NO or NS1619 remained unmodified in the presence of tranilast. Conclusions and Implications Tranilast increased the endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in rat MRA. This effect is independent of the nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways but involves EDHF, and is mediated by an increased role of small conductance calcium-activated K+ channels. PMID:24992476

  13. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide improves aortic relaxation in diabetic rats via PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ke-Xue; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Chuan; Gong, Deming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-03-15

    A newly identified polysaccharide (PSG-1) has been purified from Ganoderma atrum. The study was to investigate the protective effect of PSG-1 on diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta. Rats were fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks and then injected with a low dose of streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes. The diabetic rats were orally treated with PSG-1 for 4 weeks. It was found that administration of PSG-1 significantly reduced levels of fasting blood glucose, improved endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, increased levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-Akt (p-Akt), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide in the aorta from diabetic rats, compared to un-treated diabetics. These results suggested that the protective effects of PSG-1 against endothelial dysfunction may be related to activation of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway.

  14. Upregulation of SK3 and IK1 Channels Contributes to the Enhanced Endothelial Calcium Signaling and the Preserved Coronary Relaxation in Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Belén; Moreno, Laura; Martínez, Pilar; Contreras, Cristina; Sánchez, Ana; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; García-Sacristán, Albino; Rivera, Luis; Prieto, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Endothelial small- and intermediate-conductance KCa channels, SK3 and IK1, are key mediators in the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and also in the modulation of endothelial Ca2+ signaling and nitric oxide (NO) release. Obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired relaxation, although how obesity influences endothelial SK3/IK1 function is unclear. Therefore we assessed whether the role of these channels in the coronary circulation is altered in obese animals. Methods and Results In coronary arteries mounted in microvascular myographs, selective blockade of SK3/IK1 channels unmasked an increased contribution of these channels to the ACh- and to the exogenous NO- induced relaxations in arteries of Obese Zucker Rats (OZR) compared to Lean Zucker Rats (LZR). Relaxant responses induced by the SK3/IK1 channel activator NS309 were enhanced in OZR and NO- endothelium-dependent in LZR, whereas an additional endothelium-independent relaxant component was found in OZR. Fura2-AM fluorescence revealed a larger ACh-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in the endothelium of coronary arteries from OZR, which was inhibited by blockade of SK3/IK1 channels in both LZR and OZR. Western blot analysis showed an increased expression of SK3/IK1 channels in coronary arteries of OZR and immunohistochemistry suggested that it takes place predominantly in the endothelial layer. Conclusions Obesity may induce activation of adaptive vascular mechanisms to preserve the dilator function in coronary arteries. Increased function and expression of SK3/IK1 channels by influencing endothelial Ca2+ dynamics might contribute to the unaltered endothelium-dependent coronary relaxation in the early stages of obesity. PMID:25302606

  15. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  16. Genetic deletion of aquaporin-1 results in microcardia and low blood pressure in mouse with intact nitric oxide-dependent relaxation, but enhanced prostanoids-dependent relaxation.

    PubMed

    Montiel, V; Leon Gomez, E; Bouzin, C; Esfahani, H; Romero Perez, M; Lobysheva, I; Devuyst, O; Dessy, C; Balligand, J L

    2014-02-01

    The water channels, aquaporins (AQPs) are key mediators of transcellular fluid transport. However, their expression and role in cardiac tissue is poorly characterized. Particularly, AQP1 was suggested to transport other molecules (nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) with potential major bearing on cardiovascular physiology. We therefore examined the expression of all AQPs and the phenotype of AQP1 knockout mice (vs. wild-type littermates) under implanted telemetry in vivo, as well as endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated aortas and resistance vessels ex vivo. Four aquaporins were expressed in wild-type heart tissue (AQP1, AQP7, AQP4, AQP8) and two aquaporins in aortic and mesenteric vessels (AQP1-AQP7). AQP1 was expressed in endothelial as well as cardiac and vascular muscle cells and co-segregated with caveolin-1. AQP1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited a prominent microcardia and decreased myocyte transverse dimensions despite no change in capillary density. Both male and female AQP1 KO mice had lower mean BP, which was not attributable to altered water balance or autonomic dysfunction (from baroreflex and frequency analysis of BP and HR variability). NO-dependent BP variability was unperturbed. Accordingly, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDH(F)) or NO-dependent relaxation were unchanged in aorta or resistance vessels ex vivo. However, AQP1 KO mesenteric vessels exhibited an increase in endothelial prostanoids-dependent relaxation, together with increased expression of COX-2. This enhanced relaxation was abrogated by COX inhibition. We conclude that AQP1 does not regulate the endothelial EDH or NO-dependent relaxation ex vivo or in vivo, but its deletion decreases baseline BP together with increased prostanoids-dependent relaxation in resistance vessels. Strikingly, this was associated with microcardia, unrelated to perturbed angiogenesis. This may raise interest for new inhibitors of AQP1 and their use to treat hypertrophic cardiac

  17. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  18. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Tangsucharit, Panot; Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takayama, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol) produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol) disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist) plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist), but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist). These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide induced relaxation in porcine pulmonary arteries in vitro is mediated by EDRF and cyclic GMP

    SciTech Connect

    Zellers, T.; McCormick, J. )

    1991-03-15

    Xanthine and xanthine oxidase induced relaxations in porcine pulmonary arteries in vitro are augmented in the presence of the endothelium and abolished by catalase, implicating hydrogen peroxide as an endothelium-dependent effector. To determine the mechanism whereby H{sub 2}O{sub 2} causes relaxations, isolated rings of fifth order porcine pulmonary artery, with (E{sup +}) and without (E{sup {minus}}) endothelium, were suspended in organ baths filled with buffer, and isometric tension was recorded. Hydrogen peroxide caused concentration-dependent, endothelium-augmented relaxations which were abolished by catalase and hydroquinone and reversed by L-nitroarginine and methylene blue. Prostacyclin (PGI{sub 2}) levels, measured after a two minute exposure to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in rings with endothelium were comparable to controls. This concentration of PGI{sub 2} does not cause relaxations in these rings. These data suggest that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulates the release of an EDRF, causing relaxations mediated by cyclic GMP, which is independent of prostacyclin.

  20. Possible involvement of PPARγ-associated eNOS signaling activation in rosuvastatin-mediated prevention of nicotine-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Sonam; Mahadevan, Nanjaian; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2013-02-01

    Nicotine exposure via cigarette smoking and tobacco chewing is associated with vascular complications. The present study investigated the effect of rosuvastatin in nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Further, scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of thoracic aorta were performed to assess the vascular endothelial integrity. Moreover, oxidative stress was assessed by estimating aortic superoxide anion generation and serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The nicotine administration produced VED by markedly reducing acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, increasing oxidative stress, and inducing lipid alteration. However, treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) markedly attenuated nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities, oxidative stress, and lipid alteration. Interestingly, the co-administration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, GW9662 (1 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) submaximally, significantly prevented rosuvastatin-induced improvement in vascular endothelial integrity, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and nitrite/nitrate concentration in rats administered nicotine. However, GW9662 co-administration did not affect rosuvastatin-associated vascular anti-oxidant and lipid-lowering effects. The incubation of aortic ring, isolated from rosuvastatin-treated nicotine-administered rats, with L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), significantly attenuated rosuvastatin-induced improvement in acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Rosuvastatin prevents nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities by activating

  1. Characterization of the potassium channels involved in EDHF-mediated relaxation in cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Jesper; Zygmunt, Peter M; Högestätt, Edward D

    1997-01-01

    In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 0.3 mM) and indomethacin (10 μM), the relaxations induced by acetylcholine and the calcium (Ca) ionophore A23187 are considered to be mediated by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the guinea-pig basilar artery.Inhibitors of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K)-channels (KATP; glibenclamide, 10 μM), voltage-sensitive K-channels (KV; dendrotoxin-I, 0.1 μM or 4-aminopyridine, 1 mM), small (SKCa; apamin, 0.1 μM) and large (BKCa; iberiotoxin, 0.1 μM) conductance Ca-sensitive K-channels did not affect the L-NOARG/indomethacin-resistant relaxation induced by acetylcholine.Synthetic charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), an inhibitor of BKCa and KV, caused a rightward shift of the concentration-response curve for acetylcholine and reduced the maximal relaxation in the presence of L-NOARG and indomethacin, whereas the relaxation induced by A23187 was not significantly inhibited.A combination of charybdotoxin (0.1 μM) and apamin (0.1 μM) abolished the L-NOARG/indomethacin-resistant relaxations induced by acetylcholine and A23187. However, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was not affected by a combination of iberiotoxin (0.1 μM) and apamin (0.1 μM).Ciclazindol (10 μM), an inhibitor of KV in rat portal vein smooth muscle, inhibited the L-NOARG/indomethacin-resistant relaxations induced by acetylcholine and A23187, and the relaxations were abolished when ciclazindol (10 μM) was combined with apamin (0.1 μM).Human pial arteries from two out of four patients displayed an L-NOARG/indomethacin-resistant relaxation in response to substance P. This relaxation was abolished in both cases by pretreatment with the combination of charybdotoxin (0.1 μM) and apamin (0.1 μM), whereas each toxin had little effect alone.The results suggest that KV, but not KATP and BKCa, is involved in the EDHF-mediated relaxation in the guinea-pig basilar artery. The synergistic

  2. The Endothelium-Dependent Nitric Oxide-cGMP Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mónica, F Z; Bian, K; Murad, F

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic 3'-5' guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling plays a critical role on smooth muscle tone, platelet activity, cardiac contractility, renal function and fluid balance, and cell growth. Studies of the 1990s established endothelium dysfunction as one of the major causes of cardiovascular diseases. Therapeutic strategies that benefit NO bioavailability have been applied in clinical medicine extensively. Basic and clinical studies of cGMP regulation through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) or inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) have resulted in effective therapies for pulmonary hypertension, erectile dysfunction, and more recently benign prostatic hyperplasia. This section reviews (1) how endothelial dysfunction and NO deficiency lead to cardiovascular diseases, (2) how soluble cGMP regulation leads to beneficial effects on disorders of the circulation system, and (3) the epigenetic regulation of NO-sGC pathway components in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the discovery of the NO-cGMP pathway revolutionized the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms involved in cardiovascular and other diseases. However, considering the expression "from bench to bedside" the therapeutic alternatives targeting NO-cGMP did not immediately follow the marked biochemical and pathophysiological revolution. Some therapeutic options have been effective and released on the market for pulmonary hypertension and erectile dysfunction such as inhaled NO, PDE5 inhibitors, and recently sGC stimulators. The therapeutic armamentarium for many other disorders is expected in the near future. There are currently numerous active basic and clinical research programs in universities and industries attempting to develop novel therapies for many diseases and medical applications.

  3. Relaxation of human isolated mesenteric arteries by vasopressin and desmopressin.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, M C; Vila, J M; Aldasoro, M; Medina, P; Flor, B; Lluch, S

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of vasopressin and deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP, desmopressin) were studied in artery rings (0.8-1 mm in external diameter) obtained from portions of human omentum during the course of abdominal operations (27 patients). 2. In arterial rings under resting tension, vasopressin produced concentration-dependent, endothelium-independent contractions with an EC50 of 0.59 +/- 0.12 nM. The V1 antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP (1 microM) and the mixed V1-V2 antagonist desGly-d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)ValAVP (0.01 microM) displaced the control curve to vasopressin to the right in a parallel manner without differences in the maximal responses. In the presence of indomethacin (1 microM) the contractile response to vasopressin was significantly increased (P < 0.01). 3. In precontracted arterial rings, previously treated with the V1 antagonist, d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP (1 microM), vasopressin produced endothelium-dependent relaxation. This relaxation was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by indomethacin (1 microM) and unaffected by the V1-V2 receptor antagonist desGly-d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)ValAVP (1 microM) or by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM). 4. The selective V2 receptor agonist, DDAVP, caused endothelium-independent, concentration-dependent relaxations in precontracted arterial rings that were inhibited by the mixed V1-V2 receptor antagonist, but not by the V1 receptor antagonist or by pretreatment with indomethacin or L-NAME. 5. Results from this study suggest that vasopressin is primarily a constrictor of human mesenteric arteries by V1 receptor stimulation; vasopressin causes dilatation only during V1 receptor blockade. The relaxation appears to be mediated by the release of vasodilator prostaglandins from the endothelial cell layer and is independent of V2 receptor stimulation or release of nitric oxide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834191

  4. Ovariectomy Increases the Participation of Hyperpolarizing Mechanisms in the Relaxation of Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Sagredo, Ana; del Campo, Lara; Martorell, Aina; Navarro, Rocío; Martín, María C.; Blanco-Rivero, Javier; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs) activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats. PMID:24058477

  5. Adenoviral expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 in rabbit aortic endothelium: role in arachidonic acid-induced relaxation.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Nitin T; Holmes, Blythe B; Cui, Lijie; Viita, Helena; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Campbell, William B

    2007-02-01

    Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the rabbit aorta is mediated by either nitric oxide (NO) or arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites from cyclooxygenase (COX) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) pathways. 15-LO-1 metabolites of AA, 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA), and 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) cause concentration-dependent relaxation. We tested the hypothesis that in the 15-LO pathway of AA metabolism, 15-LO-1 is sufficient and is the rate-limiting step in inducing relaxations in rabbit aorta. Aorta and rabbit aortic endothelial cells were treated with adenoviruses containing human 15-LO-1 cDNA (Ad-15-LO-1) or beta-galactosidase (Ad-beta-Gal). Ad-15-LO-1-transduction increased the expression of a 75-kDa protein corresponding to 15-LO-1, detected by immunoblotting with an anti-human15-LO-1 antibody, and increased the production of HEETA and THETA from [(14)C]AA. Immunohistochemical studies on Ad-15-LO-1-transduced rabbit aorta showed the presence of 15-LO-1 in endothelial cells. Ad-15-LO-1-treated aortic rings showed enhanced relaxation to AA (max 31.7 +/- 3.2%) compared with Ad-beta-Gal-treated (max 12.7 +/- 3.2%) or control nontreated rings (max 13.1 +/- 1.6%) (P < 0.01). The relaxations in Ad-15-LO-1-treated aorta were blocked by the 15-LO inhibitor cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-a-cyanocinnamate. Overexpression of 15-LO-1 in the rabbit aortic endothelium is sufficient to increase the production of the vasodilatory HEETA and THETA and enhance the relaxations to AA. This confirms the role of HEETA and THETA as endothelium-derived relaxing factors.

  6. TNF-α knockout mice have increased corpora cavernosa relaxation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered an early clinical manifestation of vascular disease and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, suppresses endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. Aim Considering that nitric oxide (NO) is of critical importance in penile erection, we hypothesized that blockade of TNF-α actions would increase cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation through an increase in NOS expression. Methods In vitro organ bath studies were used to measure cavernosal reactivity in wild type and TNF-α knockout (TNF-α KO) mice and NOS expression was evaluated by western blot. In addition, spontaneous erections (in vivo) were evaluated by videomonitoring the animals (30 min.). Collagen and elastin expression were evaluated by Masson trichrome and Verhoff-van Gieson stain reaction, respectively. Main Outcome Measures Corpora cavernosa from TNF-α KO mice exhibited increased NO-dependent relaxation, which was associated with increased eNOS and neuronal NOS (nNOS) cavernosal expression. Results Cavernosal strips from TNF-α KO mice displayed increased endothelium-dependent [97.4±5.3 vs Control: 76.3±6.3, %] and nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) [93.3±3.0 vs Control: 67.5±16.0; 16 Hz] relaxation compared to control animals. These responses were associated with increased protein expression of eNOS and nNOS (p<0.05). Sympathetic-mediated [0.69±0.16 vs Control: 1.22±0.22; 16 Hz] as well as phenylephrine-induced contractile responses [1.6±0.1 vs Control: 2.5±0.1, mN] were attenuated in cavernosal strips from TNF-α KO mice. Additionally, corpora cavernosa from TNF-α KO mice displayed increased collagen and elastin expression. In vivo experiments demonstrated that TNF-α KO mice display increased number of spontaneous erections. Conclusion Corpora cavernosa from

  7. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries [Methods] Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. [Results] Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli. PMID:27508155

  8. Relaxation selective pulses in fast relaxing systems.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christopher J; Lu, Wei; Walls, Jamie D

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the selectivity or sharpness of the saturation profiles for relaxation selective pulses (R^rsps) that suppress magnetization possessing relaxation times of T2=T2(rsp) and T1=αT2 for α∈12,∞ was optimized. Along with sharpening the selectivity of the R^rsps, the selective saturation of these pulses was also optimized to be robust to both B0 and B1 inhomogeneities. Frequency-swept hyperbolic secant and adiabatic time-optimal saturation pulse inputs were found to work best in the optimizations, and the pulse lengths required to selectivity saturate the magnetization were always found to be less than the inversion recovery delay, T1ln(2). The selectivity of the optimized relaxation selective pulses was experimentally demonstrated in aqueous solutions with varying concentrations of the paramagnetic species, [Mn(+2)], and for use in solvent suppression. Finally, the "rotational" properties of spin relaxation were explored along with an analytical derivation of adiabatic time-optimal saturation pulses. PMID:24631803

  9. Arrested Hematopoiesis and Vascular Relaxation Defects in Mice with a Mutation in Dhfr.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Julie A I; Knezevic, Kathy; Liu, Jia Jenny; Glaros, Elias N; Thai, Thuan; Qiao, Qiao; Campbell, Heather; Packham, Deborah; Huang, Yizhou; Papathanasiou, Peter; Tunningley, Robert; Whittle, Belinda; Yeung, Amanda W S; Chandrakanthan, Vashe; Hesson, Luke; Chen, Vivien; Wong, Jason W H; Purton, Louise E; Ward, Robyn L; Thomas, Shane R; Pimanda, John E

    2016-04-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a critical enzyme in the folate metabolism pathway and also plays a role in regulating nitric oxide (NO) signaling in endothelial cells. Although both coding and noncoding mutations with phenotypic effects have been identified in the human DHFR gene, no mouse model is currently available to study the consequences of perturbing DHFR in vivo In order to identify genes involved in definitive hematopoiesis, we performed a forward genetic screen and produced a mouse line, here referred to as Orana, with a point mutation in the Dhfr locus leading to a Thr136Ala substitution in the DHFR protein. Homozygote Orana mice initiate definitive hematopoiesis, but expansion of progenitors in the fetal liver is compromised, and the animals die between embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) and E14.5. Heterozygote Orana mice survive to adulthood but have tissue-specific alterations in folate abundance and distribution, perturbed stress erythropoiesis, and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta consistent with the role of DHFR in regulating NO signaling. Orana mice provide insight into the dual roles of DHFR and are a useful model for investigating the role of environmental and dietary factors in the context of vascular defects caused by altered NO signaling.

  10. Arrested Hematopoiesis and Vascular Relaxation Defects in Mice with a Mutation in Dhfr

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Julie A. I.; Knezevic, Kathy; Liu, Jia Jenny; Glaros, Elias N.; Thai, Thuan; Qiao, Qiao; Campbell, Heather; Packham, Deborah; Huang, Yizhou; Papathanasiou, Peter; Tunningley, Robert; Whittle, Belinda; Yeung, Amanda W. S.; Chandrakanthan, Vashe; Hesson, Luke; Chen, Vivien; Wong, Jason W. H.; Purton, Louise E.; Ward, Robyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a critical enzyme in the folate metabolism pathway and also plays a role in regulating nitric oxide (NO) signaling in endothelial cells. Although both coding and noncoding mutations with phenotypic effects have been identified in the human DHFR gene, no mouse model is currently available to study the consequences of perturbing DHFR in vivo. In order to identify genes involved in definitive hematopoiesis, we performed a forward genetic screen and produced a mouse line, here referred to as Orana, with a point mutation in the Dhfr locus leading to a Thr136Ala substitution in the DHFR protein. Homozygote Orana mice initiate definitive hematopoiesis, but expansion of progenitors in the fetal liver is compromised, and the animals die between embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) and E14.5. Heterozygote Orana mice survive to adulthood but have tissue-specific alterations in folate abundance and distribution, perturbed stress erythropoiesis, and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta consistent with the role of DHFR in regulating NO signaling. Orana mice provide insight into the dual roles of DHFR and are a useful model for investigating the role of environmental and dietary factors in the context of vascular defects caused by altered NO signaling. PMID:26830229

  11. Activation of endothelial and epithelial KCa2.3 calcium-activated potassium channels by NS309 relaxes human small pulmonary arteries and bronchioles

    PubMed Central

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Gorm; Laursen, Britt E; Pilegaard, Hans; Köhler, Ralf; Simonsen, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Small (KCa2) and intermediate (KCa3.1) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa) may contribute to both epithelium- and endothelium-dependent relaxations, but this has not been established in human pulmonary arteries and bronchioles. Therefore, we investigated the expression of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, and hypothesized that activation of these channels would produce relaxation of human bronchioles and pulmonary arteries. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Channel expression and functional studies were conducted in human isolated small pulmonary arteries and bronchioles. KCa2 and KCa3.1 currents were examined in human small airways epithelial (HSAEpi) cells by whole-cell patch clamp techniques. RESULTS While KCa2.3 expression was similar, KCa3.1 protein was more highly expressed in pulmonary arteries than bronchioles. Immunoreactive KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 proteins were found in both endothelium and epithelium. KCa currents were present in HSAEpi cells and sensitive to the KCa2.3 blocker UCL1684 and the KCa3.1 blocker TRAM-34. In pulmonary arteries contracted by U46619 and in bronchioles contracted by histamine, the KCa2.3/ KCa3.1 activator, NS309, induced concentration-dependent relaxations. NS309 was equally potent in relaxing pulmonary arteries, but less potent in bronchioles, than salbutamol. NS309 relaxations were blocked by the KCa2 channel blocker apamin, while the KCa3.1 channel blocker, charybdotoxin failed to reduce relaxation to NS309 (0.01–1 µM). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels are expressed in the endothelium of human pulmonary arteries and epithelium of bronchioles. KCa2.3 channels contributed to endo- and epithelium-dependent relaxations suggesting that these channels are potential targets for treatment of pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:22506557

  12. [Main relaxation techniques].

    PubMed

    Mateos Rodilla, Juana

    2002-11-01

    After having provided a detailed explanation on what relaxation consists of (see Rev. Rol Enf 2002; 25(9):582-586), the author presents a recap of the major known relaxation techniques including progressive muscular therapy, yoga stretching exercises, breathing techniques, therapeutic massages, meditation,... emphasizing the theoretical basis and practical experience as a function of each technique; each person ought to adopt those techniques which are most appropriate.

  13. Functional inhibition of urea transporter UT-B enhances endothelial-dependent vasodilatation and lowers blood pressure via L-arginine-endothelial nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Lau, Chi-Wai; Jia, Yingli; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Weiling; Ran, Jianhua; Li, Fei; Huang, Yu; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian urea transporters (UTs), UT-A and UT-B, are best known for their role in urine concentration. UT-B is especially distributed in multiple extrarenal tissues with abundant expression in vascular endothelium, but little is known about its role in vascular function. The present study investigated the physiological significance of UT-B in regulating vasorelaxations and blood pressure. UT-B deletion in mice or treatment with UT-B inhibitor PU-14 in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) reduced blood pressure. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was significantly augmented in aortas from UT-B null mice. PU-14 concentration-dependently produced endothelium-dependent relaxations in thoracic aortas and mesenteric arteries from both mice and rats and the relaxations were abolished by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Both expression and phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were up-regulated and expression of arginase I was down-regulated when UT-B was inhibited both in vivo and in vitro. PU-14 induced endothelium-dependent relaxations to a similar degree in aortas from 12 weeks old SHRs or WKYs. In summary, here we report for the first time that inhibition of UT-B plays an important role in regulating vasorelaxations and blood pressure via up-regulation of L-arginine-eNOS-NO pathway, and it may become another potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26739766

  14. Suxiao Jiuxin Pill Induces Potent Relaxation and Inhibition on Contraction in Human Artery and the Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Qin; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jun; Tong, Yong-Ling; Xiong, Song-Jin; Liu, Li-Hua; Wang, Lei; He, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Suxiao Jiuxin Pill, a compound Chinese traditional medicine with main components of tetramethylpyrazine and borneol, is widely used for antiangina treatment in China but its pharmacological effect on human blood vessels is unknown. We investigated the effect and possible mechanism of SJP in the human internal mammary artery (IMA, n = 78) taken from patients undergoing coronary surgery. SJP caused full relaxation in KCl- (99.4 ± 10.5%, n = 6) and U46619- (99.9 ± 5.6%, n = 6) contracted IMA. Pretreatment of IMA with plasma concentrations of SJP (1 mg/mL), calculated from the plasma concentration of its major component borneol, significantly depressed the maximal contraction to KCl (from 35.8 ± 6.0 mN to 12.6 ± 5.6 mN, P = 0.03) and U46619 (from 19.4 ± 2.9 mN to 5.7 ± 2.4 mN, P = 0.007) while SJP at 10 mg/mL abolished the subsequent contraction. Endothelium denudation and inhibition of eNOS significantly altered the SJP-induced relaxation without changes of eNOS expression. We conclude that SJP has a potent inhibitory effect on the vasoconstriction mediated by a variety of vasoconstrictors in human arteries. The vasorelaxation involves both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Thus, the effect of SJP on human arteries demonstrated in this study may prove to be particularly important in vasorelaxing therapy in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24808920

  15. Involvement of voltage-dependent potassium channels in the EDHF-mediated relaxation of rat hepatic artery

    PubMed Central

    Zygmunt, Peter M; Edwards, Gillian; Weston, Arthur H; Larsson, Bengt; Högestätt, Edward D

    1997-01-01

    In the rat hepatic artery, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation mediated by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) is abolished by a combination of apamin and charybdotoxin, inhibitors of small (SKCa) and large (BKCa) conductance calcium-sensitive potassium (K)-channels, respectively, but not by each toxin alone. The selective BKCa inhibitor iberiotoxin cannot replace charybdotoxin in this combination. Since delayed rectifier K-channels (KV) represent another target for charybdotoxin, we explored the possible involvement of KV in EDHF-mediated relaxation in this artery. The KV inhibitors, agitoxin-2 (0.3 μM), kaliotoxin (0.3 μM), β-dendrotoxin (0.3 μM), dofetilide (1 μM) and terikalant (10 μM), each in combination with apamin (0.3 μM) had no effect on the EDHF-mediated relaxation induced by acetylcholine in the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine (0.3 mM) and indomethacin (10 μM), inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and cyclo-oxygenase, respectively (n=2–3). Although the KV inhibitor margatoxin (0.3 μM) was also without effect (n=5), the combination of margatoxin and apamin produced a small inhibition of the response (pEC50 and Emax values were 7.5±0.0 and 95±1% in the absence and 7.0±0.1 and 81±6% in the presence of margatoxin plus apamin, respectively; n=6; P<0.05). Ciclazindol (10 μM) partially inhibited the EDHF-mediated relaxation by shifting the acetylcholine-concentration-response curve 12 fold to the right (n=6; P<0.05) and abolished the response when combined with apamin (0.3 μM; n=6). This combination did not inhibit acetylcholine-induced relaxations mediated by endothelium-derived NO (n=5). A 4-aminopyridine-sensitive delayed rectifier current (IK(V)) was identified in freshly-isolated single smooth muscle cells from rat hepatic artery. None of the cells displayed a rapidly-activating and -inactivating A-type current. Neither charybdotoxin (0.3 μM; n=3) nor ciclazindol (10 μM; n=5), alone or in

  16. Fenofibrate attenuates nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of fenofibrate on nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) was administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy of thoracic aorta. The expression of mRNA for p22phox and eNOS was assessed by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion concentration were estimated to assess oxidative stress. Moreover, the serum lipid profile was assessed by estimating serum cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein. The administration of nicotine induces VED by increased oxidative stress, altered lipid profile and impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium as assessed in terms of decrease in expression of mRNA for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine produced oxidative stress, assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation and increase in expression of mRNA for p22phox. Nicotine altered the lipid profile by increasing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides and decreasing the high density lipoprotein. However, treatment with fenofibrate (32 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented nicotine-induced VED by decreasing oxidative stress and improving integrity of vascular endothelium, normalising the altered lipid profile, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic

  17. The novel role of fenofibrate in preventing nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Reddy, Krishna; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of fenofibrate, an agonist of PPAR-alpha, in nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) and sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The scanning electron microscopy study in thoracic aorta revealed that administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium. Further, administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite significantly decreased serum and aortic concentrations of nitrite/nitrate and subsequently reduced acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Moreover, nicotine or sodium arsenite produced oxidative stress by increasing serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day p.o., a standard agent) significantly prevented nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentrations of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Conversely, co-administration of L-NAME (25 mg/kg/day, i.p.), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, markedly attenuated these vascular protective effects of fenofibrate. The administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite altered the lipid profile by increasing serum cholesterol and triglycerides and consequently decreasing high-density lipoprotein levels, which were significantly prevented by treatment with fenofibrate or atorvastatin. It may be concluded that fenofibrate improves the integrity and function of vascular endothelium, and the vascular protecting potential of fenofibrate in preventing the development of nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED may be attributed to its

  18. Effect of rosiglitazone in sodium arsenite-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tajpreet; Goel, Rajesh Kumar; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-04-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonist in sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. The rats were administered sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) to induce VED. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Further, the integrity of the aortic endothelium was assessed histologically using haematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aortic reactive oxygen species and reduced form of glutathione. The administration of sodium arsenite produced VED by impairing acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation, diminishing the integrity of vascular endothelium and decreasing the serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. In addition, sodium arsenite was noted to produce oxidative stress as it increased serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and aortic reactive oxygen species and consequently decreased glutathione. Treatment with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg/day, p.o., 2 weeks and 5 mg/kg/day, p.o., 2 weeks) significantly prevented sodium arsenite-induced VED by enhancing acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation, improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the nitrite/nitrate concentration and decreasing the oxidative stress. However, the vascular protective effect of rosiglitazone was markedly abolished by co-administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-Omega-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) (25 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks). Thus, it may be concluded that rosiglitazone reduces oxidative stress, activates eNOS and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent sodium arsenite-induced VED in rats. PMID:20422371

  19. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED. PMID:18951979

  20. Improvement of endothelial dysfunction by selective estrogen receptor-alpha stimulation in ovariectomized SHR.

    PubMed

    Widder, Julian; Pelzer, Theo; von Poser-Klein, Christine; Hu, Kai; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Fritzemeier, Karl-Heinrich; Hegele-Hartung, Christa; Neyses, Ludwig; Bauersachs, Johann

    2003-11-01

    Both known estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, are expressed in blood vessels. To gain further insight into the role of ERalpha in a functional setting, we investigated the effect of the novel highly selective ERalpha agonist Cpd1471 on vascular reactivity in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). After ovariectomy or sham operation, 12-week-old female SHR received either 17beta-estradiol (E2, 2 microg/kg body wt per day), the selective ERalpha agonist Cpd1471 (30 microg/kg body wt per day), or placebo. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was significantly blunted in aortas from ovariectomized rats (Rmax, 53%+/-3% versus sham, 79%+/-2%; P<0.001). Treatment with E2 or Cpd1471 significantly augmented acetylcholine-induced relaxation in ovariectomized rats (Rmax, 70%+/-2%; resp, 73%+/-2%). Endothelium-independent relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was not different among the four groups. The contractile response induced by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-l-arginine, an index of basal NO formation, was significantly lower in ovariectomized rats compared with sham-operated animals (53+/-2% versus 77%+/-5%; P<0.01) and was normalized by both E2 (70%+/-2%) and Cpd1471 (70%+/-3%). Aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression and phosphorylation of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, an index of NO/cGMP-signaling, was reduced in ovariectomized SHR and normalized by E2 and Cpd1471. In SHR after ovariectomy, endothelium-dependent NO-mediated vasorelaxation and eNOS expression are attenuated. The novel selective ERalpha agonist Cpd1471 prevented these pathophysiological changes to a similar extent as E2. Thus, the pharmacological principle of selective ERalpha activation mediates positive vascular effects.

  1. Ferulic acid, a natural polyphenol, alleviates insulin resistance and hypertension in fructose fed rats: Effect on endothelial-dependent relaxation.

    PubMed

    El-Bassossy, Hany; Badawy, Dina; Neamatallah, Thikryat; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2016-07-25

    Ferulic acid (FER) is a polyphenolic compound contained in various types of fruits. It has a substantial therapeutic effect inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. In this study, we examined the effect of FER on fructose-fed rats in comparison to a standard AR inhibitor, zopolrestat (ZOP). We determined the protective role of FER against metabolic syndrome by examining serum insulin/Glucose levels, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and advanced glycation end product (AGE) in rats supplied with 10% fructose drinking water. In addition, blood pressure, vascular reactivity of isolated thoracic aortas and acetylcholine-induced NO were all evaluated to estimate the cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with fructose feeding. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, (+10% fructose, Fru), zopolrestat-treated fructose fed (Fru-zop) and ferulic acid-treated fructose fed rats (Fru-Fer). After 12 weeks of FER treatment, we found significant reduction in both hyperinsulinemia and elevated diastolic blood pressure associated with fructose-fed to levels comparable to those achieved with ZOP. Both FER and ZOP significantly augmented the impaired relaxation associated with fructose-fed, whereas neither showed any significant effect on the developed vasoconstriction. Isolated aortas from fructose-fed rats incubated with either FER or ZOP, reinstated normal relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, isolated aortas showed attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production following the addition of (ACh), while both FER and ZOP restored normal induction of NO. Taken together, the current study shows that, FER alleviated insulin resistance and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome compared to the standard AR inhibitor (ZOP). This potential protective effect is at least mediated by restoring endothelial relaxation. PMID:27287418

  2. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor- and acetylcholine-mediated relaxation: essential contribution of female sex hormones and chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Pessôa, Bruno Sevá; Slump, Denise E; Ibrahimi, Khatera; Grefhorst, Aldo; van Veghel, Richard; Garrelds, Ingrid M; Roks, Anton J M; Kushner, Steven A; Danser, A H Jan; van Esch, Joep H M

    2015-08-01

    Angiotensin-induced vasodilation, involving type 2 receptor (AT2R)-induced generation of nitric oxide (NO; by endothelial NO synthase) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, may be limited to women. To distinguish the contribution of female sex hormones and chromosomes to AT2R function and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated vasodilation, we made use of the four-core genotype model, where the testis-determining Sry gene has been deleted (Y(-)) from the Y chromosome, allowing XY(-) mice to develop a female gonadal phenotype. Simultaneously, by incorporating the Sry gene onto an autosome, XY(-)Sry and XXSry transgenic mice develop into gonadal male mice. Four-core genotype mice underwent a sham or gonadectomy (GDX) operation, and after 8 weeks, iliac arteries were collected to assess vascular function. XY(-)Sry male mice responded more strongly to angiotensin than XX female mice, and the AT2R antagonist PD123319 revealed that this was because of a dilator AT2R-mediated effect occurring exclusively in XX female mice. The latter could not be demonstrated in XXSry male and XY(-) female mice nor in XX female mice after GDX, suggesting that it depends on both sex hormones and chromosomes. Indeed, treating C57bl/6 GDX male mice with estrogen could not restore angiotensin-mediated, AT2R-dependent relaxation. To block acetylcholine-induced relaxation of iliac arteries obtained from four-core genotype XX mice, both endothelial NO synthase and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor inhibition were required, whereas in four-core genotype XY animals, endothelial NO synthase inhibition alone was sufficient. These findings were independent of gonadal sex and unaltered after GDX. In conclusion, AT2R-induced relaxation requires both estrogen and the XX chromosome sex complement, whereas only the latter is required for endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors. PMID:26056343

  3. Ferulic acid, a natural polyphenol, alleviates insulin resistance and hypertension in fructose fed rats: Effect on endothelial-dependent relaxation.

    PubMed

    El-Bassossy, Hany; Badawy, Dina; Neamatallah, Thikryat; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2016-07-25

    Ferulic acid (FER) is a polyphenolic compound contained in various types of fruits. It has a substantial therapeutic effect inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. In this study, we examined the effect of FER on fructose-fed rats in comparison to a standard AR inhibitor, zopolrestat (ZOP). We determined the protective role of FER against metabolic syndrome by examining serum insulin/Glucose levels, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and advanced glycation end product (AGE) in rats supplied with 10% fructose drinking water. In addition, blood pressure, vascular reactivity of isolated thoracic aortas and acetylcholine-induced NO were all evaluated to estimate the cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with fructose feeding. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, (+10% fructose, Fru), zopolrestat-treated fructose fed (Fru-zop) and ferulic acid-treated fructose fed rats (Fru-Fer). After 12 weeks of FER treatment, we found significant reduction in both hyperinsulinemia and elevated diastolic blood pressure associated with fructose-fed to levels comparable to those achieved with ZOP. Both FER and ZOP significantly augmented the impaired relaxation associated with fructose-fed, whereas neither showed any significant effect on the developed vasoconstriction. Isolated aortas from fructose-fed rats incubated with either FER or ZOP, reinstated normal relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, isolated aortas showed attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production following the addition of (ACh), while both FER and ZOP restored normal induction of NO. Taken together, the current study shows that, FER alleviated insulin resistance and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome compared to the standard AR inhibitor (ZOP). This potential protective effect is at least mediated by restoring endothelial relaxation.

  4. Relaxation: mapping an uncharted world.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C; Amutio, A; Anderson, J P; Aria, L A

    1996-03-01

    Nine hundred and forty practitioners of massage, abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), yoga stretching, breathing, imagery meditation, and various combination treatments described their technique experiences on an 82-item wordlist. Factor analysis yielded 10 interpretable relaxation categories: Joyful Affects and Appraisals (Joyful), Distant, Calm, Aware, Prayerful, Accepted, Untroubled, Limp, Silent, and Mystery The relaxation response and cognitive/somatic specificity models predict Calm and Limp, which account for only 5.5% of the variance of relaxation experience. Unlike much of previous relaxation research, we found important technique differences. PMR and massage are associated with Distant and Limp; yoga stretching, breathing, and meditation with Aware; meditation with Prayerful and all techniques except PMR with Joyful. Results are consistent with cognitive-behavioral relaxation theory and have implications for relaxation theory, treatment, training, assessment, and research. We close with a revised model of relaxation that posits three global dimensions; tension-relief, passive disengagement, and passive engagement.

  5. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  6. Relaxation phenomena in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.

    1997-02-01

    In this article we discuss how the assumptions of self-similarity imposed on the distribution of independently relaxing modes, as well as on their amplitude and characteristic times, manifest in the global relaxation phenomena. We also review recent applications of such approach to the description of relaxation phenomena in microemulsions and molecular glasses.

  7. A Comparison of Relaxation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    Some researchers argue that all relaxation techniques produce a single relaxation response while others support a specific-effects hypothesis which suggests that progressive relaxation affects the musculoskeletal system and that guided imagery affects cognitive changes. Autogenics is considered a technique which is both somatic and cognitive. This…

  8. Enhanced role for the opening of potassium channels in relaxant responses to acetylcholine after myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion in dog coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Elsa C H; Woodman, Owen L

    1999-01-01

    Anaesthetized dogs were subjected to 1 h occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Relaxant responses were examined in coronary artery rings removed proximal (nonischaemic) or distal (ischaemic) to the site of occlusion. Relaxant responses to acetylcholine (ACh) were similar in nonischaemic and ischaemic artery rings. In addition ACh-induced relaxation of nonischaemic and ischaemic artery rings was equally susceptible to inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase using L-NG-nitroarginine (L-NOARG, 10−4 M), or to inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase using 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ, 10−5 M). In nonischaemic arteries, the relaxation to ACh was unaffected by high K+ (67 mM) but in ischaemic arteries, the maximum relaxation to ACh was significantly reduced from 113±6 to 60±2% (ANOVA, P<0.05). Tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10−3 M), an inhibitor of large conductance calcium activated potassium (BKCa) channels did not inhibit the response to ACh in nonischaemic arteries but in ischaemic arteries TEA significantly shifted the concentration response curve to ACh to the right (pEC50; nonischaemic, 7.07±0.25; ischaemic, 6.54±0.21, P<0.01, ANOVA) without decreasing the maximum relaxation. TEA did not affect the responses to sodium nitroprusside in either nonischaemic or ischaemic arteries. In conclusion, ischaemia/reperfusion did not change the sensitivity of endothelium-dependent relaxation to L-NOARG or ODQ indicating that ischaemia did not affect the contribution of NO or cyclic GMP to ACh-induced relaxation. However, in ischaemic arteries the opening of the BKCa channels contributed to relaxation caused by ACh whereas TEA had no effect in nonischaemic arteries. The factor responsible for the opening of this potassium channel was a factor other than NO and may be endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). PMID:10193772

  9. Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  10. Signal transduction pathways involved in kinin B2 receptor-mediated vasodilation in the rat isolated perfused kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bagaté, Karim; Grima, Michèle; Imbs, Jean-Louis; Jong, Wybren De; Helwig, Jean-Jacques; Barthelmebs, Mariette

    2001-01-01

    The signal transduction pathways involved in kinin B2 receptor-related vasodilation were investigated in rat isolated perfused kidneys. During prostaglandin F2α or KCl-induced constriction, the vasodilator response to a selective B2 receptor agonist, Tyr(Me)8bradykinin (Tyr(Me)8BK), was assessed.Tyr(Me)8BK produced a concentration- and endothelium-dependent relaxation that was decreased by about 30 – 40% after inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase by NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) or of cyclo-oxygenase by indomethacin; a greater decrease (about 40 – 50%) was observed after concomitant inhibition of the two pathways.High extracellular K+ diminished Tyr(Me)8BK-induced relaxation by about 75% suggesting a major contribution of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization. The residual response was almost completely suppressed by NO synthase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. The K+ channel inhibitors, tetrabutylammonium (non-specific) and charybdotoxin (specific for Ca2+-activated K+ channel), suppressed Tyr(Me)8BK-induced relaxation resistant to L-NOARG and indomethacin.Inhibition of cytochrome P450 (clotrimazole or 7-ethoxyresorufin) decreased the NO/prostanoids-independent relaxation to Tyr(Me)8BK by more than 60%, while inhibition of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (SR 141716A) had only a moderate effect.Acetylcholine induced a concentration-dependent relaxation with characteristics nearly similar to the response to Tyr(Me)8BK. In contrast, the relaxation elicited by sodium nitroprusside was potentiated in the absence of NO (L-NOARG or removal of endothelium) but remained unchanged otherwise.These results indicate that the activation of kinin B2 receptors in the rat isolated kidney elicits an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, mainly dependent on the activation of charybdotoxin-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ channels. In addition, cytochrome P450 derivatives appear to be involved. PMID:11309245

  11. [Death in a relaxation tank].

    PubMed

    Rupp, Wolf; Simon, Karl-Heinz; Bohnert, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Complete relaxation can be achieved by floating in a darkened, sound-proof relaxation tank filled with salinated water kept at body temperature. Under these conditions, meditation exercises up to self-hypnosis may lead to deep relaxation with physical and mental revitalization. A user manipulated his tank, presumably to completely cut off all optical and acoustic stimuli and accidentally also covered the ventilation hole. The man was found dead in his relaxation tank. The findings suggested lack of oxygen as the cause of death.

  12. Topological constraints on magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Yeates, A R; Hornig, G; Wilmot-Smith, A L

    2010-08-20

    The final state of turbulent magnetic relaxation in a reversed field pinch is well explained by Taylor's hypothesis. However, recent resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the relaxation of braided solar coronal loops have led to relaxed fields far from the Taylor state, despite the conservation of helicity. We point out the existence of an additional topological invariant in any flux tube with a nonzero field: the topological degree of the field line mapping. We conjecture that this constrains the relaxation, explaining why only one of three example simulations reaches the Taylor state. PMID:20868104

  13. Relaxation Techniques for Trauma.

    PubMed

    Scotland-Coogan, Diane; Davis, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Physiological symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) manifest as increased arousal and reactivity seen as anger outburst, irritability, reckless behavior with no concern for consequences, hypervigilance, sleep disturbance, and problems with focus (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). In seeking the most beneficial treatment for PTSD, consideration must be given to the anxiety response. Relaxation techniques are shown to help address the physiological manifestations of prolonged stress. The techniques addressed by the authors in this article include mindfulness, deep breathing, yoga, and meditation. By utilizing these techniques traditional therapies can be complemented. In addition, those who are averse to the traditional evidence-based practices or for those who have tried traditional therapies without success; these alternative interventions may assist in lessening physiological manifestations of PTSD. Future research studies assessing the benefits of these treatment modalities are warranted to provide empirical evidence to support the efficacy of these treatments. PMID:27119722

  14. Comet Bursting Through Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2012-10-01

    Comets may be excited and occupy non-principal axis (complex) rotation states for a large fraction of their lifetimes. Many comet nuclei have been identified or are suspected to occupy non-principal axis (complex) rotation [Belton 2005, etc.] as well as have evolving rotation rates [Belton 2011, etc.]. Comet orbits drive these rotation states through cycles of excitation due to surface jets and relaxation due to time variable internal stresses that dissipate energy in the anelastic comet interior. Furthermore, relaxation from complex rotation can increase the loads along the symmetry axis of prolate comets. These loads stretch the body along the symmetry axis and may be the cause of the characteristic ``bowling pin’’ shape and eventually may lead to failure. This is an alternative model for comet bursting. Each cycle deposits only a small amount of energy and stress along the axis, but this process is repeated every orbit during which jets are activated. Our model for the evolution of comet nuclei includes torques due to a number of discrete jets located on the surface based on Neishtadt et al. [2002]. The model also includes internal dissipation using an approach developed by Sharma et al. [2005] and Vokrouhlicky et al. [2009]. These equations are averaged over the instantaneous spin state and the heliocentric orbit so the long-term evolution of the comet can be determined. We determine that even after the inclusion of internal dissipation there still exist non-principal axis equilibrium states for certain jet geometries. For ranges of dissipation factors and jet geometries, prolate comets are found to occupy states that have time variable internal loads over long time periods. These periodic loadings along the symmetry axis may lead to ``necking’’ as the body extends along the axis to release the stress and eventually disruption.

  15. Vascular relaxation induced by Eucommiae Ulmoides Oliv. and its compounds Oroxylin A and wogonin: implications on their cytoprotection action

    PubMed Central

    Akinyi, Mary; Gao, Xiu Mei; Li, Yu Hong; Wang, Bing Yao; Liu, Er Wei; Chai, Li Juan; JawoBah, Abdulai; Fan, Guan Wei

    2014-01-01

    The vascular relaxation action of Eucommiae Ulmoides Oliv. also known as Duzhong has been seen on arteries of the heart such as the aorta and the coronary artery which are elastic in nature. Duzhong is historically an active ingredient commonly used in hypertensive herbal prescriptions in China. This work investigated the vasodilating effect of Duzhong and its compounds (wogonin 10 μM and oroxylin-A) in the isolated intact rat heart, perfused retrograde according the method of Langendorff and the cytoprotective effect in EA.hy926 cell lines Coronary perfusion pressure was monitored with a pressure transducer connected to a side-arm of the aortic perfusion cannula. Duzhong induced vasorelaxation in a dose dependent manner, on precontracting the vessels with endothelin-1, Duzhong 10 mg/ml, wogonin 10 μM and oroxylin-A 10 μM could significantly lower the perfusion pressure in reference to positive control SNP, Duzhong induced vasodilation was not inhibited by L-NAME (nitric oxide inhibitor), but was significantly inhibited by Tetraethyl ammonium (TEA, a K+ channel blocker and almost abolished by potassium chloride. The underlying mechanism was carried out in EA.hy926 cell lines. When these cells were treated with H2O2, there was higher expression of NOX-4, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNA. However, wogonin treatment attenuated the mRNA of NOX-4, TNF-α and COX-2. Wogonin also upregulated the mRNA expression of CAT, SOD-1 and GSR in oxidative stress induced by H2O2 EA.hy926 cells. Duzhong and compounds can exert an in vitro relaxation effect of the coronary artery and improve the heart function in Langendorff apparatus. This action appears to be endothelium dependent but not NO mediated. Cell culture findings indicated that wogonin can exert vascular and cellular protection by scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species. PMID:25419347

  16. Puerarin, an isoflavonoid derived from Radix puerariae, potentiates endothelium-independent relaxation via the cyclic AMP pathway in porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dennis K Y; Leung, Susan W S; Xu, Yan Chun; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Man, Ricky Y K

    2006-12-15

    Puerarin, an isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medicinal herb Radix puerariae, has been suggested to be useful in the management of various cardiovascular disorders. The present study examined the effect of acute exposure (30 min) to puerarin on vascular relaxation. Rings from porcine coronary artery of either sex were used. The highest concentration of puerarin (100 microM) produced a small but statistically significant relaxation of U46619-contracted rings. Vascular relaxations were also studied in the presence of lower concentrations of puerarin (0.1, 1 and 10 microM) which had no direct relaxation effect. Puerarin enhanced vasorelaxation to endothelium-independent relaxing agents, sodium nitroprusside and cromakalim. However, puerarin had no effect on vasorelaxation induced by endothelium-dependent relaxing agents, bradykinin and calcium ionophore A23187. The potentiating action of puerarin (10 microM) on sodium nitroprusside-mediated relaxation was not affected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microM), or by the disruption of the endothelium with Triton X-100. The effect of puerarin was reversible following a washout period. The potentiating effects were comparable with the 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) analogues, 8-bromoadenosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP; 10 muM) and Sp-isomer [S nomenclature refers to phosphorus] of adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Sp-cyclic AMPS; 3 microM), but not the 3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) analogue, 8-bromoguanosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic GMP; 3 microM). The cyclic AMP antagonist, Rp-isomer [R nomenclature refers to phosphorus] of 8-bromoadenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPS; 10 microM), but not cyclic GMP antagonist, Rp-isomer of 8-bromoguanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-Br-cyclic GMPS; 10 microM), reversed the effects of puerarin (10

  17. Measuring the Longitudinal NMR Relaxation Rates of Fast Relaxing Nuclei Using a Signal Eliminating Relaxation Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, D. Flemming; Led, Jens J.

    2001-08-01

    A new experiment for selective determination of the relaxation rates of fast relaxing NMR signals is presented. The experiment is derived from the conventional inversion recovery experiment by substituting the 180° inversion pulse of this experiment with a signal eliminating relaxation filter (SERF) consisting of three 180° pulses separated by two variable delays, Δ1 and Δ2. The SERF experiment allows a selective suppression of signals with relaxation rates below a given limit while monitoring the relaxation of faster relaxing signals. The experiment was tested on a sample of 20% oxidized plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis, where the fast exchange of an electron between the reduced (diamagnetic) and the oxidized (paramagnetic) form results in a series of average signals with widely different relaxation rates. To ensure an optimum extraction of information from the experimental data, the relaxation rates were obtained from the SERF experiment by a simultaneous analysis of all the FIDs of the experiment using a fast linear prediction model method developed previously. The reliability of the relaxation rates obtained from the SERF experiment was confirmed by a comparison of the rates with the corresponding rates obtained from a conventional inversion recovery experiment.

  18. Measuring the longitudinal NMR relaxation rates of fast relaxing nuclei using a signal eliminating relaxation filter.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D F; Led, J J

    2001-08-01

    A new experiment for selective determination of the relaxation rates of fast relaxing NMR signals is presented. The experiment is derived from the conventional inversion recovery experiment by substituting the 180 degrees inversion pulse of this experiment with a signal eliminating relaxation filter (SERF) consisting of three 180 degrees pulses separated by two variable delays, Delta1 and Delta2. The SERF experiment allows a selective suppression of signals with relaxation rates below a given limit while monitoring the relaxation of faster relaxing signals. The experiment was tested on a sample of 20% oxidized plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis, where the fast exchange of an electron between the reduced (diamagnetic) and the oxidized (paramagnetic) form results in a series of average signals with widely different relaxation rates. To ensure an optimum extraction of information from the experimental data, the relaxation rates were obtained from the SERF experiment by a simultaneous analysis of all the FIDs of the experiment using a fast linear prediction model method developed previously. The reliability of the relaxation rates obtained from the SERF experiment was confirmed by a comparison of the rates with the corresponding rates obtained from a conventional inversion recovery experiment.

  19. [Indications for relaxation in geriatrics].

    PubMed

    Richard, J; Picot, A; de Bus, P; Andreoli, A; Dalakaki, X

    1975-11-01

    On a three years base experience in the geriatiic department of Geneva's University Psychiatric Clinic the paper studies the problem of selecting aged patients to be treated by relaxation according to the method of J. De Ajuriaguerra et M. Cahen. Observations are presented in an attempt to define three main points: a) the role played by relaxation when there is an objective [corrected] impairment of the body's integrity; b) relaxation effect on aged persons neurotic states evolution; c) the reality of considering dementia as a counter-indication of relaxation therapy. These remarks complete those presented previously about the training of therapists in relaxation, the type of control to be organized for them and their patients, the technical management of the cure, the place of relaxation in the post graduate psychiatric training, the effects of the therapy on the patients human environnement behavior in and out of the hospital, the way body is perceived through relaxation by the aged patients and it's consequences on the adjustment of an aging person.

  20. Progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Smith, J C

    2001-12-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) and breathing exercises. Forty-two students were divided randomly into two groups and taught PMR or breathing exercises. Both groups practiced for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, PMR practitioners displayed greater increments in relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement, while breathing practitioners displayed higher levels of R-State Strength and Awareness. Slight differences emerged at Weeks 1 and 2; major differences emerged at Weeks 4 and 5. A delayed and potentially reinforcing aftereffect emerged for PMR only after five weeks of training--increased levels of Mental Quiet and Joy. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  1. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodukhin, S. N.

    2005-03-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  2. Simulation of DNA Supercoil Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Ivenso, Ikenna D; Lillian, Todd D

    2016-05-24

    Several recent single-molecule experiments observe the response of supercoiled DNA to nicking endonucleases and topoisomerases. Typically in these experiments, indirect measurements of supercoil relaxation are obtained by observing the motion of a large micron-sized bead. The bead, which also serves to manipulate DNA, experiences significant drag and thereby obscures supercoil dynamics. Here we employ our discrete wormlike chain model to bypass experimental limitations and simulate the dynamic response of supercoiled DNA to a single strand nick. From our simulations, we make three major observations. First, extension is a poor dynamic measure of supercoil relaxation; in fact, the linking number relaxes so fast that it cannot have much impact on extension. Second, the rate of linking number relaxation depends upon its initial partitioning into twist and writhe as determined by tension. Third, the extensional response strongly depends upon the initial position of plectonemes.

  3. Relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Yimin; Fulton, Scott R.

    1993-01-01

    Two relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods are presented for elliptic equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The first scheme is a pointwise-preconditioned Richardson relaxation scheme and the second is a line relaxation scheme. The line relaxation scheme provides an efficient and relatively simple approach for solving two-dimensional spectral equations. Numerical examples and comparisons with other methods are given.

  4. Phase transitions in semidefinite relaxations

    PubMed Central

    Javanmard, Adel; Montanari, Andrea; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Statistical inference problems arising within signal processing, data mining, and machine learning naturally give rise to hard combinatorial optimization problems. These problems become intractable when the dimensionality of the data is large, as is often the case for modern datasets. A popular idea is to construct convex relaxations of these combinatorial problems, which can be solved efficiently for large-scale datasets. Semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations are among the most powerful methods in this family and are surprisingly well suited for a broad range of problems where data take the form of matrices or graphs. It has been observed several times that when the statistical noise is small enough, SDP relaxations correctly detect the underlying combinatorial structures. In this paper we develop asymptotic predictions for several detection thresholds, as well as for the estimation error above these thresholds. We study some classical SDP relaxations for statistical problems motivated by graph synchronization and community detection in networks. We map these optimization problems to statistical mechanics models with vector spins and use nonrigorous techniques from statistical mechanics to characterize the corresponding phase transitions. Our results clarify the effectiveness of SDP relaxations in solving high-dimensional statistical problems. PMID:27001856

  5. Phase transitions in semidefinite relaxations.

    PubMed

    Javanmard, Adel; Montanari, Andrea; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2016-04-19

    Statistical inference problems arising within signal processing, data mining, and machine learning naturally give rise to hard combinatorial optimization problems. These problems become intractable when the dimensionality of the data is large, as is often the case for modern datasets. A popular idea is to construct convex relaxations of these combinatorial problems, which can be solved efficiently for large-scale datasets. Semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations are among the most powerful methods in this family and are surprisingly well suited for a broad range of problems where data take the form of matrices or graphs. It has been observed several times that when the statistical noise is small enough, SDP relaxations correctly detect the underlying combinatorial structures. In this paper we develop asymptotic predictions for several detection thresholds, as well as for the estimation error above these thresholds. We study some classical SDP relaxations for statistical problems motivated by graph synchronization and community detection in networks. We map these optimization problems to statistical mechanics models with vector spins and use nonrigorous techniques from statistical mechanics to characterize the corresponding phase transitions. Our results clarify the effectiveness of SDP relaxations in solving high-dimensional statistical problems. PMID:27001856

  6. Anisotropic spin relaxation in graphene.

    PubMed

    Tombros, N; Tanabe, S; Veligura, A; Jozsa, C; Popinciuc, M; Jonkman, H T; van Wees, B J

    2008-07-25

    Spin relaxation in graphene is investigated in electrical graphene spin valve devices in the nonlocal geometry. Ferromagnetic electrodes with in-plane magnetizations inject spins parallel to the graphene layer. They are subject to Hanle spin precession under a magnetic field B applied perpendicular to the graphene layer. Fields above 1.5 T force the magnetization direction of the ferromagnetic contacts to align to the field, allowing injection of spins perpendicular to the graphene plane. A comparison of the spin signals at B=0 and B=2 T shows a 20% decrease in spin relaxation time for spins perpendicular to the graphene layer compared to spins parallel to the layer. We analyze the results in terms of the different strengths of the spin-orbit effective fields in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions and discuss the role of the Elliott-Yafet and Dyakonov-Perel mechanisms for spin relaxation. PMID:18764351

  7. Ellipsoidal Relaxation of Deformed Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Lira, Rafael B.; Riske, Karin A.; Dimova, Rumiana; Lin, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Theoretical analysis and experimental quantification on the ellipsoidal relaxation of vesicles are presented. The current work reveals the simplicity and universal aspects of this process. The Helfrich formula is shown to apply to the dynamic relaxation of moderate-to-high tension membranes, and a closed-form solution is derived which predicts the vesicle aspect ratio as a function of time. Scattered data are unified by a time scale, which leads to a similarity behavior, governed by a distinctive solution for each vesicle type. Two separate regimes in the relaxation are identified, namely, the "entropic" and the "constant-tension" regimes. The bending rigidity and the initial membrane tension can be simultaneously extracted from the data analysis, posing the current approach as an effective means for the mechanical analysis of biomembranes.

  8. Acute Inhibition of GTP Cyclohydrolase 1 Uncouples Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Elevates Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuangxi; Xu, Jian; Song, Ping; Wu, Yong; Zhang, Junhua; Choi, Hyoung Chul; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2012-01-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dictating at least partly, the balance of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2•−) produced by this enzyme. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute inhibition of GTPCH1 on BH4, eNOS function, and blood pressure in vivo. Exposure of bovine or mouse aortic endothelial cells to GTPCH1 inhibitors (DAHP or NAS) or GTPCH1- siRNA significantly reduced BH4 and NO levels, but increased superoxide (O2•−) levels. This increase was abolished by sepiapterin (BH4 precursor) or L-NAME (non-selective NOS inhibitor). Incubation of isolated murine aortas with DAHP or NAS impaired acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, but not endothelium-independent relaxation. Aortas from GTPCH1 siRNA-injected mice, but not their control-siRNA injected counterparts, also exhibited impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. BH4 reduction induced by GTPCH1 siRNA injection was associated with increased aortic levels of O2•−, 3-nitrotyrosine, and adhesion molecules (ICAM1 and VCAM1) as well as a significantly elevated systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure in C57BL6 mice. GTPCH1 siRNA was unable to elicit these effects in eNOS−/− mice. Sepiapterin supplementation, which had no effect on high blood pressure in eNOS−/− mice, partially reversed GTPCH1 siRNA-induced elevation of blood pressure in wild type mice. In conclusion, GTPCH1 via BH4 maintains normal blood pressure and endothelial function in vivo by preserving NO synthesis by eNOS. PMID:18645049

  9. Des-aspartate angiotensin I (DAA-I) reduces endothelial dysfunction in the aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat through inhibition of angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Loh, Wei Mee; Ling, Wei Chih; Murugan, Dharmani D; Lau, Yeh Siang; Achike, Francis I; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2015-08-01

    Des-aspartate angiotensin I (DAA-I), an endogenous nonapeptide, counteracts several effects of angiotensin II on vascular tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute protective effect of DAA-I on endothelial function in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as well as its effect on angiotensin II-induced contractions and oxidative stress. Aortic rings were incubated with DAA-I (0.1μM) for 30min prior to the assessment of angiotensin II-induced contractions (0.1nM-10μM) in WKY and SHR aortas. Total nitrate and nitrite levels were assessed using a colorimetric method and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The effect of DAA-I was also assessed against endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Angiotensin II-induced contractions were significantly reduced by DAA-I, losartan and tempol. Incubation with ODQ (soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) and removal of the endothelium prevented the reduction of angiotensin II-induced contractions by DAA-I. Total nitrate and nitrite levels were increased in DAA-I, losartan and tempol treated-SHR tissues while ROS level was reduced by DAA-I and the latter inhibitors. In addition, DAA-I significantly improved the impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation in SHR aortas whilst sodium nitroprusside-induced endothelium-independent relaxation remained unaffected. The present findings indicate that improvement of endothelial function by DAA-I in the SHR aorta is mediated through endothelium-dependent release of nitric oxide and inhibition of angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress. PMID:25869508

  10. A mixed relaxed clock model.

    PubMed

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Phillips, Matthew J; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-07-19

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  11. A mixed relaxed clock model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325829

  12. Molecular relaxations in amorphous phenylbutazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahra, M.; Thayyil, M. Shahin; Capaccioli, S.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular dynamics of phenylbutazone in the supercooled liquid and glassy state is studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy for test frequencies 1 kHz, 10 kHz and 100 kHz over a wide temperature range. Above the glass transition temperature Tg, the presence of the structural α-relaxation peak was observed which shifts towards lower frequencies as the temperature decreases and kinetically freezes at Tg. Besides the structural α-relaxation peak, a β-process which arises due to the localized molecular fluctuations is observed at lower temperature.

  13. "Stressing" Relaxation in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager-Decker, Iris

    A rationale is offered for incorporating relaxation training in elementary school classroom activities. Cited are research studies which focus on the reaction of children to stressful life changes and resulting behavioral and physical disorders. A list is given of significant life events which may be factors in causing diseases or misbehavior in…

  14. Theory of nuclear magnetic relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, J.

    1983-01-01

    A theory of nuclear magnetic interaction is based on the study of the stochastic rotation operator. The theory is applied explicitly to relaxation by anisotropic chemical shift and to spin-rotational interactions. It is applicable also to dipole-dipole and quadrupole interactions.

  15. Relaxation times estimation in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baselice, Fabio; Caivano, Rocchina; Cammarota, Aldo; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a very powerful techniques for soft tissue diagnosis. At the present, the clinical evaluation is mainly conducted exploiting the amplitude of the recorded MR image which, in some specific cases, is modified by using contrast enhancements. Nevertheless, spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times can play an important role in many pathology diagnosis, such as cancer, Alzheimer or Parkinson diseases. Different algorithms for relaxation time estimation have been proposed in literature. In particular, the two most adopted approaches are based on Least Squares (LS) and on Maximum Likelihood (ML) techniques. As the amplitude noise is not zero mean, the first one produces a biased estimator, while the ML is unbiased but at the cost of high computational effort. Recently the attention has been focused on the estimation in the complex, instead of the amplitude, domain. The advantage of working with real and imaginary decomposition of the available data is mainly the possibility of achieving higher quality estimations. Moreover, the zero mean complex noise makes the Least Square estimation unbiased, achieving low computational times. First results of complex domain relaxation times estimation on real datasets are presented. In particular, a patient with an occipital lesion has been imaged on a 3.0T scanner. Globally, the evaluation of relaxation times allow us to establish a more precise topography of biologically active foci, also with respect to contrast enhanced images.

  16. Distributed Relaxation for Conservative Discretizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2001-01-01

    A multigrid method is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work that is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in one target-grid residual evaluation. The way to achieve this efficiency is the distributed relaxation approach. TME solvers employing distributed relaxation have already been demonstrated for nonconservative formulations of high-Reynolds-number viscous incompressible and subsonic compressible flow regimes. The purpose of this paper is to provide foundations for applications of distributed relaxation to conservative discretizations. A direct correspondence between the primitive variable interpolations for calculating fluxes in conservative finite-volume discretizations and stencils of the discretized derivatives in the nonconservative formulation has been established. Based on this correspondence, one can arrive at a conservative discretization which is very efficiently solved with a nonconservative relaxation scheme and this is demonstrated for conservative discretization of the quasi one-dimensional Euler equations. Formulations for both staggered and collocated grid arrangements are considered and extensions of the general procedure to multiple dimensions are discussed.

  17. Ellipsoidal relaxation of electrodeformed vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Lin, Hao; Lira, Rafael; Dimova, Rumiana; Riske, Karin

    2015-11-01

    Electrodeformation has been extensively applied to investigate the mechanical behavior of vesicles and cells. While the deformation process often exhibits complex behavior and reveals interesting physics, the relaxation process post-pulsation is equally intriguing yet less frequently studied. In this work theoretical analysis and experimental quantification on the ellipsoidal relaxation of vesicles are presented, which reveal the simplicity and universal aspects of this process. The Helfrich formula, which is derived only for equilibrated shapes, is shown to be applicable to dynamic situations such as in relaxation. A closed-form solution is derived which predicts the vesicle aspect ratio as a function of time. Scattered data are unified by a timescale, which leads to a similarity behavior, governed by a distinctive solution for each vesicle type. Two separate regimes in the relaxation are identified, namely, the ``entropic'' and the ``constant-tension'' regime. The bending rigidity and the initial membrane tension can be simultaneously extracted from the data/model analysis, posing the current approach as an effective means for the mechanical analysis of biomembranes.

  18. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism.

    PubMed

    Carati, A; Benfenati, F; Galgani, L

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  19. Spin relaxation in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzheparov, F. S.

    2011-10-01

    A review is given on theoretical grounds and typical experimental appearances of spin dynamics and relaxation in solids containing randomly distributed nuclear and/or electronic spins. Brief content is as follows. Disordered and magnetically diluted systems. General outlines of the spin transport theory. Random walks in disordered systems (RWDS). Observable values in phase spin relaxation, free induction decay (FID). Interrelation of longitudinal and transversal relaxation related to dynamics of occupancies and phases. Occupation number representation for equations of motion. Continuum media approximation and inapplicability of moment expansions. Long-range transitions vs percolation theory. Concentration expansion as a general constructive basis for analytical methods. Scaling properties of propagators. Singular point. Dynamical and kinematical memory in RWDS. Ways of regrouping of concentration expansions. CTRW and semi-phenomenology. Coherent medium approximation for nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities. Combining of memory functions and cumulant expansions for calculation of FID. Path integral representations for RWDS. Numerical simulations of RWDS. Spin dynamics in magnetically diluted systems with low Zeeman and medium low dipole temperatures. Cluster expansions, regularization of dipole interactions and spectral dynamics.

  20. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  1. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B

    2015-03-01

    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.

  2. Relaxation Models for Glassy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajay

    In this thesis we explore some models based on constrained dynamics to understand the origin and ubiquity of the stretched exponential relaxation q(t) = exp(-(t/tau)^{ beta}). The first chapter has a pedagogical introduction to this field. Then we explore two models based primarily on constraints to see whether they would exhibit a stretched exponential relaxation. The first is a sliding block type of model based on a child's puzzle which has blocks and vacancies. The blocks can move only when they are nearest neighbor to a vacancy. We simulate random walk of the blocks and explore the relaxation behavior to equilibrium. We obtain three regimes of relaxation. In the short time regime (where the constraints are strong) we see a stretched exponential behavior. The intermediate time regime is best described as a simple random walk and we obtain a power law (with exponent 1/2). The long time behavior is a simple exponential, as expected. We do a Monte Carlo simulation of random walk on a bond-diluted hypercube. The site-diluted version of this model was suggested by Campbell as an explanation of the relaxation behavior seen in spin glasses. We come to it from the perspective of a system which exemplifies only constraints and nothing else (we have hard constraints with {cal H} = 0). We see that the relaxation to equilibrium is exponential for all p >=q 1/2 and below that it is a stretched exponential. In fact, the beta decreases as p decreases and attains a value of 1/4 at the percolation threshold of p = 1/n, where n is the dimensionality of the hypercube. We also do a calculation for determining the probability of connectivity for finite graphs. This demonstrates that the usual numerical results provided in graph theory, which are in the limit of infinite graphs, are not accurate for finite graphs. The final chapter has a conclusion. We also propose a model based on random graphs and percolation for studying sliding block kind of models.

  3. Restricting query relaxation through user constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes techniques to restrict and to heuristically control relaxation of deductive database queries. The process of query relaxation provides a user with a means to automatically identify new queries that are related to the user`s original query. However, for large databases, many relaxations may be possible. The methods to control and restrict the relaxation process introduced in this paper focus the relaxation process and make it more efficient. User restrictions over the data base domain may be expressed as user constraints. This paper describes how user constraints can restrict relaxed queries. Also, a set of heuristics based on cooperative answering techniques are presented for controlling the relaxation process. Finally, the interaction of the methods for relaxing queries, processing user constraints, and applying the heuristic rules is described.

  4. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, D. K.; Somphonsane, R.; Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  5. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, D. K.; Somphonsane, R.; Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P.

    2015-12-28

    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  6. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Lunar Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohit, P. S.; Phillips, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The large lunar impact basins provide a unique glimpse into early lunar history. Here we investigate the possibility that the relief of the oldest lunar basins (with the exception of South-Pole Aitken) has decayed through viscous relaxation. We identify nine ancient multi-ring basins with very low relief and low-amplitude Bouguer and free-air gravity anomalies. The characteristics of these basins are consistent with either 1) relaxation of topographic relief by ductile flow (e.g. Solomon et al., 1982) or 2) obliteration of basin topography during crater collapse immediately following impact. Both scenarios require that the basins formed early in lunar history, when the Moon was hot. The latter possibility appears to be unlikely due to the great topographic relief of South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest impact basin on the Moon (with the possible exception of the putative Procellarum basin; Wilhelms, 1987). On the other hand, the thin crust beneath SPA may not have allowed ductile flow in its lower portions, even for a hot Moon, implying that a thicker crust is required beneath other ancient basins for the hypothesis of viscous relaxation to be tenable. Using a semi-analytic, self-gravitating viscoelastic model, we investigate the conditions necessary to produce viscous relaxation of lunar basins. We model topographic relaxation for a crustal thickness of 30 km, using a dry diabase flow law for the crust and dry olivine for the mantle. We find that the minimum temperature at the base of the crust (Tb) permitting nearly complete relaxation of topography by ductile flow on a timescale < 108 yrs is 1400 K, corresponding to a heat flow of 55mW/m2, into the crust. Ductile flow in the lower crust becomes increasingly difficult as the crustal thickness decreases. The crust beneath SPA, thinned by the impact, is only 15-20 km thick and would require Tb ≥ 1550 K for relaxation to occur. The fact that SPA has maintained high-amplitude relief suggests that

  7. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

    PubMed

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  8. Models of violently relaxed galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David; Tremaine, Scott; Johnstone, Doug

    1989-02-01

    The properties of spherical self-gravitating models derived from two distribution functions that incorporate, in a crude way, the physics of violent relaxation are investigated. The first distribution function is identical to the one discussed by Stiavelli and Bertin (1985) except for a change in the sign of the 'temperature', i.e., e exp(-aE) to e exp(+aE). It is shown that these 'negative temperature' models provide a much better description of the end-state of violent relaxation than 'positive temperature' models. The second distribution function is similar to the first except for a different dependence on angular momentum. Both distribution functions yield single-parameter families of models with surface density profiles very similar to the R exp 1/4 law. Furthermore, the central concentration of models in both families increases monotonically with the velocity anisotropy, as expected in systems that formed through cold collapse.

  9. Localized relaxation in stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, M.; Kirimoto, K.; Nobugai, K.; Wigmore, J. K.; Miyasato, T.

    2002-05-01

    Stabilized zirconia is well known for long-range transport of oxygen ions which is caused by diffusion relaxation of oxygen vacancies. We used torsional vibrations to measure the temperature dependence of internal friction in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) doped with 9.5 mol% Y 2O 3 and calcia-stabilized zirconia (CSZ) doped with 12 mol% CaO. In the temperature range 300- 700 K, the internal friction peak exhibits anisotropy, different in YSZ from CSZ, which we attribute to localized relaxation of oxygen vacancies. The results imply that some oxygen vacancies are bound within the local structure, a greater number in CSZ than in YSZ, and suggest that the defect symmetry of local structure depends on the type of dopant ion.

  10. Relaxation: A Fourth "R" for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, A. B.

    Relaxation training helps the individual handle tension through concentrating upon efficient use of muscles. A program of progressive relaxation can be easily incorporated into elementary and secondary schools. Objectives of such a program include the following: (a) to learn to relax technically for purposes of complete rest (deep muscle…

  11. Dynamic Relaxation of Financial Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J.; Zheng, B.; Lin, H.; Qiu, T.

    The dynamic relaxation of the German DAX both before and after a large price-change is investigated. The dynamic behavior is characterized by a power law. At the minutely time scale, the exponent p governing the power-law behavior takes a same value before and after the large price change, while at the daily time scale, it is different. Numerical simulations of an interacting EZ herding model are performed for comparison.

  12. Shear Relaxations of Confined Liquids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, George Amos, Jr.

    Ultrathin (<40 A) films of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), hexadecane, and dodecane were subjected to linear and non-linear oscillatory shear between flat plates. Shearing frequencies of 0.1 to 800 s^{-1} were applied at pressures from zero to 0.8 MPa using a surface rheometer only recently developed. In most cases the plates were atomically smooth mica surfaces; the role of surface interactions was examined by replacing these with alkyl chain monolayers. OMCTS and hexadecane were examined at a temperature about 5 Celsius degrees above their melting points and tended to solidify. Newtonian plateaus having enormous viscosities were observed at low shear rates. The onset of shear thinning implied relaxation times of about 0.1 s in the linear structure of the confined liquids. Large activation volumes (~80 nm ^3) suggested that shear involved large-scale collective motion. Dodecane was studied at a much higher temperature relative to its melting point and showed no signs of impending solidification though it exhibited well-defined regions of Newtonian response and power law shear thinning. When treated with molecular sieves before use, dodecane had relaxation times which were short (0.02 s) compared to hexadecane, but still exhibited large-scale collective motion. When treated with silica gel, an unexplained long -time relaxation (10 s) was seen in the Newtonian viscosity of dodecane. The relaxation time of the linear structure, 0.005 s was very small, and the storage modulus was unresolvable. The small activation volume (7nm^3) indicated a much lower level of collective motion. The activation volume remained small when dodecane was confined between tightly bound, low energy, alkyl monolayers. At low strains the storage and loss moduli became very large (>10^4 Pa), probably due to interactions with flaws in the monolayers. Dramatic signs of wall slip were observed at large strains even at low pressures.

  13. Spin relaxation in metallic ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, L.

    2011-02-01

    The Elliott theory of spin relaxation in metals and semiconductors is extended to metallic ferromagnets. Our treatment is based on the two-current model of Fert, Campbell, and Jaoul. The d→s electron-scattering process involved in spin relaxation is the inverse of the s→d process responsible for the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). As a result, spin-relaxation rate 1/τsr and AMR Δρ are given by similar formulas, and are in a constant ratio if scattering is by solute atoms. Our treatment applies to nickel- and cobalt-based alloys which do not have spin-up 3d states at the Fermi level. This category includes many of the technologically important magnetic materials. And we show how to modify the theory to apply it to bcc iron-based alloys. We also treat the case of Permalloy Ni80Fe20 at finite temperature or in thin-film form, where several kinds of scatterers exist. Predicted values of 1/τsr and Δρ are plotted versus resistivity of the sample. These predictions are compared to values of 1/τsr and Δρ derived from ferromagnetic-resonance and AMR experiments in Permalloy.

  14. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  15. Boldine protects endothelial function in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress through an antioxidant mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yeh Siang; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu; Murugan, Dharmani; Achike, Francis I; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2013-02-01

    Increased oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes. Antioxidants are therapeutically beneficial for oxidative stress-associated diseases. Boldine ([s]-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxyaporphine) is a major alkaloid present in the leaves and bark of the boldo tree (Peumus boldus Molina), with known an antioxidant activity. This study examined the protective effects of boldine against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) and its mechanisms of vasoprotection related to diabetic endothelial dysfunction. In RAEC exposed to high glucose (30 mM) for 48 h, pre-treatment with boldine reduced the elevated ROS and nitrotyrosine formation, and preserved nitric oxide (NO) production. Pre-incubation with β-NAPDH reduced the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation; this attenuation was reversed by boldine. Compared with control, endothelium-dependent relaxation in the aortas of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats was significantly improved by both acute (1 μM, 30 min) and chronic (20mg/kg/daily, i.p., 7 days) treatment with boldine. Intracellular superoxide and peroxynitrite formation measured by DHE fluorescence or chemiluminescence assay were higher in sections of aortic rings from diabetic rats compared with control. Chronic boldine treatment normalized ROS over-production in the diabetic group and this correlated with reduction of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits, NOX2 and p47(phox). The present study shows that boldine reversed the increased ROS formation in high glucose-treated endothelial cells and restored endothelial function in STZ-induced diabetes by inhibiting oxidative stress and thus increasing NO bioavailability. PMID:23178655

  16. Catechin averts experimental diabetes mellitus-induced vascular endothelial structural and functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Khanna, Deepa; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an induction of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED), an initial event that could lead to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Previous studies showed that catechin, a key component of green tea, possesses vascular beneficial effects. We investigated the effect of catechin hydrate in diabetes mellitus-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities (VEA). Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p., once) administration to rats produced diabetes mellitus, which subsequently induced VEA in 8 weeks by markedly attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the isolated aortic ring preparation, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations and impairing aortic endothelial integrity. These abnormalities in diabetic rats were accompanied with elevated aortic superoxide anion generation and serum lipid peroxidation in addition to hyperglycemia. Catechin hydrate treatment (50 mg/kg/day p.o., 3 weeks) markedly prevented diabetes mellitus-induced VEA and vascular oxidative stress. Intriguingly, in vitro incubation of L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, or Wortmannin (100 nM), a selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), markedly prevented catechin hydrate-induced improvement in acetylcholine-provoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in the diabetic rat aorta. Moreover, catechin hydrate treatment considerably reduced the elevated level of serum glucose in diabetic rats. In conclusion, catechin hydrate treatment prevents diabetes mellitus-induced VED through the activation of endothelial PI3K signal and subsequent activation of eNOS and generation of nitric oxide. In addition, reduction in high glucose, vascular oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation might additionally contribute to catechin hydrate-associated prevention of diabetic VEA. PMID:24048981

  17. The Gatekeepers in the Mouse Ophthalmic Artery: Endothelium-Dependent Mechanisms of Cholinergic Vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Manicam, Caroline; Staubitz, Julia; Brochhausen, Christoph; Grus, Franz H.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Gericke, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic regulation of arterial luminal diameter involves intricate network of intercellular communication between the endothelial and smooth muscle cells that is highly dependent on the molecular mediators released by the endothelium. Albeit the well-recognized contribution of nitric oxide (NO) towards vasodilation, the identity of compensatory mechanisms that maintain vasomotor tone when NO synthesis is deranged remain largely unknown in the ophthalmic artery. This is the first study to identify the vasodilatory signalling mechanisms of the ophthalmic artery employing wild type mice. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasodilation was only partially attenuated when NO synthesis was inhibited. Intriguingly, the combined blocking of cytochrome P450 oxygenase (CYP450) and lipoxygenase (LOX), as well as CYP450 and gap junctions, abolished vasodilation; demonstrating that the key compensatory mechanisms comprise arachidonic acid metabolites which, work in concert with gap junctions for downstream signal transmission. Furthermore, the voltage-gated potassium ion channel, Kv1.6, was functionally relevant in mediating vasodilation. Its localization was found exclusively in the smooth muscle. In conclusion, ACh-induced vasodilation of mouse ophthalmic artery is mediated in part by NO and predominantly via arachidonic acid metabolites, with active involvement of gap junctions. Particularly, the Kv1.6 channel represents an attractive therapeutic target in ophthalmopathologies when NO synthesis is compromised. PMID:26831940

  18. Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Christopher P.; Hind, William H.; Tufarelli, Cristina; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The protective effects of cannabidiol (CBD) have been widely shown in preclinical models and have translated into medicines for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. However, the direct vascular effects of CBD in humans are unknown. Methods and results Using wire myography, the vascular effects of CBD were assessed in human mesenteric arteries, and the mechanisms of action probed pharmacologically. CBD-induced intracellular signalling was characterized using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). CBD caused acute, non-recoverable vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries with an Rmax of ∼40%. This was inhibited by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) receptor antagonists, desensitization of transient receptor potential channels using capsaicin, removal of the endothelium, and inhibition of potassium efflux. There was no role for cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) receptor, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ, the novel endothelial cannabinoid receptor (CBe), or cyclooxygenase. CBD-induced vasorelaxation was blunted in males, and in patients with type 2 diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. In HAECs, CBD significantly reduced phosphorylated JNK, NFκB, p70s6 K and STAT5, and significantly increased phosphorylated CREB, ERK1/2, and Akt levels. CBD also increased phosphorylated eNOS (ser1177), which was correlated with increased levels of ERK1/2 and Akt levels. CB1 receptor antagonism prevented the increase in eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion This study shows, for the first time, that CBD causes vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via activation of CB1 and TRP channels, and is endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent. PMID:26092099

  19. Habitual exercise may maintain endothelium-dependent dilation in overweight postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kate; Maresh, Carl M; Ballard, Kevin D; Creighton, Brent C; Pryor, J Luke; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Anderson, Jeff M

    2015-01-01

    Compared with their physically active peers, overweight sedentary postmenopausal women demonstrate impaired vascular endothelial function (VEF), substantially increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Habitual exercise is associated with improved VEF and reduced CVD risk. The purpose of this study was to compare brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of VEF, in overweight, postmenopausal women who were physically active (EX: n = 17, BMI: 29.3 ± 3.11 kg/m2) or sedentary (CON: n = 8, BMI: 30.3 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Anthropomorphic measures were similar in both groups (P > .05). FMD was significantly greater in EX (10.24 ± 2.36%) versus CON (6.60 ± 2.18%) (P < .002). FMD was not significantly correlated with estimated VO2max (EX: r = .17, P = .52; CON: r = .20, P = .60) but was negatively associated with percent body fat in EX group (EX: r = -.48, P = .05; CON: r = .41, P = .31). These results are consistent with the positive effects of habitual exercise on VEF in overweight postmenopausal women.

  20. Diversity in Mechanisms of Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Matthew J.; Gutterman, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Small arterioles (40–150 μm) contribute to the majority of vascular resistance within organs and tissues. Under resting conditions, the basal tone of these vessels is determined by a delicate balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor influences. Cardiovascular homeostasis and regional tissue perfusion is largely a function of the ability of these small blood vessels to constrict or dilate in response to the changing metabolic demands of specific tissues. The endothelial cell layer of these microvessels is a key modulator of vasodilation through the synthesis and release of vasoactive substances. Beyond their vasomotor properties, these compounds importantly modulate vascular cell proliferation, inflammation, and thrombosis. Thus the balance between local regulation of vascular tone and vascular pathophysiology can vary depending upon which factors are released from the endothelium. This review will focus on the dynamic nature of the endothelial released dilator factors depending on species, anatomic site, and presence of disease, with a focus on the human coronary microcirculation. Knowledge how endothelial signaling changes with disease may provide insights into the early stages of developing vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, or related vascular pathologies. PMID:23311975

  1. Effects of Various Forms of Relaxation Training on Physiological and Self-Report Measures of Relaxation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinking, Richard H.; Kohl, Marilyn L.

    1975-01-01

    Examines relative effectiveness of four types of relaxation training including Jacobson-Wolpe and electromyograph (EMG) feedback. Dependent measures are EMG recordings and self-report measures of relaxation. All groups reported increased relaxation, but EMG groups were superior in EMG measures of speed of learning and depth of relaxation.…

  2. Relation between Direct Observation of Relaxation and Self-Reported Mindfulness and Relaxation States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Lacey S.; Lundervold, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Forty-four individuals, 18-47 (MN 21.8, SD 5.63) years of age, took part in a study examining the magnitude and direction of the relationship between self-report and direct observation measures of relaxation and mindfulness. The Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS), a valid direct observation measure of relaxation, was used to assess relaxed behavior…

  3. Dynamics of Glass Relaxation at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Roger C.; Smith, John R.; Potuzak, Marcel; Guo, Xiaoju; Bowden, Bradley F.; Kiczenski, T. J.; Allan, Douglas C.; King, Ellyn A.; Ellison, Adam J.; Mauro, John C.

    2013-06-01

    The problem of glass relaxation under ambient conditions has intrigued scientists and the general public for centuries, most notably in the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows. Here we report quantitative measurement of glass relaxation at room temperature. We find that Corning® Gorilla® Glass shows measurable and reproducible relaxation at room temperature. Remarkably, this relaxation follows a stretched exponential decay rather than simple exponential relaxation, and the value of the stretching exponent (β=3/7) follows a theoretical prediction made by Phillips for homogeneous glasses.

  4. Distinguishing spin relaxation mechanisms in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Harmon, N J; Flatté, M E

    2013-04-26

    A theory is introduced for spin relaxation and spin diffusion of hopping carriers in a disordered system. For disorder described by a distribution of waiting times between hops (e.g., from multiple traps, site-energy disorder, and/or positional disorder) the dominant spin relaxation mechanisms in organic semiconductors (hyperfine, hopping-induced spin-orbit, and intrasite spin relaxation) each produce different characteristic spin relaxation and spin diffusion dependences on temperature. The resulting unique experimental signatures predicted by the theory for each mechanism in organic semiconductors provide a prescription for determining the dominant spin relaxation mechanism. PMID:23679752

  5. Unusual fast secondary relaxation in metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Zhang, S.T.; Yang, Y.; Dong, Y.D.; Liu, C.T.; Lu, J.

    2015-01-01

    The relaxation spectrum of glassy solids has long been used to probe their dynamic structural features and the fundamental deformation mechanisms. Structurally complicated glasses, such as molecular glasses, often exhibit multiple relaxation processes. By comparison, metallic glasses have a simple atomic structure with dense atomic packing, and their relaxation spectra were commonly found to be simpler than those of molecular glasses. Here we show the compelling evidence obtained across a wide range of temperatures and frequencies from a La-based metallic glass, which clearly shows two peaks of secondary relaxations (fast versus slow) in addition to the primary relaxation peak. The discovery of the unusual fast secondary relaxation unveils the complicated relaxation dynamics in metallic glasses and, more importantly, provides us the clues which help decode the structural features serving as the ‘trigger' of inelasticity on mechanical agitations. PMID:26204999

  6. Biaxial stress relaxation in glassy polymers - Polymethylmethacrylate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternstein, S. S.; Ho, T. C.

    1972-01-01

    Biaxial stress relaxation studies were performed on glassy polymethylmethacrylate in combined torsion-tension strain fields using a specially designed apparatus with exceptionally high stiffness and low cross talk between the torsional and tensile load measuring transducers. It was found that at low strain levels uniaxial tension relaxation is slower than pure torsion relaxation; tensile-component relaxation rates are unaffected by the level of torsional strain; torsional-component relaxation rates decrease as tensile strain is increased; uniaxial tension relaxation rates approach the pure torsion rates at higher strains (about 2%). A phenomenological treatment is presented which shows that relaxation rates can be coupled to the strain fields in which they are observed and yet be consistent with the concepts of linear viscoelasticity and the Boltzmann superposition integral.

  7. Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts.

    PubMed

    Popov, M; Popov, V L; Pohrt, R

    2015-01-01

    If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect "relaxation damping". The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed. PMID:26549011

  8. Violent relaxation of ellipsoidal clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhaiem, David; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    An isolated, initially cold and ellipsoidal cloud of self-gravitating particles represents a relatively simple system in which to study the effects of deviations from spherical symmetry in the mechanism of violent relaxation. Initial deviations from spherical symmetry are shown to play a dynamical role that is equivalent to that of density fluctuations in the case of an initially spherical cloud. Indeed, these deviations control the amount of particle-energy change and thus determine the properties of the final energy distribution, particularly the appearance of two species of particles: bound and free. Ejection of mass and energy from the system, together with the formation of a density profile decaying as ρ(r) ˜ r-4 and a Keplerian radial velocity dispersion profile, are prominent features similar to those observed after the violent relaxation of spherical clouds. In addition, we find that ejected particles are characterized by highly non-spherical shapes, the features of which can be traced in the initial deviations from spherical symmetry that are amplified during the dynamical evolution: particles can indeed form anisotropic configurations, like bars and/or discs, even though the initial cloud was very close to spherical.

  9. Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts

    PubMed Central

    Popov, M.; Popov, V.L.; Pohrt, R.

    2015-01-01

    If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect “relaxation damping”. The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed. PMID:26549011

  10. The bimodal regulation of vascular function by superoxide anion: role of endothelium.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Buket; McKeown, Pascal P; Dvm, Ulvi Bayraktutan

    2008-03-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in vascular homeostasis. This study investigated whether O(2) (*-), the foundationmolecule of all ROS, regulates vasomotor function. Hence, vascular reactivity was measured using rat thoracic aortas exposed to an O(2) (*-) generator (pyrogallol) which dose-dependently regulated both alpha-adrenergic agonist-mediated contractility to phenylephrine and endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine. Pyrogallol improved and attenuated responses to acetylcholine at its lower (10 nM - 1 microM) and higher (10 - 100 microM) concentrations, respectively while producing the inverse effects with phenylephrine. The endothelial inactivation by L-NAME abolished acetylcholine-induced vasodilatations but increased phenylephrine and KCl-induced vasoconstrictions regardless of the pyrogallol dose used. Relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, were not affected by pyrogallol. Other ROS i.e. peroxynitrite and H(2)O(2) that may be produced during experiments did not alter vascular functions. These findings suggest that the nature of O(2) (*-)-evoked vascular function is determined by its local concentration and the presence of a functional endothelium.

  11. A numerical study of vector resonant relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Bence; Tremaine, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Stars bound to a supermassive black hole interact gravitationally. Persistent torques acting between stellar orbits lead to a rapid resonant relaxation of the orbital orientation vectors (`vector' resonant relaxation) and slower relaxation of the eccentricities (`scalar' resonant relaxation), both at rates much faster than two-body or non-resonant relaxation. We describe a new parallel symplectic integrator, N-RING, which follows the dynamical evolution of a cluster of N stars through vector resonant relaxation, by averaging the pairwise interactions over the orbital period and periapsis precession time-scale. We use N-RING to follow the evolution of clusters containing over 104 stars for tens of relaxation times. Among other results, we find that the evolution is dominated by torques among stars with radially overlapping orbits, and that resonant relaxation can be modelled as a random walk of the orbit normals on the sphere, with angular step size ranging from ˜0.5-1 rad. The relaxation rate in a cluster with a fixed number of stars is proportional to the root mean square (rms) mass of the stars. The rms torque generated by the cluster stars is reduced below the torque between Kepler orbits due to apsidal precession and declines weakly with the eccentricity of the perturbed orbit. However, since the angular momentum of an orbit also decreases with eccentricity, the relaxation rate is approximately eccentricity-independent for e ≲ 0.7 and grows rapidly with eccentricity for e ≳ 0.8. We quantify the relaxation using the autocorrelation function of the spherical multipole moments; this decays exponentially and the e-folding time may be identified with the vector resonant relaxation time-scale.

  12. Dielectric relaxation in a protein matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.W.; Boxer, S.G.

    1992-06-25

    The dielectric relaxation of a sperm whale ApoMb-DANCA complex is measured by the fluorescence dynamic Stokes shift method. Emission energy increases with decreasing temperature, suggesting that the relaxation activation energies of the rate-limiting motions either depend on the conformational substrate or different types of protein motions with different frequencies participate in the reaction. Experimental data suggest that there may be relaxations on a scale of <100 ps. 61 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.

  14. Delayed Over-Relaxation for iterative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antuono, M.; Colicchio, G.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a variant of the relaxation step used in the most widespread iterative methods (e.g. Jacobi Over-Relaxation, Successive Over-Relaxation) which combines the iteration at the predicted step, namely (n + 1), with the iteration at step (n - 1). We provide a theoretical analysis of the proposed algorithm by applying such a delayed relaxation step to a generic (convergent) iterative scheme. We prove that, under proper assumptions, this significantly improves the convergence rate of the initial iterative method. As a relevant example, we apply the proposed algorithm to the solution of the Poisson equation, highlighting the advantages in comparison with classical iterative models.

  15. Lavender fragrance cleansing gel effects on relaxation.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Cisneros, Wendy; Feijo, Larissa; Vera, Yanexy; Gil, Karla; Grina, Diana; Claire He, Qing

    2005-02-01

    Alertness, mood, and math computations were assessed in 11 healthy adults who sniffed a cosmetic cleansing gel with lavender floral blend aroma, developed to be relaxing using Mood Mapping. EEG patterns and heart rate were also recorded before, during, and after the aroma session. The lavender fragrance blend had a significant transient effect of improving mood, making people feel more relaxed, and performing the math computation faster. The self-report and physiological data are consistent with relaxation profiles during other sensory stimuli such as massage and music, as reported in the literature. The data suggest that a specific cosmetic fragrance can have a significant role in enhancing relaxation.

  16. Enhanced Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation via Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Is Involved in the Preserved Vasodilation in Aortas from Metabolic Syndrome Rats.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Kana; Kagota, Satomi; McGuire, John J; Wakuda, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinozuka, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium-dependent vasodilation via protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is preserved in mesenteric arteries from SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats (SHRSP.ZF) with metabolic syndrome even though nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation is attenuated. Therefore, we examined the PAR2 mechanisms underlying metabolic syndrome-resistant vasodilation in SHRSP.ZF aortas with ageing. In isolated aortas, the PAR2 agonist 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide (2fly) caused vasodilation that was sustained in male SHRSP.ZF until 18 weeks of age, but was attenuated afterwards compared with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (controls) at 23 weeks. In contrast, acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was impaired in SHRSP.ZF already at 18 weeks of age. Treatments of aortas with inhibitors of NO synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase abolished the sustained 2fly- and residual acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in SHRSP.ZF at 18 weeks of age. In the aortas of SHRSP.ZF, 8-bromo-cGMP-induced vasodilation, NO production and cGMP accumulation elicited by 2fly were not different from in the controls. PAR2 agonist increased phospho-Ser1177-eNOS protein content only in SHRSP.ZF aortas. These results indicate that vasodilation mediated by PAR2 is sustained even though NO-dependent relaxation is attenuated with ageing/exposure to metabolic disorders in large-caliber arteries from SHRSP.ZF. PAR2 stimulation of NO production via an additional pathway that targets phosphorylation of Ser1177-eNOS suggests a regulatory mechanism for sustaining agonist-mediated vasodilation in metabolic syndrome.

  17. Diesel exhaust particles induce endothelial dysfunction in apoE{sup -/-} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Christian S.; Sheykhzade, Majid; Moller, Peter; Folkmann, Janne Kjaergaard; Amtorp, Ole; Jonassen, Thomas; Loft, Steffen . E-mail: s.loft@pubhealth.ku.dk

    2007-02-15

    Background: Particulate air pollution can aggravate cardiovascular disease by mechanisms suggested to involve translocation of particles to the bloodstream and impairment of endothelial function, possibly dependent on present atherosclerosis. Aim: We investigated the effects of exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in vivo and ex vivo on vasomotor functions in aorta from apoE{sup -/-} mice with slight atherosclerosis and from normal apoE{sup +/+} mice. Methods: DEP 0, 0.5 or 5 mg/kg bodyweight in saline was administered i.p. The mice were sacrificed 1 h later and aorta ring segments were mounted on wire myographs. Segments from unexposed mice were also incubated ex vivo with 0, 10 and 100 {mu}g DEP/ml before measurement of vasomotor functions. Results: Exposure to 0.5 mg/kg DEP in vivo caused a decrease in the endothelium-dependent acetylcholine elicited vasorelaxation in apoE{sup -/-} mice, whereas the response was enhanced in apoE{sup +/+} mice. No significant change was observed after administration of 5 mg/kg DEP. In vivo DEP exposure did not affect constriction induced by K{sup +} or phenylephrine. In vitro exposure to 100 {mu}g DEP/ml enhanced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and attenuated phenylephrine-induced constriction. Vasodilation induced by sodium nitroprusside was not affected by any DEP exposure. Conclusion: Exposure to DEP has acute effect on vascular functions. Endothelial dysfunction possibly due to decreased NO production as suggested by decreased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation and unchanged sodium nitroprusside response can be induced by DEP in vivo only in vessels of mice with some atherosclerosis.

  18. Isometric squeeze relaxation (progressive relaxation) vs meditation: absorption and focusing as predictors of state effects.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, M; Smith, J C

    1992-12-01

    We taught isometric squeeze relaxation (a variant of progressive relaxation) or meditation to 52 anxious subjects (16 men, 36 women). For meditation, pretreatment high absorption correlated with reductions in state cognitive and somatic anxiety as well as increments in state focusing. For isometric squeeze relaxation, pretreatment low state focusing correlated with reductions in somatic anxiety and increments in focusing. Results suggest that isometric squeeze relaxation (and progressive relaxation) may be more appropriate for individuals who have difficulty focusing, and meditation for those who already possess well-developed relaxation skills at a trait level. The results appear more consistent with Smith's cognitive-behavioral model of relaxation than with Benson's relaxation response or Davidson and Schwartz's specific effects models.

  19. Zen meditation and ABC relaxation theory: an exploration of relaxation states, beliefs, dispositions, and motivations.

    PubMed

    Gillani, N B; Smith, J C

    2001-06-01

    This study is an attempt to rigorously map the psychological effects of Zen meditation among experienced practitioners. Fifty-nine Zen meditators with at least six years of experience practiced an hour of traditional Zazen seated meditation. A control group of 24 college students spent 60 min silently reading popular magazines. Before relaxation, all participants took the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (SRSI), the Smith Relaxation Dispositions/Motivations Inventory (SRD/MI), and the Smith Relaxation Beliefs Inventory (SRBI). After practice, participants again took the SRSI. Analyses revealed that meditators are less likely to believe in God, more likely to believe in Inner Wisdom, and more likely to display the relaxation dispositions Mental Quiet, Mental Relaxation, and Timeless/Boundless/Infinite. Pre- and postsession analyses revealed that meditators showed greater increments in the relaxation states Mental Quiet, Love and Thankfulness, and Prayerfulness, as well as reduced Worry. Results support Smith's ABC Relaxation Theory.

  20. Clinical relevance of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)

    PubMed Central

    Bassenge, E.

    1992-01-01

    1 In addition to metabolic and neurohumoral factors endothelium-derived autacoids like the nitric oxide radical NO and prostacyclin are effective regulators of vascular tone and thus tissue perfusion. NO is produced in endothelial cells from L-arginine by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme NO synthase. In addition, the NO radical is ultimately cleaved from all nitrovasodilators and resembles their vasoactive and antiaggregatory principle, which is used under pathological conditions as substitution therapy for impaired endothelial function and autacoid production. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasomotor control has been documented in hypercholesterolaemia, atheromatosis, diabetes, hypertension, and in reperfusion damage. L-arginine supplementation is effective in a few instances. PMID:1633078

  1. Analysis of sawtooth relaxation oscillations in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, K.; McGuire, K.; Okabayashi, M.

    1982-07-01

    Sawtooth relaxation oscillations are analyzed using the Kadomtsev's disruption model and a thermal relaxation model. The sawtooth period is found to be very sensitive to the thermal conduction loss. Qualitative agreement between these calculations and the sawtooth period observed in several tokamaks is demonstrated.

  2. Magnetization Transfer Induced Biexponential Longitudinal Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Prantner, Andrew M.; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Garbow, Joel R.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal relaxation of brain water 1H magnetization in mammalian brain in vivo is typically analyzed on a per voxel basis using a monoexponential model, thereby assigning a single relaxation time constant to all 1H magnetization within a given voxel. This approach was tested by obtaining inversion recovery data from grey matter of rats at 64 exponentially-spaced recovery times. Using Bayesian probability for model selection, brain water data were best represented by a biexponential function characterized by fast and slow relaxation components. At 4.7 T, the amplitude fraction of the rapidly relaxing component is 3.4 ± 0.7 % with a rate constant of 44 ± 12 s-1 (mean ± SD; 174 voxels from 4 rats). The rate constant of the slow relaxing component is 0.66 ± 0.04 s-1. At 11.7 T, the corresponding values are 6.9 ± 0.9 %, 19 ± 5 s-1, and 0.48 ± 0.02 s-1 (151 voxels from 4 rats). Several putative mechanisms for biexponential relaxation behavior were evaluated, and magnetization transfer between bulk water protons and non-aqueous protons was determined to be the source of biexponential longitudinal relaxation. MR methods requiring accurate quantification of longitudinal relaxation may need to take this effect explicitly into account. PMID:18759367

  3. Enthalpy relaxation and annealing effect in polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-07-01

    The effects of thermal history on the enthalpy relaxation in polystyrene are studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The temperature dependence of the specific heat in the liquid and the glassy states, that of relaxation time, and the exponent of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function are determined by measurements of the thermal response against sinusoidal temperature variation. A phenomenological model equation previously proposed to interpret the memory effect in the frozen state is applied to the enthalpy relaxation and the evolution of entropy under a given thermal history is calculated. The annealing below the glass transition temperature produces two effects on enthalpy relaxation: the decay of excess entropy with annealing time in the early stage of annealing and the increase in relaxation time due to physical aging in the later stage. The crossover of these effects is reflected in the variation of temperature of the maximum specific heat observed in the heating process after annealing and cooling.

  4. Characterization and modulation of EDHF-mediated relaxations in the rat isolated superior mesenteric arterial bed

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Audrey I; Bottrill, Fiona E; Randall, Michael D; Robin Hiley, C

    1997-01-01

    presence of high K+ was abolished by L-NAME (100 μM; n=5). In preparations preconstricted with high K+, the potency of sodium nitroprusside was not significantly different from that in preparations precontracted with methoxamine, though the maximal response was reduced (62.4±3.4% high K+, n=7; 83.1±3.1% control, n=7).In the presence of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor, clotrimazole (1 μM, n=5 and 10 μM, n=4), the dose-response curve to carbachol was significantly shifted to the right 2 fold (P<0.05) and 4 fold (P<0.001) respectively, an effect which was further enhanced in the presence of L-NAME. Rmax was significantly (P<0.01) reduced by the presence of 10 μM clotrimazole alone, being 86.9±2.5% in its absence and 61.8±7.8% in its presence (n=6).In the presence of the cell permeable analogue of cyclic GMP, 8-bromo cyclic GMP (6 μM), the inhibitory effects of L-NAME on carbachol-induced relaxation were substantially enhanced (ED50: L-NAME alone, 0.52±0.11 nmol, n=5; L-NAME+8-bromo cyclic GMP, 1.42±0.28 nmol, n=7. Rmax: L-NAME alone, 82.2±2.4%; L-NAME+8-bromo cyclic GMP, 59.1±1.8%. P<0.001). These results suggest that the magnitude of the NO-independent component of vasorelaxation is reduced when functional cyclic GMP levels are maintained, suggesting that basal NO (via cyclic GMP) may modulate EDHF activity and, therefore, on loss of basal NO production the EDHF component of endothelium-dependent relaxations becomes functionally greater.The present investigation demonstrates that muscaranic receptor-induced vasorelaxation in the rat mesenteric arterial bed is mediated by both NO-dependent and independent mechanisms. The L-NAME-insensitive mechanism, most probably occurs via activation of a K+ conductance and shows the characteristics of EDHF-mediated responses. Finally, the results demonstrate that EDHF activity may become upregulated on inhibition of NO production and this may compensate for the loss of NO. PMID:9113362

  5. Postseismic relaxation and transient creep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Yu, S.-B.

    2005-01-01

    Postseismic deformation has been observed in the epicentral area following the 1992 Landers (M = 7.3), 1999 Chi-Chi (M = 7.6), 1999 Hector Mine (M = 7.1), 2002 Denali (M = 7.9), 2003 San Simeon (M = 6.5), and 2004 Parkfield (M = 6.0) earthquakes. The observations consist of repeated GPS measurements of the position of one monument relative to another (separation ???100 km). The early observations (t < 0.1 year) are well fit by the function a' + c'log(t), where t is the time after the earthquake and a' and c' are constants chosen to fit the data. Because a log(t) time dependence is characteristic of transient (primary) creep, the early postseismic response may be governed by transient creep as Benioff proposed in 1951. That inference is provisional as the stress conditions prevailing in postseismic relaxation are not identical to the constant stress condition in creep experiments. The observed logarithmic time dependence includes no characteristic time that might aid in identifying the micromechanical cause.

  6. Measurement of Young's relaxation modulus using nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Gang; Lu, Hongbing

    2006-09-01

    In a previous paper (Lu et al., Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials, 7, 2003, 189 207), we described methods to measure the creep compliance of polymers using Berkovich and spherical indenters by nanoindentation. However, the relaxation modulus is often needed in stress and deformation analysis. It has been well known that the interconversion between creep compliance and relaxation function presents an ill-posed problem, so that converting the creep compliance function to the relaxation function cannot always give accurate results, especially considering that the creep data at short times in nanoindentation are often not reliable, and the overall nanoindentation time is short, typically a few hundred seconds. In this paper, we present methods to measure Young’s relaxation functions directly using nanoindentation. A constant-rate displacement loading history is usually used in nanoindentations. Using viscoelastic contact mechanics, Young’s relaxation modulus is extracted using nanoindentation load-displacement data. Three bulk polymers, Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA), Polycarbonate (PC) and Polyurethane (PU), are used in this study. The Young’s relaxation functions measured from the nanoindentation are compared with data measured from conventional tensile and shear tests to evaluate the precision of the methods. A reasonably good agreement has been reached for all these materials for indentation depth higher than a certain value, providing reassurance for these methods for measuring relaxation functions.

  7. A physiological and subjective evaluation of meditation, hypnosis, and relaxation.

    PubMed

    Morse, D R; Martin, J S; Furst, M L; Dubin, L L

    1977-01-01

    Ss were monitored for respiratory rate, pulse rate, blood pressure, skin resistance, EEG activity, and muscle activity. They were monitored during the alert state, meditation (TM or simple word type), hypnosis (relaxation and task types), and relaxation. Ss gave a verbal comparative evaluation of each state. The results showed significantly better relaxation responses for the relaxation states (relaxation, relaxation-hypnosis, meditation) than for the alert state. There were no significant differences between the relaxation states except for the measure "muscle activity" in which meditation was significantly better than the other relaxation states. Overall, there were significant differences between task-hypnosis and relaxation-hypnosis. No significant differences were found between TM and simple word meditation. For the subjective measures, relaxation-hypnosis and meditation were significantly better than relaxation, but no significant differences were found between meditation and relaxation-hypnosis.

  8. Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times in 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wink, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the mechanisms of nuclear magnetic relaxation, and applications of relaxation times. The measurement of spin-lattice relaxations is reviewed. It is stressed that sophisticated techniques such as these are becoming more important to the working chemist. (CW)

  9. Relaxation of vibrational degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohn, A.

    Shock tubes were used to measure relaxation times of the degrees of freedom in inelastic collisions of gas molecules. Design and construction of the experimental setup are described. For relaxation time measurements of vibrational degrees of freedom an initial pressure between 0.1 and 1 mbar is found to be optimal, and for dissociation between 1 and 10 mbar. The density gradients in the shock tube flow are measured with four differential laser interferometers and plotted with a transient recorder. A FORTRAN program was developed to determine the relaxation times. This measurement technique does not in general allow the degrees of freedom to be investigated separately.

  10. Relaxation time in disordered molecular systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Rodrigo P.; Freire, José A.

    2015-05-28

    Relaxation time is the typical time it takes for a closed physical system to attain thermal equilibrium. The equilibrium is brought about by the action of a thermal reservoir inducing changes in the system micro-states. The relaxation time is intuitively expected to increase with system disorder. We derive a simple analytical expression for this dependence in the context of electronic equilibration in an amorphous molecular system model. We find that the disorder dramatically enhances the relaxation time but does not affect its independence of the nature of the initial state.

  11. Collisionless Relaxation in Non-Neutral Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Yan; Pakter, Renato; Teles, Tarcisio N.

    2008-02-01

    A theoretical framework is presented which allows us to quantitatively predict the final stationary state achieved by a non-neutral plasma during a process of collisionless relaxation. As a specific application, the theory is used to study relaxation of charged-particle beams. It is shown that a fully matched beam relaxes to the Lynden-Bell distribution. However, when a mismatch is present and the beam oscillates, parametric resonances lead to a core-halo phase separation. The approach developed accounts for both the density and the velocity distributions in the final stationary state.

  12. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  13. Requirements for muscle relaxation in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Mouloudi, H; Katsanoulas, C; Frantzeskos, G

    1998-02-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is an inherited disorder of the nervous system, requiring special care during anaesthesia, because of increased sensitivity to muscle relaxants. We report a case of Friedreich's ataxia in a 31-year-old woman, anaesthetised on two occasions, for tendinoplasty and pes cavus repair. Atracurium was used for neuromuscular blockade and monitored by a train-of-four twitch technique. The patient's response was normal. She returned to adequate spontaneous breathing within 20 min of the last dose of the muscle relaxant without need for anticholinesterase administration. When neuromuscular function is monitored, normal doses of muscle relaxant can safely be used in these patients.

  14. Evidence that different mechanisms underlie smooth muscle relaxation to nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors in the rabbit isolated carotid artery

    PubMed Central

    Plane, Frances; Wiley, Katherine E; Jeremy, Jamie Y; Cohen, Richard A; Garland, Christopher J

    1998-01-01

    The endothelium-dependent relaxants acetylcholine (ACh; 0.03–10 μM) and A23187 (0.03–10 μM), and nitric oxide (NO), applied either as authentic NO (0.01–10 μM) or as the NO donors 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1; 0.1–10 μM) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 0.1–10 μM), each evoked concentration-dependent relaxation in phenylephrine stimulated (1–3 μM; mean contraction and depolarization, 45.8±5.3 mV and 31.5±3.3 mN; n=10) segments of rabbit isolated carotid artery. In each case, relaxation closely correlated with repolarization of the smooth muscle membrane potential and stimulated a maximal reversal of around 95% and 98% of the phenylephrine-induced depolarization and contraction, respectively.In tissues stimulated with 30 mM KCl rather than phenylephrine, smooth muscle hyperpolarization and relaxation to ACh, A23187, authentic NO and the NO donors were dissociated. Whereas the hyperpolarization was reduced by 75–80% to around a total of 10 mV, relaxation was only inhibited by 35% (n=4–7 in each case; P<0.01). The responses which persisted to ACh and A23187 in the presence of 30 mM KCl were abolished by either the NO synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 μM) or the inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 10 μM; 10 min; n=4 in each case; P<0.01).Exposure to ODQ significantly attenuated both repolarization and relaxation to ACh, A23187 and authentic NO, reducing the maximum changes in both membrane potential and tension to each relaxant to around 60% of control values (n=4 in each case; P<0.01). In contrast, ODQ almost completely inhibited repolarization and relaxation to SIN-1 and SNAP, reducing the maximum responses to around 8% in each case (n=3–5; P<0.01).The potassium channel blockers glibenclamide (10 μM), iberiotoxin (100 nM) and apamin (50 nM), alone or in combination, had no significant effect on relaxation to ACh

  15. Direct vascular actions of quercetin in aorta from renal hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seok; Ryu, Kwon Ho; Park, Sang Hag; Jun, Jae Yeoul; Shin, Byung Chul; Chung, Jong Hoon; Yeum, Cheol Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic treatment with the dietary flavonoid quercetin is known to lower blood pressure and restore endothelial dysfunction in animal models of hypertension. This study investigated the direct effects of quercetin on vascular response in chronic 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) renal hypertensive rats. The effects of antioxidant vitamin ascorbic acid on the vasoreactivity were also examined. Methods 2K1C renal hypertension was induced by clipping the left renal artery; age-matched rats that received sham treatment served as controls. Thoracic aortae were mounted in tissue baths for the measurement of isometric tension. Results Relaxant responses to acetylcholine were significantly attenuated in 2K1C rats in comparison with sham rats. Quercetin or ascorbic acid augmented acetylcholine-induced relaxation in 2K1C rats, whereas no significant differences were noted in sham rats. The relaxation response to sodium nitroprusside was comparable between 2K1C and sham rats, and sodium nitroprusside–induced relaxation was not altered by quercetin or ascorbic acid in either group. The contractile response to phenylephrine was significantly enhanced in 2K1C rats compared with sham rats. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was inhibited by pretreatment with quercetin or ascorbic acid in 2K1C rats, whereas neither chemical affected responses in sham rats. Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester markedly augmented the contractile response to phenylephrine in sham rats, whereas no significant differences were observed in 2K1C rats. Quercetin or ascorbic acid did not affect phenylephrine-induced contraction in the presence of Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in either 2K1C or sham rats. Conclusion Acute exposure to quercetin appears to improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and inhibit the contractile response, similar to the effect of ascorbic acid in 2K1C hypertension. These results partially explain the vascular beneficial effects of quercetin in renal hypertension. PMID:27069853

  16. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use. PMID:20645769

  17. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  18. Protein dynamics from nuclear magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Cyril; Cousin, Samuel F; Ferrage, Fabien

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is a ubiquitous spectroscopic tool to explore molecules with atomic resolution. Nuclear magnetic relaxation is intimately connected to molecular motions. Many methods and models have been developed to measure and interpret the characteristic rates of nuclear magnetic relaxation in proteins. These approaches shed light on a rich and diverse range of motions covering timescales from picoseconds to seconds. Here, we introduce some of the basic concepts upon which these approaches are built and provide a series of illustrations.

  19. Relaxation techniques for children and young people.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, C

    1989-01-01

    The relaxation response, relaxation with mental imagery/self-hypnosis, and centering are techniques that can be used by the nurse practitioner in a variety of clinical situations to help children and young people manage stress. These approaches also can be used to treat certain common pediatric problems, such as headaches, enuresis, acute and chronic pain, and habit disorders. The techniques and their appropriate use are described. PMID:2647960

  20. METHOD OF HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS WITH STIFF RELAXATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. LOWRIE; J. E. MOREL

    2001-03-01

    Three methods are analyzed for solving a linear hyperbolic system that contains stiff relaxation. We show that the semi-discrete discontinuous Galerkin method, with a linear basis, is accurate when the relaxation time is unresolved (asymptotically preserving--AP). A recently developed central method is shown to be non-AP. To discriminate between AP and non-AP methods, we argue that one must study problems that are diffusion dominated.

  1. Relaxation techniques for children and young people.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, C

    1989-01-01

    The relaxation response, relaxation with mental imagery/self-hypnosis, and centering are techniques that can be used by the nurse practitioner in a variety of clinical situations to help children and young people manage stress. These approaches also can be used to treat certain common pediatric problems, such as headaches, enuresis, acute and chronic pain, and habit disorders. The techniques and their appropriate use are described.

  2. Rounded stretched exponential for time relaxation functions.

    PubMed

    Powles, J G; Heyes, D M; Rickayzen, G; Evans, W A B

    2009-12-01

    A rounded stretched exponential function is introduced, C(t)=exp{(tau(0)/tau(E))(beta)[1-(1+(t/tau(0))(2))(beta/2)]}, where t is time, and tau(0) and tau(E) are two relaxation times. This expression can be used to represent the relaxation function of many real dynamical processes, as at long times, t>tau(0), the function converges to a stretched exponential with normalizing relaxation time, tau(E), yet its expansion is even or symmetric in time, which is a statistical mechanical requirement. This expression fits well the shear stress relaxation function for model soft soft-sphere fluids near coexistence, with tau(E)relaxation (both the modulus and viscosity forms). It is shown that both the dielectric spectra and dynamic shear modulus imaginary parts approach the real axis with a slope equal to 0 at high frequency, whereas the dynamic viscosity has an infinite slope in the same limit. This indicates that inertial effects at high frequency are best discerned in the modulus rather than the viscosity Cole-Cole plot. As a consequence of the even expansion in time of the shear stress relaxation function, the value of the storage modulus derived from it at very high frequency exceeds that in the infinite frequency limit (i.e., G(infinity)).

  3. Dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Navjeet; Singh, Mohan; Singh, Lakhwant; Awasthi, A.M.; Lochab, S.P.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The present article reports the effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of muscovite mica. • Dielectric and electrical relaxations have been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and Cole–Cole formalisms. • The frequency dependent electrical conductivity has been rationalized using Johnsher’s universal power law. • The experimentally measured electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted using Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation function. - Abstract: In the present research, the dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica was studied in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz–10 MHz and temperature range of 653–853 K, using the dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. The dielectric constants (ϵ′ and ϵ′′) are found to be high for gamma irradiated muscovite mica as compared to the pristine sample. The frequency dependence of the imaginary part of complex electric modulus (M′′) and dc conductivity data conforms Arrhenius law with single value of activation energy for pristine sample and two values of activation energy for gamma irradiated mica sample. The experimentally assessed electric modulus and conductivity information have been interpreted by the Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation explanation. Using the Cole–Cole framework, an analysis of real and imaginary characters of the electric modulus for pristine and gamma irradiated sample was executed which reflects the non-Debye relaxation mechanism.

  4. Applied Relaxation as Training in Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang-Liang, Rosa; Denney, Douglas R.

    1976-01-01

    Text-anxious students who were high or low in general anxiety were treated with applied relaxation, systematic desensitization, relaxation only, or no treatment (control). The results indicated that applied relaxation was more effective in reducing anxiety than relaxation only and no treatment on measures of general anxiety and measures of test…

  5. Carrier relaxation dynamics in heavy fermion compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Demsar, J.; Tracy, L. A.; Averitt, R. D.; Trugman, S. A.; Sarrao, John L.,; Taylor, Antoinette J.,

    2002-01-01

    The first femtosecond carrier relaxation dynamics studies in heavy fermion compounds are presented. The carrier relaxation time shows a dramatic hundred-fold increase below the Kondo temperature revealing a dramatic sensitivity to the electronic density of states near the Fermi level. Femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy is an excellent experimental alternative to conventional spectroscopic methods that probe the low energy electronic structure in strongly correlated electron systems. In particular, it has been shown that carrier relaxation dynamics are very sensitive to changes in the low energy density of states (e.g. associated with the formation of a low energy gap or pseudogap) providing new insights into the low energy electronic structure in these materials. In this report we present the first studies of carrier relaxation dynamics in heavy fermion (HF) systems by means of femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the carrier relaxation dynamics, below the Kondo temperature (T{sub K}), are extremely sensitive to the low energy density of states (DOS) near the Ferini level to which localized f-moments contribute. Specifically, we have performed measurements of the photoinduced reflectivity {Delta}R/R dynamics as a function of temperature and excitation intensity on the series of HF compounds YbXCu{sub 4} (X = Ag, Cd, In) in comparison to their non-magnetic counterparts LuXCu{sub 4}.

  6. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong

    2016-01-01

    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures. PMID:26996253

  7. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong

    2016-03-21

    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.

  8. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong

    2016-03-01

    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.

  9. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong

    2016-01-01

    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures. PMID:26996253

  10. Convex relaxations for gas expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Borraz-Sanchez, Conrado; Bent, Russell Whitford; Backhaus, Scott N.; Hijazi, Hassan; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of natural gas networks is a critical process involving substantial capital expenditures with complex decision-support requirements. Here, given the non-convex nature of gas transmission constraints, global optimality and infeasibility guarantees can only be offered by global optimisation approaches. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art global optimisation solvers are unable to scale up to real-world size instances. In this study, we present a convex mixed-integer second-order cone relaxation for the gas expansion planning problem under steady-state conditions. The underlying model offers tight lower bounds with high computational efficiency. In addition, the optimal solution of the relaxation can often be used to derive high-quality solutions to the original problem, leading to provably tight optimality gaps and, in some cases, global optimal solutions. The convex relaxation is based on a few key ideas, including the introduction of flux direction variables, exact McCormick relaxations, on/off constraints, and integer cuts. Numerical experiments are conducted on the traditional Belgian gas network, as well as other real larger networks. The results demonstrate both the accuracy and computational speed of the relaxation and its ability to produce high-quality solution

  11. Convex relaxations for gas expansion planning

    DOE PAGES

    Borraz-Sanchez, Conrado; Bent, Russell Whitford; Backhaus, Scott N.; Hijazi, Hassan; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of natural gas networks is a critical process involving substantial capital expenditures with complex decision-support requirements. Here, given the non-convex nature of gas transmission constraints, global optimality and infeasibility guarantees can only be offered by global optimisation approaches. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art global optimisation solvers are unable to scale up to real-world size instances. In this study, we present a convex mixed-integer second-order cone relaxation for the gas expansion planning problem under steady-state conditions. The underlying model offers tight lower bounds with high computational efficiency. In addition, the optimal solution of the relaxation can often be used to derive high-quality solutionsmore » to the original problem, leading to provably tight optimality gaps and, in some cases, global optimal solutions. The convex relaxation is based on a few key ideas, including the introduction of flux direction variables, exact McCormick relaxations, on/off constraints, and integer cuts. Numerical experiments are conducted on the traditional Belgian gas network, as well as other real larger networks. The results demonstrate both the accuracy and computational speed of the relaxation and its ability to produce high-quality solution« less

  12. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  13. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  14. A general relaxation theory of simple liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merilo, M.; Morgan, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    A relatively simple relaxation theory to account for the behavior of liquids under dynamic conditions was proposed. The general dynamical equations are similar in form to the phenomenological relaxation equations used in theories of viscoelasticity, however, they differ in that all the coefficients of the present equations are expressed in terms of thermodynamic and molecular quantities. The theory is based on the concept that flow in a liquid distorts both the radial and the velocity distribution functions, and that relaxation equations describing the return of these functions to their isotropic distributions, characterizing a stationary liquid, can be written. The theory was applied to the problems of steady and oscillatory shear flows and to the propagation of longitudinal waves. In all cases classical results are predicted for strain rates, and an expression for the viscosity of a liquid, simular to the Macedo-Litovitz equation, is obtained.

  15. Stratospheric Relaxation in IMPACT's Radiation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Edis, T; Grant, K; Cameron-Smith, P

    2006-11-13

    While Impact incorporates diagnostic radiation routines from our work in previous years, it has not previously included the stratospheric relaxation required for forcing calculations. We have now implemented the necessary changes for stratospheric relaxation, tested its stability, and compared the results with stratosphere temperatures obtained from CAM3 met data. The relaxation results in stable temperature profiles in the stratosphere, which is encouraging for use in forcing calculations. It does, however, produce a cooling bias when compared to CAM3, which appears to be due to differences in radiation calculations rather than the interactive treatment of ozone. The cause of this bias is unclear as yet, but seems to be systematic and hence cancels out when differences are taken relative to a control simulation.

  16. Substrate stress relaxation regulates cell spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Gu, Luo; Darnell, Max; Klumpers, Darinka; Bencherif, Sidi A.; Weaver, James C.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.

    2015-02-01

    Studies of cellular mechanotransduction have converged upon the idea that cells sense extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity by gauging resistance to the traction forces they exert on the ECM. However, these studies typically utilize purely elastic materials as substrates, whereas physiological ECMs are viscoelastic, and exhibit stress relaxation, so that cellular traction forces exerted by cells remodel the ECM. Here we investigate the influence of ECM stress relaxation on cell behaviour through computational modelling and cellular experiments. Surprisingly, both our computational model and experiments find that spreading for cells cultured on soft substrates that exhibit stress relaxation is greater than cells spreading on elastic substrates of the same modulus, but similar to that of cells spreading on stiffer elastic substrates. These findings challenge the current view of how cells sense and respond to the ECM.

  17. Swelling and Stress Relaxation in Portland Brownstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, I.; Scherer, G.

    2003-04-01

    Portland Brownstone (PB) is an arkose sandstone extensively used in the northeast-ern USA during the nineteenth century. This reddish-brown stone contains a fraction of swelling clays that are thought to contribute to its degradation upon cycles of wet-ting and drying. During drying events, contraction of the drying surface leads to stresses approaching the tensile strength of the stone. However, we have found that the magnitude of these stresses is limited by the ability of the stone to undergo stress relaxation. In this paper we describe novel methods to determine the magnitude of the stresses and the rate at which they develop and relax. We also discuss the influ-ence of surfactants on the magnitude of swelling and the rate of the stress relaxation of PB. The implications of our findings for the understanding of damage due to swelling of clays are discussed.

  18. Substrate stress relaxation regulates cell spreading

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Gu, Luo; Darnell, Max; Klumpers, Darinka; Bencherif, Sidi A.; Weaver, James C.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J

    2015-01-01

    Studies of cellular mechanotransduction have converged upon the idea that cells sense extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity by gauging resistance to the traction forces they exert on the ECM. However, these studies typically utilize purely elastic materials as substrates, whereas physiological ECM are viscoelastic, and exhibit stress relaxation, so that cellular traction forces exerted by cells remodel the ECM. Here we investigate the influence of ECM stress relaxation on cell behavior through computational modeling and cellular experiments. Surprisingly, both our computational model and experiments find that spreading for cells cultured on soft substrates that exhibit stress relaxation is greater than cells spreading on elastic substrates of the same modulus, but similar to that of cells spreading on stiffer elastic substrates. These findings challenge the current view of how cells sense and respond to the ECM. PMID:25695512

  19. RELAXATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Servidio, S.; Carbone, V.; Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2014-07-10

    Based on global conservation principles, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation theory predicts the existence of several equilibria, such as the Taylor state or global dynamic alignment. These states are generally viewed as very long-time and large-scale equilibria, which emerge only after the termination of the turbulent cascade. As suggested by hydrodynamics and by recent MHD numerical simulations, relaxation processes can occur during the turbulent cascade that will manifest themselves as local patches of equilibrium-like configurations. Using multi-spacecraft analysis techniques in conjunction with Cluster data, we compute the current density and flow vorticity and for the first time demonstrate that these localized relaxation events are observed in the solar wind. Such events have important consequences for the statistics of plasma turbulence.

  20. Structural relaxation of vacancies in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.; Lee, Y.H.; Chen, C.; Pang, T.

    1997-07-01

    The authors have studied the structural relaxation of vacancies in amorphous silicon (a-Si) using a tight-binding molecular-dynamics method. The most significant difference between vacancies in a-Si and those in crystalline silicon (c-Si) is that the deep gap states do not show up in a-Si. This difference is explained through the unusual behavior of the structural relaxation near the vacancies in a-Si, which enhances the sp{sup 2} + p bonding near the band edges. They have also observed that the vacancies do not migrate below 450 K although some of them can still be annihilated, particularly at high defect density due to large structural relaxation.

  1. Dielectric relaxation of high-k oxides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Frequency dispersion of high-k dielectrics was observed and classified into two parts: extrinsic cause and intrinsic cause. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant (dielectric relaxation), that is the intrinsic frequency dispersion, could not be characterized before considering the effects of extrinsic frequency dispersion. Several mathematical models were discussed to describe the dielectric relaxation of high-k dielectrics. For the physical mechanism, dielectric relaxation was found to be related to the degree of polarization, which depended on the structure of the high-k material. It was attributed to the enhancement of the correlations among polar nanodomain. The effect of grain size for the high-k materials' structure mainly originated from higher surface stress in smaller grain due to its higher concentration of grain boundary. PMID:24180696

  2. Magnetic Relaxation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth; Fornberg, Bengt; Flyer, Natasha; Low, B. C.

    2009-01-01

    This is a mathematical study of the long-lived hydromagnetic structures produced in the tenuous solar corona by the turbulent, resistive relaxation of a magnetic field under the condition of extremely high electrical conductivity. The relaxation theory of Taylor, originally developed for a laboratory device, is extended to treat the open atmosphere where the relaxing field must interact with its surrounding fields. A boundary-value problem is posed for a two-dimensional model that idealizes the corona as the half Cartesian plane filled with a potential field (1) that is anchored to a rigid, perfectly conducting base and (2) that embeds a force-free magnetic field in the form of a flux-rope oriented horizontally and perpendicular to the Cartesian plane. The flux-rope has a free boundary, which is an unknown in the construction of a solution for this atmosphere. Pairs of magnetostatic solutions are constructed to represent the initial and final states of a flux-rope relaxation that conserve both the total magnetic helicity and total axial magnetic flux, using a numerical iterative method specially developed for this study. The collection of numerical solutions found provides an insight into the interplay among several hydromagnetic properties in the formation of long-lived coronal structures. In particular, the study shows (1) that the outward spread of reconnection between a relaxing flux-rope and its external field may be arrested at some outer magnetic flux surface within which a constant-α force-free field emerges as the minimum-energy state and (2) that this outward spread is complicated by an inward, partial collapse of the relaxing flux-rope produced by a loss of internal magnetic pressure.

  3. Molecular Relaxations in Constrained Nanoscale Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Daniel B., Jr.

    Current engineering challenges in the areas of energy, gas separation and photonics demand novel materials that are cognitively engineered at the molecular level, with a view toward replacing the conventional trial and error approach to materials development. Cognitive molecular engineering of organic materials demands the incorporation of internal constraints (inherent to molecular architecture) and external constraints (stemming from interactions with system boundaries) to obtain desired material properties. Both types of constraints affect intrinsic relaxation behavior in a material, which dictates thermal and viscoelastic material properties. The challenge, then, is to quantify the influence of constraints on relaxation behavior with a view toward producing a 'toolbox' for molecular engineering. In this work, local atomic force microscopy based thermomechanical measurements, paired with dielectric spectroscopy, kinetic models and molecular dynamic simulation are used to explore the effect of constraints on the relaxation behavior of model lubricants, amorphous polymers, and organic non-linear optical (NLO) materials. The impact of interfacial constraints on the inter- and intramolecular relaxation processes were investigated in lubricating model systems from fast relaxing simple monolayers to sluggishly unwinding complex polymer systems. At the free surface of amorphous polystyrene, apparent Arrhenius-type surface and subsurface activation energies were found where dissipation is a discrete function of loading, indicating sensitivity to surface and subsurface mobilities. Finally, in organic NLO systems, constraints in the form of self assembling dendritic groups are introduced to provide both sufficient mobility for alignment of their constituent chromophores and limited mobility for long-term alignment stability. Relaxation activation energies for NLO materials were deduced for these self assembling glassy chromophores, resulting in a first toolbox to guide

  4. Spin Relaxation and Spin Transport in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. W.

    2012-02-01

    In this talk we are going to present our theoretical investigations on spin dynamics of graphene under various conditions based on a fully microscopic kinetic-spin-Bloch-equation approach [1]. We manage to nail down the solo spin relaxation mechanism of graphene in measurements from two leading groups, one in US and one in the Netherland. Many novel effects of the electron-electron Coulomb interaction on spin relaxation in graphene are addressed. Our theory can have nice agreement with experimental data.[4pt] [1] M. W. Wu, J. H. Jiang, and M. Q. Weng, ``Spin dynamics in semiconductors,'' Phys. Rep. 493, 61 (2010).

  5. Vibrational relaxation in hypersonic flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Willard E.; Miner, Gilda A.; Heinbockel, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical formulations of vibrational relaxation are derived from first principles for application to fluid dynamic computations of hypersonic flow fields. Relaxation within and immediately behind shock waves is shown to be substantially faster than that described in current numerical codes. The result should be a significant reduction in nonequilibrium radiation overshoot in shock layers and in radiative heating of hypersonic vehicles; these results are precisely the trends needed to bring theoretical predictions more in line with flight data. Errors in existing formulations are identified and qualitative comparisons are made.

  6. Magnetic Relaxation Detector for Microbead Labels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Paul Peng; Skucha, Karl; Duan, Yida; Megens, Mischa; Kim, Jungkyu; Izyumin, Igor I.; Gambini, Simone; Boser, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    A compact and robust magnetic label detector for biomedical assays is implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS. Detection relies on the magnetic relaxation signature of a microbead label for improved tolerance to environmental variations and relaxed dynamic range requirement, eliminating the need for baseline calibration and reference sensors. The device includes embedded electromagnets to eliminate external magnets and reduce power dissipation. Correlated double sampling combined with offset servo loops and magnetic field modulation, suppresses the detector offset to sub-μT. Single 4.5-μm magnetic beads are detected in 16 ms with a probability of error <0.1%. PMID:25308988

  7. Nonlocal and collective relaxation in stellar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1993-01-01

    The modal response of stellar systems to fluctuations at large scales is presently investigated by means of analytic theory and n-body simulation; the stochastic excitation of these modes is shown to increase the relaxation rate even for a system which is moderately far from instability. The n-body simulations, when designed to suppress relaxation at small scales, clearly show the effects of large-scale fluctuations. It is predicted that large-scale fluctuations will be largest for such marginally bound systems as forming star clusters and associations.

  8. Centrally acting muscle relaxants in tetanus

    PubMed Central

    Webster, R. A.

    1961-01-01

    The anti-tetanus activity of a number of phenothiazine derivatives and other centrally acting muscle relaxants, such as mephenesin, dicyclopropyl ketoxime, 2-amino-6-methylbenzothiazole and meprobamate, has been determined in rabbits with experimental local tetanus. Structure-activity relationships were obtained for the phenothiazine derivatives and their anti-tetanus activity correlated with other central and peripheral properties. Both dicyclopropyl ketoxime and 2-amino-6-methyl-benzothiazole were twice as active as mephenesin. Meprobamate does not appear to be primarily a muscle relaxant of the mephenesin type. PMID:14005498

  9. Synthetic aperture radar autofocus via semidefinite relaxation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuang-Hung; Wiesel, Ami; Munson, David C

    2013-06-01

    The autofocus problem in synthetic aperture radar imaging amounts to estimating unknown phase errors caused by unknown platform or target motion. At the heart of three state-of-the-art autofocus algorithms, namely, phase gradient autofocus, multichannel autofocus (MCA), and Fourier-domain multichannel autofocus (FMCA), is the solution of a constant modulus quadratic program (CMQP). Currently, these algorithms solve a CMQP by using an eigenvalue relaxation approach. We propose an alternative relaxation approach based on semidefinite programming, which has recently attracted considerable attention in other signal processing problems. Experimental results show that our proposed methods provide promising performance improvements for MCA and FMCA through an increase in computational complexity.

  10. Mechanics of myocardial relaxation: application of a model to isometric and isotonic relaxation of rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Wiegner, A W; Bing, O H

    1982-01-01

    Using a simple model for cardiac muscle relaxation which takes into account muscle length, activation, elasticity and a rate constant for the decay of activation, we are able to use easily measured mechanical parameters to assess the state of the cardiac relaxing system. In isolated trabeculae carneae from the left ventricle of the rat, performing physiologically sequenced contractions, observations have been made (1) at varying preloads and afterloads, (2) with changes in temperature from 23 degrees to 33 degrees C, (3) with changes in bath Ca2+ concentration and (4) with the addition of isoproterenol. During isometric relaxation, the slope (SIM) of the curve relating maximum rate of decline of force (-dF/dtmax) to end-systolic muscle length is load-independent and sensitive to interventions which directly affect the cardiac relaxing system (e.g., temperature, isoproterenol); it is only slightly sensitive to bath calcium concentration. During isotonic relaxation, the maximum velocity of lengthening (+dL/dtmax) is in negative linear proportion to muscle shortening at a given preload, the slope (SIT) of the curve relating +dL/dtmax to end-systolic length is sensitive to the interventions which directly affect the cardiac relaxing system but insensitive to calcium-mediated inotropic interventions. The model provides a theoretical basis for the use of SIM and SIT as measures of the relaxation process. PMID:7161285

  11. A comparison of somatic relaxation and EEG activity in classical progressive relaxation and transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Warrenburg, S; Pagano, R R; Woods, M; Hlastala, M

    1980-03-01

    Oxygen consumption, electroencephalogram (EEG), and four other measures of somatic relaxation were monitored in groups of long-term practitioners of classical Jacobson's progressive relaxation (PR) and Transcendental Meditation (TM) and also in a group of novice PR trainees. All subjects (1) practiced relaxation or meditation (treatment), (2) sat with eyes closed (EC control), and (3) read from a travel book during two identical sessions on different days. EEG findings indicated that all three groups remained primarily awake during treatment and EC control and that several subjects in each group displayed rare theta (5-7 Hz) waveforms. All three groups demonstrated similar decrements in somatic activity during treatment and EC control which were generally of small magnitude (e. g., 2-5% in oxygen consumption). These results supported the "relaxation response" model for state changes in somatic relaxation for techniques practiced under low levels of stress but not the claim that the relaxation response produced a hypometabolic state. Despite similar state effects, the long-term PR group manifested lower levels of somatic activity across all conditions compared to both novice PR and long-term TM groups. We concluded that PR causes a generalized trait of somatic relaxation which is manifested in a variety of settings and situations. Two likely explanations for this trait were discussed: (1) PR practitioners are taught to generalize relaxation to daily activities, and/or (2) according to a "multiprocess model," PR is a "somatic technique," which should produce greater somatic relaxation than does TM, a "cognitive technique." Further research is required to elucidate these possibilities.

  12. Relaxation dynamics of multilayer triangular Husimi cacti.

    PubMed

    Galiceanu, Mircea; Jurjiu, Aurel

    2016-09-14

    We focus on the relaxation dynamics of multilayer polymer structures having, as underlying topology, the Husimi cactus. The relaxation dynamics of the multilayer structures is investigated in the framework of generalized Gaussian structures model using both Rouse and Zimm approaches. In the Rouse type-approach, we determine analytically the complete eigenvalues spectrum and based on it we calculate the mechanical relaxation moduli (storage and loss modulus) and the average monomer displacement. First, we monitor these physical quantities for structures with a fixed generation number and we increase the number of layers, such that the linear topology will smoothly come into play. Second, we keep constant the size of the structures, varying simultaneously two parameters: the generation number of the main layer, G, and the number of layers, c. This fact allows us to study in detail the crossover from a pure Husimi cactus behavior to a predominately linear chain behavior. The most interesting situation is found when the two limiting topologies cancel each other. For this case, we encounter in the intermediate frequency/time domain regions of constant slope for different values of the parameter set (G, c) and we show that the number of layers follows an exponential-law of G. In the Zimm-type approach, which includes the hydrodynamic interactions, the quantities that describe the mechanical relaxation dynamics do not show scaling behavior as in the Rouse model, except the limiting case, namely, a very high number of layers and low generation number. PMID:27634273

  13. Charge Relaxation Dynamics of an Electrolytic Nanocapacitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ion relaxation dynamics in overlapping electric double layers (EDLs) is critical for the development of efficient nanotechnology-based electrochemical energy storage, electrochemomechanical energy conversion, and bioelectrochemical sensing devices as well as the controlled synthesis of nanostructured materials. Here, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is employed to simulate an electrolytic nanocapacitor subjected to a step potential at t = 0 for various degrees of EDL overlap, solvent viscosities, ratios of cation-to-anion diffusivity, and electrode separations. The use of a novel continuously varying and Galilean-invariant molecular-speed-dependent relaxation time (MSDRT) with the LB equation recovers a correct microscopic description of the molecular-collision phenomena and enhances the stability of the LB algorithm. Results for large EDL overlaps indicated oscillatory behavior for the ionic current density, in contrast to monotonic relaxation to equilibrium for low EDL overlaps. Further, at low solvent viscosities and large EDL overlaps, anomalous plasmalike spatial oscillations of the electric field were observed that appeared to be purely an effect of nanoscale confinement. Employing MSDRT in our simulations enabled modeling of the fundamental physics of the transient charge relaxation dynamics in electrochemical systems operating away from equilibrium wherein Nernst–Einstein relation is known to be violated. PMID:25678941

  14. Stretched Exponential relaxation in pure Se glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S.; Ravindren, S.; Boolchand, P.

    A universal feature of glasses is the stretched exponential relaxation, f (t) = exp[ - t / τ ] β . The model of diffusion of excitations to randomly distributed traps in a glass by Phillips1 yields the stretched exponent β = d[d +2] where d, the effective dimensionality. We have measured the enthalpy of relaxation ΔHnr (tw) at Tg of Se glass in modulated DSC experiments as glasses age at 300K and find β = 0.43(2) for tw in the 0 relaxation is a narrowing of the glass transition width from 7.1°C to 1.4°C, and the ΔHnr term increasing from 0.21 cal/gm to 0.92 cal/gm. In bulk GexSe100-x glasses as x increases to 20%, the length of the polymeric Sen chains between the Ge-crosslinks decreases to n = 2. and the striking relaxation effects nearly vanish. J.C. Phillips, Rep.Prog.Phys. 59 , 1133 (1996). Supported by NSF Grant DMR 08-53957.

  15. Relaxation for Children. (Revised and Expanded Edition.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Jenny

    Intended as a guide to reduce negative stress in children, this book suggests relaxation and meditation techniques to help children cope with stressful events. Part 1 provides an introduction to the format of the book. Part 2 contains summaries of the 10 sessions that make up the program. Each session has six sequential stages in which students…

  16. Relaxation processes in administered-rate pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Arnold, Michael R.

    2000-10-01

    We show how the theory of anelasticity unifies the observed dynamics and proposed models of administered-rate products. This theory yields a straightforward approach to rate model construction that we illustrate by simulating the observed relaxation dynamics of two administered rate products. We also demonstrate how the use of this formalism leads to a natural definition of market friction.

  17. Magnetic relaxation in dipolar magnetic nanoparticle clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovorka, Ondrej; Barker, Joe; Chantrell, Roy; Friedman, Gary; York-Drexel Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the role of dipolar interactions on thermal relaxation in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) systems is of fundamental importance in magnetic recording, for optimizing the hysteresis heating contribution in the hyperthermia cancer treatment in biomedicine, or for biological and chemical sensing, for example. In this talk, we discuss our related efforts to quantify the influence of dipolar interactions on thermal relaxation in small clusters of MNPs. Setting up the master equation and solving the associated eigenvalue problem, we identify the observable relaxation time scale spectra for various types of MNP clusters, and demonstrate qualitatively different spectral characteristics depending on the point group of symmetries of the particle arrangement within the cluster - being solely a dipolar interaction effect. Our findings provide insight into open questions related to magnetic relaxation in bulk MNP systems, and may prove to be also of practical relevance, e.g., for improving robustness of methodologies in biological and chemical sensing. OH gratefully acknowledges support from a Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme under grant agreement PIEF-GA-2010-273014

  18. Relaxation Mechanisms in Hyperpolarized Polycrystalline ^129Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelson, G.; Su, T.; Saam, B.

    2002-10-01

    Through spin exchange with optically polarized Rb vapor, it is possible to achieve upwards of 30% nuclear spin polarization in ^129Xe and a corresponding NMR signal some 5 orders of magnitude stronger than typical thermally polarized ^129Xe. Due to such a strong signal, hyperpolarized ^129Xe is being used for several leading-edge technologies (eg. biochemical spectroscopy, MRI, and polarization transfer). We have measured the nuclear spin relaxation rate of polycrystalline hyperpolarized ^129Xe at 77K (well below the freezing point of 160K) in a magnetic field of only a few Gauss and have observed that the hyperpolarization completely survives the freezing process. Furthermore, in this regime we have observed non-exponential spin relaxation that depends strongly on magnetic field, isotopic concentration (between ^129Xe and ^131Xe) and differences in crystallite formation. We present a simple spin-diffusion model that fits and explains the features of the data. Our results agree with the hypothesis that at low fields and temperatures the dominant spin relaxation mechanism is cross-relaxation with ^131Xe on the surface of the crystallites (Gatzke, et al., PRL b70, 690 (1993)).

  19. Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettus, Dodi

    2010-01-01

    One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…

  20. Relaxation Treatment for Insomnia: A Component Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfolk, Robert L.; McNulty, Terrence F.

    1983-01-01

    Compared four relaxation treatments for sleep onset insomnia with a waiting-list control. Treatments varied in presence or absence of muscular tension-release instructions and in foci of attention. Results showed all treatment conditions reduced latency of sleep onset and fatigue; visual focusing best reduced the number of nocturnal awakenings.…

  1. Relaxation dynamics of multilayer triangular Husimi cacti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiceanu, Mircea; Jurjiu, Aurel

    2016-09-01

    We focus on the relaxation dynamics of multilayer polymer structures having, as underlying topology, the Husimi cactus. The relaxation dynamics of the multilayer structures is investigated in the framework of generalized Gaussian structures model using both Rouse and Zimm approaches. In the Rouse type-approach, we determine analytically the complete eigenvalues spectrum and based on it we calculate the mechanical relaxation moduli (storage and loss modulus) and the average monomer displacement. First, we monitor these physical quantities for structures with a fixed generation number and we increase the number of layers, such that the linear topology will smoothly come into play. Second, we keep constant the size of the structures, varying simultaneously two parameters: the generation number of the main layer, G, and the number of layers, c. This fact allows us to study in detail the crossover from a pure Husimi cactus behavior to a predominately linear chain behavior. The most interesting situation is found when the two limiting topologies cancel each other. For this case, we encounter in the intermediate frequency/time domain regions of constant slope for different values of the parameter set (G, c) and we show that the number of layers follows an exponential-law of G. In the Zimm-type approach, which includes the hydrodynamic interactions, the quantities that describe the mechanical relaxation dynamics do not show scaling behavior as in the Rouse model, except the limiting case, namely, a very high number of layers and low generation number.

  2. Dipole Relaxation in an Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Derives an expression for the orientational entropy of a rigid rod (electric dipole) from Boltzmann's equation. Subsequent application of Newton's second law of motion produces Debye's classical expression for the relaxation of an electric dipole in a viscous medium. (Author/GS)

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Magnetohydrodynamics of Plasma Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, J. W.

    1998-06-01

    This monograph on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation in plasmas by Ortolani and Schnack occupies a fascinating niche in the plasma physics literature. It is rare in the complex and often technically sophisticated subject of plasma physics to be able to isolate a topic and deal with it comprehensively in a mere 180 pages. Furthermore, it brings a refreshingly original and personal approach to the treatment of plasma relaxation, synthesizing the experiences of the two authors to produce a very readable account of phenomena appearing in such diverse situations as laboratory reversed field pinches (RFPs) and the solar corona. Its novelty lies in that, while it does acknowledge the seminal Taylor theory of relaxation as a general guide, it emphasizes the role of large scale numerical MHD simulations in developing a picture for the relaxation phenomena observed in experiment and nature. Nevertheless, the volume has some minor shortcomings: a tendency to repetitiveness and some omissions that prevent it being entirely self-contained. The monograph is divided into nine chapters, with the first a readable, `chatty', introduction to the physics and phenomena of relaxation discussed in the later chapters. Chapter 2 develops the tools for describing relaxation processes, namely the resistive MHD model, leading to a discussion of resistive instabilities and the stability properties of RFPs. This chapter demonstrates the authors' confessed desire to avoid mathematical detail with a rather simplified discussion of Δ' and magnetic islands; it also sets the stage for their own belief, or thesis, that numerical simulation of the non-linear consequences of the MHD model is the best approach to explaining the physics of relaxation. Nevertheless, in Chapter 3 they provide a reasonably good account and critique of one analytic approach that is available, and which is the commonly accepted picture for relaxation in pinches - the Taylor relaxation theory based on the conservation of

  4. Dielectric Relaxation of Water in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander A.; Ishai, Paul Ben; Levy, Evgenya

    Whenever water interacts with another dipolar or charged entity, a broadening of the dielectric relaxation peak occurs. This broadening can often be described by the phenomenological Cole-Cole (CC) spectral function. A new approach (Puzenko AA, Ben Ishai P, and Feldman Y, Phys Rev Lett 105:037601, 2010) based on the fractal nature of the time set of the interaction of the relaxing water dipoles with its encompassing matrix has been recently presented showing a fundamental connection between the relaxation time, τ, the broadening parameter, α, and the Kirkwood-Fröhlich correlation function B. Parameters B, τ and α where chosen as the coordinates of a new 3D space. The evolution of the relaxation process due to the variation of external macroscopic parameters (temperature, pressure etc.) represents the trajectory in 3D space. This trajectory demonstrates the connection between the kinetic and structural properties of the water in complex system. It is also shown how the model describes the state of water in two porous silica glasses and in two different types of aqueous solutions: ionic, and non-ionic. The complex dielectric spectra of a series of solutions of sodium chloride and potassium chloride in water have been measured and have been carefully analyzed along with previously measured spectra for aqueous solutions of D-glucose and D-fructose.

  5. Prominent β-relaxations in yttrium based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.; Lu, Z.; Zhu, Z. G.; Li, Y. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-01-19

    Most metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit weak slow β-relaxation. We report the prominent β-relaxation in YNiAl metallic glass with a wide composition range. Compared with other MGs, the MGs show a pronounced β-relaxation peak and high β-relaxation peak temperature, and the β-relaxation behavior varies significantly with the changes of the constituent elements, which is attributed to the fluctuations of chemical interactions between the components. We demonstrate the correlation between the β-relaxation and the activation of flow units for mechanical behaviors of the MG and show that the MG is model system for studying some controversial issues in glasses.

  6. The effect of music relaxation versus progressive muscular relaxation on insomnia in older people and their relationship to personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Naomi; Rotem, Tomer; Arnon, Zahi; Haimov, Iris

    2008-01-01

    A large percentage of older people suffer from chronic insomnia, affecting many aspects of life quality and well-being. Although insomnia is most often treated with medication, a growing number of studies demonstrate the efficiency of various relaxation techniques. The present study had three aims: first, to compare two relaxation techniques--music relaxation and progressive muscular relaxation--on various objective and subjective measures of sleep quality; second, to examine the effect of these techniques on anxiety and depression; and finally, to explore possible relationships between the efficiency of both techniques and personality variables. Fifteen older adults took part in the study. Following one week of base-line measurements of sleep quality, participants followed one week of music relaxation and one week of progressive muscular relaxation before going to sleep. Order of relaxation techniques was controlled. Results show music relaxation was more efficient in improving sleep. Sleep efficiency was higher after music relaxation than after progressive muscular relaxation. Moreover, anxiety was lower after music relaxation. Progressive muscular relaxation was related to deterioration of sleep quality on subjective measures. Beyond differences between the relaxation techniques, extraverts seemed to benefit more from both music and progressive muscular relaxation. The advantage of non-pharmacological means to treat insomnia, and the importance of taking individual differences into account are discussed.

  7. Audio-visual relaxation training for anxiety, sleep, and relaxation among Chinese adults with cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sing-Ling

    2004-12-01

    The long-term effect of an audio-visual relaxation training (RT) treatment involving deep breathing, exercise, muscle relaxation, guided imagery, and meditation was compared with routine nursing care for reducing anxiety, improving sleep, and promoting relaxation in Chinese adults with cardiac disease. This research was a quasi-experimental, two-group, pretest-posttest study. A convenience sample of 100 cardiology patients (41 treatment, 59 control) admitted to one large medical center hospital in the Republic of China (ROC) was studied for 1 year. The hypothesized relationships were supported. RT significantly (p <.05) improved anxiety, sleep, and relaxation in the treatment group as compared to the control group. It appears audio-visual RT might be a beneficial adjunctive therapy for adult cardiac patients. However, considerable further work using stronger research designs is needed to determine the most appropriate instructional methods and the factors that contribute to long-term consistent practice of RT with Chinese populations.

  8. Novel Roles for Kv7 Channels in Shaping Histamine-Induced Contractions and Bradykinin-Dependent Relaxations in Pig Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingjuan; Li, Wennan; Hiett, S Christopher; Obukhov, Alexander G

    2016-01-01

    . We propose that in CAs, a decreased expression or a loss of function of Kv7 channels may lead to sustained histamine-induced contractions and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation, both risk factors for coronary spasm.

  9. High relaxivity Gd(III)-DNA gold nanostars: investigation of shape effects on proton relaxation.

    PubMed

    Rotz, Matthew W; Culver, Kayla S B; Parigi, Giacomo; MacRenaris, Keith W; Luchinat, Claudio; Odom, Teri W; Meade, Thomas J

    2015-03-24

    Gadolinium(III) nanoconjugate contrast agents (CAs) have distinct advantages over their small-molecule counterparts in magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to increased Gd(III) payload, a significant improvement in proton relaxation efficiency, or relaxivity (r1), is often observed. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanoconjugate CA created by covalent attachment of Gd(III) to thiolated DNA (Gd(III)-DNA), followed by surface conjugation onto gold nanostars (DNA-Gd@stars). These conjugates exhibit remarkable r1 with values up to 98 mM(-1) s(-1). Additionally, DNA-Gd@stars show efficient Gd(III) delivery and biocompatibility in vitro and generate significant contrast enhancement when imaged at 7 T. Using nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion analysis, we attribute the high performance of the DNA-Gd@stars to an increased contribution of second-sphere relaxivity compared to that of spherical CA equivalents (DNA-Gd@spheres). Importantly, the surface of the gold nanostar contains Gd(III)-DNA in regions of positive, negative, and neutral curvature. We hypothesize that the proton relaxation enhancement observed results from the presence of a unique hydrophilic environment produced by Gd(III)-DNA in these regions, which allows second-sphere water molecules to remain adjacent to Gd(III) ions for up to 10 times longer than diffusion. These results establish that particle shape and second-sphere relaxivity are important considerations in the design of Gd(III) nanoconjugate CAs.

  10. Vascular dysfunction in sepsis: effects of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst MnTMPyP.

    PubMed

    Nin, Nicolás; El-Assar, Mariam; Sánchez, Carolina; Ferruelo, Antonio; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alberto; Martínez-Caro, Leticia; Rojas, Yeny; Paula, Marta de; Hurtado, Javier; Esteban, Andrés; Lorente, José A

    2011-08-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sepsis vascular dysfunction are not well known. We tested the hypothesis that peroxynitrite scavenging ameliorates sepsis-induced macrovascular and microvascular dysfunction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed 48 h after cecal ligation (n = 15) and puncture or sham procedure (n = 15). Their aortas and mesenteric vessels were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension recording. We studied contraction in resting vessels (norepinephrine 1 nM-10 μM and 10 nM-10 μM) and endothelium-dependent relaxation (acetylcholine, 10 nM-10 μM and 1 nM-10 μM) for aortas and microvessels, respectively. Vascular rings were preincubated for 30 min with the superoxide scavenger Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) (100 U/mL), the SOD mimetic and peroxynitrite scavenger tempol (10 M), the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (10 M), or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst manganese tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP) (10 M). Fluorescence to 3-nitrotyrosine, oxidized dihydroethidium, and NOS2 was assessed in vascular tissue. Vascular NOS2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS1), NADPH-oxidase-1 (NOX-1), and SOD expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Sepsis induced (i) in macrovessels, impairment of norepinephrine-induced contractions; (ii) in microvessels, impairment in norepinephrine-induced contractions and acetylcholine-induced relaxations; (iii) aortic and microvascular tissue increased reactivity to 3-nitrotyrosine, oxidized dihydroethidium, NOS2, and increased expression of NOS2, as well as increased expression of NOX-1 in microvascular tissue. Contractile responses in aortic and microvascular rings improved by ex vivo treatment with MnTMPyP and tempol, whereas vascular relaxation in microvessels improved only with MnTMPyP. Peroxynitrite scavenging protects from vascular dysfunction in sepsis.

  11. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 up-regulation by PPAR-β/δ prevents lipid-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Jiménez, Rosario; Mahmoud, Ayman Moawad; Barroso, Emma; Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Sánchez, Manuel; Cogolludo, Ángel; García-Redondo, Ana B; Briones, Ana M; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids cause endothelial dysfunction involving increased ROS (reactive oxygen species) and reduced NO (nitric oxide) bioavailability. We show that in MAECs (mouse aortic endothelial cells), the PPARβ/δ (peroxisome- proliferator-activated receptor β/δ) agonist GW0742 prevented the decreased A23187-stimulated NO production, phosphorylation of eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) at Ser1177 and increased intracellular ROS levels caused by exposure to palmitate in vitro. The impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in mouse aorta induced by palmitate was restored by GW0742. In vivo, GW0742 treatment prevented the reduced aortic relaxation, phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, and increased ROS production and NADPH oxidase in mice fed on a high-fat diet. The PPARβ/δ antagonist GSK0660 abolished all of these protective effects induced by GW0742. This agonist enhanced the expression of CPT (carnitine palmitoyltransferase)-1. The effects of GW0742 on acetylcholine- induced relaxation in aorta and on NO and ROS production in MAECs exposed to palmitate were abolished by the CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir or by siRNA targeting CPT-1. GW0742 also inhibited the increase in DAG (diacylglycerol), PKCα/βII (protein kinase Cα/βII) activation, and phosphorylation of eNOS at Thr495 induced by palmitate in MAECs, which were abolished by etomoxir. In conclusion, PPARβ/δ activation restored the lipid-induced endothelial dysfunction by up-regulation of CPT-1, thus reducing DAG accumulation and the subsequent PKC-mediated ROS production and eNOS inhibition.

  12. Nonlinear visco-elastic relaxation of non-lithostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podladchikov, Yury; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the rate of viscoelastic relaxation of non-lithostatic pressure as a function of a number of model parameters. Nonlinearity and anisotropy of viscosity are under investigation. We also study to what limit the pressure is relaxing.

  13. Modeling aftershocks as a stretched exponential relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, A.

    2015-11-01

    The decay rate of aftershocks has been modeled as a power law since the pioneering work of Omori in the late nineteenth century. Although other expressions have been proposed in recent decades to describe the temporal behavior of aftershocks, the number of model comparisons remains limited. After reviewing the aftershock models published from the late nineteenth century until today, I solely compare the power law, pure exponential and stretched exponential expressions defined in their simplest forms. By applying statistical methods recommended recently in applied mathematics, I show that all aftershock sequences tested in three regional earthquake catalogs (Southern and Northern California, Taiwan) and with three declustering techniques (nearest-neighbor, second-order moment, window methods) follow a stretched exponential instead of a power law. These results infer that aftershocks are due to a simple relaxation process, in accordance with most other relaxation processes observed in Nature.

  14. Two-temperature reaction and relaxation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, E.; Gorbachev, Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Within the method of solving the kinetic equations for gas mixtures with internal degrees of freedom developed by the authors and based on the approximate summational invariants (ASI) concept, gas-dynamic equations for a multi-temperature model for the spatially inhomogeneous case are derived. For the two-temperature case, the expressions for the non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation rates are obtained. Special attention is drawn to corresponding thermodynamic equations. Different possibilities of introducing the gas-dynamic variables related to the internal degrees of freedom are considered. One is based on the choice of quantum numbers as the ASI, while the other is based on the choice of internal (vibrational) energy as the ASI. Limits to a one-temperature situation are considered in all the cases. For the cutoff harmonic oscillator model, explicit expressions for the reaction and relaxation rates are derived.

  15. The relief of anxiety through relaxing meditation.

    PubMed

    Meares, A

    1976-08-01

    Our sensory input derives from sources in the environment, in our body and in the mind itself. When the sensory input reaches a critical level it is incompletely integrated, and anxiety results. A logical understanding of the cause of anxiety has no therapeutic effect. But the mind itself has the ability to reduce anxiety if suitable circumstances are provided. This can be quite easily achieved in the stillness of mind induced in a simple meditative experience known as Mental Ataraxis. The patient is first shown complete physical relaxation in global fashion. He is then brought to experience the relaxation as part of his whole being so that his mind fully participates in the process. He practises this, starting in a position of slight discomfort which eases as the meditative experience develops. The approach does not involve the patient in doing less work. The lessening of anxiety reduces nervous tension, psychosomatic disorders and defensive distortions of the personality.

  16. Relaxation times and charge conductivity of silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazloom, Azadeh; Parhizgar, Fariborz; Abedinpour, Saeed H.; Asgari, Reza

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the transport and single particle relaxation times of silicene in the presence of neutral and charged impurities. The static charge conductivity is studied using the semiclassical Boltzmann formalism when the spin-orbit interaction is taken into account. The screening is modeled within Thomas-Fermi and random-phase approximations. We show that the transport relaxation time is always longer than the single particle one. Easy electrical controllability of both carrier density and band gap in this buckled two-dimensional structure makes it a suitable candidate for several electronic and optoelectronic applications. In particular, we observe that the dc charge conductivity could be easily controlled through an external electric field, a very promising feature for applications as electrical switches and transistors. Our findings would be qualitatively valid for other buckled honeycomb lattices of the same family, such as germanine and stanine.

  17. Relaxation schemes for spectral multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Timothy N.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of relaxation schemes for solving the systems of algebraic equations which arise from spectral discretizations of elliptic equations is examined. Iterative methods are an attractive alternative to direct methods because Fourier transform techniques enable the discrete matrix-vector products to be computed almost as efficiently as for corresponding but sparse finite difference discretizations. Preconditioning is found to be essential for acceptable rates of convergence. Preconditioners based on second-order finite difference methods are used. A comparison is made of the performance of different relaxation methods on model problems with a variety of conditions specified around the boundary. The investigations show that iterations based on incomplete LU decompositions provide the most efficient methods for solving these algebraic systems.

  18. Creep and relaxation behavior of Inconel-617

    SciTech Connect

    Osthoff, W.; Ennis, P.J.; Nickel, H.; Schuster, H.

    1984-08-01

    The static and dynamic creep behavior of Inconel alloy 617 has been determined in constant load creep tests, relaxation tests, and stress reduction tests in the temperature range 1023 to 1273 K. The results have been interpreted using the internal stress concept: The dependence of the internal stress on the applied stress and test temperature was determined. In a few experiments, the influence of cold deformation prior to the creep test on the magnitude of the internal stress was also investigated. It was found that the experimentally observed relaxation behavior could be more satisfactorily described using the Norton creep equation modified by incorporation of the internal stress than by the conventional Norton creep equation.

  19. Electrochemical relaxation at electrically conducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nateghi, M. R.; zarandi, M. B.

    2008-08-01

    In this study, slow relaxation (SR) associated with the electroreduction of polyaniline (PAn) films during polarization to high cathodic potentials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Anodic voltammetric currents were used as experimental variable to indicate the relaxation occurring in PAn films deposited electrochemically on the Pt electrode surface. The dependence of SR on polymer film thickness, waiting potential, and mobility of the doped anion was investigated. Percolation threshold potential for heteropolyanion doped PAn was estimated to be between 150 and 200 mV depending on polymer thickness on the electrode surface. A new model of the conducting to insulating conversion is described by the percolation theory and mobility gap changes during the process.

  20. Energy relaxation of a dissipative quantum oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pradeep; Pollak, Eli

    2014-12-21

    The dissipative harmonic oscillator is studied as a model for vibrational relaxation in a liquid environment. Continuum limit expressions are derived for the time-dependent average energy, average width of the population, and the vibrational population itself. The effect of the magnitude of the solute-solvent interaction, expressed in terms of a friction coefficient, solvent temperature, and initial energy of the oscillator on the relaxation has been studied. These results shed light on the recent femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering probe of the 1570 cm{sup −1} −C=C− stretching mode of trans-Stilbene in the first (S{sub 1}) excited electronic state. When the oscillator is initially cold with respect to the bath temperature, its average energy and width increase in time. When it is initially hot, the average energy and width decrease with time in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  1. Braided magnetic fields: equilibria, relaxation and heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontin, D. I.; Candelaresi, S.; Russell, A. J. B.; Hornig, G.

    2016-05-01

    We examine the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes containing non-trivial field line braiding (or linkage), using mathematical and computational modelling, in the context of testable predictions for the laboratory and their significance for solar coronal heating. We investigate the existence of braided force-free equilibria, and demonstrate that for a field anchored at perfectly-conducting plates, these equilibria exist and contain current sheets whose thickness scales inversely with the braid complexity—as measured for example by the topological entropy. By contrast, for a periodic domain braided exact equilibria typically do not exist, while approximate equilibria contain thin current sheets. In the presence of resistivity, reconnection is triggered at the current sheets and a turbulent relaxation ensues. We finish by discussing the properties of the turbulent relaxation and the existence of constraints that may mean that the final state is not the linear force-free field predicted by Taylor’s hypothesis.

  2. Robust solid 129Xe longitudinal relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limes, M. E.; Ma, Z. L.; Sorte, E. G.; Saam, B.

    2016-09-01

    We find that if solid xenon is formed from liquid xenon, denoted "ice," there is a 10% increase in 129Xe longitudinal relaxation T1 time (taken at 77 K and 2 T) over a trickle-freeze formation, denoted "snow." Forming xenon ice also gives an unprecedented reproducibility of 129Xe T1 measurements across a range of 77-150 K. This temperature dependence roughly follows the theory of spin rotation mediated by Raman scattering of harmonic phonons, though it results in a smaller-than-predicted spin-rotation coupling strength cK 0/h . Enriched ice 129Xe T1 experiments show no isotopic dependence of bulk relaxation mechanisms at 77 K and at kilogauss fields.

  3. The Efficacy of Relaxation Training in Treating Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francesco, Pagnini; Mauro, Manzoni Gian; Gianluca, Castelnuovo; Enrico, Molinari

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of scientific literature about relaxation training and its effects on anxiety. Research investigating progressive relaxation, meditation, applied relaxation and autogenic training were considered. All these methods proved to be effective in reducing anxiety in all kind of samples, affected or not by physical or…

  4. Is Relaxation Training Effective in the Treatment of Clinical Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    The process of relaxation is a complex triarchic phenomenon that incorporates behavioral, cognitive, and physiological components. Existing literature is surveyed in order to determine the efficacy of treating various forms of depression with cognitive-behavioral relaxation strategies. Relaxation training has been shown to be effective in treating…

  5. Alternate Forms Reliability of the Behavioral Relaxation Scale: Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Dunlap, Angel L.

    2006-01-01

    Alternate forms reliability of the Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS; Poppen,1998), a direct observation measure of relaxed behavior, was examined. A single BRS score, based on long duration observation (5-minute), has been found to be a valid measure of relaxation and is correlated with self-report and some physiological measures. Recently,…

  6. Relaxation time measurements by an electronic method.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brousseau, R.; Vanier, J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a simple electronic system that permits the direct measurement of time constants of decaying signals. The system was used in connection with relaxation experiments on hydrogen and rubidium masers and was found to operate well. The use of a computing counter in the systems gives the possibility of making averages on several experiments and obtaining the standard deviation of the results from the mean. The program for the computing counter is given.

  7. Controlling spin relaxation with a cavity.

    PubMed

    Bienfait, A; Pla, J J; Kubo, Y; Zhou, X; Stern, M; Lo, C C; Weis, C D; Schenkel, T; Vion, D; Esteve, D; Morton, J J L; Bertet, P

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous emission of radiation is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which an excited quantum system returns to equilibrium. For spins, however, spontaneous emission is generally negligible compared to other non-radiative relaxation processes because of the weak coupling between the magnetic dipole and the electromagnetic field. In 1946, Purcell realized that the rate of spontaneous emission can be greatly enhanced by placing the quantum system in a resonant cavity. This effect has since been used extensively to control the lifetime of atoms and semiconducting heterostructures coupled to microwave or optical cavities, and is essential for the realization of high-efficiency single-photon sources. Here we report the application of this idea to spins in solids. By coupling donor spins in silicon to a superconducting microwave cavity with a high quality factor and a small mode volume, we reach the regime in which spontaneous emission constitutes the dominant mechanism of spin relaxation. The relaxation rate is increased by three orders of magnitude as the spins are tuned to the cavity resonance, demonstrating that energy relaxation can be controlled on demand. Our results provide a general way to initialize spin systems into their ground state and therefore have applications in magnetic resonance and quantum information processing. They also demonstrate that the coupling between the magnetic dipole of a spin and the electromagnetic field can be enhanced up to the point at which quantum fluctuations have a marked effect on the spin dynamics; as such, they represent an important step towards the coherent magnetic coupling of individual spins to microwave photons. PMID:26878235

  8. Current relaxation time scales in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkelsen, D.R.

    1987-02-01

    An approximate normal mode analysis of plasma current diffusion in tokamaks is presented. The work is based on numerical solutions of the current diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are shown for a broad range of plasma conductivity profile shapes. Three classes of solutions are considered which correspond to three types of tokamak operation. Convenient approximations to the three lowest eigenvalues in each class are presented and simple formulae for the current relaxation time scales are given.

  9. On real statistics of relaxation in gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzovlev, Yu. E.

    2016-02-01

    By example of a particle interacting with ideal gas, it is shown that the statistics of collisions in statistical mechanics at any value of the gas rarefaction parameter qualitatively differ from that conjugated with Boltzmann's hypothetical molecular chaos and kinetic equation. In reality, the probability of collisions of the particle in itself is random. Because of that, the relaxation of particle velocity acquires a power-law asymptotic behavior. An estimate of its exponent is suggested on the basis of simple kinematic reasons.

  10. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Chen, Weiwei; Dan, Hong; Tan, Li; Zhu, He; Yang, Guangzhong; Shen, Jinhua; Peng, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Ping; Xue, Lu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Ma, Liqun; Si, Xiao-Tang; Wang, Zhuo; Dai, Jiapei; Qin, Gangjian; Zou, Chunbin; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component) was prepared, which completely inhibits high K+- and acetylcholine- (ACH-) induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K+ was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm. PMID:27239213

  11. Graph Matching: Relax at Your Own Risk.

    PubMed

    Lyzinski, Vince; Fishkind, Donniell E; Fiori, Marcelo; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Priebe, Carey E; Sapiro, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Graph matching-aligning a pair of graphs to minimize their edge disagreements-has received wide-spread attention from both theoretical and applied communities over the past several decades, including combinatorics, computer vision, and connectomics. Its attention can be partially attributed to its computational difficulty. Although many heuristics have previously been proposed in the literature to approximately solve graph matching, very few have any theoretical support for their performance. A common technique is to relax the discrete problem to a continuous problem, therefore enabling practitioners to bring gradient-descent-type algorithms to bear. We prove that an indefinite relaxation (when solved exactly) almost always discovers the optimal permutation, while a common convex relaxation almost always fails to discover the optimal permutation. These theoretical results suggest that initializing the indefinite algorithm with the convex optimum might yield improved practical performance. Indeed, experimental results illuminate and corroborate these theoretical findings, demonstrating that excellent results are achieved in both benchmark and real data problems by amalgamating the two approaches.

  12. Relaxation strategies for patients during dermatologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D

    2010-07-01

    Patient stress and anxiety are common preoperatively and during dermatologic procedures and surgeries. Stress and anxiety can occasionally interfere with performance of procedures or surgery and can induce hemodynamic instability, such as elevated blood pressure or syncope, as well as producing considerable discomfort for some patients. Detection of excess stress and anxiety in patients can allow the opportunity for corrective or palliative measures. Slower breathing, biofeedback, progressive muscular relaxation, guided imagery, hypnosis, meditation and music can help calm and rebalance the patient's autonomic nervous system and immune functioning. Handheld miniaturized heart rate variability biofeedback devices are now available. The relaxation response can easily be taught. Guided imagery can be recorded or live. Live rapid induction hypnosis followed by deepening and then self-guided imagery requires no experience on the part of the patient but does require training and experience on the part of a provider. Recorded hypnosis inductions may also be used. Meditation generally requires more prior experience and training, but is useful when the patient already is skilled in it. Live, guided meditation or meditation recordings may be used. Relaxing recorded music from speakers or headphones or live performance music may also be employed to ease discomfort and improve the patient's attitude for dermatologic procedures and surgeries.

  13. Tension and relaxation in the individual.

    PubMed

    Newbury, C R

    1979-06-01

    Increasing materialism in society is resulting in more wide spread nervous tension in all age groups. While some degree of nervous tension is necessary in everyday living, its adverse effects require that we must learn to bring it under control. Total tension is shown to have two components: a controllable element arising from factors in the environment and the inbuilt uncontrollable residue which is basic in the individual temperament. The effects of excessive or uncontrolled stress can be classified as 1) emotional reactions such as neurotic behaviour (anxiety hypochondria, hysteria, phobia, depression obsessions and compulsions) or psychotic behaviour and 2) psychosomatic reactions (nervous asthma, headache, insomnia, heart attack). Nervous energy can be wastefully expended by such factors as loss of temper, wrong attitudes to work, job frustration and marital strains. Relaxation is the only positive way to control undesirable nervous tension and its techniques require to be learned. A number of techniques (progressive relaxation, differential relaxation, hypnosis, the use of biofeedback, Yoga and Transcendental Meditation) are described and their application to dental practice is discussed.

  14. Relaxed Phylogenetics and Dating with Confidence

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Simon Y. W; Phillips, Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    In phylogenetics, the unrooted model of phylogeny and the strict molecular clock model are two extremes of a continuum. Despite their dominance in phylogenetic inference, it is evident that both are biologically unrealistic and that the real evolutionary process lies between these two extremes. Fortunately, intermediate models employing relaxed molecular clocks have been described. These models open the gate to a new field of “relaxed phylogenetics.” Here we introduce a new approach to performing relaxed phylogenetic analysis. We describe how it can be used to estimate phylogenies and divergence times in the face of uncertainty in evolutionary rates and calibration times. Our approach also provides a means for measuring the clocklikeness of datasets and comparing this measure between different genes and phylogenies. We find no significant rate autocorrelation among branches in three large datasets, suggesting that autocorrelated models are not necessarily suitable for these data. In addition, we place these datasets on the continuum of clocklikeness between a strict molecular clock and the alternative unrooted extreme. Finally, we present analyses of 102 bacterial, 106 yeast, 61 plant, 99 metazoan, and 500 primate alignments. From these we conclude that our method is phylogenetically more accurate and precise than the traditional unrooted model while adding the ability to infer a timescale to evolution. PMID:16683862

  15. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Chen, Weiwei; Dan, Hong; Tan, Li; Zhu, He; Yang, Guangzhong; Shen, Jinhua; Peng, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Ping; Xue, Lu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Ma, Liqun; Si, Xiao-Tang; Wang, Zhuo; Dai, Jiapei; Qin, Gangjian; Zou, Chunbin; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component) was prepared, which completely inhibits high K(+)- and acetylcholine- (ACH-) induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K(+) was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca(2+) channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca(2+) channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm.

  16. Vibrational-translational relaxation in liquid chloroform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, K.; Choi, P.-K.; Negishi, K.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurements were made in liquid chloroform over the frequency range from 3 MHz to 5 GHz by means of three experimental techniques, pulse-echo overlap, high-resolution Bragg reflection, and Brillouin scattering. The observed velocity dispersion revealed two relaxation processes, one at 650 MHz and the other at 5.1 GHz at 20 °C. They are interpreted in terms of vibrational-translational relaxation. Quantitative analysis of specific heat shows the lowest (261 cm-1) and the second lowest (366 cm-1) fundamental vibrational modes should have a common relaxation time at 50 ps and the group of all above the third mode (667 cm-1) at 290 ps. The present results are combined with recent data obtained by Laubereau et al. with the picosecond spectroscopy technique; a diagram illustrating V-T and V-V energy transfer is presented. A brief comment is given also on V-T and V-V processes in dichloromethane.

  17. Ultrafast electronic relaxation in superheated bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaly, E. G.; Rode, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Interaction of moving electrons with vibrating ions in the lattice forms the basis for many physical properties from electrical resistivity and electronic heat capacity to superconductivity. In ultrafast laser interaction with matter the electrons are heated much faster than the electron-ion energy equilibration, leading to a two-temperature state with electron temperature far above that of the lattice. The rate of temperature equilibration is governed by the strength of electron-phonon energy coupling, which is conventionally described by a coupling constant, neglecting the dependence on the electron and lattice temperature. The application of this constant to the observations of fast relaxation rate led to a controversial notion of ‘ultra-fast non-thermal melting’ under extreme electronic excitation. Here we provide theoretical grounds for a strong dependence of the electron-phonon relaxation time on the lattice temperature. We show, by taking proper account of temperature dependence, that the heating and restructuring of the lattice occurs much faster than were predicted on the assumption of a constant, temperature independent energy coupling. We applied the temperature-dependent momentum and energy transfer time to experiments on fs-laser excited bismuth to demonstrate that all the observed ultra-fast transformations of the transient state of bismuth are purely thermal in nature. The developed theory, when applied to ultrafast experiments on bismuth, provides interpretation of the whole variety of transient phase relaxation without the non-thermal melting conjecture.

  18. Use of nitroglycerin for uterine relaxation.

    PubMed

    Smith, G N; Brien, J F

    1998-09-01

    Data from human and experimental animal research indicate that nitric oxide (NO), a novel messenger, formed during the nitric oxide synthase-catalyzed oxidation of L-arginine to L-citrulline, is involved in maintaining normal uterine tone during gestation. There are demonstrated and potential benefits of manipulating the L-arginine-NO system during pregnancy. Several recent case reports and case series have described the effective use of nitroglycerin (GTN), a NO donor compound, antenatally, intrapartum, and postpartum for acute uterine relaxation. Therapeutic indications for GTN range from facilitating external cephalic version, difficult vaginal or cesarean section delivery, and manual exploration of the uterus, to its use as a tocolytic. The intravenous regimen of GTN required to obtain the desired degree of uterine relaxation is extremely variable; intravenous bolus doses of 50 micrograms to 500 micrograms GTN with up to three repeated injections of 50 micrograms to 250 micrograms have been reported. Other methods of GTN administration include transdermal patches and sublingual spray. GTN, when used in low doses, may provide safe and effective uterine relaxation with no clinically apparent fetal or maternal adverse effects. However, clinical trials with use of objective methods of evaluating uterine tone and comparing GTN to other tocolytic agents are required before widespread use in advocated.

  19. Graph Matching: Relax at Your Own Risk.

    PubMed

    Lyzinski, Vince; Fishkind, Donniell E; Fiori, Marcelo; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Priebe, Carey E; Sapiro, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Graph matching-aligning a pair of graphs to minimize their edge disagreements-has received wide-spread attention from both theoretical and applied communities over the past several decades, including combinatorics, computer vision, and connectomics. Its attention can be partially attributed to its computational difficulty. Although many heuristics have previously been proposed in the literature to approximately solve graph matching, very few have any theoretical support for their performance. A common technique is to relax the discrete problem to a continuous problem, therefore enabling practitioners to bring gradient-descent-type algorithms to bear. We prove that an indefinite relaxation (when solved exactly) almost always discovers the optimal permutation, while a common convex relaxation almost always fails to discover the optimal permutation. These theoretical results suggest that initializing the indefinite algorithm with the convex optimum might yield improved practical performance. Indeed, experimental results illuminate and corroborate these theoretical findings, demonstrating that excellent results are achieved in both benchmark and real data problems by amalgamating the two approaches. PMID:26656578

  20. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Chen, Weiwei; Dan, Hong; Tan, Li; Zhu, He; Yang, Guangzhong; Shen, Jinhua; Peng, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Ping; Xue, Lu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Ma, Liqun; Si, Xiao-Tang; Wang, Zhuo; Dai, Jiapei; Qin, Gangjian; Zou, Chunbin; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component) was prepared, which completely inhibits high K(+)- and acetylcholine- (ACH-) induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K(+) was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca(2+) channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca(2+) channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm. PMID:27239213

  1. Relaxation strategies for patients during dermatologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D

    2010-07-01

    Patient stress and anxiety are common preoperatively and during dermatologic procedures and surgeries. Stress and anxiety can occasionally interfere with performance of procedures or surgery and can induce hemodynamic instability, such as elevated blood pressure or syncope, as well as producing considerable discomfort for some patients. Detection of excess stress and anxiety in patients can allow the opportunity for corrective or palliative measures. Slower breathing, biofeedback, progressive muscular relaxation, guided imagery, hypnosis, meditation and music can help calm and rebalance the patient's autonomic nervous system and immune functioning. Handheld miniaturized heart rate variability biofeedback devices are now available. The relaxation response can easily be taught. Guided imagery can be recorded or live. Live rapid induction hypnosis followed by deepening and then self-guided imagery requires no experience on the part of the patient but does require training and experience on the part of a provider. Recorded hypnosis inductions may also be used. Meditation generally requires more prior experience and training, but is useful when the patient already is skilled in it. Live, guided meditation or meditation recordings may be used. Relaxing recorded music from speakers or headphones or live performance music may also be employed to ease discomfort and improve the patient's attitude for dermatologic procedures and surgeries. PMID:20677535

  2. OCT-based approach to local relaxations discrimination from translational relaxation motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Lev A.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Sirotkina, Marina A.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Vitkin, Alex; Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.

    2016-04-01

    Multimodal optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging tool for tissue state characterization. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an approach to mapping mechanical properties of tissue based on OCT. One of challenging problems in OCE is elimination of the influence of residual local tissue relaxation that complicates obtaining information on elastic properties of the tissue. Alternatively, parameters of local relaxation itself can be used as an additional informative characteristic for distinguishing the tissue in normal and pathological states over the OCT image area. Here we briefly present an OCT-based approach to evaluation of local relaxation processes in the tissue bulk after sudden unloading of its initial pre-compression. For extracting the local relaxation rate we evaluate temporal dependence of local strains that are mapped using our recently developed hybrid phase resolved/displacement-tracking (HPRDT) approach. This approach allows one to subtract the contribution of global displacements of scatterers in OCT scans and separate the temporal evolution of local strains. Using a sample excised from of a coronary arteria, we demonstrate that the observed relaxation of local strains can be reasonably fitted by an exponential law, which opens the possibility to characterize the tissue by a single relaxation time. The estimated local relaxation times are assumed to be related to local biologically-relevant processes inside the tissue, such as diffusion, leaking/draining of the fluids, local folding/unfolding of the fibers, etc. In general, studies of evolution of such features can provide new metrics for biologically-relevant changes in tissue, e.g., in the problems of treatment monitoring.

  3. Suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress improves endothelium-dependent contractile responses in aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Spitler, Kathryn M; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Webb, R Clinton

    2013-08-01

    A contributing factor to increased peripheral resistance seen during hypertension is an increased production of endothelium-derived contractile factors (EDCFs). The main EDCFs are vasoconstrictor prostanoids, metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) produced by Ca(2+)-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) following phosphorylation (at Ser(505)) mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and cyclooxygenase (COX) activations. Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to contribute to pathophysiological alterations in cardiovascular diseases, the relationship between ER stress and EDCF-mediated responses remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ER stress plays a role in EDCF-mediated responses via activation of the cPLA2/COX pathway in the aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Male SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were treated with ER stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid or 4-phenlybutyric acid (TUDCA or PBA, respectively, 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ip) or PBS (control, 300 μl/day ip) for 1 wk. There was a decrease in systolic blood pressure in SHR treated with TUDCA or PBA compared with control SHR (176 ± 3 or 181 ± 5, respectively vs. 200 ± 2 mmHg). In the SHR, treatment with TUDCA or PBA normalized aortic (vs. control SHR) 1) contractions to acetylcholine (ACh), AA, and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, 2) ACh-stimulated releases of prostanoids (thromboxane A2, PGF2α, and prostacyclin), 3) expression of COX-1, 4) phosphorylation of cPLA2 and ERK1/2, and 5) production of H2O2. Our findings demonstrate a novel interplay between ER stress and EDCF-mediated responses in the aorta of the SHR. Moreover, ER stress inhibition normalizes such responses by suppressing the cPLA2/COX pathway.

  4. Sex differences in the role of NADPH oxidases in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in porcine isolated coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pui San; Randall, Michael D; Roberts, Richard E

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined whether vascular function, expression and activity of NADPH oxidases differ between sexes in porcine isolated coronary arteries (PCAs) using selective Nox inhibitors, ML-171 and VAS2870. Vascular responses of distal PCAs were examined under myographic conditions in the presence of a range of inhibitors. Nox activity in PCA homogenates was assessed using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. Protein expression of Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 was compared using Western immunoblotting. The presence of ML-171 or DPI had no effect on the bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in PCAs from females. In males, DPI shifted the EC50 2.8-fold to the right. In the presence of L-NAME and indomethacin, DPI and ML-171 had no effect in females, but enhanced the bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in males. ML-171 had no effect on the forskolin-induced vasorelaxation but decreased the potency of U46619-induced tone in both sexes in the absence or presence of endothelium. VAS2870 had no effect on the bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in both sexes but reduces the EDH-type response in males only. Nox activity was reduced by DPI and ML-171, but not VAS2870 in PCAs from both sexes. Protein expression of Nox1 and Nox2 in PCAs was higher in males compared to females whereas Nox4 was higher in females. Inhibition of Nox with ML-171 enhances while VAS2870 reduces the EDH-type response in PCAs from males but not females. This indicates that Nox-generated ROS play a role in the EDH-type response in males with differences attributed to the differential expression of Nox isoforms. This may underlie the greater oxidative stress observed in males. PMID:25872163

  5. AKAP150-dependent cooperative TRPV4 channel gating is central to endothelium-dependent vasodilation and is disrupted in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sonkusare, Swapnil K.; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Bonev, Adrian D.; Hill-Eubanks, David C.; Kotlikoff, Michael I.; Scott, John D.; Santana, Luis F.; Nelson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cell dysfunction, characterized by a diminished response to endothelial cell–dependent vasodilators, is a hallmark of hypertension. TRPV4 channels play a major role in endothelial-dependent vaso-dilation, a function mediated by local Ca2+ influx through clusters of functionally coupled TRPV4 channels rather than by a global increase in endothelial cell Ca2+. We showed that stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on endothelial cells of mouse arteries exclusively activated TRPV4 channels that were localized at myoendothelial projections (MEPs), specialized regions of endothelial cells that contact smooth muscle cells. Muscarinic receptor–mediated activation of TRPV4 depended on protein kinase C (PKC) and the PKC-anchoring protein AKAP150, which was concentrated at MEPs. Cooperative opening of clustered TRPV4 channels specifically amplified Ca2+ influx at MEPs. Cooperativity of TRPV4 channels at non-MEP sites was much lower, and cooperativity at MEPs was greatly reduced by chelation of intracellular Ca2+ or AKAP150 knockout, suggesting that Ca2+ entering through adjacent channels underlies the AKAP150-dependent potentiation of TRPV4 activity. In a mouse model of angiotensin II–induced hypertension, MEP localization of AKAP150 was disrupted, muscarinic receptor stimulation did not activate TRPV4 channels, cooperativity among TRPV4 channels at MEPs was weaker, and vasodilation in response to muscarinic receptor stimulation was reduced. Thus, endothelial-dependent dilation of resistance arteries is enabled by MEP-localized AKAP150, which ensures the proximity of PKC to TRPV4 channels and the coupled channel gating necessary for efficient communication from endothelial to smooth muscle cells in arteries. Disruption of this molecular assembly may contribute to altered blood flow in hypertension. PMID:25005230

  6. Psychophysiological Effects of Progressive Relaxation in Anxiety Neurotic Patients and of Progressive Relaxation and Alpha Feedback in Nonpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Paul M.

    1978-01-01

    Compared physiological effects of progressive relaxation, alpha feedback, and a no-treatment condition. Nonpatients showed more psychophysiological habituation than patients in response to hearing very loud tones and to reaction time tasks. Patients showed greater physiological response to relaxation than nonpatients. After relaxation, autonomic…

  7. Stretched Exponential Relaxation of Glasses at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingtian; Wang, Mengyi; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Bu; Sant, Gaurav; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2015-10-01

    The question of whether glass continues to relax at low temperature is of fundamental and practical interest. Here, we report a novel atomistic simulation method allowing us to directly access the long-term dynamics of glass relaxation at room temperature. We find that the potential energy relaxation follows a stretched exponential decay, with a stretching exponent β =3 /5 , as predicted by Phillips's diffusion-trap model. Interestingly, volume relaxation is also found. However, it is not correlated to the energy relaxation, but it is rather a manifestation of the mixed alkali effect.

  8. Stretched Exponential Relaxation of Glasses at Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingtian; Wang, Mengyi; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Bu; Sant, Gaurav; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2015-10-16

    The question of whether glass continues to relax at low temperature is of fundamental and practical interest. Here, we report a novel atomistic simulation method allowing us to directly access the long-term dynamics of glass relaxation at room temperature. We find that the potential energy relaxation follows a stretched exponential decay, with a stretching exponent β=3/5, as predicted by Phillips's diffusion-trap model. Interestingly, volume relaxation is also found. However, it is not correlated to the energy relaxation, but it is rather a manifestation of the mixed alkali effect.

  9. Dielectric relaxation in dimethyl sulfoxide/water mixtures studied by microwave dielectric relaxation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zijie; Manias, Evangelos; Macdonald, Digby D; Lanagan, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Dielectric spectra of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water mixtures, over the entire concentration range, have been measured using the transmission line method at frequencies from 45 MHz to 26 GHz and at temperatures of 298-318 K. The relaxation times of the mixtures show a maximum at an intermediate molar fraction of DMSO. The specific structure of mixtures in different concentration regions was determined by the dielectric relaxation dynamics, obtained from the effect of temperature on the relaxation time. A water structure "breaking effect" is observed in dilute aqueous solutions. The average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in these mixtures is found to be reduced compared to pure water. The increase in the dielectric relaxation time in DMSO/water mixtures is attributed to the spatial (steric) constraints of DMSO molecules on the hydrogen-bond network, rather than being due to hydrophobic hydration of the methyl groups. The interaction between water and DMSO by hydrogen bonding reaches a maximum at a DMSO molar fraction of 0.33, reflected by the maximum activation enthalpy for dielectric relaxation in this concentration, suggesting the formation of a stoichiometric compound, H2O-DMSO-H2O. In highly concentrated solutions, negative activation entropies are observed, indicating the presence of aggregates of DMSO molecules. A distinct antiparallel arrangement of dipoles is obtained for neat DMSO in the liquid state according to the Kirkwood correlation factor (g(K) = 0.5), calculated from the static permittivity. The similarity of the dielectric behavior of pure DMSO and DMSO-rich mixtures suggests that dipole-dipole interactions contribute significantly to the rotational relaxation process in these solutions.

  10. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D

    2002-12-01

    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  11. Stress relaxation in pulsed DC electromigration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringler, I. J.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    When a high current density is applied to a conductor, it activates several driving forces for mass transport that can lead to device failure, the most prominent of which is electromigration. However, there are other driving forces operating as well that can counteract or add to the effects of electromigration. A major driving force is a stress gradient that is developed as a response to electromigration in the presence of a blocking boundary condition. When the electrical stress is interrupted by pulsing DC measurements at low frequency, relaxation of the stress is observed through longer lifetime.

  12. Compatible Relaxation and Coarsening in Algebraic Multigrid

    SciTech Connect

    Brannick, J J; Falgout, R D

    2009-09-22

    We introduce a coarsening algorithm for algebraic multigrid (AMG) based on the concept of compatible relaxation (CR). The algorithm is significantly different from standard methods, most notably because it does not rely on any notion of strength of connection. We study its behavior on a number of model problems, and evaluate the performance of an AMG algorithm that incorporates the coarsening approach. Lastly, we introduce a variant of CR that provides a sharper metric of coarse-grid quality and demonstrate its potential with two simple examples.

  13. Dipole relaxation in an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Richard M.

    1980-07-01

    From Boltzmann's equation, S=k lnΩ, an expression for the orientational entropy, S of a rigid rod (electric dipole) is derived. The free energy of the dipole in an electric field is then calculated as a function of both the dipole's average orientation and the field strength. Application of the equilibrium criterion to the free energy yields the field dependence of the entropy of the dipole. Irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the general form of the equation of motion of the dipole's average orientation. Subsequent application of Newton's second law of motion produces Debye's classical expression for the relaxation of an electric dipole in a viscous medium.

  14. Slow relaxation in structure-forming ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Sreekumari, Aparna; Ilg, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    We study the behavior of colloidal magnetic fluids at low density for various dipolar interaction strengths by performing extensive Langevin dynamics simulations with model parameters that mimic cobalt-based ferrofluids used in experiments. Our study mainly focuses on the structural and dynamical properties of dipolar fluids and the influence of structural changes on their dynamics. Drastic changes from chainlike to networklike structures in the absence of an external magnetic field are observed. This crossover plays an important role in the slowing down of dynamics that is reflected in various dynamical properties including the tracer diffusion and the viscosity and also in the structural relaxation. PMID:24229180

  15. Relaxation dynamics in correlated quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Andergassen, S.; Schuricht, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Schoeller, H.

    2014-12-04

    We study quantum many-body effects on the real-time evolution of the current through quantum dots. By using a non-equilibrium renormalization group approach, we provide analytic results for the relaxation dynamics into the stationary state and identify the microscopic cutoff scales that determine the transport rates. We find rich non-equilibrium physics induced by the interplay of the different energy scales. While the short-time limit is governed by universal dynamics, the long-time behavior features characteristic oscillations as well as an interplay of exponential and power-law decay.

  16. Oxygen-induced relaxation of Ni(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputi, L. S.; Jiang, S. L.; Tucci, R.; Amoddeo, A.; Papagno, L.

    1989-04-01

    The electron energy loss fine structures technique has been used to study the local coordination around surface nickel atoms on the Ni(111) face. clean and in the presence of a p(2×2) oxygen overlayer. The surface sensitivity of the technique has been enhanced by using a glancing primary electron beam. Comparison of the radial distribution functions obtained on the clean and oxygen-covered surface shows evidence of an oxygen-induced relaxation, in agreement with the results obtained by Narusawa et al. using high energy He + ion scattering.

  17. Stress Relaxation of Entangled Polymer Networks

    SciTech Connect

    EVERAERS,RALF; GREST,GARY S.; KREMER,KURT; PUTZ,MATHIAS

    1999-10-22

    The non-linear stress-strain relation for crosslinked polymer networks is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previously we demonstrated the importance of trapped entanglements in determining the elastic and relaxational properties of networks. Here we present new results for the stress versus strain for both dry and swollen networks. Models which limit the fluctuations of the network strands like the tube model are shown to describe the stress for both elongation and compression. For swollen networks, the total modulus is found to decrease like (V{sub o}/V){sup 2/3} and goes to the phantom model result only for short strand networks.

  18. Dielectric relaxations investigation of a synthesized epoxy resin polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer

    2015-04-01

    A diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin was synthesized, and cured with 3,3'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) at a curing temperature of 120 °C. The relaxation properties of the realized polymers were studied by two complementary techniques: dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), in the temperature range 173-393K and in the frequency interval 10-1-106 Hz, and thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) with a windowing polarization process. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were also carried out to study interfacial relaxations. Dielectric data were analyzed in terms of permittivity and electric modulus variations. Three relaxation processes ( γ, β and α) have been identified. They were found to be frequency and temperature dependent and were interpreted in terms of the Havriliak-Negami approach. Relaxation parameters were determined by fitting the experimental data. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time was well fitted by the Arrhenius law for secondary relaxations, while the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann model was found to better fit the τ( T) variations for α relaxation. We found τ 0 = 4.9 10-12 s, 9.6 10-13 s and 1.98 10-7 s for γ, β and α relaxations, respectively. The obtained results were found to be consistent with those reported in the literature. Due to the calculation of the low-frequency data of dielectric loss by the Hamon approximation, the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) relaxation was highlighted.

  19. Febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, improves hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Shirakura, Takashi; Nomura, Johji; Matsui, Chieko; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Tamura, Mizuho; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme responsible for the production of uric acid. XO produces considerable amount of oxidative stress throughout the body. To date, however, its pathophysiologic role in hypertension and endothelial dysfunction still remains controversial. To explore the possible involvement of XO-derived oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of vascular dysfunction, by use of a selective XO inhibitor, febuxostat, we investigated the impact of pharmacological inhibition of XO on hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Sixteen-week-old SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with tap water (control) or water containing febuxostat (3 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in febuxostat-treated SHR (220 ± 3 mmHg) was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased compared with the control SHR (236 ± 4 mmHg) while SBP in febuxostat-treated WKY was constant. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortas from febuxostat-treated SHR was significantly (P < 0.05) improved compared with the control SHR, whereas relaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside was not changed. Vascular XO activity and tissue nitrotyrosine level, a representative indicator of local oxidative stress, were considerably elevated in the control SHR compared with the control WKY, and this increment was abolished by febuxostat. Our results suggest that exaggerated XO activity and resultant increase in oxidative stress in this experimental model contribute to the hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, thereby supporting a notion that pharmacological inhibition of XO is valuable not only for hyperuricemia but also for treating hypertension and related endothelial dysfunction in human clinics.

  20. Melatonin and L-carnitin improves endothelial disfunction and oxidative stress in Type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Salmanoglu, Derya Selcen; Gurpinar, Tugba; Vural, Kamil; Ekerbicer, Nuran; Darıverenli, Ertan; Var, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction is thought to play a major role in the development of diabetic cardiovascular disease. The roles of endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia will be considered. Melatonin as well as L-carnitine were shown to possess strong antioxidant properties. Diabetes induced with high fat diet (for 8 weeks) and multipl low doses intraperitoneal injection of STZ (twice, 30 mg/kg/d i.p). The diabetic animals were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups as follows: Control group (C), high fat diet (HFD), STZ-induced diabetic group (HFD+STZ) , HFD+STZ diabetic group received melatonin (10 mg/kg/d i.p), HFD+STZ diabetic group received L-carnitine (0.6 g/kg/d i.p), and HFD+STZ diabetic group received glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/d, oral). The serum fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were tested. Acetylcholine induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and sodium nitroprusside induced endothelium-independent relaxation were measured in aortas for estimating endothelial function. Also, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) levels activities were determined in rat liver. According to our results melatonin and L-carnitine treatment decreased fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL levels. MDA levels significantly decreased with the melatonin treatment whereas SOD levels were not significantly changed between the groups. The results suggest that especially melatonin restores the vascular responses and endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:26803481

  1. Dielectric relaxation of CdO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ramna; Dutta, Alo; Das, Sayantani; Kumar, Akhilesh; Sinha, T. P.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles of cadmium oxide have been synthesized by soft chemical route using thioglycerol as the capping agent. The crystallite size is determined by X-ray diffraction technique and the particle size is obtained by transmission electron microscope. The band gap of the material is obtained using Tauc relation to UV-visible absorption spectrum. The photoluminescence emission spectra of the sample are measured at various excitation wavelengths. The molecular components in the material have been analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The dielectric dispersion of the material is investigated in the temperature range from 313 to 393 K and in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz by impedance spectroscopy. The Cole-Cole model is used to describe the dielectric relaxation of the system. The scaling behavior of imaginary part of impedance shows that the relaxation describes the same mechanism at various temperatures. The frequency-dependent electrical data are also analyzed in the framework of conductivity and electrical modulus formalisms. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra are found to obey the power law.

  2. Transverse relaxation of scalar-coupled protons.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Takuya F; Baishya, Bikash; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-10-25

    In a preliminary communication (B. Baishya, T. F. Segawa, G. Bodenhausen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 17538-17539), we recently demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clean echo decays of protons in biomolecules despite the presence of homonuclear scalar couplings. These unmodulated decays allow one to determine apparent transverse relaxation rates R(2) (app) of individual protons. Herein, we report the observation of R(2) (app) for three methyl protons, four amide H(N) protons, and all 11 backbone H(α) protons in cyclosporin A. If the proton resonances overlap, their R(2) (app) rates can be measured by transferring their magnetization to neighboring (13)C nuclei, which are less prone to overlap. The R(2) (app) rates of protons attached to (13)C are faster than those attached to (12)C because of (13)C-(1)H dipolar interactions. The differences of these rates allow the determination of local correlation functions. Backbone H(N) and H(α) protons that have fast decay rates R(2) (app) also feature fast longitudinal relaxation rates R(1) and intense NOESY cross peaks that are typical of crowded environments. Variations of R(2) (app) rates of backbone H(α) protons in similar amino acids reflect differences in local environments.

  3. Relaxation behavior of oxygen deficient strontium manganite

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Namita Thakur, Awalendra Kumar

    2014-04-24

    Conduction behavior of nanocrystalline oxygen deficient ceramic-SrMnO{sub 3–δ}(δ∼0.14) has been studied. The structural analysis of nano-SrMnO{sub 2.86} follows hexagonal unit cell structure with P6{sub 3}/mmc (194) space group belonging to 6/mmm point group with 4H – layered type hexagonal-cubic layers. The system have lattice parameters; a = 5.437(92) Å, c = 9.072(92) Å, c/a∼1.66 (85) with α =90° γ= 120° and cell volume, V= 232.35(18). The relaxation times estimated from complex impedance and modulus relaxation spectrum, show the thermally activated system with corresponding activation energies as 0.66 eV and 0.51 eV The stretching factor ‘β’ from the scaled modulus spectrum shows the poly-dispersive non-Debye nature of the system. The hopping number ‘n’ shows the influence of ionic charge carriers which controls the conduction mechanism of nano-SrMnO{sub 2.86}.

  4. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: consequences of chromatin relaxation

    PubMed Central

    van der Maarel, Silvère M.; Miller, Daniel G.; Tawil, Rabi; Filippova, Galina N.; Tapscott, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review In recent years we have seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the disease mechanism underlying facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of the disease mechanism and to discuss the observations supporting the possibility of a developmental defect in this disorder. Recent findings In the majority of cases FSHD is caused by contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array (FSHD1). This results in local chromatin relaxation and stable expression of the DUX4 retrogene in skeletal muscle, but only when a polymorphic DUX4 polyadenylation signal is present. In some cases (FSHD2), D4Z4 chromatin relaxation and stable DUX4 expression occurs in the absence of D4Z4 array contraction. DUX4 is a germline transcription factor and its expression in skeletal muscle leads to activation of early stem cell and germline programs and transcriptional activation of retroelements. Summary Recent studies have provided a plausible disease mechanism for FSHD where FSHD results from inappropriate expression of the germline transcription factor DUX4. The genes regulated by DUX4 suggest several mechanisms of muscle damage, and provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets that should be investigated in future studies. PMID:22892954

  5. The dipolar origin of protein relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, H.; Verbruggen, R.; Rosseneu-Motreff, M. Y.; Blaton, V.; Peeters, H.

    1968-01-01

    1. A set of parameters is proposed to check the interpretation of the dielectric behaviour of protein solutions as a rigid-dipole relaxation of prolate ellipsoids of revolution in the frequency range between 20 kHz and 10 MHz. Besides the δb-function of Scheraga, another analogous function (δa) is presented to establish size and shape of globular proteins. A study of the influence of solvent viscosity on the dielectric dispersion also gives strong evidence in favour of rigid-dipole relaxation. 2. Measurements of the dielectric dispersion of monomer solutions of bovine serum albumin and transferrin are reported. Monomers of bovine serum albumin were obtained by fractionation on Sephadex G-150. Low-conductivity solutions of both proteins are obtained by passage through an ion-exchange resin. 3. Computer analysis of the experimental dispersion curves by use of a two-term Debye dispersion gives valuable information about transferrin and leads to an axial ratio 4·5 for a prolate ellipsoid of revolution. The dielectric increment of bovine serum albumin is very low and no conclusive results have yet been obtained. PMID:5701669

  6. Continuum elastic theory of adsorbate vibrational relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Steven P.; Pykhtin, M. V.; Mele, E. J.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical theory is presented for the damping of low-frequency adsorbate vibrations via resonant coupling to the substrate phonons. The system is treated classically, with the substrate modeled as a semi-infinite elastic continuum and the adsorbate overlayer modeled as an array of point masses connected to the surface by harmonic springs. The theory provides a simple expression for the relaxation rate in terms of fundamental parameters of the system: γ=mω¯02/AcρcT, where m is the adsorbate mass, ω¯0 is the measured frequency, Ac is the overlayer unit-cell area, and ρ and cT are the substrate mass density and transverse speed of sound, respectively. This expression is strongly coverage dependent, and predicts relaxation rates in excellent quantitative agreement with available experiments. For a half-monolayer of carbon monoxide on the copper (100) surface, the predicted damping rate of in-plane frustrated translations is 0.50×1012s-1, as compared to the experimental value of (0.43±0.07)×1012s-1. Furthermore it is shown that, for all coverages presently accessible to experiment, adsorbate motions exhibit collective effects which cannot be treated as stemming from isolated oscillators.

  7. The in vivo relaxivity of MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuter, Borys

    1999-11-01

    Post-contrast clinical 1H Magnetic Resonance Images have to date been interpreted with little regard for possible variations in the in-vivo properties of injected magnetic pharmaceuticals (contrast agents), particularly in their relaxivity or ability to alter tissue relaxation rates, T2-1 and T 2-1, per unit concentration. The relaxivities of contrast agents have only rarely been measured in-vivo, measurements usually being performed on excised tissues and at magnetic field strengths lower than used in clinical practice. Some researchers have simply assumed that relaxivities determined in homogeneous tissue phantoms were applicable in-vivo. In this thesis, the relaxivities of two contrast agents, Gd-DTPA and Gd-EOB-DTPA, were measured in simple tissue phantoms and in the kidney and liver of intact, but sacrificed, Wistar rats using a clinical MR scanner with a magnetic field of 1.5 Tesla. T1 and T2 were determined from sets of images acquired using a standard clinical spin-echo pulse sequence. The contrast agent concentration in tissue was assessed by radioassay of 153Gd-DTPA or 153Gd-EOB-DTPA, mixed with the normal compound prior to injection. Relaxivity was taken as the slope of a linear regression fit of relaxation rate against Gd concentration. The relaxivities of Gd-EOB-DTPA were similarly determined in normal and biliary- obstructed guinea pigs. Relaxivities in tissue differed significantly from values obtained in simple phantoms. Kidney T1 relaxivity was reduced for both compounds in normal animals. Three days or more of biliary obstruction produced further reductions in kidney T1 relaxivity of Gd-EOB-DTPA, providing strong evidence that disease affects contrast agent relaxivity. Kidney T2 relaxivity was much greater than T1 relaxivity and was also depressed by biliary obstruction. Liver T1 and T 2 relaxivites were increased above phantom values, but were not affected by the biliary obstruction. Water compartmentalisation, macromolecular binding, proton

  8. Temporal evolution of relaxation in rubbed polystyrene thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, O. C.; Tsui, O. K. C.; Yang, Z.

    2001-06-01

    Temporal relaxation of rubbed polystyrene (PS) thin films (50 nm thick) was studied by probing the decay of the optical anisotropy in the sample. Our results show that the relaxation process is characterized by two single-exponential decays plus a temperature-dependent constant. Both relaxations are orders of magnitude faster than the main chain ({alpha}) relaxation at temperatures well below ({gt}10{degree}C)T{sub g}, with activation energies 3.0 kcal/mol and 5.1 kcal/mol, respectively, either of which are much smaller than that of the {alpha} relaxation ({similar_to}50 kcal/mol). The decay time constants are found to be independent of the sample molecular weights M{sub w} (=13.7 K to 550 K Daltons, M{sub w}/M{sub n}{le}1.1) at these temperatures. This shows the local nature of the relaxation modes of rubbed PS.

  9. Dielectric Relaxation and Rheological Behavior of Supramolecular Polymeric Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Nan; Wang, Yangyang; Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Haixia; Wang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    A model self-complementary supramolecular polymer based on thymine and diamidopyridine triple hydrogen-bonding motifs has been synthesized, and its dielectric and rheological behavior has been investigated. The formation of supramolecular polymers has been unequivocally demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with traveling wave ion mobility separation, dielectric spectroscopy, and rheology. The dynamical behaviors of this associating polymer generally conform to those of type-A polymers, with a low-frequency chain relaxation and a high-frequency relaxation visible in both rheological and dielectric measurements. The dielectric chain relaxation shows the ideal symmetric Debye-like shape, resembling the peculiar features of hydrogen-bonding monoalcohols. Detailed analysis shows that there exists a weak decoupling between the mechanical terminal relaxation and dielectric Debye-like relaxation. The origin of the Debye-like dielectric relaxation is further discussed in the light of monoalcohols.

  10. Structural relaxation dynamics and annealing effects of sodium silicate glass.

    PubMed

    Naji, Mohamed; Piazza, Francesco; Guimbretière, Guillaume; Canizarès, Aurélien; Vaills, Yann

    2013-05-01

    Here we report high-precision measurements of structural relaxation dynamics in the glass transition range at the intermediate and short length scale for a strong sodium silicate glass during long annealing times. We evidence for the first time the heterogeneous dynamics at the intermediate range order by probing the acoustic longitudinal frequency in the GHz region by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Or, from in-situ Raman measurements, we show that relaxation is indeed homogeneous at the interatomic length scale. Our results show that the dynamics at the intermediate range order contains two distinct relaxation time scales, a fast and a slow component, differing by about a 10-fold factor below Tg and approaching to one another past the glass transition. The slow relaxation time agrees with the shear relaxation time, proving that Si-O bond breaking constitutes the primary control of structural relaxation at the intermediate range order.

  11. Hyperfine relaxation of an optically pumped cesium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Tornos, J.; Amare, J.C.

    1986-07-01

    The relaxation of hyperfine orientation indirectly induced by optical pumping with a sigma-polarized D/sub 1/-light in a cesium vapor in the presence of Ar is experimentally studied. The detection technique ensures the absence of quadrupole relaxation contributions in the relaxation signals. The results from the dependences of the hyperfine relaxation rate on the temperature and argon pressure are: diffusion coefficient of Cs in Ar, D/sub 0/ = 0.101 +- 0.010 cm/sup 2/s/sup -1/ at 0/sup 0/C and 760 Torr; relaxation cross section by Cs-Ar collisions, sigma/sub c/ = (104 +- 5) x 10/sup -23/ cm/sup 2/; relaxation cross section by Cs-Cs (spin exchange) collisions, sigma/sub e//sub x/ = (1.63 +- 0.13) x 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 2/.

  12. Multilayer Relaxation and Surface Energies of Metallic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Agustin M.; Ferrante, John

    1994-01-01

    The perpendicular and parallel multilayer relaxations of fcc (210) surfaces are studied using equivalent crystal theory (ECT). A comparison with experimental and theoretical results is made for AI(210). The effect of uncertainties in the input parameters on the magnitudes and ordering of surface relaxations for this semiempirical method is estimated. A new measure of surface roughness is proposed. Predictions for the multilayer relaxations and surface energies of the (210) face of Cu and Ni are also included.

  13. Stress relaxation in irradiated INCONEL X750 springs

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.R.; Cole, J.I.

    1999-09-01

    Because INCONEL X750 is used as a spring and bolting material in light water reactors, it is important to understand its stress relaxation behavior as a function of irradiation dose and aging temperature. This work reports the stress relaxation characteristics of INCONEL X750 irradiated at 375 to 415C to doses up to 20 dpa and thermally aged at 371 C for 6525 days. These measurements are an extension of stress relaxation measurements reported in Refs. 1 and 2.

  14. Effect of vibrational relaxation on DIET: a density matrix treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Ma, G.

    2000-04-01

    The influence of substrate-induced vibrational relaxation on desorption induced by electronic transitions (DIET) is studied using a density matrix formulation. The one-dimensional model describing the DIET dynamics of NO consists of two electronic states. Relaxation in both electronic and vibrational modes is simulated with dissipative Liouvillians of the Lindblad form. As expected, vibrational relaxation results in a smaller desorption yield and lower product translational temperature.

  15. Dielectric relaxation of β-butylbenzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, John C.; Papadimitropoulos, Nikos D.; Mavridis, Irene M.

    The frequency and temperature dependence of the real (ɛ') and imaginary (ɛ'') parts of the dielectric constant of polycrystalline complex β-cyclodextrin-4-t-butylbenzyl alcohol [β-CD TERB 11.2H2O] and β-cyclodextrin [β-CD 9.8H2O] and of the corresponding dried forms (β-CD TERB 3.8H2O and β-CD 2.4H2O, respectively) has been investigated, in the frequency range 0-100kHz and temperature range 130-350K. The dielectric behaviour is described well by Debye-type relaxation (α dispersion). All systems except for the βCD TERB 3.8H2O, exhibit an additional Ω dispersion at low frequencies, which usually is attributed to proton transport. In the non-dried samples the temperature dependence of eɛ' and ɛ''max exhibits two steps, whereas in the dried samples it exhibits only the low temperature step. The low temperature step is due to the tightly bound water molecules, whereas that at higher temperatures is due to easily removable water. The temperature dependence of ɛ'' shows a peak which has been attributed to a transition between ordered and disordered hydroxyl β-CD groups, and water molecules. The relaxation time varies exponentially with temperature (in the range 8-12musec), in a reverse V like curve, with maximum values located at the corresponding order-disorder transition temperatures. Activation energies of the order of ˜2.5kJmol-1 are calculated for the transition in every sample. The disorder in the hydrogen bonding is equivalent to a system of two dipoles with opposite directions, and the model of Fröhlich can be applied to explain the order-disorder transition and the temperature dependence of the relaxation time. An apparent negative activation energy before the transition temperature can be attributed to reorientation of the hydrogen bonding around the cyclodextrin molecules, and it is related to endothermic drifts observed by calorimetric studies of β-CD. The order-disorder transition can be probed also from the phase shift component of the

  16. Carbon relaxation analysis in proton coupled spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Claudio; Marchettini, Nadia; Bastianoni, Simone; Dongti, Alessandro

    1995-07-01

    Selective, non-selective and biselective carbon spin-lattice relaxation measurements were determined in methyl-salicylate DMSO-d 6 solution. The frequency dependence of biselective relaxation measurements of protonated aromatic carbons showed the effects of J-scalar modulation. The dipolar contribution induced by asymmetric selective proton inversion of the spin population of a single satellite peak could be useful for investigating of the Shimizu-Fujiwara-Mackor-Maclean relaxation rate. Analysis of the ratios is also proposed for the calculation of dipolar relaxation mechanism efficiency.

  17. Ultra-Slow Dielectric Relaxation Process in Polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, Yoshiki; Minoguchi, Ayumi; Nozaki, Ryusuke

    2004-04-01

    Dielectric relaxation processes with relaxation times larger than that for the structural α process are reported for glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol and their mixtures for the first time. Appearance of this ultra-slow process depends on cooling rate. More rapid cooling gives larger dielectric relaxation strength. However, relaxation time is not affected by cooling rate and shows non-Arrhenius temperature dependence with correlation to the α process. It can be considered that non-equilibrium dynamic structure causes the ultra-slow process. Scale of such structure would be much larger than that of the region for the cooperative molecular orientations for the α process.

  18. Theory of the spin relaxation of conduction electrons in silicon.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J L; Wu, M W; Fabian, J

    2010-01-01

    A realistic pseudopotential model is introduced to investigate the phonon-induced spin relaxation of conduction electrons in bulk silicon. We find a surprisingly subtle interference of the Elliott and Yafet processes affecting the spin relaxation over a wide temperature range, suppressing the significance of the intravalley spin-flip scattering, previously considered dominant, above roughly 120 K. The calculated spin relaxation times T1 agree with the spin resonance and spin injection data, following a T(-3) temperature dependence. The valley anisotropy of T1 and the spin relaxation rates for hot electrons are predicted.

  19. Relaxation and resonances in fluctuating dielectric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Colin, L. S.; del Castillo, L. F.

    1989-09-01

    In this paper we show how the ideas behind extended irreversible thermodynamics are used to generate a systematic treatment of the relaxation and resonance phenomena in the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic energy in dielectric materials in a nonequilibrium state. Two cases are discussed: the first, in which the forced oscillations arising from the correlation between the fluctuations of the polarization vector and the electric field are neglected, and the second, in which this term is taken into account. In both cases we show how the main equations serve to make a connection between the macroscopic approach followed here and a number of results obtained for both, gases and polar liquids using molecular models. The results obtained here are compared with previous work on this problem, and new effects arising from the second case are pointed out.

  20. Universal stretched exponential relaxation in nanoconfined water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Adarsh; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Alm, Camilla K.; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the behavior of water confined at the nanometer scale is a fundamental problem not only in physics but also in life sciences, geosciences, and atmospheric sciences. Here, we examine spatial and dynamic heterogeneities in water confined in nanoporous silica using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulations reveal intermixed low-density water and high-density water with distinct local structures in nanopores of silica. The MD simulations also show dynamic heterogeneities in nanoconfined water. The temporal decay of cage correlation functions for room temperature and supercooled, nanoconfined water is very well described by stretched exponential relaxation, exp(-(t/τ)β). The exponent β has a unique value, d/(d + 2), which agrees with an exact result for diffusion in systems with static, random traps in d = 3 dimensions.

  1. Low frequency dielectric relaxation in boracites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Q.; Somoano, R.

    1983-01-01

    In order to elucidate the nature of the imperfections which adversely affect pyroelectric processes in boracites, the thermal and dispersive characteristics of the low frequency dielectric response in iron-iodide boracite (Fe3B7O13I) and copper-chloride boracite (Cu3B7O13Cl) have been investigated. These characteristics were measured as a function of crystallographic orientation and applied field in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric states. The low frequency dielectric relaxation of 100 line oriented multi-domain copper-chloride boracite clearly indicates the dipole nature of the lattice imperfections. The activation energies calculated from a noninteracting Debye model, are 0.53 eV in the ferroelectric phase and 0.10 eV in the paraelectric phase.

  2. Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Stein, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.

  3. Kinetic Relaxation Models for Energy Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kazuo; Markowich, Peter; Takata, Shigeru

    2007-04-01

    Kinetic equations with relaxation collision kernels are considered under the basic assumption of two collision invariants, namely mass and energy. The collision kernels are of BGK-type with a general local Gibbs state, which may be quite different from the Gaussian. By the use of the diffusive length/time scales, energy transport systems consisting of two parabolic equations with the position density and the energy density as unknowns are derived on a formal level. The H theorem for the kinetic model is presented, and the entropy for the energy transport systems, which is inherited from the kinetic model, is derived. The energy transport systems for specific examples of the global Gibbs state, such as a power law with negative exponent, a cut-off power law with positive exponent, the Maxwellian, Bose-Einstein, and Fermi-Dirac distributions, arepresented.

  4. Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Primak, W.

    1982-11-01

    The radiation-induced stress relaxation which is observed on ion bombardment of vitreous silica is described as a viscoelastic behavior in which the apparent viscosity is reduced to approx.10/sup 14/ Poise during irradiation and then increases rapidly by 4 or 5 orders of magnitude on cessation or interruption of irradiation. The bombarded layer appears to possess a viscosity approx.10/sup 19/ Poise, lower than would be expected for normal vitreous silica. On electron bombardment the viscosity is also reduced, but not as greatly as an ion bombardment, yet sufficiently to result in the whole radiation-induced volume contraction being realized perpendicularly to the surface, as has been found for ion bombardment. The maximum elastic stored energy which can be realized is but a fraction of a calorie per gram, hence the reported values of 200 cal/g would seem to be associated with the fragmentation of the network responsible for the reduced viscosity.

  5. Mirror cosmological relaxation of the electroweak scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsedonskyi, Oleksii

    2016-01-01

    The cosmological relaxation mechanism proposed in [1] allows for a dynamically generated large separation between the weak scale and a theory cutoff, using a sharp change of theory behaviour upon crossing the limit between unbroken and broken symmetry phases. In this note we present a variation of this scenario, in which stabilization of the electroweak scale in the right place is ensured by the Z 2 symmetry exchanging the Standard Model (SM) with its mirror copy. We sketch the possible ways to produce viable thermal evolution of the Universe and discuss experimental accessibility of the new physics effects. We show that in this scenario the mirror SM can either have sizeable couplings with the ordinary one, or, conversely, can interact with it with a negligible strength. The overall cutoff allowed by such a construction can reach 109 GeV.

  6. Integrating Biosystem Models Using Waveform Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Modelling in systems biology often involves the integration of component models into larger composite models. How to do this systematically and efficiently is a significant challenge: coupling of components can be unidirectional or bidirectional, and of variable strengths. We adapt the waveform relaxation (WR) method for parallel computation of ODEs as a general methodology for computing systems of linked submodels. Four test cases are presented: (i) a cascade of unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled harmonic oscillators, (ii) deterministic and stochastic simulations of calcium oscillations, (iii) single cell calcium oscillations showing complex behaviour such as periodic and chaotic bursting, and (iv) a multicellular calcium model for a cell plate of hepatocytes. We conclude that WR provides a flexible means to deal with multitime-scale computation and model heterogeneity. Global solutions over time can be captured independently of the solution techniques for the individual components, which may be distributed in different computing environments. PMID:19125183

  7. Theory of spin relaxation at metallic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashchenko, K. D.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    Spin-flip scattering at metallic interfaces affects transport phenomena in nanostructures, such as magnetoresistance, spin injection, spin pumping, and spin torques. It has been characterized for many material combinations by an empirical parameter δ, which is obtained by matching magnetoresistance data for multilayers to the Valet-Fert model [J. Bass and W. P. Pratt, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 183201 (2007)]. However, the relation of the parameter δ to the scattering properties of the interface remains unclear. Here we establish this relation using the scattering theory approach and confirm it using a generalization of the magnetoelectronic circuit theory, which includes interfacial spin relaxation. The results of first-principles calculations of spin-flip scattering at the Cu/Pd and Cu/Pt interfaces are found to be in reasonable agreement with experimental data. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1308751.

  8. Nonlinear nonequilibrium quasiparticle relaxation in Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, V M

    2009-11-27

    I solve numerically a full set of nonlinear kinetic balance equations for stacked Josephson junctions, which allows analysis of strongly nonequilibrium phenomena. It is shown that nonlinearity becomes significant already at very small disequilibrium. The following new, nonlinear effects are obtained: (i) At even-gap voltages V = 2nDelta/e (n = 2, 3, ...) nonequilibrium bosonic bands overlap. This leads to enhanced emission of Omega = 2Delta bosons and to the appearance of dips in tunnel conductance. (ii) A new type of radiative solution is found at strong disequilibrium. It is characterized by the fast stimulated relaxation of quasiparticles. A stack in this state behaves as a light emitting diode and directly converts electric power to boson emission, without utilization of the ac-Josephson effect. The phenomenon can be used for realization of a new type of superconducting cascade laser in the THz frequency range.

  9. Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Shi, Junhui; Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-06-01

    Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM) can achieve optically defined axial resolution, but it has been limited to ex vivo demonstrations so far. Here, we present the first in vivo image of a mouse brain acquired with GR-PAM. To induce the GR effect, an intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser was employed to heat absorbing objects. In phantom experiments, an axial resolution of 12.5 μm was achieved, which is sixfold better than the value achieved by conventional optical-resolution PAM. This axial-resolution improvement was further demonstrated by imaging a mouse brain in vivo, where significantly narrower axial profiles of blood vessels were observed. The in vivo demonstration of GR-PAM shows the potential of this modality for label-free and high-resolution anatomical and functional imaging of biological tissues.

  10. Various time-scales of relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Akbari, M.; Charmchi, F.; Ebrahim, H.; Shahkarami, L.

    2016-08-01

    Via gauge-gravity duality, relaxation of far-from-equilibrium initial states in a strongly coupled gauge theory has been investigated. In the system we consider in this paper there are two ways where the state under study can deviate from its equilibrium: anisotropic pressure and time-dependent expectation value of a scalar operator with Δ =3 . In the gravity theory, this system corresponds to Einstein's general relativity with a nontrivial metric, including the anisotropy function, coupled to a massive scalar matter field. We study the effect of different initial configurations for the scalar field and anisotropy function on physical processes such as thermalization, i.e., time evolution of an event horizon; equilibration of the expectation value of a scalar operator; and isotropization. We also discuss time ordering of these time-scales.

  11. Using relaxational dynamics to reduce network congestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontti, Ana L. Pastore y.; La Rocca, Cristian E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Macri, Pablo A.; López, Eduardo

    2008-09-01

    We study the effects of relaxational dynamics on congestion pressure in scale-free (SF) networks by analyzing the properties of the corresponding gradient networks (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716). Using the Family model (Family and Bassler 1986 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19 L441) from surface-growth physics as single-step load-balancing dynamics, we show that the congestion pressure considerably drops on SF networks when compared with the same dynamics on random graphs. This is due to a structural transition of the corresponding gradient network clusters, which self-organize so as to reduce the congestion pressure. This reduction is enhanced when lowering the value of the connectivity exponent λ towards 2.

  12. Efficient early global relaxation of asteroid Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Roger R.; Hager, Bradford H.; Ermakov, Anton I.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2014-09-01

    The asteroid Vesta is a differentiated planetesimal from the accretion phase of Solar System formation. Although its present-day shape is dominated by a non-hydrostatic fossil equatorial bulge and two large, mostly unrelaxed impact basins, Vesta may have been able to approach hydrostatic equilibrium during a brief early period of intense interior heating. We use a finite element viscoplastic flow model coupled to a 1D conductive cooling model to calculate the expected rate of relaxation throughout Vesta’s early history. We find that, given sufficient non-hydrostaticity, the early elastic lithosphere of Vesta experienced extensive brittle failure due to self-gravity, thereby allowing relaxation to a more hydrostatic figure. Soon after its accretion, Vesta reached a closely hydrostatic figure with <2 km non-hydrostatic topography at degree-2, which, once scaled, is similar to the maximum disequilibrium of the hydrostatic asteroid Ceres. Vesta was able to support the modern observed amplitude of non-hydrostatic topography only >40-200 My after formation, depending on the assumed depth of megaregolith. The Veneneia and Rheasilvia giant impacts, which generated most non-hydrostatic topography, must have therefore occurred >40-200 My after formation. Based on crater retention ages, topography, and relation to known impact generated features, we identify a large region in the northern hemisphere that likely represents relic hydrostatic terrain from early Vesta. The long-wavelength figure of this terrain suggests that, before the two late giant impacts, Vesta had a rotation period of 5.02 h (6.3% faster than present) while its spin axis was offset by 3.0 ° from that of the present. The evolution of Vesta’s figure shows that the hydrostaticity of small bodies depends strongly on its age and specific impact history and that a single body may embody both hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic terrains and epochs.

  13. A fast determination method for transverse relaxation of spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jixi Qian, Zheng; Fang, Jiancheng

    2015-04-15

    We propose a fast and accurate determination method for transverse relaxation of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. This method is based on the measurement of magnetic resonance linewidth via a chirped magnetic field excitation and the amplitude spectrum analysis. Compared with the frequency sweeping via separate sinusoidal excitation, our method can realize linewidth determination within only few seconds and meanwhile obtain good frequency resolution. Therefore, it can avoid the drift error in long term measurement and improve the accuracy of the determination. As the magnetic resonance frequency of the SERF magnetometer is very low, we include the effect of the negative resonance frequency caused by the chirp and achieve the coefficient of determination of the fitting results better than 0.998 with 95% confidence bounds to the theoretical equation. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis.

  14. A fast determination method for transverse relaxation of spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jixi; Qian, Zheng; Fang, Jiancheng

    2015-04-01

    We propose a fast and accurate determination method for transverse relaxation of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. This method is based on the measurement of magnetic resonance linewidth via a chirped magnetic field excitation and the amplitude spectrum analysis. Compared with the frequency sweeping via separate sinusoidal excitation, our method can realize linewidth determination within only few seconds and meanwhile obtain good frequency resolution. Therefore, it can avoid the drift error in long term measurement and improve the accuracy of the determination. As the magnetic resonance frequency of the SERF magnetometer is very low, we include the effect of the negative resonance frequency caused by the chirp and achieve the coefficient of determination of the fitting results better than 0.998 with 95% confidence bounds to the theoretical equation. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis.

  15. On conservation laws, relaxation and pre-relaxation after a quantum quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagotti, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    We consider the time evolution following a quantum quench in spin-1/2 chains. It is well known that local conservation laws constrain the dynamics and, eventually, the stationary behavior of local observables. We show that some widely studied models, such as the quantum XY model, possess extra families of local conservation laws in addition to the translation invariant ones. As a consequence, the additional charges must be included in the generalized Gibbs ensemble that describes the stationary properties. The effects go well beyond a simple redefinition of the stationary state. The time evolution of a non-translation-invariant state under a (translation-invariant) Hamiltonian with a perturbation that weakly breaks the hidden symmetries underlying the extra conservation laws exhibits pre-relaxation. In addition, in the limit of small perturbation, the time evolution following pre-relaxation can be described by means of a time-dependent generalized Gibbs ensemble.

  16. Relaxation Training: A Promising Approach for Helping Exceptional Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Howard

    1990-01-01

    This article describes common forms of relaxation training that can be used with at-risk or exceptional students in remedial, special education, or regular settings. In addition to reviewing salient research assessing the effects of relaxation training on reading achievement, attention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, self-concept, stress, and…

  17. Thermoacoustic method for relaxation of residual stresses in welded joints

    SciTech Connect

    Koshovyi, V.V.; Pakhn`o, M.I.; Tsykhan, O.I.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a thermoacoustic method for the relaxation of residual stresses in welded joints, present a block diagram of a generator of local thermoacoustic pulses designed for implementation of this method, and describe our experiment aimed at relaxation of residual tensile stresses.

  18. Relaxation in x-space magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Croft, Laura R; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality that noninvasively images the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). MPI has demonstrated high contrast and zero attenuation with depth, and MPI promises superior safety compared to current angiography methods, X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging angiography. Nanoparticle relaxation can delay the SPIO magnetization, and in this work we investigate the open problem of the role relaxation plays in MPI scanning and its effect on the image. We begin by amending the x-space theory of MPI to include nanoparticle relaxation effects. We then validate the amended theory with experiments from a Berkeley x-space relaxometer and a Berkeley x-space projection MPI scanner. Our theory and experimental data indicate that relaxation reduces SNR and asymmetrically blurs the image in the scanning direction. While relaxation effects can have deleterious effects on the MPI scan, we show theoretically and experimentally that x-space reconstruction remains robust in the presence of relaxation. Furthermore, the role of relaxation in x-space theory provides guidance as we develop methods to minimize relaxation-induced blurring. This will be an important future area of research for the MPI community.

  19. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  20. Relaxation Training and Expectation in the Treatment of Postpartum Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halonen, Jane S.; Passman, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing postpartum distress for 48 first-time mothers-to-be via a treatment-component strategy. Compared with nonrelaxation conditions, relaxation treatments reduced reported postpartal distress. Expectations about treatment effectiveness were not significant factors in treatment outcome.…

  1. Relaxation Theory for Rural Youth. Research Bulletin No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    This document synthesizes research findings to formulate a theory to guide relaxation training in educational settings, particularly rural schools. Young people experience many intense life events that require coping skills or relaxation. Family-related stress factors include instability in the home, lack of a support system, conflicting values,…

  2. Use of Biofeedback/Relaxation Procedures with Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.; Russell, Harold L.

    The report covers a series of investigations on the effects of biofeedback/muscle relaxation training on the academic achievement of learning disabled (LD) students. In the first study, 32 LD elementary school students made gains in all measures except arithmetic following electromyograph biofeedback/relaxation treatment. Implementation of the…

  3. Mental imagery, relaxation, and accuracy of basketball foul shooting.

    PubMed

    Lamirand, M; Rainey, D

    1994-06-01

    18 female college basketball players were pretested on foul shooting, alternately assigned to relaxation or mental imagery training, and posttested after 4 training sessions over 3 weeks. Analysis of covariance indicated that the predicted improvement of the imagery group did not occur. The relaxation group was marginally superior at posttest.

  4. Effect of Hydrogen Bonds on the Vibrational Relaxation and Orientational Relaxation Dynamics of HN3 and N3(-) in Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiho; Son, Hyewon; Park, Sungnam

    2016-09-15

    Hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) play an important role in determining the structures and dynamics of molecular systems. In this work, we investigated the effect of H-bonds on the vibrational population relaxation and orientational relaxation dynamics of HN3 and N3(-) in methanol (CH3OH) and N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) using polarization-controlled infrared pump-probe spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Our detailed analysis of experimental and computational results reveals that both vibrational population relaxation and orientational relaxation dynamics of HN3 and N3(-) in CH3OH and DMSO are substantially dependent on the strength of the H-bonds between the probing solute and its surrounding solvent. Especially in the case of N3(-) in CH3OH, the vibrational population relaxation of N3(-) is found to occur by a direct intermolecular vibrational energy transfer to CH3OH due to large vibrational coupling strength. The orientational relaxation dynamics of HN3 and N3(-), which are well fit by a biexponential function, are analyzed by the wobbling-in-a-cone model and extended Debye-Stokes-Einstein equation. Depending on the intermolecular interactions, the slow overall orientational relaxation occurs under slip, stick, and superstick boundary conditions. For HN3 and N3(-) in CH3OH and DMSO, the vibrational population relaxation becomes faster but the orientational relaxation becomes slower as the H-bond strength is increased. Our current results imply that H-bonds have significant effects on the vibrational population relaxation and orientational relaxation dynamics of a small solute whose size is comparable to the size of the solvent.

  5. Effect of Hydrogen Bonds on the Vibrational Relaxation and Orientational Relaxation Dynamics of HN3 and N3(-) in Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiho; Son, Hyewon; Park, Sungnam

    2016-09-15

    Hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) play an important role in determining the structures and dynamics of molecular systems. In this work, we investigated the effect of H-bonds on the vibrational population relaxation and orientational relaxation dynamics of HN3 and N3(-) in methanol (CH3OH) and N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) using polarization-controlled infrared pump-probe spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Our detailed analysis of experimental and computational results reveals that both vibrational population relaxation and orientational relaxation dynamics of HN3 and N3(-) in CH3OH and DMSO are substantially dependent on the strength of the H-bonds between the probing solute and its surrounding solvent. Especially in the case of N3(-) in CH3OH, the vibrational population relaxation of N3(-) is found to occur by a direct intermolecular vibrational energy transfer to CH3OH due to large vibrational coupling strength. The orientational relaxation dynamics of HN3 and N3(-), which are well fit by a biexponential function, are analyzed by the wobbling-in-a-cone model and extended Debye-Stokes-Einstein equation. Depending on the intermolecular interactions, the slow overall orientational relaxation occurs under slip, stick, and superstick boundary conditions. For HN3 and N3(-) in CH3OH and DMSO, the vibrational population relaxation becomes faster but the orientational relaxation becomes slower as the H-bond strength is increased. Our current results imply that H-bonds have significant effects on the vibrational population relaxation and orientational relaxation dynamics of a small solute whose size is comparable to the size of the solvent. PMID:27537433

  6. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Topographic Highs on Venus to Produce Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    Coronae on Venus are believed to result from the gravitationally driven relaxation of topography that was originally raised by mantle diapirs. We examine this relaxation using a viscoelastic finite element code, and show that an initially plateau shaped load will evolve to the characteristic corona topography of central raised bowl, annular rim, and surrounding moat. Stresses induced by the relaxation are consistent with the development of concentric extensional fracturing common on the outer margins of corona moats. However, relaxation is not expected to produce the concentric faulting often observed on the annular rim. The relaxation timescale is shorter than the diapir cooling timescale, so loss of thermal support controls the rate at which topography is reduced. The final corona shape is supported by buoyancy and flexural stresses and will persist through geologic time. Development of lower, flatter central bowls and narrower and more pronounced annular rims and moats enhanced by thicker crusts, higher thermal gradients, and crustal thinning over the diapir.

  7. A rationale for a multilevel model of relaxation.

    PubMed

    Kokoszka, A

    1994-01-01

    A Three dimensional evolutionary leveled model of the main states of consciousness is offered as a rationale for relaxation. "Relaxing states" and "relaxation response states--Differentiated Waking States of Consciousness" are distinguish on the horizontal plane according to the integrated model of the main states of consciousness. It is proposed that states of consciousness in relaxation could be considered also on vertical evolutionary dimension described according to neo-Jacksonian theory in terms of the metabolism of information. The model opens perspectives for the description of dynamic fluctuations of states of consciousness during relaxation in terms of the main states of consciousness, i.e., REM-sleep, NREM-sleep, Ordinary Waking States of Consciousness, Differentiated Waking States of Consciousness, as well as in terms of dissolution (regression) and evolution on the vertical developmental dimension. It is illustrated by the discussion on meditation and hyponosis.

  8. Correlation of transverse relaxation time with structure of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Gregory B.; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L.

    2016-09-01

    Transverse spin-spin relaxation of liquids entrapped in nanocavities with different orientational order is theoretically investigated. Based on the bivariate normal distribution of nanocavities directions, we have calculated the anisotropy of the transverse relaxation time for biological systems, such as collagenous tissues, articular cartilage, and tendon. In the framework of the considered model, the dipole-dipole interaction is determined by a single coupling constant. The calculation results for the transverse relaxation time explain the angular dependence observed in MRI experiments with biological objects. The good agreement with the experimental data is obtained by adjustment of only one parameter which characterizes the disorder in fiber orientations. The relaxation time is correlated with the degree of ordering in biological tissues. Thus, microstructure of the tissues can be revealed from the measurement of relaxation time anisotropy. The clinical significance of the correlation, especially in the detection of damage must be evaluated in a large prospective clinical trials.

  9. Ultraslow dielectric relaxation process in supercooled polyhydric alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, Yoshiki; Minoguchi, Ayumi; Nozaki, Ryusuke

    2006-04-01

    Complex permittivity was obtained on glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol and sorbitol-xylitol mixtures in the supercooled liquid state in the frequency range between 10μHz and 500MHz at temperatures near and above the glass transition temperature. For all the materials, a dielectric relaxation process was observed in addition to the well-known structural α and Johari-Goldstein β relaxation process [G. P. Johari and M. Goldstein, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 2372 (1970)]. The relaxation time for the new process is always larger than that for the α process. The relaxation time shows non-Arrhenius temperature dependence with correlation to the behavior of the α process and it depends on the molecular size systematically. The dielectric relaxation strength for the new process shows the effect of thermal history and decreases exponentially with time at a constant temperature. It can be considered that a nonequilibrium dynamics causes the new process.

  10. Solvent relaxation of oxazine-4 in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görlach, Ekkehard; Gygax, Hansruedi; Lubini, Paolo; Wild, Urs P.

    1995-05-01

    Time resolved and stationary fluorescence spectra of oxazine-4 perchlorate in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) were measured from 80 to 250 K. In the time resolved experiments the relaxation of the polar solvent around the chromophore was observed. Assuming a simple Debye relaxation behavior, relaxation times were extracted and from an Arrhenius analysis an activation energy of E A = 1320 cm -1 was estimated. The temperature dependent steady state fluorescence spectrum could be simulated using the obtained Arrhenius parameters. It was observed that exciting vibrational degrees of freedom in the chromophore leads to an acceleration of the solvent relaxation. As a probable reason a locally heating, caused by vibrational relaxation prior to the reorganization of the solvent shell is discussed.

  11. Times of metastable droplet relaxation to equilibrium states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.; Komarov, V. N.; Zaitseva, E. S.

    2016-10-01

    Times of metastable droplet relaxation to their equilibrium state are calculated at saturated vapor pressures, depending on the droplet size. It is shown that for small droplets with radius R = 6 molecular diameters (or ~2 nm) the relaxation times are ~1 ns (which is comparable to the characteristic flight times of rarefied gas molecules). For large droplets with radius R ~ 800 molecular diameters, the relaxation times are as long as 10 μs. At a fixed droplet radius (6 ≤ R ≤ 800), the range of variation in relaxation time from the melting point to the critical temperature does not exceed one order of magnitude: the lower the temperature, the slower the relaxation process.

  12. Analysis of pomegranate juice components in rat corpora cavernosal relaxation.

    PubMed

    Oztekin, C V; Gur, S; Abdulkadir, N A; Kartal, M; Karabakan, M; Akdemir, A O; Gökkaya, C S; Cetinkaya, M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the action of pomegranate juice (PJ) and its five principal phenolic constituents on rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM). Isometric tension studies were performed after precontraction with phenylephrine in CCSM from rats. Relaxant responses to PJ and its constituents ellagic acid (EA), chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, cumaric acid and rutin were investigated. PJ and EA caused CCSM relaxations (94.1 ± 3.7 and 51.3 ± 9.9%), while others induced limited relaxant responses. EA response was not inhibited by L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (100 μM) and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (1 μM). Tetraethylammonium (100 μM) and apamin (10 μM) and nifedipine (10 μM) inhibited EA-induced relaxations at 10(-3) M by 84%, 82% and 78%, respectively. Glibenclamide (10 μM) inhibited EA response (97%, 100 μM). PJ-induced relaxation was not altered by several inhibitors. EA was estimated to be responsible for 13.3% of relaxation caused by PJ. Our study demonstrated that PJ and EA-induced marked relaxations in CCSM. The opening of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels and the inhibition of Ca(2+)-channels regulate the relaxation by EA, but not PJ. EA has a minor contribution to the marked relaxation obtained by PJ, suggesting the presence of other PJ constituents, which induce nitric oxide-independent corporal relaxation. Further studies are needed to examine the potential of PJ in combination with a PDE5 inhibitor in ED.

  13. Enceladus' extreme heat flux as revealed by its relaxed craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Michael T.; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2012-09-01

    Enceladus' cratered terrains contain large numbers of unusually shallow craters consistent with deformation by viscous relaxation of water ice under conditions of elevated heat flow. Here we use high-resolution topography to measure the relaxation fraction of craters on Enceladus far from the active South Pole. We find that many craters are shallower than expected, with craters as small as 2 km in diameter having relaxation fractions in excess of 90%. These measurements are compared with numerical simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the minimum heat flux required to reproduce these observations. We find that Enceladus' nominal cold surface temperature (70 K) and low surface gravity strongly inhibit viscous relaxation. Under such conditions less than 3% relaxation occurs over 2 Ga even for relatively large craters (diameter 24 km) and high, constant heat fluxes (150 mW m-2). Greater viscous relaxation occurs if the effective temperature at the top of the lithosphere is greater than the surface temperature due to insulating regolith and/or plume material. Even for an effective temperature of 120 K, however, heat fluxes in excess of 150 mW m-2 are required to produce the degree of relaxation observed. Simulations of viscous relaxation of Enceladus' largest craters suggest that relaxation is best explained by a relatively short-lived period of intense heating that decayed quickly. We show that infilling of craters by plume material cannot explain the extremely shallow craters at equatorial and higher northern latitudes. Thus, like Enceladus' tectonic terrains, the cratered regions of Enceladus have experienced periods of extreme heat flux.

  14. The Ionic Permeability Changes during Acetylcholine-Induced Responses of Aplysia Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Makoto; Austin, George; Yai, Hideko; Maruhashi, Juro

    1968-01-01

    ACh-induced depolarization (D response) in D cells markedly decreases as the external Na+ is reduced. However, when Na+ is completely replaced with Mg++, the D response remains unchanged. When Na+ is replaced with Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, the D response completely disappears, except for a slight decrease in membrane resistance. ACh-induced hyperpolarization (H response) in H cells is markedly depressed as the external Cl- is reduced. Frequently, the reversal of the H response; i.e., depolarization, is observed during perfusion with Cl--free media. In cells which show both D and H responses superimposed, it was possible to separate these responses from each other by perfusing the cells with either Na+-free or Cl--free Ringer's solution. High [K+]0 often caused a marked hyperpolarization in either D or H cells. This is due to the primary effect of high [K+]0 on the presynaptic inhibitory fibers. The removal of this inhibitory afferent interference by applying Nembutal readily disclosed the predicted K+ depolarization. In perfusates containing normal [Na+]0, the effects of Ca++ and Mg++ on the activities of postsynaptic membrane were minimal, supporting the current theory that the effects of these ions on the synaptic transmission are mainly presynaptic. The possible mechanism of the hyperpolarization produced by simultaneous perfusion with both high [K+]0 and ACh in certain H cells is explained quantitatively under the assumption that ACh induces exclusively an increase in Cl- permeability of the H membrane. PMID:5648831

  15. Receptor-mediated presynaptic facilitation of quantal release of acetylcholine induced by pralidoxime in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Fossier, P; Baux, G; Poulain, B; Tauc, L

    1990-09-01

    1. Possible interactions of contrathion (pralidoxime sulfomethylate), a reactivator of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), with the regulation of cholinergic transmission were investigated on an identified synapse in the buccal ganglion of Aplysia californica. 2. Transmitter release was evoked either by a presynaptic action potential or, under voltage clamp, by a long depolarization of the presynaptic cell. At concentrations higher than 10(-5) M, bath-applied contrathion decreased the amplitude of miniature postsynaptic currents and increased their decay time. At the same time, the quantal release of ACh was transiently facilitated. The facilitatory effect of contrathion was prevented by tubocurarine but not by atropine. Because in this preparation, these drugs block, respectively, the presynaptic nicotinic-like and muscarinic-like receptors involved in positive and negative feedback of ACh release, we proposed that contrathion activates presynaptic nicotinic-like receptors. 3. Differential desensitization of the presynaptic receptors is proposed to explain the transience of the facilitatory action of contrathion on ACh release. 4. The complexity of the synaptic action of contrathion raises the possibility that its therapeutic effects in AChE poisonings are not limited to AChE reactivation. PMID:2253262

  16. Receptor-mediated presynaptic facilitation of quantal release of acetylcholine induced by pralidoxime in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Fossier, P; Baux, G; Poulain, B; Tauc, L

    1990-09-01

    1. Possible interactions of contrathion (pralidoxime sulfomethylate), a reactivator of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), with the regulation of cholinergic transmission were investigated on an identified synapse in the buccal ganglion of Aplysia californica. 2. Transmitter release was evoked either by a presynaptic action potential or, under voltage clamp, by a long depolarization of the presynaptic cell. At concentrations higher than 10(-5) M, bath-applied contrathion decreased the amplitude of miniature postsynaptic currents and increased their decay time. At the same time, the quantal release of ACh was transiently facilitated. The facilitatory effect of contrathion was prevented by tubocurarine but not by atropine. Because in this preparation, these drugs block, respectively, the presynaptic nicotinic-like and muscarinic-like receptors involved in positive and negative feedback of ACh release, we proposed that contrathion activates presynaptic nicotinic-like receptors. 3. Differential desensitization of the presynaptic receptors is proposed to explain the transience of the facilitatory action of contrathion on ACh release. 4. The complexity of the synaptic action of contrathion raises the possibility that its therapeutic effects in AChE poisonings are not limited to AChE reactivation.

  17. Sex differences in acetylcholine-induced sweating responses due to physical training

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study examined sex differences in the sweat gland response to acetylcholine (ACh) in physically trained and untrained male and female subjects. Methods Sweating responses were induced on the forearm and thigh in resting subjects by ACh iontophoresis using a 10% solution at 2 mA for 5 min at 26°C and 50% relative humidity. Results The ACh-induced sweating rate (SR) on the forearm and thigh was greater in physically trained male (P < 0.001 for the forearm and thigh, respectively) and female (P = 0.08 for the forearm, P < 0.001 for the thigh) subjects than in untrained subjects of both sexes. The SR was also significantly greater in physically trained males compared to females at both sites (P < 0.001) and in untrained males compared to females on the thigh (P < 0.02) only, although the degree of difference was greater in trained subjects than in untrained subjects. These sex differences can be attributed to the difference in sweat output per gland rather than the number of activated sweat glands. Conclusion We conclude that physical training enhances the ACh-induced SR in both sexes but that the degree of enhancement is greater in male than in female subjects. The effects of physical training and sex on the SR may be due to changes in peripheral sensitivity to ACh and/or sweat gland size. PMID:24887294

  18. Captopril augments acetylcholine-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions in vitro via kinin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Naman; Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2016-06-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors therapy is aassociated with bothersome dry cough as an adverse effect. The mechanisms underlying this adverse effect are not clear. Therefore, influence of captopril (an ACE inhibitor) on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions was investigated. Further, the mechanisms underlying the captopril-induced changes were also explored. In vitro contractions of rat bronchial smooth muscle to cumulative concentrations of ACh were recorded before and after exposure to captopril. Further, the involvement of kinin and inositol triphosphate (IP₃) pathways for captopril-induced alterations were explored. ACh produced concentration-dependent (5-500 µM) increase in bronchial smooth muscle contractions. Pre-treatment with captopril augmented the ACh-induced contractions at each concentration significantly. Pre-treatment with aprotinin (kinin synthesis inhibitor) or heparin (inositol triphosphate, IP₃-inhibitor), blocked the captopril-induced augmentation of bronchial smooth muscle contractions evoked by ACh. Further, captopril-induced augmentation was absent in calcium-free medium. These results suggest that captopril sensitizes bronchial smooth muscles to ACh-induced contractions. This sensitization may be responsible for dry cough associated with captopril therapy. PMID:27468462

  19. A Psychophysiological Comparison of the Effects of Three Relaxation Techniques: Respiratory Manipulation Training, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, and Pleasant Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.

    A within-subjects, three condition design was employed to examine the effects of three relaxation techniques on blood pressures, pulse rates, and self-report measures of relaxation for 12 college students. Respiratory Manipulation Training incorporated instructions to exhale and not to inhale for as long as possible. When breathing could no longer…

  20. During Training and Posttraining Effects of Live and Taped Extended Progressive Relaxation, Self-Relaxation, and Electromyogram Biofeedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiman, Irving; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compared live and taped progressive relaxation (LR, TR), self-relaxation (SR), and electromyogram biofeedback (BF) on measures of autonomic and somatic arousal and subjective tension. LR was superior to RE on reductions in physiological arousal; SR and BR were equivalent except for the superiority of SR on reductions in autonomic arousal.…

  1. Post-shock relaxation in crystalline nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Rivera, Luis A.; Sewell, Thomas D.; Thompson, Donald L.

    2013-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of shocked (100)-oriented crystalline nitromethane were carried out to determine the rates of relaxation behind the shock wave. The forces were described by the fully flexible non-reactive Sorescu-Rice-Thompson force field [D. C. Sorescu, B. M. Rice, and D. L. Thompson, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 8406 (2000)], 10.1021/jp000942q. The time scales for local and overall thermal equilibration in the shocked crystal were determined. The molecular center-of-mass and atomic kinetic energy distributions rapidly reach substantially different local temperatures. Several picoseconds are required for the two distributions to converge, corresponding to establishment of thermal equilibrium in the shocked crystal. The decrease of the molecular center-of-mass temperature and the increase of the atomic temperature behind the shock front exhibit essentially exponential dependence on time. Analysis of covalent bond distance distributions ahead of, immediately behind, and well behind the shock front showed that the effective bond stretching potentials are essentially harmonic. Effective force constants for the C-N, C-H, and N-O bonds immediately behind the shock front are larger by factors of 1.6, 2.5, and 2.0, respectively, than in the unshocked crystal; and by factors of 1.2, 2.2, and 1.7, respectively, compared to material sufficiently far behind the shock front to be essentially at thermal equilibrium.

  2. Nonlinear wave scattering and electron beam relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muschietti, L.; Dum, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    The role played by nonlinear scattering during the relaxation of a warm electron beam is investigated through a numerical code based on kinetic equations. The code encompasses the quasi-linear wave-electron interaction and wave-wave scattering off ion clouds. Ions with velocities 2 nu sub i (nu sub i being the ion thermal velocity) are found to be the most efficient for scattering the Langmuir waves off their polarization clouds. The transfer rate of the spectrum out of resonance with the beam is larger by a factor 3 compared to usual estimates. The changes produced in the dispersion relation by the presence of the beam electrons dramatically alter the characteristics of the secondary spectrum. In a late phase the classic condensate K of about 0 is depleted, with the formation of a new condensate in resonance with the flat-topped beam distribution, which follows from the fact that the mere presence of the beam electrons creates a minimum in the frequency-wave-number relation. For strong and slow beams, the predictions of the code are found to be in excellent agreement with the results of the particle simulation if a dispersion relation that includes the beam is used.

  3. Synchronizing genetic relaxation oscillators by intercell signaling.

    PubMed

    McMillen, David; Kopell, Nancy; Hasty, Jeff; Collins, J J

    2002-01-22

    The ability to design and construct synthetic gene regulatory networks offers the prospect of studying issues related to cellular function in a simplified context; such networks also have many potential applications in biotechnology. A synthetic network exhibiting oscillatory behavior has recently been constructed [Elowitz, M. B. & Leibler, S. (2000) Nature (London) 403, 335-338]. It has also been shown that a natural bacterial quorum-sensing mechanism can be used in a synthetic system to communicate a signal between two populations of cells, such that receipt of the signal causes expression of a target gene [Weiss, R. & Knight, T. F. (2000) in DNA6: Sixth International Meeting on DNA-Based Computers, June 13-17, 2000, Leiden, The Netherlands]. We propose a synthetic gene network in Escherichia coli which combines these two features: the system acts as a relaxation oscillator and uses an intercell signaling mechanism to couple the oscillators and induce synchronous oscillations. We model the system and show that the proposed coupling scheme does lead to synchronous behavior across a population of cells. We provide an analytical treatment of the synchronization process, the dominant mechanism of which is "fast threshold modulation."

  4. Magnetic relaxation in dysprosium-dysprosium collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Bonna K.; Johnson, Cort; Kleppner, Daniel; Greytak, Thomas J.; Brahms, Nathan; Au, Yat Shan; Connolly, Colin B.; Doyle, John M.

    2011-01-15

    The collisional magnetic reorientation rate constant g{sub R} is measured for magnetically trapped atomic dysprosium (Dy), an atom with large magnetic dipole moments. Using buffer gas cooling with cold helium, large numbers (>10{sup 11}) of Dy are loaded into a magnetic trap and the buffer gas is subsequently removed. The decay of the trapped sample is governed by collisional reorientation of the atomic magnetic moments. We find g{sub R}=1.9{+-}0.5x10{sup -11} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 390 mK. We also measure the magnetic reorientation rate constant of holmium (Ho), another highly magnetic atom, and find g{sub R}=5{+-}2x10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 690 mK. The Zeeman relaxation rates of these atoms are greater than expected for the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, suggesting that another mechanism, such as an anisotropic electrostatic interaction, is responsible. Comparison with estimated elastic collision rates suggests that Dy is a poor candidate for evaporative cooling in a magnetic trap.

  5. "Basic MR Relaxation Mechanisms & Contrast Agent Design"

    PubMed Central

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Martins, André F.; Pinho, Marco; Rofsky, Neil; Sherry, A. Dean

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast agent was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to provide additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities. In this review we will detail the many important considerations when pursuing the design and use of MR contrast media. We will offer a perspective on the importance of chemical stability, particularly kinetic stability, and how this influences one's thinking about the safety of metal-ligand based contrast agents. We will discuss the mechanisms involved in magnetic resonance relaxation in the context of probe design strategies. A brief description of currently available contrast agents will be accompanied by an in-depth discussion that highlights promising MRI contrast agents in development for future clinical and research applications. Our intention is to give a diverse audience an improved understanding of the factors involved in developing new types of safe and highly efficient MR contrast agents and, at the same time, provide an appreciation of the insights into physiology and disease that newer types of responsive agents can provide. PMID:25975847

  6. Formation of magnetic discontinuities through viscous relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2014-05-15

    According to Parker's magnetostatic theorem, tangential discontinuities in magnetic field, or current sheets (CSs), are generally unavoidable in an equilibrium magnetofluid with infinite electrical conductivity and complex magnetic topology. These CSs are due to a failure of a magnetic field in achieving force-balance everywhere and preserving its topology while remaining in a spatially continuous state. A recent work [Kumar, Bhattacharyya, and Smolarkiewicz, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112903 (2013)] demonstrated this CS formation utilizing numerical simulations in terms of the vector magnetic field. The magnetohydrodynamic simulations presented here complement the above work by demonstrating CS formation by employing a novel approach of describing the magnetofluid evolution in terms of magnetic flux surfaces instead of the vector magnetic field. The magnetic flux surfaces being the possible sites on which CSs develop, this approach provides a direct visualization of the CS formation, helpful in understanding the governing dynamics. The simulations confirm development of tangential discontinuities through a favorable contortion of magnetic flux surfaces, as the magnetofluid undergoes a topology-preserving viscous relaxation from an initial non-equilibrium state with twisted magnetic field. A crucial finding of this work is in its demonstration of CS formation at spatial locations away from the magnetic nulls.

  7. Densification effects on structural relaxation of polyolefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jason; Maranas, Janna K.

    2003-10-01

    We investigate the effect of densification on intramolecular and intermolecular chain packing and structural relaxation of four saturated hydrocarbon polymers: poly(ethylene propylene) (PEP), poly(ethylene butene), atactic polypropylene, and head-to-head polypropylene. Within this series, the local chain architecture, specifically the frequency and size of pendant groups, varies. Density changes of ρ0±5%, where ρ0 is the ambient density, are considered at a temperature of 400 K, which is well above the glass transition temperatures of all four polymers. Intramolecular chain packing remains nearly unchanged over this density range, and intermolecular packing shows a tendency towards closer and more efficient packing at higher densities. The effect of density on dynamics depends on the spatial scale considered. Self-intermediate scattering functions, as measured in incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering experiments, are calculated for spatial scales between 2.5 and 20 Å. At length scales less than the closest intermolecular spacing, densification has little effect on mobility. The largest effects are observed in the vicinity of the nearest chain spacing distance, where mobility is decreased and dynamic heterogeneity, as evidenced by the stretching parameter in stretched exponential fits, is increased with densification. At length scales approaching Rg, both effects level off and are slightly less than at spatial scales of interchain packing. The most flexible of the four materials, PEP, is least affected by density changes.

  8. Gene teams with relaxed proximity constraint.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Yang, Jiong

    2005-01-01

    Functionally related genes co-evolve, probably due to the strong selection pressure in evolution. Thus we expect that they are present in multiple genomes. Physical proximity among genes, known as gene team, is a very useful concept to discover functionally related genes in multiple genomes. However, there are also many gene sets that do not preserve physical proximity. In this paper, we generalized the gene team model, that looks for gene clusters in a physically clustered form, to multiple genome cases with relaxed constraint. We propose a novel hybrid pattern model that combines the set and the sequential pattern models. Our model searches for gene clusters with and/or without physical proximity constraint. This model is implemented and tested with 97 genomes (120 replicons). The result was analyzed to show the usefulness of our model. Especially, analysis of gene clusters that belong to B. subtilis and E. coli demonstrated that our model predicted many experimentally verified operons and functionally related clusters. Our program is fast enough to provide a sevice on the web at http://platcom. informatics.indiana.edu/platcom/. Users can select any combination of 97 genomes to predict gene teams.

  9. Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes

    PubMed Central

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J. Michael; Cogdell, Richard J.; Mančal, Tomáš; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-01-01

    Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub–100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump–probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changes in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations. PMID:26903650

  10. Branch Flow Model: Relaxations and Convexification-Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Farivar, M; Low, SH

    2013-08-01

    We propose a branch flow model for the analysis and optimization of mesh as well as radial networks. The model leads to a new approach to solving optimal power flow (OPF) that consists of two relaxation steps. The first step eliminates the voltage and current angles and the second step approximates the resulting problem by a conic program that can be solved efficiently. For radial networks, we prove that both relaxation steps are always exact, provided there are no upper bounds on loads. For mesh networks, the conic relaxation is always exact but the angle relaxation may not be exact, and we provide a simple way to determine if a relaxed solution is globally optimal. We propose convexification of mesh networks using phase shifters so that OPF for the convexified network can always be solved efficiently for an optimal solution. We prove that convexification requires phase shifters only outside a spanning tree of the network and their placement depends only on network topology, not on power flows, generation, loads, or operating constraints. Part I introduces our branch flow model, explains the two relaxation steps, and proves the conditions for exact relaxation. Part II describes convexification of mesh networks, and presents simulation results.

  11. Branch Flow Model: Relaxations and Convexification-Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Farivar, M; Low, SH

    2013-08-01

    We propose a branch flow model for the analysis and optimization of mesh as well as radial networks. The model leads to a new approach to solving optimal power flow (OPF) that consists of two relaxation steps. The first step eliminates the voltage and current angles and the second step approximates the resulting problem by a conic program that can be solved efficiently. For radial networks, we prove that both relaxation steps are always exact, provided there are no upper bounds on loads. For mesh networks, the conic relaxation is always exact but the angle relaxation may not be exact, and we provide a simple way to determine if a relaxed solution is globally optimal. We propose convexification of mesh networks using phase shifters so that OPF for the convexified network can always be solved efficiently for an optimal solution. We prove that convexification requires phase shifters only outside a spanning tree of the network and their placement depends only on network topology, not on power flows, generation, loads, or operating constraints. Part I introduces our branch flow model, explains the two relaxation steps, and proves the conditions for exact relaxation. Part II describes convexification of mesh networks, and presents simulation results.

  12. Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J Michael; Cogdell, Richard J; Mančal, Tomáš; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-03-15

    Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub-100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump-probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changes in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations. PMID:26903650

  13. A quantum relaxation-time approximation for finite fermion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

    2015-03-15

    We propose a relaxation time approximation for the description of the dynamics of strongly excited fermion systems. Our approach is based on time-dependent density functional theory at the level of the local density approximation. This mean-field picture is augmented by collisional correlations handled in relaxation time approximation which is inspired from the corresponding semi-classical picture. The method involves the estimate of microscopic relaxation rates/times which is presently taken from the well established semi-classical experience. The relaxation time approximation implies evaluation of the instantaneous equilibrium state towards which the dynamical state is progressively driven at the pace of the microscopic relaxation time. As test case, we consider Na clusters of various sizes excited either by a swift ion projectile or by a short and intense laser pulse, driven in various dynamical regimes ranging from linear to strongly non-linear reactions. We observe a strong effect of dissipation on sensitive observables such as net ionization and angular distributions of emitted electrons. The effect is especially large for moderate excitations where typical relaxation/dissipation time scales efficiently compete with ionization for dissipating the available excitation energy. Technical details on the actual procedure to implement a working recipe of such a quantum relaxation approximation are given in appendices for completeness.

  14. Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J Michael; Cogdell, Richard J; Mančal, Tomáš; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-03-15

    Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub-100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump-probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changes in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations.

  15. Relaxing music counters heightened consolidation of emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Nikki S; Wong, Wendy Wing; Velik, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    Emotional events tend to be retained more strongly than other everyday occurrences, a phenomenon partially regulated by the neuromodulatory effects of arousal. Two experiments demonstrated the use of relaxing music as a means of reducing arousal levels, thereby challenging heightened long-term recall of an emotional story. In Experiment 1, participants (N=84) viewed a slideshow, during which they listened to either an emotional or neutral narration, and were exposed to relaxing or no music. Retention was tested 1 week later via a forced choice recognition test. Retention for both the emotional content (Phase 2 of the story) and material presented immediately after the emotional content (Phase 3) was enhanced, when compared with retention for the neutral story. Relaxing music prevented the enhancement for material presented after the emotional content (Phase 3). Experiment 2 (N=159) provided further support to the neuromodulatory effect of music by post-event presentation of both relaxing music and non-relaxing auditory stimuli (arousing music/background sound). Free recall of the story was assessed immediately afterwards and 1 week later. Relaxing music significantly reduced recall of the emotional story (Phase 2). The findings provide further insight into the capacity of relaxing music to attenuate the strength of emotional memory, offering support for the therapeutic use of music for such purposes.

  16. Nanosecond Relaxation Dynamics of Hydrated Proteins: Water versus protein contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Khodadadi, S; Curtis, J. E.; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2011-01-01

    We have studied picosecond to nanosecond dynamics of hydrated protein powders using dielectric spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our analysis of hydrogen-atom single particle dynamics from MD simulations focused on main ( main tens of picoseconds) and slow ( slow nanosecond) relaxation processes that were observed in dielectric spectra of similar hydrated protein samples. Traditionally, the interpretation of these processes observed in dielectric spectra has been ascribed to the relaxation behavior of hydration water tightly bounded to a protein and not to protein atoms. Detailed analysis of the MD simulations and comparison to dielectric data indicate that the observed relaxation process in the nanosecond time range of hydrated protein spectra is mainly due to protein atoms. The relaxation processes involve the entire structure of protein including atoms in the protein backbone, side chains, and turns. Both surface and buried protein atoms contribute to the slow processes; however, surface atoms demonstrate slightly faster relaxation dynamics. Analysis of the water molecule residence and dipolar relaxation correlation behavior indicates that the hydration water relaxes at much shorter time scales.

  17. Competing ultrafast energy relaxation pathways in photoexcited graphene.

    PubMed

    Jensen, S A; Mics, Z; Ivanov, I; Varol, H S; Turchinovich, D; Koppens, F H L; Bonn, M; Tielrooij, K J

    2014-10-01

    For most optoelectronic applications of graphene, a thorough understanding of the processes that govern energy relaxation of photoexcited carriers is essential. The ultrafast energy relaxation in graphene occurs through two competing pathways: carrier-carrier scattering, creating an elevated carrier temperature, and optical phonon emission. At present, it is not clear what determines the dominating relaxation pathway. Here we reach a unifying picture of the ultrafast energy relaxation by investigating the terahertz photoconductivity, while varying the Fermi energy, photon energy and fluence over a wide range. We find that sufficiently low fluence (≲4 μJ/cm(2)) in conjunction with sufficiently high Fermi energy (≳0.1 eV) gives rise to energy relaxation that is dominated by carrier-carrier scattering, which leads to efficient carrier heating. Upon increasing the fluence or decreasing the Fermi energy, the carrier heating efficiency decreases, presumably due to energy relaxation that becomes increasingly dominated by phonon emission. Carrier heating through carrier-carrier scattering accounts for the negative photoconductivity for doped graphene observed at terahertz frequencies. We present a simple model that reproduces the data for a wide range of Fermi levels and excitation energies and allows us to qualitatively assess how the branching ratio between the two distinct relaxation pathways depends on excitation fluence and Fermi energy.

  18. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Nogara, Leonardo; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Canton, Marcella; Reggiani, Carlo; Cooke, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy and show that both the divalent cation bound to the regulatory light chain and the N-terminus of the regulatory light chain play a role in the stability of the super-relaxed state. One probe showed a shift to shorter wavelengths in the super-relaxed state such that a ratio of intensities at 440nm to that at 520nm provided a measure of the population of the super-relaxed state amenable for high throughput screens for finding potential pharmaceuticals. The results provide a proof of concept that small molecules that bind to this region can destabilize the super-relaxed state and provide a method to search for small molecules that do so leading to a potentially effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:27479128

  19. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Canton, Marcella; Reggiani, Carlo; Cooke, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy and show that both the divalent cation bound to the regulatory light chain and the N-terminus of the regulatory light chain play a role in the stability of the super-relaxed state. One probe showed a shift to shorter wavelengths in the super-relaxed state such that a ratio of intensities at 440nm to that at 520nm provided a measure of the population of the super-relaxed state amenable for high throughput screens for finding potential pharmaceuticals. The results provide a proof of concept that small molecules that bind to this region can destabilize the super-relaxed state and provide a method to search for small molecules that do so leading to a potentially effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:27479128

  20. Boldine Ameliorates Vascular Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction: Therapeutic Implication for Hypertension and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yeh Siiang; Ling, Wei Chih; Murugan, Dharmani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that a growing list of natural products, as components of the daily diet or phytomedical preparations, are a rich source of antioxidants. Boldine [(S)-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxy-aporphine], an aporphine alkaloid, is a potent antioxidant found in the leaves and bark of the Chilean boldo tree. Boldine has been extensively reported as a potent “natural” antioxidant and possesses several health-promoting properties like anti-inflammatory, antitumor promoting, antidiabetic, and cytoprotective. Boldine exhibited significant endothelial protective effect in animal models of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In isolated thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and db/db mice, repeated treatment of boldine significantly improved the attenuated acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations. The endothelial protective role of boldine correlated with increased nitric oxide levels and reduction of vascular reactive oxygen species via inhibition of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits, p47phox and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2, and angiotensin II–induced bone morphogenetic protein-4 oxidative stress cascade with downregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and bone morphogenetic protein-4 expression. Taken together, it seems that boldine may exert protective effects on the endothelium via several mechanisms, including protecting nitric oxide from degradation by reactive oxygen species as in oxidative stress–related diseases. The present review supports a complimentary therapeutic role of the phytochemical, boldine, against endothelial dysfunctions associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus by interfering with the oxidative stress–mediated signaling pathway. PMID:25469805

  1. Involvement of Rho-kinase in experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dhvanit I; Singh, Manjeet

    2006-02-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of fasudil (Rho-kinase inhibitor) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperhomocyteinemia (HHcy) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). Streptozotocin (55 mg kg(-1), i.v., once only) and methionine (1.7% w/w, p.o., daily for 4 weeks) were administered to rats to produce DM (serum glucose >140 mg dl(-1)) and HHcy (serum homocysteine >10 microM) respectively. VED was assessed using isolated aortic ring, electron microscopy of thoracic aorta, and serum concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration was estimated to assess oxidative stress. Atorvastatin has been employed in the present study as standard agent to improve vascular endothelial dysfunction. Fasudil (15 mg kg(-1) and 30 mg kg(-1), p.o., daily) and atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1), p.o., daily) treatments significantly attenuated increase in serum glucose and homocysteine but their concentrations remained markedly higher than sham control value. Fasudil and atorvastatin treatments markedly prevented DM and HHcy-induced (i) attenuation of acetylcholine induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, (ii) impairment of vascular endothelial lining, (iii) decrease in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, and (iv) increase in serum TBARS. It may be concluded that fasudil prevented DM and HHcy-induced VED partially by decreasing serum glucose and homocysteine concentration due to inhibition of Rho-kinase. Moreover, inhibition of Rho-kinase by fasudil and consequent prevention of oxidative stress may have directly improved VED in diabetic and hyperhomocysteinemic rats. The Rho-kinase appears to be a pivotal target site involved in DM and HHcy-induced VED. PMID:16444602

  2. Tert-butylhydroquinone lowers blood pressure in AngII-induced hypertension in mice via proteasome-PTEN-Akt-eNOS pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bing-Can; Long, Hui-Bao; Luo, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), as an antioxidant, has been widely used for many years to prevent oxidization of food products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether tBHQ activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to prevent endothelial dysfunction and lower blood pressure. The role of Akt in tBHQ-induced eNOS phosphorylation was examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or in mice. tBHQ treatment of HUVEC increased both Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation, accompanied with increased eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and NO release. Mechanically, pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of Akt abolished tBHQ-enhanced NO release and eNOS phosphorylation in HUVEC. Gain-function of PTEN or inhibition of 26S proteasome abolished tBHQ-enhanced Akt phosphorylation in HUVEC. Ex vivo analysis indicated that tBHQ improved Ach-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in LPC-treated mice aortic arteries, which were abolished by inhibition of Akt or eNOS. In animal study, administration of tBHQ significantly increased eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation, and lowered AngII-induced hypertension in wildtype mice, but not in mice deficient of Akt or eNOS. In conclusion, tBHQ via proteasome-dependent degradation of PTEN increases Akt phosphorylation, resulting in upregulation of eNOS-derived NO production and consequent improvement of endothelial function in vivo. In this way, tBHQ lowers blood pressure in hypertensive mice. PMID:27435826

  3. Strain Relaxation and Vacancy Creation in Thin Platinum Films

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, W.; Chakravarty, S.; Schmidt, H.; Baehtz, C.; Leitenberger, W.; Bruns, M.; Kobler, A.; Kuebel, C.

    2011-12-23

    Synchrotron based combined in situ x-ray diffractometry and reflectometry is used to investigate the role of vacancies for the relaxation of residual stress in thin metallic Pt films. From the experimentally determined relative changes of the lattice parameter a and of the film thickness L the modification of vacancy concentration and residual strain was derived as a function of annealing time at 130 deg. C. The results indicate that relaxation of strain resulting from compressive stress is accompanied by the creation of vacancies at the free film surface. This proves experimentally the postulated dominant role of vacancies for stress relaxation in thin metal films close to room temperature.

  4. Magnetic Field Relaxation and Current Sheets in an Ideal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelaresi, S.; Pontin, D. I.; Hornig, G.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the existence of magnetohydrostatic equilibria for topologically complex magnetic fields. The approach employed is to perform ideal numerical relaxation experiments. We use a newly developed Lagrangian relaxation scheme that exactly preserves the magnetic field topology during the relaxation. Our configurations include both twisted and sheared fields, of which some fall into the category for which Parker predicted no force-free equilibrium. The first class of field considered contains no magnetic null points, and field lines connect between two perfectly conducting plates. In these cases, we observe only resolved current layers of finite thickness. In further numerical experiments, we confirm that magnetic null points are loci of singular currents.

  5. Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dube, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.

  6. MAGNETIC FIELD RELAXATION AND CURRENT SHEETS IN AN IDEAL PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Candelaresi, S.; Pontin, D. I.; Hornig, G.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the existence of magnetohydrostatic equilibria for topologically complex magnetic fields. The approach employed is to perform ideal numerical relaxation experiments. We use a newly developed Lagrangian relaxation scheme that exactly preserves the magnetic field topology during the relaxation. Our configurations include both twisted and sheared fields, of which some fall into the category for which Parker predicted no force-free equilibrium. The first class of field considered contains no magnetic null points, and field lines connect between two perfectly conducting plates. In these cases, we observe only resolved current layers of finite thickness. In further numerical experiments, we confirm that magnetic null points are loci of singular currents.

  7. Stress Relaxation for Granular Materials near Jamming under Cyclic Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Somayeh; Zhu, Alex Z.; Behringer, Robert P.

    2015-10-01

    We have explored isotropically jammed states of semi-2D granular materials through cyclic compression. In each compression cycle, systems of either identical ellipses or bidisperse disks transition between jammed and unjammed states. We determine the evolution of the average pressure P and structure through consecutive jammed states. We observe a transition point ϕm above which P persists over many cycles; below ϕm, P relaxes slowly. The relaxation time scale associated with P increases with packing fraction, while the relaxation time scale for collective particle motion remains constant. The collective motion of the ellipses is hindered compared to disks because of the rotational constraints on elliptical particles.

  8. Relaxation modes in glass forming meta-toluidine.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, L; Decressain, R; Descamps, M

    2004-10-01

    The dynamics in supercooled meta-toluidine was studied using dielectric relaxation, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, proton spin-lattice relaxation times, and viscosity measurements. The combination of these different techniques has clearly shown a large decoupling of the relaxation modes whose origin is attributed to the formation of clusters via the NH2 bonding. This decoupling starts at a temperature also corresponding to a change of the dynamical behavior from a high temperature Arrhenius evolution to a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman low temperature evolution.

  9. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-10-01

    Picosecond absorption relaxation—central to many disciplines—is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, were measured at 576 nm. The added advantages in dispersion susceptibility, laser-wavelength availability, reflection sensing, and expense foster the study of natural—including strongly scattering and nonfluorescent—materials.

  10. Nonlinear dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of ferroelectric liquid crystals

    PubMed

    Kimura; Hara; Hayakawa

    2000-11-01

    The nonlinear dielectric relaxation spectra of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) have been studied in the chiral smectic-C phase. The linear and third-order nonlinear dielectric spectra show the relaxation corresponding to the fluctuation in the azimuthal angle of directors called the Goldstone mode. We calculated the nonlinear dielectric spectra of the Goldstone mode theoretically by the torque balance equation which describes the dynamics of FLCs under the electric field. The calculated spectra make good agreement with the measured ones. We also evaluated the material constants of FLCs from the best-fitted values of the linear and nonlinear dielectric increment and relaxation time.

  11. Femtosecond time-resolved electronic relaxation dynamics in tetrathiafulvalene

    SciTech Connect

    Staedter, D.; Polizzi, L.; Thiré, N.; Mairesse, Y.; Mayer, P.; Blanchet, V.

    2015-05-21

    In the present paper, the ultrafast electronic relaxation of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) initiated around 4 eV is studied by femtosecond time-resolved velocity-map imaging. The goal is to investigate the broad double structure observed in the absorption spectrum at this energy. By monitoring the transients of the parent cation and its fragments and by varying the pump and the probe wavelengths, two internal conversions and intramolecular vibrational relaxation are detected both on the order of a few hundred of femtoseconds. Photoelectron images permit the assignment of a dark electronic state involved in the relaxation. In addition, the formation of the dimer of TTF has been observed.

  12. Ultrafast vibrational energy relaxation of the water bridge.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Lukasz; Wexler, Adam D; Fuchs, Elmar C; Schoenmaker, Hinco; Bakker, Huib J

    2012-05-14

    We report the energy relaxation of the OH stretch vibration of HDO molecules contained in an HDO:D(2)O water bridge using femtosecond mid-infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. We found that the vibrational lifetime is shorter (~630 ± 50 fs) than for HDO molecules in bulk HDO:D(2)O (~740 ± 40 fs). In contrast, the thermalization dynamics following the vibrational relaxation are much slower (~1.5 ± 0.4 ps) than in bulk HDO:D(2)O (~250 ± 90 fs). These differences in energy relaxation dynamics strongly indicate that the water bridge and bulk water differ on a molecular scale.

  13. Spin relaxation of iron in mixed state hemoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wajnberg, E; Kalinowski, H J; Bemski, G; Helman, J S

    1986-01-01

    In hemoproteins the relaxation mechanism of iron is Orbach for high spin (HS) and Raman for low spin (LS). We found that in met-hemoglobin and met-myoglobin, under conditions in which the two spin states coexist, both the HS and the LS states relax to the lattice through Orbach-like processes. Alos, very short (approximately 1 ns) and temperature independent transverse relaxation times T2 were estimated. This may result from the unusual electronic structure of mixed states hemoproteins that allows thermal equilibrium and interconversion of the spin states. PMID:3013333

  14. Stress Relaxation for Granular Materials near Jamming under Cyclic Compression.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Somayeh; Zhu, Alex Z; Behringer, Robert P

    2015-10-30

    We have explored isotropically jammed states of semi-2D granular materials through cyclic compression. In each compression cycle, systems of either identical ellipses or bidisperse disks transition between jammed and unjammed states. We determine the evolution of the average pressure P and structure through consecutive jammed states. We observe a transition point ϕ_{m} above which P persists over many cycles; below ϕ_{m}, P relaxes slowly. The relaxation time scale associated with P increases with packing fraction, while the relaxation time scale for collective particle motion remains constant. The collective motion of the ellipses is hindered compared to disks because of the rotational constraints on elliptical particles. PMID:26565498

  15. Caffeine relaxes smooth muscle through actin depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Tazzeo, Tracy; Bates, Genevieve; Roman, Horia Nicolae; Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Khasnis, Mukta D; Eto, Masumi; Janssen, Luke J

    2012-08-15

    Caffeine is sometimes used in cell physiological studies to release internally stored Ca(2+). We obtained evidence that caffeine may also act through a different mechanism that has not been previously described and sought to examine this in greater detail. We ruled out a role for phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, since the effect was 1) not reversed by inhibiting PKA or adenylate cyclase; 2) not exacerbated by inhibiting PDE4; and 3) not mimicked by submillimolar caffeine nor theophylline, both of which are sufficient to inhibit PDE. Although caffeine is an agonist of bitter taste receptors, which in turn mediate bronchodilation, its relaxant effect was not mimicked by quinine. After permeabilizing the membrane using β-escin and depleting the internal Ca(2+) store using A23187, we found that 10 mM caffeine reversed tone evoked by direct application of Ca(2+), suggesting it functionally antagonizes the contractile apparatus. Using a variety of molecular techniques, we found that caffeine did not affect phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by MLC kinase, actin-filament motility catalyzed by MLC kinase, phosphorylation of CPI-17 by either protein kinase C or RhoA kinase, nor the activity of MLC-phosphatase. However, we did obtain evidence that caffeine decreased actin filament binding to phosphorylated myosin heads and increased the ratio of globular to filamentous actin in precontracted tissues. We conclude that, in addition to its other non-RyR targets, caffeine also interferes with actin function (decreased binding by myosin, possibly with depolymerization), an effect that should be borne in mind in studies using caffeine to probe excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle.

  16. Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: Improvements and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adsuara, J. E.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential system of equations from which they result becomes notably stiff. Here we present a new methodology for obtaining the parameters of SRJ schemes that overcomes the limitations of the original algorithm and provide parameters for SRJ schemes with up to 15 levels and resolutions of up to 215 points per dimension, allowing for acceleration factors larger than several hundreds with respect to the Jacobi method for typical resolutions and, in some high resolution cases, close to 1000. Most of the success in finding SRJ optimal schemes with more than 10 levels is based on an analytic reduction of the complexity of the previously mentioned system of equations. Furthermore, we extend the original algorithm to apply it to certain systems of non-linear ePDEs.

  17. Relationship between Structural and Stress Relaxation in a Block-Copolymer Melt

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Amish J.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Garetz, Bruce A.; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2006-06-30

    The relationship between structural relaxation on molecular length scales and macroscopic stress relaxation was explored in a disordered block-copolymer melt. Experiments show that the structural relaxation time, measured by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy is larger than the terminal stress relaxation time, measured by rheology, by factors as large as 100. We demonstrate that the structural relaxation data are dominated by the diffusion of intact micelles while the stress relaxation data are dominated by contributions due to disordered concentration fluctuations.

  18. Autonomic responses to stress: the effects of progressive relaxation, the relaxation response, and expectancy of relief.

    PubMed

    Bradley, B W; McCanne, T R

    1981-06-01

    Forty-eight male subjects with no previous meditative experience engaged in either progressive relaxation (PR), a meditative treatment designed to induce the relaxation response (RR), or a no-treatment control experience (C) during four sessions on consecutive days. Negative expectations regarding the effectiveness of each technique for reducing physiological responses to stress were induced for half of the subjects in each treatment condition, and positive expectations were induced for the other half. Subjects viewed a stressful film following practice of their technique during the first and fourth sessions. Heart rate and electrodermal responding were recorded continuously during practice of the techniques and during the stressful film throughout the first and fourth sessions. Results indicated lowered heart rate levels prior to the film for subjects in the PR-positive expectancy condition and during the film for subjects in the RR-positive expectancy condition. It is suggested that subjects' expectancies concerning meditation may affect cardiovascular responding during stress, although meditative treatments in general do not appear to reduce stress responding as effectively as previously suggested.

  19. Cole-Cole broadening in dielectric relaxation and strange kinetics.

    PubMed

    Puzenko, Alexander; Ishai, Paul Ben; Feldman, Yuri

    2010-07-16

    We present a fresh appraisal of the Cole-Cole (CC) description of dielectric relaxation. While the approach is phenomenological, it demonstrates a fundamental connection between the parameters of the CC dispersion. Based on the fractal nature of the time set representing the interaction of the relaxing dipole with its encompassing matrix, and the Kirkwood-Froehlich correlation factor, a new 3D phase space linking together the kinetic and structural properties is proposed. The evolution of the relaxation process is represented in this phase space by a trajectory, which is determined by the variation of external macroscopic parameters. As an example, the validity of the approach is demonstrated on two porous silica glasses exhibiting a CC relaxation process.

  20. Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Abdelhamid, Hamdi M.; Hudson, Stuart R.

    2016-08-01

    The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of "ideal barriers" that prevent global relaxation and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects, and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposed for deriving the partially relaxed states.

  1. Nonexistence results for relaxation spectra with compact support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, R. J.; Whittle Gruffudd, H. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of recovering the (transformed) relaxation spectrum h from the (transformed) loss modulus g by inverting the integral equation g={{sech}}\\ast h, where \\ast denotes convolution, using Fourier transforms. We are particularly interested in establishing properties of h, having assumed that the Fourier transform of g has entire extension to the complex plane. In the setting of square integrable functions, we demonstrate that the Paley-Wiener theorem cannot be used to show the existence of non-trivial relaxation spectra with compact support. We prove a stronger result for tempered distributions: there are no non-trivial relaxation spectra with compact support. Finally we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the relaxation spectrum h to be strictly positive definite.

  2. Analysis of the Palierne model by relaxation time spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Mi Kyung; Cho, Kwang Soo

    2016-02-01

    Viscoelasticity of immiscible polymer blends is affected by relaxation of the interface. Several attempts have been made for linear viscoelasticity of immiscible polymer blends. The Palierne model (1990) and the Gramespacher-Meissner model (1992) are representative. The Gramespacher-Meissner model consists of two parts: ingredients and interface. Moreover, it provides us the formula of the peak of interface in weighted relaxation time spectrum, which enables us to analyze the characteristics relating to interface more obviously. However, the Gramespacher-Meissner model is a kind of empirical model. Contrary to the Gramespacher-Meissner model, the Palierne model was derived in a rigorous manner. In this study, we investigated the Palierne model through the picture of the Gramespacher-Meissner model. We calculated moduli of immiscible blend using two models and obtained the weighted relaxation time spectra of them. The fixed-point iteration of Cho and Park (2013) was used in order to determine the weighted relaxation spectra.

  3. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingyong; Wang, Jiasu; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiansi; Dong, Hao; Wang, Yuxin; Shao, Senhao

    2009-02-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle.

  4. Dissipation in monotonic and non-monotonic relaxation to equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Charlotte F.; Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.

    2016-02-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study field free relaxation from a non-uniform initial density, monitored using both density distributions and the dissipation function. When this density gradient is applied to colour labelled particles, the density distribution decays to a sine curve of fundamental wavelength, which then decays conformally towards a uniform distribution. For conformal relaxation, the dissipation function is found to decay towards equilibrium monotonically, consistent with the predictions of the relaxation theorem. When the system is initiated with a more dramatic density gradient, applied to all particles, non-conformal relaxation is seen in both the dissipation function and the Fourier components of the density distribution. At times, the system appears to be moving away from a uniform density distribution. In both cases, the dissipation function satisfies the modified second law inequality, and the dissipation theorem is demonstrated.

  5. Lateral stress relaxation and collapse in lipid monolayers†

    PubMed Central

    Pocivavsek, Luka; Frey, Shelli L.; Krishan, Kapilanjan; Gavrilov, Kseniya; Ruchala, Piotr; Waring, Alan J.; Walther, Frans J.; Dennin, Michael; Witten, Thomas A.; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2009-01-01

    Surfactants at air/water interfaces are often subjected to mechanical stresses as the interfaces they occupy are reduced in area. The most well characterized forms of stress relaxation in these systems are first order phase transitions from lower density to higher density phases. Here we study stress relaxation in lipid monolayers that occurs once chemical phase transitions have been exhausted. At these highly compressed states, the monolayer undergoes global mechanical relaxations termed collapse. By studying four different types of monolayers, we determine that collapse modes are most closely linked to in-plane rigidity. We characterize the rigidity of the monolayer by analyzing in-plane morphology on numerous length scales. More rigid monolayers collapse out-of-plane via a hard elastic mode similar to an elastic membrane, while softer monolayers relax in-plane by shearing. PMID:19657472

  6. Ab Initio Electronic Relaxation Times and Transport in Noble Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Jamal I.; Bernardi, Marco; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.

    Relaxation times employed to study electron transport in metals are typically assumed to be constants and obtained empirically using the Drude model. Here, we employ ab initio calculations to compute the electron-phonon relaxation times of Cu, Ag, and Au, and find that they vary significantly on the Fermi surface, spanning ~15 -45 fs. We compute room temperature resistivities in excellent agreement with experiment by combining GW bandstructures, Wannier-interpolated band velocities, and ab initio relaxation times. Our calculations are compared to other approximations used for the relaxation times. Additionally, an importance sampling scheme is introduced to speed up the convergence of resistivity and transport calculations by sampling directly points on the Fermi surface. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR15-1508412 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by DOE at LBNL's NERSC facility.

  7. Dynamics in supercooled polyalcohols: Primary and secondary relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döß, A.; Paluch, M.; Sillescu, H.; Hinze, G.

    2002-10-01

    We have studied details of the molecular dynamics in a series of pure polyalcohols by means of dielectric spectroscopy and 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). From glycerol to threitol, xylitol and sorbitol a systematic change in the dynamics of the primary and secondary relaxation is found. With increasing molecular weight and fragility an increase in the width of the α-peak is observed. Details of the molecular reorientation process responsible for the α-relaxation were exploited by two-dimensional NMR experiments. It is found that in the same sequence of polyalcohols the appearance of the secondary relaxation changes gradually from a wing type scenario to a pronounced β-peak. From NMR experiments using selectively deuterated samples the molecular origin of the secondary relaxation could be elucidated in more detail.

  8. Ferrohydrodynamic evaluation of rotational viscosity and relaxation in certain ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh

    2012-07-01

    A significant effect of aggregation dynamics for aqueous ferrofluid (AF) and kerosene based ferrofluid (KF) using magnetic field dependent capillary viscosity and magneto-optical relaxation measurements is studied. For better comparison parameters of AF and KF are kept similar. Ferrohydrodynamic equations of chain forming ferrofluids, dilute ferrofluids, and Brownian dynamic simulations are compared. It is observed that the rotational viscosity of AF is larger than that of KF due to field induced aggregates in it and strong dipolar interactions. It is also observed that at Ωτ ~ 0.04 both AF and KF viscosity becomes almost similar, suggesting similar behavior at that shear rate. The magneto-optical relaxation in AF exhibits nonexponential behavior when relaxed from higher magnetic field and follows irreversible thermodynamics, whereas for KF the relaxation is exponential and follows the effective field method. This discrepancy is explained based on aggregation dynamics of magnetic particles. Results are well described by the corresponding theoretical models. PMID:23005542

  9. Bulimia: Using Fantasy-Imagery and Relaxation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnison, Hugh; Renick, T. F.

    1985-01-01

    The rationale and theoretical foundations for fantasy relaxation and fantasy imagery procedures, designed to contact right hemisphere functions, are presented for specific use in the treatment of bulimia. (BL)

  10. (129)Xe NMR Relaxation-Based Macromolecular Sensing.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Muller D; Dao, Phuong; Jeong, Keunhong; Slack, Clancy C; Vassiliou, Christophoros C; Finbloom, Joel A; Francis, Matthew B; Wemmer, David E; Pines, Alexander

    2016-08-10

    We report a (129)Xe NMR relaxation-based sensing approach that exploits changes in the bulk xenon relaxation rate induced by slowed tumbling of a cryptophane-based sensor upon target binding. The amplification afforded by detection of the bulk dissolved xenon allows sensitive detection of targets. The sensor comprises a xenon-binding cryptophane cage, a target interaction element, and a metal chelating agent. Xenon associated with the target-bound cryptophane cage is rapidly relaxed and then detected after exchange with the bulk. Here we show that large macromolecular targets increase the rotational correlation time of xenon, increasing its relaxation rate. Upon binding of a biotin-containing sensor to avidin at 1.5 μM concentration, the free xenon T2 is reduced by a factor of 4. PMID:27472048

  11. Some puzzles about logarithmic relaxations and a few possible resolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pollak, M.

    2014-08-20

    Three subjects are examined in connection with the relaxation of an electron glass. 1. In most cases the experimental decay time τ is found to relate to a history of the system rather than to the time it takes to reach equilibrium. The reason is that in a non-ergodic system equilibrium cannot be reached in any experiment but the knowledge of an equilibrium property is essential in evaluating the time to reach it. 2. An alternative theory is proposed for the interpretation of aging experiments. The proposed theory is deemed to better represent the physics and is more in keeping with the relaxation theory. 3. A current relaxation theory for the electron glass fails to take into account a certain renewal process during the evolution of the relaxation, namely the possibility of fast transitions following a slow transition. Ramifications of such a neglect are explored.

  12. RELAXATION IN N-BODY SIMULATIONS OF DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sellwood, J. A.

    2013-06-01

    I use N-body simulations with two mass species of particles to demonstrate that disk galaxy simulations are subject to collisional relaxation at a higher rate than is widely assumed. Relaxation affects the vertical thickness of the disk most strongly, and drives the velocity ellipsoid to a moderately flattened shape similar to that observed for disk stars in the solar neighborhood. The velocity ellipsoid in simulations with small numbers of particles quickly approaches this shape, but shot noise also dominates the in-plane behavior. Simulations with higher, but reachable, numbers of particles relax slowly enough to be considered collisionless, allowing the in-plane dispersions to rise due to spiral activity without heating the vertical motions. Relaxation may have affected many previously published simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxy disks.

  13. Relaxation Dispersion in MRI Induced by Fictitious Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Liimatainen, Timo; Mangia, Silvia; Ling, Wen; Ellermann, Jutta; Sorce, Dennis J.; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom

    2011-01-01

    A new method entitled Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field (RAFF) was recently introduced for investigating relaxations in rotating frames of rank ≥ 3. RAFF generates a fictitious field (E) by applying frequency-swept pulses with sine and cosine amplitude and frequency modulation operating in a sub-adiabatic regime. In the present work, MRI contrast is created by varying the orientation of E, i.e. the angle ε between E and the z″ axis of the second rotating frame. When ε > 45°, the amplitude of the fictitious field E generated during RAFF is significantly larger than the RF field amplitude used for transmitting the sine/cosine pulses. Relaxation during RAFF was investigated using an invariant-trajectory approach and the Bloch-McConnell formalism. Dipole-dipole interactions between identical (like) spins and anisochronous exchange (e.g., exchange between spins with different chemical shifts) in the fast exchange regime were considered. Experimental verifications were performed in vivo in human and mouse brain. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrated that changes in ε induced a dispersion of the relaxation rate constants. The fastest relaxation was achieved at ε ≈ 56°, where the averaged contributions from transverse components during the pulse are maximal and the contribution from longitudinal components are minimal. RAFF relaxation dispersion was compared with the relaxation dispersion achieved with off-resonance spin lock T1ρ experiments. As compared with the off-resonance spin lock T1ρ method, a slower rotating frame relaxation rate was observed with RAFF, which under certain experimental conditions is desirable. PMID:21334231

  14. Relaxation of a qubit measured by a driven Duffing oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Serban, I.; Dykman, M. I.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2010-02-15

    We investigate the relaxation of a superconducting qubit for the case when its detector, the Josephson bifurcation amplifier, remains latched in one of its two (meta)stable states of forced vibrations. The qubit relaxation rates are different in different states. They can display strong dependence on the qubit frequency and resonant enhancement, which is due to quasienergy resonances. Coupling to the driven oscillator changes the effective temperature of the qubit.

  15. Multiple-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Models in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    dHumieres, Dominique; Ginzburg, Irina; Krafczyk, Manfred; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of fifteen-velocity and nineteen-velocity models in three dimensions. Simulation of a diagonally lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions at Re=500 and 2000 is performed. The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation.

  16. Asymptotic stability of relaxation shock profiles for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hailiang

    This paper studies the asymptotic stability of traveling relaxation shock profiles for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Under a stability condition of subcharacteristic type the large time relaxation dynamics on the level of shocks is shown to be determined by the equilibrium conservation laws. The proof is due to the energy principle, using the weighted norms, the interaction of waves from various modes is treated by imposing suitable weight matrix.

  17. Control of Transport-Barrier Relaxations by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Leconte, M.; Beyer, P.; Benkadda, S.

    2009-01-30

    Transport-barrier relaxation oscillations in the presence of resonant magnetic perturbations are investigated using three-dimensional global fluid turbulence simulations from first principles at the edge of a tokamak. It is shown that resonant magnetic perturbations have a stabilizing effect on these relaxation oscillations and that this effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of both residual magnetic island chains and a stochastic layer.

  18. Exchange and relaxation effects in low-energy radiationless transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1978-01-01

    The effect on low-energy atomic inner-shell Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig transitions that is produced by relaxation and by exchange between the continuum electron and bound electrons was examined and illustrated by specific calculations for transitions that deexcite the 3p vacancy state of Zn. Taking exchange and relaxation into account is found to reduce, but not to eliminate, the discrepancies between theoretical rates and measurements.

  19. Valley relaxation in graphene due to charged impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boross, Péter; Pályi, András

    2015-07-01

    Monolayer graphene is an example of materials with multivalley electronic structure. In such materials, the valley index is being considered as an information carrier. Consequently, relaxation mechanisms leading to loss of valley information are of interest. Here, we calculate the rate of valley relaxation induced by charged impurities in graphene. A special model of graphene is applied, where the pz orbitals are two-dimensional Gaussian functions, with a spatial extension characterized by an effective Bohr radius aeB. We obtain the valley relaxation rate by solving the Boltzmann equation, for the case of noninteracting electrons, as well as for the case when the impurity potential is screened due to electron-electron interaction. For the latter case, we take into account local-field effects and evaluate the dielectric matrix in the random phase approximation. Our main findings are as follows: (i) The valley relaxation rate is proportional to the electronic density of states at the Fermi energy. (ii) Charged impurities located in the close vicinity of the graphene plane, at distance d ≲0.3 Å , are much more efficient in inducing valley relaxation than those farther away, the effect of the latter being suppressed exponentially with increasing graphene-impurity distance d . (iii) Both in the absence and in the presence of electron-electron interaction, the valley relaxation rate shows pronounced dependence on the effective Bohr radius aeB. The trends are different in the two cases: In the absence (presence) of screening, the valley relaxation rate decreases (increases) for increasing effective Bohr radius. This last result highlights that a quantitative calculation of the valley relaxation rate should incorporate electron-electron interactions as well as an accurate knowledge of the electronic wave functions on the atomic length scale.

  20. Relaxation time and elasticity during polymerization with DER 332

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateshan, K.; Johari, G. P.

    2006-10-01

    To complement a study of the dielectric relaxation time's relation with the velocity of propagation of hypersound wave in a polymerizing liquid [K. Venkateshan and G. P. Johari J. Chem. Phys.125, 014907 (2006)], we report results of an analogous study by using the same diglycidylether of bisphenol-A that had been used for measuring the velocity. The data show that the logarithmic relaxation time increases linearly with the square of the velocity of propagation of transverse hypersound wave.

  1. Relaxation oscillations in a laser with a Gaussian mirror.

    PubMed

    Mossakowska-Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Witoński, Piotr; Szczepański, Paweł

    2002-03-20

    We present an analysis of the relaxation oscillations in a laser with a Gaussian mirror by taking into account the three-dimensional spatial field distribution of the laser modes and the spatial hole burning effect. In particular, we discuss the influence of the Gaussian mirror peak reflectivity and a Gaussian parameter on the damping rate and frequency of the relaxation oscillation for two different laser structures, i.e., with a classically unstable resonator and a classically stable resonator. PMID:11921794

  2. Nitrogen-15 spin-rotation relaxation in ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnden, Anne M. C.; Hunter, Brian K.; Brown, R. Julian C.

    The spin-lattice relaxation time has been measured for 15N in ammonium perchlorate in the temperature range 240 to 292 K. The temperature dependence of T, suggests that spin-rotation is the dominant relaxation mechanism, and this is confirmed by calculation and by nuclear Overhauser effect measurements. The spin-rotation coupling constant for 15NH 4+ is estimated to be 11.1 ± 0.2 kHz.

  3. Relaxation in Plasmas with Several Types of Free Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Jan

    2008-10-15

    The problem of relaxation in plasmas with several types of free energy is discussed. In particular the competition between the relaxation of different free energies as expressed through e.g. the ratio of length scales such as {eta} = L{sub n}/L{sub T} etc. Parameters giving instability thresholds in linear theory tend to determine the ratio of outgoing, diagonal, fluxes and ingoing pinch fluxes nonlinearly. In general pinch fluxes require the coupling between different instability feedback loops.

  4. Disturbed Paraspinal Reflex Following Prolonged Flexion-Relaxation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Ellen L.; Granata, Kevin P.

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Repeated measures experimental study of the effect of flexion-relaxation, recovery, and gender on paraspinal reflex dynamics. Objective. To determine the effect of prolonged flexion-relaxation and recovery time on reflex behavior in human subjects. Summary of Background Data. Prolonged spinal flexion has been shown to disturb the paraspinal reflex activity in both animals and human beings. Laxity in passive tissues of the spine from flexion strain may contribute to desensitization of mechanoreceptors. Animal studies indicate that recovery of reflexes may take up to several hours. Little is known about human paraspinal reflex behavior following flexion tasks or the recovery of reflex behavior following the flexion tasks. Methods. A total of 25 subjects performed static flexionrelaxation tasks. Paraspinal muscle reflexes were recorded before and immediately after flexion-relaxation and after a recovery period. Reflexes were quantified from systems identification analyses of electromyographic response in relation to pseudorandom force disturbances applied to the trunk. Results. Trunk angle measured during flexion-relaxation postures was significantly higher following static flexion-relaxation tasks (P < 0.001), indicating creep deformation of passive supporting structures in the trunk. Reflex response was diminished following flexion-relaxation (P < 0.029) and failed to recover to baseline levels during 16 minutes of recovery. Conclusion. Reduced reflex may indicate that the spine is less stable following prolonged flexion-relaxation and, therefore, susceptible to injury. The absence of recovery in reflex after a substantial time indicates that increased low back pain risk from flexion-relaxation may persist after the end of the flexion task. PMID:16582860

  5. Spin relaxation in geometrically frustrated pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunsiger, Sarah Ruth

    This thesis describes muSR experiments which focus on systems where the magnetic ions occupy the vertices of edge or corner sharing triangular units, in particular the pyrochlores A2B2O7. The scientific interest in pyrochlores is based on the fact that they display novel magnetic behaviour at low temperatures due to geometrical frustration. The ground state of these systems is sensitively dependent on such factors as the range of the spin-spin interactions, disorder, anisotropy, thermal and quantum fluctuations. For example, Y2Mo2O7 shows many features reminiscent of a conventional spin glass, even though this material has nominally zero chemical disorder. It is found that the muon spin polarisation obeys a time-field scaling relation which indicates that the spin-spin autocorrelation function has a power law form in time, in stark contrast with the exponential form often assumed for conventional magnets above their transition temperature. Gd2Ti2O7 shows long range order, but only at a temperature much lower than its Curie-Weiss temperature, a signature of a frustrated system. In the paramagnetic regime, it is well described by an isotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian with nearest neighbour couplings in the presence of a Zeeman interaction, from which the spin-spin autocorrelation function may be calculated as a power series in time. The muon spin relaxation rate decreases with magnetic field as the Zeeman energy becomes comparable with the exchange coupling between Gd spins. Thus, an independent measure of the exchange coupling or equivalently the Gd spin fluctuation rate is extracted. By contrast, Tb2Ti2O7 has been identified as a type of cooperative paramagnet. Short range correlations develop below 50 K. However, there is no long range ordering down to very low temperatures (0.075 K). The Tb3+ ion is subject to strong crystal electric field effects: point charge calculations indicate that this system is Ising like at low temperatures. Thus this system may be

  6. Dielectric relaxations on erythrocyte membrane as revealed by spectrin denaturation.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I T; Paarvanova, B

    2016-08-01

    We studied the effect of spectrin denaturation at 49.5°C (TA) on the dielectric relaxations and related changes in the complex impedance, Z*, complex capacitance, C*, and dielectric loss curve of suspensions containing human erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost membranes (EMs) and Triton-X-100 residues of EMs. The loss curve prior to, minus the loss curve after TA, resulted in a bell-shaped peak at 1.5MHz. The changes in the real and imaginary components of Z* and C* at TA, i.e., ΔZre, ΔZim, ΔCre and ΔCim, calculated in the same way, strongly varied with frequency. Between 1.0 and 12MHz the -ΔZim vs ΔZre, and ΔCim vs ΔCre plots depicted semicircles with critical frequencies, fcr, at 2.5MHz expressing recently reported relaxation of spectrin dipoles. Between 0.02 and 1.0MHz the -ΔZim vs ΔZre plot exhibited another relaxation whose fcr mirrored that of beta relaxation. This relaxation was absent on Triton-X-shells, while on erythrocytes and EMs it was inhibited by selective dissociation of either attachment sites between spectrin and bilayer. Considering above findings and inaccessibility of cytosole to outside field at such frequencies, the latter relaxation was assumed originating from a piezoelectric effect on the highly deformable spectrin filaments.

  7. STAR FORMATION AND RELAXATION IN 379 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.

    2015-06-10

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and level of relaxation in a sample of 379 galaxy clusters at z < 0.2. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure cluster membership and level of relaxation, and to select star-forming galaxies based on mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. For galaxies with absolute magnitudes M{sub r} < −19.5, we find an inverse correlation between SF fraction and cluster relaxation: as a cluster becomes less relaxed, its SF fraction increases. Furthermore, in general, the subtracted SF fraction in all unrelaxed clusters (0.117 ± 0.003) is higher than that in all relaxed clusters (0.097 ± 0.005). We verify the validity of our SF calculation methods and membership criteria through analysis of previous work. Our results agree with previous findings that a weak correlation exists between cluster SF and dynamical state, possibly because unrelaxed clusters are less evolved relative to relaxed clusters.

  8. Dielectric relaxation of α -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, K.; Maslanka, S.; Ziolo, J.; Paluch, M.; McGrath, K. J.; Roland, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric loss spectra are reported for α -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The α -relaxation times, τα , measured over a 190° range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured τα . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature Tg show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the α -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the α process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the α -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the α -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the α relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

  9. Dielectric relaxation of alpha -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E).

    PubMed

    Kaminski, K; Maslanka, S; Ziolo, J; Paluch, M; McGrath, K J; Roland, C M

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric loss spectra are reported for alpha -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The alpha -relaxation times, tau_{alpha} , measured over a 190 degrees range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured tau_{alpha} . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature T_{g} show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the alpha -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the alpha process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the alpha -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the alpha -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the alpha relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

  10. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, Daniil A.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of O2-N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound-bound and bound-free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO2 complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N2-O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.

  11. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Andrienko, Daniil A; Boyd, Iain D

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of O2-N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound-bound and bound-free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO2 complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N2-O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.

  12. Thermomechanical Modeling of Stress Relaxation in Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Fateme; Kadkhodaei, Mahmoud; Salafian, Iman

    2015-04-01

    When a shape memory alloy (SMA) is subjected to a mechanical load, especially at high strain rates, its temperature varies due to thermomechanical coupling in the response of these materials. Thus, if strain is kept constant during the transformation, temperature change will cause stress to decrease during loading and to increase during unloading. A decrease in stress under constant strain indicates stress relaxation, and an increase in stress indicates stress recovery, i.e., reverse stress relaxation. In this paper, a fully coupled thermomechanical model is developed in a continuum framework to study stress relaxation and stress recovery in SMA wires. Numerical simulations at different ambient temperatures, applied strain rates, wire radii, and relaxation intervals are done to show the abilities of the proposed model in predicting relaxation phenomena in various conditions where strain remains constant during loading or unloading. Relaxation experiments were also performed on NiTi wires, and the numerical and empirical results are shown to be in a good agreement.

  13. Difference and similarity of dielectric relaxation processes among polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoguchi, Ayumi; Kitai, Kei; Nozaki, Ryusuke

    2003-09-01

    Complex permittivity measurements were performed on sorbitol, xylitol, and sorbitol-xylitol mixture in the supercooled liquid state in an extremely wide frequency range from 10 μHz to 500 MHz at temperatures near and above the glass transition temperature. We determined detailed behavior of the relaxation parameters such as relaxation frequency and broadening against temperature not only for the α process but also for the β process above the glass transition temperature, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Since supercooled liquids are in the quasi-equilibrium state, the behavior of all the relaxation parameters for the β process can be compared among the polyols as well as those for the α process. The relaxation frequencies of the α processes follow the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann manner and the loci in the Arrhenius diagram are different corresponding to the difference of the glass transition temperatures. On the other hand, the relaxation frequencies of the β processes, which are often called as the Johari-Goldstein processes, follow the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence. The relaxation parameters for the β process are quite similar among the polyols at temperatures below the αβ merging temperature, TM. However, they show anomalous behavior near TM, which depends on the molecular size of materials. These results suggest that the origin of the β process is essentially the same among the polyols.

  14. Relaxation dynamics of internal segments of DNA chains in nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Aashish; Muralidhar, Abhiram; Dorfman, Kevin; Dorfman Group Team

    We will present relaxation dynamics of internal segments of a DNA chain confined in nanochannel. The results have direct application in genome mapping technology, where long DNA molecules containing sequence-specific fluorescent probes are passed through an array of nanochannels to linearize them, and then the distances between these probes (the so-called ``DNA barcode'') are measured. The relaxation dynamics of internal segments set the experimental error due to dynamic fluctuations. We developed a multi-scale simulation algorithm, combining a Pruned-Enriched Rosenbluth Method (PERM) simulation of a discrete wormlike chain model with hard spheres with Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of a bead-spring chain. Realistic parameters such as the bead friction coefficient and spring force law parameters are obtained from PERM simulations and then mapped onto the bead-spring model. The BD simulations are carried out to obtain the extension autocorrelation functions of various segments, which furnish their relaxation times. Interestingly, we find that (i) corner segments relax faster than the center segments and (ii) relaxation times of corner segments do not depend on the contour length of DNA chain, whereas the relaxation times of center segments increase linearly with DNA chain size.

  15. Topology Synthesis of Structures Using Parameter Relaxation and Geometric Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    Typically, structural topology optimization problems undergo relaxation of certain design parameters to allow the existence of intermediate variable optimum topologies. Relaxation permits the use of a variety of gradient-based search techniques and has been shown to guarantee the existence of optimal solutions and eliminate mesh dependencies. This Technical Publication (TP) will demonstrate the application of relaxation to a control point discretization of the design workspace for the structural topology optimization process. The control point parameterization with subdivision has been offered as an alternative to the traditional method of discretized finite element design domain. The principle of relaxation demonstrates the increased utility of the control point parameterization. One of the significant results of the relaxation process offered in this TP is that direct manufacturability of the optimized design will be maintained without the need for designer intervention or translation. In addition, it will be shown that relaxation of certain parameters may extend the range of problems that can be addressed; e.g., in permitting limited out-of-plane motion to be included in a path generation problem.

  16. In situ determination of surface relaxivities for unconsolidated sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, Markus; Galvosas, Petrik; Brox, Timothy I.; Pohlmeier, Andreas; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-08-01

    NMR relaxometry has developed into a method for rapid pore-size determination of natural porous media. Nevertheless, it is prone to uncertainties because of unknown surface relaxivities which depend mainly on the chemical composition of the pore walls as well as on the interfacial dynamics of the pore fluid. The classical approach for the determination of surface relaxivities is the scaling of NMR relaxation times by surface to volume ratios measured by gas adsorption or mercury intrusion. However, it is preferable that a method for the determination of average pore sizes uses the same substance, water, as probe molecule for both relaxometry and surface to volume measurements. One should also ensure that in both experiments the dynamics of the probe molecule takes place on similar length scales, which are in the order of some microns. Therefore, we employed NMR diffusion measurements with different observation times using bipolar pulsed field gradients and applied them to unconsolidated sediments (two purified sands, two natural sands, and one soil). The evaluation by Mitra's short-time model for diffusion in restricted environments yielded information about the surface to volume ratios which is independent of relaxation mechanisms. We point out that methods based on NMR diffusometry yield pore dimensions and surface relaxivities consistent with a pore space as sampled by native pore fluids via the diffusion process. This opens a way to calibrate NMR relaxation measurements with other NMR techniques, providing information about the pore-size distribution of natural porous media directly from relaxometry.

  17. Dielectric relaxations on erythrocyte membrane as revealed by spectrin denaturation.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I T; Paarvanova, B

    2016-08-01

    We studied the effect of spectrin denaturation at 49.5°C (TA) on the dielectric relaxations and related changes in the complex impedance, Z*, complex capacitance, C*, and dielectric loss curve of suspensions containing human erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost membranes (EMs) and Triton-X-100 residues of EMs. The loss curve prior to, minus the loss curve after TA, resulted in a bell-shaped peak at 1.5MHz. The changes in the real and imaginary components of Z* and C* at TA, i.e., ΔZre, ΔZim, ΔCre and ΔCim, calculated in the same way, strongly varied with frequency. Between 1.0 and 12MHz the -ΔZim vs ΔZre, and ΔCim vs ΔCre plots depicted semicircles with critical frequencies, fcr, at 2.5MHz expressing recently reported relaxation of spectrin dipoles. Between 0.02 and 1.0MHz the -ΔZim vs ΔZre plot exhibited another relaxation whose fcr mirrored that of beta relaxation. This relaxation was absent on Triton-X-shells, while on erythrocytes and EMs it was inhibited by selective dissociation of either attachment sites between spectrin and bilayer. Considering above findings and inaccessibility of cytosole to outside field at such frequencies, the latter relaxation was assumed originating from a piezoelectric effect on the highly deformable spectrin filaments. PMID:27071054

  18. Characterization of structural relaxation in inorganic glasses using length dilatometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Erick

    The processes that govern how a glass relaxes towards its thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium state are major factors in understanding glass behavior near the glass transition region, as characterized by the glass transition temperature (Tg). Intrinsic glass properties such as specific volume, enthalpy, entropy, density, etc. are used to map the behavior of the glass network below in and near the transition region. The question of whether a true thermodynamic second order phase transition takes place in the glass transition region is another pending question. Linking viscosity behavior to entropy, or viewing the glass configuration as an energy landscape are just a couple of the most prevalent methods used for attempting to understand the glass transition. The structural relaxation behavior of inorganic glasses is important for more than scientific reasons, many commercial glass processing operations including glass melting and certain forms of optical fabrication include significant time spent in the glass transition region. For this reason knowledge of structural relaxation processes can, at a minimum, provide information for annealing duration of melt-quenched glasses. The development of a predictive model for annealing time prescription has the potential to save glass manufacturers significant time and money as well as increasing volume throughput. In optical hot forming processes such as precision glass molding, molded optical components can significantly change in shape upon cooling through the glass transition. This change in shape is not scientifically predictable as of yet though manufacturers typically use empirical rules developed in house. The classification of glass behavior in the glass transition region would allow molds to be accurately designed and save money for the producers. The work discussed in this dissertation is comprised of the development of a dilatometric measurement and characterization method of structural relaxation. The measurement and

  19. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    To a particle physicist a muon is a member of the lepton family, a heavy electron possessing a mass of about 1/9 that of a proton and a spin of 1/2, which interacts with surrounding atoms and molecules electromagnetically. Since its discovery in 1937, the muon has been put to many uses, from tests of special relativity to deep inelastic scattering, from studies of nuclei to tests of weak interactions and quantum electrodynamics, and most recently, as a radiographic tool to see inside heavy objects and volcanoes. In 1957 Richard Garwin and collaborators, while conducting experiments at the Columbia University cyclotron to search for parity violation, discovered that spin-polarized muons injected into materials might be useful to probe internal magnetic fields. This eventually gave birth to the modern field of muSR, which stands for muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance, and is the subject of this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Muons are produced in accelerators when high energy protons (generally >500 MeV) strike a target like graphite, producing pions which subsequently decay into muons. Most experiments carried out today use relatively low-energy (~4 MeV), positively-charged muons coming from pions decaying at rest in the skin of the production target. These muons have 100% spin polarization, a range in typical materials of about 180 mg cm-2, and are ideal for experiments in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Negatively-charged muons are also occasionally used to study such things as muonic atoms and muon-catalysed fusion. The muSR technique provides a local probe of internal magnetic fields and is highly complementary to inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance, for example. There are four primary muSR facilities in the world today: ISIS (Didcot, UK), KEK (Tsukuba, Japan), PSI (Villigen, Switzerland) and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), serving about 500 researchers world-wide. A new facility, JPARC (Tokai, Japan

  20. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    To a particle physicist a muon is a member of the lepton family, a heavy electron possessing a mass of about 1/9 that of a proton and a spin of 1/2, which interacts with surrounding atoms and molecules electromagnetically. Since its discovery in 1937, the muon has been put to many uses, from tests of special relativity to deep inelastic scattering, from studies of nuclei to tests of weak interactions and quantum electrodynamics, and most recently, as a radiographic tool to see inside heavy objects and volcanoes. In 1957 Richard Garwin and collaborators, while conducting experiments at the Columbia University cyclotron to search for parity violation, discovered that spin-polarized muons injected into materials might be useful to probe internal magnetic fields. This eventually gave birth to the modern field of muSR, which stands for muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance, and is the subject of this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Muons are produced in accelerators when high energy protons (generally >500 MeV) strike a target like graphite, producing pions which subsequently decay into muons. Most experiments carried out today use relatively low-energy (~4 MeV), positively-charged muons coming from pions decaying at rest in the skin of the production target. These muons have 100% spin polarization, a range in typical materials of about 180 mg cm-2, and are ideal for experiments in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Negatively-charged muons are also occasionally used to study such things as muonic atoms and muon-catalysed fusion. The muSR technique provides a local probe of internal magnetic fields and is highly complementary to inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance, for example. There are four primary muSR facilities in the world today: ISIS (Didcot, UK), KEK (Tsukuba, Japan), PSI (Villigen, Switzerland) and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), serving about 500 researchers world-wide. A new facility, JPARC (Tokai, Japan